Está en la página 1de 8

IMC Lecture 3

Lecture 3
The Communication Process

Communication Theory
Schramms model of communications
Message Fidelity
The strong versus weak school of
advertising
Emerging theory
Emerging practice
Kim Roberts 2014

Communication
The task of communication is to exchange
information and convey meaning to others.
Talking at or to someone does not imply
successful communication.
A receiver must receive the message that the
sender intended to send for effective
communication.
Message rejection, misinterpretation and
misunderstanding are the opposite of effective
communication.

The need for Stimuli.


Approx. 90% of the stimuli that individuals
perceive comes to them as a result of sight.
The remaining 10%, results from hearing.
Therefore advertising relies heavily on these
stimuli. However, because of possible
distortions in the perception of a given message,
what the consumer receives may not be what
the advertiser intended.

IMC Lecture 3

Mass Communications
Multi-step communications model
R

Noise

R
R

OL

R
OF

Sender

Message

Channel

R
OF
OL

R
R
R

Feedback

R
R

Categorising signs Pickton & Broderick (2005)


Type of Sign

Definition

Example

Icon

A sign that looks like the


object or represents it
visually in a way that most
people would relate to.

A drawing of someone
relaxing on a beach would
signify a holiday to most
people

Index

A sign that relates to the


object by a causal
connection

A sweaty athlete coming


into a locker room relates
to a drink: most people
relate to being thirsty after
playing sport, even though
the drink itself is not
shown.

Symbol

An artificial sign which has


been created for the
purpose of providing
meaning

Most people are familiar


with the intertwined arrows
used to denote recyclable
materials. This conveys
an image of greenness
to the products it appears
on.

IMC Lecture 3

Silent communications methods


Medium

Example

Numbers

The Porsche 911 there is an implication that the


car is the latest in a long series
An image of a man & woman standing close together
implies they are lovers; an image of a wide open space
implies freedom.
Images of what people own imply their social status.
Small gifts & free samples convey a small obligation to
the recipient.
Images of people in a hurry may imply success &
energy to N. Europeans & Americans. To Africans
it might convey somebody who has no time for people
and arrogant.
People who are walking/running imply a fit & active
lifestyle; those who are gesticulating with their hands
imply intellectual discussion, or argument.

Space
Artefacts
Time

Kinetics

Information Processing
Hierarchy of effects models: Models that describe the stages
individuals are said to progress through in moving from initial
unawareness to final action such as purchase or consumption. A
range of models or ways of describing the stages in the process.

Knowledge

Feeling

Motivation
Action

>>>>>>
Communication
Information

Persuade
Reassure

Long Term

Keep Repeating
The message

Short Term

Affective

Conative

Cognitive

Information Processing:
Learn, Feel, Do.
COGNITIVE COMPONENT (LEARN): refers to the level of
knowledge and beliefs held by individuals about a product and/or
the beliefs about specific attributes of the offering. This represents
the learning aspect of attitude information.
AFFECTIVE COMPONENT (FEEL): By referring to the feelings held
about a product good, bad, pleasant or unpleasant an evaluation
is made of the object. This is the component that is concerned with
feelings, sentiments, moods and emotions about an object.
CONATIVE COMPONENT (DO): This is the action component of
the attitude construct and refers to the individuals disposition or
intention to behave in a certain way. Some researchers go so far to
suggest that this component refers to observable behaviour.

IMC Lecture 3

Response Hierarchy Models Smith (2002)


Stage

AIDA

Lavidge &
Steiner

E K Strong (1925)

L & S (1961)

Adoption

DAGMAR

EM Rogers
(1961)

RH Colley (1961)

Howard &
Sheth (excerpt)
H & S (1969)

Online
information
processing
Hofacker (2000)

Unawareness
Awareness
Cognitive
(Learn)

Awareness

Attention

Exposure
Attention

Awareness

Attention
Knowledge

Interest
Affective
(Feel)

Liking

Comprehension

Comprehension

Comprehension
& Perception

Conviction

Attitude

Yielding &
Acceptance

Interest

Preference
Desire

Conviction

Evaluation
Trial

Behaviour
(Do)

Action

Purchase

Adoption

Intention

Action

Purchase

Retention

The Elaboration Likelihood Model of


Persuasion Model (ELM) Petty & Cacioppo 1983
Promotional
Message

An Individuals
ability & motivation
to process information
Low
High

Peripheral
route & cues

Peripheral
route & cues

Central route

Attitude
Change

From the senders perspective


Consumer processing model CRM

Pure reason
Systematic
Reasoned
Rational
Cognitive
Features
Practical details
Facts
Evaluation possible

