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Product Name

Confidentiality Level

GSM BSC

INTERNAL

Product Version

Total 88 pages

GSM Data Transmission Troubleshooting Guide


(For internal use only)

Prepared
by

GSM&UMTS Network
Performance Research Department

Date

Reviewed
by

Date

Reviewed
by

Date

Granted by

Date

2010-07-05

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


All rights reserved

GSM Data Transmission

INTERNAL

Change History
Date

Version

Description

Author

2010-06-01

V 0.1

The first draft was completed.

Shi Juan

2010-07-04

V 1.0

1.

The document was completely


revised according to the template.

Xu Chenhui, Xu
Pengfei, Shi Yuan

2.

The flow charts and detailed


descriptions were provided based on the CQT, DT,
and KPI analysis.

3.

The introduction to the algorithm


was added.

2010-07-25

2016-1-6

V 1.1

The document was revised according to the review


comments.

Huawei Confidential

Zhi Jianwei, Xu
Chenhui

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Contents
1 Background................................................................................10
2 Basic Principles........................................................................... 11
2.1 (E)GPRS Networking Architecture and Application.......................................................................................11
2.2 Introduction to CQT and DT...........................................................................................................................12
2.3 Performance Baseline of the (E)GPRS Network.............................................................................................12
2.4 Introduction to the Algorithm..........................................................................................................................13
2.4.1 Introduction to Channel Resource Management Algorithm...................................................................13
2.4.2 Introduction to Link Quality Management Algorithm...........................................................................14
2.4.3 Mechanism of Link Synchronization/Channel Synchronization............................................................16

3 KPI Definitions............................................................................18
3.1 DT KPI (DT/CQT)...........................................................................................................................................18
3.2 Traffic Statistics KPI........................................................................................................................................18

4 Troubleshooting Process..............................................................20
4.1 Process for Troubleshooting Data Transmission Rate Problem......................................................................20
4.1.1 General Idea for Troubleshooting...........................................................................................................20
4.1.2 Process for Troubleshooting DT KPI (DT/CQT) Problem.....................................................................22
4.1.3 Process for Troubleshooting Traffic Statistics KPI Problem..................................................................28
4.1.4 Process for Troubleshooting User Complaint Problem..........................................................................33
4.2 Explanation of Each Action in the Troubleshooting Process...........................................................................36
4.2.1 Data Collection.......................................................................................................................................36
4.2.2 Parameter Health Check.........................................................................................................................42
4.2.3 Troubleshooting of Fault Alarms of Important Devices and Transmission............................................42
4.2.4 Troubleshooting of Test Cases................................................................................................................43
4.2.5 Key Parameter Mapping Check.............................................................................................................45
4.2.6 Preliminary Analysis of KPIs and Formula Mapping............................................................................47

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4.2.7 Troubleshooting of the TOP Cells..........................................................................................................48


4.2.8 Troubleshooting of the SIM Subscription Capability.............................................................................49
4.2.9 Troubleshooting of the Terminal............................................................................................................53
4.2.10 Troubleshooting of the Laptop.............................................................................................................56
4.2.11 Troubleshooting of Packet Loss over the Gb Interface and Upper Interfaces......................................57
4.2.12 Troubleshooting of Packet Loss over the Gi and Upper Interfaces......................................................60
4.2.13 Troubleshooting of Transmission over the Gb Interface......................................................................61
4.2.14 Impact of Each Factor..........................................................................................................................63
4.2.15 Troubleshooting of the BLER and High Coding Ratio........................................................................64
4.2.16 Troubleshooting of the Air Interface Quality.......................................................................................65
4.2.17 Troubleshooting of the Transmission Quality......................................................................................69
4.2.18 Troubleshooting of the Radio Resource...............................................................................................70
4.2.19 Troubleshooting of the Transmission Resource...................................................................................73
4.2.20 Troubleshooting of RA Update and Cell Reselection..........................................................................75
4.2.21 Analysis of Major KPIs for the Compliant Problem............................................................................77

5 Feedback.................................................................................... 79
5.1 Troubleshooting Checklist for Data Transmission..........................................................................................79

6 Appendix.................................................................................... 83
6.1 Guide to Preliminary Troubleshooting of a Single Point Based on the TEMS Log........................................83
6.1.1 Using the TEMS Log to Find the Faulty Cell with Insufficient Downlink Used Timeslots..................83
6.1.2 Using the TEMS Log to Find the Cell with High Multiplexing Degree................................................84
6.1.3 Using the TEMS Log to Find the Cell with Low Usage of High Coding..............................................84
6.1.4 Using the TEMS Log to Find the Location with Frequent Cell Reselections and RA Updates.............85
6.2 Guide to the Measurement Criteria for the Abis Transmission Resources......................................................85

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Figures
Figure 2-1 GPRS networking................................................................................................................................11
Figure 4-1 Overall troubleshooting process..........................................................................................................21
Figure 4-2 Legend.................................................................................................................................................23
Figure 4-3 Terminal troubleshooting....................................................................................................................23
Figure 4-4 Troubleshooting of the Gb interface and upper interfaces..................................................................24
Figure 4-5 B-side troubleshooting........................................................................................................................26
Figure 4-6 KPI troubleshooting process (a)..........................................................................................................29
Figure 4-7 KPI troubleshooting process (b)..........................................................................................................31
Figure 4-8 Complaint troubleshooting process.....................................................................................................33
Figure 4-9 Tracing the single user signaling by using the LMT tool....................................................................38
Figure 4-10 Wireshark Network Analyzer............................................................................................................39
Figure 4-11 Capture Options.................................................................................................................................40
Figure 4-12 Using the Wireshark to capture packets............................................................................................41
Figure 4-13 Saving captured packets....................................................................................................................41
Figure 4-14 Using the TEMS tool to open the log file.........................................................................................49
Figure 4-15 Using the TEMS tool to play back the log file..................................................................................50
Figure 4-16 GSM PDP context in the TEMS log.................................................................................................50
Figure 4-17 Layer 3 message in the TEMS log....................................................................................................50
Figure 4-18 GSM PDP context in the TEMS log.................................................................................................51
Figure 4-19 Layer-3 message in the TEMS log....................................................................................................51

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Figure 4-20 PDP activation acceptance message in the single user signaling......................................................51
Figure 4-21 Using the TEMS to open the PDP context........................................................................................52
Figure 4-22 PDP context.......................................................................................................................................52
Figure 4-23 Attach request....................................................................................................................................54
Figure 4-24 Packet resource request.....................................................................................................................54
Figure 4-25 Downlink LLC PDU.........................................................................................................................55
Figure 4-26 Using the Wireshark tool to open the specific file............................................................................58
Figure 4-27 Captured packet information in the Wireshark.................................................................................59
Figure 4-28 Captured packet information in the Wireshark.................................................................................59

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Tables
Table 2-1 Requirements of different coding schemes for the Um interface.........................................................15
Table 2-2 Requirements of different coding schemes for the timeslots on the Abis interface..............................15
Table 4-1 Comparison between test scripts...........................................................................................................44
Table 4-2 List of mappings of the key parameters................................................................................................45
Table 4-3 Troubleshooting checklist for the transmission bandwidth...................................................................62
Table 4-4 TEMS log report...................................................................................................................................64
Table 4-5 TEMS Log report..................................................................................................................................66
Table 4-6 Troubleshooting checklist for the air interface quality.........................................................................67
Table 4-7 Troubleshooting checklist for the Abis transmission quality................................................................69
Table 4-8 TEMS log report...................................................................................................................................71
Table 4-9 Troubleshooting checklist for the radio channel resource....................................................................72
Table 4-10 Troubleshooting checklist for the transmission resource....................................................................73
Table 4-11 TEMS log report..................................................................................................................................76
Table 4-12 Troubleshooting checklist for access performance and call drop performance..................................77

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GSM Data Transmission


Keywords:
DT KPI; traffic statistics KPI
Abstract
This document describes how to troubleshoot data transmission problems.
Acronyms and Abbreviations

2016-1-6

Acronym or
Abbreviation

Full Spelling

GSM

Global System for Mobile Communications

GPRS

General Packet Radio Service

EGPRS

Enhanced GPRS

PS

Packet Service

KPI

Key Performance Indicator

DT

Drive Test

CQT

Call Quality Test

LLC

Logic Link Control

RLC

Radio Link Control

RTT

Round Trip Time

PCU

Packet Control Unit

SGSN

Service GPRS Support Node

GGSN

Gateway GPRS Support Node

C/I

Carrier Interference ratio

MSS

Maximize Segment Size

BEP

Bit Error Probability

Abis

Interface between BSC and BTS

Gb

Interface between SGSN and BSS

Gi

Reference point between GPRS and external packet data


network

SIM

Subscriber Identity Module

TBF

Temporary Block Flow

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Acronym or
Abbreviation

Full Spelling

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol

IP

Internet Protocol

IR

Incremental Redundancy

LA

Link Adaptation

RA

Radio Access

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Background

In the last few years, the GSM data service has rapidly developed. How to solve the problem
of the performance KPIs for the data service is a major concern for the existing network.
Currently, the deliverable GSM networks involve new networks and migration networks. The
assessment methods include drive test (DT)/call quality test (CQT) key performance
indicators (KPIs) and traffic statistics KPIs. There are two assessment criteria, including
"better than the original network" and "reach the target value". In addition, customers are also
concerned about the problem handling scenario of a user complaint. The analysis method
varies from scenario to scenario. This document describes how to troubleshoot and locate data
transmission problems according to NE and related factors and provides solutions. This
enhances the readability and operability of the document and helps really troubleshoot
problems.
This document applies to V9R8 and V9R11.

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Basic Principles

2.1 (E)GPRS Networking Architecture and


Application
For end-to-end applications, an MS functions like the network card of the client to connect to
the GGSN through the GPRS network, and then to the Internet. This process is the same as
that when accessing the Internet through cables. The difference is that the MS is not
connected to the router directly through cables but through the GPRS network. Compared
with cables of 100 Mbit/s or higher bandwidth, the GPRS network has a longer RTT delay
and smaller bandwidth. In addition, the delay and the bandwidth vary with the actual
conditions.
From the perspective of the download rate, the target of GPRS network optimization is to
increase the bandwidth and reduce the delay (the advantages of a small delay are quite
obvious when you download small-sized files).
Figure 1.1 shows the GPRS networking.
Figure 1.1 GPRS networking

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Figure 1.1 shows a typical GPRS networking mode based on E1 transmission. Each interface
supports direct connection. Timeslot cross devices, that is, DXX devices, can be used for
transmission on the Gb interface and the G-Abis interface. If the external PCU is installed, the
PCU provides the Gb interface. The Pb interface between the PCU and the BSC usually
adopts the E1 direct connection mode.

