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Mdulo 1

Unidad 1
Lectura 1: Elementos Bsicos
para la Comprensin de Textos

Materia: Ingls tcnico


Profesora: Patricia Rivera

1. Sentence Elements [Elementos


constitutivos de las oraciones]
La estructura de las oraciones en ingls no es tan difcil como aparenta,
para ello vamos a analizar parte por parte.

Qu es oracin?
La oracin es la unidad comunicativa mnima, es portadora de un mensaje,
a la vez que es un todo organizado y sistemtico y como tal, tiene una
forma, una estructura.
Las oraciones en ingls, usan dos tipos distintos de palabras: las palabras
clave (o de contenido) [content words] y las palabras funcionales [function
words]. Las palabras clave expresan significado. Las palabras funcionales
establecen relaciones entre las distintas partes de la oracin, pero no
transmiten significado por s solos.
Las palabras clave y las funcionales componen las unidades de estructura
integradas de la siguiente manera:
Sujeto [subject]: un sustantivo o un equivalente de un sustantivo que
ejecuta una accin o que denota un estado en particular; generalmente
aparece precediendo al verbo y determina su nmero (singular o plural).
Verbo [verb]: una palabra que representa la accin o el estado en
particular del sujeto; muestra el tiempo, persona y nmero.
Predicado [predicate]: el verbo y toda otra palabra relacionada con ste.
Verbo copulativo [linking verb]: un verbo que expresa una condicin
(to be, to seem) en lugar de una accin directa.
Objeto Directo [direct object]: un sustantivo o un equivalente de
sustantivo que responde a la pregunta que inicia con qu unida al verbo.
Objeto Indirecto [indirect object]: un sustantivo que responde a la
pregunta que inicia con a quin o para qu o para quin o para qu
unida al verbo. En la oracin, aparece antes del objeto directo.
Complemento [complement]: un sustantivo o adjetivo en el predicado,
siguiendo a un verbo copulativo. Se refiere al sujeto ms que al verbo
porque un verbo copulativo expresa una condicin antes que una accin
directa.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 2

En ingls, estos elementos pueden combinarse en cinco patrones bsicos


de oracin:

Subject + Verb: Rain falls.


S

DO

Subject + Verb + Direct Object: The lawyer filed a brief.


S

DO

3. Subject + Verb + Direct Object + Complement: The people elected Thomas mayor.
S

IO

4. Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object: The assistant brought the manager
DO

a print-out.
S

LV

5. Subject + Linking Verb + Complement: Some drivers are careless.

Ahora analizaremos una por una las unidades de estructura de la oracin.

1.1 The Subject (S)


El sujeto es el punto de partida o el punto focal de una oracin, es el
sustantivo (noun) o su equivalente (pronombre [pronoun], clusula
nominativa [noun clause], gerundio [gerund], infinitivo [infinitive]) que
expresa aquello de lo que la oracin trata:

Hurried students often make careless mistakes. (noun)


S

She runs faster than her brother does. (pronoun)


S

What he doesnt know is that he talks too much. (noun clause)


S

Talking is his only exercise. (gerund)


S

To listen is to suffer. (infinitive)

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 3

El sujeto simple de una oracin es una sola palabra, tal como decisionen el
ejemplo siguiente:

The Marbury v. Madison decision of 1803 established the power of


the Supreme Court to declare an Act of Congress unconstitutional.

El sujeto compuesto de una oracin consiste del sujeto simple ms


cualquier otra palabra que lo modifica / califica. En el ejemplo anterior, el
sujeto compuesto es The Marbury v. Madison decision of 1803.
En la mayora de los casos, se puede identificar el sujeto de una oracin
preguntando quin o quest realizando la accin o quin o qu es el
punto focal de la oracin:
Isamu Noguchi has created numerous architecturally significant
sculptures. (El
hacedor de la accin es Isamu Noguchi)

Among those responsible for distorting the historial record of Richard IIIs
reign was Sir Thomas More, the Lord Chancellor of England under Henry
VIII. (El foco de atencin y sujeto de la oracin no es el registro
histrico de Richard III sino Sir Thomas More. Si cambiamos el orden: Sir
Thomas More was among those responsible .)
En ingls no existe el Sujeto Tcito (ST) como tenemos en espaol:

ST

Fui al banco .

Todo verbo necesita tener un sujeto:

Iwent to the bank.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 4

1.2 The Verb (V)


El verbo es una palabra que seala una accin, una condicin, o un proceso.
En la oracin, el verbo tiene concordancia con el sujeto y toma formas tales
como ask, asks, asked, asking o sing, sings, sang, sung, singing. En la
oracin tpica, el verbo sigue al sujeto y, como el sujeto, es con frecuencia el
ncleo de palabras que lo modifican. El verbo puede consistir de una o ms
palabras.

Hurried students often make careless mistakes.


S

Leslie Jones has driven for twenty years without getting a ticket.
S

Perhaps the defendant should be given the benefit of the doubt.

1.3 The Predicate


El predicado es el verbo y toda otra palabra relacionada a ste tales como
objeto, complemento y modificadores. En las siguientes oraciones el
predicado est destacado en negritas y el verbo identificado con una V:

Hurried students often make careless mistakes.

The doorbell rang. (El verbo es el predicado completo.)

SV

After finishing his second year, George spent two long


sessions talking with his advisor about his major.

Las oraciones simples estn compuestas de un sujeto y un predicado,


es decir, un sujeto con todos sus modificadores y el verbo con todas las
palabras relacionadas a ste:

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 5

Subject +

Predicate

Solzhenitsyn

won.

Solzhenitsyn, the Russian


novelist,

won a Nobel Prize.

Solzhenitsyn, the Russian


novelist and critic of Soviet
society,

won a Nobel Prize for


literature in 1970.

1.4 The Object:


El objeto directo [direct object] (DO) de un verbo es un sustantivo
(noun) o un equivalente de ste que completa la oracin. Responde a la
pregunta con estructura: verbo + what? o verbo + whom?(Hurried
students often make what?: careless mistakes.)

DO

Hurried students often make careless mistakes. (noun)

DO

The Sherwoods have decided to buy a house. (infinitive phrase)

DO

He wondered what he should do. (noun clause)

El objeto indirecto [indirect object] (IO) se usa con verbos que


transmiten el concepto de decir (telling), preguntar o pedir (asking), dar u
otorgar (giving), recibir (receiving), entre otros. Nombra al receptor del
mensaje, regalo, u otro, respondiendo a las preguntas a quin o a qu?,
para quin o para qu?. Aparece antes del direct object.

IO

DO

He gave the church a memorial window.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 6

Este mismo significado puede transmitirse usando un prepositional


phrase colocado despus del direct object.

DO

IO

He gave a memorial window to the church.

1.5 The Complement


El complemento [complement] (C) es un sustantivo (noun) o un
adjetivo (adjective) en el predicado que sigue a un linking verb (LV). A
diferencia del objeto, el complemento est relacionado con el sujeto
antes que con el verbo, ya que el LV expresa una condicin o una
cualidad en lugar de una accin directa. Un sustantivo (noun) usado
como complemento (C) es un predicate noun; un adjetivo (adjective)
usado como complemento (C) es un predicate adjective.

LV

Mary Enderby is a skilled architect. (predicate noun)

LV

Tomatoes are actually fruits, not vegetables. (predicate


nouns)

LV

The tenor sounded a little flat. (predicate adjective)

LV

The sky seemed low and heavy. (predicate adjective)

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 7

Verbos copulativos[linking verbs] (LV): son los verbos que conectan (link)
el sujeto a un sustantivo predicativo (SP) o a un adjetivo (Adj):

SP

She is a teacher.
Adj

The days became warmer.

Los linking verbs ms comunes son:


is

was

has been

are

were

might be

Otros linking verbs son:


seem

appear

y, segn el contexto:
feel

grow

act

look

smell

taste

sound

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 8

2. Classification of
sentences according to
structure [Clasificacin de las oraciones por su
estructura]
Se puede clasificar a las oraciones por su estructura. Segn la cantidad
y tipo de clusulas que contienen, se dividen en: simples, compuestas,
complejas y compuestas-complejas.

2.1 Simple Sentences


La oracin simple contiene una clusula independiente (independent
clause):
The man went across the street.
Something is wrong.
Who wrote the letter?

Aunque las simple sentences contienen nicamente una clusula, no


necesariamente estn limitadas a una nica idea simple. Pueden
contener cualquier cantidad de modificadores (modifiers) y el subject
o el predicate o ambos pueden ser compuestos:

To write a complete book on aerospace engineering requires a thorough


knowledge of the field.
Colleges and universities do not exist to impose duties but to reveal
choices. (compound subject, compound object).- Archibald MacLeish,
Why Do We Teach Poetry, The Atlantic Monthly.

2.2 Compound Sentences


Las oraciones compuestas contienen dos o ms clusulas principales:
(1era clusula clusula principal)

The phone rang,

and she answered it.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 9

(1era clusula clusula principal)

The nations of Asia and Africa are moving with jet-like speed toward
gaining political independence,
but we still creep at horse-and-buggy pace toward gaining a cup of coffee at
a lunch counter.- Martin Luther King, Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail.
Cada clusula en una compound sentence es independiente y
coordinada, de igual rango que las otras clusulas. Las clusulas pueden
estar unidas (o separadas) de una de las siguientes formas:

1.Con conjunciones [coordinating conjunctions]: and, but, or, nor,


for, yet o las correlativas: either or, neither nor, both and,
not only but (also)
It rained all morning, but it cleared up for the picnic.
Either you play to win or you dont play at all.

2.Sin conectores [connectives]: las clusulas independientes que no se


unan con conjunciones se separan con punto y coma (;):
I didnt study; I failed the test.

3.Con conjunctive adverbs: las clusulas en una oracin compuesta a


veces se conectan con un adverbio tal como: accordingly, also,
consequently, however, nevertheless, therefore, then. Debido a
que la funcin de conector de estos adverbios es dbil, es necesario utilizar
punto y coma antes de ellos:
Fuel prices declined; consequently, they bought a larger car.
The urban renewal program has many outspoken opponents;
nevertheless, some land has already been cleared.

2.3 Complex Sentences


Una oracin compleja est compuesta por una clusula principal y una o
ms clusulas subordinadas:
[main clause]

[subordinate clause]

Prairies are valuable because they are fertile and flat.


[subordinate clause]

[main clause]

[secondary subordinate clause]

As far as I could determine, Paris hadnt changed at all since I last


visited it ten
years before.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 10

Las oraciones complejas ofrecen mayor variedad que las oraciones simples
y expresan relaciones entre ideas de manera ms precisa que las expresadas
por las oraciones compuestas.

2.4 Compound-Complex Sentences


Una oracin compuesta-compleja contiene dos o ms clusulas principales
y una o ms clusulas subordinadas:

[first subordinate clause]

[first main clause]

[second subordinate clause]

When two men fight a duel, the matter is trivial, but when 200 million
people
[second main clause]

fight 200 million people, the matter is serious.- Bertrand Russell, The
Impact of Science on Society.

Las compound-complex sentences ocurren con menor frecuencia que las


otras.

Subordinating Connectors [Conectores subordinantes]

1. Pueden servir para introducir frases adjetivas:


who

when

which

where

that

why

2. Pueden servir para introducir frases adverbiales:


after

so

although

until

as

when

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because

where

If

wherever

since

while

3. Puede servir para introducir frases sustantivas, introducidas por that adems
de por:
whatever

why

whoever

when

who

where

what

whether

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 12

3. Classification of
sentences according to
purpose
[Clasificacin de las oraciones por su propsito]
Las oraciones tambin pueden ser clasificadas por su significado o
propsito:

3.1 Aseveraciones [statements],


tambin llamadas oraciones declarativas. La mayor parte de las
oraciones que usamos son de este tipo
Judy laughed.

3.2 Preguntas [questions],


llamadas oraciones interrogativas
At what temperature does water boil?
Why do you ask?

3.3 rdenes [commands],


oraciones imperativas: incluye pedidos e instrucciones.
Write soon.
When the liquid boils, remove it from the heat.

3.4 Exclamaciones [exclamations],


sentimientos, hechos u opiniones expresados enfticamente, tambin
llamadas oraciones exclamativas
How lucky you are!
He should be thrown out!

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 13

4. Verbs and Verb Tenses


[Verbos y tiempos verbales]
A modo de repaso:
Por su significado, los verbos indican accin (run, manufacture, write),
condicin o estado (am, feel, sleep), o proceso (become, grow).
Por su forma, los verbos pueden constar de una palabra (do, see) o de una
frase (should have done, will be seeing).
Para indicar persona, nmero, tiempo verbal y voz, los verbos pueden
agregar letras (proves, proved) o cambiar internamente (sing, sang, sung).
Excepto en las interrogaciones, los verbos generalmente van despus del
sujeto.
Para interrogar y negar, en general, y para indicar el tiempo verbal, en
particular, los verbos en ingls necesitan del auxiliar [auxiliary verb]. El
verbo auxiliar muestra tiempo, voz y nmero.
Segn sus tiempos [tenses], los verbos auxiliares son:

Present

Past

Future

Simple

do / does

did

will

Progressive o
Continuous

am / is /
are

was / were

will be

Perfect

have / has

had

will have

Perfect Progressive o
Continuous

have /
has been

had been

will have
been

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 14

4.1 Verb Tenses [Tiempos Verbales]

Base Form

Simple
Past

Past
Participle

Base Form

Simple Past

Past Participle

arise

arose

arisen

bid

bid

bid

awake

awoke

awaken

bind

bound

bound

Be

was, were

been

bite

bit

bitten

bear

bore

borne/born

bleed

bled

bled

beat

beat

beaten/beat

blow

blew

blown

become

became

become

break

broke

broken

begin

began

begun

breed

bred

bred

bend

bent

bent

bring

brought

brought

Bet

bet

bet

broadcast

broadcast

broadcast

Base Form

Simple
Past

Past
Participle

Base Form

Simple Past

Past Participle

build

built

built

give

gave

given

burst

burst

burst

go

went

gone

buy

bought

bought

grind

ground

ground

cast

cast

cast

grow

grew

grown

catch

caught

caught

hang

hung

hung

choose

chose

chosen

have

had

had

cling

clung

clung

hear

heard

heard

come

came

come

hide

hid

hidden

cost

cost

cost

hit

hit

hit

creep

crept

crept

hold

held

held

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Cut

cut

cut

hurt

hurt

hurt

deal

dealt

dealt

keep

kept

kept

Dig

dug

dug

know

knew

known

Do

did

done

lay

laid

laid

draw

drew

drawn

lead

led

led

drink

drank

drunk

leave

left

left

drive

drove

driven

lend

lent

lent

eat

ate

eaten

let

let

let

fall

fell

fallen

lie

lay

lain

feed

fed

fed

light

lit/lighted

lit/lighted

feel

felt

felt

lose

lost

lost

fight

fought

fought

make

made

made

find

found

found

mean

meant

meant

fit

fit

fit

meet

met

met

flee

fled

fled

mislay

mislaid

mislaid

fling

flung

flung

mistake

mistook

mistaken

fly

flew

flown

misunderstand

misunderstood

misunderstood

forbid

forbade

forbidden

oversleep

overslept

overslept

forecast

forecast

forecast

pay

paid

paid

forget

forgot

forgotten

put

put

put

forgive

forgave

forgiven

quit

quit

quit

forsake

forsook

forsaken

read

read

read

freeze

froze

frozen

rebuild

rebuilt

rebuilt

get

got

gotten

redo

redid

redone

El tiempo de un verbo indica si la accin ocurri en el pasado (she spoke), si


ocurre en el presente (she speaks), o si ocurrir en el futuro (she will
speak). El tiempo tambin indica la continuidad de una accin o de una
explicacin (she is speaking, she will be speaking).

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 16

4.1.1 Formas en los tiempos verbales


La forma apropiada de un verbo debe ser usada para indicar cada uno
de sus tiempos.
Los verbos regulares presentan pocos problemas porque tienen
nicamente dos formas:
la forma base (no conjugada del verbo), que se usa para conjugar el
presente (walk, imagine, sleep);
una forma terminada en ed, -d o t para el pasado y el participio
pasado (o 3era columna).
4.1.2 Los verbos irregulares cambian su forma para expresar el
pasado y el participio pasado.

Base Form

Simple Past

Past
Participle

Base Form

Simple Past

Past
Participle

rewrite

rewrote

rewritten

spring

sprang/sprung

sprung

rid

rid

rid

stand

stood

stood

ride

rode

ridden

steal

stole

stolen

ring

rang

rung

stick

stuck

stuck

rise

rose

risen

sting

stung

stung

run

ran

run

stink

stank/stunk

stunk

saw

sawed

sawed/sawn

strike

struck

struck/stricken

say

said

said

string

strung

strung

see

saw

seen

strive

strove

striven

seek

sought

sought

swear

swore

sworn

sell

sold

sold

sweep

swept

swept

send

sent

sent

swim

swam

swum

set

set

set

swing

swung

swung

shake

shook

shaken

take

took

taken

shave

shaved

shaved/shaven

teach

taught

taught

shed

shed

shed

tear

tore

torn

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 17

shine

shone/shined shone/shined

tell

told

told

shoot

shot

shot

think

thought

thought

show

showed

shown/showed

throw

threw

thrown

shrink

shrank/shrunk

shrunk

thrust

thrust

thrust

shut

shut

shut

understand

understood

understood

sing

sang

sung

undertake

undertook

undertaken

sink

sank/sunk

sunk

undo

undid

undone

sit

sat

sat

upset

upset

upset

sleep

slept

slept

wake

woke/waked

woken/waked

slide

slid

slid

wear

Wore

worn

slit

slit

slit

weave

Wove

woven

speak

spoke

spoken

weep

Wept

wept

speed

sped/speeded

sped/speeded

wet

wet

wet

spend

spent

spent

win

won

won

spin

spun

spun

wind

wound

wound

Spit

spit/spat

spit/spat

withdraw

withdrew

withdrawn

split

split

split

wring

wrung

wrung

spread

spread

spread

write

wrote

written

4.2 Verb BE [El verbo ser o estar]


El verbo BE tiene ocho formas de conjugacin, tres ms que las de cualquier
otro verbo en el idioma ingls.
Adems del infinitivo [to be], hay tres formas en el presente y dos en el
pasado, ms el participio presente y el participio pasado.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 18

Present
Tense

Past
Tense

am

was

he,
she, it

is

was

we,
you,
they

are

Present
Participle

Past
Participle

being

been

were

En ingls existen doce tiempos verbales [verb tenses]:

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 19

A modo de repaso, veremos en general cules son los usos de estos


tiempos:

SIMPLE PRESENT
Se utiliza para:
1) Afirmar hechos en
general
2) Expresar hbitos o
rutinas.
3) Indicar que una
situacin existe ahora,
al momento de hablar,
con verbos que no
toman la forma
continua o progresiva.
4) Expresar un tiempo
futuro en oraciones
concernientes a
eventos con horarios
definidos - slo aplica a
unos cuantos verbos:
open, close, begin, end,
start, finish, arrive,
leave, come, return
5) En oraciones que se
refieren al presente, se
utiliza con always para
describir actividades
habituales o
cotidianas.

PRESENT
PROGRESSIVE /
CONTINUOUS
Se utiliza para:
1) Expresar una
actividad que est en
progreso al momento
de hablar.
2) A menudo la
actividad es de
naturaleza general;
algo en progreso esta
semana, mes, ao. No
es algo que se est
realizando en el
momento de hablar.
3) Puede expresar un
tiempo futuro cuando
la idea de la oracin
concierne a una
intencin definida. El
significado futuro
estar indicado por una
expresin de tiempo
que indique futuro o
por su contexto.
4) En circunstancias
especiales, se utiliza
con "always" para
quejarse, y con
"forever" y "constantly"
para mostrar irritacin
o enojo.

PRESENT PERFECT
Se utiliza para:
1) Expresar la idea de
que algo sucedi (o no)
antes de ahora, en un
momento no
especificado en el
pasado. El momento
exacto en que sucedi
no es importante.
2) Expresar la
repeticin de una
actividad antes de
ahora. El momento
exacto de cada
repeticin no tiene
importancia.
3) Cuando se utiliza
con "for" o "since",
expresa una situacin
que comenz en el
pasado y se contina
en el presente.
"Since" + un momento
en particular
"For" + una duracin o
perodo de tiempo

PRESENT
PERFECT
PROGRESSIVE /
CONTINUOUS

Se utiliza para:

1) Expresar la
duracin de una
actividad que
comenz en el pasado
y contina al
presente. Se utilizan
palabras que indican
tiempo, tales como:
for, since, all
morning, all day, all
week. Expresa una
accin que no se
detiene, que se
contina en el
presente.

2) Si no hay una
mencin a un
momento especfico,
expresa una actividad
general y que estuvo
en progreso
recientemente. Una
accin que se detiene
antes del presente.

3) Con determinados
verbos
(especialmente work,
live, teach) hay escasa
diferencia de
significado entre una
oracin con for o
since en Present
Perfect y una similar
en Present Perfect
Progressive/Continuo
us.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 20

SIMPLE PAST
Se utiliza para:
1) Indicar que una
actividad o situacin
comenz y termin
en un momento
determinado en el
pasado.
2) Si una oracin
contiene when y tiene
verbos en Simple
past en las dos partes
o clusulas, la accin
que acompaa la
clusula del when
sucedi primero.

PAST
PROGRESSIVE /
CONTINUOUS

PAST PERFECT

Se utiliza para:

1) Expresar que una


actividad fue
completada antes
que otra actividad o
momento en el
pasado.

1) Expresar que dos


acciones ocurrieron
al mismo tiempo;
pero una accin
comenz antes y
estuvo en progreso
hasta que la otra
accin sucedi.
2) Una accin
comenz antes de un
momento
determinado, estaba
en progreso en ese
momento y
probablemente
continu.

Se utiliza para:

2) Si en una oracin
se utiliza before o
after, el past perfect
es innecesario
porque la relacin
de tiempo queda
claramente definida.
En este caso se
puede usa el simple
past sin alterar el
significado de la
oracin.

PAST PERFECT
PROGRESSIVE /
CONTINUOUS
Se utiliza para:
1) Hacer nfasis sobre
la duracin de una
actividad que estaba
en progreso antes de
otra actividad o
momento en el
pasado.

2) Puede expresar
una actividad en
reciente progreso en
relacin a otra
actividad o momento
en el pasado.

3) A veces, el Past
progressive se utiliza
en las dos partes o
clusulas de la
oracin cuando las
dos acciones estn
en progreso
simultneamente
4) En algunos casos,
el simple past y el
past progressive dan
casi el mismo
significado a la
oracin.

SIMPLE FUTURE
(WILL/ BE GOING
TO)

FUTURE
PROGRESSIVE /
CONTINUOUS

FUTURE PERFECT

Se forma con will y se


utiliza:

Se utiliza para:

1) Expresar una accin


que estar completada
antes de otro momento
o evento en el futuro.

1) Cuando se expresa
una prediccin (una
oracin acerca de
algo que se cree que
ser verdad u
ocurrir en el futuro).
Tambin puede
utilizarse be going to
(future of intention).
2) A veces se utiliza
will para expresar
voluntad de hacer
algo.
3) Cuando se expresa
un plan previo (algo
que se tiene

1) Expresar una
actividad que estar
en progreso en algn
momento en el
futuro.
2) A veces, hay poca
o ninguna diferencia
entre el future
progressive /
continuous y el
simple future,
especialmente
cuando el futuro
evento ocurrir en
un momento
indefinido en el
futuro.

Se utiliza para:

Cuando tenemos
clusulas de tiempo se
utiliza el simple
present para referimos
al futuro.

FUTURE
PERFECT
PROGRESSIVE /
CONTINUOUS
Se utiliza para:
1) Hacer nfasis sobre
la duracin de una
actividad que estar
en progreso antes de
otro momento o
evento en el futuro.
2) A veces, el future
perfect y el future
perfect progressive /
continuous dan el
mismo significado.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 21

intencin de hacer en
el futuro porque en el
pasado se ha hecho
un plan o se ha
tomado la decisin
de hacerlo) nicamente se utilizar be
going to.

3) La forma
progresiva /
continua de be going
to es: be going to +
be + base form + ing.

4.3 Verbals
Los verbals son aquellos trminos que combinan las caractersticas de un
verbocon aquellas de las de un sustantivo [noun],un adjetivo[adjective] o
un adverbio [adverb]. Es decir, su funcin no es la de un verbo.
Se los clasifica como:
a.infinitivos [infinitives] (to ask, to buy), que pueden servir como
sustantivos [nouns] o como modificadores [modifiers].
b. participios [participles] (asking, asked, buying, bought), que sirven
para modificar sustantivos [nouns] y pronombres [pronouns].
c. gerundios [gerunds]: (asking, buying).
Aunque el present participle y el gerund son idnticos en su forma, difieren
en su uso:
Participle:

a dancing figure (modifier)

Gerund:

dancing takes skill (noun)

Uso de verbals en frases:


Los verbals tienen muchas de las cualidades de los verbos: ayudados por los
auxiliares, pueden por ejemplo, mostrar el tiempo verbal y pueden tener un
objeto. No obstante, en muchas oraciones, estas frases funcionan como
oraciones subordinadas que muestran la relacin entre la idea principal y
las subordinadas:
When she graduated from college, she went to New York in
search of a job. (oracin subordinada)
Having graduated from college, she went to New York in search
of a job.(verbal phrase, modificando a she)
Los verbals se usan de la siguiente manera:
Infinitives un infinitivo es [1] la forma base de un verbo (con o sin to)
o [2] toda frase verbal que puede ser usada con to para funcionar como
sustantivo [noun], adjetivo [adjective] o adverbio [adverb].

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Formas:

Voz Activa:

Voz Pasiva:

Present

(to) ask, (to) be asking

(to) be asked

Past

(to) have asked

(to) have been asked

(to) have been asking

Principales usos:
Sujeto:To be called by the IRS would make anyone nervous.
Objeto:He does not like to express his opinion.
Modificador (adjetivo):I have plenty of work to do. (modifica work)
Modificador (adverbio): The students came to learn Russian. (modifica
came)
Frase modificando la clusula principal:To tell the truth, he is a bore.
Infinitivos divididos [split infinitives] en ocasiones, un adverbio puede
aparecer dentro de la construccin infinitiva:
to go
to boldly go
to see
to ever see
Participios un participio es una forma verbal que termina en ing o
ed, usado como modificador.
Formas:

Voz Activa:

Voz Pasiva:

Present

asking

being asked

Past

having asked

asked, having been asked

Principales usos:
Modificador de un sustantivo:a smiling candidate; a clogged drain
Frase de participio modificando un sustantivo:The candidate
getting a majority of the votes will be nominated.
Frase modificando la clusula principal:Everything considered, a
portable typewriter seems the most practical option.
Gerundios un gerundio es una forma verbal que termina en ing, usado
como sustantivo.
Formas:

Voz Activa:

Voz Pasiva:

Present

asking

being asked

Past

having asked

having been asked

Principales usos:
Como sujeto:Having been asked made him happy.
En frase, como sujeto:Taking anthropologyopened a whole new
field for me.
Como objeto:He taught dancing.

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Como complemento:Seeing is believing. (S, seeing tambin es un


gerundio.)
Como modificador de un sustantivo: the dining room, a fishing boat.
Como aposicin:She had only one hobby, collecting gold coins.
Los gerunds pueden estar precedidos por the y seguidos por of en algunas
expresiones formales:
the changing of the guard
the making of the president
the parting of the waters
4.3.1 Gerunds and Infinitives Preceded by Verbs [Gerundios e
Infinitivos precedidos por verbos]
En ingls existe una serie de verbos que van seguidos por un gerundio, por
un infinitivo o por cualquiera de los dos. En algunos casos, el uso del
gerundio o del infinitivo indistintamente puede ocasionar confusiones en la
idea que transmite.
Dicho concepto puede verse claramente en los siguientes ejemplos:
Stop + gerund:When the professor entered the room, the students
stopped talking.
Stop + infinitive:When I was walking down the street, I ran into an old
friend. I stopped to talk to him. (I stopped walking in order to talk to him).
A continuacin encontrar listas con las distintas combinaciones verbo /
gerundio, verbo / infinitivo, verbo / gerundio o infinitivo con ejemplos para
ilustrar su uso.
4.3.1.a Verbos seguidos por Gerundios

admit

She admits lying about the crime.

mind

I don't mind taking care of my pets.

advise

He advised talking to a lawyer.

miss

We will miss having lunch together.

anticipate

We anticipate finding a solution.

postpone

They must postpone flying until later.

appreciate

They appreciate seeing friendly faces.

practice

He has practiced diving for a month.

avoid

She avoids participating in


discussions.

quit

They quit smoking for health reasons.

recall

I don't recall telling you that.

recollect

She recollects having a cat called Kit.

complete
We will complete checking the area.
consider
They have considered filing a lawsuit.

recommend

He recommends getting an expert.

deny

He may delay accepting the


nomination.

regret

We regret giving you such bad news.

discuss

She must deny knowing anything.

remember

She remembers holding her first baby.

dislike

He should discuss trying an alternative.

resent

They resent waiting in line for hours.

delay

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 24

enjoy

I would dislike seeing her too.

resist

He can't resist tempting his luck.

finish

We enjoyed visiting the family.

risk

He will risk losing everything he has.

forget

They finally finished building the


house.

stop

They stopped working at noon.

suggest

She suggested traveling to Italy.

tolerate

I won't tolerate screaming children.

understand

I can't understand his quitting the job.

go*
He will never forget watching her go.
keep
She might go dancing tonight.
mention
Jim keeps thinking about Linda.
Did they mention going on a trip?

*Go es seguido por un gerundio en ciertas expresiones idiomticas para expresar, en general, actividades recreativas:
go birdwatching

go hiking

go sightseeing

go boating

go hunting

go bowling

go jogging

go camping

go mountain climbing

go canoeing

go running

go dancing

go sailing

go tobogganing

go fishing

go shopping

go window shopping

go skating
go skiing
go sledding

go swimming

Algunas expresiones especiales van seguidas por gerundios:


have fun

John had fun swimming in the lake.

have a good time

Beth will have a good time singing at the karaoke bar.

have trouble

Lou has trouble understanding algebra.

have difficulty

The mechanic had difficulty changing the oil.

have a hard time

The team may have a hard time playing in Mexico.

have a difficult time

Sue is having a difficult time adjusting to change.

spend + expresin de tiempo o dinero + gerund

Jack spends too much money on useless artifacts.

waste + expresin de tiempo o dinero + gerund

Little George wastes countless hours playing cards.

sit + expresin de lugar + gerund

He sits near the door waiting for her autograph.

stand + expresin de lugar + gerund

The man stood on the street leaning against a wall.

lie + expresin de lugar + gerund

She just lies on the sofa all day watching television.

find + sustantivo/pronombre + gerund

Sam found the children playing soccer in the kitchen.

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catch + sustantivo/pronombre + gerund

Bob caught a woman stealing secrets from his firm.

Catch y find en este caso significan discover.

Catch often expresses anger or displeasure.

4.3.1.b Verbos seguidos por Infinitivos

Infinitive of Purpose: Los infinitivos pueden ser usados para expresar propsito cuando se reemplaza la
expresin in order to. En tales casos, responden a la pregunta "Why?"

Tom asked for an appointment in order to apply for the job.


Tom asked for an appointment to apply for the job.

Why did Tom ask for an appointment? In order to apply/to apply for the job.

VERBOS SEGUIDOS INMEDIATAMENTE POR UN INFINITIVO


afford

We can't afford to lose the game this time.

manage

agree

She has agreed to find a solution.

mean

appear

Sue appears to be angry.

need

arrange

They arranged to have a new meeting tonight.

offer

ask

Bill asked to start as soon as possible.

plan

beg

He is begging to go on the camping expedition.

prepare

care

Do you care to take a seat while you wait?

pretend

claim

She claims to be the best driver in the world.

promise

consent

He did not consent to obey the tax law.

refuse

decide

We decided to continue without him.

regret

demand

They demand to see the governor.

remember

deserve

You deserve to get a second chance.

seem

expect

Ann expects to graduate next year.

struggle

fail

John failed to appear in court yesterday.

swear

forget

Charles forgot to answer the last question.

threaten

hesitate

I won't hesitate to tell the truth.

volunteer

hope

We hope to finish our project by next week.

wait

They have managed to control


the oil spill.
He didn't mean to hurt your
feelings.
Jim needs to learn a few things
about love.
The therapist offered to teach
him .
We're planning to visit
Bariloche.
She must prepare to accept the
truth.
He pretended not to care about
you.
Jack promised to return
tomorrow.
They refuse to leave the
building.
We regret to inform you such
sad news.
Meg remembered to bring the
camera.
He seems to ignore the

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intend*

They intend to rival with our project.

want

situation.

Learn

That child learned to read at the age of three.

wish

We struggled to catch the


running cat.
She swore to keep quiet.
They threatened to abandon
their jobs.
He will volunteer to donate
blood.
You must wait to see Mr.
Peters.
Bess will probably want to
come with us.
He wishes to win the
competition.

VERBOS SEGUIDOS POR UN SUSTANTIVO / PRONOMBRE + UN INFINITIVO


advise**

He advised his patient to lose some weight.

instruct

allow

Joan allowed him to leave early.

invite

ask

We asked George to prepare dinner.

need

beg

She begged us to help her with her problem.

order

cause

The fever caused him to feel worse.

permit

challenge

Kate challenged Pete to sing karaoke tonight.

persuade

convince

Dr. Evans must convince Dan to stop smoking.

remind

dare

Joe dared his brother to race the marathon.

require

encourage

Her teacher encouraged her to take the test.

teach

expect

His boss expected him to work on Sundays.

tell

forbid

Her parents forbade her to go to the stadium.

urge

force

I won't force you to take your medication.

want

Hire

We hired a lady to clean the house.

warn

The chief instructed the men to


follow him.
The secretary invited us to take a
seat.
Betty needs to write some letters
right now.
Mrs. Lee ordered them not to
touch the cake.
Her father permitted Jill to visit
her cousin.
Danny persuaded Sally to buy a
guitar.
Don reminded Sam to drive
carefully.
The job requires you to use a
computer.
His mother taught Jim to read.
Mrs. Smith told us to wait here.
The firefighter urged us to go
immediately.
Ned wants to stay home tonight.
Mr. Custer warned them to
respect the rules.

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*Intend es seguido por un infinitivo pero, a veces, puede ser seguido por un
gerundiosin cambio en significado:
I intend to visit you next month./I intend visiting you next month.

**Advise: Se usa un gerundio despus de advise (activo) si no hay un


sustantivo/pronombre objeto:
She advised seeing a doctor.
She advised me to see a doctor. I was advised to see a doctor.
4.3.1.c Verbos seguidos de Infinitivos o de Gerundios

Algunos verbos puede ir seguidos de un infinitivo o de un gerundio. En ocasiones, no habr diferencia en significado,
como ocurre con el primer grupo de verbos. En ocasiones, como ocurre con los verbos del segundo grupo, habr una
diferencia en el significado.
VERBOS + INFINITIVO O GERUNDIO SIN DIFERENCIA EN SIGNIFICADO
begin

continue

love

can't bear

hate

prefer*

can't stand

like

start

No hay diferencia en significado entre los siguientes ejemplos:


Peter can't stand to watch people suffering./Peter can't stand watching people suffering.
Late at night it began to snow./Late at night it began snowing.
Si el verbo se usa en un tiempo continuo / progresivo, debe ir seguido por un infinitivo (no un gerundio).
It was late and it was beginning to snow heavily.
VERBOS + INFINITIVO O GERUNDIO CON DIFERENCIA EN SIGNIFICADO

forget

regret
remember

try

Forget + infinitive = olvidar realizar o cumplir con una responsibilidad, obligacin o tarea.
Bill always forgets to hand in his homework on time.

Remember + infinitive = recordar realizar o cumplir con una responsibilidad, obligacin o tarea.

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David often remembers to buy the newspaper on his way to work.

Forget + gerund = olvidar algo que ocurri en el pasado. Generalmente, ocurre en oraciones negativas:
She will never forget holding her first baby in her arms.
Tambin puede ocurrir en preguntas:
Can she ever forget holding her first baby in her arms?

Remember + gerund = recordar (acordarse de) algo que ocurri en el pasado.


