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Treatment of Municipal Wastewater in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactor

Dr. Tarek Elmitvalli

Treatment of Municipal Wastewater in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactor Dr. Tarek Elmitvalli WEB BASED

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Treatment of Municipal Wastewater in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactor Dr. Tarek Elmitvalli WEB BASED
Treatment of Municipal Wastewater in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactor Dr. Tarek Elmitvalli WEB BASED

What is Anaerobic Biodegradation?

no oxygen
no oxygen
What is Anaerobic Biodegradation? no oxygen WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

What is Anaerobic Biodegradation? no oxygen WEB BASED TRAINING 2005
What is Anaerobic Biodegradation? no oxygen WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

COD Balance Aerobic Biodegradation

COD Balance Aerobic Biodegradation 60% 40% CO 2 WEB BASED TRAINING 2005
60% 40% CO 2
60%
40%
CO 2

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

COD Balance Aerobic Biodegradation 60% 40% CO 2 WEB BASED TRAINING 2005
COD Balance Aerobic Biodegradation 60% 40% CO 2 WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

COD Balance Anaerobic Biodegradation

COD Balance Anaerobic Biodegradation WEB BASED TRAINING 2005
COD Balance Anaerobic Biodegradation WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

COD Balance Anaerobic Biodegradation WEB BASED TRAINING 2005
COD Balance Anaerobic Biodegradation WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Overview Anaerobic Biodegradation

Polymers

(proteins, polysaccharides, lipids)

 

h

1

butyrate

 

2

3

4

+ CO

2

Monomers

(sugars, amino acids, peptides, Long chain fatty acids

Methanogenic 1 Consortium
Methanogenic
1
Consortium

propionate

2

1

H 2 + CO 2 4
H 2 + CO 2
4

acetate

4

CH

Overview Anaerobic Biodegradation Polymers (proteins, polysa ccharides, lipids) h 1 butyrate 2 3 4 + CO

h

Hydrolytic enzymes

1

Fermentative bacteria

2

Syntrophic acetogenic bacteria

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

 
  • 3 Homoacetogenic bacteria

  • 4 Methanogens

Overview Anaerobic Biodegradation Polymers (proteins, polysa ccharides, lipids) h 1 butyrate 2 3 4 + CO

The benefits and drawbacks of anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater in the high-rate anaerobic systems.

Benefits

Draw backs

1. Efficient

in

the

removal

of organic

1. Long

start-up

period

when

seed

material especially for tropical regions

sludge

is

not

available,

as

the

(developing countries).

  • 2. Low construction cost and small land requirements as generally at temperatures >20 o C high loading rates can be applied.

  • 3. Low operation and maintenance costs, as energy consumption is low and little equipment is needed.

growth rate of methanogenic microorganisms is low. 2. Low pathogen removal.

3. Requirement for post treatment to reach the effluent standards, depending on the requirements for effluent standards.

  • 4. Lower sludge production as compared to aerobic and physical-chemical treatment processes.

  • 5. Biogas production, which can be used for energy production.

4. Low

removal

efficiency

of

particulate organic material at low temperatures. 5. Risk for odour nuisance from the

reduction of sulphate to sulphide.

The benefits and drawbacks of anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater in the high-rate anaerobic systems. Benefits

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

The benefits and drawbacks of anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater in the high-rate anaerobic systems. Benefits
The benefits and drawbacks of anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater in the high-rate anaerobic systems. Benefits

High-rate anaerobic systems

High-rate anaerobic systems Upflow anaerobic filter (AF) Anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor Anaerobic rotating biological contactor Anaerobic

Upflow anaerobic filter (AF)

High-rate anaerobic systems Upflow anaerobic filter (AF) Anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor Anaerobic rotating biological contactor Anaerobic

UASB reactor

High-rate anaerobic systems Upflow anaerobic filter (AF) Anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor Anaerobic rotating biological contactor Anaerobic

Anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor

High-rate anaerobic systems Upflow anaerobic filter (AF) Anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor Anaerobic rotating biological contactor Anaerobic
High-rate anaerobic systems Upflow anaerobic filter (AF) Anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor Anaerobic rotating biological contactor Anaerobic

Anaerobic rotating biological contactor

High-rate anaerobic systems Upflow anaerobic filter (AF) Anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor Anaerobic rotating biological contactor Anaerobic

