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BENG (HONS) MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (2+0)

EAT 309
Design

Name

UOS ID

Lecturer Name :
Date

Part 1 - Design Specification


Design Brief
This product is a re-design of the hydraulic cutting equipment that can be supported by the
hydraulic power pack which its output pressure is boosted from 85 bar to 97 bar. This

hydraulic cutting equipment includes 2 blades, 2 hydraulic cylinders and a control circuit.
The hydraulic cutting equipment is designed to be light weight, small in size which is
convenient to operate and handle, easy to maintain and the appearance is good. This
equipment will be able to resist corrosion, high reliability and durability, low cost to
manufacture and safe to use.
Design Specification
a) Performance:
a) Two identical hydraulic cylinders will be powered to enclose the blades with a
maximum 4o overlapped and a maximum 120o when the blades are in fully open
position which the full stroke of each blade is 62o.
b) The angular velocity of the blade while closing will not exceed 2revs/min. When the
blades open, the angular velocity will be lesser than 15revs/min. The angular
velocity will be controlled by the hydraulic control circuit.
c) The blades will be able to exert a maximum cutting force of 10kN at the mid-point
of the blade when they are in fully opened position.
d) The working pressure within the unit of a valve must not be overloaded to 97bar.
b) Timescale:
a) The lifespan of the hydraulic cylinder is approximately 6 years.
b) The reliability of the cutting equipment should not be more than 3.5% of faults.
3.

Cost:
a) The manufacturing cost should be lower than 150USD as the selling price at the
existing market will be about 350USD [24].
b) By setting this selling price, the profit margin will be at least 50% of the selling
price.

4.

Safety features:
a) An emergency stop button will be included in the power pack operational system to
halt the system if any case of any emergencies.
b) Protective guards will be installed on the cutting equipment to prevent any debris or
cut parts projectile towards the operator.

5.

Ergonomics:
a) This product is designed to be light weighted in concern of the ergonomics of the
operator.

6. Target Market:
a) This product is targeted for customers who are in the aid agencies at disaster sites ,fire
department or rescue teams around the world.

Part 2 - Output Force Calculations


Solution:
Calculations to determine:

The output force required from the hydraulic cylinder that needs to be applied at the link
point of the blades in order to achieve the force (specified above) at the mid-point of the
blade
Calculation:
Fb = 10kN

rb = 105mm

Fc = ?

r1 = 55mm

F b x rb = F 1 x r2
F1 = 10kN x 105 mm / 55mm
= 19.1 kN for 2 cylinder force
Force acting on cylinder 19.1kN / 2 = 9.6kN
Fc = F1 cos 35
= 9.6kN cos 35
= 7.9kN
As from calculation above, single cylinder output produced is 7.9kN.
Hence, according in this design using double hydraulic cylinders, the output adds up to
15.80kN which is required from the hydraulic cylinder to achieve the 10kN force at the
midpoint of the blade.

Part 3 - Concept designs


The following figure below is the design of the Hydraulic cutting equipment and labelled all
the functional parts :

Brief Description of System

Hydraulic fluid is pumped into the circuit using hydraulic pump. The fluid passes through the
filter to mesh out any impurities or dirt that can damage the hydraulic parts or the system.

A shut off valve is placed after the filter to protect the hydraulic systems from excess
pressure; shut off hydraulic flow and isolate, bleed off/discharge system pressure from
hydraulic pump and associated equipment.
Then, hydraulic fluid travels through the pressure relief valve to control the incoming
pressure of the fluid into the directional valves, limits the working pressure to 97bar.
A check valve is placed there after to stop the flow of fluid in one direction and allow free
flow in the opposite direction. It also gives pre-tensioning by creating a certain backpressure
& protects the hydraulic components against pressure surges.
Open/close position of the cutting jaws is controlled by the directional control valves,
operated with solenoids, which consists of 3 positions, open > neutral > close.
The output fluids from the directional control valve is separated equally into 2 outputs using
flow dividing valve due to number of cylinders used in this cutting equipment is 2 units. And
both the cylinders use simultaneous stroke movement.
The cutting speed of the jaws is regulated by installing flow control valves with fixed output
at each cylinder (inlet & outlet). The flow control valves are set into suitable pressure to
achieve the desired speed of the jaws (open 15 RPM & close 2 RPM).