She still remembers holding her first baby in her arms.
Regret + infinitive = lamentar tener que decir o informar a alguien sobre alguna mala noticia.
We regret to inform you that you were not chosen for this project.

Regret + gerund = lamentar algo que ocurri en el pasado.


Sharon will always regret telling him her secret. He can't seem to keep his mouth shut.
Try + infinitive = hacer un esfuerzo.
The mathematician is trying to solve an extremely difficult equation in record time.

Try + gerund = experimentar con un acercamiento nuevo o diferente para ver si funciona.

E.g.: John was home with his baby. When the baby started crying, he tried changing the diapers. But the
baby continued crying. He then tried feeding her a bottle of formula. She finished the bottle and after smiling at
him, she started crying again. Finally, he called his wife. He tried reading a story to the baby. A few minutes later,
she fell asleep.

*Prefer + gerund: Emma prefers watching a movie at home to attending


the reception.
Prefer + infinitive: Emma prefers to watch a movie at home than (to)
attend the reception.

4.4Voice: Active versus Passive [Voz:


Activa vs. Pasiva]
La voz se refiere a otra relacin entre el verbo y su sujeto. Cuando el
sujeto realiza la accin expresada por el verbo, el verbo est en voz
activa:

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The companypromotedthe manager.


The companyhas givenMiss Aikens an increase in pay.
The secretarytyped the letters.

Cuando el sujeto en cierto modo recibe la accin expresada por el verbo, el


verbo est en voz pasiva:

The manager was promoted last week.


Miss Aikenshas been given an increase in pay.
The letterswere typed by the secretary.
La voz pasiva consiste de una forma del verbo be ms el participio pasado
del verbo:

be + past participle (o 3era columna)

ACTIVE:

Active voice

The general chose his aide.

Passive voice

The aide was chosen by the general.

Active voice

The secretary will type the letter.

Passive voice

The letter will be typed by the secretary.

Forma de pasivo: be + past participle

Beth created that sculpture

SV
PASSIVE:

That sculpture was created by Beth.

ACTIVE:

Jane comes tomorrow.

PASSIVE:

Not possible

En el pasivo, el objeto de un verbo activo


se convierte en el sujeto del verbo pasivo:
the sculpture se convierte en el sujeto del
verbo pasivo. Ambas oraciones tienen el
mismo significado.

Slo los verbos transitivos (verbos que


van seguidos de un objeto) son usados en
voz pasiva. Esto no es posible con verbos
intransitivos tales como happen,
sleep, come, y seem.

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ACTIVE

PASSIVE

Simple present

Bob

teaches

Joe

Joe

is taught

by Bob

Present progressive

Bob

is teaching

Joe

Joe

is being taught

by Bob

Present perfect

Bob

has taught

Joe

Joe

has been taught

by Bob

Simple past

Bob

Taught

Joe

Joe

was taught

by Bob

Past progressive

Bob

was teaching

Joe

Joe

was being taught

by Bob

Past perfect

Bob

had taught

Joe

Joe

had been taught

by Bob

Simple future

Bob

will teach

Joe

Joe

will be taught

by Bob

Be going to

Bob

is going to teach

Joe

Joe

is going to be taught

by Bob

Future perfect*

Bob

will have taught

Joe

Joe

will have been taught

by Bob

*Las formas progresivas del present perfect, past perfect, future, y future
perfect se usan rara vez en voz pasiva.
Voz Pasiva de Auxiliares de Modo y Expresiones Similares

THE PASSIVE FORM: modal + be + past participle

Tim

will be brought

The door

cantbe opened.
shouldbe asked

Students
May we be excused

to the party.

to pay attention.

from choir practice?

That homework

had better be handed in

The phone bill

ought to be paid

The teacher
A meeting

has tobe informed


is supposed tobe scheduled

on time.
by next Friday.
about the incident.
for next month.

THE PAST-PASSIVE FORM: modal + have been + past participle


The phone bill
That building
Janet

should have been paid


musthave been designed
ought to have been told

last week.
by a very talented architect.
about the additional material for the test.

4.5 Modal Auxiliaries


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[Auxiliares de modo]
Los modal auxiliaries son verbos auxiliares que brindan ms informacin
acerca de la funcin del verbo que los sigue. A pesar de que tienen una gran
variedad de funciones comunicativas, stas pueden cubrir desde la
posibilidad hasta la necesidad. En el marco de esta escalahay dos divisiones
funcionales:
a.una relacionada con la posilidad y necesidad en trminos de libertad de
accin (incluyendohabilidad, permiso y obligacin)
b.y la otra (excluyendo a shall) que se ocupa de la posibilidad terica de
oraciones que sean reales o no, incluyendoprobabilidad y certeza.

4.5 Modal Auxiliaries and Similar


Expressions
[Auxiliares de modo y expresiones similiares]

AUXILIARY

USOS

PRESENT/FUTURE

May

Hacer pedidos
respetuosos

May I ask you a question


about the test?

Dar permiso
formalmente

You may start answering


the test.

Menos de
50% certeza

I don't know where he is.


He may be at home today.

He may have been in Jujuy yesterday.

Might

Menos de
50% certeza

I don't know where he is.


He might be at home
now.

He might have been in Jujuy last night.

Should

Decir que algo


es aconsejable

Ben should go to the


doctor.

He should have gone to the doctor.

90% de
certeza

Dan is perfect. He should


get the job.

I'm shocked! Dan should have gotten the job.

Decir que algo


es aconsejable

Ben ought to go to the


doctor.

He ought to have gone to the doctor.

90% de
certeza

Dan is perfect. He ought


to get the job.

I'm shocked! Dan ought to have gotten the job.

Decir que algo

You had better study, or

ought to

had better

PAST

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es aconsejable
con riesgo de
consecuencia
negativa.

you won't pass the test.

be supposed
to

Expresar
expectativa

The train is supposed to


leave at 8:00 A.M.

The train was supposed to leave at 8:00. It's late.

be to

Fuerte
expectativa

The employees are to


arrive on time.

You were to arrive on time. Talk to your supervisor.

Must

Fuerte
necesidad
(obligacin)

We must help our


parents. They need us.

We had to help our parents. They needed us.

Prohibicin
(en su forma
negativa)

have to

have got to

You must not take


anything from strangers.

95% certeza

He hasn't come. He must


have a problem.

Joe didn't come. He must have had a problem.

Expresar
necesidad

We have to help our


parents. They need our
help.

We had to help our parents. They needed our help.

Expresa falta
de necesidad
(en su forma
negativa)

We don't have to help our


parents. It's not urgent.

We didn't have to help our parents. It wasn't urgent.

Expresar
necesidad

We have got to help our


parents. They need our
help.

We had to help our parents. They needed our help.

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USOS

PRESENT/FUTURE

PAST

AUXILIARY

will

be going to

can

could

Decir que algo


es aconsejable

Will you please lower


your voice?

Expresa
voluntad de
hacer algo

Don't get up. I'll answer


the phone for you.

100% certeza

Bert will be here on


time. He's always
punctual.

Expresar planes
previamente
definidos

Al's going to write the


report when he gets the
data.

100% certeza

Bert's going to be here


on time. He's always
punctual.

Expresar
habilidad/Posib
ilidad

Dave can play tennis


like a champion.

Pedidos
respetuosos
informales

Can I ask you a favor?

Dar permiso
informalmente

You can borrow my


bike, just for today.

Expresar
imposibilidad
(en negativo)

I don't believe you. That


can't be true!

Al was going to write it, but he didn't get the data.

Dave could play tennis like a champion when he was


young, but now he can't. He has arthritis.

I still don't believe you. That can't have been true!

Dave could play tennis when he was young and didn't


have arthritis.

Expresar
habilidad en el
pasado

Hacer pedidos
respetuosos

Could I ask you a favor?

Sugerencias

You could tell the doctor


to check your eyes.

You could have told the doctor to check your eyes.

Menos de 50%
certeza

I don't know where he


is. He could still be in
Jujuy.

He could have been in Jujuy or Bolivia.

Expresar
imposibilidad

I don't believe you. That


couldn't be true!

I still don't believe you. That couldn't have been true!

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(en negativo)

be able to

AUXILIARY

Would

Expresar
habilidad

USES

Hacer pedidos
respetuosos

I am able to win today


and I will be able to win
tomorrow.

PRESENT/FUTURE

Before I got sick, I was able to win every match.

PAST

Would you please lower


your voice?
Would you mind if we
finished the memos
later?
Would you mind
finishing the memos
now?

Expresar
preferencia

I would rather watch a


video at home than go
tothe play.

I would rather have done what I wanted.

Hablar de
hbitos en el
pasado

When I was young, I would call my friends in Ireland


every month.

used to*

Hablar de
hbitos en el
pasado

I used to call my friends in Ireland every month .

Shall

Preguntas
respetuosas
para hacer
sugerencias

It's late and we are


about to close the store.
Shall I lock the door?

*Used to expresa un hbito, actividad o situacin que existi en el pasado


pero que no existe hoy.Siempre se usa en su forma de pasado. Es una
expresin de modo y va seguida de un verbo en su forma base.
Be used to = be accustomed to. NO es una expresin de modo y va seguida
de un gerundio. Get used to = get accustomed to, geten el sentido debecome
[tornarse, convertirse, hacerse]. Estas no son expresiones de modo y van
seguidas de un gerundio.
Compare:
Jamaica.

Joseph lives in Alaska. Many years ago, he used to live in

The change was very difficult but he gradually got used to living in a cold
climate.
Now Joseph loves Alaska. He is so used to living there that he participates
in every expedition going North.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 35

4.6 Conditionals [Condicionales]


Resumen Grfico de uso del Verbo en Oraciones Condicionales

Significado de la
Clusula

Forma Verbal en
la Clusula de IF

Forma Verbal en la
Clusula de
Resultado

Condicional 0:
Real en el presente /
futuro (hechos que
siempre son verdaderos)

Simple present

Simple present /
simple future

Simple present

Simple future

Condicional 1:
Real en el futuro /
prediccin futura

Condicional 2:
Irreal en el presente /
futuro (una condicin
improbable)

Simple past

would + simple form

Condicional 3:

If I have the
ingredients, I bake a
cake every week.

If I have the
ingredients, I will
bake a cake every
week.

If I had the
ingredients, I would
bake a cake now. (En
realidad, no tengo los
ingredientes, as que no
har la torta.)

If I had had the


ingredients, I would
have

Irreal en el pasado
(se refiere al pasado y
puesto que no se puede
cambiar lo que ya ocurri,
resulta una condicin
imposible de modificar)

Ejemplo

Past perfect

would have + past


participle

baked a cake
yesterday. (En
realidad, no tena los
ingredientes, as que no
hice la torta.)

Las clusulas condicionales se usan para hablar de una situacin


posible y sus resultados.
Las clusulas condicionales empiezan con IF. Estas clusulas necesitan
de una clusula principal que expresa el resultado de la condicin y
junto con sta integra una oracin completa. Para ello, la clusula
condicional puede venir antes o despus de la clusula principal
(clusula de resultado).

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 36

5. Pronouns[Pronombres]
El pronombre es una palabra que funciona como un sustantivo pero
que no nombra a una persona, lugar u objeto especfico.
El pronombre sustituye a un sustantivo previamente nombrado y
mantiene su relacin con ste, que es llamado antecedente.
PRONOMBRES PERSONALES
Primera Persona

Segunda Persona

Tercera Persona

Pronombre
Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

Subject / Sujeto

We

You

You

He / She / It

They

Object / Objeto

Me

Us

You

You

Him / Her / It

Them

Mine

Ours

Yours

Yours

His / Hers

Theirs

My

Our

Your

Your

His / Her / Its

Their

Myself

Ourselves

Yourself

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

This

These

That

Those

Possessive / Posesivos

Posses. Adjectives / Adj Pos

Reflexive / Reflexivos

Demonstrative / Demostrat.

Yourselves Him/Her/Itself Themselves

5.1 Subject Pronouns:


Son los que realizan la accin (sujetos).
Ej: We work very hard.

5.2 Object Pronouns:


Son los que reciben la accin del verbo o son objeto de una preposicin.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 37

Ej: Betty likes to walk. Walking makes her happy. (El caminar la hace
feliz.)
Tom cooked a great dinner. He cooked the dinner forus.
He works hard. The work is hard forhim.

5.3 Possessive Pronouns:


Se ubican despus del verbo y se usan sin ser seguidos por ningn
sustantivo. No se utilizan para las cosas porque indican posesin.
Ej: This beautiful car is mine.

5.4 Possessive Adjectives:


Se llaman "adjetivos" porque acompaan a un sustantivo. Siempre van
inmediatamente seguidos por un sustantivo, pues no pueden usarse solos.
Ej: Mycar is beautiful.

5.5 Reflexive Pronouns:


Se llaman as porque reflejan la accin y usualmente se relacionan con el
sujeto de la oracin. A veces se utilizan para hacer nfasis. Con la
expresin by usualmente significa que realiz la accin solo, sin ayuda.
Ej: He looked at himself in the mirror.
He answered the phone himself.
(No dej que lo contestara otro, esta vez no deleg.)
She lives byherself. (Vive sola, sin compaa.)
I made this car bymyself. (Lo hice solo, sin ayuda.)

5.6 Demonstrative Pronouns:


Demuestran con mayor claridad el objeto que quiero.
Ej: I want this book and not that one.
I like these and not those shoes.

5.7 Relative Pronouns:


Who se refiere a personas, which generalmente se refiere a animales u
objetos, y that se refiere a personas, animales u objetos.

who

which

that

whom whose of which

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 38

Ej: Students who [o that] plan to enter the university in the fall quarter
should
forward transcripts of their records to the registrar.
Dogs that [o which] are within the city limits must be vaccinated.
The man whose house we visited is an architect.
Whom is the report for?

5.8 Indefinite Pronouns:


Existe una serie de trminos indefinidos que a menudo funcionan como
pronombres:
all

Both

everything

nobody

Several

another

Each

few

none

Some

any

eachone

many

no one

somebody

anybody

Either

most

nothing

someone

anyone

Everybody

much

One

something

anything

Everyone

neither

other

Such

5.9 Reciprocal Pronouns:


relacionan la accin entre una o ms cosas:
Each other

one another

6. Numbers and Quantifiers


[Nmeros y Expresiones de Cantidad]

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 39

6.1 Cardinal Numbers


[Nmeros Cardinales]
1 one

11 eleven

21 twenty-one

2 two

12 twelve

22 twenty-two

3 three

13 thirteen

23 twenty-three

4 four

14 fourteen

30 Thirty

5 five

15 fifteen

40 Forty

6 six

16 sixteen

50 Fifty

7 seven

17 seventeen

60 Sixty

8 eight

18 eighteen

70 seventy

9 nine

19 nineteen

80 Eighty

20 twenty

90 Ninety

10 ten

100

one hundred / a
hundred

1.000

one thousand / a
thousand

1.000.000

one million / a
million

1.000.000.000 one billion

6.2 Ordinal Numbers


[Nmeros ordinales]
1st

first

11th

eleventh

21st

twenty-first

2nd

second

12th

twelfth

22nd

twenty-second

3rd

third

13th

thirteenth

23rd

twenty-third

4th

fourth

14th

fourteenth

30th

thirtieth

5th

fifth

15th

fifteenth

40th

fortieth

6th

sixth

16th

sixteenth

50th

fiftieth

7th

seventh

17th

seventeenth

60th

sixtieth

8th

eighth

18th

eighteenth

70th

seventieth

9th

ninth

19th

nineteenth

80th

eightieth

10th

tenth

20th

twentieth

90th

ninetieth

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 40

6.3 Special considerations and


expressions with numbers and symbols
[Consideraciones y expresiones especiales con nmeros
y smbolos]
En ingls americano, se utiliza la coma (,) para separar los miles en
nmeros superiores a 999.
En ingls americano, se utiliza el punto (.) para los decimales.
Decimal [decimal]
3.50= three point fifty / three point five oh /three-fifty
0.25= oh point twenty-five
Fraccin [fraction]
= one half / a half
= one fourth / a fourth
Porcentaje [percentage]
50%= fifty per cent
25%= twenty-five per cent
Operaciones:
Sustantivo / Verbo
3 + 2 = 5 three plus two equals five addition / add
3 2 = 1 three minus two equals one subtraction / subtract
3 x 2 = 6 three times two equals six multiplication/ multiply
3 / 2 = 1.5 three divided by two equals one point fivedivision / divide

6.4 Quantifiers [expresiones de


cantidad]

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 41

Una expresin de cantidad puede preceder a un sustantivo. Algunas expresiones de cantidad son
usadas nicamente con sustantivos contables. Algunos slo se usan con sustantivos incontables y
otros con cualquiera de los dos.
EXPRESIONES DE
CANTIDAD

USADOS CON SUSTANTIVOS


CONTABLES

USADOS CON
SUSTANTIVOS
INCONTABLES

one

one pear

----- no usado -----

another

another pear

----- no usado -----

each

each pear

----- no usado -----

every

every pear

----- no usado -----

two

two pears

----- no usado -----

both

both pears

----- no usado -----

a couple of

a couple of pears

----- no usado -----

three, four...

three pears, four pears...

----- no usado -----

a few

a few pears

----- no usado -----

few

few pears

----- no usado -----

fewer

fewer pears

----- no usado -----

several

several pears

----- no usado -----

many

many pears

----- no usado -----

too many

too many pears

----- no usado -----

a number of

a number of pears

----- no usado -----

a bit of

----- no usado -----

a bit of sugar

a little

----- no usado -----

a little sugar

little

----- no usado -----

little sugar

less

----- no usado -----

less sugar

much

----- no usado -----

much sugar

too much

----- no usado -----

too much sugar

a great deal of

----- no usado -----

a great deal of sugar

the other

the other pear(s)

the other sugar

other

other pears

other sugar

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 42

not any/no

not any pears/no pears

not any sugar/no sugar

some

some pears

some sugar

a lot of

a lot of pears

a lot of sugar

lots of

lots of pears

lots of sugar

plenty of

plenty of pears

plenty of sugar

enough

enough pears

enough sugar

more

more pears

more sugar

most

most pears

most sugar

all

all pears

all sugar

7. Nouns [sustantivos]
La definicin de sustantivo brinda un buen punto de partida para entender
de qu se trata: es el nombre de una persona, lugar, objeto o concepto.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 43

Los sustantivos se dividen en:


Concretos [concrete]
Objetos que podemos observar
podemos

Abstractos [abstract]
Cualidades sobre las que

de manera directa

pensar pero no ver

author

authorship

sister

sisterhood

boy

boyhood

friend

friendship

Comunes [common]

Propios [proper]

El nombre dado en general a


persona,

El nombre especial dado a una

todos los miembros de un


objeto en

familia, lugar, organizacin, u

grupo de objetos o seres

particular

man, citizen, pacifist

Mahatma Ghandi

place, stadium, arena

Orfeo

building, hotel

Sheraton

man, astronaut, explorer

Neil Armstrong

place, unit, province

Crdoba

Collective [colectivos]
El nombre dado a grupos de individuos
fleet
army
company
committee

Countable [contables]

Uncountable [incontables]*

El nombre dado a objetos que son


masas o agregados no

El nombre dado a

percibidos como unidades individuales


unidades individuales

definibles como

chair

furniture

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 44

suitcase

baggage o luggage

coin

cash

necklace

jewelry

* Los uncountable nouns tambin son conocidos como mass nounso


non-count nouns.

7.1 Some of the more common


uncountable nouns
[Algunos de los sustantivos incontables ms comunes]

GRUPOS COMPUESTOS DE ITEMS SIMILARES


baggage/luggage

fruit

jewelry

makeup

clothing

furniture

junk/stuff

money/cash/change

equipment

garbage

machinery

scenery

hardware

mail/postage

traffic....

food

LQUIDOS: coffee, juice, milk, soda/cola, soup, tea, water,


oil, gasoline, blood....
SLIDOS: bread, butter, cheese, ice, meat,
gold, iron, silver,
glass, paper, wood, cotton, wool....
GASES: air, oxygen, steam,
nitrogen,
pollution, smoke, smog....
PARTCULAS: corn, flour, pepper, rice, salt, sugar, wheat,
chalk, dirt, dust, sand,
grass,
hair.....
ABSTRACTOS
beauty

health

knowledge

progress

confidence

help

laughter

recreation

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 45

courage

honesty

education

hospitality

music

enjoyment

importance

patience

fun

intelligence

happiness

justice

luck

significance
sleep
truth

peace

violence

pride

wealth....

advice, information, news, evidence, proof


time, space, energy
homework, work
grammar, slang, vocabulary
Idiomas: Arabic, Chinese, English, Spanish....
Campos de Estudio: chemistry, engineering, history, literature, psychology,
science....
Recreacin: baseball, bridge, chess, poker, soccer, tennis, painting,
sculpting....
Actividades Generales: driving, shopping, studying, traveling, walking....
FENMENOS NATURALES
weather

hail

lightning

sunshine

dew

heat

rain

thunder

fog

humidity

snow

wind

darkness

electricity

light

fire
gravity

7.2 Plural of nouns


[plural de los sustantivos]
La mayora de los sustantivos simplemente agregan s en el plural.

One / a

Two (o ms)

dog

dogs

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 46

stamp

stamps

computer

computers

Los sustantivos que terminan en s, ss, sh, ch, x agregan -es para
formar el plural.

One / a

Two (o ms)

bus

buses

class

classes

crash

crashes

match

matches

box

boxes

Los sustantivos que terminan en una consonante + y, cambian la y


por ies.

One / a

Two (o ms)

city

cities

baby

babies

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 47

body

bodies

Pero si el sustantivo termina en vocal + y, la y no cambia y slo agrega s.

One / a

Two (o ms)

monkey

monkeys

day

days

Muchos sustantivos que terminan en f, para el plural cambiande favy luego


agreganes.

One / a

Two (o ms)

half

halves

wolf

wolves

Muchos sustantivos presentan forma irregular en el plural:

One / a

Two (o ms)

woman

women

man

men

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 48

child

children

foot

feet

7.3 Possesives [posesivos]


Para mostrar posesin, se agrega un apstrofe y s (s) al sustantivo singular
y tan slo un apstrofe al plural. Si el sustantivo plural no termina en s, se
agrega s
The girls doll

The girls dolls

The childs mother

The childrens mother

8. Adjectives and Adverbs


[adjetivos y adverbios]
Si consideramos el valor de las comunicaciones multimediales de nuestros
das, una de las ideas que viene a la mente es el colorido y los formatos.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 49

Si tuviramos que describir estos coloridos y formatos, las formas de las


cosas, el modo en que se interrelacionan a una persona no vidente,
necesitaramos tener un vocabulario muy amplio y muy preciso.
Afortunadamente, la lengua, sea inglesa o espaola, o cualquiera sea su
origen, nos proporciona los elementos necesarios para poder alcanzar
medianamente dicho objetivo.
Si necesitamos describir un sustantivo (a noun), un objeto, algo fsico o algo
abstracto, o un equivalente del sustantivo (a pronoun) tenemos los
adjetivos:
A cheerful smile (cheerful habla del sustantivo smile)
The child is quick (quick habla del sustantivo child)
We are alive (alive habla del pronombre we)
Si lo que necesitamos es describir algn atributo de un verbo, un adjetivo,
otro adverbio o de una oracin entera, necesitamos usar un adverbio:
She smiled cheerfully. (cheerfully modifica al verbo smiled)
The engine is barely warm. (barely modifica al adjetivo warm)
The engine idled veryroughly. (very modifica al adverbio roughly)
Happily, the mechanic found the problem. (Happily modifica a la
oracin completa)
Los adjetivos y los adverbios permiten que el autor especifique y haga
distinciones, por ejemplo: en lugar de decir shelf, delimita cul shelf al
usar lower shelf.
Estos modificadores pueden agregar detalles descriptivos, lmitar o hacer
ms definido el significado de una palabra clave o calificar oraciones.
En ingls, los adjetivos casi siempre anteceden a la palabra que describen,
es decir van antes del sustantivo o del pronombre.
The long report took us four hours to complete.
The unhappy accountant returned to his office without saying a word.
Los adverbios, por su parte, se ubican:
despus del verbo al que modifican:

She worked differently from the others.


antes del adjetivo o del adverbio al que modifican:
The engine is barely warm.
The engine idled very roughly.
Los adjetivos y los adverbios toman formas comparativas y superlativas.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 50

8.1 Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs [Comparacin de


Adjetivos y Adverbios]
FORMAS COMPARATIVAS Y SUPERLATIVAS
La forma comparativa se usa para comparar una persona o un objeto con
otro.
La forma superlativa se usa al comparar tres o ms personas u objetos.
Agregar er y est para formar el comparativo y superlativo de la mayora de
los adjetivos y adverbios de una sola slaba:
tall

taller

the tallest

fast

Faster

the fastest

warm

warmer

the warmest

hard

Harder

the hardest

Algunos adjetivos como big, fat, hot, sad, wet, duplican la consonante:
fat

fatter

the fattest

Algunos adjetivos y adverbios como large, nice, safe, fine, late, agregan r y
st:
safe

safer

the safest

late

later

the latest

Con adjetivos como lucky y adverbs como early, usar i en lugar de y y


agregue er y est:
lucky

luckier

the luckiest

early

earlier

the earliest

Algunos adjetivos de dos slabas como happy, quiet, simple y sus


adverbios tienen dos formas comparativas y superlativas:
narrow

narrower

the narrowest

narrowly

narrowlier

the narrowliest

narrow

more narrow

most narrow

narrowly

more
narrowly

the most narrowly

Con la mayora de los adjetivos y adverbios de dos y tres slabas, use


more y the most:
beautiful

more

the most beautiful

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 51

beautiful
careless

more
careless

bravely

more bravely the most bravely

strongly

more
strongly

the most careless

the most strongly

FORMAS COMPARATIVAS Y SUPERLATIVAS QUE SE CONFUNDEN


Further y farther se refieren a distancia:
You must continue 5 kms further/farther in order to find the factory.
Further tambin significa "in addition, additional":
We've had no further flight data from the control tower.
Use elder/the eldest antes de un sustantivo en referencia a personas en una
familia o comunidad:
She's my elder sister. She's the eldest daughter.
He's the eldest (person) in the community. The eldest person is the spiritual
leader.
Use older/the oldest para comparar personas y objetos:
She's older than you.
That tree is the oldest one in the forest.
Comparaciones Irregulares:
good / well

better

the best

bad

worse

the worst

much / many

more

the most

little

less

the least

Frmulas:
adj./adv. + -er (than)more + adj./adv. + (than)the + adj./adv. + -est
as + adj./adv. + as not as + adj./adv. + as

the + most + adj./adv.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 52

less + adj./adv. + (than)


adj./adv.

aux + not + v + as + adv. + asthe + least +

Ejemplos:
Bill is taller than Bob. Bob is more athletic than Brad. Brad is the
strongest of them all.
They all like tennis. Brad plays as well as Bill. Bill does not serve as
expertly as Bob.
Bob is the most gifted player. Brad and Bill are less serious. Bob is the least
amateur in the group.

8.2 Adverbs of Frequency [adverbios de


frecuencia]
Los adverbios de frecuencia nos dicen con qu frecuencia ocurre o hacemos
algo.
Los ms comunes son:

always
almost always
generally
regularly
usually
normally
frequently
very often
often
sometimes
hardly
hardly ever
seldom
ever
rarely
almost never
not... ever
never

8.3 Expressions of Frequency


[Expresiones de Frecuencia]
Las expresiones de frecuencia nos indican con qu frecuencia hacemos algo.
Son indicadores de tiempo que aparecen al principio o al final de una
oracin.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 53

Algunas de estas expresiones son:


every (day, week, month, year); every (two, three, four, etc.)(days, weeks,
months, years); every other (day, week, month, year); twice (a day, a week,
a month, a year); three (four, five, etc.) times (a day, a week, a month, a
year); several times (a day, a week, a month, a year); once in a while.

9. Prepositions [Preposiciones]
Las preposiciones, como dice el Dr. Paul Burtness en su Effective English
for Colleges, son los tornillos y las tuercas de la lengua. Sin ellas, el discurso
no tendra cohesin ni sentido.
Del mismo modo en que un automvil no sera tal sin las tuercas y los
tornillos que lo mantienen unido, las oraciones seran incomprensibles si
no existieran las preposiciones dado que stas contribuyen a establecer
relaciones entre los elementos de la oracin.
Para poder entender la importancia de las preposiciones, tomemos como
ejemplo este texto:
Sin preposiciones:
The fall the vice-president planning consulted the director the Chicago
office proposals expanding the computer facilities connection the transfer
corporate headquarters that site the summer the following year.
Con preposiciones:
In the fall the vice-president for planning consulted the director ofthe
Chicago office about proposalsfor expanding the computer facilities in
connectionwith the transferof corporate headquarters to that site in the
summer of the following year.
Hay 39 palabras en la oracin de arriba. Once de ellas, es decir 27%, son
preposiciones!
Adems, observe que hay preposiciones que se repiten con frecuencia en la
oracin: in y of estn usadas 3 veces y for, 2. Dicha repeticin es una
caracterstica importante de las preposiciones.
A continuacin, encontrar algunas preposiciones de uso comn en el
idioma ingls:

9.1 Prepositions of Time [Preposiciones


de Tiempo]
before: -previous to a time
Monday is the day before Tuesday.
after: -subsequent to a time

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 54

Tuesday is the day after Monday.


during: -for part of a period through, throughout:
He worked during the day. (9 to 17 hs.)
for an entire period and after
He worked through/throughout the day. (9 to 21hs)
at the same time as another event
He worked during the Olympics.
at around, at about: -at an approximate time
She'll arrive at around/about 10
by: -no later than a time
She'll be home by 10.
by the time: -when
She'll be home by the time you arrive.
to: -minutes before the hour
It's twenty to eight
towards: -nearing a period of time
It is towards midnight and she hasn't returned.
between: -after a time and before another time
She'll arrive between 9 and 10.
within: -between now and a length of time
She'll arrive within the hour.
beyond, past: -after a time
She remained at home beyond/past noon
until: -up to, but not after a time
She remained at home until noon.
for: -during a length of time
Jill has taught English for three years.
since: -between a past time and now
Jill has taught English since 1999.
in: -a century, decade, year, season, month on:
Bob's birthday is in June.
a day, days, a date, dates
Bob's birthday is on June 23rd.
after a length of time
Jeff will travel to Japan in a week.
in time: -not too late for an event
on time: -at the required time
Sam arrived at the airport in time to greet Sue.
Sue's flight was on time.
on the dot: -at the exact minute
The students must be here at 2 o'clock on the dot.
at: -a specific time
The students must be in class at 2 o'clock.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 55

in the morning, afternoon, evening:


at night:
We have class in the afternoon.
Some people prefer to travel at night.
at present, at the moment: -now
Mr. Jones is busy at present/at the moment.
with: -at the same time as
Many people must get up with the sun , in order to go to work.
out of:
ahead of:
to be out of time:
to have no time left
to be ahead of time:
to be early:
We won't make it. We're out of time. Unlike us, Beth was ahead of time
and caught the train. to run out of time: -use up remaining time.
Mel was distracted and ran out of time to have lunch.
up:
time is up: -there is no official time remaining for a specific activity
In order to win the competition, you must finish the painting before your
time is up.

9.2 Prepositions of Place or Location


[Preposiciones de lugar]
in: -a continent, a country,
on: -a street, a floor
at:-a building, a house or apartment
a state, a city, a town
a number
Joe works in Washington, D.C.
He works on the second floor. Joe works at the White House.
a room, an area of a room
an outside area
a work area inside
He works in the hall. He doesn't work on the entrance hall. He works at
the top of the stairs.
at home: -in one's own house
at work: -at one's job
at school: -attending classes
at church: -attending services (mass)
in: -the water, the air, the
on: -facing a coast, a beach

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 56

at: -the coast, the beach environment


Bill is swimming in the ocean. He has an apartment on the beach. He's at
the beach with his family.
the center, the middle
the side, left, right, surface
the beginning, start, end
Jim's office is in the middle of It's on the right side of the building. It's the
door at the beginning of the block.
the hall.
the north, south, east, west
the north side, south side, east side,
west side
Lou's favorite region is in the
south of France.
a vehicle one cannot walk around
in (car/small boat/small plane/
(bus/train/ship/airplane/subway)
helicopter)
Meg came to work in a taxi.
a comfortable chair

He has to visit an art gallery on the


east side of the city.
a vehicle one can walk around on

She didn't ride on the bus today.

a straight chair, a sofa, a couch

Jack sinks in his reclining chair


every night and watches T.V.

The child sat still on the hard steel


chair, as he waited for his father.

in bed: -under the covers


The children were in bed at eight p.m.
on the bed: -on top of the covers
Their mother sat on the bed and read them a story.
about, around, throughout: -in all areas of a place
across: -in all areas of a flat surface
After the earthquake, there were hundreds of damaged
When the plate fell from her hands, tiny buildings throughout the city.
porcelain pieces scattered across the floor.
with: -in the same place as someone or something else
Your husband is with mine at the stadium.
above, over:
below, beneath, under, underneath:
Letter A is above/over letter B. A

against:

Letter B is
Bbelow/beneath/under/underneath
Letter A.

by, beside, next to:

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 57

Letter A is against letter B.

AB CLetter B is by/beside/next to letter C.

between:
Letter B is between letter A and letter C.

ABC

among:
Number 5 is among the letters.

aaaaaaaaaaa
aaaaaaaa5aa
aaaaaaaaaaa
on, on top of, upon:
Letter A is on/on top of/upon the line.

A
off:
Letter B is off the line.

B
in, inside, within:
Letter A is in/inside/within the square figure.

^^^^^^

^ A ^
^^^^^^
out of, outside of:
Letter B is out of/outside of the square figure.

^^^^^^
^ A ^ B
^^^^^^
across from, opposite: in front of, ahead of:
in back of, behind:
Letter C is across from/ Letter B is in front of/
Letter A is in back of/
oppositethe Cashier.
ahead of letter A. behind letter B.

Cashier

near, close to:


far from:
beyond:
Letter A is near/ Letter C is far fromLetter D is beyond
close toletter B.letter B.letter C.

at the top of:


at the bottom of:
Letter A is at the top of the page.
Letter B is at the bottom of the page.
AZ

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 58

ZB
on the top of:
Letter A is on the top of the box.

on the bottom of:


Letter B is on the bottom of the box.

A
C

D
B

on the side: Letters C and D are on the sides of the box.

9.3 Prepositions of Direction


[Preposiciones de Direccin]
across

>

around

along, by

>

past

in, into

>

out of

onto

>

off

over

>

through

from, away from

>

to, toward

back from

>

back to

with

>

against

up

>

down

>

for

10. Articles [Artculos]


A / AN (artculos indefinidos)
THE (artculo definido)
A bill

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 59

An invoice
The accounting books

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 60

Mdulo 2
Unidad 2
Lectura 2: Tcnicas de Lectura
Rpida (Skimming y Scanning)

Materia: Ingls tcnico


Profesora: Patricia Rivera

Cuando hablamos de tcnicas de lectura rpida, tenemos que pensar en que


debemos conseguir entender el texto que tenemos frente a nosotros en el
menor tiempo posible y de la forma ms completa posible. Adems,
debemos ser capaces de identificar ideas, datos o conceptos puntuales que
nos ayudarn a comprender la informacin especfica que necesitemos.
Cuando leemos un peridico no lo leemos de la forma en que leemos un
libro de texto, un informe o un balance. Segn lo que tengamos que leer
variaremos nuestro abordaje. No obstante, cuando de trabajo hablamos, el
tiempo que dediquemos a obtener informacin de un texto, de una tabla, o
de un grfico, marcar la diferencia entre cumplir o no con objetivos
preestablecidos y, en muchos casos, inamovibles.
Es por ello que es aconsejable abordar la lectura desde las tcnicas de
lectura veloz.

1. Skimming
Existen varias formas de describir el concepto de skimming:
Prelectura;
Lectura rpida y global dirigida a identificar a grandes rasgos el
argumento, la estructura y las ideas principales de un texto;
Lectura mediante la identificacin de bloques de informacin;
Lectura selectiva en la cual seleccionaremos la informacin ms
significativa que nos permita una visin esencial del texto;
Lectura que nos permite conectar el texto que estamos leyendo con el
conocimiento que ya tenemos sobre un tema determinado en el menor
tiempo posible;
Lectura que permite la rpida construccin mental de un resumen;
Lectura que nos permite enlazar ideas entre s y comprender el texto en
su conjunto.