2.2 Introduction to CQT and DT


Telecom operators assess the rate performance of a GPRS network through CQT and DT.
Why do telecom operators choose CQT and DT to assess the network performance?
As a fixed-point test, the CQT is conducted in places where the wireless conditions are good
and the C/I ratio is steady. The CQT performed in idle hours help check all the network
elements and transmission links between the Um interface and the Gi interface. Such CQT
can absolutely show the performance of the equipment. The CQT performed in busy hours
help check the quality of the resource management algorithms, including the algorithms
related to channels, Abis interface resources, and Gb interface resources.
The CQT performed in busy hours, however, bring great uncertainty. For example, if another
user is using the download service during the test, the download rate will be greatly affected.
In this case, the CQT cannot fully reflect the performance of the equipment. This is because
the impact of resource allocation is great. The test result can be used only for comparison of
the performance before and after the network swapping.
The DT result may be affected by large C/I fluctuation and cell reselection. The DT can be
used to assess the wireless coverage and interference, the quality of the algorithm for
adjusting the coding scheme, and the processing performance of the PCU during cell
reselection (as the handover function in the PS domain has not achieved yet). The DT,
however, also bring uncertainty. For example, in the case of red light, whether the C/I ratio is
good or and whether the signals are in deep fading points have great impact on the average
rate in the DT.

The algorithm for adjusting the coding scheme is also referred to as the link quality control algorithm, or
IR/LA algorithm. The reason for adjustment is that the required wireless quality, that is, C/I ratio, varies
with the coding schemes. For a specific C/I ratio, a proper coding scheme should be employed, to help
achieve the optimal balance between the data amount sent per unit time and the retransmission rate, thus
maximizing the transmission rate.

2.3 Performance Baseline of the (E)GPRS


Network
Calculate the theoretical performance limit of the product in the case that resources are
sufficient.

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Assume that the MSS value of the TCP negotiated between the server and the MS is 1460.
This is the default size of a TCP/IP data packet sent on the Ethernet. The data packet is
encapsulated according to the Ethernet protocols and a 20-byte TCP header and a 20-byte IP
header are added. The MTU value of the intermediate network is 1500. That is, no
fragmentation is performed. The size of an LLC PDU negotiated between the MS and the
SGNN is 506. The MSC9 coding scheme is employed on the Um interface.

Actually, if the MSS value is 1450 bytes, the data can be fragmented into three SNDCP packets to
achieve the highest encapsulation efficiency. When the MSS value is 1460 bytes, the efficiency to the
LLC layer is calculated as follows: 1460/ (1460+20+20+13+24) = 94.99%. When the MSS value is 1450
bytes, the efficiency to the LLC layer is calculated as follows: 1450/ (1450+20+20+10+18) = 95.52%.

For an EGPRS network, when the MCS9 is employed, the theoretical rate of a single channel
is 59.2 kbit/s. If four channels are used for transmission, one channel will be used as the
control channel. The control information accounts for about 19% of the data on the channel
before the Uplink ACK/NACK optimization scheme in uplink extension mode is
incorporated, and the control information accounts for about2% of the data on the channel
after the preceding optimization scheme is incorporated. Therefore, the data rate is 59.2 x (42%) = 235.616 kbit/s. Multiply the rate by the efficiency of the LLC layer to get the
maximum rate at the application layer in ideal situation, that is, 235.616 kbit/s x 95.52% =
225.06 kbit/s.
To achieve a rate close to the theoretical limit, do as follows: Download a large-sized file.
During the first stage of download, the TCP connection is just established, and the TCP uses
the slow start mechanism. Slow start means that the TCP layer sends data at a slow rate to
avoid network congestion when the TCP layer does not know the network transmission
bandwidth or quality or when the network transmission bandwidth is reducing or the
transmission quality is degrading. Therefore, the volume of the initially sent data is
insufficient. Each node tries not to discard packets, frames, or blocks. These nodes refer to the
IPBB, core network, Gb interface, PCU, G-Abis interface, BTS, and Um interface, as shown
in 2.1.1 IStep 1Figure 1.1. The flow control at each interface cannot be controlled to the
extent that the data is not enough for sending. The bandwidth of the radio interface must be
guaranteed and a maximum number of channels should be occupied. Currently, the multislot
capability of most testing MSs is 10 or 11, and a maximum of four downlink timeslots can be
occupied. The channels are not multiplexed by other MSs, and the MCS9 coding scheme can
be used steadily.
In the scenario where the radio environment condition is desirable (with the average C/I 25
dBm and not lower than 20 dBm), and the radio resources are sufficient, the DT test rate
baseline is 130 kbit/s, and the CQT test rate baseline is 200 kbit/s.

2.4 Introduction to the Algorithm


2.4.1 Introduction to Channel Resource Management
Algorithm
Allocating as many channels as possible to the MS is a method for ensuring the radio
interface bandwidth. The channel resource management algorithm allocates channels based on
the maximum capability of an MS. That is, the number of channels allocated to an MS

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corresponds to the multislot capability of the MS. In addition, the algorithm balances TBFs
among channels when possible. Block resources are allocated in the following principles: The
bandwidth for GBR users is guaranteed. The best fairness is achieved. That is, the polling
mechanism is used for the TBFs that are multiplexed onto the same channel.
The entire channel resource management algorithm consists of channel allocation, dynamic
channel conversion/release, and load balance. Channel resources consist of the channel pool
of CS (CSD) and the channel pool of PS (PSD). After configuration, static PDCHs are
grouped to the PSD, and dynamic PDCHs are grouped to the CSD. Dynamic channel
conversion is to group part of CSD channels to the PSD. The dynamic channel conversion can
be triggered by the following conditions: inadequate multislot capability, EGPRS MS
assigned to a GPRS channel, and load exceeding the Uplink Multiplex Threshold of Dynamic
Channel Conversion/Downlink Multiplex Threshold of Dynamic Channel Conversion.
Channel allocation is to assign the optimal channel group in the PSD to the MS. Load balance
is to redistribute all TBFs within a timed cycle, to balance the load among channels.
The channel resource is an important factor that affects the rate. In addition, the channel
multiplexing degree is another important factor. For the same channel, if only one user uses it,
the rate can reach 59.2 kbit/s in MSC9 coding mode. However, if three users use it, the rate
for each user can reach only 59.2/3 = 19.7 kbit/s in MSC9 coding mode.

The multislot capability of an MS refers to the maximum number of downlink and uplink channels that
the MS supports. The multislot capability of a common testing MS is 10 or 11, supporting two allocation
schemes: the allocation scheme of three downlink channels and two uplink channels or the allocation
scheme of four downlink channels and one uplink channel. MSs that support the EDA function and with
the EDA function enabled can also support the allocation scheme of two downlink channels and three
uplink channels.
In two-phase access or 11-bit one-phase access stage, the PCU can obtain the multislot capability of an
MS. For 8-bit onephase access, the PCU does not know the multislot capability of the MS at first. But
the attachment request sent by the MS carries the multislot capability of the MS. Thus, the SGSN can
obtain the multislot capability information. After the TBF of the MS is established, the PCU can obtain
the multislot capability of the MS through the timed RA capability update flow between the PCU and
the SGSN.

2.4.2 Introduction to Link Quality Management


Algorithm
Link quality management is known as coding scheme adjustment. A high coding scheme
provides a high transmission rate, but also requires good wireless conditions. The algorithm
for adjusting the coding schemes is to achieve the balance between the transmission rate and
error block rate.
Coding scheme adjustment is based on the BEP reported by the MS. Such adjustment is a
delayed adjustment. Therefore, the purpose of coding scheme adjustment is to follow the rules
of link quality change, that is, the envelope, but not the actual link quality changes. In
different scenarios, such as in high-speed application scenarios, the extent to which the rules
are followed is different. Protocols and algorithms also provide the following interface
externally adjustable: BEP Period. This interface is used to control the number of blocks to
be filtered when the BEP is reported. The longer the BEP period is, the larger the number of
blocks to be filtered and the steadier the filters. The shorter the BEP period is, the larger the
proportion occupied by the latest BEP value. It is recommended that the BEP period set to a
small value in high-speed applications.

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1.

Wireless environment. Figure 1.1 shows the quality of wireless signals required by the
coding schemes.

Figure 1.1 Requirements of different coding schemes for the Um interface


Coding Scheme

Required Receiving
Level of the MS
(dBm)

Required C/I Ratio in


TU3 Mode (dB)

MCS1

102

13

MCS2

101

15

MCS3

99

16.5

MCS4

97

19

MCS5

98

18

MCS6

96

20

MCS7

93

23.5

MCS8

90.5

28.5

MCS9

86

30

2.

Transmission quality of the G-Abis interface


If out-of- synchronization occurs on the sublink, a high coding rate cannot be used.
Data blocks encoded according to high coding schemes do not carry the synchronization
header. When serious code slipping occurs, the network side chooses to use a low coding
scheme with the synchronization header instead.

3.

Number of timeslots on the Abis interface. Figure 3.1 describes the number of 16 kbit/s
Abis interface timeslots required by the coding schemes.

Figure 3.1 Requirements of different coding schemes for the timeslots on the Abis interface
EGPRS

GPRS

Number of Required 16
kpbs Timeslots on the Abis
Interface

MCS1-MCS2

CS1-CS2

MCS3-MCS6

CS3-CS4

MCS7

MCS8-MCS9

The timeslot on the Abis interface can serve as: a statistically multiplexed signaling link (one
OML for each BTS; one RSL for each TRX); a voice channel (one 16 kpbs timeslot is

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required for each channel); a PDCH (several 16 kbit/s timeslots are required for each channel.
One is called the main link, and other links are sublinks.)
In the case that the Flex Abis function is not enabled, the voice channel and PDCH is bound to
one 16 kbit/s timeslot during timeslot configuration. For the MSs that are performing the
packet service, if the coding scheme should be adjusted and the Abis resources are required,
apply for idle timeslots on the Abis interface. If the application is approved, adjust the coding
scheme. When the coding scheme is lowered, the release of Abis resources will not be
triggered. When the channel is idle, the Abis resources are released when Timer of Releasing
Abis Timeslot times out.
In the case that the Flex Abis function is enabled, the Abis timeslot is not bound to a channel
during channel configuration. An Abis interface timeslot is applied and bound when the
channel is activated. That is, the original main link is also grouped into the idle Abis resource
pool. Based on the principle that the CS service is preferred, a channel should be
preferentially assigned to the CS service. If no Abis timeslot is available, the channel that is
earlier assigned to the packet service will be preempted.
Therefore, when idle timeslots are insufficient:

Configure all the remaining timeslots as idle timeslots in the case that the Flex Abis
function is disabled. Check whether the customer uses DXX devices for timeslot cross. If
DXX devices are used, the number of available timeslots is not certainly the number of
timeslots on the E1. In this case, ask the customer about the number of available
timeslots

Calculate the signaling link multiplexing degree according to the traffic model.
Increasing the multiplexing degree can conserve Abis interface resources

Enable the Flex Abis function to help realize sharing of the Abis interface resources
Abis interface resources of Huawei products are divided into resource pools in the unit of BTS, and all
cells of a BTS share the Abis resources. In addition, for cascaded BTSs, part of the Abis interface
timeslot resources of the upper-level BTSs should be reserved for the lower-level BTSs.
You can set the MaxAbisTSOccupied parameter to specify the maximum number of Abis interface
timeslots that can be bound on a carrier.

