Human Rights: Respond to Climate Change

by Eric Luther D. Calunnag

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its 5th
Assessment Report in year 2014 confirmed that climate change is real and
that human-made greenhouse gas emissions are its primary cause. The
report identified the increasing frequency of extreme weather events and








desertification, water shortages, and the spread of tropical and vector-borne
diseases as some of the adverse impacts of climate change.
Human rights obligations apply to the goals and commitments of
States in the area of climate change and require that climate actions should
focus on protecting the rights of those most vulnerable to climate change.
Human rights principles articulated in the Declaration on the Right to
Development and other instruments call for such climate action to be both
individual and collective and for it to benefit the most vulnerable. The
UNFCCC further elaborates upon the need for equitable climate action calling
for States to address climate change in accordance with their common, but
differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities in order to benefit
present and future generations (OHCHR,2015).

A human rights-based approach also calls for accountability and transparency. in the design and implementation of these projects. policy coherence and the enjoyment of all human rights. Such an approach should be part of any climate change adaptation or mitigation measures. It is not only States that must be held accountable for their contributions to climate change but also businesses which have the responsibility to respect human rights and do no harm in the course of their activities. resettlement schemes and others. States should make their adaptation and mitigation plans publicly available. climate-resilient. Affected individuals and communities must participate. without discrimination. and be transparent in the manner in which such plans are . and sustainable development. technological and capacity-building support. including financial. to realise low-carbon. while also rapidly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. in turn.Existing State commitments require international cooperation. Only by integrating human rights in climate actions and policies and empowering people to participate in policy formulation can States promote sustainability and ensure the accountability of all duty-bearers for their actions. such as the promotion of alternative energy sources. States should cooperate to address the global effects of climate change on the enjoyment of human rights around the world in a manner that emphasizes climate justice and equity. will promote consistency. This. forest conservation or tree-planting projects.

Because of the impacts of climate change on human rights. States must effectively address climate change in order to honour their commitment to respect. The rise in sea level is largely due to the expansion of water and the melting of glaciers on land.developed and financed. 2014). While no one anticipates that this complete melting could happen in this century. promote and fulfil human rights standards. Greenland and Antarctica contain enough ice to cause nearly 400 feet of sea level rise if it all were to melt. although human activity that leads to land subsidence also contributes to coastal flooding. climate change and its impacts. protect.. researchers estimated that a four-foot rise in sea level by the end of the century would mean that nearly five percent of the worldÕs population would be subject to annual flooding (Hinkel et al. including human rights impacts. In a recent paper for the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Since climate change mitigation and adaptation measures can have human rights impacts. the median projection of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is that the sea level will rise about two feet figure that . all climate change-related actions must also respect. protect and fulfil human rights for all. Accurate and transparent measurements of greenhouse gas emissions. will be essential for successful rights-based climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts.

although most climatologists project it would be in the range of three to six feet. during the Pliocene epoch the time period between about 5. Because of these concerns. Nor can scientists predict precisely when the West Antarctic Ice Sheet might collapse. some scientists have accused the IPCC of being reticent (Hansen. These and other feedback loops in the climate system remain poorly understood. no one can say. while average global temperatures were only about three to four degrees Celsius warmer. Given that the understanding of land ice dynamics is still relatively undeveloped. for example. as paleoclimate records suggest that there could be much higher average sea levels. The IPCC is not alone in this foot-dragging. how quickly the vertical shafts within glaciers in Greenland will carry meltwater from the surface down to the underlying rock effectively greasing the way for glaciers to be transported more swiftly into the sea.may be too conservative. there has been virtually no acknowledgement by the major emitters that they have caused tens to hundreds of millions of people . For example. And yet abrupt climatic change could theoretically help to cause the seas to rise tens of feet by the century end. or how warming ocean currents could accelerate such a change.6 million years ago sea levels were about 100 feet higher than they are today. 2009). 2007) on the issue of sea level rise (Smith et al.3 million to 2..

and more intense storms to strike. more frequent and deeper floods to occur. but also for the residents of many low-lying delta regions. if not impossible. . 2009). Realistically. many coastal regions of the world could become difficult. rising sea levels cause wells to be flooded with saltwater. Given this situation. they cannot build dikes or seawalls or floating cities and in any case. coastlines to erode. In addition. even when there is less than two feet of sea level be at permanent risk of losing their homes and possibly their countries by the end of the 21st century. all of which render large swathes of land unfit for human life and activities. people are poor. A foretaste of these presubmersion effects can already be seen in the Pacific islands and in low-lying deltas such as the Ganges and the Brahmaputra (CARE International. their economies are still emerging. Consequently. even rich countries that can afford these expensive technological fixes find that they are not fully protective. the dire consequences of sea level rise are not limited to just the physical act of water covering the land on which one lives. where most of the affected live. shoreline homes to wash away. and there is not much technological infrastructure. to inhabit. In developing countries. Long before there is complete permanent submersion. This is true not just for the people living on small islands.