Interferencias en la velocidad y la comprensin


Cuando leemos en silencio, tendemos a vocalizar, es decir a leer en voz
baja. Nuestro cerebro escucha las palabras en lugar de verlas. Este
proceso de vocalizacin insume ms tiempo que el de identificacin lectora
debido a que nuestra mente percibe la pronunciacin palabra por palabra.
Adems, tenemos la tendencia a leer palabra por palabra linealmente,
cuando el cerebro humano es capaz de agrupar paquetes de palabras y de
comprender el sentido del paquete completo.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 2

En el skimming (prelectura) permitimos que nuestros ojos se fijen en


palabras clave.
La lectura veloz tiene por objetivo poner en movimiento la capacidad
no utilizada de la mente humana. Por ejemplo, podremos interpretar
el significado del siguiente texto?

La fnemoeanl cpaaicadd de la mntee hmnuaa, sgen una invsetagiicn


en la Uinevrsadid de Cmbraidge, dcie que no iomprta el oredn de las
lrteas en una plabara, snio que la pirmrea y la litma lretas etsn en el
lguar croertco. Aqunue el rseto sea un dseatsre ttoal, uetsd an prod
lerleo sin porlbemea. Esto ocerur pqruoe la mtene hmunaa no peude
leer tdaos y cdaa una de las lrteas por s saols, snio ms bein la plabara
cmoo un tdoo. Icnrbele, no?

Respuesta correcta al cuadro, al final del mdulo.

Esta es una forma entretenida de demostrar cmo la mente humana es


capaz de interpretar las palabras como un todo y no como las letras que las
constituyen. Los lectores entrenados en lectura veloz han descubierto que la
mente humana tambin es capaz de interpretar grupos de palabras como un
todo.
Este proceso se llama chunking que, traducido a efectos del
procesamiento de informacin, sera el agrupamiento de trozos de
informacin. En ingls, chunk significa trozo, pedazo.
El proceso de chunking incluye la lectura de bloques de palabras de una
vez, lo que mejora la velocidad a la que se puede leer y tambin mejora la
comprensin. No obstante, para lograr la velocidad necesaria, hay que
evitar la vocalizacin mientras se lee.
Cuando logre derrotar la vocesita interior que lee palabra por palabra en su
mente, ser capaz de ver los grupos de palabras como unidades
significativas y enfocarse en aquellos que tienen contenido.
Para poder entender este proceso con mayor claridad, vamos a practicarlo.
Si puede, imprima el siguiente ejercicio. Cubra con un pedazo de papel la
lista de palabras. Deslizando el papel hacia abajo, lea las siete palabras tan
rpido como pueda. Trate de no vocalizar a medida que lee, no trate de
pronunciar las palabras en su mente. A medida que las lee, trate de contar
del 1 al 10 (o ms).
Lista de un palabra
review
timely
efficient
vary

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 3

advantage
lending
readily
revisin
puntualmente
eficaz
variar
beneficio
prstamo
fcilmente

Dej de or la vocecita en su cabeza?


Probemos el mismo proceso pero con grupos de tres palabras.
stas no podr vocalizarlas ya que no es posible decir tres palabras al
mismo tiempo. Fjese adems, en el movimiento de sus ojos. Debe ser un
suave movimiento horizontal y vertical (de arriba abajo). Tratar de fijarse
en cada palabra lo demorar.
A medida que vaya agregando ejercicios, trate de hacer ms veloz el
movimiento del papel al leer.
Lista de cuatro palabras
a continuing review of
to provide timely statements
of efficient financial information
may vary extensively between
to the advantage of
services for lending operations
is not readily recognized
una revisin continua de
proporcionar puntualmente estados contables
de eficaz informacin financiera
puede variar ampliamente entre
para el beneficio de

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 4

servicios para operaciones de prstamo


no es fcilmente reconocido
Ahora que ha ledo las palabras originales, trate de escribir tantas
como le sea posible recordar.
Qu tal le fue? Bien? Recordemos que las siete primeras palabras ya
las ha visto dos veces.
Le fue posible leer las palabras sin escuchar esa vocecita interior que
las repite?
Ley deslizando la vista de izquierda a derecha y de arriba abajo?
Logr retener las palabras en su memoria? Qu fue lo que ms le
ayud?
Ahora aumentemos a seis palabras y probemos aplicar lo planteado en
las preguntas anteriores. A stas sumemos una ms: mientras lee, no
mueva la cabeza de lado a lado. Mantenga la cabeza fija, deslice sus
ojos por el texto, manteniendo la mirada ligeramente fija por encima
de las frases y permita que sus ojos floten pgina abajo. Intente leer
las lneas, no las letras y las palabras.
Trate de deslizar la hoja de papel cada vez ms rpido.
Lista de seis/siete palabras
review of the efficacy of these
the implementing agencies are made responsible
bank staff need to emphasize the
identify those sectors and key institutions
of auditing services for lending operations
even the concept of a public sector
bank requirements to provide timely financial statements

revisin de la eficacia de estos


los representantes de implementacin sern responsables
el personal bancario debe poner nfasis en
identificar aquellos sectores e instituciones clave
servicios de auditora para operaciones de prstamo
incluso el concepto de un sector pblico
requisitos bancarios para brindar estados contables puntualmente

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 5

Y ahora? Mucho mejor, no?


Si lo consigui, est logrando el objetivo de hacer un skimming mucho ms
efectivo.
La ltima clave para una lectura y comprensin veloz es no volver atrs
sobre lo recin ledo. Recuerde, estamos haciendo skimming una
prelectura una lectura rpida - para entender a grandes rasgos aquello
que luego leeremos a fondo.
Veamos una lectura tpica con la que podemos encontrarnos y de qu
manera vamos a abordar la tcnica que hemos descripto anteriormente
unida a otras tcnicas de skimming.

Truth and No Consequences


Witnesses to securities fraud have had little incentive to tattle on their
errant co-workersor accomplices, as the case may be. Coming
forward, after all, can put one's career, reputation, and wallet at risk.
In terms of your legal exposure, there [has been] little or no incentive
to step forward and report a violation [to the Securities and Exchange
Commission] says Russell Ryan, a partner at King & Spalding who
spent a decade in SEC enforcement. But a new set of guidelines within
the SEC aims to change things.
Borrowed from the American Department of Justice, the guidelines
outline co-operation toolsformal written agreements with cooperating companies or individuals that could result in lesser penalties
or no enforcement. Securities lawyers predict that if these tools are
fully used by the SEC, they will lead to a higher number of enforcement
actions but lower penalties.
Yet one of the strongest incentives for fraud witnesses to come forward
is still missing: cash. Although whistle-blowers are protected under the
Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the law has a very high burden of proof, and its
only reward is the right to keep your job. Mary Schapiro, the SEC's
chairman, has frequently asked Congress to give the SEC the authority
to provide monetary awards to people who reveal violations, but to
date, the only carrot the SEC can offer is no stick.
Extracted from:
CFO in focus
The finance function
Our monthly round-up from CFO.com: the difficulties of industry-switching, new antifraud measures and performance benchmarks, an unusual executive search, and more
Jan 26th 2010 | From The Economist online
http://www.economist.com/research/articlesBySubject/displaystory.cfm?subjectid=1
290116&story_id=15384601

Otra forma de abordar la tcnica de skimming es la de leer la primera


oracin de cada prrafo:

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 6

Truth and No Consequences


Witnesses to securities fraud have had little incentive to tattle on their
errant co-workersor accomplices, as the case may be. Coming
forward, after all, can put one's career, reputation, and wallet at risk.
In terms of your legal exposure, there [has been] little or no incentive
to step forward and report a violation [to the Securities and Exchange
Commission] says Russell Ryan, a partner at King & Spalding who
spent a decade in SEC enforcement. But a new set of guidelines within
the SEC aims to change things.
Borrowed from the American Department of Justice, the guidelines
outline co-operation toolsformal written agreements with cooperating companies or individuals that could result in lesser penalties
or no enforcement. Securities lawyers predict that if these tools are
fully used by the SEC, they will lead to a higher number of enforcement
actions but lower penalties.
Yet one of the strongest incentives for fraud witnesses to come
forward is still missing: cash. Although whistle-blowers are protected
under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the law has a very high burden of proof,
and its only reward is the right to keep your job. Mary Schapiro, the
SEC's chairman, has frequently asked Congress to give the SEC the
authority to provide monetary awards to people who reveal violations,
but to date, the only carrot the SEC can offer is no stick.

Generalmente, la oracin principal de cada prrafo se encuentra en la


primera oracin. A partir de ellas, podemos tomar una idea general de
lo que se trata el artculo o texto que estamos leyendo.
En base a la lectura anterior, veamos las palabras principales, las que
transmiten contenido, significado:
witnesses

securities fraud

coworkers

accomplices

incentives

fraud witnesses

incentive

guidelines outline
come forward

tattle

errant

cooperation tools
still missing

cash

Cules se parecen a nuestro idioma o le resultan familiares?


fraud? S, es correcto, fraude
accomplices? Tambin, cmplices
cooperation? Cooperacin
incentives? As es, incentivos
Bien! Ahora, a buscar el sentido general:

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 7

Habla de fraude, de cmplices, de cooperacin y de incentivos.


Luego buscaremos las palabras que no conocemos (cuidado con los falsos
amigos palabras que se parecen a las nuestras pero que no significan lo
mismo).
Despus haremos una lectura ms profunda.
Por lo pronto, podemos deducir que el artculo de The Economist,
desarrolla el tema de fraude con valores.

2. Scanning
Adems de leer rpido, es necesario mejorar la eficacia lectora. Para ello,
hay que leer sabiendo qu buscar y con cunta profundidad buscarlo y qu
descartar.
Como contrapartida, aquella informacin que es importante aunque difcil
de leer debe ser leda con atencin, palabra por palabra, para asegurar un
mximo de comprensin y de retencin del material.
Segn la descripcin de Wikipedia, el scanning es una tcnica para buscar
trminos individuales en un texto. Se fundamenta en la teora de que se
identifican las palabras comparando sus imgenes. El lector se imagina la
palabra en el estilo de fuente del texto y despus mueve la mirada
rpidamente sobre el texto.
La tcnica de repasar con la vista y examinar rpidamente exige prestar
atencin a todo, incluidos ttulos, subttulos, caractersticas, y efectos
visuales. No siempre es sencillo encontrar esa pequea parte de
informacin que uno est buscando en un prrafo.
Los ttulos y subttulos rompen el texto e identifican el contenido de cada
parte. Estas son pistas que nos ayudan a encontrar la informacin que
buscamos.
Esta tcnica es similar a cuando uno busca una palabra en un directorio
telefnico o en un diccionario. La bsqueda es por palabras clave o por
ideas. Como en la mayora de los casos, uno sabe lo que est buscando, uno
est concentrado en encontrar una respuesta en particular.
De manera similar a lo que ocurre con el skimming, cuando hacemos
scanning nuestra vista debe tener un movimiento rpido de los ojos hacia
abajo buscando palabras y frases especficas.
Comenzamos al principio de la lectura,
Movemos los ojos rpidamente sobre las lneas, sin detenernos
demasiado,
Tratamos de encontrar las palabras clave,
Tenemos una nocin ms cercana en cuanto a qu buscamos.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 8

Truth and No Consequences


Witnesses to securities fraud have had little incentive to tattle on
their errant co-workersor accomplices, as the case may be. Coming
forward, after all, can put one's career, reputation, and wallet at risk. In
terms of your legal exposure, there [has been] little or no incentive to
step forward and report a violation [to the Securities and Exchange
Commission] says Russell Ryan, a partner at King & Spalding who spent a
decade in SEC enforcement. But a new set of guidelines within the SEC
aims to change things.
Borrowed from the American Department of Justice, the guidelines
outline co-operation toolsformal written agreements with cooperating companies or individuals that could result in lesser penalties or
no enforcement. Securities lawyers predict that if these tools are fully
used by the SEC, they will lead to a higher number of enforcement
actions but lower penalties.
Yet one of the strongest incentives for fraud witnesses to come forward
is still missing: cash. Although whistle-blowers are protected under
the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the law has a very high burden of proof, and
its only reward is the right to keep your job. Mary Schapiro, the SEC's
chairman, has frequently asked Congress to give the SEC the authority to
provide monetary awards to people who reveal violations, but to date,
the only carrot the SEC can offer is no stick.
Extracted from:
CFO in focus
The finance function
Our monthly round-up from CFO.com: the difficulties of industry-switching, new
anti-fraud measures and performance benchmarks, an unusual executive search,
and more
Jan 26th 2010 | From The Economist online
http://www.economist.com/research/articlesBySubject/displaystory.cfm?subjectid
=1290116&story_id=15384601

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 9

Hagamos un resumen de lo encontrado hasta aqu:


Empezando por el ttulo: Truth and No Consequences La verdad y
ninguna consecuencia.
Tenemos tambin, que una serie de palabras que conocemos o que se
parecen a palabras en nuestro idioma:
fraud
accomplices
cooperation
incentives
Hicimos el skimming a travs de leer la primera oracin de cada prrafo:
Witnesses to s ecurities fraud have had little incentiv e to tattle
on their errant co -work ersor accomplices, as the case may
be.
Los testigos de fraudes con valores han tenido muy pocos incentivos para
denunciar a sus colegas infractores o a sus cmplices, segn sea el caso.
Borrowed from the American Department of Justice, the
guidelines out line co -operation tools
Tomado del Departamento de Justicia de los Estados Unidos, los
lineamientos esbozan herramientas de cooperacin.
Yet one of the strongest incentives for fraud witnesses to
come forward is still missing: cash.
No obstante, an falta uno de los ms fuertes incentivos para que los
testigos de fraude den la cara: el efectivo.
Ya tenemos una idea bastante completa de lo que plantea el texto:
Que existe y es conocido el fraude con valores y cmo quienes saben de l
no lo denuncian por falta de incentivos o de un premio por hacerlo.
Tambin menciona que existen instrumentos para controlar o denunciar.
Tambin nos plantea, como podemos deducirlo del ttulo, que aunque se
conozca la verdad, no habr consecuencias para los infractores.
Una vez ubicada una serie de palabras clave, que nos puede servir para
profundizar el concepto que nos hemos formado inicialmente (en la etapa
de skimming), empezaremos a leer ms en detalle.
Ahora, vamos a ver algunas palabras funcionales que pueden ayudarnos a
completar conceptos:
Veamos el texto con las palabras clave de la etapa de scanning en negritas,
al que ahora hemos agregado nmeros entre parntesis:

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 10

Truth and No Consequences


Witnesses to securities fraud have had little (1) incentive (2) to tattle
on their errant (3) co-workersor (4) accomplices, as the case may be.
Coming forward, after all, can put one's career, reputation, and wallet at
risk. In terms of your (5) legal exposure, there [has been] little or no
(6) incentive (7) to step forward and report a violation (8) [to the
Securities and Exchange Commission] says Russell Ryan, a partner at King
& Spalding who spent a decade in SEC enforcement. But (9) a new set of
guidelines within the SEC aims to change things.
Borrowed from the American Department of Justice, the guidelines (10)
outline co-operation toolsformal written (11) agreements with
(12) co-operating companies or (13) individuals that could result in (14)
lesser penalties or (15 / 16) no enforcement. Securities (17) lawyers
predict that if (18) these tools are fully used by the SEC, they will lead
to a higher number (19) of enforcement actions but lower (20)
penalties.
Yet (21) one of the strongest (22) incentives for fraud witnesses to
come forward is still (23) missing: cash. Although (24) whistleblowers are protected under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the law has a
very high burden of proof, and its only (25) reward is the right to keep
your job. Mary Schapiro, the SEC's chairman, (26) has frequently (27)
asked Congress to give the SEC the authority (28) to provide monetary
awards (30) to people who reveal violations, but to date (31), the only
carrot the SEC can offer is no stick (32).
Extracted from:
CFO in focus
The finance function
Our monthly round-up from CFO.com: the difficulties of industry-switching, new anti-fraud
measures and performance benchmarks, an unusual executive search, and more
Jan 26th 2010 | From The Economist online
http://www.economist.com/research/articlesBySubject/displaystory.cfm?subjectid=1290116&
story_id=15384601

1. Cmo es el incentive? Little a primera vista, usted dir que little


es pequeo. Tiene razn, pero no en este uso. Aqu quiere decir poco (casi
nada/casi ningn). Si dijera a little querra decir un poco (algo).
2. Para qu es ese incentive? To tattle significa chismorrear,
chismear, comadrear, cotillear. Tomando el contexto del artculo y su
seriedad, entendemos que quiere decir hablar por lo bajo sobre las
sospechas que los colegas pueden tener sobre otro colega.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 11

3. Cmo son los compaeros de trabajo? Errant quiere decir


errante (que anda de un lado a otro). Podemos entender el concepto de:
sin mantener su lealtad a nada ni nadie.
4. Por qu habla de accomplices? Segn recordamos, esto quiere decir
cmplices y, si de cmplices se trata, entendemos que la omisin de hacer
notar que un colega comete un fraude convierte a los dems, tal vez, en sus
cmplices. O bien, que por hacer lo mismo, callan.
5. A quin afecta la legal exposure? Your ste es el adjetivo
posesivo tu. Es decir, su (tu) exposicin legal.
6. Volvemos sobre la pregunta (1) cmo es el incentive? Little recuerda
que dijimos que significa poco, casi nada? Y ahora agrega: or no incentive;
es decir, o ningn incentivo.
7. Para qu es el incentive? To step forward (and report a violation)
Dar un paso al frente (y denunciar una violacin).
8. Ante quin tienen que denunciar la violacin? Ante la Securities
and Exchange Commission La SEC Comisin de Valores de los
Estados Unidos.
9. Qu quiere decir but? But si revisamos el apunte del mdulo 1,
veremos que but es una conjuncin. Significa pero. Es decir, contrasta
dos ideas es decir, lo anteriormente planteado apunta a situaciones
irregulares pero lo que sigue, apunta a un elemento que va a enderezar esas
situaciones.
10. Cul es la funcin de estos guidelines que han sido tomados de los
del Departamento de Justicia de los Estados Unidos? Constituirse en un
esquema de instrumentos de cooperacin
11. Qu son los formal written agreements? Son acuerdos escritos
de manera formal. Y cules son dichos agreements? Los instrumentos
de cooperacin.
12. Con quines se firman estos acuerdos? Con las co-operating
companies empresas que cooperan con la SEC bajo estos acuerdos.
13. O con quines tambin se firman estos acuerdos? or individuals
o individuos.
14. Qu significa that could result in? Que puede dar como
resultado.
15. Y lesser penalties? Lesser es un adjetivo que quiere decir
menor. Penalties? S, penalizacin, castigo, sanciones.
16. No enforcement - No, en ingls, acompaando a un sustantivo,
quiere decir ningn / ninguna. Enforcement equivale al concepto de
aplicacin de medidas de cumplimiento obligatorio. Conlleva una clara
alusin a la fuerza para hacer cumplir la ley, una reglamentacin, etc.
17. Qu son los Securities? Valores. Y los securities lawyers? Son
los abogados especializados en valores, bonos, ttulos, etc.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 12

18. Y estos abogados predicen que if - If es una conjuncin que


introduce una oracin de condicionalidad. If these tools are used, Si
se aplican estos instrumentos.
19. they will lead to a higher number of actions stos
llevarn a una mayor cantidad de acciones. Higher es un adjetivo high
en su forma comparativa (-er).
20. lower penalties Penalizaciones o sanciones menores. Lower es
el comparativo del adjetivo low.
21. Yet es una conjuncin que significa sin embargo.
22. One of the strongest es el superlativo (the est) del adjetivo
strong.
23. Still es un adverbio que significa todava / an. Tambin puede
traducirse como alguna forma del verbo seguir. is still missing
siguen faltando.
24. Although es una conjuncin y significa aunque. (Although whistleblowers are protected under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act) Aunque los
denunciantes se encuentran protegidos bajo la Ley Sarbanes-Oxley.
25. Only quiere decir nico/a.
26. The SECs. En ingls, el posesivo se forma con un apstrofe () y una s.
27. Frequently es un adverbio de frecuencia : frecuentemente.
28. Asked the congress to give dar a quin? (the SEC) a la SEC
29. To give the SEC dar qu? (the authority) la autoridad.
30. to provide monetary awards brindar a quin? (to people
who reveal violations) a la gente que revela las violaciones /
infracciones.
31. but to date. Recuerde que but quiere decir pero. To date significa
a la fecha / al da de hoy.
32. the only carrot the SEC can offer is no stick existen muchas
expresiones con carrot y con stick. Todas se relacionan con la motivacin y
con premios (carrot) y castigos (stick). En este caso, lo que resume es que la
SEC lo nico que ofrece son premios y no existen castigos que aplicar.
Bien, ya hemos usado todos los procesos necesarios para poder entender
una lectura. Ahora vamos a resumir los conceptos.
Habamos dicho que el artculo trata sobre el fraude con valores y, por su
ttulo, pudimos darnos cuenta que versa sobre la cantidad de infracciones
que existen. Que no hay castigos pese a la existencia de numerosos
instrumentos formales para regular este tipo de operaciones.
Luego de leer ms a fondo y de reconocer las palabras funcionales (que son
las que dan cohesin y articulacin a los textos) descubrimos que mucha
gente que trabaja con valores comete serios delitos o es testigo de tales
delitos. El problema es que estos delitos no se denuncian y, segn lo plantea
el autor, es por una parte, debido a que no existe un sistema de

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 13

compensacin para los denunciantes pese a estar protegidos por una ley
para la proteccin de testigos. Por la otra, porque la SEC no tiene
instaurado un sistema de castigos que desaliente dichas prcticas.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 14

Mdulo 2
Unidad 2
Lecturascomplementarias

Materia: Ingls tcnico


Profesora: Patricia Rivera

Lecturas
A continuacin encontrar una serie de lecturas que puede ir aprovechando
y en las cuales puede ir practicando las tcnicas aprendidas.

Lectura n 1
Tax Changes for Individuals - Individuals IRS de los
Estados Unidos de Norteamrica
[http://www.irs.gov/formspubs/content/0,,id=178012,00.html]

Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT)


2009 Changes
The following changes to the AMT went into effect for 2009. For more
information, see Form 6251, Alternative Minimum Tax--Individuals, and its
instructions.
AMT exemption amount increased. The AMT exemption amount has
increased to $46,700 ($70,950 if married filing jointly or qualifying
widow(er); $35,475 if married filing separately).
AMT exemption amount for a child increased. The AMT exemption
amount for a child whose unearned income is taxed at the parent's tax rate
has increased to $6,700.
Qualified motor vehicle tax allowed against AMT. If you claim a
regular tax deduction for any state or local sales or excise tax on the
purchase of a new motor vehicle, that tax is also allowed as a deduction for
the AMT.
Tax-exempt interest on specified private activity bonds issued in
2009 or 2010 exempt from AMT. Tax-exempt interest on specified
private activity bonds issued in 2009 or 2010 is not an item of tax
preference and therefore is not subject to the AMT. A refunding bond is
treated as issued on the date of the issuance of the refunded bond (or, in the
case of a series of refundings, the original bond). However, tax-exempt
interest on a specified private activity bond issued in 2009 or 2010 to
currently refund a private activity bond issued after 2003 and before 2009
is not an item of tax preference.
Alternative tax net operating loss deduction (ATNOLD). The 90%
limit on the ATNOLD does not apply to the portion of an ATNOLD
attributable to any 2008 or 2009 loss you elected to carry back more than 2
years under section 172(b)(1)(H) of the Internal Revenue Code.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 2

Page Last Reviewed or Updated: December 29, 2009

Lectura n 2
Individuals - Child-related Tax Changes - Child's
Investment Income IRS de los EstadosUnidos de
Norteamrica
2008
Increase in age of children whose investment income is taxed at
parent's rate. The rules regarding the age of a child whose investment
income may be taxed at the parent's tax rate have changed for 2008. These
rules continue to apply to a child under age 18 at the end of the year but,
beginning in 2008, will also apply in certain cases to a child who either:
Was age 18 at the end of 2008 and did not have earned income that was
more than half of the child's support, or
Was a full-time student over age 18 and under age 24 at the end of 2008
and did not have earned income that was more than half of the child's
support.
A student is a child who during any part of 5 calendar months of the year
was enrolled as a full-time student at a school, or took a full-time, on-farm
training course given by a school or a state, county, or local government
agency. A school includes a technical, trade, or mechanical school. It does
not include an on-the-job training course, correspondence school, or school
offering courses only through the Internet.
Form 8615 * is used to figure the child's tax. These rules also apply to
parents who elect on Form 8814 * to report their child's income on the
parents' return.
Increase in investment income amount. The amount of taxable
investment income these children can have without it being subject to tax at
the parent's rate has increased to $1,800 for 2008.
2009
The amount of taxable investment income a child can have without it being
subject to tax at the parent's rate has increased to $1,900 for 2009.
Page Last Reviewed or Updated: November 26, 2009.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 3

Lectura n 3
Individuals - Earned Income for Additional Child Tax
Credit IRS de los EstadosUnidos de Norteamrica
2009
For 2009, the amount your earned income must exceed to claim the
additional child tax credit is reduced to $3,000.
2010
For 2010, the amount your earned income must exceed to claim the
additional child tax credit is $3,000.
Page Last Reviewed or Updated: November 26, 2009

Lectura n 4
Individuals - Decreased Estimated Tax Payments for
Qualified Individuals With Small Businesses IRS de
los EstadosUnidos de Norteamrica
For 2009, qualified individuals with small businesses may be eligible to
make smaller estimated tax payments. If you qualify, your required annual
payment for 2009 is the smaller of 90% of the tax shown on your 2008 tax
return or 90% of the tax shown on your 2009 tax return. You must check
box F in Part II on Form 2210 or box C on Form 2210-F *to certify that
you qualify.
You are a qualified individual if:
More than 50% of your gross income was from a business that had an
average of fewer than 500 employees in 2008, and
Your adjusted gross income in 2008 was less than $500,000 ($250,000
if you are filing married filing separately for 2009).
Page Last Reviewed or Updated: July 09, 2009

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 4

Lectura n 5
Individuals - Earned Income Credit IRS de los
Estados Unidos de Norteamrica
2009 Changes
The following paragraphs explain the changes to the credit for 2009.
Amount of credit increased. The maximum amount of the credit has
increased. The most you can get for 2009 is:

$3,043 if you have one qualifying child,


$5,028 if you have two qualifying children,
$5,657 if you have three or more qualifying children, or
$457 if you do not have a qualifying child.

Earned income amount increased. The maximum amount of income you


can earn and still get the credit has increased for 2009. You may be able to
take the credit if:
You have three or more qualifying children and you earn less than
$43,279 ($48,279 if married filing jointly)
You have two qualifying children and you earn less than $40,295
($45,295 if married filing jointly),
You have one qualifying child and you earn less than $35,463 ($40,463
if married filing jointly), or
You do not have a qualifying child and you earn less than $13,440
($18,440 if married filing jointly).
The maximum amount of adjusted gross income (AGI) you can have and
still get the credit also has increased. You may be able to take the credit if
your AGI is less than the amount in the above list that applies to you.
Investment income amount increased.The maximum amount of investment
income you can have and still get the credit has increased to $3,100 for
2009.
Advance payment of the credit. If you get advance payments of the credit
from your employer with your pay, the total advance payments you get
during 2009 can be as much as $1,826.
2010 Changes
The following paragraphs explain the changes to the credit for 2009. For
details, see Publication 596, Earned Income Credit (EIC).

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 5

Amount of credit increased. The maximum amount of the credit has


increased. The most you can get for 2010 is:

$3,050 if you have one qualifying child,


$5,036 if you have two qualifying children,
$5,666 if you have three or more qualifying children, or
$457 if you do not have a qualifying child.

Earned income amount increased. The maximum amount of income you


can earn and still get the credit has increased for 2010. You may be able to
take the credit if:
You have three or more qualifying children and you earn less than
$43,352 ($48,362 if married filing jointly),
You have two qualifying children and you earn less than $40,363
($45,373 is married filing jointly),
You have one qualifying child and you earn less then $35,535 ($40,545 if
married filing jointly), or
You do not have a qualifying child and you earn less then $13,460
($18,470 if married filing jointly).
Investment income amount. The maximum amount of investment income
you can have and still get the credit is still $3,100 for 2010.
Advance payment of the credit. If you get the advance payments of the
credit from your employer with your pay, the total advance payments you
get during 2010 can be as much as $1,830.
Page Last Reviewed or Updated: December 04, 2009

Lectura n 6
Individuals - Economic Recovery Payment IRS de
los Estados Unidos de Norteamrica
Any economic recovery payment you receive during 2009 is not taxable.
These $250 payments are being made to most people who:
Receive social security benefits, supplemental security income (SSI),
railroad retirement benefits, or veterans disability compensation or pension
benefits, and
Live in a U.S. state, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the
U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands.
If you are married and you and your spouse both meet these requirements,
each of you may get a $250 payment.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 6

If you are entitled to a payment, you will get it automatically. You do not
need to apply for it.
Making Work Pay and Government Retiree Credits
Two new credits you may be able to take for 2009 are the:
Making work pay credit, and
Government retiree credit.
Making work pay credit. You may be able to take this credit if you have
earned income from work. Even if your federal income tax withholding is
reduced during 2009 because of the credit, you must claim the credit on
your return to benefit from it.
You cannot take the credit if:
Your modified AGI is $95,000 ($190,000 if married filing jointly) or
more,
You are a nonresident alien, or
You can be claimed as a dependent on someone else's return.
The credit is 6.2% of your earned income but cannot be more than $400
($800 if married filing jointly). The credit will be reduced if:
You receive a $250 economic recovery payment (described earlier)
during 2009,
Your modified AGI is more than $75,000 ($150,000 if married filing
jointly), or
You take the government retiree credit discussed next.
Government retiree credit. You can take this credit if you receive a pension
or annuity payment in 2009 for service performed for the U.S. Government
or any U.S. state or local government (or any instrumentality of one or more
of these) and the service was not covered by social security. The credit is
$250 ($500 if married filing jointly and both you and your spouse receive a
qualifying pension or annuity). However, you cannot take the credit if you
receive a $250 economic recovery payment during 2009. If you file a joint
return, both you and your spouse receive a qualifying pension or annuity,
and both of you receive an economic recovery payment, no government
retiree credit is allowed; if only one of you receives an economic recovery
payment, the credit is $250.
Social security number. To take either credit, you must include your social
security number (if filing a joint return, the number of either you or your
spouse) on your return. A social security number does not include an
identification number issued by the IRS.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 7

Schedule M. Generally, you will use new Schedule M (Form 1040A or 1040)
to figure both the making work pay credit and the government retiree
credit. Both credits are refundable, which means they are treated like
payments you made and may give you a refund even if you had no tax
withheld from your pay or your pension. If you are filing Form 1040EZ, you
can take the making work pay credit on that form and do not have to file
Schedule M.
More information. If you want to figure now the amount you can expect
from these credits, see Worksheet 2-9 in Publication 505, Tax
Withholding and Estimated Tax.
Page Last Reviewed or Updated: May 01, 2009

Lectura n 7
2009 Tax Checklist
[http://articles.moneycentral.msn.com/Taxes/taxchecklist.aspx]

2009 Tax Checklist


What you really need to do your taxes
This checklist can be your personal guide to compiling and organizing your
tax documents. It can save you time and remind you which tax documents
you've gathered throughout the year.
How many times have you asked yourself, "Have I got EVERYTHING to do
my taxes?" Probably too many times.
While the tax laws may change from year to year, the basic information you
need to do your return or take to your tax preparer doesn't change that
much from year to year.
What may change is what you can DO with the information.
You will need W-2 forms, 1098 forms to document the interest you pay on
your mortgage, receipts for your charitable donations and documentation
on any property taxes you pay.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 8

If you have a lot of investments, you'll want trade information so you or


your tax preparer can calculate taxes due on capital gains and dividends.
Here's a reference of all the data you might need and who should have it or
keep track of it. And start organizing the collection and organizing of all this
material.
Taxpayer's checklist for tax year 2009
Information you need

Where to get the data

PERSONAL DATA
Social Security numbers
(including spouse and children)

These are required to qualify for


exemptions.

Your child-care provider's tax ID


or Social Security number

This is critical to qualify for child care


credits.

Form 8332, copies of your divorce

Divorce documents are on file in the

decree, or other documents

court where you filed. Your lawyer

proving your right to claim a child

should have them as well. Form 8332

living with your ex-spouse.

is available on the IRS Web site.

EMPLOYMENT & INCOME


DATA
W-2 forms for this year

These come from your employer.

Partnership and trust income

Data for these should come from an


accountant or financial institution.

Pensions and annuities

Data should come from the financial


institution, insurance company selling
the annuity or pension fund.

Social Security Railroad


Retirement Benefits

You will need Form RRB 1099 or Form


RRB 1042S for nonresident alien
recipients of Railroad Retirement
benefits.

Alimony received

Tax information should come from


your ex-spouse or his representative.
Your former spouse will want your
Social Security number to be able to
deduct any alimony payments.

Jury duty pay

Data should come from the court clerk.

Gambling and lottery winnings

This data should come from the casino


or lottery authority. Use Form W-2G.

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Prizes and awards

Data should come from the award


givers. Use Form 1099-MISC.

Scholarships and fellowships

Data should come from the


administrators of these programs. Use
Form 1099-MISC.

State and local income-tax


refunds

Data should come from the taxing


authorities.

HOMEOWNER/RENTER DATA
Residential address(es) for this year

This is your responsibility.

Mortgage interest

Your lender will send you this data


on Form 1098.

Sale of your home or other real


estate

Your lender or closing agent should


send you Form1099-S.

Second-mortgage interest paid

Your lender will send you this data


on Form 1098.

Real-estate taxes paid

Your county clerk or lender should


send you this data.

Rent paid during tax year

You need to generate this data.

Moving expenses

If your expenses are reimbursed by


an employer, the employer will
furnish you with data on the moving
costs they paid for.

First-time homebuyer credit

You will need to file Form 5405 to


claim the credit. You will need data
from your sale closing documents.

FINANCIAL ASSETS
Interest-income statements

Financial institutions will provide


this data on Form 1099-INT & Form
1099-OID.

Dividend-income statements

This will come on Form 1099-DIV


from the company paying the
dividends.

Proceeds from broker transactions

Your brokers should furnish this

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 10

data on Form 1099-B.


Tax refunds and unemployment
compensation

The issuing agencies should send


this information on Form 1099G.

FINANCIAL LIABILITIES
Auto loans and leases, including
account numbers and car value, if
the vehicle is used for business

You can get this data from the lender


or leasing company.

Student loan interest paid

The lender should furnish this data


on Form 1098-E.

Early withdrawal penalties on CDs


and other time deposits

Financial institutions should provide


this data.

AUTOMOBILES
Personal-property tax information

This data should come from the state


or local taxing authority.

Cash for Clunkers reporting

All forms should have been filed by


the dealer that sold the vehicle. The
credit doesn't need to be reported on
your federal return. Your state may
have some requirements, however.

DEDUCTIBLE EXPENSES
Gifts to charity

This data should come from the


charity. Since 2007, you have new
responsibilities. You will need a bank
record (such as a canceled check, a
bank copy of a canceled check, or a
bank statement containing the name
of the charity, the date, and the
amount) or a written communication
from the charity. The written
communication must include the
name of the charity, date of the
contribution and the amount of the
contribution.

Unreimbursed expenses for


volunteer work

You will need to keep your own


records for this. Remember, you can
deduct any driving expenses for

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 11

volunteer or charitable work at the


rate of 14 cents a mile.
Unreimbursed expenses related to
your job

You will need to maintain this data.

Travel expenses, entertainment,


uniforms, union dues, subscriptions
and investment expenses

Your broker will furnish some data.


Travel, phone and other related
expenses are your responsibility to
track.

Job-hunting expenses

You will need to keep and maintain


this data.

Education expenses

You will need to keep this data. But if


you qualify for Hope or Lifetime
Learning credits or other college
deductions, the college involved will
send you the data on the qualifying
expenses you've paid. If you plan to
claim education deductions, you will
need Form 1098-T from the
institution. If you expect to deduct
interest on student loans, get Form
1098-E from the lender.