Hedonic experiential model HEM

Pure passion
Emotions in pursuit of
Fun,
Fantasy
Feelings
Appeals
Illicit affective responses
Convey an image
Humour, shock, lifestyle,
Music, Eroticism etc

IMC Lecture 3

Communications are effective if:


Signs are used which are common to both the
senders and the receivers fields of experience
(the perceptual field)
Efforts are directed towards influencing
consumers brand related
BELIEFS = enforce or change
ATTITUDES = alter or increase
EMOTIONAL REACTIONS & CHOICES

Out with the old


Hierarchy of effects models now considered
insignificant (Fill 2013)
Replaced with new frameworks and explanations
Sales - view that all advertising is aimed at shifting product
Persuasion - advertising works rationally (e.g. H of Effects)
Involvement - eliciting an emotional response
Salience - premise that advertising works by standing out
Strong versus weak school of advertising theory

In with ENGAGEMENT & ENTERTAINMENT

The Weak School of Advertising


The Awareness-trial-reinforcementnudging (ATRN) model Ehrenberg & Barwise
To be used to maintain customers
current behaviour patterns
Consumers become aware of a brand, try
it (buy it) & are then exposed to
reinforcement by advertising. Nudging by
advertising may prompt the consumer to
buy (repurchase).

IMC Lecture 3

Weak school v Strong school of advertising


ATRN model
Peripheral

ELM/message models
Processing
Shallow

Central

Limited attention
some attention
active attention
No cognitive thought
high cognitive thought
Ignores adverts
some attention
attentive to adverts
Inertia/disinterested
concerned/active
Brand salience theory
Persuasion theory
Use of cues to reach evoked set
Exposure: Learn feel do

Emotions
Several researchers are convinced of the importance of ad evoked
feelings for the communications process; No instrument exists to
measure feelings (Pelsmacker)
1998 The power of ad-likeability (consumer responses to 2 years of
TV advertisements)

Emotions are more effective than likeability


If consumers see emotions they will feel your ad
If they feel something whilst they see the ad, they will like the ad
If they like the ad, they will like the brand
If they like you, they will buy you
Gouden, Gluon & Onderzock 1998

Why are so many advertisers regardless of perceived


risk of purchase (Cars, Crisps, Computers, Cold sore
cream) using emotional ads?

Processing
mode
Judgement
&
Reasoning
Persuasion
Label
RSP

Processing mode
Emotions; and
imprinted archetypal
schemas
Persuasion label
ESP & ASP

Processing mode
Instincts
Persuasion label
ISP

SELLING PROPOSITIONS;
RSP= rational ESP= emotional ASP= archetypal, ISP: instinctual

IMC Lecture 3

Emotions are uncontrollable


Trigger
arousal
appraisal
values
Advertisers use emotive stimuli to appeal to emotions e.g.
Positive
Negative
Hope
Fear
Pride
Shame
Liking
Contempt
Malice
Hatred
Gloating
Guilt
Love
Anger
Curiosity
Envy
Esteem
Indignation
Desire
Pity
Pleasure
Disappointment
Anticipation of enjoyment
Regret
Anxiety

BUT
Do you search on-line for consumer opinion
Prior to product/service purchase?
Has eWOM helped your purchase
decision?
Does eWOM encourage you to switch
brands?
WHO IS SENDING THE MESSAGE ABOUT
A BRANDS OFFERING?
The consumer or the Brand?

Established theory

Emerging practice

CONSUMER
SENDER

BRAND
SENDER

2010
EMERGING PRACTICE!
MESSAGE
AD

RECEIVER
CONSUMER

EMERGING THEORY?

MESSAGE
OPINION
ADVICE
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
RECEIVER
CONSUMER
BRAND
EMLOYEES
STAKEHOLDERS

IMC Lecture 3

POEM = practitioner led (2014


www.simplymeasured.com
www.smartinsights.com.

Discussions,
tagged viral
posts,
comments,
likes,
responses to
Qs,

PAID
Time or Space purchased on
someone elses platform
Advertising, paid search,
print, TV, and other mediums

Sponsorships
, applications
OWNED
Controlled content
on a closed platform,
events, photos, brand
pages, videos, websites,
mobile sites, brochures,
internal comms, speeches,
blogs, twitter

SHARED
Anyone
can play on
an open
platform
Networks,
groups

Monthly active
users, fans,
views

EARNED

Free media Reportage


or editorial by journalists;
shares, community
pages, WoM, eWoM,
page likes,
Engagement through
both traditional and social
media