While assistance in combatting sea level rise could take several forms. the closest legal mechanism is the 1954 Refugee Convention. concerns about the arrival of a large number of climate exiles or boat people knocking on their doors has driven some countries to build even stronger borders. since climate exiles are hardly responsible for their plight. with their talents and skills. it is imperative that these developing countries be compensated for their losses by the rest of the international community (Byravan and Rajan. and it is the duty of those responsible to recognize this fact and provide assistance. 2010). it is likely that an influx of new citizens. In addition. 2010). Unfortunately. would generate net economic benefits for host countries particularly those with declining birthrates and legal immigration would provide a prudent longterm answer to tensions relating to international refugee crises. designed to protect those . their extreme vulnerability and the minuscule contribution of developing countries to the problem of climate change. Such fortress worlds promote even stricter migration policies toward affected neighbors. migration and permanent resettlement would seem to be the only possible adaptation strategies available for the millions of people whose countries and 25 lives are at extreme risk (Byravan and Rajan. existing international law provides no help for these individuals. I posit that such fortresses are unethical.

While this is an important approach and acknowledges that there is a positive duty to help . and was further reinforced after the Cancun Climate Change Conference of 2010. in advance of actual disaster. Some of this could fall under the rubric of Loss and Damage. a legal concept originally introduced through the Association of Small Island States and Bangladesh. 2008). human settlement.forced to flee their homes as a result of war or persecution. likewise with recent Meeting in Paris this November 2015. The idea is rooted in the principles of state responsibility under international law. at present those forced to move due to environmental or climate reasons cannot be referred to as refugees. and began to get more visibility after the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change held its conference in Poznan. and relocation including Oxfam and World Vision considered the problems related to poor countries suffering damage from climate change mostly as a human rights concern. Until quite recently. Poland. advocacy groups that worked on issues of migration. special right of free global movement and resettlement in regions and countries on higher ground. Legally speaking. which has received support from other developing countries (UNFCCC. The only just remedy to the climate driven migration problem would seem to be the development of a new.

cf. 2010. In policy terms. They are stateless persons who are either already or soon will be stripped of rights but what is exceptional about them is that theirs will be a permanent condition. 2005). since the original state and its territory either no longer exist or will be rendered largely unviable for all practical purposes. it does not grapple with the responsibility that rich countries have toward poor countries for occupying their global development space and causing them harm through the effects of global warming. They will therefore need special protection in terms of being . In other words. those countries that have historically been large emitters have contributed the most to the burden of greenhouse gas stocks in the atmosphere and therefore have a special responsibility to make proportionate amends to those who are experiencing destruction from global warming. it is important to recognize that climate exiles are a special category of international migrants who need protection of an even stronger sort than that given to other refugees. unlike most other types of statelessness. rich countries have an obligation toward poor countries as a consequence of the cumulative burden of greenhouse gas concentrations they have contributed to in the past (Byravan and Rajan.people who are suffering. Pogge. while providing support to climate exiles as a charitable effort to assist people in harms way is certainly necessary.

there should be a mechanism in which these exiles would be given accelerated immigration benefits. either through a new international treaty or through some framework of regional and international cooperation. Accordingly. would be a fair way of addressing the problems faced by climate exiles and offer a modicum of climate justice.provided civil. Thus. and economic rights. Such a mechanism. there could be several ways to determine who should be . operating in advance of climate-induced disaster. political. typically by becoming full citizens in countries away from their original homes. Under the proposed framework. host countries could demonstrate their commitment to climate justice and provide a pragmatic solution to the problem. One way this could take place would be by including the millions of people who live on small islands in the existing immigration quotas of rich countries who are the most responsible for the cumulative effects of greenhouse gases in the first place based on the 26 Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 71(2). This could mean that climate exiles need to be recognized as such and given special status. people living in areas likely to be obliterated or rendered uninhabitable would be provided the option of early migration after having received some training and skills to be prepared to be full citizens of host countries. Once the basic principle is accepted.