Child-care expenses

You will need to keep this data.

Medical savings accounts

The institution handling the account


will be able to generate any data.

Adoption expenses

You will need to track this data and


be able to document these expenses.

Alimony paid

You or the authority disbursing


funds will need to keep this data. To
deduct this expense, you will need
the recipient's Social Security
number.

Sales-tax expenses

If you expect to claim a sales tax


deduction on your 2009 tax return,
you will need receipts for expenses.
Or you can fill out a worksheet that
the IRS provides to help estimate
sales tax expenses.

SELF-EMPLOYMENT DATA
K-1s on all partnerships

The partnership management should

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 12

generate this data.


Receipts or documentation for
business-related expenses

This is data you should keep and


track.

Farm income

You or an accountant should tack


this information. You will need to
prepare Schedule F.

DEDUCTION DOCUMENTS
Federal, state and local estimated
taxes paid for current year,
including estimated tax vouchers,
cancelled checks & other payment
records

You must keep copies of this data


and track it.

IRA, Keogh & other retirement plan


contributions

You can get this information from


your financial institutions.

Medical expenses

You must track this data.

CASUALTY OR THEFT LOSSES


Other miscellaneous deductions

You will need to file Form 4684.

Updated Dec. 18, 2009

Lectura n 8
Employment Legislation in India
[http://www.iptu.co.uk/content/india_employment_law.asp]
Last update: July 2008
Employment Law

Employment Regulations
Work Permits
The Employment Market
Engagement and Dismissal
Employees' Rights and Remuneration
Working Hours
Pensions
Termination of Employment

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 13

Wages and Benefits


Employment of Foreigners
Occupational Health and Safety
Employment Regulations
There are various Acts, which regulate labour and employment in India.
Some of the Acts are:
Apprentices Act, 1961
Beedi Workers Welfare Fund Act, 1976
Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976
Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment
Service) Act, 1996
Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act, 1986
Children (Pledging of Labour) Act, 1933
Maternity Benefit Act, 1961
Minimum Wages Act, 1948
National Commission for SafaiKaramcharis Act, 1993
Payment of Bonus Act, 1965
Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972
Payment of Wages Act, 1936
Cine-Workers and Cinema Theatre Workers (Regulation of
Employment) Act, 1981
Cine-workers Welfare Fund Act, 1981
Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act, 1970
Dangerous Machines (Regulation) Act, 1983
Dock Workers (Regulation of Employment) Act, 1948
Dock Workers (Safety, Health and Welfare) Act, 1986
Employees Provident Fund & Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952
Employees' State Insurance Act, 1948
Employers' Liability Act, 1938
Equal Remuneration Act, 1976
Factories Act, 1948
Industrial Disputes Act, 1947
Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946
Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and
Condition of Service) Act, 1979
Labour Laws (Exemption from Furnishing Returns & Maintaining
Registers by Certain Est.s) Act, 1988
Pensions Act, 1871
Sales Promotion Employees (Conditions of Service) Act, 1976
Seamen's Provident Fund Act, 1966
Trade Union Act, 1926
Weekly Holidays Act, 1948
Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923
Source: Guide "Doing Business in India"
Under the Constitution of India, labour is a subject in the Concurrent List
where both the Central & State Governments are competent to enact
legislation subject to certain matters being reserved for the Centre.

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Different labour laws have different eligibility criteria for establishments as


well as to the workmen. The main laws relating to labour protection,
welfare and rights are enumerated below:
Work Permits
People coming from United Kingdom need to apply for a Visa to go to India,
both for tourism and for business reasons. Visiting the High Commission of
Indias web site, you will find all the relevant information you need:
The Employment Market
India has a large pool of all types of labour as well as an adequate supply of
office staff for both management, supervisory and clerical posts. Skilled
manpower and professional managers are available at a comparatively
moderate cost. Except for top managerial positions, most of the other
technically qualified staff is also available at inexpensive rates. There is an
abundant supply of semiskilled and unskilled labour, with labour rates
being just a fraction of those prevailing in developed countries. India is
particularly rich in IT professionals. Both Indian and multinational
recruitment agencies exist in the market.
Source: UK Trade & Investment
Graduate outlook
India is a huge country with many opportunities. Structurally, it is highly
complex, with vast numbers of small businesses that traditionally are nongraduate recruiters. Large multi-nationals increasingly operate in India and
many large Indian businesses compete on the global stage, so formal
graduate recruitment is taking place on Indian university campuses as well
as in the job market generally. There is a tradition of Western ex-pat
managers but most international companies now aim to recruit indigenous
staff.
Companies such as IBM, Wipro and Infosys recruit 15,000-20,000 new
graduates each year. Recruitment problems are often exacerbated by high
staff turnover, particularly in back office support businesses where annual
staff turnover exceeds 60%.
Generally speaking, the best advice for British nationals is to train in the UK
first with a company that operates in India, and then move with the
company. This also helps with visa issues.
Unemployment
It is difficult to obtain accurate unemployment figures for India. The World
Factbook suggests 7.8% for 2006 but this figure does not reflect the reality
that a fifth of the population live in poverty and many people are
chronically under employed. More than 90% of the labourforce are
employed in the unorganised sector, i.e. they work without social security
and other benefits.

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Working practices and customs


The Indian work culture is immensely diverse. In indigenous sectors and
companies, the work ethic is influenced by the importance given to family
life and religious festivals. Public services can be bureaucratic, inefficient
and corrupt, so there is a great need to attract private capital to the
infrastructure.
Business practices vary between regions. Expatriates are often faced with a
very different way of doing business and may require patience, flexibility
and adaptability.
Companies have realised the importance of investing in training their
workforce to meet new demands, and training is driving up standards of
professionalism. The Indian education and training sector cannot meet the
growing demand for training and there is potential for British professional
training organisations to step in and meet this demand.
Average salaries in India in 2006 were around 4,000pa but graduates
from top Indian universities can start on significantly more than this.
Salaries are increasing rapidly and much of the high turnover in Indian
businesses is due to competitors offering higher salaries. Salaries in major
cities are usually higher and salaries in rural districts much lower.
There are three national public holidays in India and over 30 religious days
that may be kept as holidays in particular regions. It is quite common for
Indians to work on Saturdays.
Language requirements
Hindi is the official union language and is spoken by approximately 45% of
the population. There are 18 official regional languages, another 24 that are
relatively major, 720 dialects and 23 tribal languages. English is used for
much official communication. Visitors can usually get by with English,
especially in towns and cities.
The medium of instruction is English in most universities, especially for
scientific, technical and professional education. A few universities and
colleges have switched to Hindi and regional languages but, even there,
English is used for most higher degrees.
Source: Prospects - the UK official graduate careers website
Engagement and Dismissal
India has the worlds third-largest pool of scientific and technical
personnel, which serves as an important attraction for foreign investors.
Most managerial and technical people, and many skilled workers, speak
English, and many have studied or worked abroad. Unemployment and
underemployment are high, providing an abundant supply of potential
employees. Although there is a large pool of underemployed educated
personnel, as in much of the developing world, illiteracy acts as a brake on

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 16

labor productivity in the workforce as a whole. The current 148 industrial


policy provides for hiring of foreign technicians without prior government
approval.
The RBI (Reserve Bank of India) has raised the remittable per-diem rate
from USD 500 to USD 1000, with an annual ceiling of USD 200,000 for
services provided by foreign technicians payable to a foreign firm.
Technical personnel can remit up to 75 percent of their monthly net income
through authorized exchange dealers. Total duration of employment of a
technician is limited to 12 months at a time. Employment in excess of 12
months requires clearance by the Ministry of Home Affairs.
India is a member of the International Labor Organization (ILO) and
adheres to 37 ILO conventions protecting worker rights. Industrial relations
are governed by the Industrial and Disputes Act of 1947. The Act curbs
unfair labor practices by employers, workers or trade unions through
imposition of fines and imprisonment. Workers may form or join unions of
their choice. Nevertheless, although unionized workers affiliated with
national federations number more than seven million, their unions
represent less than one fourth of the workers in the so called modern sector
(subject to the Factories Act of 1948), primarily in state-owned concerns,
and less than two percent of the total work force. Where workers are
unionized, wage increases are negotiated between unions and management.
Most unions are linked to political parties and their politicization has, in the
past, created problems for domestic and foreign employers. Labor militancy
has declined in recent years, however, even among the formerly strident
Communist-Marxist unions of West Bengal. Workdays lost to strikes and
lock-outs have declined every year since 1991. Worker rights are broadly
protected under Indian law.
The Industrial Disputes Act established freedom of association and
collective bargaining rights. The Factories Act regulates working conditions
in mechanized factories employing more than 10 employees or nonmechanized factories employing more than twenty, prescribing standards
for working conditions, working hours, handling and storage of materials,
etc. Other laws regulate employment of women and children and prohibit
bonded labor.
Enforcement of these laws has been imperfect, however, and working
conditions for workers not subject to the Factories Act are often quite poor.
Payment of wages is governed by the Payment of Wages Act, 1936 and
Minimum Wages Act, 1948. Industrial wages range from about USD 3 per
day for unskilled workers, to over USD 150 per month for skilled 149
production workers. Retrenchment, closure and layoffs are governed by the
Industrial Disputes Act, which requires prior government permission to
carry out layoffs or closure of businesses employing 100 or more workers.
In practice, permission is not easily obtained. However, private firmshave
successfully downsized using voluntary retirement schemes.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 17

Source: FY 2000 Country Commercial Guide: India, U.S. Department of


State.
Employees' Rights and Remuneration
India's labour laws are overlapping, potentially inconsistent and
cumbersome, with more than 45 pieces of relevant legislation. Employers
face particular difficulties in terminating employment and closing industrial
establishments.
The Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923 provides for compensation to
workers for industrial accidents and occupational diseases resulting in
disability and death. The minimum compensation for death is Rs80,000
and for total disability Rs90,000. The maximum compensation for death is
Rs456,000 and for total disability is Rs548,000.
The Payment of Wages Act, 1936, and the Minimum Wages Act, 1948 call
for regular and timely payment of wages, industry wage boards to
recommend the minimum wage and fix the wage-rate structure for each
industry.
The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 covers layoffs, retrenchment
compensation, labour-management disputes and unfair labour practices.
The Act also addresses reinstatement of workers by a labour court or
tribunal order that the employer can appeal to a higher court. A reinstated
worker is entitled to 100% of wages while the decision of the higher court is
pending.
The Act requires industrial establishments with 100 or more workers to
draw up standing orders that specify working conditions (hours, shifts,
holidays, vacation, sick pay, termination rules and grievance procedures).
These orders must meet minimum state standards, and they may be
changed only with the consent of the workers or the unions and only to
augment benefits. The code of discipline in industry adopted by the
Standing Labour Committee (a type of national 20 India International Tax
and Business Guide conference held by the Ministry of Labour) defines the
rights and responsibilities of employees and workers, and it provides for a
grievance procedure and the settlement of disputes by voluntary
arbitration.
The Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1959 requires
employers in industrial establishments to define conditions of employment.
The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 covers mandatory maternity benefits.
The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 requires employers to pay a gratuity to
workers earning less than a certain limit upon termination of service.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 18

The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 prohibits job and wage discrimination
based on sex, except for prohibiting or restricting the employment of
women in certain categories of work.
The Essential Service Maintenance Act, 1981 empowers the government to
prohibit strikes in any industry that is declared essential.
The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 prohibits child
labour in hazardous occupations and regulates it in non-hazardous
occupations.
The Trade Unions Act, 1926 provides for registration of trade unions. By
way of amendment in 2001, it reduced the multiplicity of trade unions.
The Indian government continues to oppose the linking of international
trade with labour standards, but it is a signatory to 39 International
LabourOrganisation (ILO) conventions.
Useful information about employment law and many other subjects, to
better understand Indian investment climate, can be found online at: Doing
business in India
Working Hours
The Factories Act 1948 established a 48-hour working week; in practice,
however, office employees normally work a five-day week of 37-38 hours.
Factory workers have on average a six-day week of 43-48 hours. The
Factories Act was amended in 2005 to allow women to work on night shifts
(10 pm-6 am), as long as employees provide adequate safeguards for them.
In most places, any work beyond nine hours per day (up to ten hours,
including rest intervals) is counted as overtime, usually paid at double the
normal wage. Night and Sunday work do not command a premium unless
they result in overtime. Holiday work generally requires double pay,
although workers may opt for a substitute paid holiday. Overtime for bluecollar staff is limited to four hours at a stretch.
Pensions
The Employees Provident Fund (EPF) applies to most establishments that
employ at least 20 workers. Contributions are compulsory for employees
earning up to Rs6,500 per month and voluntary for those who earn more
than this amount. Employers and employees each contribute 12% (10% for
certain industries) of the basic wage and dearness allowance of the
employee. From the employer's contribution, 8.33% of the wage is taken
out and diverted to the Pension Fund. For the purpose of the contribution
to the Pension Fund, if the pay of any employee exceeds Rs6,500 per
month, the contribution payable by the employer will be limited to the
amount payable on the first Rs6,500 only. The employee's contribution
does not go to the Pension Fund. Four main types of pension are offered: a
monthly pension upon superannuation or disability; a monthly widows'

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 19

pension for death while in service; a monthly children's pension; and a


monthly orphan's pension. The Employees Provident Fund Act now applies
to 180 industries and classes of establishment.
Termination of Employment
Existing regulations require companies to obtain government permission to
close an operation or lay off workers in firms with 100 or more employees
(service-industry companies, such as IT firms, are exempt). The Industrial
Disputes Act, 1947 requires employers wishing to close an establishment to
apply for permission at least 60 days before the intended closing date. If the
government does not convey its decision within 60 days of the application,
approval is deemed granted. A company can appeal against a rejection to
the Industrial Tribunal.
Workers in an establishment that is closed illegally (that is, without
approval) remain entitled to full pay and benefits. Dismissal for misconduct
is allowed without notice under the Industrial Employment (Standing
Orders) Act, 1959. The Payment of Gratuity Act 1972 entitles workers to a
gratuity of up to Rs350,000 after five years of continuous service.
It is usually difficult for large companies to dismiss staff. Retrenchments
and layoffs require full explanation to and prior approval from the state
government. (Retrenchment under an agreement specifying a termination
date requires no prior notice.) The last-in, first-out principle is usually
followed.
Compelled by mounting competition to cut wage costs or consider moving
out of high-wage locations such as Mumbai (Bombay), several companies
have resorted to voluntary retirement schemes (VRSs) or redeployment.
Beneficiaries under an approved VRS of a private-sector company are
exempt from tax on monetary benefits of up to Rs500,000.
Wages and Benefits
Wages and fringe benefits vary considerably by industry, company size and
region. Wages have two components: the basic salary and an allowance
("dearness allowance") linked to the cost-of-living index. The allowance,
paid as part of the monthly salary, may be at a flat rate or on a scale
graduated by income group; it often adds 60% or more to base pay. A
mandatory bonus supplements wages.
Companies use both time and piece rates. The former is more common in
organised-factory industries, such as engineering, chemicals, cement, paper
and glass. Rates may be per hour, day, week or month. Piece rates, which
the government has encouraged in order to boost productivity, are usually
paid monthly, although casual workers are paid on a daily basis. Some
industries (especially metal extracting, metal rolling, electrical machinery
and glass) pay production premiums.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 20

In the organised sector, wages are often set by settlements reached between
trade unions and management.
The central government sets a general floor minimum wage and sets other,
higher minimum wages for different industries. The state governments set
different minimum wages for other industries, but these are not bound by
the central government's floor wage.
Fringe benefits normally add 40-50% to base pay. By law, women are
entitled to remuneration equal to that of men for performing equivalent
work. Mandatory fringe benefits include the following:
Bonus for workers earning Rs3,500 or less per month (minimum of 8.33%
and maximum of 20% of annual wages in factories employing ten or more).
The minimum bonus payable is Rs2,500 and the maximum bonus actually
payable is Rs6,000.
Dearness allowance (based on cost-of-living index) for all levels below
management in firms employing 50 or more workers.
Provident fund at 10% of wages (12% for a large number of industries and
business establishments) for all workers earning Rs6,500 or less per month.
One day of paid vacation for every 20 days worked (granted to every worker
who has worked in a factory for a period of 240 days or more).
Health insurance (employer contributes 4.75% of total wage bill) for those
who earn Rs6,500 or less per month.
Severance pay of 15 days of average salary for each complete year of
continuous service.
Sick leave of seven days annually at full pay; half pay for those covered
under the Employees' State Insurance Act.
Casual leave of seven to ten days for unforeseen circumstances.
Maternity leave of 12 weeks at full pay.
Employment of Foreigners
Expatriate employment in manufacturing industries is generally limited to
technical and specialised personnel. Many foreign affiliates have a few
expatriates in India. The usual configuration is one or two at the head office
(often in the finance function or as chief executive) and two or three
technical people.
No specific permission of the Government of India or the RBI is required
for a foreign national to take up employment in India. Foreign nationals do
have to register with the concerned District Foreigners' Registration
Officer/Foreigners' Regional Registration Officer, within 14 days of their
arrival in India, if they hold a visa for a period of more than 180 days. This
registration is required irrespective of whether or not they intend to stay in

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 21

India for less or more than 180 days-that is, the deciding factor is the period
for which the visa has been granted and not the actual length of stay.
Foreigners' Regional Registration Offices are located in Mumbai, New Delhi
(the capital) and Kolkata (Calcutta); there are also state-level offices in
individual states.
Foreign nationals (except citizens of the countries of Nepal and Bhutan)
require a valid passport or travel document and a valid visa to enter India.
Such a visa can be obtained from the Indian Embassy/Consulate located in
the home country of the foreign national.
It normally takes about three months to obtain an immigration visa, and
foreign companies report no problems in acquiring visas for their technical
personnel. The visa is generally given for the same period as the
employment contract. Once it is obtained, a stay permit is granted; this
must be endorsed annually by the state government where the foreign
national resides.
Indian embassies and consulates abroad issue visas. Business visas are
granted on application and may be issued for up to five years, with a
multiple-entry provision. Visas may be extended or renewed within India. A
foreigner who arrives in India without a visa may be granted a temporary
visa at the airport, but this usually leads to future difficulties and should be
avoided.
Expatriates are paid salaries several times those of their Indian
counterparts. Domestic private-sector salaries are rising quickly, although
they vary widely among industries. Foreign nationals employed in India for
up to three years, but not permanently resident in the country, may remit
up to 100% of their net salary out of India.
Under India's double-taxation agreements, salaries that a foreign company
(and not its permanent establishment in India) pays for services rendered
in India are taxable in India if the employee works for more than 182 days
during the tax year.
Source: Deloitte - International Tax and Business Guide
Occupational Health and Safety
Health and safety of the employees are important aspects in an
organization's smooth and effective functioning. Good health and safety
environment ensures an accident-free industrial set up. Maintenance of
occupational safety and health is very closely related to productivity and
good employer-employee relationship. Awareness of Occupational Health
and Safety (OH&S) has improved in India considerably. Achieving high
OH&S performance has become one of the key aspects of business
activities.
Management of Occupational Health and Safety demands adoption of a
structured approach for the identification of hazards, their evaluation and

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 22

control of risks in the organization. Bureau of Indian Standards has


formulated an Indian Standard on OH&S management systems. It is called
as the IS 18001:2000 Occupational Health and Safety Management
Systems. This standard prescribes requirements for an OH&S Management
Systems to enable an organization to formulate a policy and objectives,
taking into account legislative requirements and information about
significant hazards and risks, which the organization can control and over
which it can be expected to have an influence, to protect its employees and
others, whose health and safety may be affected by the activities of the
organization. All the requirements in this standard are intended to be
incorporated into any OH&S management system. This standard also
provides informative guidance on the use of the specification.
Organizations interested in obtaining licence for OH&S Management
System as per IS 18001 should ensure that they are operating the system
according to this standard. The organization should apply on the prescribed
proforma( Form IV ) at the nearest Regional Office of BIS along with
Questionnaire ( Form X ) and the prescribed application fee. The
application shall be signed by the proprietor or the Chief Executive Officer
(CEO) of the organization or any other person authorised to sign on behalf
of the organization. The name and designation of the person signing the
application must be recorded legibly in a space set apart for the purpose in
the application form. Each application must be accompanied by a
documented Occupational Health and Safety Management System
Documentation (such as OHS manual etc.)
The Directorate General of Mines Safety (DGMS) and the Directorate
General of Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes (DGFASLI) are the
two field organizations of the Ministry of Labour and Employment in the
area of occupational safety and health in mines, factories and ports. The
Directorate General, Factory Advice Service &Labour Institutes (DGFASLI),
Mumbai,which is an attached office of the Ministry of Labour and
Employment,functions as a technical arm of the Ministry in regard to
matters concerned with safety, health and welfare of workers in factories
and ports/docks. Directorate General of Mines Safety is the Indian
Goverment Regulatory agency for safety in mines and oil-fields. The
mission of the DGMS is to continually improve safety and health standards,
practices and performance in the mining industry and upstream petroleum
industry.
Source: Business.Gov.In
Please note that this information was last updated in July 2008. The
Information shown is for guideline purposes. For precise and up-to-date
information please contact the IPTU team or visit the country government
website.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 23

Copyright 2008 India Pakistan Trade Unit. All Rights Reserved. Site Map
Websynergi.com

Lectura n 9
ndice de un Manual contable
http://www.umsystem.edu/ums/departments/fa/controller/accountingser
http://www.umsystem.edu/ums/departmen
ts/fa/controller/accountingser
vices/manual/fullindex.shtml#1

University of Missouri
Office of the Controller - Accounting Services
Accounting Policy and Procedure Manual (APM)
Index
About This Manual
Additions, Updates and Revisions
1 - AccountingPrinciples
1.01 - Hierarchy of GAAP
1.02 - Financial Accounting Standards (FASB)
1.03 - Government Accounting Standards (GASB)
o 1.03.06 - GASB 39 - Component Units

2 - Fiscal Responsibility
2.10 - Cash Handling
o

2.10.05 - ACH Wire Cash Receipts Reports

o 2.10.15 - CRRs (Cash Receipts Reports)


o

2.10.80 - Wire Transfer Payments

2.15 - Code of Ethics


2.20 -

Feeders

2.25 - Internal Controls


o

2.25.05 - Internal Controls

2.25 - Internal Control Sub-Certification


2.25.15
Certification Process

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 24

2.25.15.01 Financial Sub-Certification


2.25.15.01-

2.25.15.02 - Discretionary Sub-Certification - Explanation

2.25.15.03 - Financial Sub-Certification

2.25.15.04 - Financial Sub-Certification - Explanation

o 2.25.40 - Managerial Review


o 2.25.50 - Reconciliations
o

2.25.55 Segregation of Duties

2.25.55.01 Segregation of Duties - Sponsored Programs

2.25.55.02 Segregation of Duties - Delegation of Authority

2.25.60 - Security Access Validation

3 - General Ledger

3.35 - Creation and Use of MoCodes

3.40 - Month End Closing

3.45 - PCS (Program Classification System)


o

3.45.05 - Program Classification Structure

3.45.10 - Program Classification Structure - Codes

3.45.15 - Program Classification System Definitions

3.50.10 - Account ChartField

3.50.1 - Business Unit ChartField


3.50.15

3.50.20 - Class ChartField

3.50.25 - Deptid ChartField

3.50.30 - Fund ChartField

3.50.50 - Program ChartField

3.50.55 - Project ChartField - Construction and Other

3.50.60 - Project ChartiField - Grants

10 - Auxiliary/Hospital/ServiceOperations
10.05 - Sales

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 25

o 10.05.01 - Allowance and Writeoff of Uncollectible Miscellaneous

Accounts
counts Receivable
o 10.05.05 - Sales Recognition
10.10 - Expenditures
o 10.10.25 - Missouri 2% Payments for Entertainers
o

10.10.80 - Sales Tax

15 - Bank Reconciliations
15.05 - Allocation of Overhead Charges on AR/BI Costs

15.10 - Daily Reconciliation

15.15 - Monthly Balancing

20 - Capital Assets
20.05 - Additions (Word 566 KB)
o

20.05.05 - Artwork

20.05.10 - Buildings and Improvements

20.05.15 - Capital Account vs Non Capital Accounts

20.05.40 - Equipment

20.05.45 - Land

20.05.50 - Library Books

20.5.55 - Livestock

20.05.60 - Software Development and Purchase

20.10 - Capitalized Interest

20.15 - Depreciation

20.16 - Schedule of Depreciable Lives

20.25 - Non University Owned Equipment

20.35 - Reconciliation for Financials

20.40 - Reconciliation of Federally Funded Assets

25 - Cash and InvestmentAccounting


Investment

25.10 - General Cash Transaction Guidelines

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 26

25.20 - Petty Cash

30 - Debt
30.05 - Arbitrage Monitoring

30.10 - Capital Pool

30.15 - Capital Project Notes

30.25 - Debt / Bonds

30.35 - Internal Loans

35 - Federal and StateAppropriations

35.5 - Capital Appropriation

35.15 - General Operating Appropriations

40 - FinancialReporting
40.05 Clearing Fund - 0090
40.10 - Fiscal Year End Processing and Checklist
40.15 - Year End Accounts Payable Accruals
40.50 - Clearing Fund

45 - Gift and PledgeRevenue


45.05 - Cash Gifts
45.10 - Non-Cash Gifts
45.15 - Pledges
o

45.15.05 - Processing Gift Pledges

45.15.10 - Pledge Checklist

45.80 - Reconciliation of Development Gifts to General Ledger

50 - PaymentsProcessing
50.05 - AP Payments by ACH Wire
50.10 - AP/PO Quick Reference Guide (Excel 35 KB)
50.15 - Credit and Collection Policy for Debit Balance Payables

50.20 - Payables Processing

50.21 - Stop Pay and Replacement Checks

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 27

50.22 - Payments Processing - Stop Pay and Replacement Payroll

Checks
o

50.22.01 - Affidavit for Lost Check

50.25 - Vendor Maintenance

50.35 - 1099 Definitions and Review Procedures

55 - Salaries - Payroll

55.60 - Entering, Approving, and Reconciling Payroll


o

55.60.01 - Entering , Approving, and Reconciling Payroll Web Time

55.60.02 - Entering , Approving, and Reconciling Payroll Time and

Labor

55.80 - Vacation Accrual

60 - SponsoredPrograms

60.05 - Accounting
nting for Sponsored Federal Appropriations

60.07 - Allowable Costs / Cost Principles

60.07.01 - Activities Allowed or Unallowed - Certification

60.10 - Allowance and Write-off


off for Uncollectible Grants Receivables

60.15 Cash Management - Letters of Credit

60.16 - Billing - non-letter of credit

60.20
0.20 - Closing Sponsored Awards

60.25 - Grant Funded Construction Projects

60.30 - Cost Share

60.32 - Effort Verification Reporting

60.35 - Establishing an Award

60.40 - Federal Flat Rate

60.50 - Payments to Research Study Participants

60.52 - Period of Availability

60.57 - Procurement and Suspension and Debarment

60.60 - Program Income

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 28

60.65 - Reconciliation of Federally Funded Capital Assets

60.67 - Reporting

60.70 - Revenue Recognition


60.80 - Special Tests and Provisions

60.85 - Sub-Recipient Monitoring

60.85.01 - Federal Sub Recipient Questionnaire

60.85.02 - A-133
133 Sub Recipient Monitoring Letter

60.85.03 - Risk Assessment Worksheet

65 - StudentRevenue

65.05 - Allowance and Writeoff for Uncollectible Student Accounts

65.10 - Allowance and Writeoff for Uncollectible Student Loans

65.15 - Deferral of Summer Tuition Revenue and Related Expenses

65.20 - Recording Student Tuition and Fees


65.25 - Scholarship Allowance & Scholarship Expense
65.30 - Tuition and Fee Refunds

70 - Transfers
70.15 - Transfers
75 - UBI
75.60 - Unrelated Business Income Description and Annual Survey
99 Glossary
Copyright 2003-2010
2003
The Curators of the University of Missouri.All
Missouri
rights reserved.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 29

Lectura n 10
Cdigo de tica de un Manual Contable
University of Missouri
Finance and Administration
Code of Ethics Statement
Finance and Administration staff shall
1. perform their duties in accordance with the appropriate recognized
ethical and legal standards;
2.

practice honesty and integrity in all aspects of their work;

3. exhibit professionalism in the workplace, and conduct themselves in a


way that will continue to promote the public's confidence in the integrity of
the University;
4. be fair-minded, non-discriminatory, and treat all individuals, both
internal and external to the University community equitably, with civility,
respect and dignity;
5. fulfill their assigned responsibilities, and be proactive in developing the
skills necessary to provide high job performance;
6. exercise fiduciary responsibility with respect to safeguarding the
Universitys assets;
7. exercise custodial responsibility with respect to the use of University
property and resources;
8. exercise, within the requirements of the Missouri Public Records law,
confidentiality with respect to information, records, and data management,
respecting the rights and privacy of individuals;
9.

take action to mitigate any real or perceived conflicts of interest; and

10. comply with Federal and State laws and regulations and University
policies and procedures.
Respuesta al cuadro 1. Skimming Interferencias en la velocidad y
la comprensin
La fenomenal capacidad de la mente humana, segn una investigacin en la
Universidad de Cambridge, dice que no importa el orden de las letras en
una palabra, sino que la primera y la ltima letras estn en el lugar correcto.
Aunque el resto sea un desastre total, usted an podr leerlo sin problema.
Esto ocurre porque la mente humana no puede leer todas y cada una de las
letras por s solas, sino ms bien la palabra como un todo. Increble, no?

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 30

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 31

Mdulo 3
Unidad 3
Lectura 3: Uso del Diccionario y
Glosarios Bilinges y
Monolinges

Materia: Ingls tcnico


Profesora: Patricia Rivera

En los mdulos anteriores plantebamos la necesidad de entender las ideas


generales de lo que leemos. Tambin hablamos de deducir significados a
partir de contextos. No obstante, tambin tenemos la necesidad de
identificar y entender palabras especficas y para ello, recurriremos a los
diccionarios.
En primer lugar, tenemos los diccionarios bilinges que son de utilidad
para quienes no saben ingls. Para quienes tienen conocimientos de ingls y
desean acrecentar su vocabulario, estn los diccionarios monolinges (e.g.,
ingls-ingls). Cuando hablamos de diccionarios, nos referimos tanto a los
impresos como a los virtuales.
Antes de analizar la forma en que debemos usarlos, citaremos los nombres
de algunos buenos diccionarios monolinges, bilinges y links:

Diccionarios Monolinges:
Ingls
Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary (3rd Edition) + CD-ROM
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge Essential English Dictionary
Cambridge University Press
Collins Cobuild Intermediate Dictionary of American English + CD-ROM
Collins Cobuild
Dictionary of Contemporary English for Advanced Learners + DVD ROM
(New Edition)
Pearson
Longman Business English Dictionary with CD-ROM - New Edition
Pearson
Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture New Edition
Pearson
MacMillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners - with CD-ROM.
Rundell,Michael,
MacMillan
Merriam-Websters Advanced Learners Dictionary
Merriam Webster
Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary 11th Edition
Merriam Webster

Espaol
Diccionario de la Lengua Espaola
Real Academia Espaola
ESPASA

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 2

Diccionarios Bilinges (Ingls / Espaol /


Ingls):
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Spanish-English / English-Spanish
Harper Collins USA
Larousse Diccionario Standard + CD-ROM - Espaol/Ingls Ingls/Espaol
AIQUE
Oxford Spanish Dictionary + CD-ROM 4th Edition
Oxford

Diccionarios Especficos:
Larousse Diccionario Econmico, Comercial y Financiero (Nueva Edicin)
AIQUE

Links
Bilinge:
http://espanol.babylon.com/affiliates/landing/index.php?id=10763
(para bajar el Spanish English Babylon free dictionary)
http://www.wordreference.com/
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/
http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/category/academic/language/reference/d
ictionaries.do

Ingls:
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/connector

Espaol:
http://www.rae.es/rae.html
http://www.educar.org/diccionario

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 3

Especficos:
http://www.spanish-translatorservices.com/espanol/diccionarios/finanzas-inglesespanol/s/Securities_and_Exchange_Commission_SEC.htm
http://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/
http://www.dicoland.com/es/contabilidad/las-palabras-clave-de-lacontabilidad-y-de-la-gestion-3582
(si desea comprarlo)

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 4

Uso del diccionario bilinge


El diccionario bilinge, por lo general, es utilizado para buscar equivalentes
de una palabra o frase en otro idioma, frecuentemente es bidireccional (ej.
ingls-espaol, espaol-ingls) y est organizado alfabticamente. En
ocasiones, tambin incluir ejemplos de la aplicacin de la palabra buscada.
No obstante, estos diccionarios no dan la definicin del trmino ya que se
presupone que el usuario conoce su significado y que, de no conocerlo, lo
consultar en un diccionario monolinge.
Frecuentemente, buscamos palabras aisladas. La entrada en el diccionario,
si ste es de calidad, estar dividida mostrando las distintas acepciones del
trmino o sus variantes. Tambin incluir la fontica y la funcin gramatical
del mismo.
El siguiente cuadro nos muestra las partes que componen una entrada de
una palabra en un diccionario bilinge, en la seccin de ingls - espaol:

Gua para entender una entrada Ingls-Espaol (I)


entrada

smbolos fonticos
bridge1 n [brd]

traduccin del
sustantivo
subdivisiones
de sentido

significados
principales

expresiones idiomticas
brew2

contextualizaciones en corchetes
A. vt
A COUNTABLE
1 puente (m)
1. [beer] fabricar*, hacer*
to build bridges = tender un puente (de unin)
preparar, hacer*
we'll cross that bridge when we come 2.
to [tea]
it = ese
verbos con
problema lo resolveremos cuando llegue
el momento;
3.
[trouble/mischief]
tramar, maquinar
irregularidades
see burn1 vt A1, water1 A
B. vi
2 (on ship) puente (m) (de mando)
ortogrficas 3 (of nose) caballete (m)
1. (make beer) fabricar* cerveza
marcadas
4 (of glasses) puente (m)
2. alzaprima
[tea] let the(f),
tea brew for 5 minutes = deje
con elasterisco
t en
5 (of stringed instrument) puente (m),
infusin 5 minutos, deje reposar el t 5 minutos
masculine article in singular
B COUNTABLE
the tea is brewing = el t se est haciendo
(Dentistry) puente (m)
3. [storm] avecinarse
C UNCOUNTABLE
(card game) bridge (m)
Phrasal Verbs
contract bridge = bridge-contrato (m)
phrasal
auction bridge = bridge (m) subastadobrew up v + adv
bridge party reunin (f) de bridge
1. (develop) a storm is brewing up = se avecina
verbs
una
bridge player jugador, -dora (m, f) de
bridge
tormenta
al final

indicadores de significado
en parntesis

trouble is brewing up = se va a armar lo (familiar)


2. (make tea) (British English, colloquial) hacer* t

etiquetas para
Oxford University Press 2007

Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition 0-19-860475-0


indicar

registro

Oxford Language Dictionaries Online Dictionary Skills Resource Pack

Como podemos observar, el trmino bridge tiene numerosas


acepciones o subdivisiones de sentido, que variarn segn el contexto
en que se use. Las subdivisiones de sentido y los indicadores de
significado, mostrados entre parntesis, equivalen a lo que en ingls se
llama collocation, el uso semntico que tiene el vocablo segn el
contexto en el que se utilice.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 5

Gua para entender una entrada Ingls-Espaol (II)

a kind offer
kind [kand] n
1

kind: sustantivo
o adjetivo?