2.4.3 Mechanism of Link Synchronization/Channel


Synchronization
Each PDCH is bound to several Abis interface timeslots. One of the timeslots is the main link,
and others are sublinks. At the initial phase after the channel is converted, channel
synchronization occurs. This process takes about one second. The PCU sends a
synchronization frame through the main link to the BTS. The BTS returns a synchronization
frame to the PCU. Thus, the differences of frame number and block number between the two
frames can be calculated. Thus, the PCU sends data packets based on the advance. When a
synchronization frame is sent, if no synchronization header is found, or the check fails after a
synchronization frame is received, the channels cannot be synchronized.
Each channel contains several Abis interface links. The synchronization should be performed
separately on each link. Each subsequent frame sent on the link contains a synchronization
header (the header is not carried when MCS6 or MCS7 is used). The main link also sends

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signaling frames in CS1, and the sublinks send idle information frames. These frames also
contain synchronization headers. Therefore, certain changes to the synchronization headers
are acceptable. But if the synchronization headers change once in every ten minutes, the PCU
will restrict the frames in high coding scheme.
If synchronization of the main link fails, synchronization of the channel fails. If
synchronization of a sublink fails, the coding scheme will be adjusted. When the transmission
quality on the G-Abis interface is decreased to a certain level, synchronization of the link
fails. The transmission quality on the G-Abis interface is reflected by the frame error rate on
the G-Abis interface. The frame error rate on the G-Abis interface is calculated through the
following formula: frame error rate on the G-Abis interface = (Number of Received Check
Error TRAU Frames + Number of Received Out-of-Synchronization TRAU Frames)/
(Number of Sent Valid TRAU Frames + Number of Sent Empty TRAU Frames).
If the frame error rate is less than 10e-5, the link is of good quality, and the MS can transmit
data steadily
If the frame error rate is between 10e-5 and 10e-4, it has certain impact on the data rate the
MSs in transmission state.
If the FER is higher than 10e-4, the link is quite unstable and tends to be out of
synchronization. In this case, an MS can hardly transmit a large amount of data.
Possible causes of a high frame error rate or loss of synchronization on a link on the G-Abis
interface are as follows: loss of synchronization of the E1 clock with the Um interface clock
of the BTS and unsteady transmission quality. You can check whether the high frame error
rate or loss of synchronization is caused by transmission problems by performing local or
remote loopback at the BTS side. You can also connect the test tools to both ends to capture
data packets for analysis.

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KPI Definitions

3.1 DT KPI (DT/CQT)


The DT KPI is an indicator that best reflects user perception. Therefore, every office uses the
DT to observe the download rate or uploading rate that reflects the network performance. In
case of the DT, the rate can be presented by two formulas:
1.

Downloaded data amount in unit time, namely, accumulated download data amount each
time/Accumulated consumed download time each time

2.

Average value of the download rates each time

3.2 Traffic Statistics KPI


The LLC-layer rate can most directly reflects the user perception for the rate. It is
recommended that this KPI be used on site to assess the network performance. There are two
types of KPI formulas for the LLC-layer rate, including weighted formula and unweighted
formula.
You can use the following formulas to assess the LLC-layer throughput KPI:

Weighted Formula

Downlink GPRS LLC-layer rate:


(L9517+L9518+L9537+L9538)/ {(L9511+L9512 +L9533+L9534)*8/1024}

Downlink EGPRS LLC-layer rate:


(L9519+L9520+ L9539+L9540)/ {(L9514+L9515 +L9535+L9536)*8/1024}

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Unweighted Formula

Downlink GPRS LLC-layer rate:


{(L9511+L9512+L9533+L9534)*8/1024}/ {(L9553+L9554+L9555+L9556)/1000}

Downlink GPRS LLC-layer rate:


{(L9514+L9515+L9535+L9536)*8/1024}/ {(L9557+L9558+L9559+L9560)/1000}

Significance of the Statistics


The LLC-layer rate is a user-level concept. Compared with the RLC-layer rate, it can better
reflect user perception.

Weighted formula: Seeing that the weights are different between large services and small
services, you should prevent the small services from affecting the KPIs for the entire
network.

Unweighted formula: This is a traditional statistical method using the number of bytes
divided by the length of time.

The statistics results are quite different when you use different formulas. If the statistical rate
is 90 kbit/s for the unweighted formula, the statistical rate is about 130 kbit/s for the weighted
formula. The field engineers should be clear about the difference between these formulas.

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Troubleshooting Process

4.1 Process for Troubleshooting Data


Transmission Rate Problem
4.1.1 General Idea for Troubleshooting
The troubleshooting of data transmission problems involves public actions and scenario-based
actions. The scenarios include DT KPI (DT/CQT), traffic statistics KPI, and user compliant
scenarios. Figure 1.1 shows the public actions, all scenario-based actions, and how to analyze
the problems in different scenarios.

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Figure 1.1 Overall troubleshooting process

For the troubleshooting of the DT KPI on the N side, because tool implementation is not completely
achieved at present, if you feel it hard to operate as a field engineer, you can choose to troubleshoot
whether packets are lost over only the Gb interface. (They can ignore the troubleshooting of packet loss
over the upper interfaces of the Gb interface or on the B side.) You can then choose to troubleshoot the B
side at a later time.

Figure 1.1 shows the overall troubleshooting process. you should first follow the public action
process, and then follow the action processes for different scenarios.
The public actions, including data collection, parameter health check, important device alarm
troubleshooting, and test case troubleshooting must be taken regardless of what the scenario

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is. You can hold Ctrl, and then click the related action for specific description. The public
actions must be first taken because the troubleshooting of any problem in any scenario always
needs these actions. In addition, the troubleshooting related to the public actions is a basis for
subsequent troubleshooting. The subsequent troubleshooting works only if these basic
problems are solved.
The subsequent actions are involved in different scenarios, including DT KPI problem
scenario, traffic statistics KIP problem scenario, and user complaint problem scenario. The
troubleshooting policy and process vary from scenario to scenario. Figure 1.1 shows the major
links for each scenario. These links will be described in specific steps in detail in later
sections.

DT KPI problem scenario:


The DT can trace the signaling analysis for different interfaces. Therefore, the whole
process is a process of troubleshooting NEs. First, you need to troubleshoot the terminal,
and then the GB interface and upper interfaces, including the possible problems on the
server and GGSN, and then focus on the analysis of the B side by using the DT log. If
you cannot determine the problem or no evident problem is found on the B side through
these dimensions, as shown in Figure 1.1, you need to further process the problem.

Traffic statistics KPI problem scenario:


The traffic statistics scenario is aimed at the entire network. You need to find the major
problem through the analysis of multiple types of traffic statistics. Therefore, it is
generally a process of detailed breakdown of the factors of the problem. First, you need
to find the possibility of irrationality of the KPI formula. If the formula is OK, you need
to further analyze the factors of the problem in several respects. If the further analysis
still cannot help determine the problem or the problem is not evident, you need to further
process the problem.

User compliant scenario


The user complaint scenario is a combination of related parts of the preceding two
scenarios. First, you need to assess and check the complained area based on the traffic
statistics. This part is similar to the process of the traffic statistics KPI scenario. If no
problem is found or the problem is not evident, you need to carry out the DT for
troubleshooting. This part is similar to the DT KPI scenario.

4.1.2 Process for Troubleshooting DT KPI (DT/CQT)


Problem
Overview
This is a detailed process for troubleshooting DT KPI problem, from terminal, Gb interface
and upper interface, to B side. This process is aimed at troubleshooting the NEs from simple
to complicated, from easy to difficult, and from surface to deep. If the problem is still not
solved after the process is complete, the field engineers need to further process the problem.
This process consists of three steps, each containing multiple links. As shown in Figure 1.1,
the blue box indicates the troubleshooting actions, and the other boxes indicate the
troubleshooting conclusion or further processing.

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Figure 1.1 Legend

Figure 1.2 Terminal troubleshooting

About Step 1
Prevent the possible occurrence of terminal problems. You need to troubleshoot the following
problems:

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Insufficient subscription capability: Test whether there is a restriction on the SIM rate,
whether the RLC layer of the UE uses the acknowledged mode (AM), and whether the
LLC layer uses unacknowledged mode (UM).

Laptop problem: Check whether multiple connections cause other irrelevant data
interaction during the test. The data interaction affects the rate and the determination of

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the service type. You also need to check whether the laptop settings are incorrect, which
cause the rate problem.

Terminal problem: To troubleshoot the terminal problem, you need to determine the RA
capabilities of the terminal related to the rate, including the supported bands and whether
the terminal supports multiple timeslots). You also need to check for the terminal
compatibility problem.

For details about the troubleshooting description, input, and output of each part, see later
sections in this document. (You can hold Ctrl, and then click for details of each part.)
Figure 1.1 Troubleshooting of the Gb interface and upper interfaces

About Step 2
Prevent the possible occurrence of Gb and upper interface problems. You need to troubleshoot
the following problems:

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Check for packet loss over the Gb interface: Determine the problem by analyzing the Gb
interface signaling and provide the analysis report.

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Check for packet loss over the upper interfaces of the Gb interface: Determine the
problem by analyzing the signaling of the upper interfaces of the Gb interface signaling
and provide the analysis report.

Check for packet loss over the Gb and upper interfaces: If packet loss occurs over the
upper interfaces of Gb, check whether the loss occurs on the core network, from the core
network to the server, or on the server. The purpose is to fully determine whether it is a
problem of the core network, and further urge the core network to solve the problem. In
addition, provide the analysis report.

For details about the troubleshooting description, input, and output, see later sections in this
document. (You can hold Ctrl, and then click for details of each part.)

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Figure 1.1 B-side troubleshooting

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About Step 3
After troubleshooting other NEs, you need to troubleshoot the B side, including resource
performance troubleshooting and data transmission troubleshooting.

Resource performance troubleshooting: Check whether insufficient resource causes the


rate problem. According to the test log, analyze the used timeslots and multiplexing
degree to determine whether the resource is limited. (For details, see the section
6.1"Guide to Preliminary Troubleshooting of a Single Point Based on the TEMS Log.")
If there is a resource problem, you need to check whether the related important
parameters are correctly set and whether they can be optimized.

Data transmission performance troubleshooting: There are some factors that affects the
data transmission performance, including high coding ratio, BLER, retransmission ratio,
cell reselection, and routing area (RA) update (for the DT only). (For details, see
6.1"Guide to Preliminary Troubleshooting of a Single Point Based on the TEMS Log.")

