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‫أصول اللغة العربية القرآنية‬

ESSENTIALS OF QURANIC ARABIC
Volume 1
by Masood Aḥmed Ranginwala

Edited by Abū Zayd
Obaidullah Choudry

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Copyright © Masood Aḥmed Ranginwala 2012
Second Edition June 2013
Revised August 2014

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system,
or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, or otherwise, without written permission
of the publisher.

ISBN 978-1-300-07804-3

Published by:
ILF- Islamic Learning Foundation (NY)
ICNA (Islamic Circle of North America)
166-26 89th Ave
Jamaica, NY 04262
masoodar@gmail.com
Additional copies of this 2-Volume Series softcover textbook or e-book can be purchased at
http://www.lulu.com/spotlight/MasoodR
Please note that all profits go towards advancing Qur’ānic Studies.

Cover design by Adam Ranginwala and Omar Ranginwala.

Any mistakes or shortcomings in this book are due to errors of the author, and all that is correct
and true solely are due to Allahh. Please feel free to contact the author at the email listed above
to notify him of any errors present.

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............................................................................Table of Contents Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................................ TEXT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES .................................................... FLEXIBILITY AND I‛RĀB ......................................... 6 TRANSLITERATION KEY ................................................. 38 I................................................................................................................. ARABIC AT THE TIME OF THE PROPHET ............................................................................................................................................................ THE ARABIC WORD [‫كلِ َمة‬ َ ‫ ]ال‬................................................. 27 II............. PRE-GRAMMAR REVIEW OF ARABIC ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 33 IV...............................................................................................................................................................................................................28 Table 6: Inflection of “Noun Endings” by I‛rāb ....................... 34 ِ ‫ ]م‬and [‫ ]فُعالء‬...................................... POINTING NOUNS [‫شارة‬ َ ‫ ]أَ ْمساءُ ْاْل‬......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 LESSON 1: INTRODUCTION TO ARABIC GRAMMAR: THE ARABIC WORD [‫ ]الكلمة‬............................. THE FOUR CHARACTERISTICS OF ARABIC NOUNS [‫ ]اَألَمسْاء‬........................................................................................................................ 7 FOREWORD ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... THE NOUN [‫السم‬ ْ َ‫ ]ا‬AND ITS FOUR CHARACTERISTICS ...............................................................................................................................................13 I.................................................................................................... PRONOUNS ]‫ض ِمري‬ َ /‫ضمائر‬ َ ِ ‫الضمائِر املن َف‬ Table 8: Detached Pronouns [‫صلَة‬ َ ] ... 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS........................................ THE THREE CATEGORIES OF ARABIC WORDS [‫كلِ َمات‬ َ ْ‫]اَل‬........................................................................................................................................................................................ 22 IV..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................16 I............................................................. 10 HISTORY OF ARABIC GRAMMAR ................................................................................................................................. THE THREE DEGREES OF FLEXIBILITY OF NOUNS ...............................................................42 Table 11: Pointing Nouns ................................................................... 22 Table 1: I‛rāb of Singular and Dual Nouns .......................................................................................................................................... 16 II...................................................................................26 LESSON 2: I‛RĀB AND FLEXIBILITY ........................................................................................ I'RĀB [‫إعراب‬ ْ ]............... 42 ِ ْ ‫]أ‬................................................................................................................................... 27 Table 5: Special Feminine Nouns ................................................................................................24 Table 2: I‛rāb of Sound Masculine Plural ................................................................................... 8 PREFACE ...............................26 Table 4: I‛rāb of Broken Plurals ............................................................42 Table 13: Additional Pointing Nouns ..........40 ُ Table 10: Conjugation of Attached Nouns in Three I‛rābs [‫ ]كِتاب‬........................................................................................................................................... EVOLUTION OF ARABIC GRAMMAR ..................43 1 ......................................................................................................................................... 20 III......................................................................................................36 Table 7: Broken Plurals on patterns [‫فاعل‬ َ َ LESSON 3: THE PRONOUNS [‫ ]الضَّمائِر‬AND THE POINTING NOUNS [‫اإلشارة‬ َ ُُ‫ ]أَمساء‬.. 13 II............................................................................................................38 ُ ِ ‫الضمائِر الْمت‬ Table 9: Attached Pronouns ]‫َّصلَة‬ َ [ ................................................................................................. 9 I............................................................................................25 Table 3: I‛rāb of Sound Feminine Plurals .. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ARABIC LANGUAGE ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Near [‫شارةِ الْ َقريب‬ َ ‫َمساءُ ْاْل‬ ِ Table 12: Pointing Nouns: Far [‫شارةِ الْبَعيد‬ َ ‫ ]أ ْمساءُ ْاْل‬....................................................................................................................41 ِ II...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................27 I.........................................................................................................................................38 ِ [ ...32 III................................ 9 I..........

........................... INTRODUCTION TO WORD CONSTRUCTIONS........... 64 VII......................................................................................................................... NOMINAL SENTENCES AND ITS VARIANCES ................................. 76 ِْ ‫روف‬ Table 26: Interrogative Particles ]‫اال ْستِ ْفهام‬ ُ ‫ [ ُح‬.................................................................................. PARTICLES OF JARR [‫وف ا ْْلَر‬ ُ ‫ ] ُحُر‬........................................... 79 II............................. IḌĀFAH .................53 I...........................................................................................61 VI.................................. 53 ِ ‫ ]املرَّكب التَّو ِص‬................................................ PARTICLES OF NAṢB [‫َّصب‬ ْ ‫ ] ُحُروف الن‬...................................................................................................................................................................................................... THE FOUR TYPES OF PREDICATES ]‫َخبار‬ ْ ‫ [أ‬.47 َ II......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 50 ِ ‫]َجَْع التَّك‬............................ 70 IV............................................. 53 II................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 81 IV............................................................... 73 Table 22: Particles of Negation [‫ح ُروف النَّ ْفي‬ ُ ] .......... SUBJECT AND PREDICATE [‫ ]اَلْ ُم ْب تَ َدأ‬AND ]‫ [اَ ْْلََب‬.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................74 ْ ‫وف الت‬ Table 25: Particles of Condition [‫َّرط‬ ْ ‫] ُحُروف الش‬.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. THE BASIC NOMINAL SENTENCE [ُ‫مسيَّة‬ ُ II............................................................. IMPORTANT MISCELLANEOUS PARTICLES IN SENTENCES ..................................................................................................................................................... 51 IV............................................. 56 IV...........................................................................................77 LESSON 7: TYPES OF NOMINAL SENTENCES ]‫ [أنحواعُُاجل َمل‬........45 Table 15: Nouns of Place [‫ف املكان‬ َّ ‫ف‬ ُ ‫ ]ظَْر‬and Nouns of Time [‫الزمان‬ ُ ‫ ]ظَْر‬......................................... BROKEN PLURAL PATTERNS [‫ْسري‬ ُ Table 18: Broken Plural Patterns ........................................................ THE DESCRIBING CONSTRUCTION [‫يفي‬ ْ ُ َُ III..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 64 Table 20: The Five Special Nouns ]‫سة‬ ْ ‫ [األ‬.......................................................... POINTING CONSTRUCTIONS................................................................... 68 III............................................ 55 ِ ‫ ]املرَّكب ا ِْل‬.......................52 LESSON 5: WORD CONSTRUCTIONS ]‫ [امل َركِبات‬..................................................................................74 Table 24: Particles of Emphasis [‫َّوكِيد‬ ُ ‫ ] ُحُر‬....................................................................73 Table 23: Connecting Particles [‫ح ُروف الْ َعطْف‬ ُ ] ...... CASES WHEN THE PREDICATE IS DEFINITE ............................................................ INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES [‫ ]اَِال ْستِ ْفهام‬......................................................... JARR CONSTRUCTIONS AND SENTENCES AS ADJECTIVES ........................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents LESSON 4: PARTICLES [‫ ]اَ حْلروف‬AND BROKEN PLURALS [‫ ] ََجعُُالتَّكحسري‬....... METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYZING NOMINAL SENTENCES.................................... 61 ِ َّ Table 19: Relative Pronouns: [‫ اَلَّ ِذي‬/‫ين‬ َ ‫ ]اَلذ‬.............44 I........................................................................ 48 Table 16: Inna and its Sisters [‫َخوا ُُتا‬ َ ‫ ]إِ َّن َو أ‬....... 67 I....................................................................... RELATIVE PRONOUNS ]‫صولَة‬ ُ ‫ [أ ْمساءُ الْ َم ْو‬..................................... 44 Table 14: Ḥarf Jarr [‫وف ا ْْلَر‬ ُ ‫ ] ُحُر‬................................................................................................................................................. 83 2 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 79 III...48 Table 17: Ḥarf Naṣb for Verbs .......................................................................................................49 III............................75 V.............................................................................................................. THE FIVE SPECIAL NOUNS ]‫اْلَ ْمسة‬ ْ ُ‫َمساء‬ ْ ‫ [األ‬.......................................................................................65 َ ‫َمساءُ ا ْْلَ ْم‬ Table 21: Conjugation of Five Special Nouns as Muḍāf ............................... PARTICLES OF JAZM [‫اْلَْزم‬ ْ ‫ ] ُحُروف‬......................................................................................................................67 LESSON 6: THE NOMINAL SENTENCE [ُ‫مسيَّة‬ ِْ ‫اال‬ ِْ ُ‫ ]اْلملَة‬.........................................................THE POSSESSION CONSTRUCTION [‫ضاف‬ ُ َُ V.79 I.............................. REVIEW OF NOMINAL SENTENCES WITH EMBEDDED CONSTRUCTIONS ...................................66 ِ‫اْل ح‬ ِ‫]اَجلملَةُُ ح‬..............................................................

................ THE DOER NOUN [‫الفاعل‬ [‫]اِ حسمُُاملَحفعول‬. 117 V......... VERBAL PARTICLES................................................................................. THE PASSIVE NOUN PATTERN ]‫ [اِ ْس ُم امل ْف ُعول‬..................................... 101 VI...................................................................110 IV..............................................................95 I............................................................................................................... THE PASSIVE NOUN LESSON 11: THE PASSIVE VERB ]‫[اَل ِحف حعلُُال َحم حجهول‬............................................................................................................. 103 ُ Table 31: Converting Verbs to the Command Tense [‫ ]اَلْ ِف ْعل ْاألَمر‬....... THE DOER NOUN PATTERN ]‫الفاعل‬ ُ ِ ‫ [اِسم‬......... IDENTIFYING THE DOER AND DIRECT OBJECT IN VERBAL SENTENCES ...................................................................................................... FUTURE TENSE ]‫اال ْستِ ْقبال‬ ِ ُُ‫]اِسم‬......................................................................................................... 107 Table 35: Ḥarf Jazm on Verbs ........ USING ARABIC DICTIONARIES ................... 105 II.............................................................................................. THE VERB OF COMMAND [‫ ]اَلْ ِف ْعل األ َْمر‬.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents LESSON 8: INTRODUCTION TO VERBS [‫]أَفحعال‬............................................. 114 II................................................................. 105 Table 33 – Verb Conjugation in Naṣb and Jazm............................................................................. 113 Table 37: Passive Present Tense [‫هول‬ َْ ُ ْ ُ ِ ‫ [اِسم‬................................................................................................... 112 ُ ِ ‫]اَلْ ِفعل الْمضا ِرع الْمج‬.........................91 ِ TABLE 29 .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 112 ِ I........................................................................................................................................... I‛RĀB OF VERBS: SOME IMPORTANT PRINCIPLES ....................................................................................... 107 Table 34: Ḥarf Naṣb on Verbs .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 90 ْ ُ Table 28: Verb Conjugation of Present tense Family I Verbs [‫ ]الفعل املضارع‬......... THE VERBAL NOUN [‫ص َدر‬ ‫]اَل َحم ح‬....................................................................................... THE PASSIVE VERB TENSE ]‫جهول‬ ْ ‫ [اَلْف ْعل الْ َم‬. 118 3 ..........................................................................................88 III....................................................... 108 ِ [ ................... 116 َ Table 39: The Passive Noun Pattern ]‫ [اِ ْس ُم امل ْف ُعول‬....................103 I................................................................................................................................. I‛RĀB OF VERBS.................................................................................. 116 َ IV.................................................................................................................................................. 85 II.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... EXCEPTIONS TO RULES OF VERB CONJUGATION: BROKEN PLURALS ........112 ُ ِ Table 36: Passive Past Tense [‫ج ُهول‬ ْ ‫ ]اَلْف ْعل الْماضي الْ َم‬..................................................... VERBAL SENTENCE WITH EXPLICIT SUBJECT (THIRD PERSON) ................. THE PRESENT TENSE VERB [‫ ]اَلْ ِف ْعل امل ُمضا ِرع‬............................. 101 LESSON 10: THE VERB OF COMMAND ]‫[اَل ِحف حعلُُ حاْل حَمر‬................................................................................................... 106 III.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 94 ُ LESSON 9: THE VERBAL SENTENCE [ُ‫ ]اَ حجل حملَةُُاُلح ِف حعلُِيَّة‬................................................................................................................................................. AND VERBS IN THE FUTURE TENSE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..... 98 َّ ‫ [اَلْ ِف ْعل الْ ُمتَ َع ِدي] & [اَلْ ِف ْعل‬............................................................... AND USING AN ARABIC DICTIONARY ............................... INTRODUCTION TO VERB CLASSIFICATION ............................................ 96 III..........................85 I............................................ 86 ُ Table 27: Verb Conjugation of Past Tense Family I Verbs ........................................................................................................................117 Table 40: Common Verbal Noun Pattern ........................ THE PAST TENSE VERB [‫ ]اَلْ ِف ْعل الْماضي‬............................................................ VERBAL PARTICLES – ḤARF NAṢB AND ḤARF JAZM .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 95 II....................................................... 99 IV............................... 115 Table 38: The Doer Noun Pattern ]‫الفاعل‬ ُ III.... INTRODUCTION TO VERBAL SENTENCES ................CONJUGATION OF ALL FAMILY I FORMS ]‫جَّرد‬ َ ‫ [اَلْف ْعل الثُّالثي الْ ُم‬....................................................................................................................................... THE VERBAL NOUN ]‫ص َدر‬ ْ ‫ [اَلْ َم‬....................... 104 ُ Table 32: Conjugation of Command Verbs [‫ ]اِفْ َع ْل‬and [‫]اِفْعِ ْل‬............. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS: ]‫الال ِزم‬ ُ ُ Table 30: Verbs with an Associated Ḥarf Jarr ........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................136 ُ َ Table 47 – Verb Family VI Conjugations ...............................................................................................................‫فيه‬ ُِ ُُ‫ اَل ِحف حعلُُالثُّالثيُال َحمزيد‬.......................................... 139 V.................................................................... VERB FAMILY IX [‫اِفْ َع َّل‬/‫ل‬ ُّ ‫]يَ ْف َع‬................................................................................ VERB FAMILY V [‫يَتَ َف َّعل‬/‫]تَ َف َّعل‬.................................................................................................... 206 4 .................................................................. METHOD FOR ANALYZING VERBAL SENTENCES ................................................................................................................ 125 ِ Table 41: Review of Verb Family I [‫جَّرِد‬ َ ‫ ]الف ْعل الثُالثي امل‬... 135 II...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................‫ ]ي‬................................................................................................................................................. 131 َ ُ Table 45 – Verb Family IV Conjugations .......................................................................... 178 ANSWER KEY FOR REVIEW QUESTIONS..............‫ ]ل‬................. 125 ُ ُ II......... VERB FAMILY X [‫اِ ْستَ ْف َعل‬/‫ستَ ْفعِل‬ ْ َ‫ ]ي‬.............................................................................................................................................................. 127 َ ُ Conjugation of Family II Verbs [‫فَ َّعل‬/‫ ]يُ َفعِل‬........ 143 GLOSSARY OF ARABIC GRAMMAR TERMS [ ‫ ا‬..................... 125 I.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 142 Table 53: Qur’ānic Vocabulary Assignments..................................................... III.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................‫ ]س‬........................................................................................... 132 LESSON 13: VERB FAMILIES V THROUGH X ............................................................................. 138 Table 49 – Verb Family VIII Conjugations ........................... 177 REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR ESSENTIALS OF QUR’ĀNIC ARABIC ..................................................... 137 III...................................................... AND IV ..................... 140 VI......... 137 َ ُ َ ُ Table 48 – Verb Family VII Conjugations ............................... 134 ُ َ Table 46 – Verb Family V Conjugations ......................................................... 128 َ ُ Table 42: Conjugation of Family II Verbs [‫فَ َّعل‬/‫ ]يُ َفعِل‬.................................................................................................................... REVIEW OF VERB FAMILY I CONJUGATIONS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 141 Table 52 – Conjugation of the Ten Families ..............................................140 َ ُ Table 51 – Verb Family X Conjugations.................................. 128 َ ُ Table 43: Family II Conjugations for Advanced Forms [‫]فَ َّعل‬......................... 141 VII............................................................................................................................................................................. VERB FAMILY III [‫اعل‬ َ َ‫ف‬/‫ ]يُفاعل‬..... 176 GLOSSARY OF ARABIC GRAMMAR TERMS [ ‫ م‬..................................................... VERB FAMILY VII [‫اِنْ َف َعل‬/‫ ]يَْن َفعِل‬............................................... 130 IV.................................................................................................................... 134 I...................................... VERB FAMILY II [‫فَ َّعل‬/‫ ]يُ َفعِل‬............................................................................................ FUTURE TOPICS COVERED IN VOLUME TWO OF “ESSENTIALS OF QUR’ĀNIC ARABIC” .....................................................................................................................................‫فيه‬ ُِ ُُ‫ اَل ِحف حعلُُالثُّالثيُال َحمزيد‬.................................... 205 About the Author ................................ VERB FAMILY IV ]‫أَفْ َعل‬/‫ [يُ ْفعِل‬....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 175 GLOSSARY OF ARABIC GRAMMAR TERMS [ ‫ ش‬.................................................................................................................................................... 131 V.....................130 َ ُ Table 44 – Verb Family III Conjugations ........ 194 REFERENCES ................................................ VERB FAMILY VI [‫فاعل‬ َ َ‫يَت‬/‫فاعل‬ َ َ‫]ت‬................. 128 َ ِ III................ 138 IV............ VERB FAMILY VIII [‫اِفْ تَ َعل‬/‫ ]يَ ْفتَعِل‬..................139 Table 50– Verb Family IX Conjugations ..................................Table of Contents LESSON 12: VERB FAMILIES II...........................................

” (An authentic Ḥadīth found in [‫الكبري‬ ‫ ]املعجم‬by At-Ṭabarānī. whoever puts it behind him. something given permission to intercede. it will lead him to Paradise. Whoever puts it in front of him. it will steer him to the Hellfire.Essentials of Qur’ānic Arabic ‫بسم هللا الرحمن الرحيم‬ ‫رب العالمين و الصّالة و السّالم على نبينا محمّد‬ ّ ‫الحمد هلل‬ ‫استن بسنّته إلى يوم الدين‬ ّ ‫و على آله و صحبه أجمعين و من‬ ‫القرآن شافع مشفع و ماحل مصدق من جعله أمامه‬ ‫ق اده إلى الجنة و من جعله خلف ظهره ساقه إلى النار‬ “The Qur’ān is an intercessor. on the authority of ‘Abdullāh ibn Mas’ūd verified as Ṣaḥīḥ in [‫الصحيحة‬ 5 ‫ ]السلسلة‬by Sheikh al-Albāni) . and it is rightfully believed in.

and others not mentioned here who contributed to this book. I am also grateful to my wife and children who have been very patient with this effort.Essentials of Qur’ānic Arabic Acknowledgements All Praise is to Allahh for His Help and Guidance in allowing this Book to be manifest. founder of the Bayyinah Arabic Institute. The journey of learning this sacred language has been an arduous for me and has come with its challenges. I am also thankful to Dr. He was my initial inspiration to teach what I learned of Qur’ānic Arabic and make it accessible to those who wish to learn from its treasures. May Allahh reward all these special people. The individuals involved with websites “The Qur’ānic Arabic Corpus”. I am even more indebted to my parents who have raised me on the Religion. I also thank my teachers at the Qibla Institute (formerly the Sunnipath Institute) namely Sheikh Hamza Karamali and Sheikh Farīd Dingle. founder of the Qur’ān Literacy Institute who edited this textbook and improved on its format and readability. One special note of thanks also goes to one of my early teachers. and who continue to advise and guide me. I also thank Sheikh Shakiel Humayun from the Foundation of Knowledge and Development. I would also like to thank my many teachers who have guided me and imparted me knowledge in this sacred language. Ustādh Nouman Alī Khān. and whose precious time I have sacrificed. It is my hope that this book series can facilitate this journey for other students. “Zekr”. enabling them to understand the lofty and majestic words of the Qur’ān. 6 . and “OpenBurhan” also deserve recognition as their resources were used extensively for this work. Abū Zayd.

Arabic terms written in English have been pluralized in English to facilitate the reader. ū. i.Essentials of Qur’ānic Arabic Transliteration Key ‫ء‬/‫أ‬/‫ؤ‬/‫ئ‬ ’ ‫ر‬ r ‫ف‬ f ١ ā ‫ز‬ z ‫ق‬ q ‫ب‬ b ‫س‬ s ‫ﮎ‬/‫ك‬ k ‫ت‬ t ‫ش‬ sh ‫ل‬ l ‫ث‬ th ‫ص‬ ṣ ‫م‬ m ‫ج‬ j ‫ض‬ ḍ ‫ن‬ n ‫ح‬ ḥ ‫ط‬ ṭ ‫ﻫ‬/‫ه‬ h ‫خ‬ kh ‫ظ‬ ẓ ‫و‬ w. There are several letters that are specific to the Arabic language. and do not have an English equivalent. ī ‫ذ‬ dh ‫غ‬ gh This transliteration key is provided to help bridge the gap between Arabic and English letters. especially those of a grammatical context. Furthermore. We have chosen to capitalize many of the Arabic terms mentioned in this book. u ‫د‬ d ‫ع‬ ‛ ‫ي‬ y. 7 .

and it would absolve them of the need to study similar books on the Subject.2000. Yūnus is a cardiologist and a Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine at Florida State University. translate. I pray to Allahh that He may make this book beneficial for the students of Arabic grammar and simplify the path to understanding the Qur’ān. Moḥammad Yūnus is currently the director of the Tarbiyah Department of ICNA. Dr. FL. Aḥādith. Emphasis is also placed on learning the vocabulary with the help of standard dictionaries. Acquiring an understanding of word patterns (Ṣarf) is also of prime importance in learning the language. ِ ‫آمني‬ Dr. and has held the position of Amīr of ICNA for 17 years from 1977 . It is highly essential for the students of Arabic to learn this science in order to be proficient in the language. There are many books on Arabic grammar on the market today. I also pray that Allahh bestow rewards for the compiler and everyone who contributed to its completion and publication. College of Medicine. 8 . Hidāyatun Naḥw is one classical book that has been used in teaching Arabic grammar for generations. I am confident that when a student studies this book thoroughly with the guidance of a teacher or engages in self-study. and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muḥammad . and the manner of constructing one word with another. they would develop a very good foundation in this science. For example. and Arabic sentences without difficulty. The goal of this book is to enable the student to read. Chapters in “Essentials of Qur’ānic Arabic” are organized in a simple way that can easily be understood by the students of this Subject. Moḥammad Yūnus Arabic grammar deals with principles by which the states of the endings of the words are known regarding declension (I‛rāb) and construction (Binā'). and understand the Āyāt of the Qur’ān.Essentials of Qur’ānic Arabic Foreword by Dr. This is a comprehensive book dealing with all the important aspects of the Subject of Qur’ānic Arabic grammar. He is the Imām/Director at Masjid Dawah in Bonifay. “Essentials of Qur’ānic Arabic” is a book compiled for easy understanding of Qur’ānic Arabic with focus on its grammar rules. Review questions at the end of this book are very useful to practice and revise the concepts learned during the study.

Translations are important but we need to know Arabic in “real” time. and a direct reflection from the Qur’ān. This is because the ability to understand the Qur’ān and Sunnah is obligatory on every Muslim. Ar-Risāla [‫الرسالَة‬ Iqtidā Ṣirātul Mustaqīm [‫ ]إقتضاء الصراط املستقيم‬pg. We have sent it. The Qur’ān itself reminds us of these benefits as well. and knowing it is obligatory. His living example and teachings are the best course of guidance for us. Translations are often inaccurate and cannot equal the beauty of the actual Arabic language. Many scholars of Islam have stressed the importance of learning the language.”. 93. 469. 1 2 ِ ]. (39:28) Knowledge of the Arabic language is a means by which belief and awareness in Allahh can be strengthened and elevated. (12:3) ﴾ ‫رآَّن َعَربِيًّا َغْي َر ِذي عِ َو ٍج لَّ َعلَّ ُه ْم يَتَّ ُقو َن‬ ‫﴿ قُ ا‬ It is a Qur’ān in Arabic. By learning Arabic. Jumu‛ah Khutbah. and yet they cannot be understood without knowing Arabic. the final message of Allahh which was revealed only in Arabic. 9 . the final revelation can be better comprehended. pg.1 Sheikh Ibn Taymīyah said: “The Arabic language is part of the religion. and used as a means of guidance. in order that they may have Taqwah. The primary benefit is to understand the Qur’ān. We cannot take out our translations during Ṣalāh. It is through this language that Allahh speaks to us. The Importance of the Arabic Language There are numerous benefits of learning the Arabic language. or Tarāwīḥ in Ramaḍān. It is guidance. without any crookedness. and (the general Islamic principle is that) every act that is an 2 essential prerequisite to perform an obligatory act is also obligatory”. Imām Shāfi‛. ﴾ ‫آَّن َعَربِيًّا لَّ َعلَّ ُك ْم تَ ْع ِقلُو َن‬ ‫َنزلْنَاهُ قُ ْر ا‬ َ ‫﴿ إِ ََّّن أ‬ Indeed.Preface Preface I. Imām Shāfi said: “Every Muslim is obligated to learn the Arabic tongue to the utmost of his power in order to profess through it that "There is no God but Allah and Muḥammad is His Messenger" and to utter what is mandated upon him.. which is the most important benefit that one can obtain from this. It is also through this language that the Messenger of Allah speaks to us.. pondered upon.. an Arabic Qur’ān so that you all may understand.

Many think that speaking Arabic is the most important aspect of learning the language. to understand the Qur’ān in terms of reading comprehension (i. our first main focus is on understanding the written words.4 More depth in vocabulary will Inshā Allah allow the student to better utilize and apply grammar principles. there is a direct progression to listening comprehension. particularly in the context that the majority of today's Muslims do not understand basic spoken Arabic. Text Goals and Objectives The ultimate goal of this text is to enable the student to understand of the fundamentals of Qur’ānic grammar. However. Then. we do not hold this sentiment. verbal sentences. 4 Refer to Required Vocabulary List for “Essentials of Qur’ānic Arabic” on pg. the Ḥadīth of His Messenger and other Islamic and contemporary Arabic literature can also be traversed. However. III. it has been preserved through the numerous classical books on Islam written by scholars over the past 1400 years or so. I. All other goals relative to learning Arabic should be secondary. Specifically. Memorizing this booklet is a fundamental component of learning the basic essential vocabulary of Qur’ānic Arabic. by learning Qur’ānic Arabic alone.e. These are some of the most important benefits of learning Arabic among others. The vocabulary that is emphasized is specific to that of the Qur’ān. From this. a more realistic and relevant goal is to focus on Qur’ānic reading comprehension. Methodology of this Book This book begins with the study of the three types of Arabic words. particles. Much of the technical Arabic terminology5 found in Arabic grammar study is not 3 This excellent compilation of “high-yield” Qur’ānic vocabulary by Abdul-Raḥeem Abdul-Azeez is available online for free download at http://emuslim. primarily through the Qur’ān and the Sunnah. and taken from the collection “80% of Qur’ānic Vocabulary”. 5 A Glossary of Arabic Grammar Terminology is provided near the end of this book for reference if needed for important or commonly used Arabic grammar terms. and verb derivatives.com/Qur’ān/English80.asp. Instead. and verbs. Fluency in the language should be prioritized after gaining a solid foundation in reading and listening comprehension. And secondarily. 143. understand the Qur’ān that you read). namely nouns. This also includes “Supplemental Qur’ānic Vocabulary” as well.3 Each Lesson from this text comes with a list of vocabulary that needs to be learned and memorized. it looks at various types of “Word Constructions” and compound words. Thus. since they have some basic ability to read the Qur’ān. our goal here is to gain reading and listening comprehension of the Divine words of Allahh. Nonetheless. or Nominal Arabic sentences. a firm emphasis is placed on grammar. All throughout this book. 10 . The second half of the book focuses on verbs. Our goal here is not to develop fluency in speaking the language. This is followed by the study of “Noun Sentences”.Preface Islam has been preserved through the medium of Arabic.

Preface

emphasized to provide ease for the novice student. Each lesson covers specific fundamental rules of Arabic
that are presented in a simplified and condensed manner, so that Qur’ānic Arabic can be learned in a most
efficient way. Lastly, review questions are included for every lesson so that the student can appropriately
review the material. Without appropriate review and practicing examples from the Qur’ān, Qur’ānic Arabic
cannot be properly learned.
There are several topics in Arabic Grammar that may be difficult. This will require effort and persistence.
Inshā Allah with time these concepts will be mastered. As the student embarks forward, concepts should
start coming together like pieces of a puzzle. The goal of this First Volume is to develop the ability to
translate a typical āyah from the Qur’ān, Ḥadīth, or an Arabic sentence with the aid of an Arabic dictionary.
The Second Volume builds on the core Arabic grammar principles found in this First Volume, as well other
topics in intermediate grammar.

IV. Advice for the Student
It is essential to start with a righteous intention, and not to let this go. The Prophet

said in one well-

known Ḥadīth central to Islam:

ِ َِّ ِ ِ ِ ُ ‫] َّإَّنا ْاألَع‬
ٍِ
ْ
َ ‫مال ِبلنيات َو إَّنا ل ُك ِل ٱ ْمرئ ما‬

[…‫نَوى‬

“Indeed actions are by intention, and each person will have what he intends...”6
Keep in mind that when you are learning Arabic, you are in fact learning the Qur’ān, and developing the
keys to understanding the Lofty Words of Allahh. Furthermore, you are also learning to understand the
comprehensive speech of His Messenger . The key to learning Arabic is being constant and consistent.
This is not an endeavor of a few months. It takes persistence of several years to truly learn the language.6
Most students give up after the first few weeks. However, the purpose of this book is to equip students with
the necessary skills and fundamentals by which the Qur’ān, Ḥadīth, and other Arabic literature can be
properly understood and utilized. The first step is the hardest: other steps become easier once that first
step has been taken successfully.

6 Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhāri, Chapter on Beginning of Revelation:‫العحي‬

‫كتاب بدء‬, Ḥadīth #1.

6 This does not mean that students cannot learn the basics of Qur’ānic Arabic in less time. In a few months and with some dedication, students

should be able to learn basic Qur’ānic Arabic ‫هللا‬

‫ِبِِ ْذ ِن‬.

11

Preface

Realize that the Qur’ān is weighty. Allahh tells His Messenger :

﴾‫يال‬
‫ثَِق ا‬

ِ
‫ك قَ ْواال‬
َ ‫﴿إِ ََّّن َسنُ ْلقي َعلَْي‬

“Indeed, We will soon send upon you a weighty word” (73:4).
One final caveat is that the student should increase his/her connection with the Qur’ān. The Prophet
said: “The Book of Allah is the Rope of Allah which is dangling from the Heavens down to the Earth”7. It is of
no benefit to learn the Arabic Grammar but not have a regular connection with the Qur’ān. This connection
with the Qur’ān is essential and keeps our goal in focus. We need to continuously ask Allahh to help us
succeed in this important journey. We also need to remain steadfast since Shaytān will try to deter us from
this great endeavor, and so will many commitments from our everyday lives.
The material presented in this textbook is ideally learned in a classroom setting with a teacher proficient
in Qur’ānic Arabic Grammar. Nonetheless, dedicated students who can read the Qur’ān and do not have
access to a teacher can Inshā Allah benefit from the material presented here. For students who have taken
an Introductory Arabic course, it should be very useful for review and advancement in the language.
Students who are weak in Arabic reading and/or writing should devote the necessary time to enhance their
8

skills prior to starting this course .
The gauge for successfully learning the material is successfully completing the assigned lessons and
memorizing the required vocabulary. One major reason why students are not able to go forward in Arabic
studies is that they simply do not study the material. Other similar reasons are not completing enough
practice assignments and questions, or not memorizing enough vocabulary. When the material presented
here has been mastered, the student will Inshā Allah be able to translate a typical āyah from the Qur’ān.

7 Musnad of Imām Aḥmed.

[‫ ]كتاب هللا حبل ممدود من السماء إىل األرض‬Ḥadīth Classified as Ḥasan Ṣaḥīḥ by Sheikh al-Albāni.

8 An excellent free resource is the course available at Islāmic Online University titled “Arabic Reading and Writing Made Easy”. You can register for

this and other excellent free courses at www.islamiconlineuniversity.com/diploma .

12

History of Arabic Grammar

History of Arabic Grammar
I. Arabic at the time of the Prophet
Arabic had evolved to a very high level as a language when the Qur’ān was revealed.

In terms of

writing, Arabic words at the time did not have any dots on its letters besides not having any Ḥarakāt
(diacritical vowel marks). The Arabs prided their language to such a degree that they would call non-Arabs
[‫جمي‬
َ ‫ ] َع‬or “one who is illiterate in language”. The Arabs knew their language so well that illiteracy only
made them better in mastering their native tongue. It was at this time that the lofty and imitable words of
the Qur’ān were revealed to them through Prophet Muḥammad . In fact, the Qur’ān directly challenged
the Arabs in their own language to produce something like it. In Sūrah Baqarah, the following is stated:

ٍ ْ‫﴿ُوإِ ْن ُكنتُ ْم ِف ري‬
‫ب ِممَّا نََّزلْنَا َعلَى َعْب ِد ََّن فَأْتُواْ بِ ُس َورةٍ ِمن ِمثْلِ ِه‬
َ
َ
ِ
ِ
ِ
ِ ِ
﴾‫ي‬
َ ‫صادق‬
َ ‫َوٱ ْدعُواْ ُش َه َداءَ ُكم من ُدون ٱّلل إِ ْن ُكْن تُ ْم‬
“And if you are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down to Our slave, then
produce a chapter of the like thereof and call your witnesses besides Allah, if you are
truthful” (2:23).
The people of Makkah were well acquainted with Muḥammad and his place in society. They all
recognized him as the most exemplary and trustworthy among them. Further, it was known that he

had

no ability to read or write. Muḥammad was commanded to say:

ِ
ِ ‫لسماو‬
ِ
َِ ‫ول ٱّللِ إِلَي ُكم‬
ِ ‫ات وٱْأل َْر‬
‫يت‬
ُ ‫َّاس إِِِن َر ُس‬
ُ ‫َج ايعا ٱلَّذي لَهُ ُم ْل‬
ُ ‫ض الَ إِلَهَ إِالَّ ُﻫ َو ُُْييِ ي َوُُي‬
ْ ْ
َ َ َّ ‫ك ٱ‬
ُ ‫﴿ُقُ ْل ََي أَيُّ َها الن‬
﴾‫ن‬
ِ ِ‫فَ ِآمنُواْ بِٱّللِ َوَر ُسولِِه ٱلن‬
َ ‫َّب ٱْأل ُِم ِي ٱلَّ ِذي يُ ْؤِم ُن بِٱّللِ َوَكلِ َماتِِه َوٱتَّبِعُوهُ لَ َعلَّ ُك ْم تَ ْهتَ ُدو‬
“Say: "O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah, to Whom belongs the dominion of
the heavens and the earth. None has the right to be worshiped but He; It is He Who gives life and causes
death. So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write, who believes in
Allah and His Words, and follow him so that you may be guided” (7:158).

13

History of Arabic Grammar

Despite his lack of ability in reading and writing, which was a sign of his prophethood mentioned in the
prior scriptures9, the Messenger of Allah had been given the gift of eloquence by Allahh, and was the
most eloquent of the Arabs. He

said:

]‫كلِم‬
َ ْ‫ال‬

ِ
‫ت ِِبَو ِام ِع‬
ُ ْ‫[بُعث‬

10

“I have been sent with Comprehensive speech.”

II. Evolution of Arabic Grammar
The earliest attempt to write the Arabic grammar began when A‛li

commissioned one of his students

11

Abu al-Aswad ad-Du'ali (69 AH ) to codify Arabic grammar. During the time of the caliphate of A‛li , it
was apparent that Arabic grammar needed to be systemized. This was because many of the non-Arabs who
had embraced Islam were making critical errors in the language. Here is an excerpt from Ad-Du'ali:12
“I came to the Leader of the Believers, A‛li ibn Abi Ṭālib , and found that he was holding a note in
his hand. I asked, "What is this, O Leader of the Believers?" He

said, "I have been thinking of the

language of the Arabs, and I came to find out that it has been corrupted through contacts with these
foreigners. Therefore, I have decided to put something that they (the Arabs) refer to and rely on."
Then, he

gave me the note and on it, he wrote:

"Speech is made of nouns, verbs, and particles. Nouns are names of things, verbs provide
information, and particles complete the meaning." Then he said to me, "Follow this approach and
add to it what comes to your mind."

Ad-Du'ali continued to say, “I wrote two chapters on

conjunctions and attributes then two chapters on exclamation and interrogatives. Then I wrote

ِ ‫أَخو‬
about [‫اُتا‬
ََ

‫ ]إِ َّن َو‬and I skipped [‫]لَ ِک َّن‬.

ِ َ‫]ل‬.
When I showed that to him , he ordered me to add [‫ک َّن‬

Therefore, every time I finished a chapter I showed it to him, until I covered what I thought to be
enough. He said, "How beautiful is the approach you have taken!"”
At this point in history, the science of grammar called ]‫َّحو‬
ْ ‫ [اَلن‬started to evolve and blossom. Following
Ad-Du'ali came many other grammarians, who studied and developed the science of the language.

9

“Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write whom they find written with them in the Torah and the Injīl
(Gospel), who enjoins upon them what is right and forbids them what is wrong and makes lawful for them the good things and prohibits for them
the evil and relieves them of their burden and the shackles which were upon them. So they who have believed in him, honored him, supported him
and followed the light which was sent down with him it is those who will be the successful (7:157).”
10 Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhāri, Chapter on Holding Fast to the Book and Sunnah: ‫السنة‬

‫ كتاب االعتصام ِبلكتاب و‬, Ḥadīth # 6845.