A.
(sort, type)
1. (of things) tipo (m), clase (f)
of all kinds = de todo tipo, de toda clase
what kind of house is it? = qu tipo de casa es?
I like the kind with walnuts in = me gustan las/los que
tienen nueces
it wasn't his kind of book = no era el tipo de libro que le
gusta
the usual kind of thing = lo de siempre

acotar el
significado
usando contexto

kind2 adj -er, -est

[offer/gesture] amable
he's very kind = es muy buena persona
what a kind thought! = qu amabilidad!
she has a kind heart = tiene buen corazn
to be kind to sb
she's always been kind to me = siempre ha sido muy
amable conmigo or se ha portado muy bien conmigo
life has been kind to him = la vida lo ha tratado bien
it's very kind to your skin = no daa la piel

una amable oferta


Oxf ord Univ ersity Press 2007

La mir comprensivo

Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition 0-19-860475-0

Oxford Language Dictionaries Online Dictionary Skills Resource Pack

El diccionario bilinge tambin nos muestra la funcin gramatical que el


trmino que buscamos tiene dentro de la oracin, as como los distintos
contextos que sirven para acotar significados.
Recordemos que cuando hablamos de funcin gramatical, nos referimos a si
la palabra es sustantivo, adjetivo, adverbio, etc. En el caso de los adjetivos y
adverbios, tambin muestra sus formas comparativas y superlativas (kind2
adj er, -est es decir, kinder, kindest).
Ahora veamos la seccin de Espaol Ingls de un diccionario bilinge.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 6

Gua para entender una entrada Espaol-Ingls


nenfar m

sustantivos mostrados
con su gnero

water lily

recorrer
A. vt

links a tablas de verbos

deber1

A. vt
1. [dinero] to owe
le deben 15.000 pesos/dos meses
de sueldo = they owe her 15,000
pesos/two months' salary
quieren que les paguen lo que

More on this word


Ver uso de este verbo

1. [pas/ciudad]
recorrieron toda Espaa en tren = they
traveled o went all over Spain by train
ha recorrido mucho mundo = he has
been all over the place o the world
recorrimos toda la costa del sur = we
went o traveled the whole length of the
south coast

More on this word


Ver nota gramatical
para esta palabra

Avisos sobre trucos de traduccin en More on this word

Deber
En trminos generales, cuando deber se emplea como
Oxford University Pre ss 2007

Oxford Spanish Dictionary 3rd edition 0-19-860475-0

Oxford Language Dictionaries Online Dictionary Skills Resource Pack

En las versiones online, por ejemplo de este diccionario, se encuentran links


que expanden la funcin tradicional del diccionario bilinge, conduciendo a
usos gramaticales y tablas de conjugaciones verbales.
En el caso del espaol tambin muestran los sustantivos con su gnero,
adems de los ejemplos de uso tanto en espaol como en ingls.
Este diccionario online, agrega la caracterstica de un link que conduce
a trucos y consejos para traducir, aplicando lo relacionado con el uso
apropiado segn contexto y colocaciones.
Cuando el diccionario bilinge es de buena calidad, recoge una
cantidad importante de ejemplos que ilustran los patrones
colocacionales de cada lengua.
Y, citando a Silvia Montero Martnez1:
El COLLINS y el OXFORD suelen indicar las colocaciones
fundamentalmente bajo la entrada correspondiente al adjetivo, aunque
tambin bajo el sustantivo o bajo las entradas correspondientes a ambos
colocados (Corpas Pastor 1990: 331, 332). Los procedimientos que utilizan
para ello, tanto en la seccin espaol-ingls como en la seccin inglsespaol, son: i) bajo la entrada para el adjetivo aparece en cursiva el
1

http://elies.rediris.es/elies19/cap3442.html - ISSN: 1139-8736 - Depsito Legal: B-37271-2002 Copyright: Silvia Montero Martnez

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 7

sustantivo con el cual se coloca, y tras ste se da la traduccin del adjetivo


de dicha colocacin. Los sustantivos en cursiva no siguen el orden
alfabtico pero se agrupan por acepciones. sta es la forma en que incluyen
la colocacin 'fiery speech':

Figura 3.15: Entrada del COLLINS correspondiente a 'fiery'

Figura 3.16: Entrada del OXFORD correspondiente a 'fiery'

Otras veces, la palabra puede venir precedida por una acotacin de uso que
indica, por ejemplo, un uso figurado de la palabra en esa acepcin y, por
consiguiente, en esa colocacin. Esto ocurre en colocaciones como 'defensor
acrrimo':

Figura 3.17: Entrada del COLLINS correspondiente a 'acrrimo'

Figura 3.18: Entrada del OXFORD correspondiente a 'acrrimo'

La colocacin aparece como ejemplo en negrita, seguida de su equivalente


de traduccin, en letra redonda. Las colocaciones se agrupan por
acepciones y aparecen al final, tras los distintos equivalentes de traduccin
de la entrada, as como las indicaciones en cursiva de las colocaciones. De
esta forma aparece la colocacin 'raw material':

Figura 3.19: Entrada del COLLINS correspondiente a 'raw'

Figura 3.20: Entrada del OXFORD correspondiente a 'raw material'


Fin de la cita

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 8

Cmo buscar palabras en el diccionario


bilinge
Como dijimos antes los diccionarios bilinges no traen la definicin de la
palabra sino equivalentes y / o ejemplos de aplicacin de estas palabras.
Muchas palabras tienen ms de una forma:
Los sustantivos (man, woman, tree) (hombre, mujer, rbol) pueden ser:

singulares o plurales
man>men
woman>women
tree>trees
hombre>hombres
mujer>mujeres
rbol>rboles

masculinos o femeninos
man>woman
boy>girl
hombre>mujer
nio>nia

Los adjetivos (pretty, expensive) pueden ser:


comparativos y superlativos,
prettier prettiest
more expensive most expensive
Los verbos pueden ser conjugados en diferentes tiempos.
Infinitivo to write
Base (infinitivo sin to / no conjugado) write
Presente simple write / writes
Etc.
Algo a tener en cuenta al momento de buscar una entrada de diccionario,
por ejemplo, para la palabra costs, ser necesario sustituir la terminacin
plural - s por el trmino singular. Cuando busque el significado de cost
encontrar las acepciones del mismo y, entre ellas el agregado ~s con el
significado que corresponde a esta forma plural.
Encontrar la palabra clave
Cuando se desea buscar un trmino compuesto por varias palabras, por
ejemplo cost source table, lo ms aconsejable es empezar a buscar por el
segundo trmino source, (y/o, si lo hubiera, por el tercero, table) en
lugar de quedarse con el primero, cost, dado que, por lo general, no
encontrar la expresin completa.
La palabra clave es normalmente un sustantivo o un verbo.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 9

El Glosario
Segn lo define el Diccionario de la lengua espaola 2005 Espasa-Calpe:
Glosario:
1.m. Repertorio de palabras difciles o dudosas con su explicacin:
la novela cuenta con un glosario de los lugares geogrficos en los que se
desarrolla.
2.Vocabulario de trminos de una misma disciplina, de un mismo campo de
estudio, de un dialecto o de un autor, definidos o comentados:
un glosario de trminos de telecomunicaciones.
3.Conjunto de glosas:
glosario de poesa popular.
En nuestro caso, la que aplica es la segunda acepcin. El glosario puede ser
monolinge o bilinge. Para poder visualizarlo mejor, fijmonos en el que
sigue:

Accounting, Banking and Financial


English-Spanish Glossary
A
abatement reduccin
account - cuenta
account number - nmero de cuenta
accounts payable cuentas por pagar
accounts receivable cuentas por cobrar
account statement - estado de cuenta
account structures sistemas contables
blocked account -cuenta bloqueada
checking account - cuenta corriente
checking account - cuenta de cheques
savings account - cuenta de ahorros
accounting - contabilidad
active financial line lnea financiera activa
active vendor vendedor activo
addenda - anexos
adjustable rate - tasa de inters ajustable
affidavit declaracin jurada
agreement - acuerdo
amendment enmienda
annual fee - cargo anual
annual percentage - tasa de porcentaje anual
appraisal - valoracin
appraisal tasacin

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 10

appraisal report - informe de tasacin


appropriation distribucin, asignacin
assumption - asuncin
assumable mortgage - hipoteca asumible
auction - subasta
automatic data processing - procesamiento de datos automtico
B
balance - saldo
bank - banco
banker - banquero
banking system - sistema bancario
bankruptcy - bancarrota
bankruptcy quiebra
to go bankrupt - declararse en quiebra
batch Lote
batch number nmero de lote
batch-sequence number nmero de secuencia de lote
bill - billete
bill for collection factura de cobranzas
branch - sucursal
breakeven point - punto de equilibrio
budget presupuesto
budget restriction restriccin presupuestaria
budget type tipo de presupuesto
budgeting fund fondo de presupuesto
business

business birth - nacimiento del negocio


business death - muerte del negocio
business dissolution - disolucin del negocio
business failure - fracaso del negocio
business plan - plan de negocio
business start - comienzo del negocio

C
cancel / reissue cancelacin / reexpedicin
cancellation (CA) cancelacin
cancelled loan - prstamo cancelado
cap - lmite
cap - top
capital - capital
capital budget presupuesto de capital
capital expenditures - gastos en inversin de capital
capital expenses gastos / inversin de capital
capital lease: arrendamiento de capital
capital surplus excedente de capital
capitalized property - propiedad capitalizada
cash - efectivo

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 11

cash discount - descuento por pago en efectivo


cash flow - flujo de efectivo
cash payment - pago en efectivo
certificate of title - certificado de titulo
certification certificacin
character - carcter
charge-off - anulacin en libros
charged off loan - prstamo cancelado
check - cheque
blank check - cheque en blanco
bounced check - cheque rechazado
cashier's check - cheque de caja
certified check - cheque certificado
checkbook - chequera
overdrawn check - cheque sin fondos
travelers checks - cheques de viajero
voided check - cheque anulado
payable - pagable
to the bearer - al portador
date - fecha
signature firma
counterfeited - falsificado
clause - clusula
clear - compensar
clearing - compensacin
clearing house - cmara de compensacin
closing - cierre
closed loan - prstamo cerrado
closing costs - costos de cierre
closing date - fecha de cierre
closeout liquidacin
co-borrower - co-deudor
coin - moneda
collateral colateral
collateral document - documento colateral
collateral - garanta
commission - comisin
component componente
compromise - compromiso
condition - condicin
consortium - consorcio
contingent liability - responsabilidad eventual
contract structure estructura contractual
corporation - corporacin

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corporation - sociedad annima


cosigner - co-signatario
costs costes
costs costos

cost center centro de costos


cost distribution table (SCD) tabla de distribucin de costos
cost source table (SCS) tabla de fuente de costos
cost type tipo de costo

credit - crdito
credit rating - clasificacin crediticia
credit report - reporte de crdito
credit history - historial de crdito
currency - moneda
D
data element - elemento de datos
debenture - obligacin
debt - deuda
debt capital - capital de deuda
debt financing - financiamiento de deuda
debt service funds fondos de servicios de deuda
deed - escritura
deed of trust - escritura de fideicomiso
default - incumplimiento
default value valor de la cesacin de pago
defer - diferir
deferred income ingreso diferido
deferred loan - prstamo diferido
delegate delegar; delegado
delinquent payment - pago atrasado
deposit - depsito
deposit in transit - depsito en trnsito
direct deposit - depsito directo
deposit slip - boleta de depsito
disbursement - desembolso
disbursing officer - oficial de desembolso
divestiture - desposeimiento
down payment - pago inicial
down payment - enganche
drawdown giro
driver's license - licencia de conducir
due date - fecha de vencimiento

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 13

E
earning power - poder adquisitivo
easement - servidumbre
electronic funds transfer - transferencia electrnica de fondos
employer Identification Number (EIN) nmero de identificacin del
empleador
encumbered expenditure (EN) gastos gravados
encumbered revenue (ER) ingresos gravados
encumbrances Outstanding gravmenes pendientes
enterprise - empresa
enterprise funds fondos empresarios
entrepreneur - empresario emprendedor
entry asiento
equity - equidad
equity - valor liquido
exchange rate - tasa de cambio
execute ejecutar; dar cumplimiento a
expenditure gasto; erogacin
external warrant garanta externa
F
figure - cifra
financial reporting structure estructura de informacin financiera
financial transaction transaccin financiera
fixed - fijo
fixed assets activos fijos
fixed interest -inters fijo
foreclosure - ejecucin
forgery falsificacin
form - formulario
funds - fondos
fund structure estructura del fondo
G
GAAP Generally Accepted Accounting Principles PCGA Principios
Contables
Generalmente Aceptados
general warrant garanta general
going concern assumption presuncin (o expectativa a futuro) del negocio
en marcha
grace period - perodo de gracia
grant structure estructura de subsidio
guarantee - fianza
guarantor - fiador
I
ID - documento de identificacin
inactive vendor vendedor inactivo
inspection - inspeccin
installment - plazo
insufficient funds - fondos insuficientes

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 14

interest - inters
interest rate - tasa de inters
J
joint account - cuenta conjunta
L
ledger libro de contabilidad
legal representative - representante legal
liability pasivo; exigible
lien - embargo preventivo
line of credit - linea de crdito
liquidation - liquidacin
liquidation procedure procedimiento de liquidacin
liquidation value - valor de liquidacin
litigation - litigio
loan - prstamo
bridge loan - prstamo puente
construction loan - prstamo de construccin
conventional loan - prstamo convencional
loan agreement - acuerdo de prstamo
loan officer - agente de prstamos
loan term - plazo del prstamo
long term - largo plazo
mortgage loan - prstamo hipotecario
mortgage loan application - solicitud de un prstamo hipotecario
o foreclosure - ejecucin hipotecaria
o mortgagee - acreedor hipotecario
o mortgagor - deudor hipotecario
take out a loan - sacar un prstamo
lock-in rate - tasa de inters asegurada

M
manager - gerente
market value - valor del mercado
markup - margen de beneficio
maturity - vencimiento
maximum - mximo
merger - fusin
minimum - mnimo
money - dinero
monthly payment mensualidad
mortgage - hipoteca
N
negotiation - negociacin
negotiation dispute - conflicto de la negociacin
net - neto
net assets activo neto
net-change rollup consolidacin de cambio neto

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 15

net worth - valor neto


nominal accounts cuentas nominales
nominal ledger libro mayor
O
obligations - obligaciones
offer - oferta
one-sided journal entry asiento diario parcial
operating budget presupuesto operativo
ordinary interest - inters ordinario
outlays - gastos
overdraft - sobregiro
overdraft - giro en descubierto
overdraft protection - cobertura de sobregiros
overhead accounts table tabla de cuentas indirectas o de estructura
P
paper work - papeleo
partnership - sociedad
passive financial line lnea financiera de pasivos
passport - pasaporte
password - contrasea
patent - patente
payroll nmina; planilla de sueldos
per diem allowance viticos
planned revenue ingreso planificado
posting month mes de asiento
power of attorney - poder
pre-approved - pre-aprovado
prepayment pago anticipado
prime rate - tasa preferencial
principal - capital
procurement officer oficial de compras
proprietorship - propiedad
R
ratio - proporcin
real accounts cuentas reales
real estate - bienes races
receipt - recibo
reconciled date fecha de conciliacin
reference number - nmero de referencia
reimbursable services servicios reembolsables
remittance advice notificacin de remesas
remittance loan facility - lnea de crdito respaldada con flujo de remesas
requesting agency agencia solicitante
restricted cash caja / depsitos de disponibilidad restringida
restricted revenue renta / ingresos de disponibilidad restringida
returned check cheque devuelto
return on investment - rendimiento de la inversin
returned payment pago devuelto
revenue renta; ingresos
revenue deferral aplazamiento de ingresos

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 16

reversal revertir
reversed payment pago revertido
routing number - nmero de identificacin
S
safety box - cajilla de seguridad
scheduled payment pago programado
settlement day da de conciliacin
short term - corto plazo
staledate fecha de caducidad
stop
stop payment - suspensin del pago
stop payment fee - cargo por suspensin del pago
subaccount subcuenta
T
tax identification number (TIN) nmero de identificacin fiscal
teller - cajero
teller machine - cajero automtico
transaction - transaccin
transfer - transferencia
U
unobligated balance balance no comprometido
unrestricted net asset - activo neto no restringido o de libre disposicin
unrestricted revenue ingreso no restringido o de libre disposicin
V
variable interest - inters variable
venture capital - capital de riesgo
W
warrant garanta
window - ventanilla
wire transfer transferencia electrnica
withdrawal - retiro
word processing - procesamiento de textos

Essential Verbs
to apply - aplicar
to cancel - cancelar
to cash - cobrar
to certify - certificar
to charge - cobrar
to close - cerrar
to deposit - depositar
to endorse - endosar
to fill out - llenar
to finance - financiar
to fix - fijar
to foreclose - ejecutar

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 17

to grant - conceder
to guarantee - garantizar
to invest - invertir
to issue - emitir
to loan - prestar
to order - ordenar
to pay - pagar
to save - ahorrar
to send - enviar
to sign - firmar
to transfer - transferir
to withdraw - retirar

Glosario Monolinge que acompaa a la


lectura que sigue.
GLOSSARY
1099 - MISC - An Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax statement issued to
vendors receiving payments of $600.00 or more for professional services
including rents and leases, medical services, and non-employee
compensation.
Abatement - A refund of expenditures, usually due to an overpayment,
duplicate payment, or reimbursement for defective or returned
merchandise.
Account Structures - Maintain the real and nominal accounts according
to fund accounting and reporting requirements and generally accepted
accounting principles (GAAP). The Division of Finance sets up and
maintains account structures.
Accounts Payable (PY) - A liability open item used to accrue amounts
owed to vendors of the state and other payees over time.
Accounts Receivable (RC) - An open item used to record amounts owed
the state. Revenue is recorded in the agency fund/appropriation at the time
the receivable is recorded.
Active Financial Line - A term used to refer to the financial lines in an
add or change RSA transaction that contain financial amounts and/or
numerators and IEAX cross-references to passive financial lines. Generally,
the expenditure financial lines entered by the requesting agency are the
active lines in an RSA transaction. Also see the definitions for IEAX and
Passive Financial Line.
Active Vendor - Vendor records on the VMF with a status of AA. An
active vendor can be used as the pay vendor on a warrant request
transaction or as a reference in an open item transaction.
Add/Change Override - To change financial and/or vendor data
associated with a 1099 payment. The override transaction affects 1099
reporting information only. It does not change the actual warrant or
information recorded in AKSAS.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 18

Addenda Remittance information transmitted with an EDI payment.


Some vendors may receive only one addenda per payment and others may
receive multiple addenda records with each payment depending upon the
EDI payment format chosen by the vendor. Usually, large businesses
expecting multiple payments on any given day from different departments
will choose to receive multiple addenda records.
Affidavit - A written statement of responsibility which is acknowledged
and accepted by an employee by signing the affidavit.
Agency Journal Entry - Balanced debit and credit entries used to record
increases and decreases in the balances of fund assets, liabilities, and
equities; correct entries for revenue and expenditure transactions; and
liquidate or adjust the liquidation of open items. Agency journal entries are
also used to record financial coding for accounts payable open items.
Agency Receipt (AG) - An open item used to record the financial coding
for cash collections received by agencies and transmitted to the Department
of Revenue, Treasury Division. Agency receipts have no financial effect and
the revenue is not available for agency spending until the agency receipt is
matched to a treasury receipt and cleared by a Treasury Finance Journal
Entry.
Agency Security Contact - An individual authorized by the Division of
Finance as having the authority to request security changes in AKSAS.
AKSAS - Acronym for the Alaska Statewide Accounting System. AKSAS is
a mainframe application maintained by the Division of Finance and used by
authorized individuals to manage and track the states financial resources.
AKSAS is designed to present fairly and with full disclosure the financial
position and Accounting Procedures Manual, Financial Transactions results
of financial operations of the funds and account groups of the state in
conformity with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).
AKSAS RD Code - A department-specific, five-digit code assigned to an
employee for user identification in the Alaska Statewide Accounting System
(AKSAS). The RD (responsibility/distribution) code and password are used
to specify the functions a user is authorized to perform in AKSAS. RD codes
are also the electronic signature used by certifying officers and those
responsible for additional levels of approval for transactions.
Alternate Access - To allow access to transactions entered by an RD code
other than the input user, certifier, or authorizer. RD codes authorized to
access other transactions are identified on the SMF Alternate Access Table
(SAA) maintained by the Division of Finance.
Amendment - A change in the amount or scope of a reimbursable services
agreement.
Appointing Authority - A department head (commissioner) or delegated
authority responsible for appointing certifying officers on the AKSAS
Certifying Officers Affidavit.
Appropriation - A legislative authorization to spend the resources of the
state in carrying out specified activities.
Appropriation Budget - The authorized expenditures approved by the
legislature in the appropriations bill, estimated restricted receipts specified

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for appropriations financed by restricted receipts, and unrestricted revenue


estimates (projections developed by the Department of Revenue for
collections of general revenues of the state).
Appropriation Structure - Maintains the statewide budget for the fiscal
year. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the Division of
Finance oversee the recording of the budget to the appropriation structures.
Agencies can add lower level appropriation entities to manage and control
spending and to record receipts.
Appropriations Bill - A legislative document specifying the spending
ceilings for appropriations and, if the activity is financed by restricted
receipts, the amount of restricted receipts to be collected.
Approving Officer - An employee delegated the authority to approve
various types of financial transactions for payment.
Auto AB - A software application maintained by the Office of Management
and Budget (OMB) to record and distribute original budget authorizations
between multiple collocation codes and ledger codes within a total control
appropriation.
Batch - One or more transactions grouped together to facilitate processing.
Batch Number - A seven-digit, sequentially assigned number identifying
a group of transactions.
Batch-Sequence Number - Generally refers to the combination of the
two-character source system ID (SSI), the seven-digit batch number, and
the four-digit sequence number for a transaction. See Source System ID,
Batch Number, and Sequence Number.
Bill for Collection - Statewide form (02-472) used to charge a debtor for
amounts owed the state. Represents the value of goods, services, and
materials provided by the state on a fee, actual cost, or other reimbursable
basis.
BRU - An acronym for Budget Request Unit. A state government unit for
which a formal budget must be prepared. Usually this is the appropriation
level.
Budget Entity - The allocation level of an appropriation.
Budget Restriction - To reserve a portion of an authorization to ensure
no over-expenditures can occur due to uncorrectable appropriated
revenues. Budget restrictions are recorded to defer revenue that will not be
collected in the fiscal period and restrict expenditures funded by the
uncorrectable revenues. Restrictions are recorded in AKSAS as budget type
RST, posting type 08. See Revenue Deferral.
Budget Type - An AKSAS indicator identifying the budget as original
(ORG), supplemental (SUP), revised program (RPG), restricted (RST), or
lapsed (LPs). See Original Appropriation, Supplemental
Appropriation, Revised Program, and Budget Restriction.
Budgeting Fund - The fund through which receipts and expenditures are
recorded.

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Cancel/Reissue (CR) - To cancel and reissue an active, unredeemed


general warrant in AKSAS mutilated during the printing or distribution
process.
Cancellation (CA) - To cancel an active, unredeemed warrant in AKSAS
so the warrant is no longer redeemable. Cancellations are processed when a
warrant is issued in error or for an incorrect amount and the physical
warrant is in hand.
Capital Budget - The authorized source of revenues and authorized
expenditures for the construction or purchase of state assets.
Capital Projects Funds - Accounts for general obligation bond proceeds
and other financial resources appropriated to capital projects funds to be
used for the acquisition, construction, or improvement of major capital
facilities (other than those financed by the general fund, proprietary funds,
and trust funds).
CARD - A State of Alaska MasterCard Corporate Card issued to a state
employee for travel and/or procurement purposes.
Cash-in-Transit - Cash received by an agency and transmitted to the
Department of Revenue, Treasury Division but not yet recognized as
deposits by the Treasury Division.
Central Records Warehouse - The records storage area where archive
boxes are kept. The state contracts with an outside vendor to provide
storage space for centrally archived records.
Certification - An online process by an authorized certifying officer that
confirms a transaction is accurate and legal and releases the transaction for
processing.
Certifying Officer - A department head (commissioner) or responsible
representative designated by a department head as having the authority to
certify various types of AKSAS transactions.
Certifying RD Code - An AKSAS RD code identified on the SMF
Authorized RD Code Table (SAU) as having authority to certify a
transaction for a specific source RD code and transaction code. Multiple
certifying RD codes may be identified for a single source RD
code/transaction code combination. However, only one certifying RD code
must certify the transaction.
CICS ID - A logon ID assigned by the Information Technology Group (ITG)
that allows access to applications located on the State of Alaska Computer
Network. A user must have a CICS Logon ID to access AKSAS.
CIP - An acronym for Capital Improvement Project. A term used to
describe a capital project appropriation. This type of appropriation can
extend beyond the current fiscal year and is generally set up for a period of
five years. A CIP can be extended as defined in AS 37.25.020 - Unexpended
Balance of Appropriations for Capital Projects.
Closeout - The process of finalizing a completed reimbursable services
agreement by liquidating any balance remaining in the open item. An
amended Form 02-098 (Reimbursable Services Agreement) is processed
for the closeout if required by department procedures.

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Collocation Code - An eight-digit code that identifies the accounting


structure (fund, appropriation, organization, and internal program) and
links the appropriation to the fund through which the appropriation's
financial activity is authorized.
Component - Individual elements of reporting structures. Reporting
structures are divided into components according to the way financial data
should be summarized. An allocation is a component of an appropriation,
for example, and a division is a component of an agency organizational
structure.
Contract Structure - Agency-assigned entities used to record and report
financial activity on an inception-to-date basis across multiple fiscal years
or federal fiscal years. Contracts can be maintained as subsidiary ledgers to
provide detail by contractor or subgrantee of installment payments
according to the contract budget.
Cost Center - Organizational or functional groups, such as region or
department, with common overhead rates.
Cost Distribution Table (SCD) - Used in processing 450-xx: Time &
Equipment transactions. Identifies cost type, distribution expenditure
account, base rate factor, and whether the expenditure represents labor
costs or equipment usage.
Cost Source Table (SCS) - Used in processing 450-xx: Time &
Equipment transactions. Identifies valid cost types for specific Source RD
codes; default ledger code; offset program, ledger and account codes; and
overhead allocation code and rate.
Cost Type - A category of time or equipment usage such as regular time,
overtime, or equipment use.
CTA - Acronym for Central Travel Account. The CTA is a MasterCard
account set up with travel agents for the purpose of procuring
transportation for individuals traveling on state business. Each agency has
its own accounts.
Debt Service Funds - Accounts for the accumulation of resources for,
and the payment of, principal, interest, and related costs of general
obligation bonds.
Default Value - Field data that is system-supplied when a transaction
screen is updated. For some required data entry fields AKSAS supplies data
if the field is left blank. For example, the Document Number field defaults
to the batch-sequence number.
Delegate - To give an individual the authority to act as ones representative
for approving, certifying, and/or purchasing services or supplies.
Deletion (DR) - To delete an active, unprinted general warrant in AKSAS
to stop the warrant from being printed on the scheduled print date. Also
used to delete an EDI payment request that has not been included in the
FEDI process.
Disbursement - Payment issued for a valid obligation of the state to a
vendor or other payee.

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Drawdown - A method used to request payment from the federal


government for various federal grants and programs.
Dual Authorization - An online process that provides additional
approval for a transaction and authorizes the transaction for overnight
processing.
Dual Authorization RD Code - The RD code of the individual who must
approve a transaction before the transaction can process. Dual
authorization RD codes are identified on the SMF Authorized RD Code
Table (SAU) and/or on the transaction data entry screen. A single
transaction may have up to three authorizers. If multiple authorizers are
designated for a transaction, the transaction must be authorized by each
before it can be processed.
EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) - The electronic transmission of
business documents in a standard format.
EDI Vendor - A vendor capable of receiving payment through Electronic
Data Interchange (EDI).
Employer Identification Number (EIN) - Nine-digit tax identification
number assigned by the Internal Revenue Service to businesses for federal
tax reporting purposes. Used in the same way a Social Security Number
(SSN) is used for individuals and sole proprietorships.
Encumbered Expenditure (EN) - An AKSAS open item type used to
earmark a set amount of funds for payment of a particular project or
purpose. Also called an encumbrance.
Encumbered Revenue (ER) - An AKSAS open item type used to record
amounts owed the state as planned revenue until the revenue is received.
Encumbrances Outstanding - Refers to encumbrances existing on the
Open Item File in AKSAS.
Enterprise Funds - Accounts for business-like state activities that
provide goods and/or services to the public and are financed primarily
through user charges.
Equipment Master File - Used in processing 450-xx: Time & Equipment
transactions. Identifies equipment by description, class, and per mile or
per hour.
Execute - To record an expenditure for the requesting agency and a receipt
for the servicing agency by processing an execute RSA transaction against
an RSA open item. The execute RSA transaction liquidates the encumbered
expenditure and the encumbered revenue.
Expenditure - The disbursement of funds for capital, operating, and other
charges or costs identified by the nature of the cost (personal services,
commodities, etc.) and by the type of goods or services purchased.
External Warrant - Warrants issued and printed outside of AKSAS such
as field warrants, handwrites, payroll warrants, permanent fund dividend
warrants, etc. External warrants are recorded in AKSAS with online
transactions or with transactions interfaced from the external system.

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FEDI (Financial Electronic Data Interchange) - The electronic


transmission of financial data in a standard format. Financial EDI is used
to make vendor payments.
Field Warrant Accountability Report - A report listing changes that
have occurred over the past six months in an agencys field warrant stock.
Field Warrant (FW) - A hand-prepared warrant not exceeding $999.99
issued by an agency when immediate payment is required.
Field Warrant Custodian - The agency individual responsible for
maintenance and security of physical field warrant stock released to an
agency by the Division of Finance.
Finance Journal Entry - Balanced debit and credit entries used by the
Division of Finance and authorized agencies to record special adjustments
such as period-end accruals or adjusting balances between posting types.

Financial Reporting Structure - A hierarchy consisting of individual


entities created to account for and report financial activity detail.
Financial Transaction - Used to record a specific type of financial
activity such as the receipt of revenue, payment of an invoice, etc.
Forgery - A warrant claimed by the payee to have been cashed by someone
else. To claim a warrant as forged, the payee must submit a signed and
notarized Affidavit of Forgery to the issuing agency.
Fully Qualified Account (FQA) - Refers to the financial coding entered
in financial transactions. The FQA consists of the mandatory set-up year,
collocation code, account code, and federal fiscal year. The FQA also
contains the optional program and ledger codes.
Fund - A self-balancing set of accounts used to manage the income and
outflow of the states resources. Funds are authorized by the legislature to
account for particular activities according to the nature of the activity or the
source of financing.
Fund Structure - Used to maintain the assets, liabilities, and equities of
the state in accordance with state statutes and generally accepted
accounting principles (GAAP). All financial activity of the state is
accounted for within funds.
General Fixed Assets Account Group - Accounts for the land,
buildings and improvements, and machines and equipment of the
governmental funds.
General Fund - The operating fund of the state. All public monies and
revenues coming into the state treasury, not specifically authorized by
statute to be placed in a specific fund, constitute the general fund.
General Warrant (GN) - Warrants issued and printed by AKSAS.
Grant Structure - Agency-assigned entities used to record and report on
financial activity on an inception-to-date basis across multiple state fiscal
years or by federal fiscal year.

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Handwrite Warrant (HW) - A warrant that is hand-prepared by the


Division of Finance at agency request when same-day payment is in the best
interest of the state.
IEAX - An acronym for Interentity Account Cross-Reference. IEAX is used
by AKSAS to keep track of where interentity financial activity should be
consolidated in each financial reporting structure.
Inactive Vendor - Vendor records on the VMF with a status of I. An
inactive vendor must be activated with a change vendor transaction before
it can be used as the pay vendor on a warrant request transaction or as a
reference on an open item transaction. The warrant or open item
transaction can be submitted in the same run as the change vendor
transaction since change vendor transactions process first.
Indented Structure - The hierarchical relationships that structural
entities have to one another.
Input RD Code - The AKSAS sign-on RD code of the person performing
data entry. Generally, the Input RD and the Source RD codes are the same.
Interagency Transfer - A journal entry reflecting the movement of
financial resources between agencies.
Internal Service Funds - Accounts for the operations of state agencies
that render services to other state agencies, institutions, or other
governmental units on a cost-reimbursement basis.
Intra-agency RSA - An RSA within the same two budget entities of the
same agency.
Ledger Code - An eight-digit code used for agency-specific accounting and
reporting, such as cost accounting and federal reporting. Ledger codes
identify the project, contract, and/or grant structure to which financial
activity is recorded.
Liability - Obligations of the state presented on the balance sheet such as
warrants outstanding and accounts payable.
Liquidation - Reduction of an open item balance, either by releasing a
portion or all of the balance, or by charging an expenditure against the
balance.
Logical Level - The available summarizing levels for a reporting structure
identified by level name and number. Up to 99 levels are available for a
structure.
M&IE Allowance - Acronym for Meal & Incidental Expense. This is the
authorized daily rate of payment to a traveler to cover the cost of meals and
incidentals when accommodations are being paid for or provided by the
state.
Management Budget - A user-defined budget that can be recorded for
any of the reporting structures to reorganize the authorized budget
according to the way an agency manages activities.
Miscellaneous Revenue - Warrant reversal amounts from cancel and
stop payment transactions that could not be posted to the original warrant

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financial coding. Miscellaneous revenue is recorded by the Division of


Finance each month to agency-specific miscellaneous revenue collocation
codes and liability account 29990 (Miscellaneous Revenue Suspense).
Agencies are responsible for clearing their miscellaneous revenue CC and
recording the warrant reversal amounts to the appropriate agency financial
coding.
Net Available Balance - The total authorization, net of expenditures-todate, taking into account required collections of restricted receipts. For
appropriations financed by restricted receipts, expenditures are contingent
upon collection of the receipts.
Net-Change Rollup - A daily (Monday - Thursday) process of adding that
days financial activity to the Management Report File (MRF).
Nominal Accounts - The expenditure and revenue accounts used to
report the results of operations.
Obligation - An amount the state is legally required to meet out of its
resources.
OMB - An acronym for the state Office of Management and Budget, a
division within the Office of the Governor.
One-Sided Journal Entry - An agency journal entry used during the
reappropriation period to correct a warrant transaction recorded with an
incorrect fiscal period code. Two one-sided journal entries are processed one to reverse the warrant amounts recorded to the incorrect fiscal period
code and one to record the warrant to the correct fiscal period code.
Online Forms File (OFF) - A file containing data selected to produce
1099-MISC tax statements. Agencies access this file online to review and
correct 1099 data.
Open Item - Accounting record that keeps track of financial activity over
time. Expenditure open items include accounts payable, encumbered
expenditures, and scheduled payments. Revenue open items include
agency and treasury receipts, encumbered revenues, and accounts
receivables.
Open Item File (OIF) - File in AKSAS that provides information on all
existing open items.
Operating Budget - The estimated costs of carrying out programs,
projects, and agency operations.
Organization Structure - Used to maintain the management and
reporting hierarchy for each of the state agencies to summarize
appropriation activity along organizational lines. Financial activity is
recorded to the organization structure through collocation codes.
Original Appropriation - An initial appropriation as authorized by the
legislature. Original appropriations are recorded in AKSAS as budget type
ORG, posting type 05.
Overhead Accounts Table (SOH) - Used in processing 450-xx: Time &
Equipment transactions. Identifies overhead rate codes and account
numbers.