Anaerobic fluidised bed (AFB) reactor

 
High-rate anaerobic systems Upflow anaerobic filter (AF) Anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor Anaerobic rotating biological contactor Anaerobic
High-rate anaerobic systems Upflow anaerobic filter (AF) Anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor Anaerobic rotating biological contactor Anaerobic
 
       
High-rate anaerobic systems Upflow anaerobic filter (AF) Anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor Anaerobic rotating biological contactor Anaerobic
High-rate anaerobic systems Upflow anaerobic filter (AF) Anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor Anaerobic rotating biological contactor Anaerobic
High-rate anaerobic systems Upflow anaerobic filter (AF) Anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor Anaerobic rotating biological contactor Anaerobic
High-rate anaerobic systems Upflow anaerobic filter (AF) Anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor Anaerobic rotating biological contactor Anaerobic
High-rate anaerobic systems Upflow anaerobic filter (AF) Anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor Anaerobic rotating biological contactor Anaerobic
  • WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Down flow anaerobic filter

High-rate anaerobic systems Upflow anaerobic filter (AF) Anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor Anaerobic rotating biological contactor Anaerobic

Anaerobic baffled reactor

High-rate anaerobic systems Upflow anaerobic filter (AF) Anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor Anaerobic rotating biological contactor Anaerobic

UASB reactor main components

Small scale UASB
Small scale UASB
UASB reactor main components Small scale UASB WEB BASED TRAINING 2005 Biogas Weir Baffle Settler Settler

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Biogas Weir Baffle Settler Settler Settler Settler Gas Gas Gas collector collector collector Gas deflector Sludge
Biogas
Weir
Baffle
Settler
Settler
Settler
Settler
Gas
Gas
Gas
collector
collector
collector
Gas
deflector
Sludge blanket
Sludge bed

Large scale UASB reactor

UASB reactor main components Small scale UASB WEB BASED TRAINING 2005 Biogas Weir Baffle Settler Settler
UASB reactor main components Small scale UASB WEB BASED TRAINING 2005 Biogas Weir Baffle Settler Settler

Basic configuration for the anaerobic treatment-plant of municipal wastewater

Biogas

Raw

sewage

Treated sewage Grit Screens chambers UASB Post treatment system reactors Excess sludge
Treated
sewage
Grit
Screens
chambers
UASB
Post treatment
system
reactors
Excess
sludge
Basic configuration for the anaerobic treatment-plant of municipal wastewater Biogas Raw sewage Treated sewage Grit Screens

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Basic configuration for the anaerobic treatment-plant of municipal wastewater Biogas Raw sewage Treated sewage Grit Screens

Drying

beds

Basic configuration for the anaerobic treatment-plant of municipal wastewater Biogas Raw sewage Treated sewage Grit Screens

Factors affect on the removal of the dissolved organic matter in the UASB reactor

Although, the removal of dissolved matter is mainly a biological process, some physical aspects are also involved, like temperature, solubility of gases, wastewater viscosity.

At low temperature:-

A lower mixing will prevail in the sludge bed in systems operated at low temperatures, as the solubility of gases increases at declining temperatures.

Moreover, as viscosity increases at lower temperatures, more energy is required for mixing and diffusion of soluble compounds.

For optimization of soluble substrates removal at low temperatures: -

A high concentration of active biomass, a good contact between wastewater and biomass, and a good removal of SS are needed.

Factors affect on the removal of the dissolved organic matter in the UASB reactor Although, the

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Factors affect on the removal of the dissolved organic matter in the UASB reactor Although, the
Factors affect on the removal of the dissolved organic matter in the UASB reactor Although, the

For treatment of raw or settled municipal wastewater at temperature > 15 o C in the UASB reactor

HRT = 4 - 8 hours, (depending on the temperature and wastewater concentration)

Organic loading rate = 1 - 2 kg COD. m -3 . day -1

Wastewater upflow velocity = 0.5 - 1.0 m/hour

Average results in Latin America (Brazil, Mexico,

..

)

and India

COD removal BOD removal

65 - 80 % 75 - 85 %

SS removal

75 - 85 %

Coliform removal

70 - 90 % (i.e.