11 AH refers to “After Hijri”, is also the reference point for the Muslim calendar. The first year AH corresponds to 622 CE (Gregorian Calendar).
12 Adapted from Ibn al-Anbari in his book [‫]ن زﻫة االلِباء ف طبقات االدِبء‬.

َُ

ُْ

14

These grammarians studied the Arabic of the Qur’ān. and other literature from Bedouin Arabs as the ideal standard of the language. Even though Classical Arabic is spoken rarely in today’s time. “Al-Kitāb”. This pure Arabic was spoken for the first 300 years AH. and the early successors. unadulterated language of the Bedouin Arabs became regarded as what we now know as Classical Arabic or Al-Fuṣḥā [‫صحى‬ ْ ‫]اَلْ ُف‬. his companions . Interestingly. which became the standard reference for Arabic grammar. 13 Jiyad. Mohammed. A Hundred and One Rules! 15 ‫!آمي‬ . who compiled the work. al-Khalīl the first complete Arabic dictionary [‫الْ َعي‬ ِ ‫تاب‬ ُ ‫]ك‬ based on Arabic root letters. The teacher of Sībaway. pre-Islamic poetry. the pure. the most famous was Sībaway (180 AH). the rules of Classical Arabic have been preserved in the voluminous classical works from Islamic scholarship.History of Arabic Grammar The period between 750 and 1500 AD saw more than 4000 grammarians who have been recorded in history. (75 AH) compiled The work of these grammarians and their counterparts set the paradigm for subsequent generations of grammarians. We hope that Inshā Allah our Ummah will once again be able to understand and speak the original language that was spoken by the Prophet .13 Of these.

‫ابتثجحخدذرزسشصضطظعغفقكلمنهوي‬ B. and the meaning drastically altered. the incorrect word will be articulated. 16 . beginning with the study of the basic unit of speech. and particles.Introduction to Arabic Grammar: [‫]الكلمة‬ Lesson 1: Introduction to Arabic Grammar: The Arabic Word ]‫[الكلمة‬ A‛li said: "Speech is made of nouns. Short and long vowels also need to be pronounced correctly. the word. Each letter should be pronounced according to its proper articulation (Makhraj). there can sometimes be a drastic change in its meaning. Nouns are names of things. I. The Arabic Letters These following letters comprise the complete Arabic alphabet and they are written from right to left. We recommend the excellent online lectures of Tajwīd on www.com by Sheikh Yāsir Qādhi or Ustādh Wisām Sharief. This is important especially for letters that sound similar. In the second example. the improper meaning can be ascribed. If the vowel is not appropriately elongated or shorted. This is commonplace in those from Southeast Asia. 14 There are many resources to learn and review Tajwīd. and particles complete the meaning. ‫( قَ ْلب‬heart) vs. Tajwīd14 We need to know the correct pronunciation (Tajwīd) of each letter in a word. ‫( َج َع ْل َن‬the women made) Appropriate Tajwīd prevents the listener from confusing between similar letters.youtube. else. Pre-Grammar Review of Arabic A." Then A‛li said to Abu al-Aswad ad-Du'ali "Follow this approach and add to it what comes to your mind. Please note the subtle difference between the hard Qāf and the light Kāf in the first example below. The following letters below are often difficult to distinguish because they are often pronounced incorrectly. If we speak it wrong. look at the vowel placed on the last Nūn letter on each of the two words.   ‫( َك ْلب‬dog) ‫( َج َع ْلنَا‬We made) vs." We will Inshā Allah start in this same manner as A‛li . verbs. verbs provide information.

and Kasrah.  ‫اب‬ ْ َ‫قال‬ ُ ‫ت ْٱألَ ْعر‬ becomes written as 17 ِ ‫اب‬ ُ ‫قالَت ْٱألَ ْعر‬ . If there is no addition vowel added to one of the underlined letters. When there is the occurrence of consecutive Sukūn during sentence construction. َ ‫) ـَـ ـ‬ (‫) ـ ـِ ـ‬ The Sukūn (o) is a symbol that represents a necessary stop on a letter. Let us look at the example below to get clarity on this concept. ‫ك‬  ‫أ‬ vs. ‫ـ ـُ ـ‬  Ḍammah ( )  Fatḥah (  Kasrah 2. There are three vowels (‫حركات‬ َ ) in Arabic: Ḍammah. Thus.Introduction to Arabic Grammar: [‫]الكلمة‬  ‫س‬ vs. ‫ث‬  ‫ز‬ vs. the letters are articulated with the middle Alif being silent. ‫ظ‬ vs.  Arabic cannot have two consecutive Sukūn because this causes no pronunciation between letters. a Kasrah is added between the letters so that there is "flow" between words. by adding a Kasrah to the first Sākin letter Tā. ‫ص‬ vs. ‫ع‬  ‫ح‬ vs. none of the three letters will be articulated properly. Vowels and Diacritical marks in Arabic: A Quick Review 1. Fatḥah. You will note that a silent Alif is between two Sākin letters of Tā and Lām. ‫ذ‬  ‫ق‬ vs. ‫ه‬ C.

following a Fatḥah Tanwīn is that of words which end in Alif Hamza. the Alif is silent. It has a Nūn sound at the end. Words such as [‫ماء‬ ‫ ] ا‬or [‫ ]نساءا‬do not end with an Alif. One detail to note is that Double Fatḥah is typically followed by an Alif15. when not used as a vowel. and there are times when the Hamzah al-Waṣl (Alif) is vocalized. the word [‫ ]آيَةا‬is pronounced as “Ayah” and this is the same whether the ending is Ḍammah or Kasrah Tanwīn. the Hamzah al-Waṣl is represented as an Alif with a small Ṣād on top [‫]ٱ‬. In general. in the word [‫ل‬ َّ َ‫]ق‬. a Hamzah al-Waṣl is added so that it can be pronounced. as we see in (ii). (i) (ii)16 ِ ‫ٱ ْدخلُوا ِف ٱ‬ ‫لس ْل ِم كافَّةا‬ ُ ِ ‫﴿َي أَيُّها ٱلَّ ِذين آمنُوا ْٱدخلُوا ِف‬ ﴾‫كافَّةا‬ َ ‫ٱلس ْل ِم‬ ُ َ َ َ َ 15 A case in which scenario does not occur is Double Fatḥah on Tā Marbūṭah. 18 . the sound at the end is that of a [‫]ه‬ letter. there is a Ḍammah on the Alif. Please note that in ِ َّ (ii). Alif remains silent if the sentence is articulated to its end without a pause. Please note that the actual use of the Hamzah al-Waṣl despite its presence is dictated by the rules described above. the Alif is pronounced because it starts the sentence. is always pronounced. This essentially is an Alif with a vowel. In example (i) below. There are times when it is silent. In this case. which ends in Fathah. or after a pause. Another exception ِ to this rule of Alif. if there is a spoken pause after [‫ُآمنوا‬ َ ‫ين‬ َ ‫] ََي ُأَيُّ َهاُٱلذ‬. D. where the Shadda Lām represents two Lāms. Shadda ‫ﳳﳴﳲ‬ ً ٍ ً ‫ ﱠ ﱞ ﱟ‬is a symbol placed above a letter and causes a doubling of the letter. 16 “O you who believe.Introduction to Arabic Grammar: [‫]الكلمة‬ 3. The letter Hamzah [‫]ء‬. When there is a pause on a word which ends with Double Fatḥah Double Fatḥah Tā Marbūṭah. where there is no Alif afterwards nor is there an Alif sound after a pause or stop. on the other hand. For example. For example. most cases being the Fatḥah. 4. Tanwīn refers to doubling of one of the three vowels. In example (ii) however. Enter into Islām completely” (2:208). the Alif in [‫ ]ٱ حدخلوا‬will have to be pronounced. Distinction of the Alif and Hamzah: ‫ا‬ vs. This Alif is pronounced if there is a pause or end at the letter. ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ Alif [ ] is a letter which is pronounced only when it starts a sentence or when is present directly after a pause within a sentence. This is because Alif by itself is a silent letter. the root letters are [‫]قلل‬. The letter Hamzah on the other hand is pronounced even though it comes in the middle of a sentence. If Alif is the first letter at the initiation of a sentence. If there is no pause.

the seat is a Wāw. it is pronounced as a [‫]ه‬. Please note that in the first example below [َُ‫سأَل‬ َ ]. 18 This cursive style of Arabic writing originated in the 4th century AH. or if there is a pause ending with this letter. For Qur’ān reading.Introduction to Arabic Grammar: [‫]الكلمة‬ In the following example from Sūrah Fātiḥah below. depending on the preceding vowel17. the seat of the Hamzah is an Alif because its preceding vowel is a Fatḥah.  ‫َسأ ََل‬ ‫ُرُؤوس‬ ‫بَِرئ‬ E. You have for example the following words. since its preceding vowel is a Ḍammah. Being able to read Arabic without Tashkīl requires a thorough knowledge of both grammar and vocabulary. As for the second Alif. F. Most written Arabic today in Islamic literature and beyond follow this Naskhī Muṣḥaf style. the first Alif takes a Fatḥah. and was widely used for copying the Qur’ān. Wāw. 17 Please note that there are exceptions to this rule when it comes to the Hamza being preceded by the Alif for some words. The main exception to this is the Qur’ān and Ḥadīth collections. ﴾ ِ ِ ‫﴿ ٱ ْْلم ُد َِّّللِ ر‬ ‫ي‬ َ ‫ب ٱلْ َع لَم‬ َْ َ The Hamzah needs to be “seated” on one of three letters. it remains silent since there is already a preceding vowel before it (Kasrah). most Arabic today has Diacritical marks from this style. we generally recommend using the Naskhī18 Muṣḥaf (the mint green Saudi Muṣḥaf) instead of the Farsi Muṣḥaf to learn Arabic since it emphasizes the Hamzah and excludes extra Tashkīl. or Yā. Please note both are authentic Muṣḥafs. which do not follow this rule: [‫جاؤوا‬/ ُ َ‫جاء‬/‫سائِل‬/‫صائِم‬ َ ]. Furthermore. the last vowel is not spoken. 19 . or a pause in the middle. as is the typical case of sentences that begin with [‫]ال‬. A general rule that occurs in Arabic reading is the following: when there is a stop at the end of a sentence. The “seat” of the Hamzah can be Alif. The exception to this principle is that of words ending with double Fatḥah vowels. however if it is the last word in a sentence. In the second example. the Naskhī script gradually replaced Kūfic for copying of the Qur’ān due to its beauty and legibility It is perhaps the most popular script today in the Arabic world. Tashkīl Most written Arabic including Classical Islamic texts do not have Tashkīl (vowels and diacritical markings). Since the 5th century AH. Difference between Tā [‫ ]ت‬and Tā Marbūṭah [‫]ة‬ Tā Marbūṭah is pronounced as a [‫]ت‬.

For example. The Arabic noun includes the following categories of words: ▪ noun ▪ pronoun ▪ adjective ▪ verbal noun (verb not confined to a specific time period (past. Ism . Fi’l ii. we say [‫اْلَاللَة‬ ْ ‫ظ‬ ُ ‫]لَ ْف‬. Its meaning is typically related to the root word. either directly or indirectly.  The Arabic Word is one of three categories of words. It is essential to memorize the plural of a noun along with its single form. present. َ “to test”. [ُ‫( ]ُفِ حُعل‬verb) i. which means “tribulation”. The vast majority of Arabic nouns are based on a single three-letter root verb. Only nouns contain "Al" [‫]ال‬ v. Nouns can have several different plural patterns. The Arabic Word [‫كلِ َمة‬ َُ ‫]ال‬ A. the Grand Word. vii. Ism [ُ‫( ]اِ حسم‬noun) iii. When we mention the Name “Allah” linguistically. Only nouns carry Tā Marbūṭah [‫]ة‬ iv. or future) ii. 20 . Ḥarf [ُ‫( ] َُححُرف‬particle) B. The Arabic Word [‫]ال َكُلِ َمة‬ Words in Arabic are usually associated with a “Root Verb” composed of three “root” letters.Introduction to Arabic Grammar: [‫]الكلمة‬ II. and thus are more challenging to learn than English plurals. vi. the word [‫ ] ِع ْلم‬which means “knowledge” comes from the verb [‫] َعلِم‬.The Arabic Noun [‫]اَِْال ْسم‬ i. Instead. or “trial” is derived from the verb [‫ت‬ ََ َ‫]ف‬. Only nouns carry Tanwīn [ ٍ ٌ ً] iii. The word [‫]فِْت نَة‬. and to prevent using His name in a casual way. Most words beginning with the letter [‫ ]م‬are nouns. “to know”. we avoid saying “the word Allah” or “the name Allah” in order to give proper respect to Allahh.

D. v. Numerous nouns and verb-like entities can be derived from verbs.The Arabic Particle [‫]اَ ْْلَْرف‬ The third category of words in Arabic are particles or [‫حروف‬ ُ ]. Fʽil . A particle associates with a word directly following it to result in a useful meaning (in speech).g. two. Particles that ِ do not cause a change in I‛rāb are termed [‫عامل‬ ‫] ُحُروف غَْي ُر‬. or Future Tense. specifically causing a change in inflection or case of the word that they are associated with. There are several particles in Arabic that have diverse grammatical functions. Ḥarf . In this Volume. or three letters. He went ≠ he is going It does not have Tā Marbūṭah [‫]ة‬. e. The associated word is either a verb or a noun. iv. It does not have Tanwīn [ ii. Verbs are conjugated in the past tense.The Arabic Verb [‫]اَلْ ِف ْعل‬ The Arabic verb or “Fʽil” refers to an action confined to a specific time period. ٍ ٌ ً]. the action is confined to either the Past. we will focus on particles that cause a change in I‛rāb.  Particles include the following categories of words:  Prepositions  Words indicating Emphasis  Conjunctions  Particles of Negation  Conditional Particles  Particles of Interrogation  Connectors 21 . or the command tense. the future/present tense.  i. It does not carry the particle “Al” [‫]ال‬. iii. Thus.Introduction to Arabic Grammar: [‫]الكلمة‬ C. Present. A particle itself is composed of one. He killed ≠ he is killing. These will also be reviewed as well.

It can be a person.Case or inflection (grammatically known as nominative. in a Verbal Sentence. Please note that verbs can also have I‛rāb. 1. In this text. IV. and definiteness.Introduction to Arabic Grammar: [‫]الكلمة‬ III. the term “noun” will be synonymous with “Ism”. or the subject. place. murder. ِ [‫سم‬ ‫ ]ُاَُلحق ح‬Definiteness (indefinite or definite) Only nouns carry these four characteristics mentioned above. or plural) ii. and then lastly determine its I‛rāb. anger). A word in the Naṣb case on the other hand in the same sentence will be identified as the Direct Object of the verb. [‫ ]اجلِحنس‬Gender (masculine or feminine) iv. iii. we need to examine the inflection on its last letter. but that is discussed later in Lesson 10. We then examine the noun’s ending vowel. The Four Characteristics of Arabic Nouns [‫]اَْلَمسحاء‬ An Ism for our purposes is defined as an Arabic noun. One will better understand I‛rāb and inflection of Arabic words by looking at the following principles and examples presented here in this Lesson. adjective. dual. which does the action. This is known as I'rāb. or i. genitive). Every Arabic Noun has four characteristics Iʽrāb [‫إعراب‬ ْ ] . 22 . accusative. or action (e. I'rāb [ ‫]إ حعراب‬ The Iʽrāb of a noun points to the specific grammatical role that it has in a sentence. we first need to determine the other three qualities of the respective word. For example. plurality. a) [‫ ] َرفحع‬Raf‛ (nominative) b) [‫صب‬ ‫ ]نَ ح‬Naṣb (accusative) c) [ُ‫جر‬ َ ] ُJarr (genitive) [‫ ]ُاَُلح َُع َدد‬Number/plurality (single. To determine the I‛rāb of a noun. A word with the I‛rāb of Jarr is either associated with a preposition or functions in a role of possession. object. Knowing the four characteristics of nouns allows one to determine the inflection or "grammatical state" of the word in an āyah of the Qur’ān. the word that takes the I‛rāb of Raf‛ is identified as the Doer. such as its gender. In order to do this.g. verbal noun. where verbs are discussed in more detail. or in a typical Arabic sentence. Verbs and Particles have different rules and are discussed later.

Some of these conditions are discussed in this First Volume. The Ḍammah vowel typically denotes the case of Raf‛. In Arabic. ii. Please note that nouns that are indefinite typically carry Tanwīn. The Three Types of I‛rāb (for Nouns) i. The Fatḥah vowel denotes the Naṣb case whereas the Kasrah vowel denotes the Jarr case. Ḍammah [ ii. ‫ َرفْع‬Raf‛ (Nominative)  Subject in a Verbal Sentence. 2. while the rest are discussed in Volume 2. ِ ‫أَخو‬ Objects of certain particles [‫اُتا‬ َ ‫]إن َو‬. Objects of preposition [‫حروف اْلَر‬ ُ] In Arabic.  In Arabic. this is often not the case. 23 . Fatḥah  (Exceptions are the partially flexible nouns like [ُ‫ ] َم ْرَي‬and [‫]إِبْ َرِﻫ ُم‬. Adverbs denoting detail in a sentence [‫] َم ْف ُعول‬. there are up to eight conditions in which a noun can take the Raf‛ case. ‫صب‬ ْ َ‫ ن‬Naṣb (Accusative)     iii. there are only two conditions in which a noun can take Jarr. There are several exceptions. Determining I‛rāb of Nouns Determining the I‛rāb of nouns is done by examining the vowel ending on the last letter.  Subject and Predicate in a Nominal sentence. we are only beginning to analyze the Arabic noun and the concept of I‛rāb.Introduction to Arabic Grammar: [‫]الكلمة‬ 1. which have been listed above. whereas nouns that are definite do not carry Tanwīn. [ً ً ] at the end on a noun typically denotes Naṣb. please note that there are up to twelve conditions where a noun can take the Naṣb case. ‫ جر‬Jarr (Genitive)    Can denote possession. i. particularly if the noun is not singular. ً ًٌ ] at the end of a noun denotes Raf‛. It is important to focus on the main principles rather to dwell on the exceptions. Even though identifying the last vowel usually allows one to successfully determine the I‛rāb. At this point. Object in a Verbal Sentence. while the remaining are discussed in Volume 2. Some of these conditions are examined in this First Volume. typically the word after “of” [‫]إِضافَة‬.

dual.ʽeah eo hcih tfo htob Exceptions are rare such as words like [‫قاض‬ 3. for the word [‫]م ْسلِم‬ ُ in Naṣb is [‫]م ْسلم ا‬ ُ ‫ُْا‬ indicates that the Alif be pronounced if a stop is made at that letter. ِ ِ] at the end of a noun denotes Jarr. an extra Alif is placed at the ending letter. while the [‫ن‬ Jarr or Naṣb. Plurality and Duality of Nouns Arabic nouns come in the singular. Kasrah [  ٍ ] and [‫ماض‬ ٍ ] . Arabic words are also found in the dual form. 24 . -  Dual Nouns and their Structure [ ‫ يْ ِن‬/ ‫] اَ ِن‬ A dual noun can be readily identified by looking at its ending. a.Introduction to Arabic Grammar: [‫]الكلمة‬ iii. or plural tense. Identifying Singularity. Any noun in the single form can be converted to the dual form by simply endings. b. The specific number that is reflected by any word depends on its morphology. The ending [‫ ]اَ ِن‬denotes Raf‛. ‫اَ ِن‬ ِ ْ‫ي‬-] Naṣb or Jarr [‫ن‬ [ ] Raf‛ Table 1: I‛rāb of Singular and Dual Nouns Singular (Raf‛) ُُ‫ َكلِ َمة‬word ‫ َحبِيب‬beloved ‫ ُم ْسلِم‬Muslim ‫ َع ْي‬eye Singular (Naṣb)19 ‫َكلِ َمةا‬ ‫َحبِيباا‬ ‫ُم ْسلِ اما‬ ‫َعْي ناا‬ Singular (Jarr) ‫َكلِ َم ٍة‬ ٍ ‫َحبِي‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ُم ْسلٍِم‬ ٍ ْ ‫َع‬ ‫ي‬ Dual (Raf‛) Dual (Naṣb/Jarr) ِ َ‫َكلِمت‬ ‫ان‬ َ ِ ‫حبِيب‬ ‫ان‬ َ ِ ‫مسلِم‬ ‫ان‬ َ ُْ ِ ‫عين‬ ‫ان‬ َْ ِ ْ َ‫َكلِمت‬ ‫ي‬ َ ِ ْ َ‫َحبِيب‬ ‫ي‬ ِ ْ ‫ُمسلِم‬ ‫ي‬ َ ْ ِ ْ َ‫َعْي ن‬ ‫ي‬ 19 For indefinite nouns which have a double Fatḥah ending (Fatḥah with Tanwīn). [‫ ]اَ ِن‬or [‫ن‬ adding one of the two endings above to its end. The exception is the Tā ِ and not [‫]مسلِم‬. It typically carries one of two ِ ْ‫ي‬-]. For example. as opposed to no pronunciation of the last vowel if it is a Ḍammah or Kasrah Tanwīn. This Alif denotes a Fatḥah Tanwīn if Tashkīl is not present. The specific dual ending chosen is based on the ِ ْ‫ي‬-] ending denotes either I‛rāb of the respective word. words in the plural form come in one of several different plural patterns. Unlike English. and/or its ending. It also Marbūṭah. Furthermore.

Introduction to Arabic Grammar: [‫]الكلمة‬  Last Ḥadīth of Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhāri20 : “Two words beloved words to Ar-Raḥmān. It is important to note that this occurrence is yet another exception. Chapter on Tawhīd: ‫َّوحيد‬ ْ ‫كتاب الت‬. which sometimes occurs. or Kasrah.  Sound Masculine Plural [‫ال‬ ُِ ‫س‬ َُّ ‫] ََجحعُاملُ َذ َّك ِرُال‬ The “Sound Masculine Plural” is the plural pattern found on nouns that act as “Doer Nouns” ِ or “Passive Nouns” [‫حم حفعول‬ َ ‫]اسم ُال‬. ‫اللِسان‬ ُ . Table 2: I‛rāb of Sound Masculine Plural Singular (Raf‛) ‫ ُم ْسلِم‬Muslim ِ helper ‫َّنصر‬ ‫ ُم َعلَّم‬student Singular (Naṣb) ‫ُم ْسلِ اما‬ ِ ‫َّنصارا‬ ‫ُم َعلَّ اما‬ Singular (Jarr) ‫ُم ْسلٍِم‬ ِ ‫َّنص ٍر‬ ‫ُم َعلٍَّم‬ Plural (Raf‛) ‫ُم ْسلِ ُمو َن‬ ِ ‫َّنص ُرو َن‬ ‫ُم َعلَّ ُمو َن‬ Plural (Naṣb/Jarr) ِِ ‫ي‬ َ ‫ُم ْسلم‬ ِ ‫ين‬ َ ‫َّنص ِر‬ ِ ‫ي‬ َ ‫ُم َعلَّم‬  Sound Feminine Plural [‫ال‬ ُِ ُ‫س‬ َّ ‫] ََجحعُُاملُ َنَؤنَّ ُال‬ This plural pattern only applies to words that have the feminine Tā Marbūṭah letter [‫]ة‬. However. This shows that there are several words in Arabic with an [‫ ]اَن‬ending that are not dual. However. while the ending ٍ َ‫]ا‬. Nouns that depict a person or persons doing a ِ ‫]اِسمُ ُال‬ [‫حفاعل‬ ‫ح‬ particular action take this pattern. heavy on the scales. The ending in Raf‛ is [‫]اَت‬. Most nouns that end with this letter take this Sound Feminine Plural even if they are nonhuman objects. ِ َ‫سان ثَِقيل‬ ِ ِ‫تان على الل‬ ِ ِ ِ ‫تان حبِيب‬ ِ ِ ‫تان ِف الْ ِم َيز ِان‬ َّ ‫تان إىل‬ َ ‫الر ْحَ ِن َخفي َف‬ َ َ ‫] َكل َم‬ ِِ ِ ِ ] ‫سبحا َن هللاِ الْ َعظي ِم‬ ُ ‫ُسبحا َن هللا وِبَمده‬ In looking at this Ḥadīth. and it is the Kasrah vowel ending that may cause ambiguity. Similar to the dual inflection on nouns. The [‫ن‬ َ ‫ ] ُُو‬ending is placed on sound masculine plural that take Raf‛. Fatḥah. ‫الرمحان‬ َُّ . ‫ ]ميزان‬are all single. [‫الْ َعظي ِم‬ ِ‫مدهِ سبحان هللا‬ ِ ِ ِ ُ َ‫”] ُسبحا َن هللا وِب‬. in Naṣb/Jarr is [‫ت‬ 20 Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhāri. while the [ ‫ ] ُِيْ َن‬ending is placed on plurals taking either Naṣb or Jarr. For example. The [‫ ]ُاَت‬ending replaces the Tā Marbūṭah. that are light on the tongue. Ḥadīth #7124. we also see that some words with the [‫ ]اَن‬ending in the Ḥadīth are not dual. the following words [‫س حبحان‬. there are two possible endings. these words can end in either Ḍammah. the highlighted words are all dual. 25 .

22 The meaning of the following words is the following: [‫ ]ق لم‬is pen. the I‛rāb of Broken Plurals is determined simply by looking at the vowel endings (just like in single nouns). [‫ ]ق ْلب‬is heart. and should be memorized and focused upon and not the other for ease and clarity. Also for ease and clarity. For example. As we go forward in later lessons. ََ َ َُ 26 . There are several different patterns possible.Introduction to Arabic Grammar: [‫]الكلمة‬ Table 3: I‛rāb of Sound Feminine Plurals Singular Singular Plural Singular (Raf‛) (Naṣb) (Jarr) ( Raf‛) ‫ ُم ْسلِ َمة‬Muslimah ‫ َكلِ َمة‬word ‫ آيَة‬sign ‫ُم ْسلِ َم اة‬ ‫َكلِ َمةا‬ ‫آيَةا‬ ‫ُم ْسلِ َم ٍة‬ ‫َكلِ َم ٍة‬ ‫آيٍَة‬ ‫ُم ْسلِمات‬ ‫َكلِ َمات‬ ‫آَيت‬ َ Plural (Naṣb/Jarr) ٍ ‫مسلِم‬ ‫ات‬ ُْ ٍ ‫َكلِم‬ ‫ات‬ َ ٍ ‫آَي‬ ‫ت‬  Broken Plurals [‫] ََجحعُُالتَّ حكسري‬ Broken Plurals are by far the most common plural pattern type for nouns. and [‫ ]رسول‬is messenger. which consists of one of several different morphological patterns that are discussed later. Table 4: I‛rāb of Broken Plurals 21 Singular22 (Raf‛) Singular (Naṣb) ‫قَلَم‬ ‫قَ ْلب‬ ‫َر ُسول‬ ‫قَلَ اما‬ ‫قَ ْلباا‬ ‫َر ُس اوال‬ Singular (Jarr) ‫قَلٍَم‬ ٍ ‫قَ ْل‬ ‫ب‬ ٍ ‫رس‬ ‫ول‬ َُ Plural (Raf‛) Plural (Naṣb) ‫أَقْ َالم‬ ‫أَقْ َال اما‬ ‫قُلُوب‬ ‫ُر ُسل‬ ‫وِب‬ ‫قُلُ ا‬ ‫ُر ُس اال‬ Plural (Jarr) ‫أَقْ َالٍم‬ ٍ ُ‫قُل‬ ‫وب‬ ‫ُر ُس ٍل‬ Most nouns in Arabic take a broken plural. Unlike dual nouns and Sound Plurals. we will assume that any specific noun takes only one respective Broken Plural pattern21. ‫ُبور‬ only find the pattern and ‫ُبار‬. we will discuss these patterns in greater detail. the word ‫ِبر‬ َْ can take two plural patterns.ِ In the Qur’ān we ‫ ُِبار‬mentioned. Some nouns take more than one type of broken plural pattern. Thus this is the most prominent pattern for this word.

This situation however has more to do with morphology than grammar. Verb [‫فِ ْعل‬  / ‫]أَفْ َعال‬ It is defined as action connected to a specific time period (past. the term noun will be synonymous with Ism. The Noun [‫ْلسم‬ ‫ ]اَ ح‬and Its Four Characteristics 1. or future). The most common such sign is the Tā Marbūṭah [‫]ة‬. 3. verbs can have Tanwīn. daughter. It is often composed of less than three letters. It does not carry Tā Marbūṭah or Tanwīn23. Noun [‫سم‬ ْ‫ا‬  / ‫َمساء‬ ْ ‫]أ‬ [‫ ]اِ حسم‬can be a noun. This is because feminine nouns usually contain a sign within their word structure that points to their femininity. 2. All Arabic nouns can be assumed masculine unless proven otherwise. pointing nouns. present. II. adverb. The gender of the noun will require other words referring to it (pronouns. adjective. Particle [‫حرف‬  ْ َ / ‫] ُح ُروف‬ A particle needs to join to a corresponding word to yield a meaning. In the Qur’ān (96:15) ﴾ ‫َّاصيَ ِة‬ َ ْ . Please note that words that are universally feminine (mother. The Three Categories of Arabic Words [‫]اَلح َكلِ َُمات‬ ِ 1. female names. etc. For example. It always comes before the word that it links with. pronoun.Lesson 2: I´râb and Flexibility Lesson 2: I‛rāb and Flexibility Review of the Arabic Word [‫]اَلْ َكلِ َمة‬ I. Gender [‫]اَْلِْنس‬ Every noun has a gender. The suffixed emphatic particle is known as the Nūn of emphasis (‫)نون التوكيد‬. 27 . and is indicated by Tanwīn. This same principle holds true for a pronoun or a Pointing noun (that. the underlined word is a verb with an apparent Tanwīn. etc. and verbs) to adapt to its respective gender. either being masculine or feminine. or infinitive verb (verbal noun). adjectives. 23 ِ ‫كال لَئِن ََّّل ي ْن تَ ِه لَنَس َفع ا ِِبلن‬ َّ ﴿ In rare cases. when an adjective describes “a girl”. it needs to be modified to the feminine morphology. this.) do not need such a sign in their word structure. In this text.) that refers to a respective noun.

Dual . ‫َحْرب‬ َُ ِ َ‫ [ا‬: Raf‛ ]‫ن‬ َُ ِ ْ‫] ي‬: Naṣb or Jarr b) [‫ن‬ Plural (more than 2) a. Broken plural [‫َجحعُالتَّ حكسري‬ َ ] . Number/Plurality [‫]اَلْ َع َدد‬ i.most common plural The most common types of Broken Plurals are listed on the next page. then there are two correct grammatical possibilities.Lesson 2: I´râb and Flexibility Common Feminine Signs on Nouns      ending with: Tā Marbūṭah [‫ ]ة‬as in [‫كلِمة‬ َ] َ 24 ending with Alif Mamdūdah [‫ ]اء‬as in [‫مساء‬ َ] body parts in pairs: [‫ع ْي‬ َ / ‫ ِر ْجل‬/ ‫]يَد‬25 ِ 26 ْ ‫]م‬ ُ / ‫ص ُر‬ names of countries or lands: [‫وم‬ ُ ‫الر‬ Special feminine nouns: these feminine nouns below do not possess a feminine sign in their word structure. This point is being mentioned here since both these two variations are found in the Qur’ān. 24 Translated as “sky” or “heaven”. 25 28 . This is the grammatically case even if the respective noun is masculine. ‫َسبِيل‬ Other Exceptions: Masculine names with a feminine sign. [‫سل‬ ُ ‫ ُر‬/ Singular ‫بِْئ ر َكأْس َعصا‬ war path stick cup well ‫دار‬ house ‫طَْل َحة‬/‫] ِرجال‬ ِ ] or [‫ ] ي ِن‬to its end. and hand”. or “masculine” 2. If the noun is a “male person”. Translated from left to right as “ eye. soul wind sun ii.add [‫ان‬ ْ َُ a) iii. 26 Translated from left to right as “Rome and Egypt”. male or female. Table 5: Special Feminine Nouns ‫ُسوق‬ ‫َّنر‬ ‫ََشْس ِريْح نَ ْفس ََخَر‬ market fire wine  self. Please note that Broken Plurals in Arabic are considered feminine single. foot. broken plurals.

 3. etc. Any noun that begins with the particle [‫ ]ال‬is definite since this particle denotes “the” on that particular noun. Definiteness [‫]اَلْ َم ْع ِرفَة‬ A definite or proper noun is a noun that is specific. Definiteness [‫الُنَّ ِك َرة‬/‫] ُاملَحع ِرفَة‬ i. In this case. 27 The letters [‫ ]فعل‬represent a stem in Arabic grammar that denote various patterns of words. [‫ن‬ َُ ‫ ] ُِيح‬is added to the end of the single noun in Jarr or Naṣb I‛rāb. whether nouns or verbs. c.g. We will revisit this [‫ ]فعل‬stem frequently in this Volume and later as well ‫إن شاء هللا‬. Please also note that most definite nouns do not carry Tanwīn since nouns with [‫ ]ال‬cannot carry Tanwīn. This is also the case with many names that are Partially Flexible.Lesson 2: I´râb and Flexibility Broken Plural 27 Pattern ‫أَفْ َعال‬ ‫فُعُول‬ ‫فِ َعال‬ ِ َ‫ف‬ ‫عاع ُل‬ Single Noun  ‫أَقْالَم‬ ‫ُد ُروس‬ ‫ِجبال‬ ‫ قَلَم‬pen ‫ َد ْرس‬lesson ‫ َجبَل‬mountain ‫ َم ْس ِجد‬mosque b. defined. his mother. Sound Feminine Plural [‫ال‬ ُِ ‫ُالس‬ َّ ِ  Plural Noun ِ ‫م‬ ‫ساج ُد‬ َ َّ‫ ] ََجحعُامل َنَؤن‬ending with Tā Marbūṭah [‫]ة‬. or task. It may also be a noun that is specified by a relationship (e. Sound Masculine Plural [‫ال‬ ُِ ‫س‬ َُّ ‫] ََجحعُاملُ َذ َّك ِرُال‬   [‫ن‬ َُ ‫ ]ُو‬is added to the end of the single noun in Raf‛ I‛rāb. and more than ordinary. These plurals are found on “Doers” or persons involved in doing a certain action. [ُ‫ ]اَت‬replaces [‫ ]ة‬in Raf‛ I‛rāb.). [ُ‫ ]اَت‬replaces [‫ ]ة‬in Jarr or Naṣb I‛rāb. These letters are used to teach morphological derivations and conjugation patterns of several different classes of words in Arabic. Any noun that is given a name also becomes definite by default. 29 . an [‫ ]ال‬does not need to be added. my pen.

The term I‛rāb reflects a specific case that every noun carries. ُ ‫ َمْن‬/ ‫ نُوح‬/ ‫]ُمَ َّمد‬ Translations of the words from left to right are the following “a man. 28 Please note the following examples [‫جل‬ ُ ‫َر‬ َِْ‫ ]ا‬. The default case of a noun is the Raf‛ state. [‫]جر‬ َ 28 29 Raf‛- Nominative Naṣb- Accusative Jarr - Genitive Please note that certain proper names take Tanwīn and include the following [‫صور‬ ُ. a masjid. Every noun carries one of three cases. The specific I‛rāb is reflected on nouns by the varying vowels at their ends. [‫صب‬ ْ َ‫]ن‬ 3. ِ َّ‫]اَلن‬ Indefiniteness [‫كرة‬ َ Nouns that do not have [‫ ]ال‬are typically indefinite and take Tanwīn by default . By contrast. I‛rāb [‫ْل ْعراب‬ / ‫ َم ْس ِجد‬/ ‫]قَلَم‬29. For example.Lesson 2: I´râb and Flexibility a) Adding [‫ ]ال‬adds the particle “the” to any indefinite noun making it definite. a pen”. ُ‫َم حس ِجد‬  mosque ُ‫ملس ِجد‬ ‫اَ ح‬ the mosque َّ ‫ُ َم‬/ُ‫]ُحممد‬ b) Any proper name of a person or place is definite:[ُ‫موسُى‬/ُُ‫كة‬ c) Any possession relationship is definite. only nouns in the Raf‛ I‛rāb can function as the Subject in a Nominal Sentence. the “Doer” can only be Raf‛ in a Verbal Sentence. Specifically. (i) The Three Cases 1. Examples are the following: ِ ‫]رسول‬ my house / your town / Messenger of Allah = [‫ُبَ حييت‬/ُ‫ُبَلَد َك‬/ُ‫ُهللا‬ َ ii.Case/Inflection 4. Likewise. 30 . it is a characteristic that imparts the noun to have certain grammatical function(s). Words with [‫ ]ال‬do not take Tanwīn and end in a single vowel. [‫]رفْع‬ َ 2. only a noun in the “Naṣb” I‛rāb can function as a “object” of a verb in a Verbal Sentence.

Exceptions are rare such as words like [ُ‫ ]قاض‬and [ُ‫]ماض‬. B. 1. Kasrah [  ِ ِ] at the end of a noun denotes Jarr. Ending Vowels on a Noun ً ًٌ ] at the end of a noun denotes Raf‛. Fatḥah [  (Exceptions are the partially flexible nouns like [ُ‫ ] َم ْرَي‬and [‫]إِبْرِﻫم‬.Lesson 2: I´râb and Flexibility (ii) How to Distinguish the Three Different I‛rābs A. Ḍammah [ ً ً] at the end on a noun typically denotes Naṣb. Endings on Sound Feminine Plurals  [ُ‫ ]ات‬for Raf‛  [ُ‫ ]ات‬for Naṣb or Jarr 31 . Endings on Sound Masculine Plurals (revisited):  [‫ن‬ َُ ‫ ]ُو‬for Raf‛  [‫ين‬ َُ ُِ ] for Naṣb or Jarr D. Dual Endings on all Nouns (revisited)  ]‫ان‬ ُِ [ for Raf‛  ]‫ [يحن‬for Naṣb or Jarr C. both of which are Raf‛ here. ُ َ 3. 2.

