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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.

33 (2015)
Research India Publications; httpwww.ripublication.comijaer.htm

Forebody Effect on Bluff Body Drag Reduction atLow


Reynolds Number
V. Suresh*, C. Senthilkumar*, S. Nadaraja Pillai**, S. Arunvinthan**
*Department of Aerospace Engineering, Madras Institute of Technology campus, Anna University,
Chennai-600 044. E-Mail Id: vsuresh@annauniv.edu
**Department of Aeronautical Engineering, J.J.College of Engg & Tech, Ammapettai, Trichy.

Abstract: Drag reduction is an interesting and important practical problem with wide range of
engineering applications. D-Shape is a representative model for various bluff bodies and its drag
influences the performance of the particular body. Drag reduction on D-Shape model with various
roughness and forebody effects is the subject of this research. A standard D-Shape model with and
without Roughness is compared with modified forebody D-Shape configuration for different
dimensions. The study has been done in computational fluid dynamics by modeling standard DShape model with and without roughness and modified forebody D-Shape configuration. The
models are analyzed in CFD using k turbulence and LES model. Drag coefficient, Pressure
coefficient around the model are the parameters considered. Results show that drag has been
reduced more than 10% by infusing the roughness or by modifying the forebody. The main reason
behind this is the flow field gets energized by the influence of surface roughness and the flow
separation has been delayed due to the modified forebody. This leads to the drag reduction and it is
evident from the pressure distribution over the investigated models.
Keywords: Bluff body, Roughness, Forebody Effect, Coefficient of Pressure, Coefficient of Drag.

INTRODUCTION
At high enough Reynolds number the flow past bluff bodies is characterized by large
wake and periodic, alternative vortex shedding. The separated shear layers from the sharp
corners feed Vorticity to the wake. These vortices are shed continuously downstream. The side
faces and rear face is subjected to low pressure, whereas the front face is subjected to high
positive pressure. With this flow pattern, the pressure drag coefficient assumes very large values.
This fact is particularly true for bluff bodies with noncircular cross-sections and sharp corners.
Hence reducing such drag by modifying the geometric parameter and improving the efficiency is
an interesting task.
Several investigations have been reported on drag reduction of bluff bodies over few
decades. E Radhakrishnan et al [2], studied that the effect of splitter plate on noncircular
cylinder, and found that by using backward splitter plate is more effective in drag reduction
rather forward splitter plate. Khalid M. Sowoud et al [3], studied the effect of fore body on drag
reduction of D-Shape model and found remarkable decrease in drag, however it requires
additional body to reduce the drag of main body. By placing such additional body upstream of
the flow leads to spend extra energy or structure to hold it and to do the task assigned.
Bandu N.Pamadi et al [4], investigated the effect of a pair of thin strakes on the windward
flat faced non circular cylinder in axial flow at subcritical Reynolds number produced substantial
changes in flow pattern, vortex shedding and drag coefficient. Kevin R. Cooper et al [5],
identified the fore body reduces drag main body and achieved considerable reduction in drag.
Koneig K. et al [6], studied that the effect of geometrical size and gap results in reduction in the
drag of bluff body at a considerable manner. A. Gatto et al [7], studied the effect of roughness
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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.33 (2015)
Research India Publications; httpwww.ripublication.comijaer.htm