High coding ratio: If the problem is possibly caused by insufficient timeslots during
idle transmission or air interface quality, you need to further analyze the Abis
application traffic statistics to troubleshoot them.

BLER: A high BLER is possibly caused by frame errors during transmission or by the
air interface quality, you need to further analyze the BLER traffic statistics to
troubleshoot them.

Cell reselection and RA update (for the DT only): If cell reselection or RA update
occurs frequently, it will seriously affect the DT rate (not the CQT rate), you need to
check whether the parameters related to cell reselection in the field network planning
are correct.

You need to check the preceding five factors at the same time, and then summarize the
analysis results and provide the related analysis reports. For details on how each factor affects
the download rate, see 4.2.14"Impact of Each Factor" and examples in this section.
If the field engineers need to discuss with the R&D engineers, the R&D should provide the
recommendation on the adjustment of the configuration parameters according to the analysis
report of the existing network. The parameter settings are then used on the existing network
and retested. If the transmission rate meets the requirement, it indicates that the problem is
solved.
If the transmission rate does not meet the requirement, you need to focus on troubleshooting
the air interface quality. This step is most complicated, and therefore it is carried out at the
end of the process.
For details about the troubleshooting description, input, and output, see later sections in this
document. (You can hold Ctrl, and then click for details of each part.)
If the problem is still not solved after the process is complete, the field engineers need to
further process the problem.

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4.1.3 Process for Troubleshooting Traffic Statistics


KPI Problem
Overview
In this process, you need to troubleshoot formula mapping, dominant problem of the TOP
cells, and associated KPI reference from easy to difficult according to the factors causing the
problem. If the problem is still not solved after the process is complete, he field engineers
need to further process the problem.

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Figure 1.1 KPI troubleshooting process (a)

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About Step 1
Troubleshoot the effectiveness of the assessment formula. You need to check whether the
formula and the KPI value meet the requirements.

Check whether the formula meets the requirement: First, you need to check whether the
KPI formula reflects the contents that the customer expects to measure. The formula has
no deviations or mistakes. In case of KPI comparison with other competitors, you should
check whether the competitors' formulas are reasonable, whether our formula is better,
and whether our formula matches the formulas of other competitors.

Check whether the KPI value meets the requirement: Check whether the KPI value is
quite different from the baseline value and obtain the difference.

Discussion between the field and R&D engineers: The field engineers provide the R&D with
the effectiveness analysis report. According to the report, the R&D engineers should
determine whether something is wrong with the formula and whether the KPI values fail to
meet the commitment. The R&D should also provide the formula modification suggestion,
difference for improving the KPI values, and reasonable KPI values.
If the transmission rate still cannot meet the requirement after the formula and KPI value are
modified, continue with the next step.

About Step 2
Troubleshoot the TOP cells and check whether it causes the problem.

According to the assessment KPI for cell-level traffic statistics, view the distribution
status. Then, determine whether the TOP cells exist according to the average KPI value.

If the TOP cells are found, analyze whether the KPI for the entire network meets the
requirement. If the KPI meets the requirement, you can determine that it is a TOP cell
problem.

Continue to analyze the TOP cells, especially check the parameters, hardware, and links.
If no problem is found, you need to further analyze the related KPIs. For details on how
to analyze these KPIs, see Step 3.

If it is not a TOP cell problem, or the KPI for the entire network does not meet the
requirement after the TOP cell problem is solved, continue with Step 3.

For details about the troubleshooting description, input, and output, see later sections in this
document. (You can hold Ctrl, and then click for details of each part.)

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Figure 1.1 KPI troubleshooting process (b)

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About Step 3
In this step, you need to analyze the problem by using the associated KPIs from different
dimensions. The purpose is to find the major factor that affects the transmission rate. You
need to troubleshoot the resource, transmission, and air interface quality at the same time.

Resource troubleshooting: The transmission rate is affected if the available PDCHs are
insufficient or the multiplexing degree is too high. Insufficient transmission prevents the
PDCHs from using high coding and further affects the transmission rate. Based on the
related traffic statistics, determine whether the preceding problems exist, provide the
analysis report, and adjust the related parameters. For a migration network, you need to
check whether the resource parameters match before and after the migration.

Transmission troubleshooting: Determine whether there are situations of unstable


transmission, high BLER, and channel fault. Then, provide the analysis report and
related solutions.

Air interface quality troubleshooting: Based on the related KPIs, determine whether there
is a problem of the air interface quality and provide the analysis report.

If no problem is found after you troubleshoot the preceding factors, the problem cannot be
monitored or solved by using the KPIs. In this case, continue with Step 4 and use the DT
method for further troubleshooting.

Preliminary optimization: If there is a problem, the field and R&D need to


communicate. The R&D provides the recommendation on how to adjust the associated
parameters according to the analysis report about the existing network. The field
engineers adjust the parameters, clear the alarms, and solve the channel link faults on the
existing network. The evident air interface quality problem should also be solved in this
step. However, you should not carry out the optimization for channel configuration
adjustment, expansion, and site-level troubleshooting of the air interface quality
featuring evident changes and long periods. For the migration network, you need to
check the key parameters before and after the migration of the existing network.

Deep optimization: If the problem is still not solved after you take the preceding
measures, you need to start channel configuration adjustment (recommended by the
R&D), expansion, and site-level troubleshooting of the air interface quality for deep
optimization. For details, see the GSM BSS Network KPI (Uplink-Downlink Balance)
Optimization Manual, GSM BSS Network KPI (Network Interference) Optimization
Manual, and GSM BSS Network KPI (Network Coverage) Optimization Manual.

If the transmission rate still cannot meet the requirement, continue with Step 4 and use the DT
method for further troubleshooting.

About Step 4
Carry out the CQT/DT test, and then collect the data for analysis.

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Select a typical cell for the CQT/DT test. According to the data, further troubleshoot the
problem. For details about the troubleshooting method, see the DT KPI troubleshooting
process. Then, provide the preliminary report.

For details about the troubleshooting description, input, and output, see later sections in
this document. (You can hold Ctrl, and then click for details of each part.)

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4.1.4 Process for Troubleshooting User Complaint


Problem
The user complaint scenario involves two parts, including traffic statistics analysis and DT
analysis. It is a combination of related parts of the traffic statistics KPI problem and DT KPI
problem. First, you need to assess and check the complained area according to the traffic
statistics. If no problem is found or the problem is not evident, you need to carry out the DT
analysis and troubleshoot the complained area.
Figure 1.1 Complaint troubleshooting process

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About Step 1
This process involves the complained cell and cell distribution. You also need to troubleshoot
the network planning and construction. If the problem is not caused by these factors, or the
problem still exists after these factors are rectified, continue with Step 2.Complaint
troubleshooting process

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About Step 2
For the KPI analysis of the complaint problem, you need to troubleshoot the important PIs
(for connection and call drop), resources, transmission, and air interface quality.

Important KPI (for connection and call drop) troubleshooting: The connection and call
drop KPIs directly affect the complaint problem. Therefore, you need to first analyze the
acknowledged problem and provide the analysis report. Based on the analysis, you need
to provide the parameter adjustment measures or optimize the air interface quality. If the
air interface quality causes the problem, you need to troubleshoot the air interface
quality. For details on how to optimize the air interface quality, see the troubleshooting
of the air interface quality.

Resource troubleshooting: The transmission rate is affected if the available PDCHs are
insufficient or the multiplexing degree is too high. Insufficient transmission prevents the
PDCHs from using high coding and further affects the transmission rate. Based on the
related traffic statistics, determine whether the preceding problems exist, provide the
analysis report, and adjust the related parameters.

Transmission troubleshooting: Determine whether there are situations of unstable


transmission, high BLER, and channel fault. Then, provide the analysis report and
related solutions.

Air interface quality troubleshooting: Based on the related KPIs, determine whether there
is a problem of the air interface quality and provide the analysis report.

After you troubleshoot the preceding three factors, if no problem is found, continue with Step
3 and use the DT method for further troubleshooting. In addition, you should consider
possibility of packet loss over the Gb interface and upper interfaces.
If the problem is found, you should adjust the parameters, clear the alarms, and solve the
channel link faults for the related factors. You should also solve the problem obviously caused
by the air interface quality.
If the transmission rate still does not meet the requirement, continue with Step 3.

About Step 3
According to the cell object selected in Step 1and carry out the CQT/DT test and collect data
for analysis. For details about the troubleshooting method, see the DT KPI troubleshooting
process. However, you do not need to troubleshoot the MS-side problem. In addition, in case
of a traffic statistics KPI problem, you need to focus on the troubleshooting of the B side. The
analysis of the Gb interface and upper interfaces is aimed at the situation where no problem is
found for the traffic statistics KPIs.
For details about the troubleshooting description, input, and output, see later sections in this
document. (You can hold Ctrl, and then click for details of each part.)

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4.2 Explanation of Each Action in the


Troubleshooting Process
4.2.1 Data Collection
Obtaining the Configuration File
Short Description
You need to obtain the configuration file for problem analysis and troubleshooting.
Input
None.
Procedure
Step 1 Start the LMT and back up the local data.

Step 2 Save the data in the specified folder.


----End

Recommended Tools
LMT.
Output

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dat file.
Reference
None.

Obtaining the Original Traffic Statistics


Short Description
You need to obtain the original traffic statistics to troubleshoot problems in different
scenarios.
Input
None.
Procedure
Enter \\OMU IP address\bsc6000\data\mtndata\pfm\rslt to obtain the original traffic
statistics KPIs.
Recommended Tools
BAM.
Output
Original traffic statistics KPIs.
Reference
None.

Obtaining the Single User Signaling


Short Description
You need to obtain the single user signaling to troubleshoot problems in different scenarios.
Input
IMSI of the UE.
Procedure
Step 1 Start the LMT before the test.

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Figure 1.1 Tracing the single user signaling by using the LMT tool

Step 2 Click Trace PS User Message.


Step 3 Enter the IMSI of the test UE.
Step 4 Save the path you want to save the file.
Step 5 Click OK to start the test. The file is automatically saved in the path.
----End

Recommended Tools
LMT.
Output
Single user signaling.
Reference
None.

Capturing Packets of the UE


Short Description

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You need to capture the packets of the UE to troubleshoot problems in different scenarios.
Input
None.
Procedure
Step 1 On your desktop, double-click the Wireshark software. In the Wireshark Network Analyzer,
choose Capture > Option, as shown in Figure 1.1.
Figure 1.1 Wireshark Network Analyzer

Step 2 In the Wireshark: Capture Options dialog box, set the required options, as shown in Figure
1.1.

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Figure 1.1 Capture Options

Ensure that you select the correct network adapter when capturing the packets of the UE. Typically, if
the software works properly, the network adapter Adapter for generic dialup and VPN
capture:\Device\NPF_GenericDialupAdapter is shown in Interfaces. Typically, you should select this
network adapter. For some UE, when it is installed, the related network adapter is shown here. You only
need to ensure that the IP address shown in the network adapter picture in Interfaces is the same as the
allocated IP address after the dial-up connection is set up. This situation is normal, and therefore you can
capture the packets of this network adapter.