. Selected Noun Plurality. 32 . but they perceive not.Lesson 2: I´râb and Flexibility Table 6: Inflection of “Noun Endings” by I‛rāb [ُ‫جر‬ َ ] Jarr ]‫صب‬ ‫ [نَ ح‬Naṣb [‫ ] َرفع‬Raf‛ Type of Noun Kasrah Fatḥah Ḍammah Singular Kasrah Fatḥah Ḍammah Broken Plural ‫َُيْ ِن‬ ‫ُِيْ َن‬ ‫َُيْ ِن‬ ‫ُِيْ َن‬ ‫َُ ِان‬ Dual ‫اَ ٍت‬ ‫اَ ٍت‬ ‫ُُو َن‬ Sound Masculine Plural ‫اَت‬ Sound Feminine Plural 30 Kasrah Fatḥah Ḍammah Flexible Fatḥah Fatḥah Ḍammah Partially Flexible no change no change no change Inflexible Analyzing Nouns from the Qur’ān Gender. indefinite Naṣb or Jarr ‫[ نَ حُهر‬river] Female (Broken Plural). Plural (proper).‫ار‬ ُ ‫ََْت ِري من ََْتت َها ْٱألَنْ َه‬ “And give good tidings to those who believe and do righteous deeds that they will have gardens beneath which rivers flow…”(2:25) 30 I‛rāb of selected noun Please note that non-human nouns with “Sound Feminine Plurals” can behave like Broken Plurals. and in single form Definiteness Qur’ānic Āyāt ِ ْ َ‫ٱمل ْغ ِرب‬ ﴾‫ي‬ ِ ْ َ‫ب ٱلْم ْش ِرق‬ ‫ب‬ ُّ ‫ي َوَر‬ ُّ ‫﴿ َر‬ َ َ “Lord of the two easts and wests” (55:17) ﴾‫شعُرو َن‬ ْ َ‫ي‬ ُ ‫[ َم حغ ِرب‬west] ‫َّهم ُﻫ ُم ٱلْ ُم ْف ِس ُدو َن َولَ ِكن َّال‬ ُ ‫﴿ أَالَ إِن‬ Male. plural (proper). They can also be treated as “feminine plural” as well grammatically. plural. definite Raf‛ ُ‫م حف ِسد‬ “Unquestionably.”(2:12) ٍ ‫َن ََلم جن‬ ِ ِ َّ ْ‫﴿وب ِش ِر ٱلَّ ِذين آمنُواْ وع ِملُوا‬ ‫َّات‬ ََ َ َ ُْ َّ ‫ٱلصاْلَات أ‬ ََ ِ ِ ﴾. Dual. and Definite Naṣb or Jarr Raf‛ [corrupter] Male. and Definite ‫[ َجنَّة‬garden] Female. it is they who are the corrupters. and thus can be "feminine singular"..

He is able to stand. Plurality. Please note that most nouns in Arabic are fully flexible. even if they have a physical impairment that limits their ability to do Rukū‛. while you were wrongdoers. The I‛rāb of words. but his Ṣalāh is accepted and valid since he followed the rules to the utmost of his ability (or in this case flexibility). A noun that is fully flexible perfectly adapts its endings to a particular I‛rāb as per the rules discussed earlier in this chapter. indefinite Naṣb Female. indefinite I‛rāb of selected noun Naṣb Male. And the mountains as pegs?”(78:6-7) ‫[ ِع حجل‬calf] ُ‫[ أ حَرض‬earth] ‫َجبَل‬ [mountain] Gender. Sujūd. The first is Muḥammad who is healthy and “fully flexible”. From this. In one sense. The Concept of Flexibility and a Simile: All Muslims are required to pray the obligatory Ṣalāh daily.Lesson 2: I´râb and Flexibility Selected Noun in single form Qur’ānic Āyāt (Cont. However. one may say that flexibility is a fifth characteristic that each noun inherently has.) ِ َ ‫﴿ َوإِ ْذ َو‬ ُ‫ي لَْي لَةا ُُثَّ َّٱَّتَ ْذ ُت‬ َ ‫وسى أ َْربَع‬ َ ‫اع ْد ََّن ُم‬ ِ‫ٱلْع‬ ﴾ ‫جل ِمن بَ ْع ِدهِ َوأَنتُ ْم ظَالِ ُمو َن‬ ْ َ ‫[ لَحي لَة‬night] “And [recall] when We made an appointment with Mūsa for forty nights. If a Muslim has these impairments. and Sujūd etc. He does Ṣalāh according to full rules and proper motions (of doing Rukū‛ and Sujūd). Then we have a second individual Zaid who has a bad back. definiteness. Other nouns in Arabic are completely inflexible. but cannot flex properly and do proper Rukū‛ and Sujūd. many nouns in Arabic are partially flexible. We 33 . let us take the example of three Muslim individuals. The difference with respect to the other characteristics of nouns (gender. and I‛rāb) however is that the flexibility of any respective noun cannot change. Then you took [for worship] the calf after him. definite Naṣb Female single (broken plural). Unlike Muḥammad. even if its ending does not change appropriately. Flexibility and I‛rāb What do we mean by flexibility? Flexibility is the ability of a noun to adapt its ending appropriately (inflect) to one of the three I‛rāb states. single. single.”(2:51) ﴾ ‫ال أ َْو ََت ادا‬ ْ ‫ض ِم َه اادا۝ َو‬ َ َ‫ٱْلِب‬ َ ‫﴿أَََّلْ ََْن َع ِل ْٱأل َْر‬ “Have We not made the earth a resting place?. are determined based on their context in the respective sentence. single. plurality. Zaid needs to use a chair during Ṣalāh. and is fixed. or to stand. and thus change their endings “partially”. and cannot change their endings at all. definite Naṣb III. Despite this. they should pray the Ṣalāh to the best of their ability and Inshā Allah they will be complying with the rules of Ṣalāh like the Muslim who stands. and Definiteness Female. every noun takes an I‛rāb. does proper Rukū‛. which are not inflexible.

Lesson 2: I´râb and Flexibility then have a third. the prayer of all three Muslims is accepted. if the noun is an owner or possessor. Flexibility has no effect on I‛rāb. The Three Degrees of Flexibility of Nouns Similar to the preceding simile. this flexibility is in terms of how their endings adapt appropriately to the respective I‛rāb that they have. The I‛rāb that it carries depends on its context in the sentence. e. Flexible. For example. Pointing nouns [‫ك‬ 2. Even though neither Manṣūr nor Zaid can perform the appropriate actions of Ṣalāh like Muḥammad. and is a specific attribute of the particular noun in question.g. [‫اَل ُقراَ ُن‬ / ‫ بَْيت‬/ ‫ َم ْس ِجد‬/ ‫ قَلَم‬/ ‫ ُم ْسلِم‬/ ‫ب‬ ٌّ ‫] َر‬ B. then it is Jarr. Inflexible Nouns [‫] َم حبىن‬ 1. 1. Inflexible noun [‫] َمْبىن‬ َ 3. ِ ‫]هو‬. but still carry one of three I‛rāb. 34 . nouns also can have one of three degrees of flexibility. their Ṣalāh is accepted Inshā Allah. This is because they all performed the actions of Ṣalāh as much as they were capable of despite their varying degrees of flexibility. Relative Pronouns َ َ ِ ِ َّ [‫]ُاَلذي‬. and names such as [‫ ]عيسُى‬or [‫]موسُى‬. Despite being unable to stand or bend. Inflexible Nouns do not change structurally. Flexible Nouns [‫]م حع َرب‬ ُ‫] َغري‬ The normal noun in terms of flexibility is one whose ending fully conforms to expressing its respective I‛rāb. the normal noun [‫] ُم ْعرب‬ 2. Manṣūr who is unfortunately crippled. Specifically. IV. he performs Ṣalāh in bed using hand gestures. Partially flexible noun [‫ص ِرف‬ َ ‫ُمْن‬ A. Please note that the term [‫ ] َم حبىن‬is also used for verbs that do not inflect an I‛rāb. Altogether. Inflexible Nouns include Pronouns [‫هم‬/‫هي‬/ َُ ِ‫ذُل‬/‫]هُذا‬.

worship your Lord the One Who created you.. Non-Arabic Names: e. Names of places (these are grammatically feminine) ِ  e...g. [ُ‫ ُأَم ِري َكة‬/ُ‫صر‬ ‫م ح‬/ ُ‫] َم َّكة‬ 4.  They do not take [‫ ]ال‬nor are they Muḍāf31 . C.g. Partially Flexible Nouns [‫ص ِرف‬ َ ‫]غَريُم حن‬ These nouns follow all the rules of fully flexible nouns except the following:  They do not take Kasrah. D. Feminine names in Arabic that have no masculine counterpart. 35 . ﴾ ِ .g. [ُ‫]ع َمر‬ 31 See Lesson 5 on the section on Possession Constructions.  e... [ُ‫عون‬ َ ‫ ]فِ حر‬and [ُ‫]إِبح َرِهيم‬ Raf‛ ‫فِْر َعو ُن‬ ‫ﻫيم‬ ُ ‫إبرا‬ Naṣb ‫فِْر َعو َن‬ ‫ﻫيم‬ َ ‫إبرا‬ Jarr ‫فِْر َعو َن‬ ‫ﻫيم‬ َ ‫إبرا‬ 2. ِ ﴾‫يما‬ ‫تَكْل ا‬ Jarr ‫وسى‬ َ ‫﴿ َوَكلَّ َم ٱ َّّللُ ُم‬ And when Allah talked to Mūsa directly (4:163) (Mūsa is the direct object) ﴾‫ك ْم‬ ُ ‫َخلَ َق‬ ‫ٱعبُ ُدوا َربَّ ُك ُم ٱلَّ ِذي‬ ْ﴿ .﴿ . Certain three-letter Arab names  e.. and to me in my religion (109:6)...  They do not take Tanwīn (no double vowel). [ُ‫ ]طَلححة‬and [ُ‫شة‬ َ ِ‫]عائ‬ 3... Categories of Nouns that are Partially Flexible 1.(2:21)... Naṣb ِ ‫وسى لَِق ْوِم ِه‬ َ ‫﴿ َوإ ْذ قَ َال ُم‬ And when Mūsa said to his people.(2:54) (Mūsa is the Subject) ﴾‫ََلُ َّن‬ ‫ َوأَنْتُ ْم لِبَاس‬.(7:117) (Ḥarf causes Mūsa to be Jarr) ﴾ ِ ِ ‫ِل ِدي ِن‬ َ ‫﴿ لَ ُك ْم دينُ ُك ْم َو‬ To you is your religion..Lesson 2: I´râb and Flexibility I‛rāb of Inflexible Nouns Raf‛ ﴾.g.and you are a garment to them (2:187)...‫وسى‬ َ ‫﴿ َوأ َْو َحْي نَا إ َىل ُم‬ And when We revealed to Mūsa.

33 [ُ‫سالن‬ ‫]غَ ح‬ ‫ ] َك ح‬and [ُ‫ضبان‬ ِ ‫ ]م‬and [‫]ف عالء‬. If these nouns were Flexible. and takes Kasrah. Let us take a few examples from the Qur’ān to illustrate this point. However without the definite article.Lesson 2: I´râb and Flexibility 5. Translation from left to right is “lazy” and “angry”.g. Broken Plural Patterns on patterns [‫فاعل‬ َ َ ِ ‫ ]م‬and [‫]ف عالء‬ Table 7: Broken Plurals on patterns [‫فاعل‬ َ َ Stem Plural Pattern Example ُ‫فُ َعالء‬ ُ‫فُ َعالء‬ ِ ُ‫أَفْعالء‬ ُ‫غَُرِبء‬ ِ ُ‫أَ ْغنياء‬ ِ ‫م‬ ‫فاع ُل‬ َ ‫فَعالِ ُل‬ ِ ‫يل‬ ُ ‫فَ َعال‬ ِ ‫ب‬ ُ ‫َكواك‬ ِ ‫ي‬ ُ ‫َس َكاك‬ ِ ‫م‬ ‫ساج ُد‬ َ ِ ‫م‬ ‫فاع ُل‬ َ Please note when these two broken plural patterns are only Partially Flexible when they do not contain [‫]ال‬. the underlined nouns are all indefinite and Rafʽ. 36 . 32 33 Translation from left to right is “black” and “greater”. Comparative and superlative adjectives and colors.32 [ُ‫ ]اَ حس َود‬and [ُ‫]أَ حكبَ ر‬ 6.  e. the word [‫ ] ُشهداء‬on the pattern of [‫ ]فُعالء‬is mentioned twice both in Jarr [‫فاعل‬ َ َ َ ُ case. In example (i).g. it is Flexible. Attributes occurring in the pattern of [‫]فَُ حعالن‬  e. they are each expected to take two Ḍammahs. When [‫ش َهداء‬ ُ ] has the definite article. they are Flexible. In āyah (ii). The nouns that are shaded do not take Tanwīn because they are Partially Flexible and have the stem of ِ ‫]م‬. When they have [‫]ال‬. 7. [‫ش َهداء‬ ُ ] cannot take the Kasrah since it is Partially Flexible.

” (24:13) 37 . in the sight of Allah.‫ريا‬ َ ‫ص َوام ُع َوبِيَع َو‬ َ ْ َ ُ ٍ ‫ض ُهم ببَ ْع‬ َ َ َّ ‫ َولَ ْوَال َدفْ ُع‬. some by means of others. synagogues.﴿ ‫اّلل َكث ا‬ ُ ْ َ ُ ُ ‫صلَ َوات َوَم َس‬ “. ِ ِ َِّ ‫اج ُد ي ْذ َكر فِيها اسم‬ ِ ‫ض ََّل ِدمت‬ ِ َ ‫اّللِ النَّاس ب ْع‬ ﴾ . then it is they... and mosques in which the name of Allah is much mentioned…”(22:40) ii. who are the liars. churches. ﴾ ِ ‫﴿لَّوَال جاءوا علَي ِه ِِبَرب ع ِة شهداء ُ فَِإ ْذ ََّل َيْتُوا ِِبلش‬ ‫اّللِ ُﻫ ُم الْ َك ِاذبُو َن‬ َّ ‫ند‬ َ ‫ك ِع‬ َ ِ‫ُّه َداء فَأُولَئ‬ َ َْ َ َ َ ُ َ َْ ْ َ ُ َ ْ “Why did they [who slandered] not produce for it four witnesses? And when they do not produce the witnesses.And were it not that Allah checks the people.. there would have been demolished monasteries.Lesson 2: I´râb and Flexibility i.

All pronouns are completely Inflexible [‫] َم حبين‬. but instead take either the Jarr or Naṣb case. Sometimes. the Attached Pronouns can modify one of its vowels for the purpose of better phonation or sound as per Arabic Morphology. Section IV. As we saw in the previous chapter. Attached Pronouns on the other hand.The Pronouns [‫ ]الضَّمائِر‬and the Pointing Nouns [‫اْلشارة‬ َ ُ‫]أمساء‬ Lesson 3: The Pronouns [‫الضمائِر‬ َّ ] and the Pointing Nouns [‫اْلشارة‬ َ ُ‫]أَمساء‬ I. Inanimate َ plurals are usually referred to by the pronoun [‫ي‬ ُ ‫ ] ِه‬since they are usually grammatically feminine singular. minor changes in the structure of a word due to phonation [‫ ]الصرف‬do not affect I‛rāb. cannot take Raf‛. Please note that the Detached Pronouns are 34 typically Raf‛ . A pronoun is inherently tied to the gender and the plurality of the noun that it refers to. Pronouns ]‫ُض ِمري‬/‫ر‬ َ ِ‫ضمائ‬ َ[ Arabic pronouns are of two types. ِ ‫لض ِمائِر الْمْن َف‬ A. Attached and Detached. which is always Naṣb. Singular inanimate objects are referred to by the third person pronouns [‫و‬ َُ ‫ ]ه‬or [‫ ] ِه ُي‬depending on the gender. 38 . The Detached Pronouns [‫صلَة‬ ُ ُ َّ َ‫]ا‬ ِ ‫ضمائِرُاملُن َف‬ Table 8: Detached Pronouns [‫صُلَة‬ َُ ‫]ال‬ 34 Plural Dual Single ُ‫ه حم‬ ‫ُها‬ ُ‫ه َو‬ ‫ِه َُي‬ ُ‫ه َّن‬ ‫ُها‬ ُ‫أَنح ت حم‬ ‫أَنح تما‬ ُ‫ت‬ َّ ‫أَنح‬ ‫أَنح تما‬ ُ‫ت‬ َ ‫أَنح‬ ُِ ‫أَنح‬ ‫ت‬ ُ‫َحَنن‬ ُ‫َحَنن‬ ‫أَان‬ Exception to this is the particle 3rd person masculine 3rd person feminine 2nd person masculine 2nd person feminine 1st person [‫]إِ ََّي‬. َ This is discussed later on in Lesson 4. Please see the following page for a discussion on [‫]إِ ََّي‬.

verbs. i. An Attached Pronoun joins a noun with no [‫ ]ال‬at its end. and becomes a Possession Construction or [‫]إِضافَة‬. The same pronouns that attach to nouns also attach to verbs with the exception of the first person pronoun (see footnote #34). remember My favor which I have bestowed upon you and fulfill My covenant that I will fulfill your covenant [from Me]. and preceding a verb for meaning of exclusivity35. vi. In a normal Verbal Sentence pattern. All second person pronouns begin with letters [‫ت‬ َُ ‫]أَنح‬. the Direct Object follows the verb. and be afraid of only Me. The pronoun takes the case of Jarr while being Inflexible [‫ين‬ ُ ِ ‫] َم حب‬. [‫ ]إِ ََُّي‬is the only Detached Pronoun in the Naṣb state. All masculine second/third persons plural end with letter [‫] حُم‬. The Attached Pronouns [‫َّصلَة‬ ُ ‫لضمائُِر‬ َّ َ‫]ا‬ Attached Pronouns attach to the ends of nouns. [ ِ ِ ِ ‫ إِ ََّي َك‬/ ‫ي‬ َ ‫ إ ََّي‬/ ‫ إ ََّي ُكم‬/ ‫] إ ََّيَّن‬ ِ ﴾‫ي‬ ُ ‫نَستَع‬ ِ ِ ْ ‫﴿إ ََّي َك نَ ْعبُ ُد َوإ ََّي َك‬ “To You alone we worship and to You alone we ask for help. ii. It is easiest to remember these phonetically from the far right ]‫[ه َوُُهاُه حُم‬.The Pronouns [‫ ]الضَّمائِر‬and the Pointing Nouns [‫اْلشارة‬ َ ُ‫]أمساء‬ 1. 2. 39 . v. and certain particles. In this case by placing the direct object before the verb causes exclusivity This is related to the advanced grammar principle called ‫ْخري‬ َ and places emphasis on the word that has an abnormal sentence structure in terms of sequence. iii. Detached Pronoun Structure All third person pronouns begin with letter [‫]ه‬. Detached Pronouns in Naṣb: ]‫[إِ ََّي‬ The particle [‫ ]إِ ََُّي‬allows a Detached Pronoun to function as a Direct Object for verbs. All dual pronouns end with letters [‫]ما‬.” (1:5) ِ ‫فَٱرﻫب‬ ﴾‫ون‬ َُْ ِ ِ ِ‫﴿َي ب ِِ إِسرائ‬ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ‫يل ٱذْ ُك ُرواْ نِ ْع َم‬ ‫ي‬ ُ ‫ِت ٱَِِت أَنْ َع ْم‬ َ ‫ت َعلَْي ُك ْم َوأ َْوفُواْ ب َع ْهدي أُوف ب َع ْهد ُك ْم َوإ ََّي‬ َْ َ َ َ “O Children of Israel. iv. 35 ِ ‫تَ ْقدي و ََت‬.” (2:40) ِ ‫الْمت‬ B. functioning as a Direct Object. All feminine second/third person plurals end with letter [ُ‫]ن‬.

ِ َّ‫ضمائِرُالحمُت‬ Table 9: Attached Pronouns ]‫صلَة‬ َُ ‫[ال‬ Plural Dual Single ُ‫ه حم‬ ‫ُها‬ ُ‫ه‬ 3rd person masculine ُ‫ه َّن‬ ‫ُها‬ ‫ها‬ 3rd person feminine ُ‫ك حم‬ ‫كما‬ ُ‫َك‬ 2nd person masculine ُ‫ك َّن‬ ‫كما‬ ُ‫ِك‬ 2nd person feminine ‫ان‬ ‫ان‬ [‫ ي‬or ‫]ين‬36 1st person 1. the pronoun becomes a “Direct Object” of that verb. all dual pronouns ending with [‫]ما‬ iii. Singular inanimate objects are referred to by the third person pronoun such as [ُ‫ ]ه‬or [‫]ها‬. 36 1st person single beginning with [‫ [ي‬or [‫ين‬ ُ ِ] [‫ ]ِن‬is only attached to verbs. all 3rd person pronouns starting with [‫]ه‬ ii. all masculine 2nd/ 3rd person plural ending with [‫] حُم‬ iv. while their plurals are usually referred by the feminine singular [‫]ها‬. 40 . the pronoun always takes the Naṣb I‛rāb. Attached Pronoun Structure i. In this case. Specifically. they are found attached to the ends of Ḥarf Jarr and Naṣb particles. 2nd person masculine and feminine beginning with [‫]ك‬ vi. and is called ‫نو ُن الْ ِوقايَة‬. all feminine 2nd and 3rd person plural end with [ُ‫]ن‬ v. Attached Pronouns can also be directly linked to particles.The Pronouns [‫ ]الضَّمائِر‬and the Pointing Nouns [‫اْلشارة‬ َ ُ‫]أمساء‬ When a pronoun is attached to a verb at its end.

there is only one possible ِ ِ‫ ]ك‬due to the [‫]ي‬. in Paradise and eat therefrom in [ease and] abundance from wherever you will. in Sūrah Fatḥ (48:10) ﴾‫يما‬ َّ ُ‫اﻫ َد َعلَْيه‬ َ is expected to be [‫]علَْيه‬. For example. worship your Lord. 41 . It is simply an issue of pattern in [‫تاب‬ phonetics and morphology. lest you be among the wrongdoers. who created you and those before you. dwell..﴿. that you may become righteous” (2:21) ‫ث‬ ُ ‫ك ٱ ْْلَنَّةَ َوُكالَ ِمْن َها َر َغدا َحْي‬ َ ‫َنت َوَزْو ُج‬ َ ‫﴿ َوقُ ْلنَا ََي‬ َ ‫ٱس ُك ْن أ‬ ْ ‫آد ُم‬ ِِ ِ ِ ِِ ﴾‫ي‬ َ ‫َّجَرَة فَتَ ُكو ََّن م َن ٱلْظَّالم‬ َ ‫شْئ تُ َما َوالَ تَ ْقَرَِب َﻫ ذه ٱلش‬ “And We said. َ Here َ ‫ َوَم ْن أ َْو ََف ِبَا َع‬. These changes in vowel do not cause any change in the meaning of the word or its I‛rāb. For example. the shaded word [ُ‫]علَْيه‬ ْ ‫اّللَ فَ َسيُ ْؤتيه أ‬ ‫َجارا َعظ ا‬ the Ḍammah functions rhetorically in exalting the oath/promise [‫]عاﻫ َد‬ َ .The Pronouns [‫ ]الضَّمائِر‬and the Pointing Nouns [‫اْلشارة‬ َ ُ‫]أمساء‬ Table 10: Conjugation of Attached Nouns in Three I‛rābs37 [‫]كِتاب‬ ُ‫(كِتاب‬Jarr) ‫كِتابِِما كِتابِِم‬ ‫كِتابِِه‬ ِ ِ‫ك‬ ‫كِتابِِما كِتابِِ َّن‬ ‫تابا‬ ‫كِتابِ ُكم‬ ‫كِتابِ ُك َّن‬ ‫كِتابِنا‬ ‫كِتابِ ُكما‬ ‫كِتابِ ُكما‬ ‫كِتابِنا‬ ‫ك‬ َ ِ‫كِتاب‬ ِ ِ‫كِتاب‬ ‫ك‬ ‫كِتاِب‬ ‫كِتابَ ُهم‬ ‫كِتابَ ُه َّن‬ ‫كِتابَ ُكم‬ ‫كِتابَ ُك َّن‬ ‫كِتابَنا‬ ِ ُ‫تاب‬ ً ‫( ك‬Naṣb) ‫كِتابَ ُهما‬ ‫كِتابَ ُهما‬ ‫كِتابَ ُكما‬ ‫كِتابَ ُكما‬ ‫كِتابَنا‬ ِ ُ‫كتابَه‬ ‫تابا‬ َ ِ‫ك‬ ‫ك‬ َ َ‫كِتاب‬ ِ ‫كِتاب‬ ‫ك‬ َ ‫كِتاِب‬ ‫كِتابُ ُهم‬ ‫كِتابُ ُه َّن‬ ‫كِتابُ ُكم‬ ‫كِتابُ ُك َّن‬ ‫كِتابُنا‬ ُ‫( كِتاب‬Raf‛) ‫كِتابُ ُهما‬ ‫كِتابُ ُهما‬ ‫كِتابُ ُكما‬ ‫كِتابُ ُكما‬ ‫كِتابُنا‬ ِ ُ‫كتابُه‬ ‫تابا‬ ُ ِ‫ك‬ ‫ك‬ َ ُ‫كِتاب‬ ِ ‫كِتاب‬ ‫ك‬ ُ ‫كِتاِب‬ C." (2:35) 37 ‫[ َربَّكم‬your Lord] Type of Pronoun attached to noun [so that you] ُ‫[قَ حبلِك حم‬before you] َُ ‫[ أ‬you] ‫َنت‬ [your wife] I‛rāb of pronoun Jarr Please note that the conjugated structure of [‫ ]كِتاب‬with an Attached Pronoun (or for that matter any noun) can be altered due to phonetics [‫الصرف‬ َّ ]. More variances like this will be seen in later lessons. you and your wife. "O Ādam.. [ُ‫ ]كِتابِه‬is changed to [ِ‫ ]كِتَابِه‬because it is awkward in pronouncing [‫ ] ُه‬directly after a Kasrah. Similarly. Examples of Pronouns from the Qur’ān Translation of Selected Pronoun Qur’ānic Āyah ‫َّاس ٱ ْعبُ ُدواْ َربَّ ُك ُم ٱلَّ ِذي َخلَ َق ُك ْم‬ ُ ‫﴿ ََي أَيُّ َها ٱلن‬ ِ َّ ﴾‫ك ْم تَتَّ ُقو َن‬ ُ َّ‫ين ِمن قَ ْبلِ ُك ْم لَ َعل‬ َ ‫َوٱلذ‬ ُ‫َخلَ َقك حم‬ Attached to verb Naṣb ُ‫لَ َعلَّك حم‬ Attached to Ḥarf Naṣb Naṣb Attached to Ḥarf Jarr Jarr Detached pronoun Raf‛ ُ‫ُك‬ َ ‫َزحوج‬ Attached to noun Jarr ‫[ ِمْن َها‬from it] Attached to Ḥarf Jarr Jarr [He created you] “O mankind. The modification of the Attached Pronoun vowel can have ِ ِِ ِ ِ variance in some cases. But do not approach this tree..

however. or near. definiteness..Near [‫شارةُِالح َقريب‬ ‫]أ ح‬ َ ‫ُاإل‬ Plural Dual ِ ‫ﻫؤ‬ ‫الء‬ ُ ‫ ﻫ َذيْ ِن‬/ ‫ﻫ َذ ِان‬ These These (two) ِ ‫ﻫؤ‬ ‫الء‬ ُ ِ ‫ﻫ‬/‫ي‬ ِ ْ َ‫ﻫت‬ ‫تان‬ These These (two) ﴾ Single ‫ﻫ َذا‬ this ِ‫ﻫ ِذه‬ this 3rd person masculine 3rd person feminine ِ ‫﴿ ﻫ َذ ِان خ‬ .[ِ‫شارُة‬ ‫]أ ح‬ َ ‫ُاإل‬  “This/These” . number. The “Near” Pointing Noun. and I‛rāb. they can take all three I‛rāb depending on their context in a respective sentence. Masculine Pointing Nouns usually start with the letter [‫ ]ه‬while the feminine nouns usually start with the letter Tā. Like pronouns. on the other hand is used for something closer. The “Far” Pointing Noun is used to refer to something far literally or figuratively.denotes being far away Plural Table 12: Pointing Nouns: Far [‫الْبَعيد‬ ِ ‫شارِة‬ َ ‫]أ ْمساءُ ْاْل‬ Dual Single ‫ك‬ َ ِ‫أ ُْولَئ‬ ‫ك‬ َ ِ‫ َذيْن‬/ ‫ك‬ َ ِ‫ذان‬ ِ ‫ك‬ َ ‫ذل‬ 3rd person masculine ‫ك‬ َ ِ‫أ ُْولَئ‬ ‫ك‬ َ ِ‫ تَ ْين‬/ ‫ك‬ َ ِ‫َتن‬ ‫ك‬ َ ‫تِْل‬ 3rd person feminine Those (all) Those (all) Those (two) Those (two) That That 42 .‫ص ُموا ِف َرِبِ ْم‬ ْ َ َ َ‫ص َمان ٱ ْخت‬ “These two antagonists dispute with each other about their Lord.. “Near” [‫ ]اَلْ َقريب‬and “Far” [‫]اَلْبَعيد‬.”(22:19). Pointing Nouns [‫شارة‬ ُ‫]ُأَ ح‬ َ ‫اإل‬ These nouns as expected possess all four characteristics present in nouns such as gender. In contrast. Pointing Nouns .  “ That/Those ” . ِ‫َمساء ح‬ A..denotes nearness ِ‫َمساء ح‬ Table 11: Pointing Nouns . There are two types of Pointing Nouns.The Pronouns [‫ ]الضَّمائِر‬and the Pointing Nouns [‫اْلشارة‬ َ ُ‫]أمساء‬ ِ‫مساءُُ ح‬ II. Pointing Nouns are always definite and inflexible.

you will see pleasure and great dominion.. your Lord.”(2:16). Additional Pointing Nouns Table 13: Additional Pointing Nouns ِ ‫ك‬ َ ‫َکذٰل‬ like this ‫ﻫ َك َذا‬ in this way ‫ ُﻫنا‬/ ‫ﻫ ُهنا‬ here ‫ُﻫنا َك‬ there َّ‫َُث‬ there/over there ِ ‫﴿وإِ َذا رأَيت َُثَّ رأَي‬ َ َْ َ َْ َ ُ َ ‫يما‬ ‫ت نَع ا‬ ﴾‫كبِريا‬ َ ‫وم ْل اكا‬ ‫ا‬ “And when you look there [in Paradise]... ii... ﴾.” (76:20) 43 ... ِ َّ ِ‫﴿ أُولَئ‬ ﴾ ..which have similar meaning and.The Pronouns [‫ ]الضَّمائِر‬and the Pointing Nouns [‫اْلشارة‬ َ ُ‫]أمساء‬  Instead of [‫ك‬ َُ ِ‫]ذُل‬. i. you can also use [‫ ]ذلِك حُم‬or [‫ ]ذُلِكما‬. are singular. B.”(10:3).﴿ “…That is Allah. ‫ ذلِ ُك ُم ٱهللُ َربَّ ُك ْم‬..‫لضالَلَةَ بِٱ َْلَُدى‬ َّ ‫ين ٱ ْشتَ َرُواْ ٱ‬ َ ْ َ ‫ك ٱلذ‬ “Those are the ones who have sold guidance for error ...

﴾‫ي‬ َ ‫ِبُْؤمن‬ ِ ‫ول آمنَّا بِٱّللِ وبِٱلْي وِم ٱ‬ ِ ‫﴿ َوِم َن ٱلن‬ ‫آلخ ِر َوَما ُﻫم‬ َ ُ ‫َّاس َم ْن يَّ ُق‬ َْ َ “And from the people are some who say. The verb [‫]َتب َإىل‬ 44 . do not affect I‛rāb [ُ‫عاملَة‬ ‫ح‬ I.. As mentioned before.38 See Table 14 on the following page for a listing of common Ḥarf Jarr. In this book. "We believe in Allah and the Last Day. the verb ِ [‫]جاء‬ َ means. Among the particles are subcategories that function differently in terms of grammar. In some cases. they require another word to have a useful meaning. A.‫خلِي َفةا‬ َ ِ ‫ك لِْلمالَئِ َك ِة إِِِن ج‬ ِ ِ ‫اعل ِف ٱْأل َْر‬ ‫ض‬ َ َ َ ُّ‫﴿ َوإ ْذ قَ َال َرب‬ “And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: "Verily. I am going to place a representative on earth. Other particles that ِ ُ‫ ]حروفُغَي ر‬will be covered briefly here in Volume 1. and Ḥarf Jazm [‫]حروفُا حجلَحزم‬. particles are words that require being associated to another word to have a meaning in speech. Ḥarf Jarr are associated with intransitive verbs.” (2:30) 38 As we will later see. it becomes a unit called “Jarr Construction”. Please note that the Jarr state is specific only to nouns. which we will later see. the Ḥarf Jarr is attached directly to the noun.. ِِ ِ 1. Particles of Jarr [ُ‫]حروفُُا حجلَر‬ These particles are prepositions that cause nouns immediately following them to be in the Jarr [ُ‫جر‬ َ] state. When a Jarr particle acts on a noun causing the noun to take the Jarr I‛rāb. They attach to the ends of nouns or verbs. This unit has some important grammar functions in sentences. Some particles can impart a new meaning to a noun or verb while others do not. “to come”. As particles. therefore Ḥarf Jarr do not act on verbs. However. ﴾. Examples of Jarr Particles The Ḥarf Jarr shown below (highlighted) cause the word after it to be Jarr. The particles that cause a change in I‛rāb will be discussed in detail such as Ḥarf Jarr [ُ‫جلَر‬ ‫]حروفُا ح‬. these Ḥarfs can affect verb meaning. we will focus upon the most common and high-yield particles.Particles [‫ ]اْلروف‬and Broken Plurals [‫]َجع التكسري‬ Lesson 4: Particles [‫ ]اَ ْْلُروف‬and Broken Plurals [‫] ََج ُع التَّ ْكسري‬ Particles [ ‫حْرف‬/‫وف‬ َ ‫] ُحُر‬ Particles are the third category of words in Arabic. [‫ ]جاءَ ب‬means.” (2:8) 2. Ḥarf Naṣb [‫َّصب‬ ‫]حروفُالن ح‬. “to repent” while [‫]َتب َعلى‬ َ means “to accept the repentance”. Furthermore. “to bring”." but they are not believers. For example. َ means.

we see that when Ḥarf Jarr attach to pronouns. when nouns attach to pronouns. Ḥarf Jarr Attached to Pronouns (Variant Conjugations) In the examples below. they modify one of their vowels.Particles [‫ ]اْلروف‬and Broken Plurals [‫]َجع التكسري‬ B. In some cases. Please refer to footnote #35 for a more detailed discussion. This is similar to nouns as was shown in Table 10 with the example of [‫]كِتاب‬. in certain cases. Ḥarf Jarr [‫اْلَر‬ ْ ‫وف‬ ُ ‫] ُح ُر‬ Table 14: Ḥarf Jarr [ُ‫]حروفُُا حجلَر‬ ‫إِىل‬ ُِ ‫ب‬ ُ‫ِف‬ to/towards ُ‫َك‬ ‫ُِل‬ in/with ُ‫ت‬ َ َُّ ‫َح‬ ‫ّت‬ by (oath) like (similarity) for/to ُ‫َو‬ ‫ِمن‬ until ُ‫َع حن‬ ‫َعلى‬ in from/about by (oath) from upon/on C. they cause slight medication of the vowels of pronouns. Jarr Particle Pronoun ُ‫ِل‬ ‫إِىل‬ ُ‫ه‬ ُ‫ه‬ ‫ُها‬ ُ‫ه َّن‬ ‫هم‬ ُ‫ه‬ Jarr Construction + ُ‫ِف‬ ‫ُلَُه‬ ‫إُِلَحُي ُِه‬ ‫فِحُي ِهما‬ ‫َعلَحُي ِه َُّن‬ ‫ُبِِ حُم‬ ُ‫ِمحُنه‬ = ‫َعلى‬ ُِ ‫ب‬ ‫ِمن‬ 45 ِ ُ‫له‬ ُ‫إِلَْيه‬ ‫فْ ْي ُهما‬ ‫َعلَْي ُه َّن‬ ‫ِبُْم‬ ‫ِمْن ِه‬ .