Parts 4 Material Review


Among the materials available in the market, I found it is suitable to choose Chrome
Molybdenum, Stainless steel & Aluminum Alloy to manufacture the tube and piston rod of
the hydraulic cylinder. The selection of these 3 material as appropriate candidate is justified
by these reasons:

All 3 materials mentioned above are already used in hydraulic cylinder


manufacturing.
Its strength and robustness is suitable to withstand the required system pressure, 97
bar.
Fully recyclable

Figure 1: Material Chosen: Chrome Molybdenum (left), Aluminum Alloy (middle) &
Stainless Steel (right)

Material
Properties

Service
Condition

Cost

Chrome
Stainless Steel
Molybdenum

Aluminum
Alloy

Density (1000
kg /m)

7.7

8.3

Elastic Modulus
(GPa)

205

193

135

Ultimate Tensile
Strength (MPa)

655

485

720

Tensile Strength
(MPa)

655

485

220

Yield Strength
(MPa)

415

170

510

Percentage of
Elongation (%)

25%

40%

45%

Hardness (Brinell
3000kg)

197

217

42

Maintenance

Purchase Cost
($/kg)

14.9

5.5

Table 1: Properties of 3 materials, ref: [1, 2, 4, 5, 13]


Service condition:
1

Chrome Molybdenum Steel :


Effect of chromium component

The presence of chromium increases the resistance of a material towards corrosion. Steel
becomes more resistive to corrosion due to presence of chromium.
Chromium content increases the hardenability of steel. Chromium improves the hardenability
of any material.
Chromium element increases the resistance to wear and abrasion of the steel.
It improves the strength of steel when this alloy steel is subjected to heat treatment. At high
temperature, the strength of the steel becomes very high due to chromium.[3]

Effect of Molybdenum component


When a part is subjected to a constant stress at high temperature for a long period of time, it
undergoes a slow and permanent deformation called creep. The component of molybdenum
increases the creep strength of steel.
It increases the red hardness of the alloy steel.
Similar to chromium, it also improves the hardenability of steel.
The addition of molybdenum component forms the abrasion-resisting particles. These
particles are responsible for resisting wear and abrasion.[3]

Aluminum:
Aluminum is a viable metal option for many fabrication pieces and often a competitor
when choosing among stainless, mild and aluminum. As a relatively soft product,
aluminum is light and durable, ductile and malleable.[13,10]

Stainless Steel:
Stainless steels are selected for applications where their inherent corrosion resistance,
strength and aesthetic appeal are required. However, dependent on the service
conditions, stainless steels will stain and discolor due to surface deposits and so

cannot be assumed to be completely maintenance-free. In order to achieve maximum


corrosion resistance and aesthetic appeal, the surface of the stainless steel must be
kept clean. Provided the grade of stainless steel and the surface finish are correctly
selected, and cleaning schedules carried out on a regular basis, good performance and
long service life will result.
Cost:
1

Chrome Molybdenum Steel:


The currently cost of chrome molybdenum is 14.9 dollar per kg, since is expensive
around 2 times than aluminum and around 3 times than stainless steel. Chrome
molybdenum is a least favorable alternative to stainless in many situations due to it is
very expensive. It is easier to work with than stainless and aluminum, but far more
expensive than stainless steel.[8,9, 13]

Aluminum:
Aluminum price is cheaper than chrome molybdenum around 6000 or 7000 dollar per
ton, since aluminum is light and durable, ductile and malleable. Aluminum is a lot less
dense than steel, by about one third, again making it easier to cast or machine.[8,9,
13]

Stainless Steel:
Although chrome molybdenum is more expensive than stainless steel, but
comparative analysis is for stainless steels at the low end of the properties scale.
Requirements for higher strength at elevated temperatures and better corrosion
resistance add to costs. While stringent material requirements may elevate costs,
machining drives up the expense of finished parts more than that of the material itself.
[8,9, 13]

Ethical and Environmental:


1.

Chrome Molybdenum Steel:


Chrome molybdenum builds ethical and sustainable practices into all areas of its
operations. Chrome molybdenum has the benefit of being truly recyclable but is
produced by a process that produces CO2 emissions. Sustainability is about much
more than CO2, but one of the major challenges of sustainability is reduce CO2
emission which may contribute to climate change. [2,5]

2.