and turbulence of yawed cylinder was found to produce highly asymmetric, unsteady flow
results.
Flow over the circular cylinder with serrated roughness and the Dynamic Particle Image
Velocimetry (DPIV) measurements made by Kikuchi et al [8]. Wind pressure applied to a
cylindrical model with a smooth surface and serrated roughness was measured to determine the
wind flow field around a separation point. In this present research the effect of surface roughness
of different sizes and locations were studied in order to reduce the drag on D model without any
fore body or rear body which is then later compared with Modified Forebody D Shaped Model.
The method of roughness similar to Kikuchi et al [8] for circular cylinder is applied for the D
model in this research and various flow parameters are studied.
Robert.E.Breidenthals [9] work demonstrates that at Low Reynolds Number rounded
shape to the Forebody preserves the Leading Edge suction by attaching the Boundary Layer to
the Model and thereby helps reducing Drag. As it is evident that the rounded corners are
preferred over the sharp corners the modification of the Forebody is also done with the D-shape
Configuration. Experimental Results Reveals that the Drag on the Forebody has been greatly
reduced with the Forebody Modification and it helps reduces the Drag. However, the drag from
the base region on the backside of such bluff bodies is not so easily eliminated. Research
continues on the aerodynamics of bluff bodies, making this subject much more interesting and
complicated than that of streamlined objects. Our proposed idea for the Drag reduction on the
base region of the back side of such Bluff Bodies can be achieved by infusing the Roughness
over the Model.
COMPUTATIONALMODEL
Four computational domains were made for the study of standard D-Shaped model and
one model has been created for the analysis of modified forebody effects on the bluff Body. The
first model is D-Shape without the roughness and extended a distance of 10 times the length
upstream and 20 cylinder diameters in the downstream and cross-stream directions. The second,
third, fourth domain consisted of a D-Shape with 2%, 3% and 4% of surface roughness
respectively.
The final model was the modified forebody configuration having an extended arm
holding the D-shape forward end. The extended arm is parameterized as g holding the forward
D-Shape model having radius b1 and the entire extended arm is stationed at b2 of the bluff
body model.

Fig1.Modified Forebody D model

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.33 (2015)
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(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig.2. D model with the various location of roughness is shown (a) D model without roughness (b) D
model with roughness till 50% model (c) D model with roughness beyond 50% model (d) D model with
roughness on 100% model

Fig.3. D model with grid generated with triangular paved elements

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


For the D-shape model, the measured drag coefficients CD at three different test velocities
15 m/s, 20 m/s, 25 m/s are 0.50235 , 0.49241 and 0.48643 respectively. The high drag coefficient
CD is mainly due to the positive pressure at the front face and the low pressure at the rear face.

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.33 (2015)
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Fig.4. Velocity distribution on D model with 25 m/s velocity free stream

Fig.5. Velocity distribution on D model till 50% roughness with 25 m/s velocity free stream

Fig.6. Velocity distribution on D model beyond 50% roughness with 25 m/s velocity free stream

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.33 (2015)
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Fig.7. Velocity distribution on D model with 100% roughness with 25 m/s velocity free stream