Please see examples (i) and (ii) on the next page. In this way. Thus. these nouns are seldom if ever found alone in Arabic. These words are found in the Naṣb case and point to the relative place ]‫ [ظَ حرف ُاملَكان‬or the relative time [‫ُالزمان‬ َّ ‫ ]ظَحرف‬that a certain action occurs in. Ḥarf Jarr–like Nouns and [‫]الظُّروف‬ Sometimes nouns can act as Jarr particles. These nouns also known as [‫يه‬ َ 46 . Most of these nouns ِ below belong to a category of words known as [‫سم ُالظَّحرف‬ ‫ ]ا ح‬or [‫]الظَّ حرف‬. those words act like Ḥarf Jarr and cause the word after it to be in the Jarr state. Examples of Ḥarf Jarr-like Nouns ‫بَ حعض‬ َُ‫َح حول‬ ُ‫قَ حب َل‬ ‫بَ حع َُد‬ ‫دو َُن‬ ‫ُغَحي َُر‬/ُ‫ِم حنُدون‬ ‫ُُلَ َدى‬/ُ‫لَد حُن‬ 39 some (of) around before after besides/other than other than from/with ِ ِ‫ ]م ْفعول ف‬can however take the Jarr case if acted upon by a Ḥarf Jarr. 1. However.Particles [‫ ]اْلروف‬and Broken Plurals [‫]َجع التكسري‬ D. despite being like particles.39 These nouns are being listed here for completion. This occurs with nouns that are always found attached to another noun in a “Possession Construction”. they are still nouns since their ends get affected by a Ḥarf Jarr.

we see an occurrence that is found frequently in the Qur’ān: the presence of a Ḍammah on [‫ [بَ ْعد‬and also often on [‫]قَْبل‬. On the other hand [‫ ]بَ ْعد‬does not form a link with [‫ ]و قاتلوا‬thus resulting in a Ḍammah.. Here we see that [‫ ]قَْبل‬has Kasrah because it forms a Possession construction with [‫]الفتح‬.e. This is related to what follows the Noun of Place/Time and if it is connected to it (i. If the noun is not connected and does not link with the word after..﴿ َ ‫ك أ َْعظَ ُم َد َر َجةا م َن ٱلذ‬ ِ ﴾ .”40 40 (57:10) In the above āyah.Particles [‫ ]اْلروف‬and Broken Plurals [‫]َجع التكسري‬ 2.. Possession construction). Nouns of Place and Time Table 15: Nouns of Place [‫ ]ظَ حرفُاملَكان‬and Nouns of Time [‫ُالزمان‬ َّ ‫]ظَحرف‬ Nouns of Place [‫]ظَ حرفُاملَكان‬ ‫َمام‬ َ ‫أ‬ ‫ي‬ َ ْ َ‫ب‬ Nouns of Time [‫ُالزمان‬ َّ ‫]ظَحرف‬ ‫قَ ْب َل‬ ‫بَ ْع َد‬ in front of/before between ‫فَ ْو َق‬ under َ‫َوراء‬ ‫ف‬ َ ‫َخ ْل‬ ‫ ِعْن َد‬or ‫َم َع‬ after ‫اليَ ْوَم‬ ‫أَبَ ادا‬ above ‫ت‬ َ ‫ََْت‬ before today always behind ‫ِحْي ناا‬ for a period of time after ‫باحا‬ َ ‫ص ا‬ morning ‫ َس َحارا‬/‫بُكَْرةا‬ with early morning 3. 47 . it carries a single Ḍammah as in [‫ ]بَ ْعد‬above.. ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫تَ ْش ُكرو‬ ُ ‫﴿ُ ُُثَّ بَ َعثْ نَا ُكم ِم ْن بَ ْع ِد َم ْوتِ ُك ْم لَ َعلَّ ُك ْم‬ “Then We revived you after your death that perhaps you would be grateful. (4:13) iii. Qur’ānic Examples: i. ﴾‫ٱ ْألَنْ َهار‬ ُ ٍ ‫ك ح ُدود ٱّللِ ومن ي ِط ِع ٱّلل ورسولَه ي ْد ِخ ْله جن‬ ِ ‫َّات ََْت ِري ِمن ََْتتِ َها‬ َ ُ ُ ُ ُ ََ َ ُ َ َ ُ ُ َ ‫﴿ُت ْل‬ “These are the limits of Allah.” (2:56) ii.. ِ َّ ِ ‫ين أَن َف ُقوا‬ َ ِ‫َُال يَ ْستَ ِوي ِمن ُكم َّم ْن أَن َف َق ِمن قَ ْب ِل ٱلْ َفْت ِح َوقَاتَ َل أ ُْولَئ‬.. and whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger will be admitted by Him to gardens under which rivers flow”.‫د وقَاتَلُوا‬ َ ُ ‫من بَ ْع‬ “Not equal among you are those who spent before the conquest [of Makkah] and fought [and those who did so after it].

Particles on Naṣb on Nouns [‫َخواُتا‬ َ ‫ُوُأ‬ َ ‫]إِ َّن‬ These Ḥarfs cause words to go into the Naṣb state. Particles of Naṣb [‫َّصب‬ ‫]حروفُالن ح‬ A. These particles act on a respective noun in a Nominal sentence. Inna and its Sisters Table 16: Inna and its Sisters [‫َخواُتا‬ َ ‫ُوُأ‬ َ ‫]إِ َّن‬ ُ‫إِ َّن‬ َُّ ‫أ‬ ‫َن‬ َّ ‫كأ‬ ُ‫َن‬ ُ‫ت‬ َ ‫لَحي‬ ‫لَ ِك َُّن‬ ُ‫لَ َع َّل‬ surely. The Wāw is the most common particle for making an oath and is differentiated by other types of Wāw by the sign of Jarr on words it is associated with. It is easier to memorize these six َّ ‫َنُ َكأ‬ َّ ‫]إِ َّنُأ‬. Tā. ِ ‫َّم‬ ‫اﻫا‬ ُ ‫س َو‬ َ ‫ض َح‬ ْ ‫﴿ َوٱلش‬ ﴾ ‫﴿ وٱلْ َقم ِر إِ َذا تَ َال َﻫا‬ َ َ ﴾ ‫َّها ِر إِذَا ج َّال َﻫا‬ َ ‫﴿ َوٱلن‬ َ ﴾ “By the sun and its brightness” “And by the moon when it follows it” “And by the day when it displays it” (91:1-3) II. Particles of Oaths: ]‫ال َقسم‬ َ ‫[ ُح ُروف‬ Three particles are used in making an oath in Arabic. Inna imparts emphasis on its associated noun. actually perhaps. Ḥarf Naṣb particles phonetically from right to left [‫ل‬ َُّ ‫تُلَ ِك َّنُلَ َع‬ َ ‫َنُلَحي‬ B. (used to wish for what could have been) but. Particles of Naṣb that act on nouns are called [‫َخواُتا‬ َ ‫ُو ُأ‬ َ ‫ ]إِ َّن‬or “Inna and its Sisters” in grammar terminology. verily (used in the beginning) surely. verily (used in the middle) as though (used to draw a parallel) if only. maybe.Particles [‫ ]اْلروف‬and Broken Plurals [‫]َجع التكسري‬ E. which is seen frequently in the Qur’ān and Ḥadīth. The most common particle is [‫ن‬ َُّ ِ‫]إ‬. These are Wāw. so as to 48 . on the contrary. and Bā.

Ḥadīth # 2564. ِ َ‫اْلُي‬ ِْ ‫ كِتَاب‬Ḥadīth #50. [‫ك ْم‬ ُ ِ‫أ َْعمال‬ ‫ص َوِرُكم َو أ َْموالِ ُكم َو لَ ِك ْن يَْنظُُر إِىل قُلُوبِ ُك ْم َو‬ َّ ‫]إِ َّن‬ ُ ‫اّللَ ال يَْنظُُر إِىل‬ “Indeed.. They cause the Nūn at the end of a dual or plural verb to be cut off. That you worship Allah as if you see Him. Chapter on Imān: ‫ان‬ 43 The one exception to this is the particle [‫ ]ح َّّت‬that also acts as a Ḥarf Jarr on nouns. [. which cannot be truncated.‫اك‬ َ ‫ير‬ “. Good Manners and Joining of the Ties of Relationship:‫اب‬ َ َ ‫ كتَاب ال‬. Examples from the Qur’ān and Ḥadīth 1.. The Book of Virtue. ﴾‫تَتَّ ُقو َن‬ ِ َّ ِ ِ ِ ‫ين ِمن قَ ْبلِ ُك ْم لَ َعلَّ ُك ْم‬ َ ‫ب َعلى ٱلذ‬ َ ‫ب َعلَْي ُك ُم ٱلصيَ ُام كما ُكت‬ َ ‫﴿ ُكت‬ “. that you may gain Taqwah (2:183). E. Allah does not like to look at your forms or your wealth. then Indeed He sees you. These are discussed in further detail in Lesson 10.” D.42”.Particles [‫ ]اْلروف‬and Broken Plurals [‫]َجع التكسري‬ C. The most common Ḥarf ‫ح‬ Naṣb are [‫ن‬ ُ‫ ]أَ ح‬and [‫َن‬ ُ‫]ل ح‬.. 49 .44 The most common Particles of Naṣb for verbs are listed below.] ََ ُ‫ك تَراهُ فَإ ْن ََّلْ تَ ُك ْن تَ َراهُ فَإنَّه‬ 2.. but He looks at your hearts and your actions. Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhāri. َ 42 therefore The exception is the Nūn of femininity present in feminine plural present tense verb conjugation(s). 3..41” ِ ِ َ َّ‫أَ ْن تَ ْعبُ َد هللاَ َكأَن‬. They cause the Ḍammah at the end of single Present Tense verbs to become Fatḥah (like nouns).Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you. And if you cannot see Him. It is easier to memorize these particles in the ِ following rhyming order from right to left ]‫ّت‬ َُّ ‫اُُُح‬ َ ‫[أَ حن ُُُلَ حن ُُُْلَ حن ُُ َكي ُُُإِ ًذ‬.. Ḥarf Naṣb for Verbs Table 17: Ḥarf Naṣb for Verbs ‫أَ ْن‬ ‫لَ ْن‬ ‫ِل‬ ‫ َك ْي‬/ ‫لِ َك ْي‬ 41 ‫إِ اذا‬ ‫َح َّّت‬ ‫اََّال‬ ‫ِألَ ْن‬ that/to will never (future) so that so that 44 until may not for that ِ ِ ‫ْب و‬ ِ ‫الصلَ ِة و ْاآل َد‬ ِِ Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim.. Particles of Naṣb for Verbs [‫]حروفُالُنَّصب‬ These particles only work on Present Tense [‫ ]املضارع‬verbs43.

Particles [‫ ]اْلروف‬and Broken Plurals [‫]َجع التكسري‬ F. "Indeed. ﴾‫فُرطاا‬ “…and do not obey one whose heart We have made heedless of Our remembrance and who follows his desire and whose affair is ever [in] neglect”.. Examples from the Qur’ān 1. ِ ‫﴿وإِ ْذ قَ َال موسى لَِقوِم ِه إِ َّن ٱّلل َيْمرُكم أَ ْن تَ ْذ َِبواْ ب َقراة قَالُواْ أَتَت‬ ‫َّخ ُذ ََّن ُﻫ ُزوا قَ َال أَعُوذُ بِٱّللِ أَ ْن أَ ُكو َن‬ ْ َ ُ ْ ُُ َ َ َ ََ ُ ِ ِ ِ ﴾‫ي‬ َ ‫م َن ٱ ْْلَاﻫل‬ “And remember when Mūsa said to his people. There are several particles that cause Jazm and these outnumber the other Jarr and Naṣb Particles. (18:28) 50 .” (2:67) III. "Do you take us in ridicule?" He said. ﴾ ‫شْي ئاا‬ َ ِ‫﴿لَن تُ ْغ ِِ عْن هم أَموا َُلم وَال أَوَالدﻫم ِمن ٱ َّّلل‬ َ ُ ُ ْ َ ُْ َ ْ ْ ُ َ َ “Never will their wealth or their children avail them against Allah at all. A." They said. Present Tense verbs can also go in Raf‛ and Naṣb states but they never go into the Jarr state. Please note that Ḥarf Jazm are discussed in further detail in Lesson 10.” (58:17) 2. "I seek refuge in Allah from being among the ignorant. Examples from the Qur’ān ِ ِ ِ ُ ُ‫﴿ َوالَ تُط ْع َم ْن أَ ْغ َف ْلنَا قَ ْلبَهُ َعن ذ ْكرََّن َوٱتَّبَ َع َﻫ َواهُ َوَكا َن أ َْم ُره‬ 1. and characterized by a Sukūn on the end of Jazm verbs (singular form). Particles of Jazm [‫]حروفُا حجلَحزم‬ The Jazm case is specific to verbs. Common Ḥarf Jazm ُ‫ِل‬ should (encouraging/admonishing) ‫ْل‬ negation (forbidding) ‫َُلح‬ ‫إِ حُن‬ ‫لَ َّما‬ did not (past tense) If (condition) not yet/ when B. Allah commands you to slaughter a cow. they can go into the Jazm state. a chapter dedicated to verbs. Instead.

However the plural [‫]ﻫ َّن‬ ُ is used for rhetorical function of magnifying the importance of [‫]آَيت‬. Remember that the I‛rāb for Broken Plural is feminine singular. nor has he been born. The actual Broken Plural pattern for a noun can be determined by using an Arabic dictionary like Hans Wehr45. It is also important to remember the structures of male and female Proper Plurals as was discussed in the first lesson. ِ َ‫ْكت‬ Please note that there are occasional variances. Addition plural patterns listed are #12 – 14 which are not very common. even when the singular noun is male46. The most common patterns for four-letter words are plural patterns #7 through #9. but these are the most common. 51 . Consider the following āyah (3:6): ﴾. The most common plural patterns for three-letter words are patterns #1 through #4 shown in the table below. 45 46 See Lesson #10 on the section on using Arabic Dictionaries. Identifying and analyzing words from Āyāt of the Qur’ān is the first step in reading comprehension. Nonetheless. unless it is known already. it is expected that the pronoun referring to [‫ ]آَيت‬would be [‫]ﻫا‬.. shown on the next page. Memorizing the most common plural patterns on the [‫ ]فعل‬stem allows the student to identify plurals even if one does not know the meaning of the words itself.Particles [‫ ]اْلروف‬and Broken Plurals [‫]َجع التكسري‬ ِ َ ‫﴿ ََّلْ يَل ْد َوََّلْ يُولَ ْد ۝ َوََّلْ يَ ُكن لَّهُ ُك ُف اوا‬ 2. Broken Plural Patterns [‫] ََجحعُالتَّ حك ِسري‬ We briefly discussed Broken Plurals in Lesson 1. Please note that the majority of nouns take Broken Plurals. IV. Typically. We are discussing them in more detail here since students need to be familiar with their grammar and intricacies. it is understood that the plural of any noun being learned should be memorized.” (112:23). Please note that Plural patterns #7 through #11 are partially flexible and do not take Tanwīn when they are indefinite. ‫ش ِابَات‬ َ َ‫ُخ ُر ُمت‬ َ ‫اب َوأ‬ ُ َ َْ َ َ ُ َ َ ‫ك ال‬ َُ Here. ﴾‫أَحد‬ “He begets not. This is essential to remember since Arabic grammar places much emphasis on gender distinction. ِ ‫ْكتاب ِمْنه آَيت ُُّْم َكمات ﻫ َّن أ ُُّم ال‬ ِ َ ‫﴿ ﻫو الَّ ِذي أَنزَل علَي‬. There are more patterns than the ones listed in this lesson.. nor has there been to Him any equivalent. there is not set rule for the Broken Plural pattern that any specific noun takes. Some patterns however are more common than others.

‫]َجع التكسري[ ‪] and Broken Plurals‬اْلروف[ ‪Particles‬‬ ‫‪Table 18: Broken Plural Patterns‬‬ ‫‪Plural‬‬ ‫‪Singular Noun Example‬‬ ‫‪Broken Plural‬‬ ‫‪Pattern‬‬ ‫‪] Stem‬فعل[‬ ‫‪Broken‬‬ ‫‪Plural‬‬ ‫‪Pattern #‬‬ ‫أَقْالَم‬ ‫قُلُوب‬ ‫كِبار‬ ‫]‪ [pen‬قَلَم‬ ‫]‪ [heart‬قَ ْلب‬ ‫]‪َ [big‬كبِري‬ ‫]‪َ [city‬م ِدينَة‬ ‫]‪ [room‬غُْرفَة‬ ‫]‪َ [disbeliever‬كافِر‬ ‫صبَع‬ ‫]‪ [finger‬إِ ْ‬ ‫]‪َ [partner‬ش ِريك‬ ‫]‪َ [star‬ك ْوَكب‬ ‫]‪ُْ ِ [prayer corner‬مراب‬ ‫]‪ِ [key‬م ْفتَاح‬ ‫أَفْعال‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫َجحع[‬ ‫]َ‬ ‫ُم ُدن‬ ‫غَُرف‬ ‫ُك َّفار‬ ‫أَصابِع‬ ‫ُشَركاءُ‬ ‫َكواكِب‬ ‫َُمَا ِريب‬ ‫م َفاتِ‬ ‫يح‬ ‫َ ُ‬ ‫أ َِذلَّة‬ ‫أَفْئِ َدة‬ ‫َع َمد‬ ‫]م حف َرد[‬ ‫]‪ [humble/low‬ذَلِيل‬ ‫]‪ [heart‬فُ َؤاد‬ ‫]‪ِ [pillar‬عماد‬ ‫‪52‬‬ ‫فُعُول‬ ‫فِ َعال‬ ‫فُعُل‬ ‫فُ َعل‬ ‫فُ َّعال‬ ‫م ِ‬ ‫فاع ُل‬ ‫َ‬ ‫فُ َعالءُ‬ ‫فَو ِ‬ ‫اع ُل‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫يل‬ ‫فَ َواع ُ‬ ‫م َف ِ‬ ‫يل‬ ‫اع‬ ‫َ ُ‬ ‫أَفِعَّلَة‬ ‫أَفْعِلَة‬ ‫فَ َعل‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪11‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬ ‫‪13‬‬ ‫‪14‬‬ .

the rules that were presented in Sometimes Jarr Constructions. the adjective is highlighted while the noun described is underlined. We will also see that adjacent constructions can often be merged together into a single unit. A construction [‫ ]مرَّكب‬is composed of two َ or more words that join to form one unit in a respective sentence. we [‫وع ٍة‬ َ ُ‫وعة َوَال ممَْن‬ َ َ َ ِ ِ ِِ see that the adjective [‫ي‬ َ ‫ ]ٱلْ ُم ْؤمن‬describes the Possession Construction [َ‫]عبَادَّن‬. this Jarr Construction acts functionally as a [‫ص َفة‬ 47 in example #4 with the term ٍ ُ‫ ]َّال م ْقط‬that functions in describing [‫]فَاكِه ٍة‬. plurality. The Describing Construction [‫ي‬ ُ ‫ص ِيف‬ ‫ح‬ َ In Arabic. Here the [‫صوف‬ ُ ‫ ] َم ْو‬is one unit. the above paragraph are excluded. ِ ِ even though it is composed of two words. The adjective typically directly follows the described word without any word coming in-between. This noun category is found frequently in the Qur’ān. This is shown in examples #1 [‫ُّمطَ َّهرة‬ َ ‫ ]أ َْزَواج‬and in #4 [‫وع ٍة‬ َ ُ‫ ]فُ ُر ٍش َّم ْرف‬on the following page. the word being described [‫صوف‬ ُ ‫ ] َم ْو‬comes first and the adjective follows (as opposed to ِ ] used adopts all four characteristics of the noun being described such as English). In this lesson. In example #5. In the examples of Describing Constructions on the next page. In example #2. we will analyze the different types of Word Constructions. will be feminine singular grammatically. These include the following: Describing Constructions. Please note that this topic is more of an advanced grammar discussion at this point. 53 . and Jarr Constructions. Verbs. Possession Constructions. The [‫صوف‬ ُ ‫ ] َم ْو‬is Jarr and plural because of [‫]عباد‬. definiteness. ِ ‫]املرَّكبُالتَّو‬ II. we see that a [‫صوف‬ ُ ‫ ] َم ْو‬can have many adjectives describing it sequentially. and other words can act functionally as a [‫]ص َفة‬.Word Constructions [‫]املركبات‬ Lesson 5: Word Constructions ]‫[امل َركِبات‬ I. This lesson will also examine Relative Pronouns since they act like Possession Constructions (in describing a definite noun). and I‛rāb. if ِ you look closely we see that there is a word [‫ك َّن‬ ُ ‫ ] ِمْن‬in-between the [‫صوف‬ ُ ‫ ] َم ْو‬and [‫]ص َفة‬. This can sometimes ِ ] . Introduction to Word Constructions Understanding Word Constructions is required in properly analyzing and translating sentences. but in this case. Learning the Word Constructions facilitates for the student the analysis of sentences. However. The adjective [‫ص َفة‬ gender. and it definite because Possession Constructions are definite. in these cases. 47 ِ Obviously. Remember that an adjective of a noun that is a Broken Plural. Pointing Constructions. The word and its adjective(s) that follow form a “Describing Construction” ِ ‫التَّو ِص‬ know as [‫يفي‬ ْ ‫ب‬ ُ ‫]املَُرَّك‬. A similar phenomenon occurs happen.

Chapter on Predestination: ‫الق َدر‬ َ ‫كتاب‬. ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫َخالِ ُدو‬ ‫ َوََلُْم فِ َيها أ َْزَواج ُّمطَ َّهَرة َّوُﻫ ْم فِ َيها‬. would substitute for him wives better than you submitting [to Allah]. truthful merchant is with the prophets and the martyrs.”(66:5) 3. Chapter on Transactions: ‫ كتاب البيوع‬Ḥadīth #1209. worshipping.. ِ ٍ ‫ات عابِ َد‬ ٍ ِ ٍ ِ ٍ ِ ٍ ِ ِ ِ ‫ات‬ َ َ‫اجا َخْي ارا من ُك َّن ُم ْسل َمات ُّم ْؤمنَات قَانتَات ََتئب‬ ‫﴿ َع َسى َربُّهُ إن طَلَّ َق ُك َّن أَن يُْبدلَهُ أ َْزَو ا‬ ٍ ِ ٍ ِ ﴾‫كارا‬ ‫َسائ َحات ثَيبَات َوأَبْ َ ا‬ “Perhaps his Lord.” (37:132) ِ ‫الض‬ 6.” (2:25) 2. And We have certainly sent down verses of clear evidence. believing. repentant. Sunan Tirmidhi. ﴾‫ي‬ َ ‫ٱلْم ْؤمن‬ “Indeed. And fruit. ٍ ‫ود ۝ وطَْل ٍح َّمنض‬ ٍ ‫ي ۝ ِف ِس ْد ٍر ََّّمْض‬ ِ ‫اب ٱلْيَ ِم‬ ِ ‫اب ٱلْيَ ِم‬ ‫ود‬ ُ ُ ْ ‫ي َما أ‬ ْ ‫﴿ُ َوأ‬ ُ ‫َص َح‬ ُ ‫َص َح‬ َ ٍ ُ‫وب ۝ وفَاكِه ٍة َكثِريةٍ ۝ َّال م ْقطُوع ٍة وَال ممَْن‬ ٍ ‫وم ٍاء َّمس ُك‬ ﴾ ‫وع ٍة‬ َ ُ‫وعة ۝ َوفُ ُر ٍش َّم ْرف‬ َ َ ْ ََ َ َ َ َ َ ‫۝‬ ٍ ‫و ِظ ٍل َّممْ ُد‬ ‫ود‬ َ ‫۝‬ “The companions of the right what are the companions of the right? [They will be] among lote trees with thorns removed.Word Constructions [‫]املركبات‬ Examples of Describing Constructions from the Qur’ān and Ḥadīth 1. and they will abide therein eternally. [ ِ َّ ‫وق ْاألَمي مع النَّبِ ِيي و الشُّه َد ِاء و‬ ِ ‫]الت‬ ‫ي‬ َّ ‫َّاج ُر‬ ُ ‫الص ُد‬ َ ‫الصاْل‬ ََ ُ َ َ ََ 48 “The trustworthy. Ḥadīth #2664.”(56:27-34) ِ ِ ِ ِ ُ ‫﴿ إنَّهُ م ْن عبَاد ََّن‬ ِِ 5. And trees layered. and traveling [ones] previously married and virgins. and the righteous. Neither limited [to season] nor forbidden. And water poured out.”(58:5) 4. And for the disbelievers is a humiliating punishment.” (Tirmidhi)49 48 49 Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim. devoutly obedient. abundant. And shade extended. if he divorced you [all]. those who oppose Allah and His Messenger are abased as those before them were abased. he was of Our believing servants.﴿ “…And they will have therein purified spouses. And [upon] thrones raised high.. [‫َّعيف‬ ‫وي خري ِمن امل ْؤم ِن‬ ُّ ‫]اَلْ ُم ْؤِم ُن الْ َق‬ ُ “The strong believer is better than the weak believer” (Muslim) 7. 54 . ِ ِ ٍ ِ ٍ ‫ٱّلل ورسولَه ُكبِتوا َكما ُكبِت ٱلَّ ِذين ِمن قَبلِ ِهم وقَ ْد أَنزلْنا‬ ِ َّ ِ ‫ين‬ َ َ ُ ُ ُ َ َ ََّ ‫ين ُُيَ ُّادو َن‬ َ ََ َ ْ ْ َ ‫آَيت بَينَات َول ْل َكاف ِر‬ َ َ ‫﴿إ َّن ٱلذ‬ ﴾‫ع َذاب ُّم ِهي‬ َ “Indeed.

which is termed “Pointing Construction”. Let us look at the following Pointing Construction from the āyah below. If the noun associated with a Pointing Noun is indefinite but matches the other remaining three characteristics. and I‛rāb). both the Pointing Noun and the noun being pointed to have the same four characteristics (gender. Pointing nouns [‫]البَعيد‬ include the following: ]‫ك‬ َُ ِ‫ ُذُل‬/‫حك‬ َُ ‫ ُتِل‬/ُ ‫ك‬ َُ ِ‫[أ حولَُئ‬. it becomes one unit. i. Similar to Describing Constructions. A Pointing Construction on the other hand like the other constructions is not a complete sentence. The dual pointing nouns are seldom used and do not need to be emphasized. then a ِْ ِ‫ا‬ Nominal Sentence [‫مسيَّة‬ ‫ ]َجُْلَة‬is formed (not a Pointing Construction). 1. Pointing Constructions ِ When a Pointing Noun such as [‫ ]ﻫ َذا‬or [‫ك‬ َ ‫ ]ذل‬is used to refer to a noun. plurality.Word Constructions [‫]املركبات‬ III. Examples of Pointing Constructions Pointing Nouns [‫ ]القريب‬include the following nouns: [‫هُ َذا‬/ِ‫ه ِذ ُه‬ /‫ْلء‬ ُِ ‫]هُنَؤ‬. definiteness. ِِ ِ ِ ِ ‫﴿وأ‬ ََّ ِ‫ُوح َي إ‬ َ ‫ِل َﻫ َذا ٱلْ ُق ْرآ ُن ألُنذ َرُكم به َوَمن‬ َ ﴾‫غ‬ َ َ‫ب ل‬ “…And this Qur'ān was revealed to me that I may warn you thereby and whomever it reaches…” (6:19). the Qur’ān this ُ‫الحق حرآن‬ definite Male Single Raf‛ ‫َه َذا‬  definite male single Raf‛  Pointing Construction  “this Qur’ān” 55 .

Iḍāfah .”(2:35) iii.‫أَنْ بائِ َها‬ ِ َ ‫ص علَي‬ َ ‫﴿تِْل‬ ْ َ ُّ ‫ك ٱلْ ُقَرى نَ ُق‬ َ ‫ك م ْن‬ “Those cities . and confirming what was before it…” (6:72) a book this ُ‫كِتاب‬ indefinite Male Single Raf‛ ‫َه َذا‬ ≠ = = = definite male single Raf‛  Pointing Construction  Nominal Sentence  “This is a book” 2. ﴾. Conversely.” (7:101) ii.﴿ َ ََ َ ْ َ‫صد ُق ٱلَّذي ب‬ َ ُ َ َُ ُ َ َ َ‫ي‬ ﴾. which essentially are Iḍāfah. the Muḍāf I’lai is the person or thing that possesses the Muḍāf (preceding 56 .. and need to be mastered before analyzing Arabic sentences.. a Muḍāf [‫]املضاف‬.” (59:21) ِ ‫]املرَّكبُا ِإل‬ IV.. َّ ‫يَتَ َف‬ ﴾‫كرو َن‬ ُ ِ ‫ض ِربُ َها لِلن‬ ‫َّاس لَ َعلَّ ُه ْم‬ ُ َ‫ك ٱْأل َْمث‬ ْ َ‫ال ن‬ َ ‫﴿ َوتِْل‬ “…And these examples We present to the people that perhaps they will give thought... But do not approach this tree. “…And this is a Book which We have sent down. [O Muḥammad]. The Muḍāf is the thing that belongs to the noun that directly follows it.. lest you be among the wrongdoers. and a Muḍāf I’lai [‫]مضاف ُُإُِلَحُيه‬. blessed.The Possession Construction [ُ‫ضاف‬ َ ِ ‫ا ِْل‬ The Possession Construction or Iḍāfah [‫ضاف‬ ‫ب‬ ُ ‫]املَُرَّك‬ occurs frequently Arabic.. We have briefly touched upon them when we looked at nouns attached to pronouns.‫ي َديْ ِه‬ ii. Examples from the Qur’ān i. An Iḍāfah is composed of two components. some of their news….We relate to you. ِِ ﴾‫ي‬ َ ‫ٱلْظَّالم‬ ِِ ِ ُ ‫وُك َال ِمْن ها ر َغ ادا حي‬.﴿ ‫َّجَرَة فَتَ ُكو ََّن ِم َن‬ َْ َ َ َ ‫ث شْئ تُ َما َوَال تَ ْقَرَِب َﻫذه ٱلش‬ َ “… and eat therefrom in [ease and] abundance from wherever you will.Word Constructions [‫]املركبات‬ ِ ِ ‫وﻫ َذا كِتاب أَنْزلْناه مبارك م‬.

g. Rules of Iḍāfah/Possession Construction 1. the Muḍāf is possessed. the pronoun linked to the preceding noun “possessed” it. an Iḍāfah is the only other situation that a noun can be Jarr (Muḍāf I’lai). No word comes in-between the Muḍāf and the Muḍāf I’lai in the Iḍāfah. iv.Word Constructions [‫]املركبات‬ it). The Muḍāf I’lai is the person or thing that “possesses” the Muḍāf (preceding it). The properties of the Iḍāfah (Gender/plurality/definiteness/I‛rāb) are determined by the Muḍāf. See the following examples. This does not mean that is not definite though. The Muḍāf is the object that “belongs” to the noun. This is the case even if the I‛rāb of its Muḍāf I’lai is different. Aside from Jarr Particles. man of the village). ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------his two hands her two eyes Muslims of Makkah iv. As we saw for the Attached Pronouns. iii. Please note gender and number do not need to match (e. A. iii. or is possessed by the noun that directly follows it. ‫يَ َديْ ِن‬/ ‫يَد ِان‬ ِ ِ ْ َ‫عْي ن‬/ ‫ي‬ َ ‫َعْينان‬ ‫ُم ْسلِ ُمو َن‬ + + + ‫ُه‬ ‫ﻫا‬ = = ُ‫= َم َّكة‬ ‫يَ َديْ ِه‬/ُ‫يَ َداه‬ ‫عْي نَ ْيها‬/‫ﻫا‬ َ ‫َعْي نَا‬ ‫ُم ْسلِ ُموا َم َّك َة‬ ‫يَ َديْنِ ِه‬/‫يَدانِِه‬ ِ ‫عْي نَ ْينِها‬/‫ا‬ َ ‫َعْي نَاِن‬ ‫ُم ْسلِ ُمو َن َم َّك ٍة‬ The Muḍāf can be in any of the three states of I‛rāb [Raf‛.g. 2. v. and has no Nūn ending (Nūn is cut off in dual endings and sound plural endings). It determines the I‛rāb of the Possession Construction. Naṣb. The Muḍāf [‫]املضاف‬ i. or Jarr]. Exceptions are if the Muḍāf I’lai is indefinite. The Muḍāf never takes “Al”. In other words. his sisters). ii. (e. or if it is a "Double Muḍāf I’lai" as in the following examples: 57 . The Muḍāf I’lai [‫ُيُه‬ ‫]مضافُُإِلَح‬ i. It is definite when its Muḍāf I’lai is definite. The Iḍāfah is typically considered definite (exception is when the Muḍāf I’lai is indefinite. man of a village vs. v. The Muḍāf I’lai is always in the Jarr state. The Muḍāf has no Tanwīn. ii. her brothers. The Muḍāf I’lai usually takes "Al”.

” (61:5) ٍ ْ َّ‫﴿تَب‬ َ ‫ت يَ َدا أَِب ََلَب‬ 3.Word Constructions [‫]املركبات‬ [‫قَ ْريٍَة‬ ‫“ ] َر ُج ُل‬a man of a village” ِ ‫ك ي وِم ٱ‬ ِِ ِ ‫لدي‬ ]‫ن‬ ْ َ ‫“ [مل‬Master of the Day of Judgment” a. We see omission of the Yā in several places in the Qur’ān.﴿ “…Indeed. ﴾‫ي‬ َ ‫ٱلْ َعالَم‬ ‫ب‬ َّ ‫اف ٱ َّّللَ َر‬ ُ ‫َخ‬ َ ‫إِِِن أ‬. And Allah does not guide the rebellious people. and ruined is he”. The phenomenon of [‫]حذحف‬ َ or omission of words sometimes occurs in the Qur’ān for purposes of eloquence and rhetoric.”(59:16) 2. ﴾‫ب‬ َّ َ‫وت‬ “May the hands of Abū Lahab be ruined. ِ ُ ‫وسى لَِق ْوِم ِه ََي قَ ْوِم َِّلَ تُ ْؤذُونَِِ َوقَد ت َّْعلَ ُمو َن أَِِن َر ُس‬ َ ‫ول ٱ َّّللِ إِلَْي ُك ْم فَلَ َّما َزاغُوا أ ََزا‬ َ ‫﴿ َوإ ْذ قَ َال ُم‬ ُ‫غ ٱ َّّلل‬ ِِ ِ ﴾ُ‫ي‬ َ ‫قُلُوبَ ُه ْم َوٱ َّّللُ َال يَ ْهدي ٱلْ َق ْوَم ٱلْ َفاسق‬ 50 “And remember when Mūsa said to his people. why do you harm me while you certainly know that I am the messenger of Allah to you?" And when they deviated. b. (111:1) 50 In the word [ُ‫]قَ حوِم‬. Determining an Iḍāfah the scholar ِ ُ‫ٱلْعاَّل‬ ‫قَلَم‬ Muḍāf I’lai pen Muḍāf definite Jarr no Tanwīn  Possession Construction  ِ ْ‫ٱل‬ ‫عاَّل‬ ‫قَلَ ُم‬ “pen of the scholar” B. I fear Allah. The Kasrah is retained as the sign of the Yā. 3. the [‫ ]ي‬has been omitted. Examples from the Qur’ān ِ 1.. 58 .. Allah caused their hearts to deviate. "O my people. despite there being no subtraction from its pronunciation. Lord of the worlds.

This is because a Pointing Noun directly followed by an Iḍāfah is not a Pointing Construction. The Pointing Noun is allowed to point to an Iḍāfah in grammar when it is placed directly after the Iḍāfah (at the end). Pointing Nouns and Iḍāfah We run into a dilemma when pointing to an Iḍāfah with a Pointing Noun. This is similar to when a Pointing Noun is followed by an indefinite noun (being pointed to). it has to match the I‛rāb. and gender ِ ] comes of the Muḍāf. Describing Iḍāfah Constructions When an Iḍāfah is described by an adjective. the adjective describes a dual noun [ُ‫الن‬ َ off because it is a Muḍāf. Adjective + truthful + ‫ص ِادقَة‬ َّ generous ‫ َك ِري‬+ Iḍāfah Described woman of the land ‫إِ ْمَرأَةُ الْبَ لَ ِد‬ two men of a mosque ‫َر ُجال َم ْس ِج ٍد‬ = Describing construction truthful woman of the land = ُ‫صا ِدقَة‬ َّ ‫إِ ْمَرأَةُ الْبَ لَ ِد ال‬ Two generous men of a mosque = ‫ان‬ ِ ‫رجال مس ِج ٍد َك ِرُْي‬ ْ َ َُ 2. but is really a Nominal Sentence. The adjective does not have [‫ ]ال‬because the Muḍāf I’lai is indefinite. Let us look at the following two examples to illustrate this point. Describing Constructions. when an Iḍāfah is associated with a Jarr Construction. Let us look at a couple of examples below to clarify this rule. the entire unit becomes a Jarr Construction. In the first example.Word Constructions [‫]املركبات‬ C. the Iḍāfah is embedded within these constructions (and not the converse). In these cases. number. 1. but is definite because the Muḍāf ِ ‫ ]رج‬whose Nūn is cut I’lai is definite. Definiteness is determined by looking at the Muḍāf I’lai. Embedded Constructions with Iḍāfah/Possession Constructions An Iḍāfah can be associated or linked to other constructions such as Jarr Constructions. and Pointing Constructions. In the second example. 59 . the adjective [ُ‫الصا ِدقَة‬ َُّ ] describes the Muḍāf [ُ‫]إِ حم َرأَة‬. The adjective [‫ص َفة‬ after the Iḍāfah Construction. For example.

In example (iii). divorce them for [the commencement of] their waiting period and keep count of the waiting period. Qur’ānic Examples of Embedded Iḍāfah Constructions In the examples below. there is an Iḍāfah. Do not turn them out from their houses. In example (iv). ii. and the adjectives [‫ص َفة‬ there are two Jarr Constructions. the Pointing Nouns are in yellow. your Lord. And Allah is of all things Knowledgeable.” (64:11). Examples (v) and (vi) show Pointing Constructions with embedded Iḍāfah.Word Constructions [‫]املركبات‬ Iḍāfah being pointed to + Messenger of Allah + ُِ ‫َرسول‬ ‫ُهللا‬ Pointing Noun this ‫هذا‬ = = those your books + ُ‫ك‬ َ ‫كت ب‬ ُ‫حك‬ َ ‫تِل‬ = Pointing Construction this Messenger of Allah ‫ول هللاِ ﻫذا‬ ُ ‫َر ُس‬ those books of yours ‫ك‬ َ ‫ك تِْل‬ َ ُ‫ُكتُب‬ ≠ ≠ ≠ Nominal Sentence This is the Messenger of Allah ِ ‫ول‬ ‫هللا‬ ُ ‫ﻫذا َر ُس‬ Those are your books. ‫ك‬ َ ُ‫ﻫذا ُكتُب‬ 3. In ‫ح‬ example (ii). Altogether. Within each. ﴾‫علِيم‬ َ ِ ‫﴿ما أَصاب ِمن ُّم‬ ‫ٱّللُ بِ ُك ِل َش ْي ٍء‬ َّ ‫ٱّللِ يَ ْه ِد قَ ْلبَهُ َو‬ َّ ِ‫ٱّللِ َوَمن يُ ْؤِمن ب‬ َّ ‫صيبَ ٍة إَِّال ِبِِ ْذ ِن‬ َ َ َ “No disaster strikes except by the permission of Allah. i.‫ش ٍة‬ َ ‫اح‬ َ َ َ ْ ُ َ ُُ “O Prophet. He will guide his heart. we have two Iḍāfahs merged together [‫ك‬ َُ ِ‫ ] َرب‬and [‫ك‬ َُ ِ‫اب ُ َرب‬ ُِ َ‫ ]كِت‬within a Jarr Construction. and fear Allah. we again have two embedded Jarr Constructions as in (i). the Jarr Particles ِ ] are in blue. it is a Describing Construction with an embedded Iḍāfah. nor should they leave [during that period] unless they are committing a clear immorality…” (65:1) 60 . we have an ِ َ‫ٱلْكِت‬ adjective [‫ ]اْلكيم‬that describes the Iḍāfah [‫اب‬ ‫ت‬ ُ ‫آَي‬ َ ]. And whoever believes in Allah. when you divorce women. the entire merged Constructions are highlighted gray. are in red. namely [‫ُٱّلل‬ َُِّ ‫ ]ُإِ حذ ِن‬and [ُ‫]ك ِلُ َشيء‬. In example (i).. ِِ ِ ِ ‫﴿َي أَيُّها ٱلنَِّب إِذَا طَلَّ ْقتم ٱلنِساء فَطَلِ ُق‬ ‫وﻫ َّن‬ َّ ‫صوا ٱلْعِ َّدةَ َوٱتَّ ُقوا‬ ُّ َ َ ُ ‫ٱّللَ َربَّ ُك ْم َال َُّتْ ِر ُج‬ ُ ْ ‫وﻫ َّن لعدَُّت َّن َوأ‬ ُ ‫َح‬ َ َ ُُ ِ ‫ِمن ب يوُتِِ َّن وَال ََيْرجن إَِّال أَن َيتِي بَِف‬ ﴾ُ ..