Aluminum:
The entire process of transforming raw bauxite into aluminum is incredibly energy
intensive, requiring copious amounts of electricity, water and resources to produce.
Half of the smelting energy consumed is courtesy of coal. The release of per
fluorocarbons during the aluminum smelting process are 9200 times more harmful
than carbon dioxide in terms of their effect on global warming.
When bauxite is extracted from the earth, the strip-mining process removes all native
vegetation in the mining region. Particulates releases during processing that are
known to compromise air quality. [2,5]

3.

Stainless Steel:
Stainless steel production contains recycled material. Some products will have a lower
recycled content while others will be higher. It extremely durable as well as stable at
ambient temperatures and it harmless to living things.
Stainless steel alloys are extremely stable at ambient temperature, there is no leaching
or run-off. It makes use of substantial pollution control technology, while is still
consumes some natural resource. [2,5,6]

Part 5 Weighted Objective Method


For weighted object method, we will set to 4 categories, which is strength, toughness,
ductility, cost and eco- friendly
The score given in each category as below:

Objective Rankings & Weightings

Method Of Scoring Of Designs Against Objective

Su
m

Weightin
g
(Sum/Tot
al)

Characteri
stic

Strength

Toughness

Ductility

Cost

Eco Friendl
y

Strength

0.5

0.5

0.22

Toughness

0.5

0.5

0.5

2.5

0.19

Ductility

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.15

Cost

0.5

0.5

0.22

Eco Friendly

0.5

0.5

0.22

13
.5

Strength
For this objective, the strength of the steel. The material must able to withstand the
maximum stress while being stretched or pulled before failing or breaking. The material must
have the ability to accept the stress applied on it. The toughness of steel and its ability to
resist brittle fracture are dependent on a number of factors that should be considered at the
specification stage.
Yield strength (N/mm2) for nominal thickness t (mm)

Score

t 16

16 < t 40

40 < t 63

63 < t 80

Toughness
For this objective, they weight objective is done by the toughness of steel. In steel these
imperfections take the form of very small cracks. If the steel is insufficiently tough, the
'crack' can propagate rapidly, without plastic deformation and result in a 'brittle fracture'. The
risk of brittle fracture increases with thickness, tensile stress, stress raisers and at colder
temperatures. The toughness of steel and its ability to resist brittle fracture are dependent on a
number of factors that should be considered at the specification stage
Test temperature

Score

40oC

30oC

20oC

10oC

10

Ductility
For this objective, each material is weighted by measure of the degree to which a material can
strain or elongation the onset of yield and eventual fracture under tensile loading as
demonstrated. The high ductility steel has better ability to absorb the energy than low
ductility steel. It can last much longer under the stresses higher than yield strength with
plastic deformation on the contrary to low ductility steel, which is more brittle and breaks
suddenly, getting light elongations
Elongation at fracture (%)

Score

45%

35%

25%

15%

10

Cost
Cost consideration plays an important role in selecting a material for a manufacturing
purpose. In terms of mass production, it is best to choose the cheapest material comparing it
to its best mechanical properties and other materials. In this objective, comparing the selected
3 materials, it is graded from the cheapest to expensive.
Cost/kg (USD)

Score

>20

>15

>10

>5

Environment Friendly
This referring to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies that inflict reduced,
minimal, or no harm at all, upon ecosystems or the environment. ISO establish principles and
procedures for environmental labels and declarations that certifiers and eco-labellers should
follow. In these designs of control circuit, we will score it for the cleanliness of the system,
heat produced & risk of oil spillage.

Safet
y

Score

>40

>20

>10

10

>10

12

Score of Each Design Against Objective


Material

Strength

Toughness

Ductility

Cost

Eco Friendly

Chrome
Molybdenu
m

Steel

Aluminum
Alloy

Stainless
Steel

10

Adding The Weightings For Each Objective

Objective

Strength
Toughness
Ductility
Cost
Eco - Friendly

Weigh
t

0.22
0.19
0.15
0.22
0.22

Total

Chrome
Molybdenu
m

Aluminum
Alloy

Stainless
Steel

Steel
Score

W.S

Scor
e

W.S

Score

W.S

0.88

0.8
8

1.32

1.71

0.3
8

0.95

1.20

0.6
0

0.75

0.88

1.5
4

1.76

1.76

1.7
6

10

2.20

6.43

5.1
6

6.98

As from the weighted objectives method, I conclude that Stainless steel, is the best material
to be used in the manufacturing of the hydraulic cylinder, for both piston rod and cylinder
tube according to the scores obtained in the weighted objective method.

