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OET –Reading test

Reading Passage Part A: Time:15 Minutes

• Complete the following summary using the information in the four texts provided.
• You do not need to read each text from beginning to end to complete the task. You should
scan the texts to find the information you need.
• Gaps may require 1, 2 or 3 words.
• You should write your answers next to the appropriate number in the right-hand column.
• Please use correct spelling in your responses

PART A:

Alzheimer's disease is a form of dementia that is more common in older


people.
Text 1:

A person with dementia experiences memory loss, confusion, and personality


and behaviour change.

Background:

Alzheimer's disease is a form of dementia – a term used to describe a


progressive decline in mental functioning. A person with dementia experiences
memory loss, confusion, and personality and behaviour change.

In Australia, about 70 per cent of people with dementia have Alzheimer's


disease, either in pure form or combined with another kind of degeneration such
as cerebro-vascular disease (poor circulation to the brain). Other kinds of
dementia include vascular dementia (caused by mini-strokes), Pick's disease and
alcohol-related dementia.

The condition is named after a German doctor, Alois Alzheimer – not because he
had the worst memory of anyone in Europe, but because he was the first to
describe the symptoms, in 1906.

He conducted an autopsy on a woman who had died of a strange illness and


found unusual changes in her brain –abnormal 'plaques' (clumps) of amyloid (a
pale waxy protein), and 'tangles' (bundles of fibres) – in the cortex of her brain,
especially in areas known to be important in memory and concentration.
Alzheimer postulated that these degenerative changes had caused her dementia.

It was later shown that people with Alzheimer's also have lower-than-normal
levels of neurotransmitters, especially acetylcholine, in the cortex of their brains.
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that help transmit messages from one nerve cell
to another.

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These changes don't happen in the general population, so we know that they
aren't part of the normal ageing process. However, we don't know for certain
whether the brain changes are the primary cause of Alzheimer's or whether there
is some other, unknown, underlying cause.Alzheimer's disease is more common
among older people. It usually begins after age 60, and gets more frequent with
advancing age. In Australia, one in four people over 85 will have dementia,
usually of the Alzheimer's type.

Text 2:

Symptoms

• Alzheimers's disease begins slowly and insidiously. The first sign is mild
forgetfulness – the person has trouble remembering recent events,
activities, or the names of familiar people or things.

• Of course, elderly people are inclined to be forgetful occasionally, as are


people who are depressed or malnourished. But in someone with
Alzheimer's the memory loss becomes increasingly troublesome.

• They forget things like the names of family members, common words,
where they live, and what activities they experienced earlier in the day.

• As the disease progresses, they get more and more confused. They may
lose the ability to manage their own finances or take their medications.
Cooking or writing a letter, once second nature, becomes a major task.
They may do meaningless things (often things that are socially
embarrassing to friends and family).

• In conversation they tend to repeat themselves. They may become


anxious or aggressive, or wander away from home. Finally they lose the
ability to dress themselves, bathe or toilet themselves, and finally to talk,
to eat, and to perform bodily functions. In the end stages of the illness,
people with Alzheimer's need 24-hour care.How quickly these changes
happen can vary from person to person.

Text 3:

Various Medicine for Effects of these medicine


Alzheimer’s
tacrine (trade name These drugs act by boosting the levels of the
Cognex), donepezil neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain (they
(Aricept), rivastigmine belong to a group of drugs known as
(Exelon), and galantamine acetylcholinesterase inhibitors). – but they have no
(Reminyl) effect on the progress of the underlying disease.
Anti-anxiety and sometimes used to help manage the anxiety and

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antidepressant drugs depression that tend to arise in the later stages of
the illness
Non-steroidal anti- Trials of anti-inflammatory drugs for treating
inflammatory drugs Alzheimer's have so far not found them to be of
(NSAIDs). benefit – by the time the disease has manifested
itself it may be too late for them to be effective.
Oestrogen. Women on Trials of oestrogen for treatment of Alzheimer's
hormone replacement have not shown any benefit; whether oestrogens
therapy (HRT), have any preventative action remains uncertain.

Ginkgo biloba the herbal remedy gingko may slow the progress of
Alzheimer's, although there is a lack of good-
quality, long-term trials.

Text 4:

Though it can't be cured, there's increasing evidence that Alzheimer's disease


can be prevented – at least, the risk of it lowered by

1. Who eat diet that is rich in antioxidants, that is, with plenty of fruit and
vegetables. People who eat the so-called 'Mediterranean diet'.
2. people who exercise regularly.
3. People who keep mentally active – read, do crosswords, play board
games, go to the theatre and so on.
4. the more education the person has, the lower the risk seems to be.