Step 3 After setting these options, click Start. The Wireshark then automatically captures the
packets. After the test is complete, choose Capture > Stop to stop the tracing. See Figure 1.1.

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Figure 1.1 Using the Wireshark to capture packets

Step 4 Choose File > Save top save the tracing result, as shown in Figure 1.1.
Figure 1.1 Saving captured packets

----End

Recommended Tools
Wireshark.
Output

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Captured packets of the UE.


Reference
None.

4.2.2 Parameter Health Check


Short Description
For the KPI problem of a network, check the parameter health firstly to prevent incorrect
parameter configuration from causing mistakes.

Input
Parameter configuration file of the existing network.

Procedure

Use the specific tool to check the parameter health value.

Manually check the parameter configuration of the existing network according to the
parameter baseline document.

Recommended Tools
DAMS/Omstar.

Output
List of parameters for the abnormal cell and related optimization actions.

Reference
None.

4.2.3 Troubleshooting of Fault Alarms of Important


Devices and Transmission
Short Description
Check whether there are performance KPI problems on the network, such as a large number
of alarms caused by a device fault.

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Input
History alarm records.

Procedure
Troubleshoot and output the alarms according to the alarm maintenance guide. For details, see
the alarm troubleshooting guide provided by the Maintenance Department.

Recommended Tools
None.

Output
List of the cells with abnormal alarms, related alarm information, and optimization actions.

Reference
None.

4.2.4 Troubleshooting of Test Cases


Short Description
The consistency and accuracy of test cases directly affect the performance. Therefore, you
need to ensure that the consistency and accuracy of the test cases before and after the test and
assessment.

Input
TEMS LOG

Procedure
Directly export the assessment report about the related test cases from the server.

Recommended Tools
TEMS tool.

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Output
Provide the comparison result of the assessment items of the test cases before and after the
test according to the template.
Figure 1.1 Comparison between test scripts
Item

Comparison
Result (Example)

Impact

Remarks

Test
script

The test scripts should be


consistent before and
after the migration.

Test route

The test routes are


consistent according to
the test report.

The test conditions


are inconsistent. The
test results cannot be
compared before and
after the migration.

Test
hours

The proportion of busy


hours become larger in
the test after the
migration.

It is recommended that the


test be carried out in idle
hours, or the test hours
should be consistent
before and after the
migration.

Test
sampling
speed

According to the test


results on the same
section, the level
sampling points before
and after the migration
are 59302 and 93256.
This indicates that the
speed is faster after the
migration.

You need to provide only


the test routes (including
level sampling points)
before and after the
migration.

Statistical
method

The statistical methods


should be consistent
before and after the
migration.

You need to provide only


the test routes before and
after the migration.

Reference
None.

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4.2.5 Key Parameter Mapping Check


Short Description
The mappings of the key parameters should be consistent before and after the migration.
Therefore, you need to check the mappings of the key parameters based on the abnormal
KPIs.

Input
Configuration parameters for the existing network.

Procedure
Set the parameter values according to the template.

Recommended Tools
None.

Output
List of mappings of the key parameters for the cell.
Figure 1.1 List of mappings of the key parameters
Item

Parameter

Transmission
quality of the
air interface

Uplink Fixed CS Type

Value on the
Existing
Network

Value on the
Original
Network

Uplink Default CS Type


Downlink Fixed CS Type
Downlink Default CS Type
Uplink Fixed MCS Type
Uplink Default MCS Type
Downlink Fixed MCS Type
Downlink Default MCS
Type

Power control

Alpha Parameter
Initial Power Level

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Item

Parameter

Retainability
performance

N3101

Value on the
Existing
Network

Value on the
Original
Network

N3103
N3105
Pan Decrement
Pan Increment
Pan Max.
T3168
T3192

Radio
resource

Maximum Ratio Threshold


of PDCHs in a Cell
Uplink Multiplex Threshold
of Dynamic Channel
Conversion
Downlink Multiplex
Threshold of Dynamic
Channel Conversion
PDCH Uplink Multiplex
Threshold
PDCH Downlink Multiplex
Threshold
Dynamic Channel
Conversion Parameter of
Concentric Cell
Timer of Releasing Idle
Dynamic Channel
Level of Preempting
Dynamic Channel
Reservation Threshold of
Dynamic Channel
Conversion

Transmission
resource

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Timer of Releasing Abis


Timeslot

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Reference
None.

4.2.6 Preliminary Analysis of KPIs and Formula


Mapping
Short Description
In this action, you need to troubleshoot the effectiveness of the assessment formula. You need
to determine whether the formula is reasonable and value the KPI values are reasonable.

Input
Assessment KPIs, KPI values, baseline values, assessment formula, and competitors' formulas
(if for comparison purposes).

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the formula is reasonable. First, check whether the KPI formula reflects the
contents that the customer expects to measure. The formula has no deviations or mistakes. For
a migration network, you should check whether the competitors' formulas are reasonable,
whether our formula is better, and whether our formula matches the formulas of other
competitors.
Step 2 Check whether the KPI values are reasonable. Check whether the KPI values are obviously
different from the baseline values and obtain the difference.
Step 3 Summarize the preceding data and provide the analysis report about the KPI effectiveness for
the R&D. In case of KPI comparison with other competitors, also provide the KPI manuals of
the competitors.
Step 4 According to the report, the R&D engineers should determine whether something is wrong
with the formula and whether the KPI values fail to meet the commitment. The R&D should
also provide the formula modification suggestion, difference for improving the KPI values,
and reasonable KPI values.
Step 5 If the formula or the KPI values are incorrect, but they can meet the requirement after
modification, the R&D should issue a clarification report. The field engineers should
communicate with the customer for clarification purposes.
----End

Recommended Tools
None.

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Output
Analysis report about the effectiveness of the KPIs and formula.

Reference
None.

4.2.7 Troubleshooting of the TOP Cells


Short Description
This action helps check whether the TOP cells cause the problem.

Input
Traffic statistics KPI.

Procedure
Step 1 According to the assessment indicator for cell-level traffic statistics, view the distribution
status. Then, determine whether the TOP cells exist according to the average indicator value.
There are two determination principles of the TOP cells:

There cannot be too many cells with poor KPIs. If the KPIs of most cells are poor, it
indicates that this is a problem of the entire network.

Except the cells with poor KPIs, you should check whether the assessment KPIs for
other cells meet the requirement. If the answer is yes, these cells are TOP cells.

Step 2 Continue to analyze the TOP cells, especially check the parameters, hardware, and links. If no
problem is found, you need to further analyze the related KPIs. For details on how to analyze
these KPIs, see .
----End

Recommended Tools
EXCEL

Output
Analysis report about the TOP cells.

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Reference
None.

4.2.8 Troubleshooting of the SIM Subscription


Capability
Short Description
This action helps check whether the restriction on the SIM subscription capability lowers the
download performance.

Input

TEMS log, in case that the DT log exists

Single user signaling in case that the DT log does not exist.

Procedure
The terminal subscription rate is low. As shown in Step 1Figure 1.1, the PDP context in the
TEMS log shows the peak rate 128000 octets/s = (128000*8/1024) kbit/s = 1000 kbit/s. The
peak rate satisfies the theoretical speed limit 225 kbit/s required for terminal subscription.
Step 1 Open one .log file.
Figure 1.1 Using the TEMS tool to open the log file

Step 2 Play back the log file.

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Figure 1.1 Using the TEMS tool to play back the log file

Step 3 Open the GMS PDP context and the Layer-3 message.
Figure 1.1 GSM PDP context in the TEMS log

Figure 1.2 Layer 3 message in the TEMS log

Step 4 View the information in the GSM PDP context and Layer-3 message.

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Figure 1.1 GSM PDP context in the TEMS log

Figure 1.2 Layer-3 message in the TEMS log

Figure 1.3 PDP activation acceptance message in the single user signaling

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The terminal subscription rate is low. As shown in Figure 1.3, the peak rate is 32000 octets/s =
32000*8/1024 kbit/s = 250 kbit/s. It satisfies the theoretical speed limit 225 kbit/s required for
terminal subscription.

The LLC layer of the UE uses UM. (This probably causes the problem that no data can
be sent over the Gb interface and affects the speed.) The RLC layer uses AM. (Currently,
the RLC layer of the UE uses AM). According to the RLC/LLC layer mode, check the
TEMS log.

Figure 1.4 Using the TEMS to open the PDP context

Figure 1.5 PDP context

Recommended Tools
DT tool or server LMT.

Output
Troubleshooting result of the SIM subscription capability.

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Reference
None.

4.2.9 Troubleshooting of the Terminal


Short Description
This action helps check whether the terminal capability or compatibility problem lowers the
download performance.

Input
None.

Procedure
For a new network, you need to check whether the terminal capabilities affect the download
rate. For a migration network, if the test device is consistent before and after the migration,
you do not need to troubleshoot the terminal capabilities.

Terminal capabilities
Obtain the RA capabilities of the terminal and view the terminal capabilities, including
band support capability and multi-timeslot capability. (If the multi-timeslot capability is
not satisfied, it restricts the channel resources and further affects the download rate.)
Obtain the RA capability information from the following aspects:

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Attach request

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Figure 1.1 Attach request

Packet resource request

Figure 1.2 Packet resource request

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Downlink LLC PDU

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Figure 1.3 Downlink LLC PDU

Terminal compatibility

Check whether the test terminal has black screen and breakdown problems.

Check for other compatibility problems. These problems are undermined problems.
You can draw the conclusion only after the real problem is found. Therefore, you can
ignore this on site.

Recommended Tools
None.

Output
Provide the exception information if there is an exception.

Reference
None.

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4.2.10 Troubleshooting of the Laptop


Short Description
This action helps check whether the test laptop has another IP interaction, especially in case
that some individual laptop is used for the test). The IP interaction uses the channel resources,
which affects the actual user download rate. In addition, if the TCP window size is too small,
it also affects the download rate.

Input
None.

Procedure
Step 1 On the test laptop, run the script to close other IP interactions.

close other PS
service.rar

1.

Execute the stop file before the test.

2.

Execute the start file after the test.

Step 2 Set the TCP window.


The TCP sending and receiving Windows can be set in the registry. The paths to them are
listed in the following fields:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\AFD\Parameters, or

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters

Check whether the TCP window size is too small. (Typically, the TCP window size should be
equal to or greater than 65536 in decimal.)
The corresponding filed name for the TCP sending window is DefaultSendWindow.
If you do not find the preceding fields in the registry, the OS will use the proper window by
default. In this case, you do not need to check it.
A couple of fields can control the TCP receiving window, and the field with a higher priority
overwrites the one with a lower priority. In addition, for different versions, the field names are
different. From a lower priority to a higher priority, the field names are as follows:

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Windows XP SP2: DefaultReceiveWindow > TcpWindowSize > GlobalTcpWindowSize

Windows XP SP1: TcpWindowSize > GlobalTcpWindowSize > DefaultReceiveWindow

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If you do not find the preceding fields in the registry, the OS will use the proper window by
default. In this case, you do not need to check it.
----End

Recommended Tools
None.