Part 6 Tube & Rod Calculations

Diagram A
The Diagram A above show that the blades are overlapped 4 in close position while the full
opening angle is 120.
The maximum opening angle for the blades = 120 - (-4) = 124
Let be the blade movement for each.

= 124 2 = 62

By using Trigonometry method, when the blade is open to 62 for a single blade,

Let h = height raised, x = displacement change from initial


cos =

h
55

h cos 62 55=25.8209 mm
sin =

x
55

x sin 62 55=48.5621mm

Diagram B
The diagram above shows the distance between cylinder and mid-point pivot is 200mm.
When each blade start to open to 62 angle, the cylinder connected to it will retract, resulting
in change in length.
Let:
L = cylinder stroke length to provide a blade movement of 124 angle
= angle after the blade movement

We are going to find the stroke length, L by using Trigonometry method

tan =

x
200h

tan =

48.5621
20025.8209

15.58

sin =

x
L

x
sin

48.5621
sin 15.58

L 180.8221 mm

Diagram C
M 1=F1 55 mm=10 kN 55 mm=550 N
From above, the stroke length, L is 180.8821mm.
Therefore,

M 1=F2 180.8221 mm
F2 =

550
180.8821 103

F2 =3040.6547 N =3.040654658 kN

Table 1: Pressure table[22]


Since the internal maximum pressure is 97 bar and F is 3.040654658 kN.
From Table 1, the nearest pressure from 97bar is 100 bar while the nearest force from
3.040654658 kN is 3.8 kN. Therefore, for the diameter of piston rod taken is 22mm.
P=

F
A

A=

3040.6547
4 2
=3.1347 10 m
6
9.7 10

Diagram D
Let the D1 is diameter of piston rod = 22mm, D2 is the inner diameter of bore and D3 is the
outer diameter of bore.
Let the shaded region be the gaps area between the bore and piston rod.
D1 = 2 R1 ; D2 = 2 R2
R1 = 22 2 = 11mm
2

The area between the bore and piston rod = R2 R1 =3.1347 10

R22 ( 11 103)2 =3.1347 104


3

R2=14.9 10 m
D2 =2 R2 =29.7174 mm

Table 2: Piston head, rod cylinder diameter[22]


Since the D1 = 22mm and the minimum D2 is 29.7174mm.
From the Table 2, the standard size of the inner diameter bore which nearest to the calculated
D2 is 29mm. while for the D3 which is the outer diameter of bore = 50mm.

For the following piston rod & bore specifications, it is found the standard piston seal is
available in the market.
For example,

Table 3 : Parker Industries available standard piston seal[21]


From Table 3, the standard piston seal size for the above calculated piston rod and cylinder
tube specifications is found available in the market.

Calculation of the hoop stress and radial stress for the bore.
R1 , inner radius of bore = 29 2 = 14.5 mm
R2 , outer radius of bore = 50 2 = 25 mm
R1 <r < R2

R
r + R 22
2

r2
Hoop stress, ( 22R2 )
1
p R 21
H=

When r = 14.5mm,

14.5 10
25 10
(3)
14.5 10
(3)
14.5 10
25 10
(3)
14.5 10
2
(3)
( 2)

(3)2 +

( 2)
( 2)

2
6 (3)
( 9.7 10 )
H =

6
6
= ( 4.917 10 )(3.9727) = 19.5338 10 Pa

When r = 25mm,

14.5 10
25 10
(3)
14.5 10
(3)
25 10
(3)
25 10
(3)
25 10
(3)
( 2)

( 2)

( 2)+

( 2)
( 2)

2
6 (3)
( 9.7 10 )
H =
= ( 4.917 10

)(2) = 9.8340 10 Pa

R
r R22
2

r2
Radial stress, ( 22R2 )
1
p R 21
R=

When r = 14.5mm,

14.5 10
25 10
(3)
14.5 10
(3)
14.5 10
25 10
(3)
14.5 10
2
(3)
( 2)

( 3)2

( 2)
( 2)