1 log)

Helminth eggs

up to 100%

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

For treatment of raw or settled municipal wastewater at temperature > 15 C in the UASB
For treatment of raw or settled municipal wastewater at temperature > 15 C in the UASB
For treatment of raw or settled municipal wastewater at temperature > 15 C in the UASB

For treatment of raw or settled municipal wastewater at temperature < 15 o C in high-rate anaerobic systems

Hydrolysis is limited at low temperature

For treatment of raw or settled municipal wastewater at temperature < 15 C in high-rate anaerobic

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

For treatment of raw or settled municipal wastewater at temperature < 15 C in high-rate anaerobic
For treatment of raw or settled municipal wastewater at temperature < 15 C in high-rate anaerobic

Options for treatment of raw or settled municipal-wastewater at temperature < 15 o C in high-rate anaerobic systems

1. One-step UASB reactor

For one-step UASB reactor, long HRT is needed,

At low temperature, HRT = 12 - 24 hours, depending on the influent COD concentration and wastewater temperature

COD removal = 45- 65 %

Options for treatment of raw or settled municipal-wastewater at temperature < 15 C in high-rate anaerobic

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Options for treatment of raw or settled municipal-wastewater at temperature < 15 C in high-rate anaerobic
Options for treatment of raw or settled municipal-wastewater at temperature < 15 C in high-rate anaerobic

Options for treatment of raw or settled municipal wastewater at temperature < 15 o C in high-rate anaerobic systems

2. Two-step system: -

a. UASB + EGSB (expanded granular sludge bed), (Wang, 1994) b. AF (anaerobic filter) + UASB (or AH, anaerobic hybrid), (Elmitwalli et. al., 2002)

HRT

First step:- Second step:-

HRT = 3 - 4 hours HRT = 4 - 8 hours

COD removal = 50- 70 %

5 5 10 9 4 6 8 2 2 7
5
5
10
9
4
6
8
2
2
7
Options for treatment of raw or settled municipal wastewater at temperature < 15 C in high-rate

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

AF reactor

Options for treatment of raw or settled municipal wastewater at temperature < 15 C in high-rate

AH reactor

Options for treatment of raw or settled municipal wastewater at temperature < 15 C in high-rate

Options for treatment of raw or settled municipal wastewater at temperature < 15 o C in high-rate anaerobic systems

3. UASB-Digester system (Mahmoud, 2002)

HRT of UASB HRT of the digester

6 - 8 h

= = 12 - 20 days

COD removal = 50- 70 %

Options for treatment of raw or settled municipal wastewater at temperature < 15 C in high-rate
Options for treatment of raw or settled municipal wastewater at temperature < 15 C in high-rate
Options for treatment of raw or settled municipal wastewater at temperature < 15 C in high-rate

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Feed inlet system for the UASB reactor

The main aim of feed inlet:- 1. To prevent channelling of the wastewater through the sludge bed, 2. To avoid formation of dead zones in the sludge bed.

Each inlet point serves (1- 2 m 2 ) in the bottom of the reactor

Feed inlet system for the UASB reactor The main aim of feed inlet:- 1. To prevent
Feed inlet system for the UASB reactor The main aim of feed inlet:- 1. To prevent

Clogged inlet tube

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Feed inlet system for the UASB reactor The main aim of feed inlet:- 1. To prevent
Feed inlet system for the UASB reactor The main aim of feed inlet:- 1. To prevent
Feed inlet system for the UASB reactor The main aim of feed inlet:- 1. To prevent

Internal view of 1200 m 3 UASB, Cali, Colombia

Internal view of 1200 m UASB, Cali, Colombia Inlet pipe WEB BASED TRAINING 2005
Internal view of 1200 m UASB, Cali, Colombia Inlet pipe WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Inlet pipe

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Internal view of 1200 m UASB, Cali, Colombia Inlet pipe WEB BASED TRAINING 2005
Internal view of 1200 m UASB, Cali, Colombia Inlet pipe WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Gas liquid solids separator (GLSS) device in the UASB reactor

The main aim:-

1. Separation between the biogas, sludge and wastewater,

  • 2. Prevent the wash-out of biomass,

  • 3. Prevent the wash-out of floating sludge

Design considerations:-

  • 1. The slope = 45 - 60 o ,

  • 2. The height

= 1- 2 m,

3. Construction material should be again corrosion, stainless steel, coated concrete, plastic 4. The overlap between the GLSS and deflector = 10 - 20 cm.