Summary Of The Task Answers


Alzheimer’s is a form of dementia.70% victims of (1)____ 1.
suffer from(2)_________.There are (3)_________ types of 2.
Alzheimer’s. The disease is named after (4)_________.He 3.
found plagues oa amyloid and tangles in (5)_________ areas 4.
of brain. People who have (6)__________ have dementia,it 5.
showed that lower (7)_______ leads to problem in message 6.
transmit between (8)_________ number of Alzheimer’s 7.
patient increases with (9)_____. 8.
9.
Alzheimers start slowly and insidiously. Initial sign is 10.
(10)______ and then (11)_____ is the problem.When 11.
disease progress it leads (12)________.In the conversation 12.
they (13)_____ to have own repetition. In final stage they lose
13.
the ability to dress, bathe or toilet for (14)______.Finally
14.
talking ,(15a)____ and to do (15 b)________ . Alzheimer’s
(16)____.
15a.
15b.
16.
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Summary Of The Task Answers

Medicine (17a)_________ with (17b)____ cognex along 17 a.


with donepezil, rivastigmine etc., used to (18)_________ in 17 b.
the brain. The (19)__________ have no effect of Alzheimers 18.
progress.(20)_____________ helps in final stage. NSAID is 19.
of no benefit and the benefit is (21)________ with 20.
oestrogen. The disease progress may slow with the 21.
(22)____ grug Ginkgo biloba. 22.
23.
24.
25.
(23)_____ is available even though there is no (24)_____. 26.
People eating foods with (25)_______, one who (26)______ 27.
and be(27)_____ and with (28)________ has low risk.
28.
Total:

Part B : Passage 1:

Most parents have waged epic battles with their kids over eating vegies. But if
they don't clean their plate of the last brussels sprout, does it really matter?

Vegetables are behind some of the greatest battles between parents and
children. Most parents have dinnertime horror stories involving small bits of
vegetable and lots of screaming, and while these stories can be entertaining, the
research showing how few vegies our kids are eating is not.

The 2009 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare national report card found
that a whopping 78 per cent of 4-8 year olds, 86 per cent of 9-13 year-olds and
95 per cent of 14-16 year-olds are not eating the recommended daily servings of
vegetables. Take out potatoes, which most kids eat as chips, and the percentage
of kids not getting the nutrition they need jumps to 97, 98 and 100 per cent
respectively. Other research has made similar findings.

But Australian children are hardly going to starve if they don't eat vegetables and
it's not easy for parents to keep cooking meals that are left on the plate or worse,
tipped on the floor. Does it really matter if our kids don't eat their greens?

Professor Louise Baur, paediatrician and director of weight management


services at The Children's Hospital at Westmead, says we all need to eat a wide
variety of foods - including vegetables - and children are no different. Research
shows vegetable consumption can help prevent chronic diseases such as heart
disease, type 2 diabetes and a range of cancers.

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According to Australia's dietary guidelines, children aged between four and seven
should be eating two to four serves of vegetables daily. Eight to 11 year olds
should be eating an extra serve; teenagers should have between four to six
serves every day. One serve of vegetables is one cup of raw salad vegetables,
one medium potato or half a cup of cooked vegetables or legumes.

In the short-term, children who don't eat vegetables can end up with dental
issues, constipation (especially if they skip on fruit as well) and on rare occasions
nutritional deficiencies, Baur says. But perhaps more importantly, we tend to
develop our eating habits in childhood, so if you're not eating vegetables and
other healthy foods as a child then you are less likely to do so as an adult.

Excess weight is also a problem; between 6-8 per cent of school age children in
Australia are obese and at least another 17 per cent are overweight. You won't
automatically put on weight if you don't eat vegetables, Baur says, but children
who don't eat vegetables are often eating foods that are high in saturated fats,
sugar and salt. Children who are overweight are more likely to become
overweight or obese adults, who are then at greater risk of chronic diseases.

And while the most hardened young vegie hater might enjoy an apple, banana or
piece of watermelon, Baur says fruit doesn't contain the iron and other minerals
found in vegetables, and it also contains more sugars. While fruit is an important
part of a healthy diet, the dietary guidelines suggest kids under 12 only need one
to two serves a day.

So we know that kids need their vegies, but getting them to eat a mouthful, let
alone several cups can be a challenge.

Nutritionist Dr Rosemary Stanton suggests nutrition should be a whole family


affair; you can boost your child's vegetable intake by eating your evening meal
together at the dinner table, preferably with the television off.

"Vegetables have traditionally been eaten mainly at dinner and with many
families no longer having a family meal, many kids get themselves something to
eat - often instant noodles, pizza or some kind of pasta dish (rarely with vegies),"
Stanton says.

Children are also more likely to eat and enjoy vegetables, and other healthy
foods, if they find them interesting, says Stanton.