2
6 (3)
( 9.7 10 )
R =

6
6
= ( 4.917 10 )(-1.9727) = -9.7 10 Pa

When r = 25mm,

14.5 10
25 10
(3)
14.5 10
(3)
25 10
(3)
25 10
(3)
25 10
(3)
( 2)

( 2)

( 2)

( 2)
( 2)

2
6 (3)
( 9.7 10 )
R =
= ( 4.917 10

)(0) = 0

Calculation of the hoop stress and radial stress for the piston rod.
R1 , inner radius of piston rod = 22 2 = 11 mm
R2 , outer radius of piston rod = 50 2 = 14.5 mm
R1 <r < R2

R
r + R 22
2

r
Hoop stress, ( 22R2 )
1
p R 21
H=

When r = 11mm,
11 10
14.5 10
(3)
11 10
(3)
11 10
14.5 10
(3)
11 10
(3)2
( 2)

(3)2 +

( 2)
( 2)

(3)2
( 9.7 10 6 )
H =

= ( 13.1507 10

)(2.7376) = 36.0014 10 Pa

R
r R22
2

r
Radial stress, ( 22R2 )
1
p R 21
R=

When r = 11mm,

11 10
14.5 10
(3)
11 10
(3)
11 10
14.5 10
(3)
11 10
2
(3)
( 2)

( 3)2

( 2)
( 2)

2
6 (3)
( 9.7 10 )
R =

6
6
= ( 13.1507 10 )(-0.7376) = -9.7 10 Pa

Table 3: Ultimate shear strength calculation formula[23]

Ultimate tensile strength, Su for stainless steel [1] = 485 MPa


Ultimate shear strength,

USS=0.75 S u=( 0.75 ) ( 485 106 )=363.75 10 6=363.75 MPa

H +
Maximum shear strength,

2
Max =

When r=11mm,
Maximum shear strength, Max =

( 36.0014 106 ) (9.7 106 )


2

=22.8507 106 Pa

When r=14.5mm,
Maximum shear strength, Max =

( 19.5338 10 6 )(9.7 106 )


2

=14.6169 106 Pa

When r=25mm,
Maximum shear strength, Max =

( 9.8340 106 ) ( 0 )
2

=4.9170 10 6 Pa

As a conclusion, the material chosen that is stainless steel, calculated ultimate shear strength,
363.75 MPa is more than the maximum shear strength for our design hydraulic piston head,
piston rod and cylinder tube. Therefore, stainless steel is acceptable to use as the appropriate
candidate material in manufacturing the cylinder rod and cylinder tube.

Part 7 Overview of Manufacturing Methods

Manufacturing of Cylinder Tube : Selection of cylinder tube material depends upon.


1. Constraint about size of cylinder, and its design.
2. Working medium.

In our design, we have chosen stainless steel as the cylinder tube and piston rod. Below
following are the manufacturing processes which be done to produce stainless steel tube.

Machining : For manufacturing of stainless steel cylinder tube, we cut pipe to the length, then machine it
by turning, and boring its inside diameter on lathe machine. Then hone it on honing machine.
As per IS-2709-1965 by honing it is possible to control tolerance limit up to H4 to H5. But
the requirement of fitting tolerance in cylinder is that cylinder tube inside diameter and piston
outside diameter should have normal to easy running fits. Hence inside diameter of cylinder
tube is made as per H7 to H9 tolerance grade and piston outside diameter as per f8 to e8
tolerance grade. Selection of tolerance grade depend upon inside diameter, length of cylinder
tube, working pressure, duty cycle, and how critical the system is.
By honing operation we can achieve surface finish up to 0.2 micron but for optimum result
Ra value is kept between 0.4 to 0.8 micron and tool mark at 45%%D to central axis.