Output
Whether the action is performed according to the requirement.

Reference
None.

4.2.11 Troubleshooting of Packet Loss over the Gb


Interface and Upper Interfaces
Short Description
Check whether there is packet loss based on the packet capture singling on the UE side. If
there is packet loss, it affects the user download rate.
A few lost packets cause retransmission and increase the retransmission time. However, this
has few impacts on the download rate. However, if packets are lost frequently or
continuously, it causes the problem that no data can be sent on the PCU side, low and even
zero download rate. (However, the data flow is not yet broken.) If the situation is serious, the
data flow is broken.

Input
Trace the single user signaling and capture packets of the UE on the server LMT. For details
on how to collect the data, see "Obtaining the Single User Signaling" and "Capturing Packets
of the UE" in 4.2.1"Data Collection."

Procedure
Step 1 Use the Wireshark tool to open the information about the captured packet of the UE, and
check whether there are a lot of lost packets.

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Figure 1.1 Using the Wireshark tool to open the specific file

If packet loss exists, you will find the TCP Previous segment lost message in the information
about the captured packets in the Wireshark.
If this message appears frequently, it indicates that there are a lot of lost packets. In this case,
you need to determine that packet loss occurs on which NE or interface, including the B side,
Gb interface, N side, or Gi and upper interfaces by continuing with the following steps and
4.2.12"Troubleshooting of Packet Loss over the Gi and Upper Interfaces."
Step 2 Use the signaling analysis tool to open the single user signaling.
Step 3 In the position of the lost packets, find the signaling over the Gb interface corresponding to
the packet capture singling according to the sequence number (SN), as shown in Figure 1.1.
Then, determine whether the packet loss occurs on the B side, Gb interface, or upper interface
of the Gb interface.
Use the "exception analysis" command of the signaling analysis tool to automatically detect
the Nu numbers.
The determination criteria are as follows:

Check whether packet loss occurs over the Gb interface.


If the Nu numbers are nonconsecutive, it indicates that there are lost packets over the Gb
interface. For details on further troubleshooting, see 4.2.13"Troubleshooting of
Transmission over the Gb Interface." If the Nu numbers are consecutive, it indicates no
packet is lost over the Gb interface.

Check whether packet loss occurs on the Gb interface.


In the single user signaling, if the SNs are nonconsecutive, it indicates that packet loss
occurs on the upper interfaces of the Gb interface. The number of lost packets can be
determined according to the TCP packet size. For details on further troubleshooting, see
4.2.12"Troubleshooting of Packet Loss over the Gi and Upper Interfaces."

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Figure 1.1 Captured packet information in the Wireshark

Figure 1.2 Captured packet information in the Wireshark

Check whether packet loss occurs on the B side.


If the Nu numbers and SNs are consecutive, it indicates that packet loss occurs on the B
side.

----End

Recommended Tools

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Signaling analysis tool

Wireshark

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Output
Provide the Troubleshooting Report About Packet Loss over the Gb Interface and Upper
Interfaces, including the captured packet data, analysis and conclusion on the specific NE
where packet loss occurs.

Reference
None.

4.2.12 Troubleshooting of Packet Loss over the Gi


and Upper Interfaces
Short Description
In this action, you need to capture packets from the mirrored data on the GGSN side and use
the capture tool for analysis. You need to determine whether packet loss occurs in the data
before the data is transferred to the GGSN and determine whether it is a problem of the N
side.

Input
Capture packets from the mirrored data on the GGSN side.

Procedure
Step 1 Arrange a B-side engineer to capture packets from the mirrored data on the GGSN side.
Step 2 View the capture signaling on the GGSN side and determine whether packet loss occurs
before the data is transferred to the GGSN.

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----End

Recommended Tools
Wireshark

Output
Provide the Troubleshooting Report About Packet Loss over the Gi Interface and Upper
Interface, including the captured packet data and the analysis of whether packet loss occurs on
the Gi interface and upper interfaces.

Reference
None.

4.2.13 Troubleshooting of Transmission over the Gb


Interface
Short Description
If packet loss or disorder occurs on the Gb interface, it causes the problem that no data can be
sent on the PCU side, and therefore lowers the user download rate.

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Input
None.

Procedure
Step 1 Troubleshoot the parameters for the interconnection between the N side and the B side.
Step 2 Troubleshoot the transmission bandwidth.
1.

Use the OMSTAR tool to assess the resource performance over the Gb interface and
filter out the cells that do not meet the measurement criteria.

Figure 1.1 Troubleshooting checklist for the transmission bandwidth


Networki
ng Mode

Item to
Troublesho
ot

Determinati
on Formula

Determinatio
n Criteria

Remarks

TDM

Downlink
Utilization Rate
on BC

RL9610

If the rate is
greater than 70%,
the resource over
the Gb interface is
restricted.

IP

Maximum
Number of
Bytes of NS
PDUs Sent on
NSVL

L9806*8/1024/1
0

If the ratio of it to
the bandwidth
configure for the
base station is
greater than 70%,
the resource over
the Gb interface is
restricted.

In case of a
migration
network, you
need to
compare the
KPIs before
and after the
migration.

2.

Expand the BSC with insufficient resources over the Gb interface.

Step 3 Troubleshoot the transmission quality and check whether there are alarms.
----End

Recommended Tools
OMSTAR.

Output

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Provide the troubleshooting result about the interconnection parameters and optimization
measures for the problem.

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Use the OMSTAR to filter out the cells that do not meet the criteria for the resource over
the Gb interface and provide the optimization measures.

Provide the troubleshooting result about the transmission quality alarms and related
optimization measures.

Reference
None.

4.2.14 Impact of Each Factor


Short Description
This section uses some examples with theoretical analysis to describe how each factor affects
the download rate.

Input
None.

Procedure
Suppose that a user uses four PDCHs. The coding method is MSC7, and the rate reaches 160
kbit/s.
Then,

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Average used downlink timeslots: If only three timeslots is used, the rate decreases to
1200 kbit/s. This factor affects 25% of the download rate.

Multiplexing degree: If the user shares the PDCHs with another user, the rate decreases
to 80 kbit/s. This factor affects 50% of the download rate.

High coding: If the coding method is MSC6, the rate decreases to 110 kbit/s. This factor
affects 30% of the download rate.

BLER: if the BLER increases by 10%, the rate decreases to 150 kbit/s. This factor affects
7% of the download rate.

RA update or cell reselection:

The typical cell reselection takes about three seconds. The rate decreases to 150
kbit/s. This factor affects 7% of the download rate.

The cross-RA cell reselection takes about 4.5 seconds. The rate decreases to 148
kbit/s. This factor affects 9% of the download rate.

The cross-RA cell reselection takes about 7 seconds. The rate decreases to 143 kbit/s.
This factor affects 9% of the download rate.

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It takes about 1.5 seconds to update the RA once. The rate decreases to 156 kbit/s.
This factor affects 4% of the download rate.

Recommended Tools
None.

Output
None.

Reference
None.

4.2.15 Troubleshooting of the BLER and High Coding


Ratio
Short Description
According to the given calculation methods, determine how these two indicators affect the
download rate.

Input
TEMS LOG

Procedure
Step 1 Use the DT server statistics tool to export the BLER and all coding ratios.
Figure 1.1 TEMS log report
Basic
Network
Performance

Statistics to Check

Coding usage
statistics

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Remarks

In case of a migration
network, you need to
compare the KPIs before
and after the migration.

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Basic
Network
Performance

Statistics to Check

Remarks

BLER statistics

Step 2 Determine the problem.

In case of a migration network, compare the preceding statistics and determine whether
the current values are greater than those on the original network.

In case of a new network, provide the statistics in the analysis report.

----End

Recommended Tools
DT tool.

Output

In case of a migration network, provide the result of comparison of the BLER and high
coding ratio between the migration network and the original network.

In case of a new network, provide the BLER and high coding ratio.

Reference
None.

4.2.16 Troubleshooting of the Air Interface Quality


Short Description
The poor air interface quality affects the high coding ratio and retransmission rate. It directly
affects the user download rate.

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Input
TEMS log.

Procedure

For a DT KPI problem, start with Step 1.

For a traffic statistics KPI problem, start with Step 3.

Step 1 Use the DT server statistics tool to export the information about the air interface quality.
Figure 1.1 TEMS Log report
Basic Network
Performance

Statistics to Check

Average quality (C/I or


RxQual)

Remarks
In case of a
migration
network, you need
to compare the
KPIs before and
after the
migration.

Low-quality sampling

Average level

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Basic Network
Performance

Statistics to Check

Remarks

Low-level sampling

BEP distribution

Step 2 Determine the problem.

In case of a migration network, compare the preceding statistics and determine whether
the current values are greater than those on the original network.

In case of a new network, provide the statistics in the analysis report.

Step 3 Use the OMSTAR to filter out the cells that do not meet the measurement criteria.
For the traffic statistics KPI, the analysis range is the entire network. For the DT KPI, the
analysis range covers the cells on the test route.
The troubleshooting principles are as follows:

If the voice KPI is good, you do not need to troubleshoot the first five items listed in
Figure 1.1. You should directly troubleshoot the subsequent KPIs.

If the voice KPI also do not meet the requirement, you need to troubleshoot all items in
listed in Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1 Troubleshooting checklist for the air interface quality


Correlate
d KPI

Item to
Troubleshoot

Determination Formula

Determinatio
n Criteria

Remark
s

Air interface
quality

Uplink-andDownlink Balance
Measurement

(S462A+S462B)/
(S462A+S462B+S462C+S462D+
S462E+S462F+S462G+S462H+S

Troubleshoot these
items by referring
to the related

In case of a
migration
network,

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Correlate
d KPI

Item to
Troubleshoot

Determination Formula

Determinatio
n Criteria

Remark
s

462I+S462J+S462K)
Uplink-andDownlink Balance
Measurement

S462K/
(S462A+S462B+S462C+S462D+
S462E+S462F+S462G+S462H+S
462I+S462J+S462K)

Interference Band
Measurement per
TRX

(AS4207D+AS4207E) /
(AS4207A+VB+AS4207C+AS42
07D+AS4207D+AS4207E)

Uplink Receive
Quality
Measurement per
TRX

(CS416A+CS417A) /
(CS410A+CS411A+CS412A+CS
413A+CS414A+CS415A+CS416
A+CS417A)

Downlink Receive
Quality
Measurement per
TRX

(CS416B+CS417B) /
(CS410B+CS411B+CS412B+CS
413B+CS414B+CS415B+CS416
B+CS417B)

8PSK_MEAN_BEP is the
multiple of N.