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Oversight Agency - The agency responsible for recording transactions to


a fund and for maintaining the correct account balances for the fund.
Passive Financial Line - A term used to refer to the financial lines in an
add or change RSA transaction that do not contain financial amounts
and/or numerators or IEAX cross-references. Passive financial lines are
referenced in the IEAX field of the active financial lines. AKSAS applies the
financial amount from the active financial line to the passive financial line.
Generally, the revenue financial lines entered by the servicing agency are
the passive lines in an RSA transaction. Also see the definitions for IEAX
and Active Financial Line.
Password - A five to ten character user-defined word used in combination
with the AKSAS sign-on RD code to gain admittance to AKSAS.
Payroll Suspense - Payroll charges passed to AKSAS with invalid
financial coding and posted to agency suspense collocation codes. Instead
of rejecting payroll charges with erroneous financial coding, AKSAS records
the charges to agency-specific payroll suspense collocation codes and
expenditure account 71965 (Payroll Exceptions). Agencies are responsible
for clearing their payroll suspense CC and recording the payroll charges to
the appropriate agency financial coding.
Per Diem Allowance - Authorized daily rate of payment to a traveler to
cover the cost of hotel and meals.
Planned Revenue - Amounts billed but not yet collected.
Posting Month - The state fiscal month in which financial activity is
recorded.
Prenote A zero-value EDI transmittal sent to a vendors financial
institution to test the accuracy of the account information prior to
beginning cash payments. It also serves as notice to the financial
institution that the account will begin receiving EDI payments.
Prepayment - To pay a contract, lease, or other obligation in advance of
receipt of the goods or services. All prepayments must be made in
accordance with AAM 35.100 - Prepayments of Charges, Contracts, and
Lease Payments.
Procurement Officer - An employee delegated the authority to purchase
services or supplies.
Program Structure - Agency-assigned entities used to keep track of
financial activity across appropriation and organizational lines. Financial
activity is recorded to the organization structure through collocation codes
or by entering the program code in the financial line of coding.
Project Structure - Agency-assigned entities used to record and report
financial activity on an inception-to-date basis across multiple state fiscal
years or by federal fiscal year. Financial activity is recorded in the project
structure through ledger codes.
PVN (Pay Vendor Number) - A reference type used in warrant request
and open item transactions to identify the payee for warrant and EDI
transactions and for 1099 tax reporting. The associated reference number

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must be a valid eight-character (three-alpha, five-numeric) vendor number


on the Vendor Master File or a temporary vendor number.
RD Code - An RD (responsibility/distribution) code is a five-digit number
assigned to an AKSAS user. An RD code is the identifying number used to
sign on AKSAS (input RD code) and to identify a user as the source RD
code, certifying RD code, or dual authorization RD code for a transaction.
RD codes are also used to identify users for report distribution.
Real Accounts - Used to maintain the balances of the assets, liabilities,
and equities of the funds of the state.
Receipt - See Revenue.
Records Storage Contractor - The contractor responsible for providing
space to store archive boxes containing state records.
Reimbursable Services Agreement (RSA) - A contractual agreement
between two state agencies or two budget entities to provide a service for
reimbursement.
Remittance Advice - Additional information specified in a general
warrant request transaction and printed on the warrant stub.
Reports-to Relationship - Defines the exact location of an entity in a
structure by specifying the next higher-level entity through which its
activity is summarized or controlled. Also referred to as the points to
relationship.
Requesting Agency - The agency requesting a service from another
agency creating the need for a Reimbursable Services Agreement. The
requesting agency generally records the expenditure side of an RSA
transaction.
Restricted Revenue - Resources earmarked for specific programs and
specifically identified in the appropriations bill as a source of financing for
the appropriation.
Returned Payment (EDI) An EDI transaction that has been returned
to the State because the receiving bank could not identify the correct
account for the vendor.
Return per ODFI (EDI) A request made by The Division of Finance
through the States banking partner (ODFI) to have an erroneous payment
returned to the State. This request is made if more than 5 days have passed
since the Settlement Day of the original transaction.
Revenue - General cash collections of the state, authorized collections
associated with appropriations, and collections from other sources, such as
proceeds from the sale of bonds or assets. See Restricted Revenue and
Unrestricted Revenue.
Revenue Deferral - To defer a portion of budgeted receipts when revenue
estimates are higher than the actual revenue the agency can realize during
the fiscal period. Revenue deferrals are offset by an expenditure restriction
to ensure planned expenditures do not exceed expected receipts. See
Budget Restriction.

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Reversed Payment (EDI Reversal) - A transaction processed through


the Division of Finance within 5 business days of Settlement Day reversing
a previous EDI payment. Reversals may be processed if there was an error
resulting in payment to the wrong vendor, duplicate payment, or incorrect
amount paid.
Revised Program - A nonlegislative increase or decrease to the original
appropriation amount. Revised programs are recorded in AKSAS as budget
type RPG, posting type 07.
Rollup All - A weekly process of creating a new Management Report File
(MRF) with data contained on the Financial Master File (FMF).
RSA - An acronym for Reimbursable Services Agreement.
SAU - Acronym for the System Management File (SMF) Authorized RD
Code Transaction Table. The SAU is maintained by the Division of Finance
and identifies authorized source RD code and transaction code
combinations, authorized certifying RDs, and/or dual authorization RD
codes.
Scheduled Payment (SP) - An open item used to record automatic
monthly installment payments for equal amounts issued on a
preestablished monthly payment date.
Sequence Number - A sequential, four-digit number assigned by AKSAS
during data entry to each transaction in a batch.
Servicing Agency - The agency providing a service to another agency
according to the terms of a Reimbursable Services Agreement. The
servicing agency generally records the revenue side of an RSA transaction.
Settlement Day - The day EDI payments are transferred to vendors
financial institutions. This is the same as the RECONCILED DATE on the
warrant transaction.
Source RD Code - A five-digit AKSAS RD code identified on the System
Management File (SMF) Authorized RD Code Transaction Table (SAU) as
having authority to record specific transactions in AKSAS.
Source System ID (SSI) - A two-character code used to identify the
source of a transaction, i.e., AA (entered online), PA (payroll charges
interfaced from AKPAY), etc. Source System ID codes are identified on the
SMF Source System ID Table (SSI) maintained by the Division of Finance.
Refer to the Appendix for a complete list of two-character SSI codes.
Special Revenue Funds - Accounts for the proceeds of specific revenue
sources (other than expendable trusts or major capital projects) that are
legally restricted to expenditures for specific purposes.
Staledate For general warrants issued July 1, 2003 or after, a warrant
not redeemed within six months of the date of issue. For general warrants
issued prior to July 1, 2003, a warrant not redeemed within two years of the
date of issue.
Stop Payment (SP) - To stop payment on an active, unredeemed warrant
in AKSAS so the warrant is no longer redeemable. Stop payments are

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recorded when a warrant is lost, stolen, or issued in error and the physical
warrant is not available.
STR - Acronym for State Transportation Request (Form 02-019). Threepart form used for purchasing transportation on state ferries. This form
may also be used for purchasing other types of transportation when the
preferred methods cannot be used.
Subaccount - A bank account assigned to an agency by the Department of
Revenue, Treasury Division for deposit of agency cash collections.
Supplemental Appropriation - A legislative adjustment to an original
appropriation. Supplemental appropriations are recorded in AKSAS as
budget type SUP, posting type 06.
TA - Acronym for Travel Authorization. The official state Form 02-027,
which must be used for approval and payment of travel and moving claims.
Tax Identification Number (TIN) - A nine-digit identifier used for tax
reporting purposes. The TIN is either an Employer Identification Number
(EIN) or a Social Security Number (SSN) and must be specified on all 1099
reportable vendor records.
Temporary Vendor Number - A vendor number comprised of three
alpha characters assigned by the agency and five 9s. A temporary vendor
number can be used for one-time payments or for open items when a
vendor does not have a vendor number on the VMF. Payments cannot be
issued with a temporary vendor number if the payment is 1099 tax
reportable.
Time and Equipment - An AKSAS process that calculates direct and
indirect costs related to hours worked, equipment usage, and other work
units reported on time sheets, and distributes those costs through AKSAS
reporting structures according to the financial coding on the time sheet.
Total Control Appropriation - The level at which the spending ceiling
authorized by the legislature for an appropriation is applied.
Transaction Code - A five-digit number used to identify transactions in
AKSAS. The transaction code is made up of a three-digit major transaction
code and a two-digit minor transaction code. Each transaction
major/minor code combination is identified on the SMF Transaction Code
File (STC) maintained by the Division of Finance. See Transaction Major
Code and Transaction Minor Code.
Transaction Major Code - The first three digits of a five-digit
transaction code. The major transaction code identifies a group of
transactions by type. For example, all add warrant requests use transaction
major code 310.
Transaction Minor Code - The last two digits of a five-digit transaction
code. The minor transaction code identifies a specific transaction within a
transaction group. For example, an add warrant request for a field warrant
is 310-56. For some transactions (i.e., add warrant requests, journal
entries), the transaction minor code is entered by the user.
Transaction Suspense File (TSF) - A file maintained by AKSAS of all
unprocessed or rejected transactions. Users can access transactions on the

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TSF through the DM - Maintain Batches and DO - Access Other Batches


functions available on the AKSAS Main Menu.
Travel Advance - Payment made to a traveler in advance of a trip to cover
estimated costs.
Treasurers Pool Funds - Asset balance sheets used to account for and
report cash and investment management activities of the state. Treasurers
Pool Funds are managed by the Department of Revenue, Treasury Division.
Treasury Journal Entry - A balanced debit and credit entry used by the
Department of Revenue, Treasury Division to record investment
transactions and other fund management activities in Treasury Pool Funds.
Also used by agencies to record wire transfers.
Treasury Finance Journal Entry - A balanced debit and credit entry
used by the Department of Revenue, Treasury Division to clear agency and
treasury receipts and allocate deposits of cash to the appropriate agency
funds/appropriations.
Treasury Receipt (TR) - An open item used by the Department of
Revenue, Treasury Division to record cash deposits in suspense in Treasury
Pool Funds.
Trust and Agency Funds - Accounts for assets held by the state in a
trustee capacity or as an agency for individuals, private organizations, or
other funds.
Unobligated Balance - The total authorization net of expenditures-todate and outstanding encumbrances. The unobligated balance is the
amount of an appropriation available for expenditures.
Unrestricted Revenue - General receipts of the state used to finance
most programs and agency operations.
Vendor Master File (VMF) - AKSAS database file containing active and
inactive vendor records. Information in this file is used to issue warrants
and for reference and 1099 tax reporting.
Vendor Number - A unique eight-character (three alpha, five numeric)
identifier assigned by the Division of Finance to identify vendors of the
state on the Vendor Master File. The vendor number is entered in the
Reference Number field on the PVN reference line in warrant and open
item transactions. See PVN and Temporary Vendor Number.
Warrant - An obligation of the state drawn from a specified financial
institution.
Warrant Status File (WSF) - AKSAS file containing detailed payment
information of warrants issued by the state.
Wire Transfer - An electronic transfer of state funds from the states bank
account to the payees bank account.

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Lectura
Accounting and Administrative
Procedures Manual For Soil and Water
Conservation District and Watershed
Conservancy District Offices In Kentucky
- Kentucky Division of Conservation - 2007
A continuacin veremos la aplicacin de la terminologa y las tcnicas de
bsqueda en el texto que sigue, que es parte de un Manual de
Procedimientos Contables y Administrativos de Divisin de Conservacin
del Gobierno de Kentucky, Estados Unidos.
Fiscal Year - Each district shall operate on a fiscal year that begins on
July 1 and ends on June 30.
Reviewing banking procedures, deposits, billing and claims for
payment should be done, especially by the treasurer, on a regular basis to
satisfy the board that all are valid. It is suggested that the board rotate a
thorough review process through the supervisors so that each member only
has the job once every few meetings.
Questions to ask for testing that a bill (claim for payment) is valid include:
Do I know the claimant? (To explore the possibility of fictitious vendors
on the claims)
If I dont actually know the claimant, am I at least aware the district is
doing business with him/her? (also fictitious claims)
Is there any indication, or is there specific knowledge, that the product or
service has been received? (also fictitious claims)
Is the bill arithmetically correct? Do quantities multiplied by unit prices
compute correctly? Does the total add up correctly? Never assume that a
bill is correct just because it was prepared by a computer.
Does the correct amount of the bill agree with the amount on the list
submitted to the board?
In the case of payroll checks, does the gross (overall total minus
deductions) amount agree with the authorized pay rate times the hours
worked, for the employee?
Is the claim certified under penalty of perjury?
Was paying of all bills approved at the board meeting and recorded in the
minutes?

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Other tests for the correctness of paid amounts are to:


Select at random, items from the approved bills list and inspect the
canceled checks in the bank statement used to pay them, to make sure the
payee and amount agree, and there is no indication of alteration.
(Payments are made in accordance with official authorization.)
Select at random canceled checks from the bank statements and find the
items they paid on the list of approved bills. (Check for unauthorized
disbursements)
Inspect canceled checks for authorized signatures and also for
unauthorized disbursements.
Check whether the expenditure is charged to the correct account and
fund. (To evaluate the reliability of the cash disbursements journal.)

Remember: The budget is the districts legal authorization to


expend funds; thus, one way to disguise unauthorized
expenditures could be to charge them to accounts with
budget surpluses. Expenditures should regularly be
compared with budgeted amounts.

Tests that may be performed on bank reconciliations include:


Inspect bank statement(s) for any signs of alterations.
Compare ending balance on the bank statement(s) to the one used in
reconciliation to make sure the two agree.
Examine reconciliation for any deposits in transit (deposits showing in the
receipts journal which do not appear on bank statement) or electronic funds
transfers. If there are any, ask responsible staff for an explanation and then
make sure they do appear as deposits on the next months bank statement.
Review list of outstanding checks.
Determine the nature, explanation and appropriateness of any other
reconciling items.
Make sure that each item on the statement has supporting documents
(cancelled checks, other charges, credits or deposits). This is a test for
unauthorized disbursements or transfers to another account.
Reconciled balance of a bank account should agree with the balance in the
general ledger and if it doesnt, the error must be located and corrected.

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Actions Constituting Fraud


1. Any dishonest or fraudulent act.
2. Forgery or alteration of any document or account belonging to
the county conservation district.
3. Forgery or alteration of a check, bank draft, or any other
financial document.
4. Misappropriation of funds, securities, supplies, equipment, or
other assets of the county conservation district.
5. Impropriety in the handling or reporting of money or financial
transactions.
6. Disclosing confidential and proprietary information to outside
parties.
7. Accepting or seeking anything of material value from
contractors, vendors, or persons providing goods or services to the
conservation district. Exception: gifts less than a nominal value
($25 or less each year).
8. Destruction, removal or inappropriate use of records, furniture,
fixtures, and equipment.
9. Any similar or related irregularity.

Accounting Software Programs - All the districts in the commonwealth


are to use approved, up-to-date software, some newer version of
QuickBooks or Quicken, for bookkeeping purposes. For payroll, some
districts have an outside accountant do them, use QuickBooks payroll,
Quicken payroll, or keep them in an EXCEL format ledger and transfer the
summaries to the accounting software with the proper account/category
number. This ensures that payroll items will show on reports generated by
the software.
Audits - Audits are mandated by KRS 65.065 to be conducted for
special districts every four years, unless revenues or expenditures are
$750,000 or more in a fiscal year. When revenues or expenditures are
$750,000 or more, an audit is required for that year. This is state law!
In preparation for an audit, the district should have available for auditors
the following for the fiscal year to be audited:
Annual financial report*
Previous years financial report*
Bank statements for June 30 for the previous year and year to be
audited*
June 30 bank reconciliation for previous year and year to be audited*
Cash receipts journal or ledger from Quicken/QuickBooks
Cash disbursements journal or ledger from Quicken/QuickBooks
General ledger from Quicken/QuickBooks
Time and attendance forms
Payroll returns, 941, K-1
Original and final revised budgets
Minutes of Board Meetings
Annual work plan

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Annual report
Long-range work plan
Contracts and grant documents
Lease and rental agreements
Schedule of fixed assets as of the end of fiscal year
Certificates of deposit
Collateral agreement
Last audit report*
Published legal notice
Insurance and bond policies
Fiscal year cancelled checks
Fiscal year invoices, paid or unpaid

*For items marked with an asterisk, provide auditors with a copy. For
all other items, make available for auditors to review.
Assets Assets are probable future economic benefits obtained or
controlled by the district as a result of past transactions or events.
These can be cash, banking accounts, money market accounts,
certificates of deposit, land, buildings, outbuildings, equipment, money
owed to the district, or inventory of goods purchased to resell. Assets
of the district are classified as current assets, fixed assets, and other
assets and once acquired should be properly recorded on a schedule
and kept on file at the conservation district office. The list must be
maintained and updated regularly with the information below about
each:

Date of acquisition
Method of acquisition
Name and address of vendor
Abbreviated description and location of asset
Cost
Fund and account/category from which purchased
Estimated life
Date, method, and authorization of disposition of asset.

All assets should be periodically inventoried and the list maintained


and updated regularly, preferably every year.
Current assets are assets that are available or can be made readily
available to meet the cost of operations or to pay current liabilities.
Some examples are:
Cash, including cash on hand, petty cash, and money in the bank
Temporary investments like certificates of deposit or money markets
Money owed to the district - receivables that will be collected within
one year of the statement of financial position date
Inventory goods purchased to resell, such as filter fabric, mulch
netting, etc.

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Fixed assets are tangible assets with a useful life of more than one year
that are acquired for use in the operation of the district and are not held for
resale. Examples are classifications of:
Land Including cost of land, costs incidental to acquisition of that land,
expenses incurred in preparing the land for use.
Buildings Including relatively permanent structures used to house
persons or property and fixtures which are permanently attached to and
made a part of buildings and which cannot be removed without cutting into
walls, ceilings, or floors or without in some way damaging the building.
Infrastructure The plant and assets required for maintaining a district
office presence. Plants and assets are long-term fixed and variable assets
that are used to run a business and are not for re-sale to a customer. They
normally include buildings, IT networks, telephones, other items that are in
an office, or other structures, appurtenants, real estate, regardless of
whether it is attached and any other obligations that are used to obtain
those assets.
Machinery and equipment with a cost over $500 Items such as trucks,
automobiles, pumps, rental equipment, desks, computers, printers, copiers
and bookcases, etc. These types of items should be marked with ID
numbers and so noted in the permanent records.
Construction work in progress Costs of incomplete construction work
undertaken but incomplete at a balance sheet date. These should be
reclassified upon completion.
Contra-assets are accounts that reduce asset accounts, such as
accumulated depreciation.
Other assets include long-term assets that are assets acquired without the
intention of disposing of them in the near future. Some examples are
security deposits, property and long-term investments.
Standardization It is very important for every district to follow the
same general procedures in their accounting process because:
There are established standards for accounting and bookkeeping, and
auditors have recommended these standards be followed for sound,
secure, accountable and lawful use of public funds since soil and water
conservation districts are subdivisions of state government.
The Kentucky Soil and Water Commission has mandated that all districts
will follow the same general procedures. (KRS 262)
Terms Terms commonly used include those listed in Appendix C
Terms, page 64.
Liabilities Probable financial obligations arising from present
obligations of the district to transfer assets or provide services to other
entities in the future as a result of past transactions or events. Liabilities of
the district are classified as current or long-term.
Current liabilities are probable sacrifices, or losses, of economic benefits
that will likely occur within one year of the date of the financial statements

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or which have a due date of one year or less. Common examples of current
liabilities include accounts payable, accrued liabilities, short-term notes
payable, and deferred revenue.
Long-term liabilities are probable sacrifices of economic benefits that will
likely occur more than one year from the date of the financial statements.
An example is the non-current portion of a mortgage loan.
Net Assets The difference between total assets and total liabilities.
Revenues/Receipts The inflows or other enhancements of assets, or
settlements of liabilities, from delivering or producing goods, rendering
services, or other activities that constitute a districts ongoing major
operations. Revenues may come in the form of cash, checks or electronic
funds transfer (EFT) and all (including interest earned on every bank
account, savings account, certificate of deposit, money market, etc.) should
be entered into the computer accounting software (QuickBooks or Quicken)
as income.
Revenues of the district should be categorized into the following income
accounts or categories with the proper account number from the Chart of
Accounts, page 47:

Fiscal Court funds


Federal funds
State funds
County funds
Other government funds
District equipment (district purchased with district funds)
Reimbursements/Refunds/Contributions
Interest income
Other income

From these main accounts/categories, they should be broken down


into subaccounts/subcategories. Refer to the Appendix A - Chart of
Accounts, page 47, for accounts/categories and
subaccounts/subcategories.
Expenditures Outgoing money to pay for the expenses the district
incurs or programs the district participates in.
All expenses are to be recorded under proper accounts/categories,
subaccounts/subcategories and sub-subaccounts/sub-subcategories (Refer
to the Appendix A - Chart of Accounts, page 47, for appropriate
numbers).
All checks submitted for signature(s) should be accompanied by
supporting documentation as proof (a bill or invoice) to back up the
expense and:
Approval in the form of district meeting minutes or budget that the
money may be spent on the particular purchase.
The proper signatories on the check
Proper recording of the expenditure into the accounting software and
entry (in detail) on the check stub.

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Enough money in the bank.


Keep the back-up documentation and paid bills on file for 2 years.
Check stubs should be kept for 7 years.
When paying an invoice or bill:
Mark on the bill PAID. This will help avoid paying a bill twice as well
as providing additional tracking.
Write the check number and date on the bill for more accuracy and ease
in tracking.
Attach backup documentation to the invoice.
Gains Increases in net assets from peripheral or incidental transactions
and from all other transactions and other events and circumstances
affecting the district except those that result from revenues.
Losses Decreases in net assets from peripheral or incidental transactions
and from all other transactions and other events and circumstances
affecting the district except those that result from expenses.
Gains or losses occur when the district sells a fixed asset or writes off as
worthless a fixed asset with remaining book value, such as a piece of
equipment with no use.
General Ledger A group of accounts (QuickBooks) or categories
(Quicken) with transactions that support the information shown in the
major financial statements. The general ledger is used to accumulate all
financial transactions of the district, and is supported by additional
documentation that provides details for certain accounts in the general
ledger, the foundation for the accumulation of data and reports. Note:
These are NOT the bank accounts the district uses; they are the accounts or
categories used by the accounting software to categorize transactions.
Chart of Accounts/Categories See Appendix A, page 47, for a
complete listing of the Chart of Accounts. This is the framework for the
general ledger system, and therefore the basis for the districts accounting
system. General ledger accounts are used to accumulate transactions and
the impact of these transactions on each asset, liability, net asset, revenue,
expense and gain and loss account, and ultimately the budget.
Chart of Accounts/Categories offers:
Understandability with a clear trail which is made from the initial
transaction to the ledgers. When others (auditors, board of supervisors,
field representatives, etc.) review the books, there is consistency and a clear
audit trail.
Completeness No transaction is ever to be omitted. EVERY
TRANSACTION in EVERY BANK ACCOUNT and EVERY CASH
TRANSACTION should be entered into the accounting software and
REPORTED.
Timeliness Since transactions occur daily, prompt daily entry is a
necessity to keep books accurate.

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Standardization The system of accounting should be the same in every


district in the commonwealth.
How the chart of accounts functions:
Each transaction is first designated as:
o Revenue or Receipt signified by the letter R
o Expenditure or Expense signified by the letter E
Next, the main account/category is determined
Each transaction made is assigned an account (QuickBooks) or category
(Quicken).
Example: (Landowner Incentive Payment) LIP money received goes
under:
Main heading R20000 Federal Funds
Sub account/subcategory R20400 Grant Funds
Sub account/subcategory R20403 Landowner Incentive Payment
(LIP)
R21410 Funds for Landowner
R21412 Administrative Allowance.
The software general ledger would look like this:
Num
4/1/2006 DEP

Payee

Memo

DOC/DFW

LIP

Payment

Deposit
$750.00

Account/Category
R20000 Federal Funds; R20400 Grant Funds; R20403
LIP; R21410 Funds for Landowner
R20000 Federal Funds; R20400 Grant Funds; R20403
LIP; R21410 Administrative Allowance

Make sure to refer to the most recent Chart of Accounts, page 47


when entering transactions into your financial software to make sure they
are placed in the correct accounts/categories and
subaccounts/subcategories to get the greatest amount of detail in reporting.
The detail of the checkbook ledger will make work easier when planning the
budget, doing annual financial reports and preparing for audits.
Distribution of the chart of accounts is from the Division of Conservation in
Frankfort. As the chart has accounts/categories added, an updated copy of
the chart of accounts will be distributed to the districts. This chart is
monitored and controlled by the Division of Conservation. Any additions or
deletions of accounts/categories should be done by Division office
personnel in order to keep financial accounting in all districts in the

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Commonwealth consistent.

Note: If your district needs additional accounts/categories


or an updated Chart of Accounts, please contact the Division
office in Frankfort, 502-573-3080, for assistance. Do not
add or change any of the accounts/categories.

Petty Cash - Petty cash is properly documented (with a paper trail)


when:
A check is written from the general account to petty cash to deposit
money into the petty cash fund.
In QuickBooks/Quicken this may done with the transfer process.
A ledger is kept on all outgoing money and deposits.
NO checks or cash from incoming receipts should ever be entered
directly into the petty cash fund.
Paychecks or personal checks are NEVER to be cashed out of petty cash.
All receipts from money used out of the petty cash are to be kept and
reconciled monthly, just like a bank account by someone other than the
custodian of petty cash.
Petty cash should have a limit as to the maximum amount of individual
disbursement.
Petty cash account should have a maximum amount to be transferred. It
is suggested that a petty cash account/category never have more than $100$200, depending on how it is to be used.
Credit Cards Credit card debt should be paid in full monthly and on
time to avoid any interest or late fees.
Any credit card(s) should be locked up any time not in use.
Credit card(s) should only be used by those authorized by the board as
specified in the board meeting minutes.
All receipts should be promptly turned in by the user so that the bill and
receipts can be reconciled each month. This will verify that there are no
mistakes by the credit card company and that there is no misuse of the
card(s).
There should be a credit card account in the accounting software and all
expenses, including any interest paid should be recorded.
Credit card bills should be paid off monthly so as not to incur any
interest charges.

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The treasurer should also review the credit card statement monthly, by:

Checking the billing period for the statement

Matching all receipts to charges and make sure the receipts and
charges on the credit card match
If something is irregular, research the problem. If no cause can be
determined, call the credit card company as soon as possible to trace the
problem.
The credit card(s) should NEVER be taken home with an employee
overnight or on the weekend, unless needed for district activities.
Someone from the district should know at all times where any
district credit card is and who has possession of the credit card(s).
Cash Receipts Cash, including checks payable to the organization and
electronic transfers, is the most liquid asset an organization has. Therefore,
the objective of the district is to establish and follow the strongest possible
internal controls in this area of their finances. Receipts create a trail from
the transaction origination to whom or what entity the money is paid, when
and which individual received it. After a receipt is recorded and issued, the
cash should be locked up until deposited into the bank.
Processing of Checks and Cash Received in the Office or by Mail
For funds that are received directly at the district office, cash receipts
must be issued, and recorded on a receipt in the computer software to
ensure that cash received is appropriately recorded, locked up at all times
while still in the office and then deposited on a timely basis, daily, if at all
possible.
All blank checks must be locked up at all times.
When mail is opened, the administrative personnel assigned to this duty
should make copies of received checks in the presence of other employees
(if there are other employees).
All checks should immediately be stamped with a restrictive endorsement
that includes: a) For Deposit Only, b) bank name and c) bank account
number of the district.
On the receipt the following items should be filled in with:
Date
Amount
Who paid the money--Payer
What the money was paid for
Cash or checkif check, add the check number
Who received the money--Payee
If paid on an open account, put amount before the receipt, amount
received on debt and then new balance.
Once specific funds are deposited, make a note on the receipt copy of
when the money was deposited and into which account/category deposited.
When funds are deposited, make an entry into the ledger of the
appropriate account. A deposit can have individual transactions for each

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receipt or split deposits. If the district is using QuickBooks Pro Accounting


software, sales receipts can be completed in the software.
Deposits - A deposit slip should be prepared with the first receipt of
funds each day and each cash receipt should be added to the deposit slip
throughout the day so the funds may be deposited on a daily basis. This
function may be performed in the accounting software as part of a blue
deposit bag and then printed out to use with or as a deposit slip. This is a
strong recommendation from the auditors and a major part of internal
control.

Transfers A transfer of money between bank accounts or between


accounts/categories is NOT Revenue or Expense and should not be
recorded or reported as such!!! QuickBooks and Quicken software
have a transfer recording function. This function should be used to
record a transfer of funds between banks, bank accounts, or
accounts/categories.
Make sure the cash and checks are deposited to the proper bank
accounts.
Do not hold large checks, such as Millage tax checks. Deposit them
immediately.
Do not hold producer checks for a long period of time. Cash deposits of
all funds should be made daily.
When completing deposit slips, include the following:

Bank account number

Name of person who paid the money and check number

(With cash deposits, you may need to refer back to the receipts, and
that is one reason to place the deposit date on every receipt.)
Record deposits, including electronic funds transfers (EFTs), into the
accounting software. The following should be recorded about each deposit:

Received from
If check, check number
Proper account/category from chart of accounts (why received)
Amount
Date deposited into the bank

Check Signing Authority By definition this is the person(s) who has


legal authority and is on record at the bank to sign checks. The district
board should make the initial decision for the person(s) who should sign
checks and document in the minutes of a board meeting.
Ideally, anyone with check signing authority should not have access to:
Accounting records and entries
Cash receipts
Petty cash funds

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There should be at least two board members with check signing


authority. When a check needs to be signed and one is not available, the
other authorized board member can sign.
A current list of authorized check signers at the bank(s) should always be
available and up-to-date.
Normally the treasurer is the main authorized check signer and another
board member should be named as back up. This could be rotated through
the board members.
Ideally, the secretary should not be the signer of checks. This is a
commonly reported audit problem with the potential for misappropriation
of funds or the appearance of misappropriation.
Blank checks should not be signed in advance.
Anyone having access to district accounts shall be bonded.
Bonding is an insurance policy that protects employers against employee
misappropriation of funds or theft.
According to KRS 65.067, all officials who handle public funds are to be
bonded for an amount covering the maximum amount that they will have
under their control at any one time.
Those who need to be bonded: administrative secretary, treasurer and
the back-up check signer.
Elected officials who post bond and employees covered under a blanket
policy (e.g. Kentucky Association of Counties (KACo) are in compliance
with KRS 65.067.
A collateral security agreement is necessary if the district ever has more
than $100,000 in one bank at any one time because the bank is only
insured for accounts up to $100,000 by the Federal Deposit Insurance
Corporation (FDIC).
Blank checks should be properly controlled by keeping them under lock
and key when not in use.
The sequence of checks should be accounted for when doing bank
reconciliations to make sure no checks are missing or stolen.
Voided checks and cancelled checks should be properly marked and kept
for 7 years.
Have stamps printed or stamped with the wording of VOID AFTER
90 DAYS.
Any check outstanding for 90 days
Should be investigated by calling the payee and reminding them of the
check to determine what the intentions are.
If the check is lost or payment of the check stopped, then the amount
should be restored into the same account/category in the ledger in the
accounting software.
Bank Statement and Checks Reconciliation These must be
reconciled promptly every month. This allows for the quick finding of
any errors or irregularities that can be tracked more easily sooner
rather than later. A good method for reconciling is to:
In the checkbook,

Add to the balance


Interest earned
Deposits not recorded
Automatic credits not previously recorded.
Subtract from the bank balance
Service charges
Checks not recorded

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Payments not recorded


Mark off
All checks paid against statement
Amount of all deposits shown on statement
List and total
All deposits made but not shown
All checks written and not shown on previous or current statements.
To get the balance
Enter bank statement balance.
Add to the balance all and other credits not shown on previous or
current statements.
Subtract all outstanding checks or payments.
Once these steps are completed, the total on the bank statement should
agree with the district checkbook balance.
If not in balance:
Check addition and subtraction.
Check amounts recorded in district checkbook against amounts recorded
on the bank statement.
Look for outstanding checks (not cashed by the payee) from previous
statements.
Check the amount the balance is off and see if it matches any deposit or
check amount.
Make sure a deposit or check was not added in the subtraction process or
subtracted in any addition process.
Once bank reconciliation is completed and in balance, the treasurer
should review and sign the bank reconciliation.
NOTE: The reconciliation process should be done in the software
program the district is using, either QuickBooks or Quicken.

Procurement Purchases must fall into some aspect of the yearly


budget and all purchases should be regularly compared with budgeted
amounts.
The districts objective in purchasing should be to purchase the best
products, materials and services at the lowest cost.
The board should approve all purchases and document in the minutes.
Tax exemption should be used on all purchases.
Districts need to make efforts to use the bidding process for necessary
services and products above a certain amount (set by the board).
This will allow for possible discounts.