.. (10:1). Relative Pronouns ]‫[أ حمساءُُاُلح َُم حُوصُوُلَة‬ A Relative Pronoun connects the definite word before it to the sentence after it.﴿ َ ‫َح َد ُكم ب َورق ُك ْم َﻫذه إ َىل‬ “…So send one of you with this coin/money of yours to the town. iv. Relative Pronouns [‫ اَلَّ ِذي‬/‫ين‬ َ ‫]اَلذ‬ Plural ِ َّ Table 19: Relative Pronouns: [‫ُُاَلَّ ِذي‬/‫ين‬ َ ‫]ُاَلذ‬ Dual Single ِ َّ ‫ين‬ َ ‫اَلذ‬ Those who ‫ اَلَّ َذيْ َن‬/ ‫اَلَّ َذ ِان‬ ‫ اََّالِِت‬/ ‫اََّالئِى‬ These (two) who Those who ِ َّ‫اَل‬ ِ ْ َ‫ اَلَّت‬/ ‫تان‬ ‫ي‬ The one who These (two) who The one who 61 ‫اَلَّ ِذي‬ masculine ‫اَلَِِّت‬ feminine .” (18:27) v. Relative Pronouns are used frequently in the Qur’ān.. ِ َّ A.. Rā. whom. In English. it includes the following words: who. We have forgotten you. They are always definite like the word they describe.”(18:19). indeed..‫دينَ ِة‬ ِِ ِ ِ ِِ َ ‫فَٱبْ َعثُوا أ‬. and can take all three cases of I‛rāb. are inflexible. what has been revealed to you of the Book of your Lord.. vi.. And taste the punishment of eternity for what you used to do. whose.. ِ ‫ٱلْم‬ ﴾. ِ ِ ْ ‫﴿ فَ ُذوقُوا ِِبَا نَ ِسيتُم لَِقاء ي وِم ُكم ﻫ َذا إِ ََّّن نَ ِسينَا ُكم وذُوقُوا ع َذاب‬ َ ْ َْ َ ْ َ َ َ ‫ٱْلُْلد ِبَا ُكنتُ ْم‬ َْ ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫تَ ْعملُو‬ “So taste [the punishment] because you forgot the meeting of this Day of yours. ِ ِ ِ ِ َ ‫ُوحي إِلَْي‬ َ ‫ك م ْن كتَاب‬ َ ‫﴿ُ َوٱتْ ُل َما أ‬ ﴾.‫ك‬ َ ِ‫رب‬ “And recite. Lām. ِ ‫ٱْل‬ ﴾‫كي ِم‬ ْ ِ ِ ِ ُ ‫ك آَي‬ َ ‫ت ٱلْكتَاب‬ َ َ ‫﴿ الر ت ْل‬ “Alif.. Relative Pronouns similar to Pointing Nouns retain all four characteristics of nouns. V. These are the Āyāt of the Wise Book”.Word Constructions [‫]املركبات‬ iii. The statement after the Relative Pronoun [‫صول‬ ُ ‫الْ َم ْو‬ ُ‫ ] ِصلَة‬functions to describe the definite word preceding it." (32:14). and those.

Often in sentences with Relative Pronouns.. ‫كِتاب الْ َفضائِ ِل‬. 51 ِ ‫السن‬ ِ ‫ كِتاب ِاال ْعتِص ِام ِِبل‬Ḥadīth # 6777.” (22:3) ii. 3. both [‫ن‬ ُ‫ ] َم ح‬and [‫ ] َُما‬follow the same rules in describing a definite noun.. or the Interrogative particle [‫] َُما‬. The ِ ]. Also in Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim. Chapter on Holding Fast to the Book and Sunnah.‫َّة‬ ُّ ‫اب َو‬ َ َ َ َ Ḥadīth #1337. It is also not gender or number specific. Relative Pronouns in sentences Please note that a Relative Pronoun essentially functions in describing a definite noun. C. avoid. [‫ٱستَطَ ْعتُم‬ ْ ‫فٱجتَنِبُوهُ َو ما أ ََم ْرتُ ُك ْم بِِه فَأْتُوا ِمْنهُ ما‬ ْ ُ‫]ما نَ َهْي تُ ُك ْم َعْنه‬ “What I have forbidden upon you. The Ḥarf Jarr [‫ن‬ ُ‫ ] ُِم ح‬also has a very similar appearance.”.. what I have ordered you. It is not gender or number specific. . The Relative Pronoun [‫ن‬ ُ‫ ] َم ح‬is used only for people. When a word is used whose morphology is identical to others with a different grammatical function. we may the [‫ص َفة‬ see a pronoun that appears redundant in meaning. ِ َ‫ْكت‬ Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhāri. Do not confuse this with the Negation Particle [‫] َُما‬. the true identify of the word can be identified by context. Examples from Qur’ān and Ḥadīth: i. Do not confuse this Relative Pronoun with the Interrogative Particle [‫ن‬ ُ‫ ] َم ح‬that has the same structure. Additional Relative Pronouns: [‫ ] َم ْن‬and [‫] َما‬ 1. 62 . 2. This word is not present in English.Word Constructions [‫]املركبات‬ B. and translating it from Arabic may give an awkward meaning if it is not omitted (in translation). The Relative Pronoun [‫ ] َُما‬is used for non-humans. Like the Relative Pronouns just listed previously. do as much of it as 51 you can. ﴾‫ِع ْل ٍم‬ ِ ‫﴿ َوِم َن ٱلن‬ ‫َّاس َم ْن ُُيَ ِاد ُل ِف ٱ َّّللِ بِغَ ِْري‬ “And among men there are those who disputing about Allah without knowledge. The [‫صلَة‬ ِ ] serves as description comes after the Relative Pronoun and is known in grammar as the [‫صلَة‬ ِ ] for the noun before the Relative Pronoun. This is the Connector or [‫ ]عائِد‬and connects the Relative Pronoun back to the definite noun being described.

The noun is a Pointing Construction and acts like a single unit..‫س‬ “Those who consume interest cannot stand [on the Day of Resurrection] except as one stands the one that is beaten by Shaytān into insanity…” (2:275) 2.” D. what I have ordered you. we also see that the words following the ِ Relative Pronoun [‫ذي‬ ُِ َّ‫ ]ال‬acts as an adjective to describe the definite noun before it (‫هذاُالكتاب‬ ). do as much of it [what] you can..  ِ ِ ُ‫تاب الَّذي ٱ ْشتَ َريْتُه‬ ُ ‫ﻫذا الْك‬ “ This book is the one that I bought. ِ َّ ‫﴿ ٱلَّ ِذين َيْ ُكلُو َن ٱل ِرِب الَ ي ُقومو َن إِالَّ َكما ي ُق‬ ِ ُ َ َ ُ َ َ َ َ َ ‫وم ٱلذي يَتَ َخبَّطُهُ ٱلشَّْيطَا ُن م َن‬ ِ ‫ٱلْم‬ 1. If the sentence is literally translated in English.” (al-Bukhāri) 63 . Here. avoid.. In this example. In example #1. the Relative Pronoun is highlighted. it is implied in a grammatical sense. Please note that there may not be an explicit [‫ ]عائِد‬in every sentence with a Relative Pronoun. Focus your attention on the pronoun [ُ‫ ]ه‬attached to the verb [ُ‫شتَ َريحت‬ ‫ ]اِ ح‬which means “I bought”. In cases where the [‫ ]عائِد‬is omitted.. the [ُ‫ ]ه‬connects to the verb [ُ‫ ]يَقوم‬that translates as “one standing”. the [‫اسمُم حوصول‬ َ ] is highlighted red and the [‫ ]عائد‬is highlighted blue. it would read incorrectly as “This book is the one that I bought it”. Examples of [‫ ]عائِد‬from the Qur’ān and Ḥadīth ِ In these following two examples. The pronoun [ُ‫ ]ه‬is the Connector. we see that each highlighted [ُ‫ ]ه‬connects back to preceding Relative Pronoun [‫] َُما‬.Word Constructions [‫]املركبات‬ Let us look at the following Arabic sentence below to clarify this point. In example #2. [‫ٱستَطَ ْعتُم‬ ْ ‫فٱجتَنِبُوهُ َو ما أ ََم ْرتُ ُك ْم بِِه فَأْتُوا ِمْنهُ ما‬ ْ ُ‫]ما نَ َهْي تُ ُك ْم َعْنه‬ “What I have forbidden upon you. which is [‫ُالكتاب‬ ‫]هذا‬. and connects back to the definite noun being ِ described. ﴾.

ِ ] is In the following examples below. we Note that the indefinite word is immediately followed by its [‫ص َفة‬ ِ ] of the indefinite word [ُ‫صة‬ have two [‫ص َفة‬ َّ ِ‫]ق‬. The more the student masters sentences and Word Constructions. we have the Jarr Construction [‫رآن‬ ُِ ‫]فُالق‬. which follows it. A discussion on these Five Special Nouns is being included here since their conjugation requires understanding of Iḍāfah. 64 . we have the word [ُ‫ ]عجيبة‬that matches all of the attributes of its described noun. and Jarr is respectively [ُ‫ [أَب‬. Indefinite words can be described directly by a sentence or a Jarr Construction.]‫َب‬ ًُ ‫]أ‬.Word Constructions [‫]املركبات‬ VI. Often. and in fact. a sentence. the indefinite word [‫ ]خ حب ًزا‬is being described by the sentence [ُ‫ُم حنه‬ ‫ح‬ ِ ]. 1. These words behave like normal words in terms of inflection when not in an Iḍāfah Construction. the indefinite noun being described is highlighted while the [‫ص َفة‬ ِ ‫] ََتحكلُٱلطَّي ر‬. which acts as an adjective to describe the indefinite word [ُ‫صة‬ َّ ِ‫]ق‬. and [ُ‫]أب‬. it is an easier concept than that of Relative Pronouns we have studied here. Jarr Constructions and Sentences as Adjectives We have just learned that Relative Pronouns act essentially as Describers for definite nouns. For example.” VII. In the first example. underlined. ﴾ ُ‫ِمْنه‬ ِْ ‫﴿ُقَ َال ْٱآلخر إِِِن أَرِاِن أ‬ ‫َح ُل فَ ْو َق َرأْ ِسي ُخْب ازا ََتْ ُك ُل ٱلطَّْي ُر‬ َ َُ “The other said. these alternate Describers will be more easily recognized. ]‫رآن‬ ‫صة َعجيبَة ف‬ َّ ِ‫ف لَهُ ق‬ ُ ‫وس‬ ُ ُ‫[ي‬ “Yūsuf has a wondrous story in the Qur’ān. First. Verily I see myself carrying on my head bread. But what about an indefinite noun? Is there another way to describe it other than the conventional Describing Construction methodology? The answer is yes. The Five Special Nouns ]‫ُاْلَ حمسة‬ ‫َمساء ح‬ ‫[اْل ح‬ The Five Special Nouns [ُ‫ ُأب‬/ُ ‫ ُأخ‬/ُ ‫ ُفَم‬/ُ ‫ ُذو‬/ُ ‫]ذَات‬ occur frequently in Arabic and have a variant conjugation when they occur as Muḍāf. In the second example.” (12:36) ِ ‫ال ُق‬ 2. Then. birds are eating from it. the ِ ] is an entire sentence that acts as a [‫ص َفة‬ ِ ] and describes a definite noun (preceding the Relative [‫صلَة‬ Pronoun). the word [‫ ]أب‬in I‛rāb of Raf‛. Naṣb.

the grammar does not change. 65 . The Five Special Nouns ]‫اْلَ ْمسة‬ ْ ُ‫َمساء‬ ْ ‫[األ‬ Plural ُ‫آِبء‬ ‫إِ ْخوا ُن‬ ‫أَفْواه‬ ‫أ ُْولُْو‬ ‫أُوالت‬ ‫َمساء ح‬ Table 20: The Five Special Nouns ]‫سة‬ َُ ‫ُاْلَ حم‬ ‫[اْل ح‬ Dual Single ‫ أَبُ َويْ ِن‬/ ‫أَبَو ِان‬ ِ ‫أ‬ ‫َخ َويْ ِن‬ َ ‫ أ‬/ ‫َخوان‬ َ ‫أَب‬ father ‫أَخ‬ brother ‫فَم‬ mouth ‫ذُو‬ owner of/possessor (masculine) ‫َذات‬ owner of/possessor (feminine) ِ َ‫ف‬ ِ ْ ‫ فَم‬/ ‫مان‬ ‫ي‬ َ ‫ ذَ َويْ ِن‬/ ‫ذَو ِان‬ ِ ‫َذو‬ ِ ْ َ‫ َذوت‬/ ‫اَتن‬ ‫ي‬ The thing that differentiates the Special Nouns from other nouns is the situation when they are Muḍāf. The Rafʽ case is denoted by a Wāw ending.Word Constructions [‫]املركبات‬ A. the Naṣb case by the Alif ending. then their ending takes one of three vowels based on their Iʽrāb. When this occurs. and whose conjugation has been discussed previously. Other than that. Please note that the words [‫ ] َذات‬or [‫ ]أوْلت‬do not fit into this paradigm since they have a Tā Marbūṭah. and the Jarr case by the Yā.

‫كم‬ ُ ‫أَبِي‬ ‫﴿ َولَ َّما َج َّهَزُﻫ ْم ِِبَ َها ِزِﻫ ْم قَ َال ٱئْ تُ ِوِن ِِبَ ٍخ لَ ُك ْم ِم ْن‬ ْ “…O our father. and Allah is the possessor of great bounty. See examples #3 and #4. "Bring me a brother of yours from your father…”(12:59) ِ 3. so send with us our brother [that] we will be given measure…(12:63) ْ “And when he had furnished them with their supplies. measure has been denied to us.... [‫َخي‬ the pronoun of first person [‫]ي‬.Word Constructions [‫]املركبات‬ B. This is however not the case for ‫ فَ ْم‬which retains the Meem when attached to the [‫ ]ي‬pronoun. ﴾‫ي‬ َ ‫وبن‬ ٍ َ َ ‫﴿أَ ْن َكا َن ذَا َمال‬ “Because he is a possessor of wealth and children. ﴾. ﴾‫ظي ِم‬ َ ‫ض ِل‬ َّ ‫ص بَِر ْحَتِ ِه َم ْن يَ َشاءُ َو‬ َّ ‫و‬. 53 Please note that ]‫ [ذُ ْو‬is always found in the form of a Muḍāf.”(2:105) 52 ِ ‫ [أ‬and [‫ ]أَب‬in the Jarr state as Muḍāf have the same appearance as when they are attached to Please note that from these Five Special Nouns. Examples from the Qur’ān 1.... 66 . he said.But Allah selects for His mercy whom He wills...﴿ 2..”(68:14) ِ ‫ٱلْع‬ 4. Five Special Nouns as Muḍāf Table 21: Conjugation of Five Special Nouns as Muḍāf Jarr52 Naṣb Raf‛ ‫أَِب‬ ِ‫أ‬ ‫َخي‬ ‫أَِب‬ ‫أَبُو‬ ‫َخو‬ ُ‫أ‬ ‫فُو‬ ‫ذُو‬ ‫أَخا‬ ‫فَ ِمي‬ ‫ِذى‬ ‫فَا‬ ‫ذَا‬ ‫أ ُْوِىل‬ ِ ‫َذ‬ ‫ات‬ ‫أ ُْوَىل‬ ‫ات‬ َ ‫َذ‬ ِ ‫أُو‬ ‫الت‬ ْ ِ ‫أُو‬ ‫الت‬ ْ Five Special Nouns in single form ‫أ ُْولُْو‬ ‫ات‬ ُ ‫َذ‬ ‫الت‬ ُ ‫أ ُْو‬ ‫أَب‬ ‫أَخ‬ ‫فَم‬ ‫ذُو‬ 53 ‫أ ُْولُْو‬ ‫َذات‬ ‫أ ُْوالت‬ C. ﴾. but does not attach to pronouns. ُّ َ‫ٱّللُ ََيْت‬ ْ ‫ٱّللُ ذُو ٱلْ َف‬ َ ﴿ “.‫نَكْتَل‬ ِ ِ ِ ‫اَّن‬ َ ‫َخ‬ َ ‫ ََي أ ََِب ََّن ُمن َع منَّا ٱلْ َكْي ُل فَأ َْرس ْل َم َعنَا أ‬. You can differentiate them from their Iḍāfah forms by their context in the sentence.

a Subject [‫ ]م حب تَ َدأ‬and a Predicate [‫ب‬ َُ ‫] َخ‬. there is a hidden or implied “is” between the Subject and Predicate. If the sentence starts with a noun ( Ism). 6.  Please note the following rules for a Nominal Sentence: 1. Unlike English. The Basic Nominal Sentence [ُ‫اْل حِمسيَّة‬ ُِ‫]اجلُملَةُُ ح‬ Arabic sentences are of two types. Since we have thoroughly discussed the grammar of words and word constructions. ُ‫]اْلُملَة‬. familiarization with the Nominal sentence should not take too long. 4. The Nonverbal sentence can have other details after the Predicate that give additional information. If the sentence begins with a verb. The key difference is that Predicate is typically indefinite.The Nominal Sentence [‫]اْلملة االمسية‬ ِْ ُ‫]اَْلملَة‬ Lesson 6: The Nominal Sentence [ُ‫اال ِْمسيَّة‬ ُ I. The Predicate serves to give information about the Subject. In Arabic. Another concept that is important to keep in mind is that both Subject and Predicate can be entire Word Constructions. If the word is a noun. The Predicate comes after the implied "is" and is generally indefinite. that noun is the Subject. A simple way to differentiate the Subject and Predicate is by looking at the definiteness of the two. Nominal and Verbal. 3. 67 . Since the Predicate gives information about the Subject. The Subject comes before the implied "is" and is generally definite. Both the Subject and Predicate are Raf‛. 2. There is an implied unwritten “is” between the Subject and Predicate. Arabic has no specific word for “is”. number and in the Raf‛ case. 5. It consists of two components. then you have a Verbal Each sentence type has its own rules. then the sentence is a “Non- ِْ ‫اال‬ ِْ Verbal” nominal sentence or a [ُ‫مسيَّة‬ ِ Sentence or [‫الف ْعلِيَّة‬ ‫اْلُ ْملَة‬ ْ ]. Nominal sentences have two components: a Subject [‫ ] ُمْب تَ َدأ‬and a Predicate [‫خ َب‬ َ ]. The particle is overlooked as its “first” word when screening a sentence for a Nominal Sentence. The type of sentence is identified simply by examining the word at the beginning of the sentence. both have to match in gender. Please note that both Nominal Sentences and Verbal Sentences can begin with a particle.

68 . Pointing. 54 It is generally definite and Raf‛. while the Predicate is termed [‫]خ َب إِ َّن‬ َ . big The house ‫َكبري‬ ‫ت‬ ُ ‫اَلْبَ ْي‬ Predicate [‫خ َب‬ َ] Subject “is” indefinite Raf‛ [‫]مبتَ َدأ‬ ُ Definite Raf‛  Nominal Sentence  ُ‫اَلحبَ حيتُ َكبري‬ Other examples: This is a book. [‫ن‬ َ ‫مسلِمو‬ َ ِ‫]أ ُْولَئ‬ ُ ُْ‫ك‬ II. iii.The Nominal Sentence [‫]اْلملة االمسية‬ Let us look at the example below. or Describing Constructions) and thus be composed of two or more nouns. when [‫ن‬ َُّ ِ‫ ]إ‬begins a sentence . That is why. It can be Naṣb however. ii. when the particle [‫ ]إِ َّن‬acts on a sentence. the subject becomes Naṣb and is termed [‫]اِ ْسم إِ َّن‬. The Subject can be an entire Word Construction (Possession. Please note that a typical āyah of the Qur’ān is often composed of many sentences. Subject and Predicate [‫ ]اَلحم حب تَ َدأ‬andُ]‫[اَ حْلََُب‬ A. 54 It is present at the start of a "sentence". Subject [‫]اَلحم حب تَ َدأ‬ i. but are grammatically classified differently than Nominal sentences. and thus can have many embedded Nominal and Verbal Sentences within. [‫]ﻫ َذا كِتَاب‬ Those are Muslims. which shows a basic Nominal sentence: The house is big. Inna and its sisters [‫َخو ِاُتا‬ َ ‫ ]إِ َّن َو أ‬are present in Nominal Sentences. These Naṣb particles act on a Nominal sentence and cause it to gain a verb-like meaning depending of on the particle used.

Cases where the Predicate is definite are discussed here later.(Muslim) ِ ِ َ ‫﴿ َوٱ َّّللُ بَصري ِبَا‬ 3. but please note that exceptions do exist. It is typically indefinite. ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫تَ ْعملُو‬ “…and Allah is seeing of what you do. which we looked at in the previous examples. Additional non-highlighted words can be considered extra detail at this point. The Predicate generally comes after the Subject. Ḥadīth # 223.. Predicate is blue. The Predicate agrees in gender.. There are many different types of [‫]و‬ َ in Arabic grammar. and I‛rāb since it gives information about its Subject. ]. and charity is a proof. َ 56 57 Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim: Chapter on Book of Purification. 5.”(49:18) 4. 4. [‫الْكافِ ِر‬ ُ‫]اَ ُّلدنْيا ِس ْج ُن الْ ُم ْؤِم ِن َو َجنَّة‬ “The world is a prison for the believer and a paradise for the disbeliever”. without any effect on I‛rāb. Examples from the Qur’ān and Ḥadīth Subject is red. This is because these examples were taken from in between َ present before the Subject [‫]مْب تَدأ‬ the respective Qur’ānic āyah or Ḥadīth. It is Raf‛. which connects two adjacent sentences. 3. 1. but not in definiteness. 6.. Pointing. Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim. and the Qur’ān is 56 an evidence for or against you…”. ﴾ ِ ‫وﻫو علِيم بِ َذ‬ ‫لص ُدوِر‬ ُّ ‫ات ٱ‬ َ ََُ 55 ﴿ “…and He is knowing of what is in within the breasts. The simplest one is termed [‫]م حف َرد‬. plurality.(Muslim)57 55 Please note that in all these examples. Chapter on Piety and Softening of the Hearts: ‫الرقَائِ ِق‬ ُّ ‫ كِتَاب‬. 2. C. or Describing Constructions) and thus be composed of two or more nouns. The Predicate can an entire Word Construction (Possession. There are four types of Predicate. Ḥadīth # 2956. and patience is a shine. The Predicate ]‫ب‬ ََُ‫[اَ حْل‬ 1.”(57:6) 2. but the [‫]و‬ mainly functions as a connector.‫ك‬ َ ‫َعلَْي‬ ‫ك أ َْو‬ َّ ‫ َو‬، ‫الص َدقَةُ بُْرﻫان‬ َّ ‫ َو‬، ‫الصالةُ نور‬ َّ ‫] َو‬ َ َ‫ َو الْ ُق ْرآ ُن ُح َّجة ل‬، ‫الصْب ُر ِضياء‬ “…And the prayer is a light. َّ ‫الزْﻫ ِد َو‬ 69 . there is a [‫]و‬ ُ . A [‫]و‬ َ often serves as a particle.The Nominal Sentence [‫]اْلملة االمسية‬ B.‫كتاب الطهارة‬.

ِ‫ٱّلل‬ َّ ِِ َِّ ِ‫﴿إََِّّنَا ٱلْم ْؤِمنُو َن ٱلَّ ِذين آمنُوا ب‬ ‫اﻫ ُدوا ِِب َْم َواَلِِ ْم َوأَن ُف ِس ِه ْم ِف َسبِ ِيل‬ َ ‫ٱّلل َوَر ُسوله ُُثَّ ََّلْ يَ ْرََتبُوا َو َج‬ َ َ ُ “The believers are only those who have believed in Allah and His Messenger and then doubt not but strive with their properties and their lives in the cause of Allah.. Predicate as a Ḥarf Jarr Construction [‫جرور‬ ‫]جا ُُّرُ َُوال َحم ح‬ These include nouns like [‫ ]الظُّروف‬that act like Jarr particles59 (see Table 15). 3.The Nominal Sentence [‫]اْلملة االمسية‬ 5. B. In the following examples. it is a bit premature to discuss these details that are discussed in more detail in the Second Volume. Whatever the case. which contains the Predicate in blue. this category of [‫]خ َب‬ َ is termed [‫]شبه َجلة‬. Since the Jarr Construction is the Predicate. In example #7. The implied “is” is placed between the Jarr Construction and the Subject.. Please note that sometimes the Subject can itself be a Word Construction as shown in Example #5. the basic Nominal Sentence is underlined.. Sometimes. the entire sentence (dotted) after it Pronoun [‫ين‬ َُ ‫]ٱلَّ ِذ‬.”( Bukhāri)58 6. Chapter on Imān: ‫ كتاب اْلُيان‬. ﴾ . conjunctions (example #4). The [‫ ]مُ حف َرد‬type is the major type of Predicate that we will be studying..”(49:15) III. 70 . etc. it is essential to identify Word Constructions when analyzing the sentence. 59 In Arabic Grammar terminology.. Predicate as a Single word or Word Construction: [‫] ُم ْفرد‬ َ There are four types of Predicates. Ḥadīth #33. other words. At this point. Sometimes the Predicate can be a Relative Pronoun that is encompassed within an entire sentence. it is considered Raf‛ functionally even though its appearance is not. [ . The Four Types of Predicates ]‫[أَ حخبار‬ A. Additional words after the underlined basic Nominal sentence are “extra detail” that add additional information to the basic sentence unit. and 5 just examined.. Since all Relative Pronouns are connected with a [‫صلَة‬ becomes part of the Predicate. and includes Jarr Constructions and those words associated with [‫]الظ ُروف‬. Sometimes the Predicate is a single word as in prior examples # 1. it is a Word Construction such an Iḍāfah/Possession Construction as in example #4.‫ثَالث‬ ‫]آيَةُ الْ ُمنَافِ ِق‬ “The signs of the hypocrite are three…. 2. 58 Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhāri. Incorrect identification can inherently lead to erroneous and confused translations. the Predicate is the Relative ِ ]. These types of sentences incorporating Relative Pronouns are frequently seen in the Qur’ān and Ḥadīth. Please also note that addition details can follow the Predicate such as a Jarr constructions (example #1 and 3).

This is often done for purposes of placing emphasis on the Subject itself. it is not proper to translate an implied “is” between the Subject and Predicate. This embedded sentence directly follows the Subject that initiates a sentence and acts as the Predicate.. Nominal Sentence as Predicate ِ ‫الرجل ﻫو‬ ‫صادق‬ َ ُ ُ ُ َّ ِ ‫ﻫو‬ ‫صادق‬ ‫الر ُج ُل‬ َّ َُ Predicate Subject [‫خ َب‬ َ] [‫]مبتَ َدأ‬ ُ ِ‫ُاْل ح‬ ِ‫]اجلملَة ح‬ [ُ‫مسيَّة‬ Definite Raf‛  Nominal Sentence  ِ ‫الرجل ﻫو‬ ‫صادق‬ َ ُ ُ ُ َّ The man. Nominal sentence [ُ‫ُمسيَّة‬ Sometimes the Predicate can come in the form of a sentence. This is because there is often a redundancy in bringing forth an extra Subject.) 60 ِ َ ‫ كِتَاب ال ِْف‬Ḥadīth #2166. ﴾‫صريا‬ ‫ا‬ ِِ ِ ‫َس َف ِل ِم َن ٱلنَّا ِر َولَن ََِت َد ََلُْم‬ َ ‫﴿إِ َّن ٱلْ ُمنَافق‬ ْ ‫ي ِف ٱلد َّْرك ْٱأل‬ “Indeed. ِ َ‫ن‬ 3.. ﴾. Furthermore.The Nominal Sentence [‫]اْلملة االمسية‬ 1.”(2:5) ِ َ ‫]يَ ُد هللا َعلى‬ 2. the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire and never will you find for them a helper”.‫َّرِبِم‬ ِ َ ِ‫﴿أ ُْولَئ‬ ْ ‫ك َعلَى ُﻫ ادى من‬ “They are on guidance from their Lord.. Let us look at the following example. such as Nominal sentence. Sunan Tirmidhi: Chapter on Tribulation from ‫ت‬ 71 . (The man is he is truthful.(4:145) ِ‫ُُاْل ح‬ ِ‫]اجلُملَة ح‬ C. 1.. [‫ماع ِة‬ ْ َ ‫اْل‬ 60 “The hand of Allah is on the group”. he is truthful.

Verbal Sentence [‫جل حملَةُُال ِف حع ِليَّة‬ ُ‫]ا ح‬ Similar to the previous discussion. The Subject is really mentioned twice. the Predicate can also be a Verbal Sentence.‫ض‬ َّ ‫ َو‬. ِ ‫الرجل‬ ‫صادق‬ ُ ُ َّ ِ ‫صادق‬ ‫الر ُج ُل‬ َّ Predicate Subject [‫خ َب‬ َ] [‫]مبتَ َدأ‬ ُ Definite Raf‛ [‫]م حف َرد‬  Nominal Sentence  ِ ‫الرجل‬ ‫صادق‬ ُ ُ َّ The man is truthful. Similar to a Nominal Sentence Predicate.” 2. Let us look at the following examples where the Verbal Sentence is in blue. [ِ‫هللا‬ ِ ‫]اَلْمؤِمنو َن‬ ‫جاﻫ ُدوا ف َسبِ ِيل‬ ُ ُْ “The Believers.. Again.. ﴿ َ َ َّ ‫ٱّللُ يَ ْعلَ ُم َما ف‬ “…and Allah (He) knows whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth…”(49:16) 72 . One rhetorical purpose for this is that extra emphasis is placed on the Subject being discussed. 1. it is inappropriate to place an implied “is” in-between.The Nominal Sentence [‫]اْلملة االمسية‬ Single Word as Predicate [‫]م حف َرد‬ 2. ﴾ ِ ‫ٱلسماو‬ ِ ِ ‫ات َوَما ِف ْٱأل َْر‬ . they struggle in the way of Allah. the embedded sentence follows the Subject that initiates a Nominal Sentence and acts as the Predicate.. Please recall that a Verbal Sentence is always initiated by a verb at the beginning. D.

and the Forbidding [‫]ْل‬. ]‫] َُلح‬.The Nominal Sentence [‫]اْلملة االمسية‬ IV. See Example #8 on pg. The Particles of Exception [‫ُاْلسُتِثحناء‬ ‫ ]حروف ح‬such as [‫ ]إَُِّْل‬are also not categorized here since they cause a change in I‛rāb. Please see Section V of this lesson. Particles of Negation [‫]حروفُالنَّ حفي‬ These particles presented here cause negation without affecting Iʽrāb. It serves as a negation particle only when followed by the exception particle [‫ ]إَِّال‬later in the sentence. We have already discussed those that affect I‛rāb such as Ḥarf Naṣb. In this section.. Similar to English conjunctions. 62 In these examples. These particles transfer I‛rāb of the first word onto the following word that the particle connects to. these particles allow for less redundancy in the language. 3. Particles of Interrogation [‫ُاْل حسُتِ حفهام‬ ُِ ‫]حُروف‬. 76. Thus. Please see Qur’ānic examples #7 in the next section which shows how [‫ ] َعطْف‬works. Categories of Miscellaneous Particles [ُ‫ُعاملَة‬ ‫ح‬ 1. Table 22: Particles of Negation [‫]حروفُالنَّ حفي‬ Examples shown on pgs. There are different grammatical functions of [‫]إِ ْن‬. Important Miscellaneous Particles in Sentences Numerous particles occur frequently in Arabic sentences that the student should be familiar with. the most common being that of a conditional particle. Jarr. the other particles of negation that cause a change in I‛rāb do not fit into this category. or [‫عاملَ ٍة‬ ‫] ُحروف َغْي ُر‬. ِ ‫]حروفُغَي ر‬ A. underlined nouns are connected by a [‫الْ َعطْف‬ 61 ‫ف‬ ُ ‫ ] َح ْر‬that retains the same I‛rāb. These are particles such as [‫َن‬ ُ‫ [ل ح‬. the This particle stands out from the other particles. and Jazm. we will ِ briefly discuss the important particles that have no effect on I‛rāb. which used as an exclamation. Connecting Particles [‫]حروفُال َحعطحف‬ Connecting Particles connect two words or phrases together in a sentence. 73 . 75-76 ‫ْل‬ ‫ما‬ ‫إِ حُن‬ ُ‫َك َّال‬ no Example #1 no Examples #2 and 3 no61 Example #8 Never!/by no means!62 Example #9 2. as it is a solitary particle.

noun. they have no effect on I‛rāb. 74 .The Nominal Sentence [‫]اْلملة االمسية‬ Table 23: Connecting Particles [‫حعطحف‬ َ ‫]حروفُال‬ Examples shown on pgs. Otherwise. it is more accurately termed [‫َّحقيق‬ َ . then they cause Jazm. The response particle Fā [‫ف‬ َ ] is used to indicate a response 63 64 65 ِ َ‫]ل‬. This consists of two parts: the condition [‫شرط‬ َ ] and the response [‫اب الْ َش ْرط‬ ُ ‫] َجو‬. This particle is very similar in meaning and form to [‫ك َّن‬ which is also Naṣb Particle. Table 24: Particles of Emphasis [‫َّوكِيد‬ ‫]حروفُالت ح‬ ‫َل‬ ‫قَ ْد‬ ‫إََِّّنا‬ Examples shown on pgs. 7. being a particle of certainty. 75-76 ُ‫َو‬ َُ ‫ف‬ َّ‫ُث‬ Examples #5 and 7 "and" "and/then" (immediately following) "then" (after a period of time) ُ‫أ حَو‬ ُ‫أ حَم‬ ُ‫بَ حل‬ ‫لَ ِك حُن‬ See Example #2 See Examples #6. ْ ‫وف الت‬ This particle unlike the particle [‫ ]إِ َّن‬does not cause Naṣb even though it appears similar. 75-76 Examples #3. Particles of Emphasis [‫َّوكِيد‬ ‫]حروفُالت ح‬ These particles function in causing emphasis. If they act on a present tense verb. These particles can act on both nouns and verbs. Particles of Condition [‫الش حرط‬ Conditional particles function in initiating a conditional statement (if/then statement). Even though this particle has been grouped under [‫َّوكِيد‬ ُ ‫]ح ُر‬ ُ ‫]ح ْر‬ ْ ‫ف الت‬ ُ . Please note that the particle [َُ‫ ]ل‬can attach to the beginning of a particle. or a verb. 6 and Indeed 8 Indeed/certainly64 ------ only65 Example #7 َّ ُ‫]حروف‬ 5. and 9 "or" (alternation or doubt) "or"/rather (used in questions) See Example #10 but/rather See Example #10 but63 See Example #4 See Example #1 4.

75 .”(2:12) ِ ‫م هت‬ 2. 75-76 ‫لَ ْو‬ ‫إِ ْن‬ If Example #9 If Example #5 and 10 who ----- what ----- ‫لَ ْوال‬ had it not been/were it not for Example #6 ‫أ ََّما‬ as for Example #4 ‫ف‬ َ “then” Response particle66 Example #4. ﴾‫دين‬ َْ َ ِ ِ ِ َ ‫ك الَّ ِذين ٱ ْشتَ روا ٱلض‬ ُ ْ‫َّاللَةَ بٱ َْلَُدى فَ َما َرِِبَت َتَ َارتُ ُه ْم َوَما َكانُوا‬ ُ َ َ َ ‫﴿أُولَئ‬ “Those are the ones who have purchased error [in exchange] for guidance. ﴾‫حيم‬ “…and never would Allah have caused you to lose your faith.. and 10 ‫َم ْن‬ ‫ما‬ B. so their transaction has brought no profit. The Fā is typically not used when present tense verbs are used in both the condition and the response. Examples from the Qur’ān: Particles are highlighted.. 5. they say.”(2:26) 66 This Fā is actually a “response particle” and frequently precedes the response statement of a conditional statement. it is they who are the corrupters. but they perceive [it] not.The Nominal Sentence [‫]اْلملة االمسية‬ statement.”(2:16) ِ ِ ِ ‫يع إُِيَانَ ُك ْم إِ َّن ٱ َّّللَ بِٱَّن‬ َ ‫ َوَما َكا َن ٱ َّّللُ ليُض‬. ِ ِ ُ ‫﴿أََال إِن‬ ُ َ ‫َّه ْم ُﻫ ُم ٱلْ ُم ْفس ُدو َن َولَك ْن َال‬ ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫ي ْشعُرو‬ “Unquestionably.﴿ 4. nor were they guided. َّ Table 25: Particles of Condition [‫وفُالش حرط‬ ‫]حر‬ Examples shown on pgs. to the people.. Kind and Merciful.”(2:143) ِ َّ ِ َّ ‫ٱْل ُّق ِمن َّرِبِم وأ ََّما ٱلَّ ِذين َك َفرواْ فَي ُقولُو َن ما َذا أَراد‬ ََ َ َ ‫ٱّللُ بَ َذا‬ َ ُ َ َْ ُ‫ين َآمنُواْ فَيَ ْعلَ ُمو َن أَنَّه‬ َْ َ ‫فَأ ََّما ٱلذ‬.‫مثَالا‬ “…and (as for) those who have believed... ﴾.﴿ َ ‫َّس لََرءُوف‬ ِ‫ر‬ 3.. But as for those who disbelieve. Indeed Allah is. 1.. they know that it is the truth from their Lord. "What did Allah intend by this as an example?..