If the levels lower


than level 14 cover
more than 20%, the
downlink air
interface quality is
poor.

CV_BEP in EMR
Measurement per
TRX

GMSK_MEAN_BEP is the
multiple of N.

If the levels lower


than level 14 cover
more than 20%, the
downlink air
interface quality is
poor.

Uplink GPRS TBF


Retransmission
rate(%)

(1((L9006+L9007+L9008+L9009)/
L9001))*100

The baseline value


is 3%.

Downlink GPRS
TBF Retransmission
rate(%)

(1((L9106+L9107+L9108+L9109)/
L9101))*100

The baseline value


is 6%.

Uplink EGPRS TBF


Retransmission
rate(%)

(1((L9211+L9212+L9213+L9214+
L9215+L9216+L9217+L9218+L9
219)/L9201))*100

The baseline value


is 5%.

Downlink EGPRS
TBF Retransmission
rate(%)

(1((L9311+L9312+L9313+L9314+
L9315+L9316+L9317+L9318+L9
319)/L9301))*100

The baseline value


of the EGPRS
retransmission rate
is 10%.

MEAN_BEP in EMR
Measurement per
TRX

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optimization
manual.

Huawei Confidential

you need to
compare
the KPIs
before and
after the
migration.

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Step 4 Optimize the cells that you filter out by referring to the GSM BSS Network KPI (UplinkDownlink Balance) Optimization Manual, GSM BSS Network KPI (Network Interference)
Optimization Manual, and GSM BSS Network KPI (Network Coverage) Optimization Manual.
----End

Recommended Tools

DT tool

OMSTAR

Output
Filter out the cells with poor air interface quality by using the OMSTAR, and provide the root
cause and optimization measures.

Reference
None.

4.2.17 Troubleshooting of the Transmission Quality


Short Description
The low stability of the transmission over the Abis interface affects block loss and
retransmission, and eventually affects the user download rate.

Input
None.

Procedure
Step 1 Use the OMSTAR tool to assess the FER over the G-Abis interface and filter out the cells that
do not meet the measurement criteria.

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Figure 1.1 Troubleshooting checklist for the Abis transmission quality


Correlate
d KPI

Item to
Troubleshoot

Determinatio
n Formula

Determination
Criteria

Remarks

Abis quality

Rate of Transmitted
Error Frames (TDM)

RL9A08

If the rate is lower than


0.05%, it indicates that
the Abis link is normal.

Rate of Transmitted
Error Frames (IP)

(L9B03+L9B04)/
(L9B01
+L9B03+L9B04)

If the rate is lower than


0.05%, it indicates that
the Abis link is normal.

In case of a
migration network,
you need to
compare the KPIs
before and after the
migration.

Step 2 If the quality of the transmission link is poor, perform the following operations for
preliminary troubleshooting:

Check whether the transmission interface is loose or reversely connected.

Check whether the base station clock is locked (most possibly), and ask the base station
side to help analyze the problem.

Check whether it is the microwave transmission, and asks the transmission side to check
whether the device works properly.

Check whether there is a timeslot cross-connect device, such as DXX.

Use the BER tester to test loopback error codes over the Abis interface. Check whether it
is a problem of the transmission device, BTS, BSC, or cable.

----End

Recommended Tools
OMSTAR

Output
Filter out the cells that do not meet the G-Abis criteria by using the OMSTAR, and provide
the optimization measures.

Reference
None.

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4.2.18 Troubleshooting of the Radio Resource


Short Description
The allocation of as many as possible channels to the MS is a basis that ensures the bandwidth
of the radio interface. In addition, the high multiplexing degree of TBFs per channel affects
the time-division scheduling of the data service, and therefore affects the rate of the PS
download service.

Input
TEMS LOG

Procedure

For a DT KPI problem, start with Step 1.

For a traffic statistics KPI problem, start with Step 3.

Step 1 Use the DT server statistics tool to export the information about the radio resource usage.
Figure 1.1 TEMS log report
Basic
Network
Performance

Statistics to Check

Channel usage

Remarks

In case of a migration
network, you need to
compare the KPIs before
and after the migration.

Owner data
(multiplexing
degree)

Step 2 Determine the problem.

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In case of a migration network, compare the preceding statistics and determine whether
the current values are greater than those on the original network.

In case of a new network, provide the statistics in the analysis report.

Step 3 Use the OMSTAR tool to assess the radio channel resource performance and filter out the
cells that do not meet the measurement criteria.
Figure 1.1 Troubleshooting checklist for the radio channel resource
Correlat
ed KPI

Radio
channel
resource

Item to
Troublesho
ot

Determinatio
n Formula

Determination
Criteria

Uplink TBF
congestion rate
(%)

(A9003+A9203)/
(A9001+A9201)*1
00

The baseline value is


1%.

Downlink TBF
congestion rate
(%)

(A9103+A9303)/
(A9101+A9301)*1
00

The baseline value is


1%.

Number of
Reclaimed
Busy Dynamic
PDCHs

TRX Usability

Number of
PDCHs Out of
Step

R9344

In case of a
migration network,
compare the KPIs
before and after the
migration.
In case of a new
network, observe the
KPI status and report
it to the R&D.

RK3255

If the carrier usage is


not 100%, you need
to check whether a
fault occurs in the
channel.

R9008

You need to take


proper measures if
out-of-step exists.
(The traffic statistics
function is added in
the version 9.0.)

Remark
s

In case of
a
migration
network,
you need
to compare
the KPIs
before and
after the
migration.

Step 4 If you find a fault in the carrier or channel (you can check whether there are related alarms at
the same time), the field engineers should take preliminary measures to solve the problem.
Step 5 After eliminating the hardware fault, consult the R&D for further processing.
----End

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Recommended Tools

DT tool

OMSTAR

Output
Filter out the cells that do not meet the radio resource criteria by using the OMSTAR, and
provide the faulty cell.

Reference
None.

4.2.19 Troubleshooting of the Transmission Resource


Short Description
The restriction on the transmission resource causes the restriction on the high coding usage.
However, a great deal of low coding information carries few bytes. In this case, the user radio
bandwidth becomes lower. This lowers the user download rate.

Input
Original traffic statistics.

Procedure
Step 1 Use the OMSTAR tool to assess the performance of the transmission resource and filter out
the cells that do not meet the measurement criteria.
Figure 1.1 Troubleshooting checklist for the transmission resource

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Correlat
ed KPI

Item to
Troubleshoot
(KPI)

Determinati
on Formula

Determinati
on Criteria

Remarks

Transmissio
n resource

Application
Attempts of Abis
Timeslot Successful
rate

R9102/R9101

If the rate is less


than 90%, the
transmission
resource is
restricted.

In case of a
migration
network, you
need to
compare the

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Correlat
ed KPI

Item to
Troubleshoot
(KPI)

Determinati
on Formula

Determinati
on Criteria

Remarks

Number of
Unsuccessful
Application
Attempts of Abis
Timeslot for no
Free Timeslot

R9109

If the number is
not zero, it
indicates that the
transmission
resources are
insufficient.

KPIs before
and after the
migration.

Number of
Unsuccessful
Application
Attempts of Abis
Timeslot for
Connecting LRM
Failure

R9110

Product problem.

Number of
Unsuccessful
Application
Attempts of Abis
Timeslot for
Sending Net Config
to BTS Failure

R9111

Number of
Unsuccessful
Application
Attempts of Abis
Timeslot for
Another Reason

R9112

Number of
Unsuccessful
Application
Attempts of Abis
Timeslot for DSP
Limited

R9115

Step 2 Expand the cell with insufficient transmission resources.

For a new network, if the related traffic statistics have the preceding problems, perform
the following operations:
If the indicator Number of Unsuccessful Application Attempts of Abis Timeslot for
no Free Timeslot is not zero,

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Check whether the E1 cables are bundled.

Check whether there are sufficient E1 cables. For details on how to troubleshoot this
problem, see 6.2"Guide to the Measurement Criteria for the Abis Transmission
Resources."

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For a migration network, if the related traffic statistics are poorer than those before the
migration, you need to perform the following operations:

Check whether the traffic models are consistent. (If the data service traffic becomes
obviously larger, the transmission uses more PDCHs and Abis timeslots. In this case,
the corresponding KPI become poorer.)

Check whether the Abis modes are consistent. Compared with the FixAbis mode, the
FlexAbis mode features a higher resource usage. If the Abis mode changes after the
migration, the traffic statistics KPIs change as well.

Check whether the multiplexing degree changes. If it changes, the number of


available Abis idle timeslots also changes.

After performing the preceding operations, you can take related measures in different cases.
In the case that the Abis resources are restricted, you should check whether the number of data
service PDCHs is restricted. If the number of PDCHs is not restricted, you can determine
whether to lower the maximum ratio of PDCHs in a cell. This guarantees the data service and
reduces the requirement for the Abis resources.
----End

Recommended Tools
OMSTAR.

Output
Filter out the cells where the transmission resources are restricted by using the OMSTAR, and
provide the optimization measures.

Reference
None.

4.2.20 Troubleshooting of RA Update and Cell


Reselection
Short Description
When the UE carries out cell reselection or cross-RA reselection, the data flow is broken and
there is a delay (no upper-layer downlink data). This lowers the user download performance,
especially in case of cross-LA and cross-RA update. In these cases, the transmission takes a
longer time because packets cannot be forwarded. Therefore, the cross-RA reselection has the
worst impact on the download rate. This problem must be controlled after the migration.

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Input
TEMS log.

Procedure
Step 1 Use the DT statistics tool to export the number of reselections and RA updates.
Figure 1.1 TEMS log report
KPI

Number of
Times

Cell reselection/Number of
RAUs/Number of LAUs

Remarks
In case of a migration network,
you need to compare the KPIs
before and after the migration.

Cell reselection/Number of
RAU or LAU failures

Step 2 Determine the problem.

In case of a migration network, compare the preceding statistics and determine whether
the current values are greater than those on the original network.

If the current values are greater than those on the original network, check whether the
test cases, as shown in 4.2.4"Troubleshooting of Test Cases", are consistent before
and after the migration. (The comparison is meaningful only if the test cases are
consistent.)

If the test cases are consistent, check whether the planning of the RA, cell, and LA
changes after the migration.

In case of a new network, provide the statistics in the analysis report and perform the
following operation:
Check whether frequent cell reselections, RA updates, or LA updates occur in the test
route. If this is the case, it is recommended that the field network planner check whether
the planning of the RA, LA, and cell is reasonable, or whether the configuration of
related parameters is reasonable.

----End

Recommended Tools
DT tool.

Output
Provide the problem analysis report and optimization measures.

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Reference
None.

4.2.21 Analysis of Major KPIs for the Compliant


Problem
Short Description
The major KPIs for the complaint problems include the access performance KPI and call drop
performance KPI.