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Gas liquid solids separator (GLSS) device in the UASB reactor The main aim:- 1. Separation between
Gas liquid solids separator (GLSS) device in the UASB reactor The main aim:- 1. Separation between
Gas liquid solids separator (GLSS) device in the UASB reactor The main aim:- 1. Separation between

Gas liquid solids separator

Gas liquid solids separator WEB BASED TRAINING 2005
Gas liquid solids separator WEB BASED TRAINING 2005
Gas liquid solids separator WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Gas liquid solids separator WEB BASED TRAINING 2005
Gas liquid solids separator WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Discharge of excess sludge

For discharge of the excess sludge, the following pipes should be installed in the UASB reactors:-

  • 1. Nearby the bottom of the reactor,

  • 2. In the middle of the reactor height,

  • 3. Under the GLSS device, 0.5-1 m beneath the GLSS.

Discharge of excess sludge For discharge of the excess sludge, the following pipes should be installed

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Discharge of excess sludge For discharge of the excess sludge, the following pipes should be installed
Discharge of excess sludge For discharge of the excess sludge, the following pipes should be installed

Post treatment of the anaerobically treated municipal wastewater

The aim: -

1. Removal of pathogen,

2. Removal of the nutrients, depending on the effluent standards.

The most applied systems for the post treatment:-

1. Pond, Duckweed, Wetland,

  • 2. Tricking filter,

  • 3. Rotating biological contactor,

4. Aerated lagoon,

Post treatment of the anaerobically treated municipal wastewater The aim: - 1. Removal of pathogen, 2.
  • 5. Activated sludge process.

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Post treatment of the anaerobically treated municipal wastewater The aim: - 1. Removal of pathogen, 2.
Post treatment of the anaerobically treated municipal wastewater The aim: - 1. Removal of pathogen, 2.

UASB + Trickling filter

UASB Screen Trickling filter WEB BASED TRAINING 2005
UASB
Screen
Trickling filter
WEB BASED TRAINING 2005
UASB + Trickling filter UASB Screen Trickling filter WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

UASB + Trickling filter

UASB + Trickling filter WEB BASED TRAINING 2005
UASB + Trickling filter WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

UASB + Trickling filter WEB BASED TRAINING 2005
UASB + Trickling filter WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

UASB + polishing pond

UASB polishing pond
UASB
polishing pond
UASB + polishing pond UASB polishing pond WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

UASB + polishing pond UASB polishing pond WEB BASED TRAINING 2005
UASB + polishing pond UASB polishing pond WEB BASED TRAINING 2005
WEB BASED TRAINING 2005 Papermill Schulte, Düsseldorf, Germany: closed water system
WEB BASED TRAINING 2005 Papermill Schulte, Düsseldorf, Germany: closed water system

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005 Papermill Schulte, Düsseldorf, Germany: closed water system

Papermill Schulte, Düsseldorf, Germany:

closed water system

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005 Papermill Schulte, Düsseldorf, Germany: closed water system
WEB BASED TRAINING 2005 Pomdor AG - Sursee for d istillery and fruit juice , Switzerland
WEB BASED TRAINING 2005 Pomdor AG - Sursee for d istillery and fruit juice , Switzerland

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005 Pomdor AG - Sursee for d istillery and fruit juice , Switzerland

Pomdor AG - Sursee for distillery and fruit juice, Switzerland

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005 Pomdor AG - Sursee for d istillery and fruit juice , Switzerland

Accra, Ghana: Plant overview for Municipal Sewage Treatment

Accra, Ghana: Plant overview for Municipal Sewage Treatment COD: 1,600 mg/l (peak: 16,000 !) BOD: 1,000

COD: 1,600 mg/l (peak: 16,000 !) BOD: 1,000 mg/l (peak: 3,000 !)

pH fluctuates: 5 – 12 (!)