”(2:24) “Then you turned away after that.”(48:11) V. Then no! You are going to know. For example. with what you do. For example. when placed at the beginning of a respective sentence cause it to become a question..”(49:15) ِ َّ ِ ِ ِ ُ ‫ين َك َف ُروا إ ْن َﻫ َذا إَّال س ْحر‬ َ ‫﴿لََق َال ٱلذ‬ 8. or an an Interrogative. Please note that some Interrogative Particles like [‫ ]ما‬and [‫ن‬ ُ‫ ] َم ح‬can have other grammatical roles even though they may be present at the beginning of a sentence. It is those who are the truthful. No! If you only knew with knowledge of certainty”(102:2-5) 10. prepared for the disbelievers. or as an Interrogative. the particle [‫ ]أ‬or [‫ل‬ ُ‫ ] َه ح‬directly converts any sentence into a question form.”(2:64) ِ َّ ِ َِّ ‫ٱّللِ ورسولِِه ُُثَّ ََّل ي رََتبوا وجاﻫ ُدوا ِِبَمواَلِِم وأَن ُف ِس ِهم ِف سبِ ِيل‬ ِ َِّ ‫ك‬ َ ِ‫ٱّلل أ ُْولَئ‬ َ َ َ ُ َْ ْ َ ْ ُ َ َ َّ ‫ين َآمنُوا ب‬ َ ْ َْ َ ‫﴿إَّنَا ٱلْ ُم ْؤمنُو َن ٱلذ‬ ﴾‫ن‬ َّ ‫ُﻫ ُم ٱ‬ َ ‫لص ِادقُو‬ “The believers are only the ones who have believed in Allah and His Messenger and then do not doubt but strive with their properties and their lives in the cause of Allah. "This is not but obvious magic…”(6:7) 9. The particle [‫ن‬ ُ‫ ] َم ح‬can act as a Relative Pronoun. 76 . Conditional Particle. “But if you do not and you will never be able to then fear the Fire. ﴾‫مبِي‬ “…the disbelievers would say. ﴾‫۝‬ ِ ‫ف تَ ْعلَمو َن ۝ َك َّال لَ ْو تَ ْعلَمو َن ِع ْلم ٱلْيَ ِق‬ ‫ي‬ َ ‫﴿ َك َّال َس ْو‬ ُ ُ َ ‫ف تَ ْعلَ ُمو َن ۝ ُُثَّ َك َّال َس ْو‬ َ “No! You are going to know. as a Relative Pronoun. whose fuel is men and stones. َِّ ‫قُل فَمن ُيَْلِك لَ ُكم ِمن‬. [‫ ]ما‬can act in negation. And if not for the favor of Allah upon you and His mercy. Interrogative Sentences [‫]ُاَِْل حستِ حفهام‬ Interrogative Particles. Acquainted. ﴾‫اس ِرين‬ َْ ِ ِ ‫ٱّللِ َعلَْي ُك ْم َوَر ْحَتُهُ لَ ُكْن تُم ِم َن‬ َّ ‫ض ُل‬ ْ َ‫ك فَلَ ْوالَ ف‬ َ ‫﴿ ُُثَّ تَ َولَّْي تُم ِم ْن بَ ْعد ذَل‬ َ َ 7.﴿ ‫ٱّللُ ِِبَا تَ ْع َملُو َن‬ َّ ‫ضًّرا أ َْو أ ََر َاد بِ ُك ْم نَ ْف اعا بَ ْل َكا َن‬ ُ َ ‫ٱّلل َشْي ئاا إِ ْن أ ََر َاد بِ ُك ْم‬ َ ْ َ ﴾‫خبِريا‬ ‫َ ا‬ “…Say. ever is Allah . you would have been among the losers. and can act on both Nominalُand Verbal Sentences alike.The Nominal Sentence [‫]اْلملة االمسية‬ 5. "Then who could prevent Allah at all if He intended for you harm or intended for you benefit? Rather. They do not have any effect on I‛rāb. ﴾‫كافِ ِرين‬ َ ‫لِْل‬ ِ ‫َّت‬ ْ ‫َّاس َوٱ ْْلِ َج َارةُ أ ُِعد‬ ُ ُ‫َّار ٱلَِِّت َوق‬ َ ‫﴿فَإ ْن ََّّلْ تَ ْف َعلُواْ َولَن تَ ْف َعلُواْ فَٱتَّ ُقواْ ٱلن‬ ُ ‫ود َﻫا ٱلن‬ ِ ‫ٱْل‬ 6.

”(12:90) 5. ﴾..‫كم‬ ُ ‫ِمْن‬ ْ ِ َّ ِ ِ ‫اﻫ ُدوا‬ َ ‫ين َج‬ َ ‫﴿أ َْم َحسْب تُ ْم أَ ْن تَ ْد ُخلُوا ٱ ْْلَنَّةَ َولَ َّما يَ ْعلَم ٱ َّّللُ ٱلذ‬ “Or do you think that you will enter Paradise while Allah has not yet made evident those of you who fight in His cause”…(3:142) ِ ِ َ ‫﴿ َكْي‬ َ ‫ف تَ ْك ُف ُرو َن بٱ َّّلل َوُكنتُ ْم‬ 6. ﴾...‫كم‬ ُ ‫َحيا‬ ْ ‫أ َْمواَتا فَأ‬ ْ َ “How can you disbelieve in Allah when you were lifeless and He brought you to life..?” (3:98) 2.ِ‫ّلل‬ َّ ‫ٱ‬ ِ ‫اب َِّل تَ ْك ُفرو َن ِِبَي‬ ِ ِ ‫ت‬ َ ُ َ َ‫﴿قُ ْل ََي أ َْﻫ َل ٱلْكت‬ “Say.. "Are you indeed Yūsuf?... ﴾.... why do you disbelieve in the āyāt of Allah. ﴾..ِ‫بِٱهلل‬ ‫﴿ َوَما لَ ُك ْم َال تُ ْؤِمنُو َن‬ “And why do you not believe in Allah…”(57:8) ِ ُ ‫﴿ َﻫ ْل َأَت َك َحد‬ َ ُ ‫يث‬ 3. "O People of the Book.. ﴾‫موسى‬ “Has there reached you the story of Mūsa?”(79:15) َ ‫﴿قَالُواْ أَإِن‬ َ ‫َّك َأل‬ ُ ُ ‫َنت‬ 4. ﴾..‫ف‬ ُ ‫يوس‬ “They said.The Nominal Sentence [‫]اْلملة االمسية‬ Table 26: Interrogative Particles ]‫ُاْل حستِ حفهام‬ ُِ‫[حروف ح‬ Interrogative Particle ‫ َﻫ ْل‬/ َ‫أ‬ ‫ أ َََّي َن‬/ ‫َم َّت‬ When or / do Who What ‫ ماذا‬/ ‫ما‬ Why ‫ لِما‬/ ‫لِماذا‬ How ‫ف‬ َ ‫َكْي‬ How many from where/how ‫َّن‬ َّ ‫أ‬ About what Where Which (this is Muḍāf) ‫أ َْم‬ ‫َم ْن‬ ‫أَيْ َن‬ ‫َي‬ ُّ ‫أ‬ ‫َك ْم‬ ‫َع َّم‬ Examples from the Qur’ān 1.?”(2:28) 77 ...

‫لَبِثْ تُم‬ ْ ‫قَ َال قَائِل ِمْن ُه ْم َك ْم‬..”(67:2) 78 .‫عم اال‬ َ “The One who created death and life to test you which of you is best in deeds. ﴾‫بغِيًّا‬ َّ ‫ت أ‬ ْ َ‫﴿قَال‬ َ ‫َّن يَ ُكو ُن ِِل غُالَم َوََّلْ ُيَْ َس ْس ِِ بَ َشر َوََّلْ أ َُك‬ “She said. "How can I have a boy while no man has touched me and I have not been unchaste?”(19:20) 10... ﴾....”(18:19) 9... ﴾‫ذِب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫فَ َم ْن أَظْلَ ُم ِممَّ ِن ٱفْ تَ َرى َعلَى‬. ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫ي تَساءلُو‬ َ َ َ ‫﴿ َع َّم‬ “Concerning what are they disputing?”(78:1) ِ ِ َ ‫﴿ٱلَّذي َخلَ َق ٱلْ َم ْو‬ ْ ‫ت َوٱ ْْلَيَا َة ليَ ْب لَُوُك ْم أَيُّ ُك ْم أ‬ َ ‫َح َس ُن‬ 11.﴿ “…And who is more unjust than one who invents about Allah a lie?"”(18:15) 8.. ﴾.﴿ “…a speaker said from among them. "How long have you remained?.The Nominal Sentence [‫]اْلملة االمسية‬ ِ ‫ٱ َّّللِ َك‬ 7...

the rules for the standard Nominal Sentence were studied. Their study is important since Arabic including the Qur’ān is filled with variances. ﴾‫علِيم‬ َ َِّ ‫﴿وقَاتِلُوا ِف سبِ ِيل‬ َّ ‫ٱعلَ ُموا أ‬ ‫ٱّللَ َِمسيع‬ َّ ‫َن‬ ْ ‫ٱّلل َو‬ َ َ “And fight in the cause of Allah and know that Allah is Hearing and Knowing. ﴾. blessed and confirming what was before it”(6:92) 2.‫كم‬ ُ ُ‫ِمثْ ل‬ ْ ‫إََِّّنَا أَ ََّن بَ َشر‬. [‫حسن‬ “The man of the city is good”. Cases when the Predicate is Definite There are situations when the Predicate is definite in a Nominal Sentence. When this occurs.. it may be difficult to differentiate the sentence from a Describing Construction.”(2:244) ِ 4.”(41:6) 3.Types of Nominal Sentences [‫]أنواع اْلمل‬ Lesson 7: Types of Nominal Sentences ]‫[أنحواعُاجل َمل‬ I. we can run into a dilemma. Examples of a typical Nominal Sentence where the Predicate is indefinite: ِ ِ ‫﴿وﻫ َذا كِتاب أَنْزلْناه مبارك م‬ َ ََ َ ْ َ‫صد ُق ٱلَّذي ب‬ َ ُ َ َُ ُ َ َ َ‫ي‬ 1. ﴾‫ي َديْ ِه‬ “And this is a Book which We have sent down.. For example. However. 79 . context will be the important factor that differentiates between these two possibilities. Being familiar with their principles will allow us to also examine and study “atypical” or variant types of Nominal Sentences. [‫ع ْل ٍم‬ ‫] ُﻫ َو َر ُج ُل‬ “He is a man of knowledge”. ِ َ‫]رجل الْب ل‬ ‫د‬ َ َ ُ َُ َ 5.. Here. Since there are two consecutive nouns that possess that same four inherent characteristics including definiteness. we have studies that in the typical Nominal Sentence. there a few important situations in which the Predicate is in fact definite. II.﴿ “. the Predicate is indefinite. Nominal Sentences and its Variances In Lesson 6..I am only a man like you.

and is translated as such. there is an implied “is” between two continuous definite nouns. and make it a Nominal Sentence. ﴾ “Indeed. this pronoun is underlined. there is no other way that these can be stated other than by having a definite Predicate. She is Fāṭimah. ﴾ “And whoever turned away after that . The word that is placed inbetween is the pronoun of the Subject..”(3:82) ِ َّ ‫َّك أَنْت‬ ‫يع الْ َعلِ ُيم‬ َ َ ‫إِن‬. You are the All-Hearing.﴿ “…and Allah will be sufficient for you against them. the Knowing. This is more of an exception to the above stated rules even though these types of sentences are found in the Qur’ān.”(2:137) 80 . ﴾.﴿ 1.. Situation # 1: A pronoun is placed between the Subject and Predicate In order to avoid making this a Describing Construction. both the Subject and the Predicate are definite.I am Yūsuf. 2. ُ ُ ‫أََّن‬.”(10:64) B.” (2:127) ِ ‫ٱلْع‬ 3. And He is the Hearing.. ِ ‫ك ﻫم ٱلْ َف‬ ِ َ ِ‫﴿ فَمن تَوَّىل ب ع َد ذَل‬ ‫اس ُقو َن‬ َْ َ ْ َ ُ ُ َ ‫ك فَأُولَئ‬ 1. In this instance.. This meaning is determined by the context of the words. then context should be used to identify it as a sentence. without any pronoun as in the previous situation.. This pronoun essentially is the implied “is” of a Nominal Sentence. However. ﴾‫ظيم‬ َ ُ ِ َِّ ‫ات‬ ِ ‫َال تَب ِديل لِ َكلِم‬. ﴿ ُ ‫ٱلسم‬ 2. We can place another word in between these two words. He is Aḥmad. Please note that in these cases which start with a pronoun or pointing noun.No change is there in the words of Allah.. and this is understood. etc. For example. ﴾‫ٱلْ َعلِيم‬ ُ ِ ِ َّ ‫ٱّلل وﻫو‬ ‫يع‬ ُ ‫ٱلسم‬ َ ُ َ َُّ ‫فَ َسيَكْفي َك ُه ُم‬.. Please see the following examples where the Predicate has been underlined...” (12:90). if it is proper name.they were the defiantly disobedient. and is between the Subject and Predicate. Situation # 2: Nothing is placed between the Subject and Predicate In some circumstances.Types of Nominal Sentences [‫]أنواع اْلمل‬ A. In the following examples. This is Baghdād...﴿ ‫ك ُﻫ َو ٱلْ َف ْوُز‬ َ ‫ٱّلل َذل‬ َ َ ْ “. We often see this in many simple sentences. Remember. That is what the great attainment is. the pronoun needs to match in number and gender of the Subject. in other cases when the Predicate contains the definite article. remove any ambiguity.‫ف‬ ُ ‫يوس‬ “.

Types of Nominal Sentences [‫]أنواع اْلمل‬ ِ ِ 3.” [‫َجيلَة‬ َ ‫ك ِط ْفلَة‬ ِ [‫ُمبوبة لَنا‬ َ َُْ ‫“ ]اَلْ َمساج ُد الْ َقدُيَة‬The old mosques are beloved to us. ِ ُ‫“ ]بِْن ت‬Your daughter is a pretty infant. Dawūd). [ ‫َّاس‬ ‫ط‬ ْ ‫]اَلْ ِكبَ ُر بَطَُر‬ ُ ‫اْلَِق َو َغ ْم‬ “Arrogance is rejecting the truth and looking down on people”. Review of Nominal Sentences with Embedded Constructions  In the following Nominal Sentences. a guidance for those conscious of Allah”(2:2) ِ ِ ٍ ْ ‫صَر‬ َ ‫ف َعْنهُ يَ ْوَمئِذ فَ َق ْد َرحَهُ َوذَل‬ ْ ُ‫﴿ َم ْن ي‬ ُ ‫ك ٱلْ َف ْوُز‬ 4. [‫ئ‬ ِ ِ ‫اْل‬ 10. [‫صغري‬ َّ ‫ال‬ ِ ‫كِتاب اْلُيان ِبب ََْت ِرِي ال‬. he taught in Madīnah University”. ٍ ‫“ ]ما أََّن بِقا ِر‬I am not a reciter”. [ ‫ن‬ ْ ‫ﻫم‬ َ ‫اسرو‬ ُ ‫“ ]اَلْكافرو َن‬The disbelievers. 11. Please note that the Subject precedes the Predicate. 5. 4. ]‫اط الْمستَ ِقي ِم‬ ْ ُ ‫“ [اَلْ ُم ْؤمنُو َن على الصر‬The believers are on the straight path”. 6. Ḥadīth #224.” ِ ‫عة الْم‬ ِ ِ ْ ‫“ ]اَلْمعلِم علَّم ف‬The teacher. the Subject and/or Predicate take the form of a Word Construction.68 ‫ت َزيْ ٍد ال َكبري أ َْو‬ ُ ‫“ ] َﻫ ْل بَْي‬Is the house of Zaid big or small? ِ ِ ِ 8. In these examples. Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim: Book of Imān. Ḥadīth #91. ﴾‫ي‬ ُ ِ‫ٱلْمب‬ “He from whom it is averted that Day. the Predicate is highlighted blue.” ِ َ‫“ ]طَل‬Seeking knowledge is obligatory on every Muslim”(Abū [‫ك ِل مسلِ ٍم‬ َ ‫ب الْع ْل ِم فَر‬ ْ ُ ُ ‫يضة َعلى‬ ُ ِ 2. ]‫صر‬ ْ‫م‬ 3. 9. ُ ُ ْ َ ‫ين قَ ْوم‬ ]‫الصالةِ قَريب‬ َّ ‫ت‬ ُ ْ‫“ [ َوق‬The time for prayer is near”. He has granted him mercy.”(6:16) III. And that is the clear attainment. (Muslim)67 ِ ‫“ [اَِْْلسالم ِد‬Islam is the religion of the people of Egypt”. [‫دينَ ِة‬ َ ‫اْلام‬ َ َ ُ َُ 7. ِ‫ْك ِْب َوبَيَانِه‬ 68 Sunan Abu Dawūd. they are the losers. ِ ‫الن‬ 1. ﴾‫ي‬ َ ْ ‫ل ْلمتَّق‬ ِ ِ ِ ‫ك ٱلْ ِكتَاب الَ ري‬ َ ‫﴿ ذل‬ ُ ‫ب فيه ُﻫ ادى‬ َ َْ ُ “This is the Book about which there is no doubt. [3808 ‫]ونقله ايضا عن املزي وقد صححه الشيخ االلباِن ف صحيح اْلامع‬. 67 81 .

a) Exercise 1: Translate the following phrases or sentences and identify specific Word Constructions that are present. This is the man of the city: Nominal Sentence with a Possession Construction. 82 . this man of the city: Possession Construction with a Pointing Construction. 7. Possession Construction. 1. 5. Nominal Sentence. the man of the city. 6. Possession Construction with a Pointing Construction. 2. ُ‫فاطمة‬ َ ‫أَنْت‬ 8. Nominal Sentence with a Possession Construction. 2. this messenger of Allah. 4. this man : Describing Construction & pointing construction. 3. ‫الر ُج ُل‬ َّ ‫ﻫ َذا‬ ‫ﻫ َذا َر ُجل‬ ‫َر ُج ُل الْبَ لَ ِد‬ ‫ﻫ َذا َر ُج ُل الْبَ لَ ِد‬ ‫ﻫ َذا َر ُج ُل بَلَ ٍد‬ ‫َر ُج ُل الْبَ لَ ِد ﻫ َذا‬ ‫اّللِ ﻫ َذا‬ ُ ‫َر ُس‬ َّ ‫ول‬ Answers for Exercise 1: 1. This is a man. b) Exercise 2: Let us go further with this and take it to the next level. 7. ‫د حسن‬ َ َ َ‫َر ُج ُل الْبَ ل‬ 10. 6. This is a man of a city. 3. 4. ‫اْلَ َس ُن‬ ْ ‫َر ُج ُل الْبَ لَ ِد‬ ِ 9.Types of Nominal Sentences [‫]أنواع اْلمل‬  Additional Practice with Word Constructions and Sentences The following exercises are designed to review principles that were covered for Nominal Sentences and Word Constructions. ‫ت الْغَ ُفور‬ َ ‫إِن‬ َ ْ‫َّك أن‬ ُ ِ ِ 11. 5.

Possession Construction with a Nominal Sentence. Then the third step is to identify the Subject and the Predicate of all embedded sentences. we should go systematically in analysis of the sentence. Then. Relative Pronouns also should be looked at carefully since they are associated with embedded sentences. If the first word is a particle. 69 This methodology is not a novel one. A Nominal Sentence is identified by looking at the first word of the sentence. and has been used in some traditional institutions where Arabic is not a first language. and Jarr Constructions) and merge words together. 83 . If one uses this methodology well. the good man of the city. Describing. Pointing. The second step should be to identify Word Constructions (Possession. then its gender. or verb). From this. If the word is a particle. Methodology for Analyzing Nominal Sentences69 Correctly analyzing and translating a Nominal Sentence requires that one be very familiar with I‛rāb and Word Constructions. Nominal Sentence 11. You are Fāṭimah. definiteness.Types of Nominal Sentences [‫]أنواع اْلمل‬ Answers for Exercise 2: 8. 2. The man of the city is good. If the word is a noun. and then translate the sentence. Please look at the algorithm on the next page detailing the methodology to analyze Nominal Sentences. merge any Word Constructions together. Indeed. and I‛rāb should be identified. For example this methodology was taught to me by my teachers at the online Sunnipath Academy (now Qibla for the Islāmic Sciences). You are All Forgiving. 1. then the next word is examined to see if it is a noun. plurality. IV. 3. and or words joined by connecting particles [‫العطف‬ ‫]حروف‬. mistranslations and errors will be decreased. Describing Construction with Possession Construction. 9. Nominal Sentence (both Subject and Predicate are definite). 10. Merging allows one to simplify analysis of a sentence into grammar units so that the Subject and Predicate can be easily identified. flexibility. Let us examine this methodology. The first step before analyzing the sentence in question. each word should be analyzed thoroughly and be categorized (noun. particle. then it should also be appropriately categorized.

‫ُك ُّل‬ [ُ‫ينُآد َم‬ َ َ‫]ك ُّلُب‬ ِ ‫] َخ حِري ح‬ [ُ‫ني‬ َ ‫ُاْلَطَّائ‬ [‫ن‬ َُ ‫َّوابو‬ َّ ‫= ]الت‬ ‫آد َم‬ َ Possession Construction Possession Construction Merging words Step #4 ID Subject/ Predicate and Translate ‫َخْي ُر‬ 70 ‫کِتاب الزﻫد‬. and the best of those who commit sins are those who seek repentance.Types of Nominal Sentences [‫]أنواع اْلمل‬ Methodology of Analyzing a Nominal Sentence: ِ ْ ‫[ ُك ُّل ب ِِ آدم خطَّاء و خي ر‬Tirmidhi] ‫ي الت ََّّوابُو َن‬ َ ‫اْلَطَّائ‬ َُْ َ َ َ َ َ Step #1 Word Analysis Step #2 Word Construction ‫الت ََّّوابُو َن‬ Ism male properplural definite flexible Raf‛ ِ ْ ‫ي‬ َ ‫اْلَطَّائ‬ Ism male properplural definite flexible Jarr Ism male single indef. 84 .” 70 Sunan Ibn Mājah. flexible Raf‛ ‫َو‬ Connecting particle Possession Construction ‫الت ََّّوابُو َن‬ ‫َخطَّاء‬ Ism male single indefinite flexible Raf‛ ‫َخطَّاء‬ ِ ‫] َخ حِري ح‬ [ُ‫ني‬ َ ‫ُاْلَطَّائ‬ Predicate “Those who repent repeatedly” ِ ‫= ] َخ حِري ح‬ [ُ‫ني‬ َ ‫ُاْلَطَّائ‬ Subject “the best of those who commit sin” Ism male single definite Partially flexible Jarr َِِ‫ب‬ Ism male plural indefinite flexible Jarr Possession Construction [ُ‫ينُآد َم‬ َ َ‫]ب‬ Ism male plural indefinite flexible Raf‛ ‫ُك ُّل‬ Possession Construction [ُ‫ينُآد َم‬ َ َ‫]ك ُّلُب‬ ُ‫َو‬ Connect both sentences “and” [ُ‫= ] َخطَّاء‬ Predicate “those who commit mistakes / sins” [ُ‫ينُآد َم‬ َ َ‫ = ]ك ُّلُب‬Subject “All of the Children of Ādam” “All the Children of Ādam commit sins. Ḥadīth # 4251.

6. Past tense [‫]اَل ِحف حعلُُالحماضي‬ ii. This occurs when any of the root letters of a verb are weak [‫]حروفُاُلحعِلَّة‬. This classification scheme is very simple and is easier for learning Introductory Arabic. Each Verb Family I (based on a specific three-letter root) can have with it. These verbs with extra letters added to its three-letter root is termed [‫يه‬ ُِ ِ‫]اَل ِحف حعلُالثُّالثيُاملَِزيدُف‬. 1.Introduction to Verbs [‫]أفعال‬ Lesson 8: Introduction to Verbs [‫]أَفْعال‬ I. i. other families of verbs added to its three-letter root. These three-letter verbs will be our primary focus. Verbs can be regular or irregular. Three-letter roots [‫حف حعل ُالثُّالثي‬ ُِ ‫]اَل‬: these constitute the majority from verbs. 4. ii. These verb families are termed according to Orientalist classification by Roman Numerals II through X. Four-letter Root [‫الربعي‬ ُّ ُُ‫]اَل ِحف حعل‬: these are not common and are discussed in Volume 2. The weak letters are the following letters: ]ُ ‫ ُا‬/ ‫ ي‬/ ‫ و‬/ ‫ [ أ‬with the additional inclusion if any of the letter has a Shadda [ّ] (or consecutive doubled letters of a three-letter root). 2. which will encompass the entire second half of this book. and thus used in this series. i. At this early stage. Introduction to Verb Classification We have at this point Alhamdulillah reached the halfway point of this book. The three-letter root verb [‫ج َّرُِد‬ َ ‫ ]اَلحف حعلُ ُالثالثيُامل‬will be referred to as Verb Family I in this book to avoid confusion with technical Arabic terminology. We will now start discussion on verbs. Verbs are divided into two types based on Root letters. Each Verb has an associated Verbal Noun [‫ص َدر‬ ‫] َم ح‬. The Verb and its associated three-letter root. Verbs have two different types of conjugations. This is the basic origin of most Arabic words. we recommend not studying the Irregular verbs in detail since they can be 85 . Since Arabic roots are based on verbs. ii. Present/Future tense [‫]اَل ِحف حعلُالحمضارِع‬ 3. Many nouns are derived from this Verbal Noun related to the verb in meaning in some way. even discussions of nouns in many ways are linked to verbs and their derivatives. ِ 5. i.

All other conjugations contain more than three letters. then the student should study the grammar of the Irregular verbs. Once the rules for regular verbs (including higher verb families) are mastered. the [‫ ]فعل‬stem is routinely utilized to derive various conjugations or patterns of both verbs and nouns. 86 . Verbs can be attached to the following pronouns at their ends: i. iii.) All the above act as Direct Objects [‫ ] َم حفعول ُبُِِه‬for the respective verb when attached. Let us take an example of a common verb: [‫ر‬ ُ‫ص‬ َ َ‫]ن‬. Even though other verb conjugations carry more than three letters. it was used to characterize the various broken plural patterns that were discussed earlier.Introduction to Verbs [‫]أفعال‬ confusing. 71 َ 3rd Person Male Verb Root ⇙ ‫صَر‬ َ َ‫ن‬  [‫ ]فَ َعل‬stem َ  [‫ ]ل‬letter is ‫ر‬ [‫ ]ع‬letter [‫ ]ف‬letter is ‫ن‬ is ‫ص‬ ⇘ In Arabic grammar. Recall. which means to help. Specifically. ii. Family I Past tense Verbs Verb Family I. from which most of words of the Arabic language are derived is composed of three basic root letters. iv. II. [ُ‫ُُه‬/ُ‫ُُهم‬/ُُ‫ُُُها‬/ُ‫ُها‬/ُ‫ن‬ َّ ‫]ه‬ ِ ]‫ُُك‬/ُُُ َُ ‫ُُك‬/ُ‫ما‬ ‫ُك‬/ُُ‫[ك َّن‬ [‫ُين‬/ُ‫]ان‬ (Please note that [‫ ]ين‬instead of [‫ ]ي‬is attached to verbs. 7. every conjugation contains the three root letters. the Past Tense of Verb Family I is in its male third person single conjugation.  Using the [‫ ]فعل‬stem71 nomenclature. The Past Tense Verb [‫]اَل ِحف حعلُالحماضي‬ A.

In it. A root verb is the source of numerous words and Verb Families that are connected in by similar meanings. ‫ِعلحم‬ knowledge ‫تَ حع ِليم‬ learning information ِ ُ‫عال‬ ‫اِ حستِ حُعلَ َمات‬ knowledgeable ‫علوم‬ sciences ‫م َعلِم‬ teacher ‫م َعلَّم‬ student inquiry ‫َم حعلوم‬ known ‫اِ حستِ حُعالم‬ ‫َعلَم‬ mark/token B. i. they are found in several different patterns.Introduction to Verbs [‫]أفعال‬  The Root Verb [‫ل‬ َُ ‫ ]فَ َع‬and its derivatives. Ḍammah. For example. َِ ‫ ] َكرم‬are all Verb Family I with the same For example. The middle [‫ ]ع‬letter vowel varies and is key in verb conjugation to the Present Tense form. Verb Conjugation of Past Tense Family I Verbs In review. the basic verb unit is in the third person masculine single past tense form. from the verb [‫( ] َعلِ َُم‬to learn). ii. the verb conjugation has been detailed for Family I Verbs in the past tense based on the [‫ ]فعل‬stem. In the following table. iii. 87 Please note that each . we see that both the first stem [‫ ]ف‬and the third stem [‫ ]ل‬letters carry the Fatḥah vowel. It typically has Fatḥah on the beginning and end letter. Similar to Broken Plurals. the verbs [‫ب‬ َ ‫مس َع‬/ َ َ ‫ضر‬/ َ conjugation. or Kasrah. Each verb has its own distinct Verbal Noun. the following verbs are derived:  ُ‫َعلَّ َم‬ ُ‫أَ حعلَ َم‬ To teach (knowledge) To notify ُ‫اِ حستَ حعلَ َم‬ ُ‫تَ َعلَّ َم‬ To learn To ask for (knowledge) information The verb [‫علِم‬ َ ] also gives rise to other “action” nouns directly and indirectly related َ to its meaning shown in these following words. iv. The middle [‫ ]ع‬stem letter however can carry a Fatḥah. ُ Each verb has its own Verbal Noun [‫ص َدر‬ ‫] َم ح‬.

This contrasts with Present Tense verbs where letters are added on at both the beginning and at the end of the 3-root letters. Perhaps the easier way to memorize the Verb Conjugation Table is to go from right to left starting from the single masculine third person (root) line and then proceeding downwards. You will notice that in the conjugations. Table 27: Verb Conjugation of Past Tense Family I Verbs Plural Dual Singular ‫فَ َعلُ ْوا‬ ‫فَ َعال‬ ‫فَ َع َل‬ 3rd person masculine ‫فَ َع ْل َن‬ ‫فَ َعلَتَا‬ ‫ت‬ ْ َ‫فَ َعل‬ 3rd person feminine ‫فَ َع ْلتُ ْم‬ ‫فَ َع ْلتُ َما‬ ‫ت‬ َ ‫فَ َع ْل‬ 2nd person masculine ‫ت‬ َّ ُ ‫فَ َع ْل‬ ‫فَ َع ْلتُ َما‬ ِ ‫فَع ْل‬ ‫ت‬ َ 2nd person feminine ‫فَ َع ْلنَا‬ ‫فَ َع ْلنَا‬ ‫ت‬ ُ ‫فَ َع ْل‬ 1st person (masculine/feminine) [‫] ُﻫ ْم‬ [‫] ُﻫ َّن‬ ]‫[أَنْتُ ْم‬ ]‫ت‬ َّ ُ ْ‫[أَن‬ ]‫َن ُن‬ َْ [ [‫] ُها‬ [‫ ] ُﻫ َو‬root verb [‫] ُها‬ [‫] ِﻫي‬ َ ]‫[أَنْتُما‬ ]‫ت‬ َ ْ‫[أَن‬ ِ ْ‫[أَن‬ ]‫ت‬ ]‫[أَنْتُما‬ ]‫َن ُن‬ َْ [ ]‫[أََّن‬ 88 . That pronoun is the Doer of the action if the Doer is not mentioned explicitly. additional letters are added on at their ends. the first three root letters remain the same.Introduction to Verbs [‫]أفعال‬ conjugated form reflects a specific pronoun.

Example of Past Tense Conjugation: [‫“ ]فَتَح‬to open” Plural Dual ‫فَتَ ُح ْوا‬ ‫فَتَ َحا‬ َ Singular ‫فَتَ َح‬ 3rd person masculine They (all) opened They (two) opened He opened ‫فَتَ ْح َن‬ They (feminine) opened ‫فَتَ َحتَا‬ They (two) opened ‫ت‬ ْ ‫فَتَ َح‬ She opened 3rd person feminine ‫فَتَ ْحتُ ْم‬ ‫فَتَ ْحتُ َما‬ ‫ت‬ َ ‫فَتَ ْح‬ 2nd person masculine ِ ‫فَتَح‬ ‫ت‬ ْ 2nd person feminine You (all) opened ‫ت‬ َّ ُ ‫فَتَ ْح‬ You (two) opened You (masculine) opened ‫فَتَ ْحتُ َما‬ You (all feminine) opened You two opened You (feminine)opened ‫فَتَ ْحنَا‬ ‫فَتَ ْحنَا‬ ‫ت‬ ُ ‫فَتَ ْح‬ we opened we opened I opened 1st person (masculine/ feminine) D. ﴾‫ي‬ ‫ك قَ َال أَ ََّن َخْي ر ِمْنهُ َخلَ ْقتَِِ ِم ْن ََّن ٍر َو َخلَ ْقتَهُ ِم ْن‬ َ ُ‫ك أََّال تَ ْس ُج َد إِ ْذ أ ََم ْرت‬ َ ‫﴿قَ َال َما َمنَ َع‬ “[Allah] said..”(6:1) ٍ ‫ِط‬ 2... Please note that any pronoun attached to a verb at its end is its Direct Object. when they commit an immorality or wrong themselves remember Allah. You created me from fire and created him from clay..”(7:12) ِ ِ ‫﴿وٱلَّ ِذ‬ َ ‫ين إ َذا فَ َعلُوا فَاح َشةا أ َْو ظَلَ ُموا أَنْ ُف َس ُه ْم ذَ َك ُروا‬ َ َ 3. "What prevented you from prostrating when I commanded you?" [Shayṭān] said. you should be able to identify most Past Tense verbs.. pay attention to the highlighted Past Tense verbs. ﴾.‫ّلل‬ َّ ‫ٱ‬ “And those who. ﴾. ِ ِ َّ ‫﴿ٱ ْْلم ُد َِّّللِ ٱلَّ ِذي خلَق ٱ‬ َ ‫لس َم َاوات َوٱْأل َْر‬ َ َ َْ َ َ ‫ض َو َج َع َل ٱلظُّلُ َمات‬ 1.. "I am better than him.‫ٱلطُّور‬ َ ‫َخ ْذ ََّن ِميثَاقَ ُك ْم َوَرفَ ْعنَا فَ ْوقَ ُك ُم‬ َ ‫﴿ َوإِ ْذ أ‬ “And [recall] when We took your covenant.. who created the heavens and the earth and made the darkness and the light...Introduction to Verbs [‫]أفعال‬ C. ﴾. Examples of Past Tense Verbs in the Qur’ān After thoroughly reviewing the Past Tense conjugation tables.‫وٱلنُّور‬ “All praise is [due] to Allah. and We raised over you the mount )2:63(”.”(3:135) 4. In the following examples. Do not confuse the Direct Object with the extra letters that cannot be separated from a particular conjugation. 89 .

if a word starts with the letter [‫]ي‬. Perhaps the easiest way to memorize the following Present Tense Conjugation Table is going from top to bottom and moving left. The following nouns begin with the letter [‫]ي‬: [‫ُيَوم‬/‫َُيِني‬/‫تيم‬ َ َ‫ُي‬/‫ُيَِقني‬/‫ُي حسر‬/‫[يَسري‬. Learning the two verb conjugation tables in this lesson should allow you to conjugate most Family I Verbs fully in all forms in the past or present tense. This is unlike the Past or Command Tenses that do not take I‛rāb.. Another distinct characteristic of Present Tense verbs is that they take an I‛rāb.Introduction to Verbs [‫]أفعال‬ َ ‫﴿تِْل‬ ْ َ‫ت ََلَا َما َك َسب‬ ْ َ‫ك أ َُّمة قَ ْد َخل‬ َ ‫ت َولَ ُك ْم‬ 5. Like nouns. it is essential that the student study and memorize the assigned high-yield verbs from the “80% of Qur’ānic Vocabulary” collection. This differentiation depends on context. and you will have what you have earned…”(2:134) III. The Present Tense Verb [‫]اَل ُِحف حُعلُُا ُملحمضارِع‬ Present Tense verb conjugates have extra letters attached to the front and the end of their root letters. Please note that Present Tense verbs can sometimes actually refer to the Future Tense.‫كسْب تُم‬ َ ‫ما‬ ْ َ “That was a nation which has passed on. Please note that conjugation of Irregular Verbs also utilizes these two tables with some modification(s) due to vowel letters. The Jarr case does not exist for verbs just as the Jazm does not exist for nouns. Verb Conjugation of ]‫[اَل ِحف حعلُالحمضارِع‬ It is essential to memorize the past and present verb conjugation Tables completely before moving forward. Recall that Past Tense verbs add extra letters only to the ends of their 3-letter roots. you can assume it a verb because very few nouns start with [‫]ي‬.. These particles are discussed at the end of Lesson 10. very few verbs actually have the [‫ ]ي‬letter root as their first [‫ ]ف‬stem letter. A. the particles [‫س‬ َُ ] or [‫ف‬ َُ ‫ ] َس حو‬placed directly before the respective Present Tense verb. the “default” I‛rāb for Present Tense verbs is Raf‛. A Present Tense Verb goes into Naṣb or Jazm when a Ḥarf acts on it (such as a Ḥarf Naṣb or Ḥarf Jazm). To be proficient in verb conjugation. To specify the Future Tense without ambiguity. ﴾. Please note that although most Present Tense verbs begin with the letter [‫]ي‬. 90 . The conjugation of Irregular Verbs is discussed in depth in “Volume 2”. Knowing the Past and Present Tense Tables furthermore allows the student to theoretically conjugate verbs of all 3-letter roots in addition to their Verb Families (I through X). Present Tense verbs start with one of the following letters: [‫ُن‬/ُ‫ُت‬/ُ‫ُُأ‬/ُ‫] ي‬. It will have what it earned. There.