the Maldives and Bangladesh face the greatest danger of obliteration in the South Asian region. Large countries that are themselves not at risk could take the initiative in these processes. Even here.considered for immigration benefits. Similar efforts could be led by Australia in the Indian Ocean and parts of the Pacific. Regional agreements are more important than experts and negotiators usually recognize. therefore. and by China and the United States for the Americas and island regions within their respective spheres of influence. because of the synergies they generate for peace and prosperity among neighbors. regions experience . and what institutional and political mechanisms should be established to minimize the risk of a massive refugee crisis as climate impacts become more severe. which countries should bear the costs of immigration. For instance. In many cases. There are other approaches as well. regional agreements could identify potential hosts for their more vulnerable neighbors without having to wait for international negotiations to provide a solution. subsequent international treaties would be necessary to seal these relationships and provide formal ways of sharing the financial costs associated with putting them into effect. India could take the lead in promoting an agreement for phased migration to India and other countries in the region over the course of this century. For instance.

and share similar weather-related systems (such as monsoons and melting glaciers) and comparable cultural features and histories. are almost always viewed through the lens of a national security threat. becoming nearly irrelevant in the current negotiations. The issues related to cross-border migration. unfortunately. but unfortunately that concept has been eroded bit by bit in recent years. stressing common but differentiated responsibility. has been one of the core principles behind the concept that wealthier nations would contribute more to resettlement efforts. there are many opportunities to be explored regarding new regional policies on labor. migration. while India and Nepal have a relatively relaxed policy on movement between countries. In South Asia. for example. But not all regional neighbors have neighborly relationships. Similarly. the same cannot be said of the other countries around India. however. While there appears to be some acknowledgement of the challenge climate exiles within the international community. and that could be a big challenge. the legal concepts of Loss and Damage and . In light of crossborder migration pressure from climate change andweather-related disasters.1 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. much more needs to be done.the same climatic disaster events such as cyclones and floods. Article 3. and adaptation.

ssrn.ssrn.cfm? . References: Byravan S and Rajan SC (2006) Providing new homes for climate change exiles. Challenges that the world have to deal with in the coming centuries. Adjusting to living in a warmer world and reducing the greenhouse gas emissions responsible for global warming are dual responsibilities. Available abstract_id¼1129346.other initiatives could fall by the wayside in their usefulness for vulnerable populations unless these are fortified through legal protection and regional cooperation. Byravan S and Rajan SC (2008) The social impacts of climate change in South Asia. Climate Policy 6: 247”252. Everyone is called up to respond to the challenge of Climate Change and to promote Human Rights in test of shared by all. Available at: http://papers.cfm?abstract_id¼950329. at: http://papers.

p21-28. 1 Graph. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.pd f.ethicsandinternationalaffairs.Byravan S and Rajan SC (2010) The ethical implications of sea-level rise due to climate change. Vol. Available at: http:// www. Sudhir Chella (2015) Sea level rise and climate change exiles: A possible Hansen JE (2007) Scientific reticence and sea level rise. Environmental Research Letters . Ethics & International Affairs 24(3): 239”260. 71 Issue 8p. CARE International (2009) In search of shelter: Mapping the effects of climate change on human migration and displacement. Sujatha Rajan.careclimatechange. Mar2015. Byravan. Available at: http://www.

iop. Human Rights and Climate Change.2(2): 024002. Available at: http://www.pnas. . Vafeidis AT. Available at: http://iopscience. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(9): 3292”3297. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Lincke Hinkel J. The Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) 2014 Available at: http://www. abstract. (2014) Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise.shtml Office of the High Commissioner for Human 2/2/024002/. et al.

1747-7093.2005. September 27.aspx Pogge T (2005) World poverty and human rights. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences .x/ Available at: http://www. Ethics & International Affairs 19(1): 1”7. Oppenheimer M et al.Available at: http://www.2015.tb00484. Radio Australia (2013) Pacific leaders call on the UN for more action on climate change. Available at: /Pages/ j. (2009) Assessing dangerous climate change through an update of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reasons for concern. Schneider SH. Smith

Available at :http://www. abstract.106(11):4133”4137. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (2008) Approaches to address loss and damage associated with climate change impacts in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate Available at: _and _damage/items/6056. .php.

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