Accra, Ghana: Plant overview for Municipal Sewage Treatment COD: 1,600 mg/l (peak: 16,000 !) BOD: 1,000
sea road Sea-outfall Sludge drying beds Korle Lagoon CAPS Trickling filters Final settling tanks influent Future
sea
road
Sea-outfall
Sludge drying beds
Korle
Lagoon
CAPS
Trickling filters
Final settling tanks
influent
Future
laboratory
UASB
Storm-overflow
road
WEB BASED TRAINING 2005
Accra, Ghana: Plant overview for Municipal Sewage Treatment COD: 1,600 mg/l (peak: 16,000 !) BOD: 1,000

Accra, Ghana: 6500 m 3 UASB for Municipal Sewage UASB reactor volume 6 x 1100 m 3

UASB reactors H = 6 m. sand & grit removal
UASB reactors
H = 6 m.
sand & grit removal
Accra, Ghana: 6500 m UASB for Municipal Sewage UASB reactor volume 6 x 1100 m UASB

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Accra, Ghana: 6500 m UASB for Municipal Sewage UASB reactor volume 6 x 1100 m UASB
Accra, Ghana: 6500 m UASB for Municipal Sewage UASB reactor volume 6 x 1100 m UASB

Modular Design UASB Reactors

Modular Design UASB Reactors WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Modular Design UASB Reactors WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

Application of the anaerobic treatment in ecological sanitation

A) in tropical and sub-tropical region

Application of the anaerobic tr eatment in ecological sanitation A) in tropical and sub-tropical region Biogas

Biogas

Application of the anaerobic tr eatment in ecological sanitation A) in tropical and sub-tropical region Biogas

storage

Application of the anaerobic tr eatment in ecological sanitation A) in tropical and sub-tropical region Biogas

UASB septic

Tank

storage
storage
Biogas Duckweed Wetland pond
Biogas
Duckweed
Wetland
pond

UASB reactor

Biogas

Wetland
Wetland
 

sewage

black water

grey

urine

faeces

water

Application of the anaerobic tr eatment in ecological sanitation A) in tropical and sub-tropical region Biogas
UASB reactor Biogas AC1 AC2 accumulation system (AC)
UASB reactor
Biogas
AC1
AC2 accumulation
system (AC)

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

In urban area, kitchen and garden wastes can be added In rural area, manure, agricultural wastes can be added

Application of the anaerobic tr eatment in ecological sanitation A) in tropical and sub-tropical region Biogas
Application of the anaerobic tr eatment in ecological sanitation A) in tropical and sub-tropical region Biogas

Application of the anaerobic treatment in ecological sanitation

B) in moderate and low temperature region

Biogas

Application of the anaerobic tr eatment in ecological sanitation B) in moderate and low temperature region
Duckweed Wetland pond
Duckweed
Wetland
pond

Biogas

Biogas

35 o C sludge Pre-treatment (SS removal) digester
35
o C
sludge
Pre-treatment
(SS removal)
digester

Anaerobic

UASB reactor

Biogas

Wetland
Wetland
35 o C
35
o C

storage

 

sewage

black water

grey

urine

faeces

water

Application of the anaerobic tr eatment in ecological sanitation B) in moderate and low temperature region

UASB septic

Tank storage
Tank
storage
Application of the anaerobic tr eatment in ecological sanitation B) in moderate and low temperature region
UASB reactor Biogas 35 o C storage Anaerobic digester
UASB reactor
Biogas
35
o C
storage
Anaerobic
digester

In urban area, kitchen and garden wastes can be added In rural area, manure, agricultural wastes can be added

Application of the anaerobic tr eatment in ecological sanitation B) in moderate and low temperature region
Application of the anaerobic tr eatment in ecological sanitation B) in moderate and low temperature region

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

References

1. Elmitwalli T.A., Zeeman G., Oahn K.L.T. and Lettinga G. (2002) Treatment of domestic sewage in a two-step system anaerobic filter/anaerobic hybrid reactor at low temperature. Water Research, 36(9), 2225-2232.

  • 2. LeAF foundation(http://www.ftns.wau.nl/lettinga-associates/)

  • 3. Mahmoud N. (2002). Anaerobic pre-treatment of sewage under low temperature (15 o C) conditions in an integrated UASB-digester system. Ph. D. thesis, Sub-department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.

  • 4. Yamuna Action Plan (http://yap.nic.in/research-development.asp

  • 5. Wang K. (1994) Integrated anaerobic and aerobic treatment of sewage. Ph. D. thesis, Department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.

References 1. Elmitwalli T.A., Zeeman G., Oahn K.L.T. and Lettinga G. (2002) Treatment of domestic sewage

WEB BASED TRAINING 2005

References 1. Elmitwalli T.A., Zeeman G., Oahn K.L.T. and Lettinga G. (2002) Treatment of domestic sewage
References 1. Elmitwalli T.A., Zeeman G., Oahn K.L.T. and Lettinga G. (2002) Treatment of domestic sewage