"Several studies show that when kids grow vegies or attend a school with a
kitchen garden, they tend to eat more vegies… For those in flats, there are
community gardens in some areas, or if they have a balcony lettuces, herbs,
cherry tomatoes etc …can all be grown in pots."

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You can also pique your child's interest in vegetables by including them in a
range of tasks, such as grocery shopping, going to markets or by getting them to
help prepare meals. Small children can toss a salad (you can rewash any salad
leaves that end up on the floor), and older children can take on more difficult
tasks, for example peeling and cutting vegetables.

But perhaps the most important thing parents can do is model healthy eating.
Research has shown children's eating patterns are affected by the family's eating
behaviour.

Lisa Renn, spokesperson for the Dietitians Association Australia, encourages


parents to be persistent.

She says there are many easy and crafty ways to get vegies off your children's
plates and into their mouths:

• grate extra vegetables and add them to a favourite pasta sauce

• make green mash, add spinach or rocket when mashing potato

• serve vegie sticks with dips (think avocado, pumpkin or sweet potato) and other
snacks

• add extra vegetables or legumes to your next soup or stew

• make muffins using vegetables - corn, pumpkin and sweet potato all work well.

She also suggests the scattergun approach: offering a wide variety of vegetables
(the more different colours the better) in small amounts throughout the day, not
just at dinner time. There's no denying these suggestions require time, effort and
creative 'marketing'. Ultimately, says Renn, "you do what you can do, get them in
where you can, be as inventive as possible and be persistent".

1. According to the passage what is the reason behind the battle between
parents & children?
a. over eating of vegies
b. not cleaning
c. vegetables
d. not eating vegies
2. Who stand first is avoiding vegies from daily servings?
a. 4-8 years
b. Teen years
c. 14-16 years
d. Kids
3. Why do parents feel discomfort in cooking vegetables?

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a. Children won’t eat them
b. Vegetables will be in plates/ floors
c. Children will starve
d. b and c.
4. Who cannot be eliminated according to Prof. Louise?
a. diabetic patients
b. children
c. children prone to cancer
d. a and c
5. Along with a potato how munch vegetables should be taken in a day?
a. a cup
b. a cup of cooked veggies
c. none of the above
d. a and b
6. Which has the less possibility to occur with eating les veggies?
a. Dental issues
b. Constipation
c. Deficiency
d. None
7. What will automatically happen when you are not eating vegetables?
a. put on weight
b. reduce in weight
c. occurrence of obese
d. nothing will happen
8. Who needs 2 serves of vegetables a day according to the passage?
a. 4-7 years
b. 8-11 years
c. Below 12 years
d. A and c
9. In the passage who was relating family values with eating veggies?
a. Prof. Louise Baur
b. The Passage writer
c. Stanton
d. Dr. Rose Marie
10. Who influence children’s eating habit?
a. Advertisements
b. Junk foods
c. Parents
d. Family eating’s

Part B: Passage 2:

If you're in pain, the last thing you may want is someone sticking needles in you.
But plenty of people turn to acupuncture for pain relief. So what's the evidence?

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If the idea of someone sticking needles into you sounds painful, imagine having it
done when you're already in pain. It may sound counterintuitive, but many people
turn to acupuncture for pain relief.

Acupuncture is a component of traditional Chinese medicine, and involves


inserting of very thin, metal needles into specific 'points' on the body. The theory,
says Dr Marc Cohen, a professor of complementary medicine at RMIT University,
is that inserting the needles stimulates these 'points' and unblocks the natural
flow of light energy (qi or ch'i) through your body. Blocked qi is thought to cause
disease. Unblocking qi allows your body to heal itself, says Cohen.

You can also think of acupuncture as a way of defusing pain trigger points, says
Cohen. "If you can find a trigger point that reproduces the pain you're
experiencing... that's a point where you put the needle [to relieve it]," he says.
Interestingly, these acupuncture 'trigger' points are not always in the same spot
as your pain. For example, says Cohen, people who have eye pain often find a
tender spot between their first and second toes. The acupuncture point for frozen
shoulder, a painful condition that immobilises the shoulder joint, is on your chin.
Scientific evidence

But although acupuncture has been practiced for several thousand years,
scientists struggle to explain how it works.One theory suggests the needling
encourages the release of endorphins natural pain killers produced by the brain)
and sets off an inflammatory response that allows the body to heal itself. Another
theory is that acupuncture has a powerful effect on the mind, says Cohen, which
may also help to activate the body's pain-relieving mechanisms.