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It is suggested that districts get at least 3 bids for any purchase at the set
amount of $20,000.00 or more. (Note: This does NOT include Revolving
Fund Equipment!)
Bids are not necessary for:
Supplies, unless above the set amount
Materials, unless above the set amount
When services are a monopoly such as electricity, water, phone service.
Bids should be properly advertised with:
Description in general terms such as materials, supplies or services to be
purchased.
Time of opening of sealed bids.
Award to the lowest responsible bidder with letters to award contracts
and letters of notification to those not receiving a contract.
Bids should not be awarded to companies or individuals where a conflict
of interest could arise, including family of district board members of district
employees. Districts should avoid any appearance of favoritism in the
process of bidding, either by supervisors or staff.
Procurement is the theme behind the cost of materials and goods the
district purchases, whether for resale or for use by the district, and should
be the best product for the least amount of money. These costs
must be tracked to provide the basis for ongoing planning and program
funding needed in the future. For all government programs, excluding
Equipment Loan Program purchases, the costs as well as the revenues must
be tracked and reported.
KRS 45A.345-385 - An act relating to contracts and purchases by local
governments (special districts-which include conservation districts and
watershed conservancy districts) has the following requirements:
For Procurement Purchases:
0-

$ 500.00

Go and Buy It

$ 500 -

$ 1000.00

3 Bids or Quotes

Over -

$ 1000.00

Public Bid

For Construction or Maintenance of Construction:


0 - $3,000.00
$3,000 - $10,000.00
Over - $10,000.00

Only Get One Bid


3 Bids or Quotes
Public Bid

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KRS 45A.365
All contracts or purchases shall be awarded by competitive sealed
bidding, except as otherwise provided by KRS 45A.370-385
The invitation for bids shall state whether the award shall be made on
the basis of the lowest bid price or the lowest evaluated bid price.
The public shall be given notice of the invitation for bids for
advertisement in the newspaper of largest circulation in the local
jurisdiction at least once not less than seven (7) days nor more than twentyone (21) days before the date set for the opening of the bids. The
advertisement shall include the time and place where the bids will be
opened and the time and place where the specifications may be obtained.
The bids shall be opened publicly at the time and place designated in the
invitation for bids. Each bid, together with the name of the bidder, shall be
recorded and be open to public inspection.
A contract shall be awarded with reasonable promptness by written
notice to the responsive and responsible bidder whose bid is the lowest bid
price or the lowest evaluated bid price.
The local public agency may allow the withdrawal of a bid where there is
a patent error on the face of the bid document, or where the bidder presents
sufficient evidence, substantiated by bid worksheets, that the bid was based
upon an error in the formulation of the bid price.
Each conservation district and watershed conservancy district will need to
decide the purchasing limits set for district employees and for certain
purchases. Also, each conservation district will need to decide how and
when purchases are to be made.
Certain items within the budget may or may not be purchased with prior
approval of the board. Certain items may or may not need to have quotes or
bids before purchased.
When conservation districts and watershed conservancy districts are setting
limits on check writing, it should be remembered that any check written for
an amount over $299.99, and spent inappropriately is considered a felony.
It includes any funds stolen from the district and from the citizens of the
county and state.
Inventory Districts may have items kept for resale and the inventory of
these should be kept up to date. Some examples of items kept for resale
include:

Filter fabric
Seed
Mulch netting
Flags
Erosion control blankets

Inventory can be updated daily with the financial software as products are
sold by keeping track of the following:
Amount held before sale

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 46

Amount sold
Amount left at end of a sale.
As an example, filter fabric is sold by the foot, so that is the way it would be
recorded. The following would need to be included:
Date beginning amount purchased
Amount purchased initially
Amount of current sale
Daily inventory should include name of person buying, date sold, amount
sold, sales price and amount remaining.
With this information, proper reconciliation of deposits and receipts
can be performed and amounts on hand can be controlled. Each type
of product should be kept separate in the accounting software
inventory.
Accounts Payable and Cash Disbursements When invoices or bills
are paid, the following information should be noted:
Statements are usually a listing of invoices; therefore, owed money
should be paid from an invoice if there is one, not a statement,
with the invoice for backup. If a statement is used, the possibility for
double payment exists. An exception might be utility bills or others when
there is not an invoice or bill sent, only a statement.
There should be on the invoice a detailed list of goods and/or services
that were provided.
There should be a list of all costs or an itemized bill.
Invoices should be received as soon as product is purchased if payment
is not made at time of pick-up, delivery, or when services are complete.
Special attention should be paid to invoices as soon as they are received:
Date stamp each invoice when it is received.
Check to make sure all items listed on the invoice are received. Do an
inventory when products are received for verification.
Check for discounts. Some companies offer discounts if paid by a certain
time.
At the time an invoice is paid, mark it as PAID with the check number
and the date payment is made on the invoice for quick reference.
The invoice should be retained in the proper file for at least 2
years after payment.
Tax Collection Some districts collect sales tax on items sold, if the
buyer or item is not tax exempt. Keep good records on the amount
collected so the appropriate agency may be paid at the appropriate time.
Recordkeeping Good records are a must to:

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 47

Effectively carry out programs


Document previous actions and policies
Secure legal and financial rights of districts
Protect the rights of citizens directly or indirectly affected by the actions
of the district
Record the history and intent of public policy
Respond to any Open Records Request
There is a special responsibility under Kentucky statutes for employees of
the conservation district to see that information created in the course of
daily business, public records, (whatever format-paper, electronic, or
other) as defined by statute, is maintained, organized and available for use.
This is emphasized in the language of the states Open Records Act (KRS
61.870), and that of the state Archives and Records Act (KRS
171.740). The intent is to ensure efficient administration of
government and to provide accountability of government activities, public
agencies are required to manage and maintain their records according to
the requirements of these statutes.
Public records are recorded information (in paper, electronic and other
format) created or received by the conservation district board of supervisors
and employees that document a transaction or activity by or with any public
official or employee of that agency. As defined by KRS 171.410, public
records are all books, papers, maps, photographs, cards, tapes, disks,
diskettes, recordings and other documentary materials, regardless of
physical form or characteristics, which are prepared, owned, used, in the
possession of, or retained by a public agency.
Records Management is the systematic control of recorded information,
regardless of format, from the time a record is created until its ultimate
disposition. The systems goal is to provide the right information to the
right person, at the right time, at the lowest possible cost. Records
management planning and schedules are essential for several reasons:
To help the district legally decide which records to keep and which to
destroy
To help the district evaluate documentation of its functions, policies,
decisions, procedures and essential transactions
To permit the identification and proper control of records continuing
value.
To give a district the economy and efficiency it needs to operate effectively
To be able to locate the proper records in case needed for any purpose.
A records retention schedule is essential for management of the many
records generated by a district.
There should be no more than three fiscal years of information in a districts
regular filing system. The rest should be archived either in protective boxes
or filing cabinets, and a specific time of each year should be set aside to
archive and update the filing system.
Chairman of the Board of Supervisors for each district, by the terms
of KRS 171.680, should establish and maintain an active, continuing
program for the economical, efficient management of the district records.
It is recommended that the chairs program should include:

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 48

Effective control over the creation, maintenance, use and disclosure of


records in the conduct of current business,
Cooperation with Kentucky Division of Conservation and field
representative working with your area in applying standards, procedures,
and techniques designed to improve the management of records,
Promotion of the maintenance and security of records considered
appropriate for preservation and facilitation of the segregation and disposal
of records of temporary value,
Following the provisions of the Commonwealths public records
management statutes, KRS 171.410-171.740 and the rules and regulation
of the Division of Conservation and your local district and
Quick response to every Open Records Request as set forth in statute.
Forms There are forms that a district must use for most of the various
activities and reporting in each district. Most of those forms are listed in
Appendix B and samples are available either in Appendix B or on Forms
Library page of the Division of Conservation Web site. If you need a form
that is not on the Forms Library page, contact your field representative or
the Division of Conservation office.
Annual Report An annual report should highlight the goals (from
the annual work plan filed) and accomplishments of the district for the
past fiscal year. The summary financial statement may be included
with the report; however, this will not meet the KRS statute for
printing the legal notice.
This is an excellent way for a district to brag on themselves for the
things accomplished during the year. Conservation districts are a wellkept secret and should let people in their county know the good things that
are going on.
A conservation districts annual report can be published:
In the local newspaper
In a district newsletter
In a district brochure
Or, a district may just do a written report and forward copies to the
appropriate parties.
Information and photos for the annual report are collected throughout
the fiscal year.
At the end of the fiscal year the information is compiled.
From the end of the fiscal year (June 30) the conservation district has
60 days to complete the annual report and send it to the appropriate
parties.
The annual report is then sent to the following:
Kentucky Division of Conservation
Local county fiscal court(s)
Division of Conservation field representative for your district

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 49

Anyone else the district feels should receive it, such as landowners,
schools, other districts, etc.)
Annual Budget The governing body of each district shall annually
prepare a budget after the work plan is completed. A budget is required,
essential and should be sufficient to carry out the Annual Plan of Work
and:
Should be developed in conjunction with development of the annual plan
of work,
NO FILING, NO SPENDING until the budget is filed with Fiscal
Court
Is required to justify requests for funding to the Kentucky Soil and Water
Conservation Commission and to Fiscal Court,
To be prepared by the district board with the assistance of the Kentucky
Division of Conservation Field Representative,
A copy should be submitted to the Division of Conservation.
A budget form is available in Appendix B - Forms, on the Division of
Conservation Web site or on Government Office of Local Development,
GOLD, Web site.
If a budget must be amended, follow the same format but show original
and amended amounts and send copies to the local fiscal court(s) and
Division of Conservation.
Annual Financial Report This report for each district is to be
completed by the field representative (assigned to each district) at the
end of each fiscal year and is due to the Division of Conservation office by
September 1. The field representative is to prepare this report from
financial data from the bookkeeping files of the district, bank statements
and other data required and furnished by district personnel. This is a
helpful tool in monitoring bookkeeping practices, efficiency and
correctness. There is a sample form in Appendix B Forms, page 62.
Summary Financial Statement A sample form for this statement is
available in Appendix B Forms. This statement may be used as an
annual report prepared by the district personnel or legal notice to be
published instead of a more detailed financial report required by fiscal
courts, GOLD and Division of Conservation.
Payroll Records may be kept in QuickBooks, Quicken, a ledger, an Excel
ledger, or by an accounting firm hired by the district. However, the
summaries of payroll records must be entered into the software program in
order for district reports and records to be complete.
Payroll taxes must be paid with the appropriate form and on time.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 50

Mdulo 4
Unidad 4
Lectura 4: Familias de
Palabras, Uso del Diccionario y
Armado de Glosarios

Materia: Ingls tcnico


Profesora: Patricia Rivera

En los mdulos anteriores plantebamos la necesidad de entender las ideas


generales de lo que leemos. Tambin hablamos de deducir significados a
partir de contextos. No obstante, tambin tenemos la necesidad de
identificar y entender palabras especficas y para ello, recurriremos a los
diccionarios.
En primer lugar, tenemos los diccionarios bilinges que son de utilidad
para quienes no saben ingls. Para quienes tienen conocimientos de ingls y
desean acrecentar su vocabulario, estn los diccionarios monolinges (e.g.,
ingls-ingls). Cuando hablamos de diccionarios, nos referimos tanto a los
impresos como a los virtuales.
Antes de analizar la forma en que debemos usarlos, citaremos los nombres
de algunos buenos diccionarios monolinges, bilinges y links:

Familias de Palabras
Las palabras se forman por la unin de monemas
El monema es la unidad mnima de la lengua con significado
Los monemas pueden ser de diferentes tipos:
Lexemas: Aportan el contenido absoluto de la palabra.
Morfemas: Aportan el contenido relativo a la palabra.
Los morfemas pueden ser de tipos diferentes:
Morfemas desinenciales: Son los que aportan:
Gnero
Nmero
Accidente verbal
Morfemas derivativos: Son los que sirven para formar nuevas palabras a
partir de un mismo lexema.
Dependiendo de dnde aparezcan reciben nombres diferentes:
Prefijos - si aparecen delante del lexema
Sufijos - si aparecen detrs del lexema
Interfijos - si aparecen entre el lexema y el sufijo
Las palabras se dan en familias. Una familia de palabras o familia lxica
est formada por palabras que comparten el mismo lexema o raz y que, por
lo tanto, tienen cierta relacin de significado.
Observando por ejemplo, gloria, glorioso, glorificar y glorificacin (en
ingls: glory, glorious, glorify, glorification) podemos darnos cuenta a
simple vista que estas palabras, de algn modo, deben estar relacionadas.
Si conocemos uno de los miembros de la familia, ser fcil entender el
significado de los otros.
Para crear una familia de palabras hay que aadir al lexema o raz todos los
morfemas que pueda admitir, ya sean prefijos o sufijos.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 2

Veamos algunos ejemplos prcticos:


Verbo

Sustantivo (persona)

Sustantivo (actividad)

manage

manager

management

buy
accounting /
accountancy
trainer / trainee
employment
consume

Como lo muestra el primer ejemplo, si al verbo manage le agregamos r,


formamos el nombre del profesional que ejerce es trabajo, es decir
manager. Si a manage le agregamos ment, tendremos el nombre de la
actividad: management.
Probemos con buy, si queremos hablar del profesional que lo ejerce,
agregamos er y formamos buyer (comprador, el que compra). Si a
buy le agregamos ing obtendremos buying, que es la actividad.
En el caso de accounting / accountancy, cul es la raz de esta
palabra? Correcto! Es account. Qu hicimos? Le quitamos los
prefijos ing / ancy. Y si queremos saber cmo se describe la palabra
que define a quien ejerce la contadura? A account le agregamos ant, y
tenemos accountant, contador / contadora.
Sabemos que trainer es entrenador o capacitador y que trainee es el
aprendiz, la persona que est recibiendo capacitacin en una empresa.
Cul es el lexema base? Train y es, a su vez, el verbo (entrenar).
Ahora, qu le agregamos para que forme la actividad? Eso es! ing y
tenemos training para hablar de la capacitacin!
Si tenemos la actividad employment, cul es el lexema o raz? As es, es
employ y cmo formamos el nombre de la persona que lo ejerce?
Correcto! employer (empleador) o employee (empleado).
Ahora bien, veamos la palabra consume (consumir), ahora tenemos que ver
cul sufijo agregaremos para expresar la palabra consumidor. El adecuado
es er, es decir, consumer. Y la actividad es consumption.

El Sufijo
El sufijo es la terminacin que forma palabras derivadas. Al observar los
ejemplos anteriores, los sufijos son letras que se colocan al final de una
palabra. Por s solos no tienen significado: er, ing, ancy, ant, ee, tion,
entre otros.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 3

El Prefijo
Prefijo significa colocar delante, por ende, un prefijo es la partcula que va
antepuesta a un lexema.
co-borrower
cosigner
divestiture
disbursement
inactive
insufficient
overdraft
pre-approved
reimbursable
subaccount
unobligated
unrestricted
Estas partculas (los prefijos y los sufijos), llamadas afijos cambian el
significado o dan un nuevo sentido a la palabra a la que van agregados.
A continuacin, encontrar las tablas de lexemas o races, prefijos y sufijos.

ROOTS
ROOT

MEANING

WORD

alter

otro

alternate, alter ego

ami, amic-

amor

amiable, amicable

amphi

ambos, de ambos tipos

amphibian

ann, enni

ao

anniversary, annual,
biennial, perennial

anthrop

humano, hombre

anthropology,
anthropomorphic,
misanthrope

aqua, aque

agua

aquatic, aquarium,
aqueduct

arch

jefe,lder

archangel, monarch,
archaic, archenemy

arthro

articulacin

Arthritis

aud

sonido

auditorium, audible,

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 4

audiologist, audiotape
bell

guerra

belligerent, bellicose

biblio

libro

bibliography, bibliophile

bio-

vida

biography,
autobiography, biology,
antibiotic

brev

corto

brief, abbreviate

cap

tomar, atrapar

capture, captivate,
capacity

carn

carne

carnivorous

ced

dar paso, dar lugar

recede, secede, proceed,


intercede, concession

chrom-

color

chromatic,
monochrome,
polychrome

chron-

tiempo

chronicle, chronology,
chronometer,
synchronize

cogn

saber

recognize, cognitive,
incognito

cord/chord

cuerda, acorde

harpsichord

corp

cuerpo

corpus, corpse, corporal

ROOT

MEANING

WORD

crac, crat

gobierno

autocrat, democracy,
bureaucrat, democracy

cred

creer

credible, credulous,
credibility, credit, credo

cruc

cruz

crucifix, crucial

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 5

crusta

caparazn

crustacean

crypt

oculto

cryptogram, cryptology,
cryptic

culp

culpabilidad

culpable, culprit

dei

dios

deity, deify

demo-

personas

demography, democracy

dent

diente

dentist, dentifrice,
dentin

derm-

piel

dermatology, epidermis,
hypodermic

dic

hablar, decir

dictate, predict, diction,


indict

dox

creencia, opinin

orthodoxy, paradox,
heterodoxy

duc, duct

conducir, guiar

induce, deduce,
seduction, conduct,
abduct

duo

dos

duo

dynam-

potencia

dynamo, hydrodynamics

ego

ego

egotist, egomania

equ

igual

equal, equity,
equanimity, equate,
equidistant

fac

hacer, fabricar

manufacture, factory,
benefactor

fil

hilo

filament

frater

hermano

fraternal, fraternize

gam-

matrimonio

monogamy, polygamy,
bigamy

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 6

ROOT

MEANING

WORD

geo-

tierra

geopolitical, geology,
geography,
geothermal

glyph

talla, grabado

hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs

grad, gress

paso

gradual, progression,
transgression

graph-

escritura, impresin

graphology,
biography, telegraph,
geography

gym

desnudo, ejercitar

gymnasium

gyn-

relacionado con la mujer

gynecologist,
androgynous

hemo, hema,
hem

sangre

hemophilia,
hematology,
hemoglobin

holo

entero, completo

holograph

hydro, hydr

agua

dehydrate, hydraulics,
hydroelectric,
hydroplane

iso

igual, idntico

isolate

ject

arrojar, tirar

inject, reject, subject,


projection

jud

juzgar

judicial, judge,
adjudicate

leg, lect

leer, elegir

legible, lectern,
lecturer, election

liter

letra

literature, illiterate,
literal

loc

lugar

local, location

log

palabra

monologue, epilogue

luc

luz

lucid, elucidate

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 7

magn

grande

magnify, magnate,
magnificent

man

a mano

manufacture, manual,
manuscript

mar

mar

marine, mariner

mater

madre

maternal, maternity,
matriarchy, matricide

ROOT

MEANING

WORD

mere

parte, segmento

mere

meta, met

detrs, entre

metacognition
behind the thinking

metri, meter-

medida

geometric,
thermometer,
odometer

min

pequeo

minority, minuscule,
minute

mit, miss

enviar

permit, submission,
mission, emit,

mob, mot, mov

movimiento

mobile, automobile,
motion, promote,
movie

mon

advertir

premonition,
admonition

mor, mort

muerte

mortal, mortician,
immortality

morph

forma, estructura

metamorphosis,
amorphous,
morphology

mut

cambio

mutant, mutability,
mutate

neuro

nervio

neurology, neurosis,
neurobiology

nomen /nomin

nombre

nominal, nominate,
nomenclature

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 8

nov

nuevo

novel, renovate,
innovation, novella

nym, onym

palabra, nombre

synonym, acronym,
anonymous,
pseudonym

odonto

diente

orthodontistone
who straightens teeth

ortho-

derecho, correcto

orthodox,
orthodontist,
orthopedic

pac

paz

pacify, Pacific Ocean,


pacifist

pater

padre

paternal, paternity,
patricide, patrilineal,
patriotic

path

sentimiento, sufrimiento

sympathy, apathy,
empathy, telepathy,
pathology

ped, pod

pie

pedal, pedometer,
centipede, gastropod

pel, puls

empuje

pulsate, repulsive,
impulse, compel,
propel

ROOT

MEANING

WORD

pend

colgar, pesar

pendulum, pendant,
suspend, pending

phon-, phono-

sonido, voz

telephone, euphony,
cacophony,
phonograph

plan

plano

planar, plantation,
plane

pneum

pulmn

pneumatic

pod

pie

podiatrist

port

cargar, llevar

portable, transport,

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 9

portage, report,
pot

poder

potent, omnipotent,
potentate

psych-

alma, espritu, mente

psychology, psychic,
psychobiography

pugna

lucha

pugnacious, pugilist

quer, quis

pregunta,
cuestionamiento

query, inquisition,

scent, scend

trepar, escalar

ascend, ascent

schizo, schiz

divisin

schizophrenic

sci

saber

scientific

sciss

cortar

scissors

scrib, script

escritura

manuscript, scribe,
proscribe, scripture

sec, sect

cortar

dissect, section

sed, sess

sentar

sedentary, session

sens, sent

sentir, estar conciente

sensible, sentient

sequ, secu

seguir

sequence, sequel,
consecutive

serv

servir, proteger

service

simil

mismo, igual

similar, assimilate,
simile, facsimile (fax)

ROOT

MEANING

WORD

siphon

tubo

siphon

sol

sol

solar

son

sonido

sonar, resonate,
unison

soph

sabidura, conocimiento

philosophy,
sophisticated,

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 10

sophomore
spec, spic

mirar, ver

spectacles, spectator,
inauspicious,
prospect

spir

resorte

spiral

spir

respiracin

inspire, respiration,
conspire,
perspiration

spond, spons

promesa, respuesta a

respond, responsible

spont

por su propia fuerza

spontaneous

stat

estada, posicin

station

tang, tact

tacto

tactile, tangible

temp

tiempo

temporary,
temporize

ten, tent

sostn

tentative, tenable,
tenuous

terr

tierra

subterranean,
terrain, terrestrial,
disinter

theo

dios, deidad

theology,
polytheism, atheist,
monotheism

therm-

calor

thermal, thermos,
thermometer

trophy

nutricin, alimento

atrophywithout
nutrition

uro

orn

urologist

vac

vaci

vacation, vacuum,
vacuous, vacant

ven, vent

venir, ir

intervene, convene,
contravene

ver

verdad

veracity, verify,
verity

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 11

ROOT

MEANING

WORD

vert

giro

introvert,
irreversible,
vertigo

vit

vida

vital, revitalize,
vitamin

voc

llamar

revoke, invocation,
vocal, evocative,
convocation

zoo

animal

zoo, zoology,
zoolatry

PREFIX

MEANING

EXAMPLES

a-, an-

no, sin

amoral, anesthetic,
apolitical, asocial

ab-

lejos de

abduction,
abstain, abnormal

ad-

a, hacia

adjoin, adjacent
(lying near to)

ambi-

ambos

ambidextrous,
ambivalent

ana-

arriba, de regreso,
nuevamente

analogy, anatomy,
anagram

anti-

contra

antipathy, antiwar,
antisocial

apo-

desde, alejado de

apology, apologize

auto-

auto, uno mismo

autobiography,
automobile,
autocracy,
automaton

bene-

bien

benediction
benevolent

PREFIXES

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 12

benefactor
cata-, cat-

abajo, en contra de

catastrophe--a
turning down

centro, centri-

alrededor de, centro

concentric,
centrifugal

circum-

alrededor

circumlocution
circumference,
circumvent

com-

con, junto a

communal,
community

con-

con, junto a

connect, confide
conspire

PREFIX

MEANING

EXAMPLES

contra-

contra

contradict,
contravene

de-

abajo, lejos

descend, deject
(cast down)

dia-, di-

a travs

diameter, division

dis-

aparte, no

disengage, discord,
discomfort

dys-

mal, difcil, mal

dysfunctional,
dysentery

e-

de entre

elect (choose out


of), eject (throw
out)

ecto-

externo

ectoderm--outer
skin

en-, em-

en, con

empathy--feeling
in

endo-

dentro

endoscope-instrument for
observing inside

epi-

sobre

epitaph epidermis,

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 13

epicenter
eso-

hacia adentro, dentro

esoteric--more
inward, esophagus

eu-

bien, bueno

euthanasia--good
death

ex-

fuera de, de adentro


hacia afuera

exhume, exhale,
exodus

hetero-

otro, diferente

heterosexual,
heterodoxy,
heterodox
heterogeneous

homo-

igual

homosexual,
homogeneous,
homogenized

hyper-

por encima de

hypertension,
hypersensitive,
hyperactivity

hypo-

por debajo de

hypotension,
hypodermic

il-

no

illegitimate, illicit,
illegal, illegible

im-

no

imperfect,
impolite,
impossible

im-

hacia adentro

imbibe (drink in,


take in)

in-

no

indiscreet,
invisible

PREFIX

MEANING

EXAMPLES

in-

en, hacia adentro

incorporate (take
into the body)

inter-

entre

intervene (come
between), interstate

intra-

dentro

intrastate,

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 14

intramural
ir-

no

irregular, irrational,
irredeemable

macro-

gran

macrocosm,
macroeconomics

mal, male-

malo, perverso

malediction
malevolent,
malnutrition

meta-

ms all

Metaphysical

micro-

pequeo

microscope,
microcosm,
microeconomics

mono-

uno, solo, nico

monologue,
monotheism,
monarchy,
monogamy

neo-

nuevo, reciente

neologism, neoliberal, neonatology.


Neolithic

ob-

en contra de, contra

object, obstruct
(build against)

palin-, pali-

a la inversa, de nuevo

palindrome

pan-

todo/s, cada uno

pantheism, PanHellenic, panorama,


pandemic

para-

falso

paramilitary,
paralegal, parachute

per-

a travs

percolate (flow
through) perforate
(punch through)

peri-

alrededor

perimeter, periscope

phil-, philo-

similar a, amante de

philosophy,
Francophile,
bibliophile,
philanthropy

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 15

poly-

muchos, varios

polygon, polygamy,
polytechnic,
polytheism

post-

despus

postgraduate,
posthumous
postpone

pre-

antes

precede, predict (tell


before)

pro-

por, a favor de, hacia


adelante

promote, project

PREFIX

MEANING

EXAMPLES

pros-

hacia, al frente

prospectview in
front, something
coming up

proto-

primero

prototype,
protoplasm,
protobiology

pseudo

Falso

pseudonym,
pseudoscience

re-

Nuevamente

repeat, recede,
regress (step back)

retro-

hacia atrs

retrogression,
retroactive

se-

alejado de

seduce (lead away),


secede

sub-

Bajo

submarine, subject,
subhuman
subterranean

sur-, super-

encima, arriba

superhuman,
superego,
superintend,
surpass

syn-, sym-, syl-,


sys-

con, junto con

symphony,
synonym, system,
syllable

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 16

tele-

distante, a lo lejos

telephone,
telepathy,
television, telegram

trans-

a travs

transient,
Transatlantic,
transport (carry
across)

SUFFIXES
SUFFIX

MEANING

EXAMPLES

-agog, -agogue

Lder

demagogue,
pedagogue

-cide

Matar

patricide,
infanticide,
herbicide. suicide

-ectomy

Cortar

appendectomy,
splenectomy

-ia, -y

acto, estado

amnesia, mania,
democracy,
anarchy

-ic, -tic, -ical, -ac

con relacin a

anthropomorphic,
dramatic, biblical,
cardiac

-ics

temas relevantes a

optics, physics

-isk, -iscus

Pequeo

asterisk--a little
star

-ism

creer en

pacifism,
terrorism,
socialism,
communism

-ist

alguien que cree en

pacifist, terrorist,
socialist,
communist

-ite

uno conectado con

meteorite, polite,

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 17

cosmopolite
-logy

campo de estudio de

biology, geology,
etymology,
cardiology

-oid

parecido, similar a

asteroid, spheroid

-or, -er

uno que hace

doctor, actor,
teacher, driver

-phobia

temor exagerado

photophobia,
claustrophobia,
agoraphobia

-sis

acto, estado, condicin de

analysis

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 18

Mdulo 4
Unidad 4
Lecturas complementarias
(primera parte)

Materia: Ingls tcnico


Profesora: Patricia Rivera

Ahora aplicaremos todos los conocimientos adquiridos para interpretar


este repaso de los contenidos bsicos de un balance.

Lectura 1: Balances
The Balance Sheet Balancing
The balance sheet must balancethat's why it's called a balance sheet. In other
words, the assets must equal the claims on assets. The concept of balancing relies on
the accounting equation which was discussed earlier in this lesson.
Assets = Liabilities + Owners' Equity

Balance Sheet
Products, Inc.

January 1, 2009

The Balance Sheet Order of Listing


Items on a balance sheet are listed in order of liquidity. Liquidity takes on a slightly
different meaning for assets and for claims on assets. For assets, liquidity means

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 2

nearness to cash. For this reason cash is the first item on the balance sheet.
After cash, the other current assets are listed in order of liquidity. Marketable
securities (which can be converted to cash by selling them), accounts receivable
(which may be factored), and finally inventories make up the rest of the current
assets. Inventories, which are considered current assets, are listed last because it is
generally harder to convert to cash a half-finished item in production than it would
a U.S. Treasury bond.
Following current assets come those assets that would take more time to convert to
cash. Buildings, land, and equipment would all be considered long-term or fixed
assets.
When ranking claims on assets, liquidity refers to how quickly the claim against the
company matures. Short-term or current liabilities mature quickly. Intermediate,
and then long-term liabilities would be listed next. Sometimes as longer-term
liabilities move toward maturity, the portion that matures is moved into current
liabilities.
Last on the claims portion of the balance sheet would be the equity accounts. For a
corporation, the preferred stock accounts would be listed before common equity
accounts. The last claimants on a company's assets are the common stockholders.
Balance Sheet
Products, Inc.

January 1, 2009

The Balance Sheet Valuing Balance Sheet Items


Items on the assets side of the balance sheet are generally valued at cost. There are
two exceptionsmarketable securities and inventories. The rule that applies to
marketable securities and inventories is lower of cost or market. That means that

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 3

current market value or original cost, whichever is lower, is the appropriate value
for marketable securities and inventories. For instance, if a share of stock was
originally purchased for $80 three years ago and its value has fallen to $60, the
value that would appear on the balance sheet is $60.
One note that should be made is in reference to accumulated depreciation. The
accumulated depreciation account is what is called a contra-asset account.
That means that even though accumulated depreciation is reflected on the assets
portion of the balance sheet, it in essence carries a minus sign. Therefore, if Gross
Fixed Assets are $1,000,000 and Accumulated Depreciation is $200,000, Net Fixed
Assets would be $800,000.

Balance Sheet
Products, Inc.

January 1, 2009

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 4

Definitions of Balance Sheet Items Claims on Assets


Claims on assets arise from debt and from ownership claims on the
company. As the number of liabilities and ownership items increase, the
complexity of the balance sheet increases.
Balance Sheet
Products, Inc.

January 1, 2009

LIABILITIES AND OWNERS' EQUITY


Liabilities
Current Liabilities
Long-Term Debt 1 Yr.

$18,000

Notes Payable

$39,000

Accounts Payable

$15,000

Taxes Payable

$13,000

Accrued Expenses

$43,000

Other Current Liabilities

$11,000

Total Current Liabilities

$139,000

Long-Term Liabilities
Notes Payable

$18,000

Bonds Payable

$99,000

Total Long-Term Liabilities

$117,000

Other Liabilities
Pension Obligations

$98,900

Deferred Taxes

$72,000

Minority Interest

$12,400

Total Other Liabilities

$183,300

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 5

Total Liabilities

$439,300

Owners Equity
Preferred Stock

$12,000

Common Equity
Common Stock

$118,000

Capital Surplus

$110,000

Retained Earnings

$100,000

Treasury Stock

$55,000

Total Common Equity

$273,000

Total Owners' Equity

$285,000

Total Liabilities and Owners' Equity

$724,300

Definitions of Balance Sheet Items Assets


Balance sheets may be quite detailed depending on the nature and
complexity of a business. Regardless of their complexity, however, the
same basic notions of construction apply. Again it is helpful to keep in
mind the "leftright" balance sheet orientation. An illustration of a
somewhat complex balance sheet may help understand the different
types of accounts. Assets will be covered first and next the claims on
assets.
Balance Sheet
Products, Inc.

January 1, 2009

ASSETS
Current Assets

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 6

Cash

$50,000

Marketable Securities

$70,000

Accounts Receivable

$95,000

Notes Receivable

$50,000

Inventories

$90,000

Total Current Assets

$355,000

Long-Term Assets
Tangible Assets
Land

$89,000

Buildings

$99,000

Machinery

$35,000

Accumulated Depreciation

Net Tangible Assets

$5,000

$218,000

Intangible Assets
Goodwill

$20,000

Patents

$19,000

Trademarks

$13,400

Organizational Costs

$22,900

Total Intangibles

$75,300

Other Assets
Investments

$23,000

Deferred Charges

$53,000

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Total Other Assets

$76,000

Total Long-Term Assets

$369,300

Total Assets
$724,300

The Income Statement


The Income Statement shows a firm's revenues and expenses, and
taxes associated with those expenses for some financial period.
Where the Balance Sheet may be thought of in terms of the "left
right" orientation previously discussed, the income statement would
be thought of in "topdown" terms.
Sample Income Statement
Sales

$540,000.00

Cost of Goods Sold

$319,680.00

Gross Profit

$220,320.00

Selling & Administrative


Expenses

$132,300.00

Earnings Before Interest & Taxes

$88,020.00

Interest

$10,356.00

Taxable Income
Taxes

$77,664.00
$35,726.00

Net Income

$41,938.00

Dividends

$33,108.00

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 8

Transfer to Retained Earnings

$8,830.00

A basic overview of income statement items shows how a


manufacturing company might present an income statement.
Income statements for other companies may appear to be slightly
different, but in general the construction would be the same.
An important concept in understanding the income statement is
Earnings Per Share (EPS). The EPS for a company is net income
divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding. It
represents the bottom line for a company.

Glosario:
Accounts Payable: Short-term obligations, created by the acquisition of
goods and services.
Accounts Receivable: Monies due on accounts from customers.
Accrued Expenses: Short-term obligations, such as salaries, for services
received but not yet paid.
Accumulated Depreciation: Contra-asset account. Reduces gross
fixed assets.
Assets: Rights or resources that have future benefit or service potential,
which can be expressed in money terms and which result from a business
transaction.
Bonds Payable: Obligation due on maturity value of bonds.
Buildings: Structures valued at cost plus permanent improvements.
Capital Surplus: Reflection of amount received per share of stock in

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 9

excess of par value.


Cash: Negotiable checks and checking account balances, cash on hand.
Savings accounts are usually classified as cash.
Common Equity: Ownership of common stockholders. Common stock,
capital surplus and retained earnings.
Common Stock: Number of shares outstanding times par value.
Contra-asset: An asset item which would in essence carry a minus sign.
Current Assets: Liquid assets.
Deferred Charges: Expenses which have been deferred until some
future period.
Deferred Taxes: Longer-term tax obligations which have been deferred
to some future period.
Fixed Assets: Long-term assets.
Goodwill: Arises from the acquisition of a business for a sum greater
than physical asset value.
Income Statement: A statement showing a firms revenues and costs
and taxes associated with those revenues for some financial period.
Intangible Assets: Nonphysical assets such as legal rights or excess
earning power caused by a business transaction.
Inventories: Balances of goods on hand. Include raw materials, work in
process, finished goods.
Investments: Usually stocks and bonds; as well as monies set aside in
special funds.
Land: Shown at acquisition cost and not depreciated.
Liabilities: Debts owned by an entity that can be satisfied through
disbursing assets or rendering services.
Liquidity: For assets, nearness to cash. For liabilities, liquidity refers to
how quickly the claim will mature.
Long-Term Assets: Generally, long-term assets take longer than a year
to be converted to cash.
Long-term Debt - 1 Yr.: That portion of long-term debt which is
maturing within the year.
Long-term Liabilities: Due in period exceeding one year.
Machinery: Equipment listed at historical cost.
Marketable Securities: Ownership and debt instruments that can be
readily converted to cash.
Minority Interests: Ownership of minority shareholders in the equity

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 10

of consolidated subsidiaries. Generally considered a liability. (It is usually


seldom material.)
Net Tangible Assets: Gross assets minus accumulated depreciation.
Notes Payable: Debt owed on a short-term note.
Notes Payable: Promisory notes.
Notes Receivable: Monies due from debtors.
Organizational Costs: Legal costs incurred when a business is
organized. Carried as an asset and usually written off over a period of 5
years or longer.
Other Assets: Assets that do not fit into one of the other classifications.
Other Current Liabilities: Example dividends payable, items that do
not fit into other categories.
Other liabilities: Liabilities relating to operational obligations such as
pension obligations, deferred taxes, services warranties.
Patents: Exclusive legal rights granted to an investor for a period of 17
years.
Pension Obligations: Liabilities for future pension benefits due
employees
Preferred Stock: Special class of stock.
Retained Earnings: Undistributed earning of the corporation.
Tangible Assets: Physical facilities used in the operations of the
business.
Taxes Payable: Taxes due within the year
Trademarks: Distinctive names or symbols. Granted for 28 years with
option for renewal.
Treasury Stock: Stock in the company which has been repurchased and
not retired

Lectura N 2: Process
Documentation Narrative
and Flow Chart Guide
Source: www.knowledgeleader.com
Introduction

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 11

Developing an adequate understanding of any processing environment is


critical to performing internal audit reviews. This document will describe
these techniques, provide a process flow example and guidance on
elements to be incorporated. The guide will assist teams as
documentation is developed and evaluated during the audit review
process.
Documenting an understanding of a process, related controls, and key
roles and responsibilities can be achieved through process narratives and
flow charts. Both of these documentation techniques assist internal audit
teams and those responsible for the processes to establish a common
understanding of a process.
Once these documents are confirmed as accurate they provide a baseline
for performing risk analysis, internal controls testing, and implementing
process improvements as necessary.
Narrative and process flow tools allow auditors to organize, describe, and
graphically depict the results of:
Reviewing policy and procedure manuals;
Discussing the process with key employees through inquiry;
Performing a process walk through of sub-processes using
samples, etc.
Considering key inputs and outputs to a process;
Lines of responsibility for individual employee and departmental
roles
The objective of process narratives and flow diagrams is to generate an
accurate representation of how work is actually performed. Audit teams
are then positioned to add value to recommend improvements, evaluate
segregation of duties controls, and identify key controls. See Appendix A
for a sample flow chart.
Typically, creating this type of documentation is a reiterative process that
involves individuals at various levels of responsibility discussing
processing steps, related documents and responsibilities, and process
metrics or outputs.
For example, an initial overview of a process is be described by a general
ledger manager at a high-level. This initial description of the process may
be a fair reflection of the actual policies and procedures manual. Then, per
discussion with the monthly accrual accounting supervisor, additional
details of the procedural inputs may confirm some of procedures pointed
out by the general ledger manager and also reflect new detail or key
changes to the process. Finally, inquiry and examination of process
examples by those performing accrual analysis may reveal key
authorization controls, supervisory review, and output schedules not
described earlier.
Together, the audit team must condense the process information into
manageable narratives and process flows that incorporate all the key steps,
processing responsibilities, documents, and actions. Both manual and
application-based activities should be included with a focus on key control
points and outputs. These will include authorizations, supervisory review,
and controls configured in processing applications like access security,
segregation of duties through restrictions to processing functionality, and

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 12

transaction logs.
Risks & Controls
Narratives and process flow maps are designed to assist the analysis of
processing risks and related controls. Although these documentation
techniques do not test the effectiveness of controls, they should promote
an agreed upon understanding of how a process is performed, who
performs specific duties (roles and responsibilities), and assertions about
control activities.
The control assertions may be part of or linked to the Committee of
Sponsoring Organizations (COSO) Integrated Internal Control
Framework. For example, the control elements of completeness, accuracy,
authorization, safeguarding of assets, and rights/obligations, etc. should
be incorporated into processing activities. It may not be critical to include
reference to the COSO control elements but the audit team should be
mindful that the underlying internal controls incorporated into the
processes being documented mitigate associated risk of financial
statement misstatement and ensure consistency with GAAP.
Key risks and controls can be mapped on the process flow diagram to
indicate when, by whom, and how controls mitigate risks. The example in
appendix A utilizes numbered symbols such as small circles and triangles
aligned with actual process flow shapes to indicate understanding at a
specific junction of the process. These tick marks are different from the
normal flow charting shapes that depict a starting/ending point,
action/process, document or decision.
Documentation
Documentation typically includes a process summary, detailed process
narrative, and a process flow diagram. Microsoft VISIO is a leading tool
but other flowchart applications work well.
Each flow diagram should include a legend of shapes used and other
explanations. In addition, the diagram will have a list of risks and a
separate list of identified controls that correlate to them on the process
flow. Also, notice the extended horizontal lines that separate the
processing departments included in the overall process. These swim
lanes depict who is responsible for an action or decision.
Diagrams may extend several pages and cover description in sufficient
detail to reflect key processes, documents, risks and controls, and
identification of personnel and systems involved.