Introduction to Verbs [‫]أفعال‬ B. Example of Present Tense Conjugation: [‫ح‬ َُ َ‫“ ]فَ ت‬to open” Plural Dual Single ‫يَ ْفتَ ُحو َن‬ ِ َ‫ي ْفت‬ ‫حان‬ َ ‫يَ ْفتَ ْح َن‬ ِ َ‫تَ ْفت‬ ‫حان‬ ‫تَ ْفتَ ُحو َن‬ ِ َ‫تَ ْفت‬ ‫حان‬ ‫تَ ْفتَ ُح‬ 2nd person masculine ‫تَ ْفتَ ْح َن‬ ِ َ‫تَ ْفت‬ ‫حان‬ ِ ‫ي‬ َ ‫تَ ْفتَح‬ 2nd person feminine ‫نَ ْفتَ ُح‬ ‫نَ ْفتَ ُح‬ ‫أَفْ تَ ُح‬ 1st person (masculine/feminine) [‫] ُﻫ ْم‬ [‫] ُﻫ َّن‬ ]‫[أَنْتُ ْم‬ ]‫ت‬ َّ ُ ْ‫[أَن‬ ]‫َن ُن‬ َْ [ ‫يَ ْفتَ ُح‬ 3rd person masculine ‫تَ ْفتَ ُح‬ 3rd person feminine [‫] ُها‬ [‫ ] ُﻫ َو‬root verb [‫] ُها‬ [‫] ِﻫي‬ َ ]‫[أَنْتُما‬ ]‫ت‬ َ ْ‫[أَن‬ ِ ْ‫[أَن‬ ]‫ت‬ ]‫[أَنْتُما‬ ]‫َن ُن‬ َْ [ ]‫[أََّن‬ 91 . Verb Conjugation of [‫]الفعل املضارع‬ Table 28: Verb Conjugation of Present tense Family I Verbs [‫]الفعلُاملضارع‬ Plural Dual Single ‫يَ ْف َعلُو َن‬ ِ ‫ي ْفع‬ ‫الن‬ ََ ‫يَ ْف َع ْل َن‬ ِ ‫تَ ْفع‬ ‫الن‬ َ ‫تَ ْف َعلُو َن‬ ِ ‫تَ ْفع‬ ‫الن‬ َ ‫تَ ْف َع ُل‬ ‫تَ ْف َع ْل َن‬ ِ ‫تَ ْفع‬ ‫الن‬ َ ِ ‫ي‬ َ ‫تَ ْف َعل‬ 2nd person feminine ‫نَ ْف َع ُل‬ ‫نَ ْف َع ُل‬ ‫أَفْ َع ُل‬ 1st person (masculine/ feminine) [‫] ُﻫ ْم‬ [‫] ُﻫ َّن‬ ]‫[أَنْتُ ْم‬ ]‫ت‬ َّ ُ ْ‫[أَن‬ ]‫َن ُن‬ َْ [ [‫] ُها‬ ‫يَ ْف َع ُل‬ 3rd person masculine ‫تَ ْف َع ُل‬ ِ 3rd person feminine [‫ ] ُﻫ َو‬root verb [‫] ُها‬ [‫]ﻫي‬ َ ]‫[أَنْتُما‬ 2nd person masculine ]‫ت‬ َ ْ‫[أَن‬ ِ ْ‫[أَن‬ ]‫ت‬ ]‫[أَنْتُما‬ ]‫َن ُن‬ َْ [ ]‫[أََّن‬ C.

Let us look at the following rules to clarify this. which often changes when switching between past and present tense for any specific verb. the student should be able to conjugate all forms detailed on Tables 27 and 28. Converting Past Tense Verbs to Present Tense ‫اَل ِحف حعلُالحماضي‬ ‫اَل ِحف حعلُالحمضارِع‬ ‫فَ َع َل‬ ‫يَ ْفعُ ُل‬ ‫يَ ْف َع ُل‬ ‫فَعِ َل‬ ‫فَعُ َل‬ ‫يَ ْفعُ ُل‬ ‫يَ ْفعِ ُل‬ ‫يَ ْف َع ُل‬ 1. By memorizing these two conjugations. the middle letter can take a Fatḥah. Thus. The one correct form for these three verbs is highlighted in red below. There is one caveat however. Relationship between Past and Present Tense verbs When studying any respective verb.Introduction to Verbs [‫]أفعال‬ D. For Past Tense verbs with a Fatḥah on the middle [‫ ]ع‬letter. Kasrah. That is the issue of the middle [‫ ]ع‬vowel. Each of the following verbs below with a [‫ ]ع‬Fatḥah vowel are found in only one of three possible Present Tense patterns. or Ḍammah in the Present Tense. ‫صَر‬ َ َ‫ن‬ ⇙  ‫ب‬ َ َ ‫ضَر‬ ⇘  ⇙ ‫فَتَ َح‬ ⇘ ⇙ ِ ‫ص ُر‬ ْ َ‫ب ي‬ ْ َ‫ب ي‬ ْ َ‫يَ ْفتُ ُح ي‬ َ ‫ص ُر يَْن‬ ُ ‫ب يَْنص ُر يَْن‬ ُ ‫ضَر‬ ُ ‫ض ِر‬ ُ ‫ض ُر‬ ✗ ✓ ✗ ✗ ✓ 92 ✗ ✗  ⇘ ‫يَ ْفتِ ُح يَ ْفتَ ُح‬ ✓ ✗ . it is essential to memorize the Root form (Past Tense 3rd person male singular form) and its Present Tense counterpart. in these cases the [‫ ]ع‬letter vowel on the Present Tense verb needs to be memorized since there is no set pattern.

. But.. this principle is often ِ . An example of this verb is [‫ب‬ َ َ ‫]حس‬ َ َ take either Kasrah or Fatḥah vowel. if you take any random Present Tense verb whose [‫ ]ع‬letter has a Fatḥah.‫كم‬ ُ ‫وإِ ََّي‬ ْ “And how many a creature carries not its provision. Look at the examples below. why do you disbelieve in the verses of Allah while Allah is Witness over what you do?”(3:98) 72 It is allowed that Verbs with a Kasrah on the [‫ ]ع‬in past tense yields a Kasrah in the present tense but this is rare. Please see the examples below. ]‫كرَم‬ َ ‫[ي ْكرُم‬  ُ ُ َ ]‫صر‬ ُ ‫[يَْب‬ َ ُ َ‫ب‬‫ص ُر‬  3..”(59:12) ٍ ِ ِ ِ ِ َ ‫﴿ َوَكأَي ْن م ْن َدابَّة َال ََْتم ُل رْزقَ َها ٱ َّّللُ يَ ْرُزقُ َها‬ 2. Examples of Present Tense Verbs from the Qur’ān ِ ِ ِ ْ ‫﴿لَئ ْن أ‬ ْ ُ َ ‫ُخ ِر ُجوا َال ََيُْر ُجو َن َم َع ُه ْم َولَئ ْن قُوتلُوا َال‬ 1. even in the Qur’ān. then the middle letter takes a Fatḥah in the Present Tense. they will not leave with them. Please note that this does not work in the opposite direction as most random Present Tense verbs with a [‫ ]ع‬Ḍammah actually have a [‫ ]ع‬Fatḥah in the Past Tense.Introduction to Verbs [‫]أفعال‬  One trick to aid in memorizing Past Tense verbs is knowing the following principle: In Past Tense verbs where the [‫ ]ع‬letter takes a Fatḥah and where one of its last two letters is a letter of the throat [‫ُخ‬/ُ‫ُح‬/ُ‫ُُغ‬/ُ‫ُع‬/ُ‫ُه‬/ُ‫]ء‬. ‫ َِمس َع‬‫يَ ْس َم ُع‬ ‫ َعلِ َم‬ُ‫يَ ْعلَ ُم‬ E.   ]َ‫[قَرأ‬ َ ]‫[ج َعل‬ َ َ  [ُ‫]ي ْقرأ‬ ََ  [‫ُي َعل‬ ُ َْ ] 2. they will not aid them. ﴾. Allah provides for it and for you …”(29:60) ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ َ ‫﴿قُ ْل ََي أ َْﻫ َل ٱلْكتَاب َّلَ تَ ْك ُف ُرو َن ِب ََيت ٱّلل َوٱّللُ َشهيد َعلَى َما‬ 3. In fact. and if they are fought. the [‫ ]ع‬takes a Fatḥah in the Present Tense 72 with rare exception .g. ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫تَ ْعملُو‬ “O people of the book.. the [‫ ]ع‬letter always takes a Ḍammah in the Present Tense. Please again note that this principle often does not work in the opposite direction.‫صرونَ ُهم‬ ُ ‫ي ْن‬ “If they are expelled. 93 . For example..   e. The examples below illustrate this principle of the Past Tense [‫ ]ع‬Ḍammah.. since it can mentioned in Grammar books. its Past Tense [‫ ]ع‬letter is usually a Fatḥah. the verb [‫ ]ح ِسب‬takes a Fatḥah as an [‫ ]ع‬vowel. ﴾. Please refer to the last row of Table 29 on next page for example of their conjugation. For Past Tense verbs with a Ḍammah on the [‫ ]ع‬letter. For Past Tense verbs with a Kasrah on the ]‫[ع‬letter.

.. Vast majority of Past Tense verbs with a [‫ ]ع‬Kasrah yield a Present Tense verb with a [‫ ]ع‬Fatḥah.Introduction to Verbs [‫]أفعال‬ 4. 73 74 In the above noted table. This is because these two verbs are in the Naṣb state due to the Ḥarf [‫]أَ ْن‬.”(109:2) 5. please focus on the first three columns on the right for now. The other columns to the left are further discussed in later lessons of the book.Conjugation of All Family I Forms74 ]‫ج َّرد‬ َ ‫[اَلحف حعلُالثُّالثيُالحم‬ ‫اِ حسمُ ُاملَحفعول‬ ِ ‫اِسمُال‬ ‫فاعل‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ص َدر‬ ‫َم ح‬ ِ ‫الفعلُاْل حَمر‬ ‫املُضارِع‬ ‫املاضي‬ ‫فَ َع َل‬ ‫ب‬ َ َ‫َكت‬ Passive Noun Doer Noun Verbal Noun Command Present ‫َم ْفعُ ْول‬ ‫َمكْتُ ْوب‬ ِ َ‫ف‬ ‫اعل‬ ‫َكاتِب‬ ِ َ‫ف‬ ‫اعل‬ ‫َجالِس‬ ِ َ‫ف‬ ‫اعل‬ ‫ذَ ِاﻫب‬ ِ َ‫ف‬ ‫اعل‬ ‫فِ ْعل‬ ‫كِتَابَة‬ ‫فِ ْعل‬ ‫َجلُ ْوس‬ ‫فَ ْعل‬ ‫ذَ َﻫاْب‬ ‫اُفْ عُ ْل‬ ‫ب‬ ْ ُ‫اُ ْكت‬ ‫اِفْعِ ْل‬ ِ ِ ‫س‬ ْ ‫ا ْجل‬ ‫اِفْ َع ْل‬ ِ ‫ب‬ ْ ‫ا ْذ َﻫ‬ ‫يَ ْفعُ ُل‬ ‫ب‬ ُ ُ‫يَكْت‬ ‫يَ ْفعِ ُل‬ ِ ‫س‬ ُ ‫َُْيل‬ ‫يَ ْف َع ُل‬ ‫ب‬ ُ ‫يَ ْذ َﻫ‬ ‫يَ ْفعُ ُل‬ ‫يَكْبُ ُر‬ ‫َم ْفعُ ْول‬ ‫ََْملُ ْوس‬ ‫َم ْفعُ ْول‬ ‫َم ْذ ُﻫ ْوب‬ ‫َم ْفعُ ْول‬ ‫َمكْبُ ْور‬ ‫َم ْفعُ ْول‬ ‫َم ْش ُرْوب‬ ‫َم ْفعُ ْول‬ ‫َمْي ئُ ْوس‬ ‫َكابِر‬ ِ َ‫ف‬ ‫اعل‬ ‫َشا ِرب‬ ِ َ‫ف‬ ‫اعل‬ ‫ََيئِس‬ ‫فُ ْعل‬ ‫ُكْب ر‬ ‫فَ ْعل‬ ‫َش ْرب‬ ‫فَ ْعل‬ ‫يَْئس‬ ‫اُفْ عُ ْل‬ ‫اُ ْكبُ ْر‬ ‫اِفْ َع ْل‬ ِ ‫ب‬ ْ ‫ا ْشَر‬ ‫اِفْعِ ْل‬ ِِ ‫س‬ ْ ‫ايْئ‬ ‫يَ ْف َع ُل‬ ‫ب‬ ُ ‫يَ ْشَر‬ ‫يَ ْفعِ ُل‬ ِ‫ي يئ‬ ‫س‬ ُ َْ Past ‫فَ َع َل‬ ‫س‬ َ َ‫َجل‬ ‫فَ َع َل‬ ‫ب‬ َ ‫ذَ َﻫ‬ ‫فَعُ َل‬ ‫َكبُ َر‬ ‫فَعِ َل‬ ‫ب‬ َ ‫َش ِر‬ ‫فَعِ َل‬ ِ‫يئ‬ ‫س‬ َ َ [‫ ]ع‬Vowel Variations in Past/Present Past Present Past Present ‫ﹷ‬ ‫ﹻ‬ Past Present Past Present Past Present Past75 Present ‫ﹷ‬ ‫ﹷ‬ ‫ﹹ‬ ‫ﹻ‬ ‫ﹻ‬ ‫ﹹ‬ ‫ﹷ‬ ‫ﹹ‬ ‫ﹷ‬ ‫ﹻ‬ Please note that for the verbs [‫ ]نَْت ُرَك‬and [‫ ]نَ ْف َع َل‬have a Fatḥah at the end instead of the Ḍammah. The columns on the left show the conjugation of the Doer. 94 .‫شاء‬ َ َ‫ن‬ ُ ‫آِب ُؤ ََّن أ َْو أَن نَّ ْف َع َل ِف أ َْم َوالِنَا َما‬ َ ُ‫َصالَت‬ َ ‫بأ‬ َ ‫ك ََتْ ُم ُرَك أَن ن َّْت ُرَك َما يَ ْعبُ ُد‬ ُ ‫﴿قَالُواْ ََي ُش َعْي‬ “They said.. ﴾. the Passive Noun.”(11:87)73 ِ Table 29 . These are all intrinsically related to its Type I Verb by meaning. does your prayer command you that we should leave what our fathers worship or not do with our wealth what we please?. These are discussed later in Lesson 11. ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫تَ ْعب ُدو‬ ُ ‫﴿َال أ َْعبُ ُد َما‬ “I do not worship what you worship. and the Verbal Noun. "O Shu'ayb. 75 This [‫ ]ع‬vowel variation is not common and thus not discussed earlier..

The Verbal Sentence [‫]اْلملة الفعلية‬ Lesson 9: The Verbal Sentence [ُ‫]اَ ْْلُ ْملَةُ الْ ِف ْعلِيَّة‬ I. Zaid wrote a book. it is important to focus on the most common “mainstream” grammar principles before looking at variances and exceptions. the verb is typically followed directly by the Doer [‫فاعل‬ َ applicable. Introduction to Verbal Sentences A Verbal Sentence [‫ ]َجلَة ُفعلية‬is a sentence that starts with a verb. He wrote it. ‫ب‬ َ َ‫َكت‬ ‫ب َزيْد‬ َ َ‫َكت‬ ِ ‫تاِب‬ ‫ب َزيْد ك ا‬ َ َ‫َكت‬ ِ ‫تاب‬ َ ‫ب َزيْد الْك‬ َ َ‫َكت‬ ‫َكتَ بَهُ َزيْد‬ ُ‫َكتَ بَه‬ ‫ب كِتاِبا َو ِرسالَةا‬ َ َ‫َكت‬ ُ‫ما َكتَ بَه‬ ِ ‫تاب‬ َ ‫ب الْك‬ َ َ‫َﻫ ْل َكت‬ ِ ‫غري الْيَ ْوَم‬ َّ ‫تاب‬ َ ‫ب َزيْد الك‬ َ ‫الص‬ َ َ‫َكت‬ 95 He wrote. 2. In a Verbal Sentence. Zaid wrote. They come in the Past Tense. the specified Doer will follow the Direct Object (as opposed to the Direct Object coming after the Doer). In a Verbal ِ ]. Zaid wrote it. and then a Direct Object [‫ ]م حفعول ُبُِِه‬if Sentence. He did not write it Did he write the book? Zaid wrote the small book today. Doer. This is in contrast to a Nominal Sentence that starts with a noun. Zaid wrote the book. deviation from the default sequence of the Verb. Furthermore. In Arabic. 9. 8. Please note that neither the Doer nor the Direct Object needs to be mentioned to form a grammatically correct Verbal Sentence. two of which have been studied. verbs can come in one of three tenses. Let us look at the following grammatically correct Verbal Sentences to get some familiarity. 10. the Doer is always Raf‛ while the Direct Object is always Naṣb. In this case. 7. or the Command Tense (Lesson 10). Present Tense. 5. . 4. 6. In general. but occurs usually for specific rhetorical benefits. and Direct Object in a Verbal Sentence is possible. He wrote a book and a letter. 3. Again. 1. please remember that any pronoun attached to the end of a verb is its Direct Object.

and #13.”(2:118) 96 . nor a Direct Object. ‫]َجلة‬. In examples #10. This is because all actions (active) require a Doer. 12. In examples #8 and #9. 2. either as a pronoun or as a specified noun. In this case. "Why does Allah not speak to us or there come to us a sign?" Thus spoke those before them like their words. The following rules occur when the Doer of a Verb in the third person conjugation is explicitly mentioned. In sentence #1 on the previous page. we see a Verbal Sentence with no Doer specified. but differ in the details that they contain.The Verbal Sentence [‫]اْلملة الفعلية‬ ِ ‫غري ف بَْيتِ ِه الْيَ ْوَم‬ َّ ‫تاب‬ َ ‫ب َزيْد الك‬ َ ‫الص‬ َ َ‫َكت‬ ُ‫يَكْتُبُه‬ ِ ُ‫يَكْتُبُهُ َغ ادا إ ْن شاءَ هللا‬ 11. dual or plural. In a [‫فعلية‬ 1. whether explicit or implicit. He will write it tomorrow Inshā Allah. but is mentioned in later sentences. the Doer is [‫ ]ه َُو‬and is implied (not explicitly mentioned like in sentence #2). we see that using particles in front of verbs are allowed in Verbal Sentences. The most important detail that should be identified first in any Verbal Sentence after analyzing the verb is the Doer. 13. Both the verb with its corresponding Doer are highlighted. ِ ] is explicitly the verb always appears in the singular form when the Doer [‫فاعل‬ mentioned. After identifying the Doer. ﴾ ِ َّ ِ ِ ِ َّ ‫ين ِمن قَ ْبلِ ِهم ِمثْ َل قَ ْوَلِِ ْم‬ َ ‫ين الَ يَ ْعلَ ُمو َن لَ ْوالَ يُ َكل ُمنَا ٱّللُ أ َْو ََتْتِينَا آيَة َك َذل‬ َ ‫ك قَ َال ٱلذ‬ َ ‫﴿ َوقَ َال ٱلذ‬ “Those who do not know say. Zaid wrote a small book in his home today. The gender of the verb matches that of the Doer. All of the previous sentences are correct Verbal Sentences. there is extra detail provided regarding the time when an action is occurring. i. He is writing it. Verbal Sentence with Explicit Subject (Third Person) Verbal Sentences with verbs using the third person conjugation follow certain specific rules that the student needs to be familiar with. whether is single. #11.  Let us look at the examples below to exemplify these principles. II. the Direct Object should be sought. This extra detail comes after mention of respective Doer and Direct Object. The Direct Object is not mentioned at all in sentences #1 or #2.

" But whoever relies upon Allah then indeed.  ِ ] for the verb [‫ ]كانَتا‬underlined represents In example (i). we will follow that which we found our fathers doing." they say. the same conjugation is used in the next Verbal Sentence initiated by [‫]خانَتا‬." Even though their fathers understood nothing. Later on in the āyah.”(8:49) 3. if you should be believers." ”(5:23) iii. [‫فاعل‬ You will note that the conjugated verb necessarily matches the corresponding pronoun. where the Condition is marked by the particle [‫]إِذا‬. "Enter upon them through the gate. Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise. "Rather. the āyah actually starts by a Conditional Statement. Later on. The overall context of the āyah makes it clear the actual identity of the [‫]ُها‬  pronoun. "Follow what Allah has revealed. Specifically [‫ ]ُها‬refers to “wife of Nūḥ and the wife of Lūṭ” from what is highlighted before the Verbal Sentence that begins with [‫]كانَتا‬. ِ َّ ِ ‫ين ِف قُلُوبِِم َّمَرض َغَّر َﻫ ُؤالَِء ِدينُ ُه ْم َوَمن يَتَ َوَّك ْل َعلَى ٱّللِ فَِإ َّن ٱّللَ َع ِزيز‬ ُ ‫﴿إِ ْذ يَ ُق‬ َ ‫ول ٱلْ ُمنَاف ُقو َن َوٱلذ‬ ِ‫ح‬ ﴾ ‫كيم‬ َ “[Remember] when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts was disease said. ِ ِ ِ ‫آِب ُؤُﻫ ْم الَ يَ ْع ِقلُو َن َشْيئا‬ َ ‫يل ََلُُم ٱتَّبِعُوا َما أ‬ َ ‫آِبءَ ََّن أ ََولَ ْو َكا َن‬ َ ‫َنزَل ٱّللُ قَالُواْ بَ ْل نَتَّبِ ُع َما أَلْ َفْي نَا َعلَْيه‬ َ ‫﴿ َوإ َذا ق‬ ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫َوالَ يَ ْهتَ ُدو‬ “And when it is said to them. you will be predominant.The Verbal Sentence [‫]اْلملة الفعلية‬ ii. "Their religion has deluded those [Muslims]. ِ َّ ِ ِ ‫اب فَِإ َذا َد َخ ْلتُ ُموهُ فَِإنَّ ُك ْم َغالِبُو َن‬ َ َ‫ين ََيَافُو َن أَنْ َع َم ٱّللُ َعلَْي ِه َما ْٱد ُخلُواْ َعلَْي ِه ُم ٱلْب‬ َ ‫﴿ قَ َال َر ُجالَن م َن ٱلذ‬ ِ ِِ ﴾‫ي‬ َ ‫َو َعلَى ٱّلل فَتَ َوَّكلُواْ إِن ُكنتُم ُّم ْؤمن‬ “Said two men from those who feared upon whom Allah had bestowed favor. In example (ii). 97 . Contrast the above with these following examples of Verbal Sentences which have no explicit ِ ] mentioned. specifically from “And when it is said to them…”. The verb [‫ ]قَالوا‬is on the conjugation of [‫]ه حُم‬. This again implicitly refers to “wife of Nūḥ and the wife of Lūṭ”. for when you have entered it. and the Response is marked by the verb [‫]قَالوا‬. nor were they guided?”(2:170) iv. The identity of [‫ ]ه حُم‬here can be extracted from words before the Verbal Sentence [‫]قَالوا‬. please note that the implied [‫فاعل‬ [‫]ُها‬. And upon Allah rely.

َ‫آِب ُؤُﻫ ْم ال‬ َ ‫آِبءَ ََّن أ ََولَ ْو َكا َن‬ َ ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫يَ ْع ِقلُو َن َشْيئا َوالَ يَ ْهتَ ُدو‬ ِ ِ ‫َنزَل ٱّللُ قَالُواْ بَ ْل نَتَّبِ ُع َما أَلْ َفْي نَا َعلَْي ِه‬ َ ‫يل ََلُُم ٱتَّبِعُوا َما أ‬ َ ‫َوإ َذا ق‬ ﴿ “And when it is said to them." they say. the [‫ ]ه حُم‬is actually extracted from the following “Even though their fathers…. it will curse its sister. They were under two of Our righteous servants but betrayed them.The Verbal Sentence [‫]اْلملة الفعلية‬ we see the Present Tense verbs [‫ن‬ َُ ‫ ]ْلَ ُيَ حع ِقلو‬and [‫]ْلَ ُيَ حهتَدو َُن‬. 2.. i. Examples from the Qur’ān [‫]َجلَةُفعلية‬ َِّ ‫﴿ فَهزموﻫم ِبِِ ْذ ِن‬ ُ ‫اّلل َوقَتَ َل َد ُاو‬ َ ‫ود‬ ْ ُ َُ َ 1. it is essential to pay attention to the overall sentence. To keep track of the identity of the various implied Doers.‫ُختَ َها‬ ْ‫أ‬ ‫ت‬ ْ َ‫ت أ َُّمة لَ َعن‬ ْ َ‫ ُكلَّ َما َد َخل‬. we need to improve proficiency in identifying the Doer and Direct Object.﴿ “…Every time a nation enters.”. Each verb essentially represents an individual Verbal Sentence. nor were they guided?”(2:170) III." Even though their fathers understood nothing.. and it was said. Let us take more examples of Verbal Sentences from the Qur’ān. in this case..‫وت‬ َ ُ‫جال‬ “So they defeated them by permission of Allah... the verb is followed directly by the Doer when mentioned explicitly. However. For these two verbs."”(66:10) ii. ِ ‫وط َكانَتا ََتت عب َدي ِن ِمن ِعب ِاد ََّن ص‬ ِِ ٍ ُ‫وح وٱمرأَت ل‬ ِ َْ‫اْل‬ ‫ي‬ َّ ‫ب‬ َ ﴿ َ َ ْ َ ٍ ُ‫َت ن‬ َ ‫ين َك َف ُروا ْٱمَرأ‬ َ َ ْ ْ َْ َ ْ َ َ ‫ضَر‬ َ ‫ٱّللُ َمثَ اال للَّذ‬ ِِ ِ‫ٱّللِ شي ئا وق‬ ِ ِ ﴾‫ي‬ ُ َ‫فَ َخانَت‬ َ ‫َّار َم َع ٱلدَّاخل‬ َ ‫يل ْٱد ُخ َال ٱلن‬ َ َ ‫اهَا فَلَ ْم يُ ْغنيَا َعْن ُه َما م َن َّ َ ْ ا‬ “Allah presents an example of those who disbelieved: the wife of Nūḥ and the wife of Lūṭ. "Rather. The Doer is highlighted red while the Direct Object is blue. The Doer is always Raf‛ while the Direct Object is always Naṣb. Please remember that there is often more than one Verbal Sentence embedded in an āyah. ﴾ . Identifying the Doer and Direct Object in Verbal Sentences In Verbal Sentences. "Enter the Fire with those who enter. we will follow that which we found our fathers doing. ﴾. both on the conjugation [‫]ه حُم‬. As we go through more Verbal Sentences.. so those prophets did not avail them from Allah at all. and Dawūd killed Jālūṭ” (2:251). "Follow what Allah has revealed. and then a Direct Object [‫ ] َم حفعول ُبُِِه‬if applicable.. The verb is underlined.”(7:38) 98 . the [‫ ]ه حُم‬that they are referring to is not the same as for [‫]قَالوا‬.

Only verbs which are Transitive [‫حف حعلُ ُاملتَ َع ِدي‬ ُِ ‫]اَل‬. or the ability of a verb to transfer the action onto another thing. the Jarr Construction [‫ ] َعلَىُالك حر ِسي‬is termed [‫] ِشحُبهُ ُاجلُ حملَة‬.The Verbal Sentence [‫]اْلملة الفعلية‬ 3. We have discussed the Direct Object.. On the other hand. or [‫حف حعلُُالُلَّ ِزم‬ ُِ ‫]اَل‬. the action of sitting is associated with a chair by the particle “on”. O Ibrāhīm?”(21:62) ٍ ‫ِط‬ 4. the Ḥarf Jarr [‫ ] َعلَى‬is used to َ link sitting with a chair. or [‫] َم حفعولُبُِِه‬. She is happy.”(29:60) IV. These types of verbs cannot take a Direct Object..‫كم‬ ُ ‫وإِ ََّي‬ ْ “And how many a creature carries not its provision. Examples are the following: We went to a place. You created me from fire and created him from clay. Here. Allah provides for it and for you. in the sentence “He sat on a chair”. For example. The correct sentence is [‫ُعلَىُالك حر ِسي‬ َ ‫] َجلَس‬. they can be associated with another noun. Even though Intransitive Verbs cannot take a direct object. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs: ]‫الال ِزم‬ َُّ ُُ‫[اَل ِحف حعلُُالحمتَُ َع ِدي] & [اَل ِحف حعل‬ One important division of verbs is based on Transitivity. Here. She is drinking water. or entity. Intransitive. "I am better than him. Please note the following examples where the Indirect Object is highlighted. 99 . He sat on the chair.”(7:12) َّ ‫﴿ َوَكأَيِ ْن ِم ْن َدابٍَّة َال ََْت ِم ُل ِرْزقَ َها‬ َ ‫ٱّللُ يَ ْرُزقُ َها‬ 5.. ﴾ ‫ت َﻫ َذا ِِب َِلَتِنَا ََي إِبْ َر ِاﻫ ُيم‬ َ ‫ت فَ َع ْل‬ َ ْ‫﴿ قَالُوا أَأَن‬ “They said: "Are you the one who has done this to our gods. “He sat chair”. They wrote. ﴾. "What prevented you from prostrating when I commanded you?" [Shaytān] said. we will term this the Indirect Object for the sake of simplicity. It would be improper to say. can take a Direct Object. This occurs through a Ḥarf Jarr. In this sentence. ﴾‫ي‬ ‫ك قَ َال أَ ََّنْ َخْي ر ِمْنهُ َخلَ ْقتَِِ ِمن ََّّن ٍر َو َخلَ ْقتَهُ ِمن‬ َ ُ‫ك أَالَّ تَ ْس ُج َد إِ ْذ أ ََم ْرت‬ َ ‫﴿ قَ َال َما َمنَ َع‬ “[Allah] said. those verbs that cannot transfer its action onto another thing or entity are termed. Common examples of Transitive Verbs are the following: He hit.

"We believe. For example. and the verbal meaning is incorporated. The exact meaning of the verb can be determined from a classical dictionary such as the Hans Wehr Arabic Dictionary." But they have entered with disbelief. Please also note that Ḥarf Jarr present within a Verbal Sentence need not be connected to the verb. not “He believed with Allah”. Some Verbs can be associated with different Ḥarf Jarr particles to derive a different verbal meaning. For example.”(5:119) ِ ‫إِب ر‬ 3. which means to forgive is associated with a Ḥarf [‫ل‬ ُِ ] even though the verb is transitive.‫بِ ِه‬ ْ‫آؤوُك ْم قَالُواْ َآمنَّا َوقَد َّد َخلُواْ بِٱلْ ُك ْف ِر َوُﻫ ْم قَ ْد َخَر ُجوا‬ ُ ‫﴿ َوإِ َذا َج‬ “And when they come to you. the verb [‫ن‬ َُ ‫آم‬ َ ] means to believe. Nevertheless.Allah being pleased with them. they say.The Verbal Sentence [‫]اْلملة الفعلية‬  Examples of Intransitive verbs and their Indirect Objects 1. the verb [‫]غَ َف َُر‬. and they with Him. ﴾ ِ ‫ك ٱلْ َف ْوُز ٱلْ َع ِظ ُيم‬ َ ‫ضواْ َعْنهُ َذل‬ ُ ‫ َّر ِض َي ٱّللُ َعْن ُه ْم َوَر‬.. This verb is not used without the Ḥarf Jarr when a direct object is mentioned. Sometimes. Intransitive Verbs require association with Ḥarf Jarr whenever associated with nouns in a sentence. we see that Ḥarf Jarr are associated to derive a certain verbal meaning. And this association forms an Indirect Object that functions like a [‫] َم حفعولُبُِِه‬. "We have believed in Allah and what has been revealed to us and what has been revealed to Ibrāhīm )2:136(”. the literal meaning of the particle itself is dropped or not used. The sentence [‫ّلل‬ َُِّ ‫ُب‬ َ ] means “He believed in Allah”.﴿ “... it is important to note that some Transitive Verbs can sometimes also be associated with a Ḥarf Jarr. ﴾. Table 30 shows verbs that are associated with different Ḥarf Jarr.. and may be present as detail within the sentence..‫اﻫيم‬ ْ َِّ ِ‫﴿ قُولُوا آمنَّا ب‬ ِ ِ ِ ِ َ َ َ ‫ٱّلل َوَما أُنْزَل إلَْي نَا َوَما أُنْزَل إ َىل‬ “Say. 100 . ﴾ ..”(5:61) 2. From these principles relating to Intransitive Verbs. and they have certainly left with it. That is the great attainment. but it is inherently associated ِ ‫آم َن‬ with the Ḥarf [‫ب‬ ُِ ].

and in cases of a female Doer. In certain cases.. rain by which to purify you and remove from you76 the evil of Shaytān”(8:11) VI. the female conjugation. He could have taken away their hearing and their sight. Indeed.. It is not essential at this 76 Please note that the verb conjugation Lesson 11.The Verbal Sentence [‫]اْلملة الفعلية‬ Table 30: Verbs with an Associated Ḥarf Jarr ُ‫ب‬ َ ‫ذَ َه‬ ُ‫ب‬ َ َ ‫ض َر‬ to go ِ ‫ب‬ ُ‫ُب‬ َ ‫ذَ َه‬ to take away ‫بُإِىل‬ َ ‫ذَ َه‬ to go toward ُ َ‫ُمث‬ ً‫ال‬ َ َ ‫ض َر‬ َ‫ب‬ ُ‫ُع حن‬ َ ‫ب‬ َ ‫َذ َه‬ to go away ‫ُعلى‬ َ َ ‫ب‬ َ ‫ض َر‬ ‫بُف‬ َ َ ‫ض َر‬ ‫أَتَى‬ to come ِ َ‫أَت‬ ُ‫ىُب‬ ِ‫ب‬ ُ‫ُل‬ َ َ ‫ض َر‬ to bring ُ‫جاء‬ َ to strike to travel through/in to give an example to impose upon to mention/ give example to come ِ ‫جاء‬ ُ‫ُب‬ َ ‫اتبُإِىل‬ َ ‫ُعلى‬ َ ‫ب‬ َ َ‫ات‬ ‫ضى‬ َ َ‫ق‬ ُ‫ني‬ َ َ‫ق‬ َ ‫ضىُبَ ح‬ ‫ىُعلى‬ َ َ‫ق‬ َ ‫ض‬ to bring to repent to accept repentance to decree/fulfill to judge between to kill  Examples from the Qur’ān ِ َ‫ق‬ 1. ﴾‫دير‬ ِ ‫صا ِرِﻫ ْم إِ َّن ٱ َّّلل َعلَى ُك ِل َش ْي ٍء‬ َ ْ‫ب بِ َس ْمع ِه ْم َوأَب‬ َ ‫ َولَ ْو َشاء ٱّللُ لَ َذ َﻫ‬. ِ ِِ ِ ِ ِ َّ ‫﴿ إِ ْذ ي غَ ِشي ُكم ٱلنُّعاس أَمنةا ِمْنه وي ن ِزُل علَي ُكم ِمن‬ ‫ب َعن ُك ْم ِر ْجَز‬ ْ َ َُ َ ُ َ َ َ َ ُ ُ َ ‫ٱلس َماء َماءا ليُطَهَرُكم به َويُ ْذﻫ‬ ِ َ‫ٱلشَّيط‬ ﴾. Passive verbs are discussed in 101 . however. There are a few cases in the Qur’ān when this phenomenon occurs. [‫ب‬ ُ ‫ ]يُ ْذ َﻫ‬represents the Passive verb form.﴿ “…and if Allah had willed..‫اضبا‬ ‫ا‬ ِِ ُ‫ب‬ َ ‫﴿ َو َذا ٱلنُّون إذ ذَّ َﻫ‬ “And [mention] the man of the fish. when he went off in anger…”(21:87) 3. the opposite is true. when the Doer is a male. ﴾.”(2:20) ِ َ‫مغ‬ 2. Allah is over all things competent.. Exceptions to Rules of Verb Conjugation: Broken Plurals In Verbal Sentences..‫ان‬ ْ “[Remember] when He overwhelmed you with drowsiness [giving] security from Him and sent down upon you from the sky. the male conjugation is used.. which has not been studied yet. specifically when the Doer is a Broken Plural.

the preceding verb can come in the form of the singular of the opposite gender. "We have believed.‫َسلَ ْمنَا‬ ْ‫أ‬ ِ ‫اب َآمنَّا قُل ََّّلْ تُ ْؤِمنُوا َولَ ِكن قُولُوا‬ ُ ‫﴿ قَالَت ْٱأل َْعَر‬ ِ ‫نَّ ْف‬ 2.ِ‫اده‬ ِ ِ ِ ِ َّ ِ ْ َ‫﴿ قَال‬ َ ‫ت ََلُْم ُر ُسلُ ُه ْم إن َْن ُن إالَّ بَ َشر مثْ لُ ُك ْم َولَك َّن ٱّللَ ُيَُ ُّن َعلَى َمن يَ َشاءُ م ْن‬ “Their messengers said to them.﴿ ُ ُ‫ات ُم َهاجَرات فَ ْٱمتَحن‬ “…when the believing women come to you as emigrants. "The wife of al-‛Azīz is seeking to seduce her slave boy…”(12:30) 3. you have not [yet] believed. "We are only men like you.. ﴾ .. ﴾ .. but say.." Say.‫ن‬ َّ ِِ‫ِبُِِْيَاِن‬ ٍ ِ ِ ِ ‫ٱّللُ أ َْعلَ ُم‬ َّ ‫وﻫ َّن‬ ُ َ‫ إِ َذا َجاءَ ُك ُم ٱلْ ُم ْؤمن‬. but Allah confers favor upon whom He wills of His servants…”(14:11) 77 This grammatical phenomenon is seen in the Qur’ān and has rhetorical benefits.”(60:10) ِ ‫ِعب‬ 4..‫س ِه‬ ِ ِ ِ ‫اﻫا َعن‬ َ َ‫﴿ َوقَ َال ن ْس َوة ِف ٱلْ َمدينَة ْٱمَرأَةُ ٱلْ َع ِزي ِز تَُرا ِوُد فَت‬ “The bedouins say. while the feminine verb denotes many Doers.The Verbal Sentence [‫]اْلملة الفعلية‬ point to dwell on this principle of exception too much.. ﴾ .”(49:14) “And women in the city said. even though Broken Plurals are grammatically feminine singular. they sometimes can take the opposite gender for rhetorical reasons. The masculine verb denotes the Doers as few in number. So.. 77 If the Subject is a Broken Plural... ﴾ .. 'we have submitted. as this is being mentioned here for completion.. 102 . examine them. 1.