DRAG REDUCTION AND SURFACE ROUGHNESS OVER STANDARD D-MODEL


Fig. 3 6 shows the velocity distribution over the D model and with various roughness.
However in Fig. 3, the wake region is more when compared to the other models. The inference
from these figures of velocity distribution shows how much the flow separation is delayed. The
delay of flow separation is due to the influence of the roughness. Also the location of the
roughness influences further decrease in drag.
Table. 1 4 show the various drag values for the D model at 25 m/s. The decrease in drag is
evident from the row wise. From these figures it is seen that the optimum combinations occurred
at x/D is 4% resulting in CD of 0.37647, 0.28783, 0.24988 at velocities 15m/s, 20 m/s,25 m/s
respectively. The maximum drag reduction of 48% was achieved for the model with 100%
roughness. The other tested surface roughness resulted in drag reductions in the range of 2030%, which are quite low compared with the reduction at optimum conditions.
Drag Reduction over Modified Forebody Model
In the Modified Forebody D- Model, High pressure exists in the stagnation region near
the re-entrant corner, and infinitely negative pressure exists at the convex corner, where the fluid
velocity is infinite on the Modified Forebody model states that the Forebody Drag force is zero.
It is explained as that over the front surface of a Bluff Body. The low pressure at the convex
corners is called leading edge suction. The forces from these two pressures cancel each other;
the average pressure on the front face of the step is found to be exactly equal to the freestream
pressure! Thus the drag on a semi-infinite body in potential flow is zero
For the modified Forebody D-shape model, the drag coefficients CD are measured at three
different test velocities 25 m/s, 20 m/s, 75 m/s for varying shape modifications. We hereby coin
the term Characteristic Length L* and Localization Factor F* in this paper to help understanding
the Effects of the shape changes in the Forebody of the Bluff Body. The Characteristic Length
ratio L* is defined as the ratio of Length of the arm Extension to the point of intersection with
the Main Bluff Body Whereas the Localization Factor F* is denoted as b1/b2. The ratio can be
mathematically expressed as L*= g/b2.Those Models were tested at various Test velocities and at
varying shapes modifications to help understand its relation with the Drag reduction over the
Bluff Body.
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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.33 (2015)
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Our Experimental Investigations reveal that the Modified Forebody D- Model performs
well at higher test velocities. Greater the test velocities lesser becomes the Drag value. It is
evident by considering a sample that the Modified Forebody Model of L*=0.25 experiences Drag
reduction from the value of 1.533 to 0.733. It clearly states that the drag has been greatly reduced
and its almost dropped down to half of its value at Lower test velocities. When we see the later
part of the Experimental Investigation we can clearly see that changing the b1/b2 ratio also helps
reducing the Drag. The influence of Localization Factor F* on the Drag Reduction is very
Minimal. The values are nearly close to each other and are infinitesimally very small changes.
The selection of Characteristic Length ratio L* and Localization factor F* purely depends on the
purpose of use. The high drag coefficient CD is mainly due to the positive pressure at the front
face and the low pressure at the rear face.
Table. 1 Modified Forebody D-Shape model and Coefficient of Drag (CD) at different Velocity and L* at F*=1
Arm
Coefficient Coefficien
Coefficient
Characteristi
Forebody
Localization
Extension
of Drag
t of Drag
of Drag (CD)
Cases
c Length
Dimension
Factor (F*)
(g)
(CD) at 25
(CD) at 50
at 75 m/s
Ratio (L*)
(b1)
m/s
m/s

(a)

0.25

50

12.5

1.533226

0.91191

0.700335

(b)

0.5

50

25

1.536845

0.909042

0.693369

(c)

0.75

50

37.5

1.56232

0.919312

0.698102

Table. 2 Modified Forebody D-Shape model and Coefficient of Drag (CD) atdifferent Velocity and L* at F*=0.75
Coefficient Coefficient
Coefficient
Localization
Characteristi
Forebody
Arm
of Drag
of Drag
of Drag (CD)
Cases
Factor
c Length
Dimension
Extension
(CD) at 25
(CD) at 50
at 75 m/s
( F*)
Ratio (L*)
(b1)
(g)
m/s
m/s

(a)

0.75

0.25

37.5

12.5

1.561464

0.930523

0.71501

(b)

0.75

0.5

37.5

25

1.570407

0.932838

0.715684

(c)

0.75

0.75

37.5

37.5

1.581351

0.937517

0.717561

(d)

0.75

37.5

50

1.594896

0.944891

0.72103

(e)

0.75

1.25

37.5

62.5

1.604964

0.952576

0.726907

(f)

0.75

1.5

37.5

75

1.614231

0.958627

0.732685

Table. 3 Modified Forebody D-Shape model and Coefficient of Drag (CD) atdifferent Velocity and L* at F*=0.625
Cases

Localization
Factor (F*)

Characteristic
Length Ratio
(L*)

Forebody
Dimension
(b1)

Arm
Extension
(g)

Coefficient
of Drag (CD)
at 25 m/s

Coefficient
of Drag (CD)
at 50 m/s

Coefficient of
Drag (CD) at
75 m/s

(a)

0.625

0.25

31.25

12.5

1.57391

0.938042

0.721061

(b)

0.625

0.5

31.25

25

1.57742

0.93827

0.719814

(c)

0.625

0.75

31.25

37.5

1.584085

0.941359

0.721415

(d)

0.625

31.25

50

1.588895

0.944672

0.722937

(e)

0.625

1.25

31.25

62.5

1.595575

0.948232

0.725739

(f)

0.625

1.5

31.25

75

1.59892

0.951286

0.728986

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Table. 4 Modified Forebody D-Shape model and Coefficient of Drag (CD) at


different Velocity with different L* at F*=0.5
Localization
Factor (F*)