Modern science also has surprisingly little to say on whether acupuncture


successfully relieves pain or not. There are some high-quality studies, mainly
focusing on the relief of back pain and headache but they are small – so what
researchers have done is pool the results. A 2009 review of 22 existing studies
on the prevention of migraine with acupuncture found that people receiving
acupuncture had fewer headaches after three to four months than those who
received either no treatment or routine drug treatment. Those receiving
acupuncture also had fewer undesired consequences, such as drug side-effects.
Another review from the same year found that acupuncture also reduces the
intensity and frequency of tension-type headaches.

For chronic lower back pain, a 2007 German study of 1162 participants found
that the effectiveness of acupuncture after six months was almost twice that of
conventional therapy (drugs, physical therapy and exercise). A 2009 American
study of 638 people found similar results. However, the most current reviews
pooling all available evidence on chronic lower back pain don't paint such a
conclusive picture: they found that while acupuncture is a useful addition to
conventional therapies, there isn't sufficient evidence that it's any more effective
than other treatments.

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In addition, a 2009 review of acupuncture for various types of pain found that
while acupuncture has a small analgesic effect, we can't be sure this isn't caused
by the psychological impact of the treatment.

In spite of the lack of conclusive evidence, many people turn to acupuncture to


treat all types of pain, including toothache, menstrual cramps and tennis elbow. If
you want to try acupuncture, you can go to a GP who practices acupuncture
(more than 15 per cent of GPs in Australia do) or a traditional Chinese medicine
practitioner.

"[A GP] will have recourse to western medicine and will be covered by Medicare,
whereas a traditional Chinese medicine practitioner will put… more emphasis on
the traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis and philosophy, including tongue
diagnosis and pulse diagnosis," says Cohen. Sessions generally go for 15-30
minutes, and an initial course of once a week for sixweeks is normal for chronic
pain, says Cohen. You may need fewer sessions for acute pain. You should feel
some immediate benefit for acute pain, says Cohen. For chronic pain, you should
feel some immediate benefit that might initially wane off between sessions before
getting better.

But you do need to give acupuncture a chance to work. "Give it at least three or
four treatments, up to six treatments before you say it doesn't work," says Cohen.

Acupuncture administered by a qualified person is extremely safe, says Cohen.


"All drugs have side-effects and certainly pain medications (such as steroids and
anti-inflammatory medications) can have very severe side-effects." Practitioners
use disposable needles, so there is minimal risk of infection. It's worth asking
practitioners about their qualifications (they should have completed a four to five
year degree), whether they are registered with their professional association, and
what their experience is with the condition you're seeing them for, says Cohen.

If you do decide to try acupuncture for your pain, it's important that you still
initially seek medical treatment so that you don't miss any underlying conditions.

But many pain specialists caution against becoming overly reliant on


acupuncture, or any other treatment, to help you manage pain. Dr Paul Wrigley,
senior staff specialist at the Pain Management Research Institute in Sydney,
suggests that learning ways to self-manage your pain – for example by pacing
yourself and learning to reduce your anxiety levels – can help reduce the degree
to which pain interferes with your life.So while acupuncture helps some people
manage their pain, in the end, you need to figure out what works best for you.

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11. Acupuncture ______________ of the body
a. Needle stimulates
b. Unblocks the energy flow
c. None of the above
d. A and b
12. How does heating occur?
a. by unblocking
b. by itself
c. both the above
d. none
13. Acupuncture is a pain trigger point method?
a. yes
b. no
c. not given
d. only for few disease
14. Acupuncture point for frozen shoulder is_____________
a. chin
b. a point in toes
c. a point face
d. all the above
15. Endoprins are
a. painkillers
b. part of brain
c. only (a) or only (b)
d. both a and b
16. To treat ________________ acupuncture was used?
a. Migraine
b. Head aches
c. Both the above
d. None of the above
17. For what does acupuncture gives immediate relief?
a. head aches
b. acute pain
c. migrants
d. none of the above
18. Patients who wish to take acupuncture
a. can follow other treatment
b. should take other treatment
c. in starting go for other treatment
d. all the above
19. According to the passage how many persons who belong to Australia is
directly mentioned
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four

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Answers:

Part A:

1. Dementia
2. Alzheimer
3. 5
4. Dr. Alois Alzheimer
5. memory and concentration
6. degenerative changes
7. levels of neurotransmitters
8. nerves
9. aging
10. mild forgetfulness
11. memory loss
12. more confusion
13. tend
14. themselves
15. a.eating
15.b. bodily functions
16. patients
17. a. tacrine
17.b. trade name
18. boost neurotransmitters
19. acetylcholinesterase
20. Anti- anxiety
21. is uncertain
22. herbal
23. prevention
24. cure
25. antioxidants
26. exercise regularly
27. mentally
28. more education

Part B

Passage 1:

1. d
2. b
3. b
4. b
5. c

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6. c
7. d
8. d
9. c
10. d
11. c
12. c
13. c
14. c
15. a
16. d
17. b
18. c
19. a

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