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Lima, Dec. 17th of 2015 -‐ After two weeks of negotiations in Paris, the Conference of the Parties
(COP 21) adopted on December 11th the Paris Agreement, a binding agreement that will guide the
fight against climate change globally and will come into effect in 2020.
In the Agreement we can find the "common but differentiated responsibilities" principle adopted
by the 195 member countries of the convention, as well as the goal of “holding the increase in the
global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-‐industrial levels and to pursue efforts to
limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-‐industrial levels”. However, transparency is
The Convention members must take stock of their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions
(INDC) by 2018 in order to know the progress made, and starting 2020, every five years, they must
update these contributions. Nevertheless, the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement has
yet to formulate guidelines to promote transparency and the accountability mechanism the
Parties will follow to report these INDC's.
While the agreement mentions a transparency framework to be applied "in a facilitative, non-‐
intrusive and non-‐punitive manner, respectful of national sovereignty, and avoid placing undue
burden on Parties", the functionality of this framework is unknown.
Funding is also an issue that is pending. The amount to be provided as aid to developing countries
was not given, only the need to continue with further financial contributions up to 2020 and to
establish prior 2025 "a new collective quantified goal from a floor of USD 100 billion per year". Like
the previous case, a mechanism of accountability of financial resources mobilized and provided is
waiting to be developed.
Transparency in the Paris Agreement has been put on hold because of the lack of a concrete
commitment and effective action, and the absence of citizen participation in the text for the
different processes of monitoring and accountability is source of concern. Magaly Avila, Proética
specialist, noted that "the need to create mechanisms of public participation as well as devices
that provide accurate and timely information is vital to ensure the effective use of climate
resources. Likewise we should promote a mechanism with sanctions against Parties that do not
comply with their commitments; a possibility may be to establish rules to cut the flow of climate
the environmental dimension, its complexity and impact reach economic, social and cultural
dimensions too, furthermore we are talking about development and therein lies the importance of
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