Characteristic
Length Ratio
(L*)

Coefficient
of Drag (CD)
at 25 m/s

Coefficient
of Drag (CD)
at 50 m/s

Coefficient
of Drag (CD)
at 75 m/s

(a)

0.5

0.25

25

(b)

12.5

1.57892

0.940459

0.722578

0.5

0.5

(c)

25

25

1.581574

0.940041

0.720834

0.5

(d)

0.75

25

37.5

1.583442

0.941906

0.722881

0.5

25

50

1.588069

0.94323

0.722829

(e)

0.5

1.25

25

62.5

1.588826

0.944518

0.724577

(f)

0.5

1.5

25

75

1.590561

0.945881

0.725097

Cases

Forebody
Dimension
(b1)

Arm
Extension
(g)

Table. 6 Modified Forebody D-Shape model and Coefficient of Drag (CD) at


different Velocity with different L* at F*=0.375
Localization
Factor (F*)

Characteristic
Length Ratio
(L*)

(a)

0.375

0.25

18.75

(b)

0.375

0.5

(c)

0.375

(d)
(e)
(f)

Cases

Forebody
Dimension
(b1)

Arm
Extension
(g)

Coefficient
of Drag (CD)
at 25 m/s

Coefficient
of Drag (CD)
at 50 m/s

Coefficient
of Drag (CD)
at 75 m/s

12.5

1.583162

0.942377

0.723833

18.75

25

1.582408

0.942316

0.723688

0.75

18.75

37.5

1.584589

0.943781

0.724382

0.375

18.75

50

1.584704

0.943021

0.723443

0.375

1.25

18.75

62.5

1.585235

0.943433

0.723591

0.375

1.5

18.75

75

1.583955

0.94234

0.723287

Table. 6 Modified Forebody D-Shape model and Coefficient of Drag (CD) at


different Velocity with different L* at F*=0.25
Localization
Factor (F*)

Characteristic
Length Ratio
(L*)

(a)

0.25

0.25

12.5

(b)

0.25

0.5

(c)

0.25

(d)
(e)
(f)

Cases

Forebody
Dimension
(b1)

Arm
Extension
(g)

Coefficient
of Drag (CD)
at 25 m/s

Coefficient
of Drag (CD)
at 50 m/s

Coefficient
of Drag (CD)
at 75 m/s

12.5

1.584318

0.943256

0.724654

12.5

25

1.584287

0.942739

0.723977

0.75

12.5

37.5

1.584143

0.942639

0.723874

0.25

12.5

50

1.583255

0.942414

0.723171

0.25

1.25

12.5

62.5

1.584929

0.942972

0.724038

0.25

1.5

12.5

75

1.584406

0.944564

0.726887

CONCLUSION
Computational Fluid Dynamic analysis for the standard D model with and without
Roughness and Modified Forebody D model were studied and corresponding results are
discussed. The Experimental Results reveal that the modified Forebody model has the tendency
to reduce the Drag by preserving the Leading Edge Suction and by holding the Boundary layer
adhered to the Model. Varying Characteristic Length ratio L* and Localization Factor F* has

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.33 (2015)
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minimal Effect over the Drag reduction whereas the Velocity has a great impact on the Drag
reduction. Greater the Test velocities lesser is the Drag over the model. The Modified Forebody
can perform well at Greater velocities i.e. at High speeds than at Low speeds. Even though the
Modified Forebody reduces the Forebody drag the drag from the base region on the backside of
such bluff bodies is not easily eliminated. Hence we decided to infuse the roughness effect on
standard D-Model to reduce the drag from the base region i.e. the pressure drag. Experimental
Investigations were done over the standard D-Model with various roughness and the results has
been tabulated. The results reveal that increase in roughness percentage leads to decrease in drag
coefficient by reducing the so expected Pressure Drag. Also the roughness on 100% of the D
model is much efficient than the D model with front and rear 50% roughness. The physical
significance can be explained by the way of formation of wake region and the flow separation. It
may be assumed at this stage of research shows till 8% roughness the drag coefficient reduces
when compared to the smooth standard D model.
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