Input
None.

Procedure
Use the OMSTAR tool to assess the following KPIs related to the complained point and check
whether there is a problem.
Figure 1.1 Troubleshooting checklist for access performance and call drop performance
Correlat
ed KPI

Item to
Troubleshoot

Determination
Formula

Determinati
on Criteria

Remark
s

LLC-layer
user rate

Average
throughput of
downlink EGPRS
LLC PDU

(L9514+L9515+L95
35+L9536)*8/
(L9557+L9558+L95
59+L9560)/1024

Baseline:

Uplink GPRS
TBF assignment
success rate (%)

A9002/A9001*100%

Baseline:

Downlink GPRS
TBF assignment
success rate (%)

A9102/A9101*100%

In case of
a
migration
network,
you need
to
compare
the KPIs
before and
after the
migration.

Uplink EGPRS
TBF assignment
success rate (%)

A9202/A9201*100%

Downlink EGPRS
TBF assignment
success rate (%)

A9302/A9301*100%

Uplink GPRS
TBF drop rate (%)

(A9006+A9007)/A90
02*100%

Access
performance

Call drop
performance

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80 kbit/s

96.24%
Baseline:
96.51%
Baseline:
96.07%
Baseline:
95.46%

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Baseline:
2.11%

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Correlat
ed KPI

Item to
Troubleshoot

Determination
Formula

Determinati
on Criteria

Downlink GPRS
TBF drop rate (%)

A9118/A9102*100%

Baseline:

Uplink EGPRS
TBF drop rate (%)

(A9206+A9207)/A92
02*100%

Baseline:

Downlink EGPRS
TBF drop rate (%)

A9318/A9302*100%

Baseline:

Remark
s

1.56%

3.10%

2.05%

Recommended Tools
OMSTAR.

Output
Provide the analysis report about the related traffic statistics KPIs.

Reference
None.

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Feedback

If the field engineers fail to solve the problem according to the troubleshooting guide,
they should submit a problem report for further processing. In addition, they need to
provide the following information: Field troubleshooting result of the problem

Requisite information for the R&D to further process the problem

5.1 Troubleshooting Checklist for Data


Transmission
You are asked to provide the required information according to the following template:
No
.

Item

Deliverable

Scenario

Status

Remar
ks

Checking
parameter
health

1.

List of
the parameters for the
abnormal cell

Complete
with a
report

No.

2.

Optimizat
ion measure for the
problem

1.
DT KPI/New
network/Migration
network
2.
Traffic statistics KPI/New
network/Migration
network
3.
Complaint

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No
.

Item

Deliverable

Scenario

Status

Remar
ks

Troubleshooti
ng the fault
alarms of
important
devices and
transmission

1.

List of
the cells with abnormal
alarms

1.

Not start

2.

Related
alarm information and
optimization measure

DT
KPI/New
network/Migration
network

2.

Traffic
statistics KPI/New
network/Migration
network

3.

Compla
int

Troubleshooti
ng test cases

1.

Template
-based comparison result
of the test cases before
and after the specific
scenario

1.

DT
KPI/New
network/Migration
network

Troubleshooti
ng key
parameter
mappings

1.

List of
key parameter mappings
of the cell

1. Traffic statistics
KPI/New
network/Migration
network

Preliminary
analysis of the
KPI and
formula
mapping

Analysis report about the


effectiveness of KPIs and
formula

1. Traffic statistics
KPI/New
network/Migration
network

Troubleshooti
ng the TOP
cells

Analysis report about the


TOP cells

1. Traffic statistics
KPI/New
network/Migration
network

Troubleshooti
ng the SIM
subscription
capability

Troubleshooting result of the


SIM subscription capability

1. DT KPI/New
network/Migration
network

Troubleshooti
ng the
terminal

1. Troubleshooting result of
the terminal

1. DT KPI/New
network/Migration
network

Troubleshooti
ng the test
laptop

1. Whether the action is


performed according to
the requirement.

1.

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network

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No
.

Item

Deliverable

Scenario

Status

Remar
ks

10

Troubleshooti
ng packet loss
over the Gb
interface and
upper
interfaces

1. Provide the
Troubleshooting Report
About Packet Loss over
the Gb Interface and
Upper Interfaces,
including the captured
packet data, analysis and
conclusion on the specific
NE where packet loss
occurs.

1. DT KPI/New
network/Migration
network

11

Troubleshooti
ng packet loss
over the Gi
interface and
upper
interfaces

1. Provide the
Troubleshooting Report
About Packet Loss over
the Gi Interface and
Upper Interfaces,
including the captured
packet data and the
analysis of whether
packet loss occurs on the
Gi interface and upper
interfaces.

1. DT KPI/New
network/Migration
network

12

Troubleshooti
ng the
transmission
over the Gb
interface

1. Provide the
troubleshooting result
about the interconnection
parameters and
optimization measures
for the problem.

1. DT KPI/New
network/Migration
network

2. Use the OMSTAR to


filter out the cells that do
not meet the criteria for
the resource over the Gb
interface and provide the
optimization measures.
3. Provide the
troubleshooting result
about the transmission
quality alarms and related
optimization measures.

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No
.

Item

Deliverable

Scenario

Status

Remar
ks

13

Troubleshooti
ng the BLER
and high
coding ratio

1. In case of a migration
network, provide the
result of comparison of
the BLER and high
coding ratio between the
migration network and
the original network.

1. DT KPI/New
network/Migration
network

1. Filter out the cells with


poor air interface quality
by using the OMSTAR.

1. DT KPI/New
network/Migration
network

2. Provide the root cause for


poor air interface quality
and optimization
measures.

2. Traffic statistics
KPI/New
network/Migration
network

2. In case of a new network,


provide the BLER and
high coding ratio.
14

Troubleshooti
ng the air
interface
quality

3. Complaint
15

Troubleshooti
ng the
transmission
quality

1. Filter out the cells that do


not meet the G-Abis
criteria by using the
OMSTAR.
2. Provide the optimization
measures for the cell
problem.

1. DT KPI/New
network/Migration
network
2. Traffic statistics
KPI/New
network/Migration
network
3. Complaint

16

Troubleshooti
ng the radio
resource

1. Filter out the cells that do


not meet the radio
resource criteria by using
the OMSTAR, and
provide the faulty cell.

1. DT KPI/New
network/Migration
network
2. Traffic statistics
KPI/New
network/Migration
network
3. Complaint

17

Troubleshooti
ng the
transmission
resource

1. Filter out the cells where


the transmission
resources are restricted
by using the OMSTAR,
and provide the
optimization measures.

1. DT KPI/New
network/Migration
network
2. Traffic statistics
KPI/New
network/Migration
network
3. Complaint

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No
.

Item

Deliverable

Scenario

Status

Remar
ks

18

Troubleshooti
ng RA update
and cell
reselection

1. Provide the problem


analysis report and
optimization measures.

1. DT KPI/New
network/Migration
network

19

Analyzing
major KPIs for
the compliant
problem

1. Provide the analysis


report about the related
traffic statistics KPIs.

1. Complaint

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Appendix

This appendix lists the troubleshooting guides that you can use for reference purposes.

6.1 Guide to Preliminary Troubleshooting of a


Single Point Based on the TEMS Log
6.1.1 Using the TEMS Log to Find the Faulty Cell with
Insufficient Downlink Used Timeslots
Use the TEMS software to open the DT log file. Choose the GPRS rate to open the GPRS
Line Chart dialog box and choose EGPRS rate to open EGPRS Line Chart. Then, find the
location with low rates. As shown in the following figure, the yellow box represents some
downlink timeslots (four channels if the box is full). The CI value in the right pane represents
the CI of the faulty cell.

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6.1.2 Using the TEMS Log to Find the Cell with High
Multiplexing Degree
Find the location with low rates, and check whether there is the situation of multiplexing of
other users. Then, find the faulty cell. For details, see the following figure.

6.1.3 Using the TEMS Log to Find the Cell with Low
Usage of High Coding
Find the location with low rates, and check whether there is the situation of low usage of high
coding. Then, find the faulty cell. For details, see the following figure.

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6.1.4 Using the TEMS Log to Find the Location with


Frequent Cell Reselections and RA Updates
Find the location with low rates. Then, check whether there are frequent cell reselection and
RA updates. You can use the events for analysis. For details, see the following figure.

If there are frequent cell reselections or RA updates, you need to determine whether the DT
vehicle comes across red lights, or the vehicle is at the junction of cells or RAs, or the vehicle
speed is very slow. These situations cause ping-pong reselection. In addition, you need to
check whether the related parameter configuration for the RA and cell reselection is
reasonable.

6.2 Guide to the Measurement Criteria for the


Abis Transmission Resources

In case of non-FlexAbis configuration, it is recommended that you configure the idle


timeslots according to the ratio of average PDCHs to idle timeslots = 1:2. (This is an
empirical value. However, in the scenario with large data service traffic, the ratio 1:3 is
recommended.)
The calculation formula for the Abis resource is as follows (according to the ratio of
average PDCHs to idle timeslots = 1:3):
Abis resources (16K) = number of TCHs (including static PDCHs and dynamic TCHs)
(16K) + rounddown {number of TCHs (including static PDCHs and dynamic TCHs) x
[maximum downlink PDCH ratio of the cell] x3 (16K) + roundup {(RSL+ OML)
/multiplexing ratio} x 4 (16K)

In case that the transmission resources are sufficient whereas the bundled idle timeslots
are insufficient, you need to allocate all remaining timeslots to idle timeslots. The
calculation formula is as follows:
Remaining timeslots (16K) = (number of E1 cables) x 4 x 31 (16K) - roundup {(RSL +
OML)/multiplexing ratio} x 4 (16K) number of TCHs (including static PDCHs and
dynamic TCHs) (16K)

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For example, a base station uses non-FlexAbis mode. It consists of three cells. The carrier
frequencies of these cells are 4, 6, and 8. Each cell is configured with one BCCH and one
SDCCH. Other channels are dynamic TCHs and static PDCHs. The maximum PDCH ratios
of these three cells are 30, 50, and 60. The multiplexing ratio of RSL to OML is 2.
The required Abis resources are calculated as follows:
Required Abis resources (16K) = (4 x 8 - 2 + 6 x 8 - 2 + 8 x 8 - 2) + [(4 x 8 - 2) 30% + (6 x 8
- 2) x 50% + (8 x 8 - 2) x 60%] x 3+ (18 + 1) x 4/2 = 385 (16K)
In other words, three (385 x 16/2048 = 3) E1 cables are required.
The remaining timeslots are calculated and should be configured as follows:
Remaining timeslots (16K) = (number of E1 cables) x 4 x 31- (18 + 1) x 4/2- (4 x 8 - 2 + 6 x 8
- 2 + 8 x 8 - 2)
Based on the calculation, you need to configure all remaining timeslots to idle timeslots.

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