Process Narrative & Flow Guide


Process Reviewed: ______________________ Location:
______________________
Process Management Rating: _____________ Sub-Process:
___________________

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 13

Process Summary:

Yes or No

A) Does the process narrative summary have the preparers name?


B) Does the process narrative summary have the approvers name
(where applicable)?
C) Is the process owner name evident on the process narrative
summary?
D) Are the relevant policies and procedures (P&P) noted on the
summary?
E) Are the P&P in the documentation folder or related application
storage facility? Where?
F) Does the summary clearly indicate the financial statement
accounts impacted by the process?
G) Does the summary indicate the related COSO assertion (where
applicable)?
Process Maps:

Yes or No

A) Is there a defined start symbol (either start or connector from


another map)?
B) Does the map have a legend that describes the various shapes in
the map?
Is each shape in the map appropriate (e.g., database reference
shows a database shape)?
C) Does each shape (process) describe ->
1)
Who is performing the action?
Note: Examples include: AP Clerk, Senior Accountant,
Controller, etc. This is particularly important when describing
authorization/approval controls.
2) Are only position titles (not names) utilized in the map?
3)
What action are they performing [e.g., reconciling,
posting, validating, etc]?
4)
When are they performing the action?
5)
Where is the action being performed (could be
externally, internally, systemic application, database, etc.,
different dept, etc.)?
D)
How is the action being performed?
Note: describe what is being utilized to perform the action report name, database, etc.
E)
Do the maps indicate inputs, outputs for each
activity?
F)
Is the input/output specifically identified (i.e.,
exact name of query or name of report)?
G)
Have all FINANCIAL risks been identified?
Note: What could go wrong for each shape - with a financial
impact focus?
H)
Have all FINANCIAL controls been identified?
Note: How do we prevent what could go wrong such as a
mitigating control?
I)

Are there any estimates or assumptions in the process?

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 14

Is the methodology explained/documented in the narrative?


J) Does the process end at the end of the map?
Yes - Is there a defined end symbol?
No - Is the next process connector on the map instead of an end
symbol?
K) If process map is linked to/from another, have the terminology
and common activities been named the same between maps?
L) Have risks been documented where the risk is occurring?
M) Have controls been documented where they occur?
Note: controls that occur outside of the process (e.g., senior
management operational review) should be documented on the
map.
Does every risk identified on the process map have an associated
description in the narrative?
N) Does every risk identified on a process step have a control and
vice versa?

Information Technology:

Yes or No

A) Is the specific database referenced where process information


exists?
B) Does the narrative indicate which database?
C) Have IT processes within each financial/operational process
map been identified?
D) Has IT provided process and control information when
computer applications are involved?
Are all the applications used listed/represented?
E) If the financial process is dependent on other IT processes (e.g.,
polling, interfaces, etc.), have these IT processes been identified
and linked to the applicable IT map(s)?
F) Has IT provided process and control information when
computer applications are involved?
G) Do process flow maps or narratives cite specific application
controls and related individual users (position associated with
access)?
Note: See the Controls Checklist below for coverage of basic IT
control attributes.

Risk Checklist
A) Is the risk defined adequately enough to explain what could go
wrong - from a financial reporting perspective only?
B) Have all FINANCIAL risks been identified?
Note: Think about what could go wrong for each shape and focus
on the financial impact.

Yes or No

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 15

C) Does the risk identified collaborate with a COSO assertion?


D) Does every risk have its own number?
E) Does every risk link to at least one control?
F) Does every risk statement contain the cause and effect?
Controls Checklist
Have all FINANCIAL controls been identified? - [How do we
prevent what could go wrong?]

Yes or No

Are there any risks/controls that apply to the whole process?

FOR EACH CONTROL:


Does the control list who performed, when in the process/cycle,
and how executed?
I. If a restrict access control, does the control detail that the:
a. Access is relevant to job responsibilities.
b. Access is reviewed periodically for appropriateness.
c. Access is appropriately authorized.
II. If an exception report control, does the control detail:
a. What information is contained in the report?
b. Who reviews the report and how often?
c. What follow-up activities are performed for
exceptions/errors detected?
d. How are file transfers reviewed for completeness and
accuracy?
e. How often do file transfers occur?
f. What system generates the report?
III. If a management review/monitoring control, does the control
detail:
a. How often are reports/results reviewed?
b. What is the purpose of the review?
c. Who performs?
d. Follow up procedures for discrepancies/unusual

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 16

variances?
IV. If a segregation of duties control, does the control detail:
a. Which responsibilities are segregated?
b. How are duties segregated? (view / read-only)
c. Does an organization or department chart exist, and where
is it located?
V. If an approval or authorization control, does the control detail:
a. Whether it is manually documented or system driven?
b. Who approves (what level of management?)
c. Existence of an established level of authorization?
VI. If a reconciliation control, does the control detail:
a. Who prepares and performs the reconciliation?
b. What is the purpose of the reconciliation?
c. Who reviews the reconciliation?
d. What is the evidence of the review? ( manager approval)
e. What reports are used and which systems generate the
reports used?
f. How are differences investigated / resolved?
VII. If a document control, does the control detail that:
a. Documents are pre-numbered and system generated (e.g.,
sales orders, invoices etc)
b. Documents are safeguarded (e.g., physical controls over
checks, contracts, manual journal entry logs, etc.)?
VIII. If a physical asset control, does the control detail:
a. How is the access to the asset and related record keeping
appropriately restricted and is it reviewed periodically?
b. What procedures ensure the accuracy of the related record
keeping (activity logs)?
IV. If a system based control, does the control detail:
a. All key fields for data entry must contain valid information
(e.g., current date, established dollar range) in order for a
record to be accepted.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 17

b. Information is validated against a master table (e.g.,


customer number, product number, vendor number, PO
number).
c. Master tables are reviewed and updated regularly to
ensure accuracy and table data is safeguarded.
d. Duplicate postings/entries are not accepted.
e. Accounting period-end cut-off dates are enforced by the
system.
f. System-based control overrides must be authorized.

Additional Considerations:
A) Is the methodology explained / documented in the control
descriptions for formulas etc?
B) Is the control frequency documented e.g., quarterly, monthly,
weekly, daily, multiple times daily?
C) The control description adequately explains how it mitigates
the risk?
D) Is the control type (Preventive, Detective, Corrective) listed?
Is the control type listed accurate?
E) Is the control owner listed?
F) Are only position titles (not names) utilized in the RCM?
G) Is the control technique (Systemic, Manual) listed?
Is the control technique listed accurate?
H) Is the control level (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary) listed?
Is the control level listed accurate?
I)

Is the COSO component identified?


Is the COSO component identified accurate?

J) Has the preparer assessed the design effectiveness?


K) Do you agree with the assessment of design effectiveness?
L) Has the preparer documented any deficiencies (Control gaps)
in the design effectiveness?

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 18

Mdulo 4
Unidad 4
Lecturas complementarias
(segunda parte)
Materia: Ingls tcnico
Profesora: Patricia Rivera

Process Flow Map / Work day:

WD 1
IT Department
generates Stock Ledger
report (in Inventory
system) for input into the
General Ledger (GL)
System

Sales and Inventory


systems are closed on
last day of period

Information Technology
General Ledger Group
AP Department

WD 2 through WD 5
IT Department
generates sales
spreadsheet (in Sales
system) for upload into
the GL system

END

GL Personnel are responsible for


entries such as fixed assets, prepaid
amort., Payroll, etc.

Summary page of Stock


Ledger report is printed
which lists all
transactions into
Inventory system for the
month

GL Group receives
Stock Ledger report
for manual entry of
cost entries GL
system

Reverse accrual
entries from prior
month

START
1

Recurring entries
are made (2 types:
(1) same amount
each month (2)
different amount but
recurring entry each
month)

Personnel within GL
Group close specific
financial statement
captions

GL Group receives
sales spreadsheet
from IT and uploads
to GL

3
5a

Accounts Payable
close - all AP
related accruals
booked by AP
Department

11
6

Reversing entries
are completed
right after the
previous months
close

Page 2

10

Flowchart Legend
END
Risk

The AP close process is a separate process


performed by AP Dept. (see narrative on AP close
process for further details)
Report

Control in
place,
operating
effectively

Control in
place, not
operating
effectively

System

Predefined
Process

No control
in place

Notes

Flow
Terminator

Off-page
Connector

Process

Decision
Point

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 2

KEY CONTROLS
1
2

Various review activities are performed throughout the close process to verify financial data. These activities include the Finance departments (Finance) review of intercompany account
balances for discrepancies, review of currency translation adjustments, and review of prior and current year accumulated deficit balances.
Systematic security roles exist, which grant access rights based on the needs of each department.

Accrual reversing entries are completed utilizing an automated process within the General Ledger (GL) system . This process occurs after the previous month's close process.

A number of controls exist in the Accounts Payable (AP) close process. See narrative regarding the AP Close Process - identifying risks and controls specific to that process.

The Inventory Control group* performs a daily reconciliation of Inventory system and GL system data.

6
7
8
9
10

The accounting system has functionality to set up recurring journal entries and to indicate a range of dates for which the entries will be valid.
All journal entries are prepared using a standard electronic journal entry form within GL system.
The Accounting Manager* reviews all journal entries.
System access to post journal entries (JE) is limited to 3 persons in Finance. The Accounting Manager* is the primary person responsible for posting entries, while the others* serve as backup.
Supporting documentation for journal entries is retained and is used to validate entry postings.

11

Each month, the Accounting Manager* prepares a schedule for the "close the books" process that identifies the critical closing tasks, the personnel responsible for completing the tasks, and the
corresponding due dates. The schedule is posted on the server and is accessible to the GL group* and appropriate department managers*.

12

Exchange rates used for translation are obtained from a reliable, external source. The Company uses OANDA (www.oanda.com), a currency and foreign exchange service, to determine their
exchange rate.

13
14

15
16
17
18

Exchange rates are input into the system and the foreign entity's financial statements are automatically calculated.
Tax information is obtained from a knowledgeable and competent source. The Company employs outside tax professionals* to identify and provide the necessary information. Monthly tax entries are
recorded based on the tax rate provided.
The general ledger is closed at month-end to prevent entries from being made after the books are closed.
The Accounting Manager reconciles Foreign Branch data entered into spreadsheet to the data reported on the Foreign Branchs accounting group's balance sheet and income statement.
All intercompany accounts and transactions are reconciled for accuracy of reporting of intercompany transactions between entities.
CFO*, VP Controller*, and Director of FP&A* review consolidated financial statements for accuracy.

19

Financial Statements are reviewed for accuracy by appropriate personnel (outside of finance), including department heads* and external auditors*.

20

Account reconciliations are reviewed by the Accounting Manager*.

21

Elimination entries are limited, due to the fact that only two GL accounts are utilized for intercompany transactions. Intercompany transactions are reconciled and the Accounting Manager* ensures
the intercompany accounts are equal to zero upon elimination of the intercompany accounts.

* Personnel appear knowledgeable and competent with regards to applicable responsibilities and tasks.

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Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 4

Mdulo 4
Unidad 4
Lecturas complementarias
(tercera parte)

Materia: Ingls tcnico


Profesora: Patricia Rivera

Lectura N 3: Glossary of Labor


Relations
http://www.umbc.edu/collectivebargaining/glossary.html
Note: These definitions are general and may be defined differently in the
future by the Board of Regents and/or the State Higher Education Labor
Relations Board (SHELRB).
Agent - Representante
A person acting for an employer or a union. Acts of the agent implicates
the principal for whom the agent acts in matters of unfair labor practices
or of conduct subject to court action whether or not specifically
authorized or approved.
Arbitration - Arbitraje
Where it is available, a method of settling a labor-management dispute
by having an impartial third party hold a formal hearing, take testimony
and render a decision. The decision is usually binding upon the parties
(i.e., the University, the union and the employees).
Authorization Card Tarjeta de autorizacin
A form voluntarily signed by an employee whereby the employee
authorizes a labor organization (union) to represent him/her for the
purpose of collective bargaining. Some cards will also state that the
employee desires an election to be held to determine whether or not the
union has the full support of the majority of the employees in the
bargaining unit.
Award - Adjudicacin
The decision of an arbitrator in a dispute. The arbitrator's award is based
upon the evidence presented, the wording in the collective bargaining
agreement and the arguments of both parties. In labor arbitration, the
arbitrator's reasons are generally expressed in the form of a written
opinion, which accompanies the award.
Bargaining Agent Agente negociador
A labor organization that is the exclusive representative of all employees
in a bargaining unit, both union and non-union members.
Business Agent/Rep Agente / Representante de Negocios

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A full-time paid union official who handles grievances, helps enforce


collective bargaining agreements and performs other tasks in the day-today operation of a union.
Certification - Certificacin
A determination by the labor board that a particular labor organization
has received a majority of the ballots cast in a representation election
held among employees in a bargaining unit.
Cease-and-Desist Order Orden de suspensin y desistimiento
A written statement issued by the labor board requiring the employer or
union to abstain from conduct which has been found to be an unfair
labor practice.
Checkoff - Deduccin
A provision, generally found in the collective bargaining agreement or
MOU, that allows union dues, assessments and initiation fees to be
deducted from the pay of union members who decide to use the check
off. The employer then transfers the payments to the union on a
scheduled basis.
Collective Bargaining Negociacin Colectiva
A method of mutually determining wages, hours and terms and
conditions of employment through negotiations between representatives
of the employer and the union. The results of the bargaining are set forth
in a collective bargaining agreement. Collective bargaining determines
the conditions of employment for all employees holding jobs in a
bargaining unit.
Collective Bargaining Agreement Convenio Colectivo
A written agreement or contract that is the result of negotiations
between an employer and a union. It sets out the conditions of
employment (wages, hours, benefits, etc.) and ways to settle disputes
arising during the term of the contract. Collective bargaining agreements
usually run for a definite period--one, two or three years. Synonymous
with Memorandum of Understanding or MOU.
Confidential Employee Empleado que maneja informacin
confidencial o reservada
An employee whose job requires him/her to develop or present
management positions on labor relations and/or collective bargaining,
or whose duties normally require access to confidential information that
contributes significantly to the development of such management
positions. Confidential jobs are not in the bargaining unit and do not
have the right to bargain collectively. Note: Under Maryland law, the
Board of Regents has the authority to define this term.

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Employee Organization Organizacin de Empleados (una especie


de sindicato)
Any organization of University employees that exists either partly or
solely for the purpose of dealing with the University over grievances,
work disputes, wages, hours and other terms and conditions of
employment.
Exclusionary Process Proceso de Exclusin
Discussions and, if necessary, a labor board hearing to determine which
employee positions should be excluded from a bargaining unit because
the positions are managerial, supervisory or confidential.
Exclusive Representative Representante Exclusivo
An employee organization that has the right to solely represent the
bargaining unit for purposes of collective bargaining.
Fair Share Cuota Sindical Nivelada
A fee (usually called an agency fee) paid to the union by members of a
bargaining unit who have not joined that union. The fee pays for services
and benefits that the union has negotiated for all members of the
bargaining unit. Note: Presently not allowed by Maryland higher
education collective bargaining law.
Free Riders - Oportunistas
A term used by unions to designate non-members within the bargaining
unit who obtain, without cost, the benefits of a contract/MOU gained
through the efforts of the dues--paying members.
Grievance Queja / Reclamo
A formal complaint usually lodged by an employee or the union alleging
a misinterpretation or improper application of one or more terms in a
collective bargaining contract/MOU. The method for dealing with
grievances is through a grievance procedure negotiated in the union
contract/MOU. If a grievance cannot be settled at the supervisory level,
it can be appealed to higher levels of management. Note: Maryland law
establishes the employee grievance procedures for University employees.
Grievance Arbitration Arbitraje Conciliatorio
The appeal of grievances to an impartial arbitrator for final and binding
determination. Sometimes called arbitration of "rights." The arbitrator
determines the meaning of the contract/MOU and clarifies and
interprets its terms. Arbitration, where it is available, is usually the last
step in the grievance procedure. Note: Maryland law establishes the
employee grievance procedures for University employees.

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 4

Grievance Procedure Procedimiento Conciliatorio o de Resolucin


de Conflictos
The steps established in a collective bargaining contract/MOU for the
handling of grievances made by or on behalf of employees. Note:
Maryland law establishes the employee grievance procedures for
University procedures.
Impasse Impasse o Punto Muerto
A deadlock in negotiations. After bargaining in good faith, the parties
have failed the reach an agreement on one or more issues. Note: There is
presently no procedure in Maryland higher education collective
bargaining law which deals with resolving an impasse.
Initiation Fee Tarifa de Matriculacin
A fee required by many unions of all new members or of employees who
have left the union and wish to return. Initiation fees may serve several
union purposes, including an additional source of revenue.
Labor Board Junta Laboral (representa al gobierno)
Defined by the Maryland higher education collective bargaining law as
the State Higher Education Labor Relations Board (SHELRB), an
independent State unit. The SHELRB is a five-member panel appointed
by the Governor after July 1, 2001, and approved by the Senate. The
SHELRB is responsible for establishing procedures for and overseeing
elections for exclusive representatives, as well as investigating and taking
action regarding unfair labor practices.
Labor Organizer Reclutador sindical
A person usually employed by a union (usually the regional or
international union), whose function it is to enlist the employees of a
particular employer to join the union.
Management's Rights Derechos de la Gerencia (o de la Direccin)
de la empresa
Certain rights that management maintains as fundamental to the ability
to manage and operate the organization. They are not required,
negotiable subjects of collective bargaining. These rights are often
expressly reserved to management in the management's rights clause of
the bargaining agreement. They include the right to hire, promote,
suspend or discharge employees; to direct the work of employees; and to
establish operating policies. Note: Maryland law establishes the
management's rights of the University.

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Managerial Employee Empleado Ejecutivo (tiene


responsabilidades de formulacin y administracin de polticas y
programas)
An employee who has significant responsibilities for formulating or
administering policies and programs. Note: Under Maryland law, the
Board of Regents has the authority to define this term.
Membership Card Tarjeta de membreca al organismo sindical
A form voluntarily signed by an employee whereby the employee joins
the labor organization and agrees to abide by its constitution and bylaws
and to pay its dues and fees.
Memorandum of Understanding/Labor Contract Convenio de
Acuerdo / Contrato Laboral
The resulting agreement reached by the parties during the
negotiations/bargaining process. Also known as a collective bargaining
agreement or contract.
Public Employee Empleado Pblico
A person who is employed by a municipal, county, state, or federal
agency or state college or university.
Representation Election Eleccin del Representante Negociador
Secret balloting by employees in a bargaining unit for the purpose of
selecting a bargaining agent or no representation.
Shop Steward/Steward Delegado Sindical
The union representative of a group of fellow employees who carries out
duties of the union within the workplace. Example: Handling grievances,
collecting dues, recruiting new members and monitoring compliance
with the contract.
The steward usually is either elected by other union members or
appointed by higher union officials. The steward usually remains an
employee while handling union business. Some release time (with or
without pay) may be available to stewards under specific language in
many collective bargaining contracts.
Supervisor - Supervisor
An individual (regardless of his/her job description or title) having
authority, in the interest of the employer, to hire, transfer, suspend, lay
off, recall, promote, discharge, assign, reward or discipline other
employees of the employer. A supervisory employee is also one who has
responsibility for directing employees, answering their grievances, or
recommending disciplinary action, if authority is not merely clerical but

Materia: Ingls Tcnico Profesora: Patricia Rivera | 6

requires independent judgment. Note: Under Maryland law, the Board


of Regents has the authority to define this term.
Unfair Labor Practice Prctica Laboral Injusta
An act or omission on the part of either the union or management which
violates the regulations set forth by the State Higher Education Labor
Relations Board.

Lectura N 4: Collective bargaining


Collective bargaining and labor arbitration: an overview
Collective bargaining consists of negotiations between an employer and a
group of employees so as to determine the conditions of employment.
The result of collective bargaining procedures is a collective agreement.
Employees are often represented in bargaining by a union or other labor
organization. Collective bargaining is governed by federal and state
statutory laws, administrative agency regulations, and judicial decisions.
In areas where federal and state law overlap, state laws are preempted.
See, U.S. Constitution, Art. VI.
The main body of law governing collective bargaining is the National
Labor Relations Act (NLRA). It explicitly grants employees the right to
collectively bargain and join trade unions. The NLRA was originally
enacted by Congress in 1935 under its power to regulate interstate
commerce. See, U.S. Constitution Art. I, Section 8. It applies to most
private non-agricultural employees and employers engaged in some
aspect of interstate commerce. Decisions and regulations of the National
Labor Relations Board, which was established by the NLRA, greatly
supplement and define the provisions of the act.
The NLRA establishes procedures for the selection of a labor
organization to represent a unit of employees in collective bargaining.
The act prohibits employers from interfering with this selection. The
NLRA requires the employer to bargain with the appointed
representative of its employees. It does not require either side to agree to
a proposal or make concessions but does establish procedural guidelines
on good faith bargaining. Proposals which would violate the NLRA or
other laws may not be subject to collective bargaining. The NLRA also
establishes regulations on what tactics (e.g. strikes, lock-outs, picketing)
each side may employ to further their bargaining objectives.
State laws further regulate collective bargaining and make collective
agreements enforceable under state law. They may also provide
guidelines for those employers and employees not covered by the NLRA,
such as agricultural laborers.

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Arbitration is a method of dispute resolution used as an alternative to


litigation. It is commonly designated in collective agreements between
employers and employees as the way to resolve disputes. The parties
select a neutral third party (an arbiter) to hold a formal or informal
hearing on the disagreement. The arbiter then issues a decision binding
on the parties. Both federal and state law governs the practice of
arbitration. While the Federal Arbitration Act, by its own terms, is not
applicable to employment contracts, federal courts are increasingly
applying the law in labor disputes. Fourty-nine states have adopted the
Uniform Arbitration Act (1956) as state law. Thus, the arbitration
agreement and decision of the arbiter may be enforceable under state
and federal law.

Lectura N 5: Leadership Management


Glossary and Definitions
http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leaddef.html
Affirmative action
A hiring policy that requires employers to analyze the work force for
under-representation of protected classes. It involves recruiting
minorities and members of protected classes, changing management
attitudes or prejudices towards them, removing discriminatory
employment practices, and giving preferred treatment to protected
classes.
Assessing
The process of conducting In Process Reviews (IPRs) and After Action
Reviews (AARs). IPRs help to determine initial expectations, ascertain
strengths and weakness of both employees and the organization, and
identify key issues and organizations whose willing support is needed to
accomplish the mission. AARs determine how well the goals are being
accomplished, usually by identifying areas to sustain and improve.
Attributes
Characteristics or qualities or properties. Attributes of the leader fall into
three categories: mental, physical, and emotional.
Beliefs
Assumptions and convictions that a person holds to be true regarding
people, concepts, or things.

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Benchmarking
The process of measuring the organization's products, services, cost,
procedures, etc. against competitors or other organizations that display a
"best in class" record.
Brainstorming
A technique for teams that is used to generate ideas on a subject. Each
person on the team is asked to think creatively and write down as many
ideas as possible. After the writing session, the ideas are discussed by the
team.
Capacity
The capability of a worker, system, or organization to produce output per
time period. It can be classified as budgeted, dedicated, demonstrated,
productive, protective, rated, safety, or theoretical.
Communicating
Comprises the ability to express oneself effectively in individual and
group situations, either orally or in writing. It involves a sender
transmitting an idea to a receiver.
Conflict of interest
Any business activity, personal or company related, that interferes with
the company's goals or that entails unethical or illegal actions.
Constraint
Any element or factor that prevents a person from reaching a higher
lever of performance with respect to her goal.
Corporate culture
The set of important assumptions that members of the company share. It
is a system of shared values about what is important and beliefs about
how the company works. These common assumptions influence the ways
the company operates.
Corrective action
The implementation of solutions resulting in the reduction or
elimination of an identified problem.
Counseling
Talking with a person in a way that helps that person solve a problem or
helps to create conditions that will cause the person to improve his
behavior, character, or values. Providing basic, technical, and sometimes

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professional assistance to employees in order to help them with personal


and work related problems.
Culture
The long-term complex phenomenon that can be affected by strategic
leaders. Culture represents the shared expectations and self-image of the
organization. The mature values that create "tradition", the play out of
"climate" or "the feel of the organization" over time, and the deep,
unwritten code that frames "how we do things around here" contribute
to the culture. Organizational culture is a system of shared values,
assumptions, beliefs, and norms that unite the members of the
organization. Individual leaders cannot easily create or change culture.
Decision making
The process of reaching logical conclusions, solving problems, analyzing
factual information, and taking appropriate actions based on the
conclusions.
Decision matrix
A matrix used by teams to evaluate possible solutions to problems. Each
solution is listed. Criteria are selected and listed on the top row to rate
the possible solutions. Each possible solution is rated on a scale from 1 to
5 for each criterion and the rating recorded in the corresponding grid.
The ratings of all the criteria for each possible solution are added to
determine each solution's score. The scores are then used to help decide
which solution deserves the most attention.

Solutions

Criterion 1

Criterion 2

Criterion 3

Hire new personnel

Train the workers we


have

Simplify the process

Deficiency
Failure to meet a set performance standard.

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Deming's 14 points
Management philosophy to help organizations increase their quality and
productivity:
1. Create constancy of purpose for improving product or service.
2. Adopt the new philosophy.
3. Stop dependency on inspection to achieve quality
4. End the practice of awarding business on price alone - minimize cost
by working with a single vendor.
5. Constantly improve every process for planning, production, and
service.
6. Institute training on the job.
7. Adopt and institute leadership.
8. Drive out fear.
9. Break down barriers between staff areas.
10.
Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force.
11. Eliminate numerical quotas and goals for the workforce and
management.
12.Remove barriers that rob people of pride in workmanship and
eliminate the annual rating or merit system.
13.Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement for
everyone.
14.Put everyone in the organization to work to accomplish the
transformation.
Diversity
Committing to establish an environment where the full potential of all
employees can be tapped by paying attention to, and taking into account
their differences in work background, experience, age, gender, race, ethic
origin, physical abilities, religious belief, sexual orientation, and other
perceived differences.
Efficiency
A measure (as a percentage) of the actual output to the standard output
expected. Efficiency measures how well someone is performing relative
to expectations.
Empowerment
A condition whereby employees have the authority to make decisions
and take action in their work areas, jobs, or tasks without prior approval.
It allows the employees the responsibility normally associated with
staffs. Examples are scheduling, quality, or purchasing decisions.
Environment

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1. The political, strategic, or operational context within the organization.


2. The external environment is the environment outside the
organization.
Ethical climate
The "feel of the organization" about the activities that have ethical
content or those aspects of the work environment that constitute ethical
behavior. The ethical climate is the feel about whether we do things
right; or the feel of whether we behave the way we ought to behave.
Evaluation
Judging the worth, quality, or significance of people, ideas, or things.
Executing
The ability to complete individual and organizational assigned tasks
according to specified standards and within certain time criteria or event
criteria.
Feedback
The flow of information back to the learner so that actual performance
can be compared with planned performance.
Five why's
The practice of (Japanese) asking "why" five times when confronted with
a problem. By the time the fifth why is answered, they believe they have
found the ultimate cause of the problem.
Flexibility
The ability of a system to respond quickly, in terms of range and time, to
external or internal changes.
Flextime
An arrangement in which employees are allowed to choose work hours
as long as the standard number of work hours are met. Also, some
flextime systems require that the hours fall within a certain range, e.g.
5:00 A.M. to 9:00 P.M.
Follow-up
Monitoring of job, task, or project progress to see that operations are
performed on schedule.
Improving
A focus on sustaining and renewing the development of individuals and
the organization (with a time horizon from months to decades) that

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requires a need for experimentation and innovation with results that are
difficult to quantify. Usually it entails long-term, complex outcomes.
Integrity
A moral virtue that encompasses the sum total of a person's set of values
and moral code. A breach of any of these values will damage the integrity
of the individual. Integrity, comes from the same Latin root (integritas)
as the word "integer," refers to a notion of completeness, wholeness, and
uniqueness. Integrity also entails the consistent adherence of action to
one's personal moral beliefs.
Job enlargement
An increase in the number of tasks that an employee performs. It is
associated with the design of jobs to reduce employee dissatisfaction.
Job enrichment
An increase in the number of tasks that an employee performs and an
increase in the control over those tasks. It is associated with the design of
jobs and is an extension of job enlargement.
Kaizen
The Japanese term for improvement. It involves both workers and
managers.
Leadership
The process of influencing people while operating to meet organizational
requirements and improving the organization through change.
Learning curve
A curve reflecting the rate of improvement in performing a new task as a
learner practices and uses her newly acquired skills.
Management by objectives (MBO)
A participative goal-setting process that enables the manager or
supervisor to construct and communicate the goals of the department to
each subordinate. At the same time, the subordinate is able to formulate
personal goals and influence the department's goals.
Model
(1) A person that serves as a target subject for a learner to emulate. (2) A
representation of a process or system that show the most important
variables in the system in such a way that analysis of the model leads to
insights into the system.

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Motivation
The combination of a person's desire and energy directed at achieving a
goal. It is the cause of action.
Participative leadership
A style of leadership in which the leader involves one or more employees
in determining what to do and how to do it. The leader maintains final
decision making authority.
Performance efficiency
A ratio (percentage) of the actual output of a person as compared to the
desired or planned output.
Performance rating
Observation of a person's performance to rate productivity in terms of
the performance standard
Performance standard
A criterion or benchmark against which actual performance is measured.
Planning
A course of action for oneself and others to accomplish goals;
establishing priorities and planning appropriate allocation of time and
resources and proper assignment of people to achieve feasible,
acceptable, and suitable goals.
Plan-do-check-action (PDCA)
Sometimes referred to as the Shewhart Cycle, for the inventor - Walter A.
Shewhart. A four step process for quality improvement:

Plan - A plan to effect improvement is developed


Do - The plan is carried out, first, on a small scale if possible
Check - The effects of the plan are observed
Action - The results are studied and observed to determine what
was learned and what can be predicted

Process improvement
Activities designed to identify and eliminate causes of poor quality,
process variation, and non-value added activities.
Productivity
An overall measure of the ability to produce a product or service. It is the
actual output of production compared to the actual input of resources.

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Quality
Conformance to the requirements of a stated product or service
attribute.
Selfless service
The proper ordering of priorities. Think of it as service before self. The
welfare of the organization come before the individual. This does not
mean that the individual neglects to take care of family or self. Also, it
does not preclude the leader from having a healthy ego or self esteem,
nor does it preclude the leader from having a healthy sense of ambition.
It does, however, preclude selfish careerism.
Self-directed work team
A small independent, self-organized, and self-controlling group in which
members plan, organize, determine, and manage their duties and
actions, as well as perform many other supportive functions.
Seven tools of quality
Tools that help an organization understand its processes in order to
improve them:

Cause and effect diagram (Ishikawa diagram) - A tool developed by


Kaoru Ishikawa for analyzing process dispersion. It illustrates the
main causes and subcauses leading to an effect or symptom. It is
sometimes referred to as a fishbone chart because it resembles a fish
skeleton.
Check sheet - A data recording tool designed by the user to facilitate
the interpretation of results.
Control chart - A graphic comparison of actual performance with
precomputed control limits. The performance data consists of groups
of measurements selected in sequence of production that preserves
the order. It is used to detect assignable causes of variation in a
process as opposed to random variation.
Flowchart - A type of planning and control chart designed to show
graphically the relationship between planned performance and
actual performance over time. It was named after its originator,
Henry L. Gantt. It follows job progress, where one horizontal line
represents the time schedule and another adjacent line represents
the actual performance of the project.
Histogram - A graph of contiguous vertical bars representing a
frequency distribution in which the groups of items are marked on
the x axis and the number of items in each class is indicated on the y
axis. The pictorial nature allows people to see patterns that are
difficult to see in a table of numbers.
Pareto chart - A graphical tool for ranking causes from most
significant to least significant. It is based on the Pareto principle
which states that a small percentage of a group accounts for the
largest fraction of the impact, value, etc. That is 80% of the effects
come from 20% of the possible causes.

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Scatter chart - A graphical technique used to analyze the relationship


between two variables. Two sets of data are plotted on a graph, with
the y axis used for the variable to be predicted, and the x axis used
for the variable to make the prediction.

Skills (competencies)
Those abilities that people develop and use with people, with ideas, and
with things, hence, the division of interpersonal, cognitive, and technical
skills.
Standard
An established norm against which measurements are compared. The
time allowed to perform a task including the quality and quantity of
work to be produced.
Standard time
The length of time that should be required to perform a task through one
complete cycle. It assumes an average worker follows prescribed
procedures and allows time for rest to overcome fatigue.
Stress
The real or perceived demand on the mind, emotions, spirit, or body.
Too much stress puts an undo amount of pressure upon us and drives us
into a state of tension. Controlled stress is good as it is what motivates
us.
Supervising
The ability to establish procedures for monitoring and regulating
processes, tasks, or activities of employees and one's own job, taking
actions to monitor the results of delegated tasks or projects.
Theory of constraints (TOC)
A management philosophy developed by Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldratt that is
broken down into three interrelated areas - logistics, performance
measurement, and logical thinking. Logistics include drum-buffer-rope
scheduling, buffer management, and VAT analysis. Performance
measurement includes throughput, inventory and operating expense,
and the five focusing steps. Logical thinking includes identifying the root
problem (current reality tree), identifying and expanding win-win
solutions (evaporating cloud and future reality tree), and developing
implementation plans (prerequisite tree and transition tree).
Total employee involvement
An empowerment technique where employees participate in actions and
decision making that were traditionally reserved for management.

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Total quality management (TQM)


Describes Japanese style management approaches to quality
improvement. It includes the long term success of the organization
through customer satisfaction and is based on participation of all
members of the organization in improving process, products, service,
culture, etc.
Trait
A distinguishing quality or characteristic of a person. For a trait to be
developed in a person, that person must first believe in and value that
trait.
Values
Ideas about the worth or importance of things, concepts, and people.
Worker efficiency
A measure (usually computed as a percentage) of worker performance
that compares the standard time allowed to complete a task to the actual
worker time to complete it.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Notes: Created May 11, 1997. Updated October 3, 2009
A Big Dog, Little Dog and Knowledge Jump Production. Contact:
donclark@nwlink.com

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4.7Reported Speech [Discurso Indirecto]


Usamos el discurso indirecto para informar lo que dijo alguien ms. Al pasar
el discurso directo a indirecto, no usamos comillas.
Observe cul es la secuencia de tiempos verbales que debe usar cuando el
verbo usado para reportar est en pasado.
QUOTED SPEECH
Ed said, I walk home every day.
Ed said, I walked home.
Ed said, I will walk home.
Ed said, I am walking home.
Ed said, I was walking home
Ed said, I will be walking home.
Ed said, I have walked home.
Ed said, I had walked home
Ed said, I will have walked home
Ed said, I have been walking home
Ed said, I had been walking home
Ed said, I will have been walking home
Ed said, I am going to walk home.
Ed said, I can walk home.
Ed said, I could walk home.
Ed said, I may walk home.
Ed said, I might walk home.
Ed said, I must walk home.
Ed said, I have to walk home.
Ed said, I should walk home.
Ed said, I ought to walk home.
Ed said, I would walk home.
Ed said, I used to walk home.
Ed said, I should have walked home.
Ed said, Walk home. Dont take a cab.
Ed said, Do you walk home?
Ed said, Wny did you walk home?

REPORTED SPEECH
Ed said (that) he walked home every day.
Ed said he had walked home.
Ed said he would walk home.
Ed said he was walking home.
Ed said he had been walking home
Ed said he would be walking home.
Ed said he had walked home.
Ed said he had walked home
Ed said he would have walked home
Ed said he had been walking home
Ed said he had been walking home
Ed said he would have been walking home
Ed said he was going to walk home.
Ed said he could walk home.
Ed said he could walk home.
Ed said he might walk home.
Ed said he might walk home.
Ed said he had to walk home.
Ed said he had to walk home.
Ed said he should walk home.
Ed said he ought to walk home.
Ed said he would walk home.
Ed said he used to walk home.
Ed said he should have walked home.
Ed told me to walk home. He told me not to take a cab.
Ed asked (me) if / whether I walked home?
Ed asked (me) why I had walked home?