The roughness of cylinder ID & its reason :Hydraulic cylinder inside diameter surface roughness we keep 0.4 to 0.8 micron Ra value for
standard operation. Roughness should not be less than 0.2 mm Ra. Because hydraulic seal
rubs the cylinder inside diameter under pressure, if roughness is more friction will be more
and seals will fail due to wear and tear. But if roughness is too less, then such smooth surface
do not retain oil film which can cause increase in friction between seal and cylinder due to
dry running, which again cause heat generation and seal life get reduced. Surface of cylinder
must retain some oil film for seal lubrication. Surface roughness 0.4 to 0.8 micron and honing
tool mark at 45%%D to central axis gives optimum result.
Extra Protection of Cylinder Tube Inside Surface : Piston rubs against the cylinder inside diameter, which is honed surface. Piston also has
bearing material lining hence do not damage the honed surface. Hence for general purpose,
and common hydraulic application cylinder tubes are only honed, and used. But in those
cases when cylinder may not be used for long period, then the honed surface may get damage
due to atmospheric moisture and corrosion. In such case it is hard-chrome plated. Pneumatic
cylinders are also chrome plated as air contains moisture. In those cases where honed
cylinders tube may or may not be used for hydraulic cylinder. But has to undergo most severe
service condition, then to protect its honed surface it is nitrated. Nitrating make skin of
cylinder inside diameter very hard, and corrosion resistance. For example gun-barrels,
Barrel's of plastic extrudes etc. But for nitrating material of cylinder should be of capable of
getting heat treated. For example alloy steel EN41B is used for barrel for plastic extrusion.
For further detail about hard-chrome plating and nitrating refer chapter on "Surface
Protection and "Heat Treatment".

Welding of Hydraulic Cylinder: Most critical welding in hydraulic press is a welding of end plug of hydraulic cylinder. Hence
we will particularly study welding procedure of end-plug.

Design And Welding Procedure : Step 1: Calculate and decide the thickness of end-plug by equation.
Step 2: First end-plug is threaded and fitted in cylinder then welded. Calculate the number of
thread required to takes the full load coming on end-plug.
Load on end-plug (W) = 0.785 x di x p
Load on end-plug is support by threads.
W = dt x 3.14 x Pt x n x fs
Where di = Inside diameter of cylinder (cm)
P = Working pressure (kg/cm)
dt = Pitch circle diameter (cm)
Pt = pitch of thread on end-plug
n = Number of thread required
fs = Permissible shear stress of material of end-plug (kg/cm) Hence by above equation
thickness of end-plug and number of thread is calculated. Make threading and fit end-plug in
cylinder
Step 3: For welding, prepare the welding joint while machining the end-plug and cylinder.
Step 4: Tighten the thread to maximum extent. So that end-plug do not have clearance for
movement under pressure. Threads are for taking load, and welding though can take load, but
use them only for making joint leak proof.
Step 5: Heat the joint and cover remaining portion of cylinder to avoid heat loss. Heat
between 100%%DC to 200%%DC.
Step 6: Use low hydrogen electrode for welding. Bake welding electrode before welding.
Step 7: Run first weld as shown in figure.
Step 8: In case of large cylinder use penning to overcome pulling of end-plug on one side due
to shrinkage in weld deposit. For penning, weld a small portion, clean the flux, take a blunt

chisel, and hammer the weld deposit with such a blow that it flatten the weld deposit. Do all
this when weld deposit is still at sufficient high temperature. Repeat this till welding
completed.
Step 9: When welding gets completed cover the whole cylinder, so that full cylinder get
slowly cooled. In no condition cold water or anything fall on heated welding joint. Neither
should it left in cool breeze for air cooling.
By natural cooling fine-grain structure will get produce, which are ductile and soft. Even if
coarse grain get produced which has less strength, then also it does not matter, as load is
taken by thread and not welded joint. All cylinders expand when pressurized and contract on
releasing pressure. If rate of cooling allowed to be very fast then marten site grain structure
will get produced in welded joint, which are very hard, brittle and welding will crack on
cylinder pressurization.
Step 10: Cylinder get cooled downed clean welded joint, and inspect for any crack developed.
Test it and if it is found OK then said cylinder can be used for further operation.
Step 11: If welding cracks than remove all weld deposit, check chemical composition of
cylinder tube and end-plug, and select welding electrode and welding procedure as per the
requirement of that grade or type of material. Any welding done on a cracked weld deposit
tends to crack again hence it is better remove all old crack weld deposit before welding again.

Step 12: Use low hydrogen-electrode of grade E 7016 for welding. If welding is cracking
even after using E7016 electrode as per standard procedure, then use electrode for stainless
steel welding such as AWS/SFA:E309-17 electrode. As these electrode are for welding high
alloy steel to un alloy so in majority of cases cracking problem get solved by using them. [21]

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