I´râb of Verbs. Examples of verbs in command tense are found in the Vocabulary Section adapted from “80% of Qur’ānic Vocabulary” on the middle 3rd column. The Command Tense can be identified on most verbs by the Alif that they start with. The conjugation rules are also unique for these verbs. 103 . A “command” to someone of a lower hierarchy is a true command. and X all begin with an Alif. and are [‫] َُمحُبىن‬. It is noteworthy to mention that the Command Tense is specific only to the second person. Since we have studied the Past and Present Tenses. and Verbs in the Future Tense I. Important points on Verbs of Command Verbs in the Command Tense do not take an I‛rāb. the Command Tense can now be appropriately studied. which will be discussed here. Verbs of Command have their own unique conjugation. and Verbs in the Future Tense so Lesson 10: The Command Tense ]‫[اَلْ ِف ْع ُل ْاأل َْمر‬. A. verbs can also go into the “command” tense functionally when in the first or third person. 78 Verb families VII. these verbs in first and third person are not [‫ ] َم حبين‬and differ from the Command Tense of second person. Verbs of Command have an important place with respect to Islamic Law since most commands in the Qur’ān and Ḥadīth reflect a religious obligation. Thus. The Verb of Command [‫]اَل ِحف حعلُُاْل حَمر‬ The Command Tense is the third tense that verbs are found in. IX. I‛rāb of Verbs. Furthermore. They do not carry a Sukūn at their end unlike Verbs of Command. Any “command” directed to another person of the same hierarchy is a suggestion or recommendation. Few verbs begin with an Alif that are not in the command tense. This occurs when the Ḥarf Jazm Lām [‫ل‬ ُِ ] acts on a Present Tense verbs in the First or Third Person. the Command Tense is also important with respect to supplication. These verbs occur only in the second person. Any supplication directed towards Allahh is in the command form.78 Please recall that any verb in the Command Tense directed toward Allahh is really a request or a “du’ā”. or “du’ā”. Verbal Particles. VIII. Verbal Particles.The Command Tense [‫]الفعل األمر‬. However.

The Command Tense [‫]الفعل األمر‬, I´râb of Verbs, Verbal Particles, and Verbs in the Future Tense

B. Rules for Conjugating Command Tense from Present Tense [‫]اَل ِحف حعلُالحمضارِع‬

1. Change the verb into Present Tense [‫ ]مضارِع‬form specifically third person single masculine
[ُ‫]يَ حف َعل‬.

2. Replace the [‫ ]ي‬with an Alif [‫]ا‬. The Alif can only take either a Kasrah or Ḍammah, but not
Fatḥah.

3. The vowel on the middle stem [‫ ]ع‬letter on Present Tense [‫ ]مضارِع‬is key.
i.

If verb has Ḍammah on the [‫ ]ع‬letter, the Command Tense beginning Alif and its [‫]ع‬
letter both take the Ḍammah vowel.

ii.

If the verb has Fatḥah on the [‫ ]ع‬letter, the Command Tense beginning Alif takes a
Kasrah and the [‫ ]ع‬letter takes a Fatḥah.

iii.

If the verb has a Kasrah on the [‫ ]ع‬letter, the beginning Command Tense Alif and the
[‫ ]ع‬letter both take the Kasrah vowel.

4. A Sukūn is placed on the last letter to obtain the singular masculine form.
5. Conjugate as needed to the appropriate verb in terms of gender and plurality.
6. The different conjugation schemes for aho Tenntem Coeho are shown below and on the next
page.

C. Conjugation of Command Verbs
Table 31: Converting Verbs to the Command Tense [‫ُاْلَمر‬
ُ‫]اَل ِحف حعل ح‬

ُ‫اَل ِحف حعل‬

ُ‫اَل ِحف حعل‬

Replace [‫] ﻴ‬
with

[ ِ‫ ]ُا‬or [ ُ‫ا‬
ِ‫ا‬

Make last
letter Sākin
(Sukūn)

‫ُاْل حَمر‬
‫اَل ِحف حعل ح‬

‫اِفْعِ ُل‬

ُ‫اِفح ِع حل‬

‫الحماضي‬

‫ُالحمضارِع‬

ُ‫فَ َع َل‬

‫يَ ْف َع ُل‬

ِ‫ا‬

‫اِفْ َع ُل‬

ُ‫اِفح َع حل‬

‫يَ ْفعُ ُل‬

ُ‫ا‬

‫اُفْ عُ ُل‬

ُ‫افح ع حل‬

‫يَ ْف َع ُل‬

ِ‫ا‬

‫اِفْ َع ُل‬

ُ‫اِفح َع حل‬

‫يَ ْفعُ ُل‬

ُ‫ا‬

‫اُفْ عُ ُل‬

ُ‫افح ع حل‬

ُ‫فَ ِع َل‬
ُ‫فَع َل‬

‫يَ ْفعِ ُل‬

104

]

The Command Tense [‫]الفعل األمر‬, I´râb of Verbs, Verbal Particles, and Verbs in the Future Tense

Table 32: Conjugation of Command Verbs [‫ل‬
ُ‫ ]اِفح َع ح‬and [‫]اِفح ِع حُل‬
plural

Dual

single

masculine

‫اِ ْع َملُوا‬

‫اِ ْع َمال‬

‫اِ ْع َم ْل‬

feminine

‫اِ ْع َم ْل َن‬

‫اِ ْع َمال‬

‫اِ ْع َملِي‬

masculine

ِ
‫ض ِربُوا‬
ْ‫ا‬

ِ
‫ض ِرِب‬
ْ‫ا‬

ِ
‫ب‬
ْ‫ا‬
ْ ‫ض ِر‬

feminine

ِ
‫ض ِربْ َن‬
ْ‫ا‬

ِ
‫ض ِرِب‬
ْ‫ا‬

ِ
‫ضِرب‬
ْ‫ا‬

Conjugation of Command Verb -[‫ل‬
ُ‫]اِفح ع ح‬
plural
Dual
single
masculine

‫ص ُروا‬
ُ ْ‫اُن‬

‫صرا‬
ُ ْ‫اُن‬

‫ص ْر‬
ُ ْ‫اُن‬

feminine

‫ص ْر َن‬
ُ ْ‫اُن‬

‫صرا‬
ُ ْ‫اُن‬

‫ص ِري‬
ُ ْ‫اُن‬

Verb examples
past / present

‫ع ِم َل‬/
َ ‫يَ ْع َم ُل‬
‫ب‬
َ ‫ب‬
ْ َ‫ي‬
َ ‫ضَر‬/
ُ ‫ص ِر‬

Verb examples
past / present

‫صَر‬
َ َ‫ن‬/‫ص ُر‬
ُ ‫يَْن‬

II. I‛rāb of Verbs: Some Important Principles
Like nouns, all Present Tense Verbs [‫الْ ُمضا ِرع‬
and the Verbs of Command [‫َمر‬
ْ ‫ْاأل‬

‫ ]اَلْ ِف ْع ُل‬go into one of three I‛rāb.

‫ ]اَلْ ِف ْع ُل‬do not go into any I‛rāb and are [‫] َم حبىن‬.

case for any Present Tense is the Raf‛ state.

Past Tense verbs [‫الْماضي‬

‫]اَلْ ِف ْع ُل‬

Similar to nouns, the default

One important difference concerning I‛rāb that has been

mentioned is that Present Tense never goes into Jarr state (instead, it goes into Jazm [‫ج حزم‬
َ ]. For any Present
Tense Verb in the Naṣb or Jazm case, there is a Ḥarf acting on it. The important principles regarding Naṣb
and Jazm conjugations are mentioned on the next page.

105

The Command Tense [‫]الفعل األمر‬, I´râb of Verbs, Verbal Particles, and Verbs in the Future Tense

A. Raf‛ [‫ ] َرفحع‬- This is the default state of Present Tense verbs.
B. Naṣb [‫صب‬
‫]نَ ح‬

1. There is a Fatḥah in place of the Ḍammah at the end of singular verbs.
2. The Nūn of duality, male plurals, and the singular feminine second person are cut off.
However, the exception is the Feminine Plural Nūn, which stays fixed.

ِ ‫]أَ حنُُلَن‬
ِ ‫ُُْلَ حن‬
3. Ḥarf Naṣb that act on verbs are the following: [‫ّت‬
َُّ ‫اُح‬
َ ً‫ُُلُ َك حيُُإِذ‬
‫ح‬

C. Jazm [‫] َج حزم‬

1. In he Jazm state, a Sukūn is placed at the end of singular verbs (instead of the Ḍammah):
[‫نَ ْف َعل‬

ْ

‫] يَ ْف َع ْل و تَ ْف َع ْل و‬.
.

2. Similar to the Naṣb state, the Nūn of duality, male plurals, and the singular feminine second
person are cut off. The exception is the Feminine Nūn of plurality, which as previously
stated is never cut off.

3. The Jazm state is found in Conditional Statements, and in command/forbidding statements
with Ḥarf Jazm particle Lām.

4. The Particles of Jazm are many, the most important of which are the following:

ِ
َ َ / ‫ َم َّت‬/ ‫ َم ْن‬/ ‫ َما‬/ ‫ إ ْن‬/ ‫ َل‬/ ‫ َل‬/ ‫ أَلَ َّما‬/ ْ‫ أَََّل‬/ ‫ لَ َّما‬/ ْ‫] ََّل‬

[‫وأَيْن‬

Table 33 – Verb Conjugation in Naṣb and Jazm

Raf‛

Naṣb

Jazm

ُ‫يَ حف َعلو َن‬

ِ ‫ي حفع‬
ُ‫الن‬
ََ

ُ‫يَ حف َعل‬

‫يَ حف َعلُوا‬

‫يَ حف َُعال‬

ُ‫يَ حف َُع َل‬

‫يَ حف َعلُوا‬

‫يَ حف َُعال‬

ُ‫يَ حف َُع حل‬

ُ‫حن‬
َ ‫يَ حف َعل‬

ِ ‫تَ حفع‬
ُ‫الن‬
َ

ُ‫تَ حف َعل‬

ُ‫حن‬
َ ‫يَ حف َعل‬

‫تَ حف َُعال‬

ُ‫تَ حف َُع َل‬

ُ‫حن‬
َ ‫يَ حف َعل‬

‫تَ حف َُعال‬

ُ‫تَ حف َُع حل‬

ُ‫تَ حف َعلو َن‬

ِ ‫تَ حفع‬
ُ‫الن‬
َ

ُ‫تَ حف َعل‬

‫تَ حف َعلُوا‬

‫تَ حف َُعال‬

ُ‫تَ حف َُع َل‬

‫تَ حف َعلُوا‬

‫تَ حف َُعال‬

ُ‫تَ حف َُع حل‬

ُ‫حن‬
َ ‫تَ حف َعل‬

ِ ‫تَ حفع‬
ُ‫الن‬
َ

ِ
ُ‫ني‬
َ ‫تَ حف َعل‬

ُ‫حن‬
َ ‫تَ حف َعل‬

‫تَ حف َُعال‬

‫تَ حف َعُلِي‬

ُ‫حن‬
َ ‫تَ حف َعل‬

‫تَ حف َُعال‬

‫تَ حف َعُلِي‬

ُ‫نَ حف َعل‬

ُ‫نَ حف َعل‬

ُ‫أَفح َعل‬

ُ‫نَ حف َُع َل‬

ُ‫نَ حف َُع َل‬

ُ‫أَفح َُع َل‬

ُ‫نَ حف َُع حل‬

ُ‫نَ حف َُع حل‬

ُ‫أَفح َُع حل‬

106

The Command Tense [‫]الفعل األمر‬, I´râb of Verbs, Verbal Particles, and Verbs in the Future Tense

III. Verbal Particles – Ḥarf Naṣb and Ḥarf Jazm
A. Verbal Particles – Ḥarf Naṣb

Table 34: Ḥarf Naṣb on Verbs

ُ‫حُروف‬

‫صب‬
ُ‫الُنَّ ح‬

‫أَ ْن‬
‫لَ ْن‬
‫ِل‬
‫َك ْي لِ َك ْي‬
‫َح َّّت‬

meaning

that/to

will never

so that
so that

Examples from the Qur’ān

ِ ِِ ِ
ِ
َ ‫﴿ َوإ ْذ قَ َال ُم‬
َ َ ْ‫وسى ل َق ْومه إ َّن ٱّللَ ََيْ ُم ُرُك ْم أَ ْن تَ ْذ َِبُوا‬

ُ﴾..‫ب َقراة‬

“And when Mūsa said to his people: Surely Allah commands you that
you should sacrifice a cow..”(2:67)

ُ﴾..‫ٱلْ ِقيام ِة‬

َ َ ‫﴿ لَن تَن َف َع ُك ْم أ َْر َح ُام ُك ْم َوَال أ َْوَال ُد ُك ْم يَ ْوَم‬

“Never will your relatives or your children benefit you; the Day of
Resurrection..”(60:3)

ِ ْ ‫﴿ ٱلَّ ِذي خلَق ٱلْموت و‬
ْ ‫ٱْلَيَا َة ليَ ْب لَُوُك ْم أَيُّ ُك ْم أ‬
َ ‫َح َس ُن‬
َ َ َْ َ َ

ُ﴾..‫عمالا‬
َ

“[He] who created death and life to test you, which of you is best in
deeds”. (67:2)

﴾‫كثِريا‬
َ‫ك‬
َ ‫نُسبِح‬

‫ا‬

َ َ ‫﴿ َوأَ ْش ِرْكهُ ِف أ َْم ِري ۝ َك ْي‬

“And let him share my task, That we may exalt You much”.
33)

until

ُ﴾..ْ‫ٱستَطَاعُوا‬
ْ

(20:32-

‫ّت يَ ُرُّدوُك ْم َعن ِدينِ ُك ْم إِ ِن‬
ََّ ‫ َوالَ يََزالُو َن يُ َقاتِلُونَ ُك ْم َح‬..﴿

“And they will continue to fight you until they turn you back from your
religion if they are able.”(2:217)

B. Ḥarf Jazm and Conditional Particles
In Arabic, there are specific particles that are used in Conditional Sentences. Common particles that
signal a Conditional Statement are [‫ن‬
ُ‫] َم ح‬, [‫]ما‬, and [‫]أَ حُن‬. These particles specifically cause Jazm on a
Present Tense verb when it represents the condition and/or the response. Please refer to Table 35,
which gives some examples of Jazm particles in Conditional Statements.
It should be noted that even though the Jazm particles like [‫] َم ْن‬, [‫]ما‬, and [‫ ]أَ ْن‬act on Present Tense
verbs to mark a conditional statement, they are also commonly used with Past Tense verbs in
conditional statements. In cases when the response particle is not a Present Tense verb, the particle

107

. the verb.﴿ َ ‫ند ٱّلل إ َّن ٱّللَ ِبَا تَ ْع َملُو َن‬ ْ ُ ََ ِ‫ب‬ ﴾‫صري‬ “…and whatever good you put forward for yourselves .﴿ ‫ٱْلُْيَا ُن ِف‬ َ “..” (65:7) ُ﴾.. death will overtake you. Indeed.79” ﴾.”(28:7) ِ َّ ‫ص ْرُك ُم‬ ُ ‫﴿ُإِ ْن يَْن‬ ْ ‫ب‬ َ ‫ٱّللُ فَ َال َغال‬ ﴾..”(3:160) ِ ِ ِ َ ‫وما تُ َق ِدمواْ ِألَن ُف ِس ُكم ِمن َخ ٍْري ََِت ُدوهُ ِع‬. and the verb that follows the condition [‫َّرط‬ ُ ‫]جو‬ َ . Ḥarf Jazm on Verbs Table 35: Ḥarf Jazm on Verbs ‫اجلَحزم‬ ُ ُ‫حروف‬ Meaning ْ‫ََّل‬ past negation ‫لَ َّما‬ not yet ْ‫أَََّل‬ ‫ِل‬ 79 Examples from the Qur’ān ُ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫ٱلْ َكافِرو‬ ِ ‫ك ُﻫ ُم‬ َ ِ‫َنزَل ٱّللُ فَأ ُْولَئ‬ َ ‫ َوَمن ََّّلْ َُْي ُك ْم ِبَا أ‬.... subheading before Ḥadīth #68..‫كم‬ ُ َ‫ل‬ “If Allah should aid you. He will give him understanding in the Religion. for faith has not yet entered your hearts.. no one can overcome you.﴿ ‫ت َعلَْي ِه فَأَلْ ِق ِيه ِف الْيَِم َوَال ََّتَ ِاف َوَال‬ “…but when you fear for him. then it is those who are the disbelievers... In this Ḥadīth. even if you should be within towers of lofty construction…”(4:78) Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhāri..The Command Tense [‫]الفعل األمر‬.”(49:14) ِ ‫ٱلسماو‬ ِ ‫ات َو ْٱأل َْر‬ َّ ‫﴿ أَََّلْ تَ ْعلَ ْم أ‬ ُ﴾...”(5:40) Lām of Command ‫ال‬ Lām of Forbidding ‫إِ ْن‬ if (condition) ‫َما‬ What/That (condition) ‫َم ْن‬ Who (condition) ‫أَيْ َن‬ Where (condition) ِ ِ ٍِ َ ‫﴿ُليُ ْنف ْق ذُ ْو َس َعة م ْن‬ ﴾.‫كم‬ ُ ِ‫قُلُوب‬ ْ ِْ ‫ولَ َّما يَ ْد ُخ ِل‬.. Allah of what you do...‫س َعتِ ِه‬ “Let a man of wealth spend from his wealth.﴿ ُ “. noun phrase.. ْ ‫اب الش‬ 108 . Verbal Particles.”(2:110) ِ ِ ‫الدي‬ ]‫ن‬ ‫[ َم ْن يُِرْد هللاُ بِِه َخ ْريا يُ َف ِق ْههُ ف‬ “Whoever Allah wants for him good. which is part of the condition [‫]الش َّْرط‬. The Response Statement can be a past tense verb...you will find it with Allah.‫ض‬ َّ ‫َن‬ ُ ‫ٱّللَ لَهُ ُم ْل‬ َ َ َّ ‫ك‬ Interrogative “Do you not know that to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and of [‫] َُلح‬ the earth?.. The sign of Jazm is shown on both verbs by the Sukūn at the end.‫َت َزِِن‬ َْ ِ ‫ فَِإذَا ِخ ْف‬. I´râb of Verbs.... cast him into the river and do not fear and do not grieve. etc... C.. Chapter on Knowledge: ‫ كِتَاب الْعِْل ِم‬.and whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed.ٍ‫شيَّ َدة‬ َ ‫ُّم‬ ُّ ‫﴿أَيْنَما تَ ُكونُواْ يُ ْد ِر‬ ‫وج‬ ٍ ‫ت َولَ ْو ُكنتُ ْم ِف بُُر‬ ُ ‫كك ُم ٱلْ َم ْو‬ َ “Wherever you may be. the [‫]م ْن‬ َ affects two verbs. Verb of Command. is Seeing. and Verbs in the Future Tense [‫ف‬ َ ] is typically used to mark the response or [‫اب الش َّْرط‬ ُ ‫] َجو‬.”(5:44) ُ﴾.

This Lām of Emphasis often comes with a Nūn at the end of the verb. Command Tense for Third/First Person – The Lām of Command/Du’ā The Lām of Command/D’uā [‫ل‬ ُِ ]80 is a Ḥarf Jazm which acts only on verbs in the first person and third person. An example is shown in Table 35 (fourth row) on the preceding page.﴿ “…If you do not desist. then let him work righteous deeds and associate none as a partner in the worship of His Lord”. we will surely stone you. Verbal Particles. Lām as a Ḥarf Jarr. I´râb of Verbs. It functions to cause a more emphatic meaning like "must" or "need to". ﴾ُ‫أَلِيم‬ ‫لَئِن ََّّلْ تَنتَ ُهوا لَنَ ْر َُجَنَّ ُك ْم َولَيَ َم َّسنَّ ُكم ِمنَّا َع َذاب‬. "Are you indeed Yūsuf?. There is a Lām before the verb..”(36:18) iii.﴿ ِِ ِ ِ ِ َ َ َ ْ َ ْ َ َ َ ُ َْ َ ‫صاْلاا َوَال يُ ْش ِرْك بعبَ َادة َربه‬ َْ ُ﴾‫أَح ادا‬ “…so whoever hopes for the meeting with His Lord. This is identical to what occurs at the ending in a second person verb in the command state except the following: i. َ ‫﴿ قَالُواْ أَإِن‬ َ َ‫َّك َأل‬ ُ ُ ‫نت‬ ﴾. 109 .‫ف‬ ُ ‫يوس‬ “They said. Lām of Emphasis [‫َّوكِيد‬ ْ ‫]َال ُم الت‬ It is important to distinguish this from the Lām of Emphasis [‫َّوكِيد‬ َ which does not cause a ‫]ْلم ُالت ح‬. ii. In the Qur’ān. i.”(12:90) 80 Please note that there are different types of Lām in Arabic Grammar.. (18:110) E. Let us look at the following example from Sūrah Kahf.  ِ ‫ فَمن َكا َن ي رجو لَِقاء ربِِه فَ ْلي عمل عم اال‬. Lām as a Ḥarf Naṣb on verbs (known as Lām Ta'līl). It has the meaning of “should” or "must". and there will surely touch you. It behaves similar in function to the Command Tense. Second person Command Tense does not have I‛rāb like past tense verbs.. and Verbs in the Future Tense D.. as what was covered before. a painful punishment. ِ ﴾ُ‫بي‬ َ ‫م َكذ‬ ِ َّ ‫﴿ُو إِ ََّّن لَنَ علَم أ‬ ُ ‫َن مْن ُك ْم‬ َ ُْ “And We certainly know that among you are those that are denies”(69:49) ii. from us. Please look at the following examples showing this.The Command Tense [‫]الفعل األمر‬. change in I‛rāb and is not a Ḥarf Jazm. The Lām of Emphasis can also act on particles and nouns for emphasis. the Lām of Command is usually preceded by a [‫ ] َُو‬or a [‫ف‬ َُ ] and this causes the Lām to take a Sukūn... these also include Lām of emphasis (Tawkīd).

This Lā needs to be distinguished from the Lā of Negation. i. The [‫س‬ َُ ] specifies the near future while [‫ف‬ َُ ‫ ] َس حو‬specifies the distant future.. I´râb of Verbs. and Verbs in the Future Tense F.”(46:13) ِ [ IV. ِ ٍ ‫﴿ َوٱتَّ ُقواْ يَ ْوم ا الَّ ََْت ِزي نَ ْفس َع ْن نَّ ْف‬ ‫اعة َّوالَ يُ ْؤ َخ ُذ ِمْن َها َع ْدل َّوالَ ُﻫ ْم‬ َ ‫س َشْيئ ا َّوالَ يُ ْقبَ ُل مْن َها َش َف‬ ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫نص ُرو‬ َ ُ‫ي‬ “And fear a Day when no soul will suffice for another soul at all.‫ي‬ َ ‫ٱلْم ْؤمن‬ “Let not believers take disbelievers as allies rather than believers. 110 . which are used to specify the future tense: [‫س‬ َُ ] and [‫ف‬ َُ ‫] َس حو‬. One of these particles is placed directly in front of a Present Tense verb without any effect on its I‛rāb. The “future tense” meaning is derived based on context.. those who have said. ِ َّ َ ‫ين َآمنُواْ الَ ََتْ ُكلُواْ أ َْم َوالَ ُك ْم بَْي نَ ُك ْم‬ َ ‫﴿ ََي أَيُّ َها ٱلذ‬ ِ ‫بِٱلْب‬ ﴾.‫اط ِل‬ “O you who have believed. There are two particles.”(2:48) ii. Future Tense ]‫اْل حستِ حقبال‬ The normal Present Tense state can be used for “future” tense as was discussed previously. Unlike the Command Tense. A more definitive way to express the future tense is by adding the following particles directly in front of the Present Tense verb.. although this is not common. It is included here to contrast the other types of Lā’s being discussed. It is mainly found acting on the second person. nor will they be aided. which does not cause any change in I‛rāb. it can act on the third person and the first person. ِ ‫﴿ الَّ ي ت‬ ِ ِ ِ ‫َّخ ِذ ٱلْم ْؤِمنُو َن ٱلْ َكافِ ِر‬ َ ُ ‫ين أ َْوليَاءَ من ُد ْون‬ ُ َ ِِ ﴾. and functions in general negation for verbs and nouns. nor will compensation be taken from it.The Command Tense [‫]الفعل األمر‬. Verbal Particles. It typically denotes religious prohibitions in the Qur’ān and Ḥadīth. nor will they grieve. nor will intercession be accepted from it. Lā of Negation [‫]الءُ اَلنَّفي‬ This Lā is not a Ḥarf Jazm. i.”(3:28) G. and can act on verbs and nouns... do not consume one another's wealth unjustly.”(4:29) ii. "Our Lord is Allah .. Lā of Forbidding [‫]ال اَلنَّ ِهيَّة‬ This Ḥarf Jazm functions similar to the Verb of Command but in forbidding an action.." and then remained on a right course there will be no fear concerning them. ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫َُْيَزنُو‬ ِ َّ ِ ‫ٱستَ َق ُاموا فَ َال َخ ْوف َعلَْي ِه ْم َوَال ُﻫ ْم‬ َّ ‫ين قَالُوا َربُّنَا‬ ْ َّ‫ٱّللُ ُُث‬ َ ‫﴿ إ َّن ٱلذ‬ “Indeed.

I´râb of Verbs. ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫تَ ْعلَمو‬ ُ ‫ف‬ َ ‫ف تَ ْعلَ ُمو َن۝ ُُثَّ َك َّال َس ْو‬ َ ‫﴿ َك َّال َس ْو‬ “By no means. and Verbs in the Future Tense ‫ب‬ ُ ‫يَ ْذ َﻫ‬ ‫ب‬ ُ ‫َسيَ ْذ َﻫ‬ He goes. you all will know. ﴾‫أَب ادا‬ “But those who believe and do righteous deeds . ِ ُ ‫ف َُْي َف‬ َ ‫َس ْو‬ ُ‫ظ الْ ُق ْرآ َن إ ْن شاءَ هللا‬ He will memorize the Qur’ān Inshā Allah . ‫أ َْعلَ ُم‬ ‫َسأ َْعلَ ُم‬ I learn. (102:3-4) ِ ‫َّات ََت ِري ِمن ََتتِها ْٱألَنْهار خالِ ِد‬ ٍ ِ ِ َّ ‫﴿ وٱلَّ ِذين آمنُوا وع ِملُوا‬ ِ ََ َ َ َ َ ْ ْ ْ ‫ٱلصاْلَات َسنُ ْدخلُ ُه ْم َجن‬ َ ‫ين ف َيها‬ َ َ َُ 2. again by no means. He will go. Examples from the Qur’ān 1. Verbal Particles.”(4:57) 111 .The Command Tense [‫]الفعل األمر‬. wherein they abide forever.We will admit them to gardens beneath which rivers flow. For them therein are purified spouses. I will learn. and We will admit them to deepening shade. ‫ظ الْ ُق ْرآ َن‬ ُ ‫َُْي َف‬ He is memorizing the Qur’ān. you all will know”.

The Passive Noun [‫]اِ حسمُاملَحفعول‬. The Passive Verb Tense ]‫[ُاَُلح ِف حعلُُال َحم حجهول‬ So far. The Passive for “We are striking” is “We are being struck”. Passive Past Tense [‫]فُعِ َل‬ It is easier to remember the phonetic sound “oo ee” that Passive Past Tense verbs start with. the Verbal Noun [‫در‬ َ‫ص‬ ‫]اَل َحم ح‬. and using an Arabic Dictionary I. or “it was sat”. All what changes are vowels on certain letters such as the [‫]ف‬ and/or [‫ ]ع‬stem letters. The Deputy Doer is always present. Please note that the basic conjugation patterns that have been studied for the Past and Present Tenses do not change. and so on. the The hallmark of a Verbal Sentence with a Passive Verb is that it lacks a Doer [‫فاعل‬ ِ ‫]انئِب‬. The conjugation of the Deputy Doer has to match that of the verb. Instead of a Doer. Doer Noun [‫الفاعل‬ ‫]اسم‬. ‫صَر‬ َ َ‫ن‬ He was helped. Passive Noun [‫]اسم املفعول‬. The first two vowels are fixed as a Ḍammah on the [‫ ]ف‬and a Kasrah on the [‫]ع‬. Table 36: Passive Past Tense [‫جهول‬ ُ‫]اَل ِحف حعلُالحماضيُال َحم ح‬ ‫قُتِ َل‬ He was killed. we have studied the active tense of Past and Present Tense verbs. 112 . the Passive Tense of the verb “they helped” will be “they were helped”. The Doer Noun [‫ُالفاعل‬ ُِ ‫]اِسم‬. Please note that certain verbs cannot take the Passive Tense. ‫عُلِ َم‬ ‫قَتَ َل‬ He killed. ‫َعلِ َم‬ He knew. ِ ]. The remaining morphology is unchanged. We will now examine the ِ Passive Tense [‫جهول‬ ‫]الفعلُال َحم ح‬. For example. whether implied or explicitly mentioned in a Verbal Sentence with a Passive Verb. and the Verbal Noun [‫]املصدر‬ Lesson 11: The Passive Verb ]‫[اَل ِحف حعلُال َحم حجهول‬. you cannot say “it is being sit”. This is similar to the Doer in terms of gender and plurality. Verbs that are Transitive can go into the Passive Tense.The Passive Verb [‫]الفعل اجملهول‬. For example. A. for the verb “to sit”. The Deputy Doer always takes the case of Raf‛. This is the entity that the verb is acting Passive Verb has what is termed a Deputy Doer or [‫ُالفاعل‬ upon. ِ ُ‫ن‬ ‫صَر‬ He helped. And this is typically the case for Intransitive Verbs. He was known.

‫ص ُر‬ ُ ‫يَْن‬ ‫ص ُر‬ َ ‫يُْن‬ He helps. and the Verbal Noun [‫]املصدر‬ Other conjugations: ِ ‫ت‬ ْ َ‫قُتل‬ ‫ت‬ ْ َ‫قَتَ ل‬ She killed. Other conjugations: He is being helped. He is being killed. ‫ف‬ ُ ‫يَ ْع ِر‬ ‫ف‬ ُ ‫يُ ْعَر‬ He will know. Passive Noun [‫]اسم املفعول‬. She was killed. They will be known. The first letter preceding the [‫ ]ف‬letter carries a Ḍammah instead of a Fatḥah in the Active Tense. Table 37: Passive Present Tense [‫هول‬ ُِ ‫]اَل ِحف حعلُالحمضارِعُال َحم حج‬ ‫يَ ْقتُ ُل‬ ‫يُ ْقتَ ُل‬ He is killing. She is being killed. You were helped. Doer Noun [‫الفاعل‬ ‫]اسم‬. The [‫ ]ع‬letter carries a Fatḥah. ‫َعلِ ُموا‬ ‫عُلِ ُموا‬ ِ ‫نَصر‬ ‫ت‬ َْ ِ ‫صر‬ ِ ُ‫ن‬ ‫ت‬ ْ B. You are helping. ‫ين‬ ُ ‫تَ ْن‬ َ ‫ص ِر‬ ‫ص ِريْ َن‬ َ ‫تُْن‬ 113 .The Passive Verb [‫]الفعل اجملهول‬. They were known. You are being helped. He will be known. Passive Present Tense ]‫ل‬ ُ ‫[يُ ْف َع‬ The Present Passive Tense begins with the “oo – aa” sound (with a slight pause due to a Sukūn in the middle). ‫يَ ْع ِرفُو َن‬ ‫يُ ْعَرفُو َن‬ They will know. You helped. ‫تَ ْقتُ ُل‬ ‫تُ ْقتَ ُل‬ She is killing. They knew. which sometimes may occur on the Active Tense since the [‫ ]ع‬vowel can vary.

whether implicit or explicit. and function as the stem of [‫فاعل‬ doing the action of the verb (of its root letters). Depending on the specific Doer Noun.”(2:154) ِ ‫[اِسم‬ II. And when the sky is stripped away.”(4:28) 2. but you perceive not. "They are dead. The Doer Noun can take any Iʽrāb. the Doer inherently carries the meaning of doing a certain action. Not to be confused with the Doer. which can only take Rafʽ. And when the pages are made public. and the Verbal Noun [‫]املصدر‬ C. there are several important categories of nouns that are directly derived from verbs [‫ق‬ ٌّ َ‫ُم ْشت‬ ِ ‫سم‬ ُ ‫]ا‬. and mankind was created weak. 114 . it cannot be equated with the Doer. ِ One of these nouns is termed a Doer Noun or [‫الفاعل‬ ‫]اِ ْسم‬. In every Verbal Sentence (with an active Verb). Thus. Examples of Passive Verbs in the Qur’ān 1. and in some circumstances acts as the Doer in a Verbal Sentence. ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫تَ ْشعُرو‬ ُ ِ ِ َّ‫َحيَاء َولَ ِكن ال‬ ْ ‫﴿ َوالَ تَ ُقولُواْ ل َم ْن يُ ْقتَ ُل ِف َسبِ ِيل اّلل أ َْم َوات بَ ْل أ‬ “And do not say about those who are killed in the way of Allah. as was previously stated.”(81:8-11) 3. any word on this pattern should be assumed to be a Doer Noun. Doer Noun [‫الفاعل‬ ‫]اسم‬. Passive Noun [‫]اسم املفعول‬. ِ ] that we have This is different from the Doer [‫فاعل‬ studied thus far which serves a specific function in a Verbal sentence." Rather. these nouns sometimes can also take a Broken Plural. for what sin she was killed. However. and is present only within the context of a Verbal Sentence. ﴾ ِ ِ ٍ ‫﴿ وإِ َذا ٱلْموُؤودةُ سئِلَت ۝ ِِبَ ِي َذ‬ ‫ت‬ ُّ ‫ت ۝ َوإِ َذا‬ َّ ‫ت ۝ َوإِ َذا‬ ْ ‫ف نُ ِشَر‬ ْ َ‫ٱلس َماءُ ُكشط‬ ْ َ‫نب قُتل‬ ْ ُ َ َْ َ ُ ‫ٱلص ُح‬ “And when the girl buried alive is asked. The Doer Noun Pattern ]‫ُالفاعل‬ In Arabic. they are alive. there has to be a Doer.The Passive Verb [‫]الفعل اجملهول‬.. The Doer Noun or has a specific morphology on ِ ]. ﴾‫ضعِي افا‬ َ ِ ِ ِ ‫نسا ُن‬ ُ ‫﴿يُِر‬ َ ‫يد ٱّللُ أَن َُيَف‬ َ ‫ف َعن ُك ْم َو ُخل َق ٱْْل‬ “And Allah wants to lighten for you [your difficulties]. The Doer Nouns take the Sound Plural Pattern that was discussed in Lesson 1.

These Verb In this āyah. the men who guard their private parts and the women who do so.for them Allah has 81 prepared forgiveness and a great reward. the charitable men and charitable women. the humble men and humble women. the believing men and believing women. there are [‫ ]اسم الفاعل‬that were not highlighted such as [‫ؤمن‬ َ َُ ُ ُْ Families that are discussed in the next two lessons have a different morphology.]‫]مسلِم‬. the fasting men and fasting women. Doer Noun [‫الفاعل‬ ‫]اسم‬.The Passive Verb [‫]الفعل اجملهول‬. the Muslim men and Muslim women. and the men who remember Allah often and the women who do so . and the Verbal Noun [‫]املصدر‬ ِ ُُ‫[اِسم‬ Table 38: The Doer Noun Pattern ]‫الفاعل‬ Verb Doer Noun ‫َعابِد‬ ‫َعبَ َد‬ to worship a worshiper ‫ََّن ِصر‬ ‫صَر‬ َ َ‫ن‬ to help a helper to know one with knowledge ‫َع ِاَّل‬ ‫َعلِ َم‬ Other conjugations: ‫َعابِد‬ ‫َعابِ َدة‬ a worshiper a female worshiper a worshiper worshipers ‫ ِعباد‬/ ‫عابِ ُدون‬ ‫َعابِد‬ ‫َكافِر‬ ِ ِ ‫ين‬ َ ‫ َكاف ِر‬/‫َكاف ُرو َن‬ a disbeliever disbelievers  Examples from the Qur’ān: ِ ِ َّ ‫ات و‬ ِ َ‫ٱلص ِادق‬ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِِ ِِ ِِ ‫ات‬ َّ ‫ي َو‬ َ ‫ٱلصادق‬ َ ‫ي َوٱلْ ُم ْؤمنَات َوٱلْ َقانت‬ َ ‫ي َوٱلْ ُم ْسل َمات َوٱلْ ُم ْؤمن‬ َ ‫﴿ إِ َّن ٱلْ ُم ْسلم‬ َ َ‫ي َوٱلْ َقانت‬ ِ ‫ٱلصائِم‬ ِ ِ َ‫ات وٱلْمتَص ِدقِي وٱلْمت‬ ِ ِ ْ ‫اشعِي و‬ ِ ِ َّ ‫ٱلصابِ ِرين و‬ ِ ْ ‫ات و‬ ِ ِ َّ ‫ات و‬ ‫ات‬ َ ‫ٱلصائم‬ َ ُ َ َ َ ُ َ ‫ٱْلَاش َع‬ َ َّ ‫ي َو‬ َ َ‫صدق‬ َ َ َ‫ٱْل‬ َ ‫ٱلصابَر‬ َ َ َّ ‫َو‬ ِ ِ ِ َّ ‫ٱّلل َكثِريا و‬ ِ ِ َّ ِ ِ ْ ‫ٱْلافِ ِظي فُروجهم و‬ ﴾‫ظيما‬ َّ ‫َع َّد‬ َ ‫ٱلذاكَرات أ‬ ْ ‫ٱّللُ ََلُم َّم ْغفَرةا َوأ‬ ‫َجارا َع ا‬ َ ‫ين ََّ ا‬ َ ْ ُ َ ُ َ َْ ‫َو‬ َ ‫ٱْلَافظَات َوٱلذاك ِر‬ “Indeed. the obedient men and obedient women. Passive Noun [‫]اسم املفعول‬. and [‫ ]متص ِدق‬that are of Verb Families II and higher. 81 115 . the patient men and patient women.”(33:35) ِ ‫ [م‬. the truthful men and truthful women.

etc. superlative words such as the following: [‫[ثَقيل‬/]‫مسيع‬ َ َ 116 . ِ Table 39: The Passive Noun Pattern ]‫سمُاملَحفعول‬ ‫[ا ح‬ Verb Passive Noun ‫َعبَ َد‬ ‫َم ْعبُود‬ to worship one who is worshiped ‫صَر‬ َ َ‫ن‬ ‫صور‬ ُ ‫َمْن‬ to help one who is helped ‫َعلِ َم‬ ‫َم ْعلُوم‬ to know one who is known ‫قَتَ َل‬ 82 to kill ‫ قَتِيل‬/‫َم ْقتُول‬ One that is killed Other conjugations: ‫صور‬ ُ ‫َمْن‬ ‫ص َورة‬ ُ ‫َمْن‬ one who is helped a female who is helped ِ ُ ‫ َمْن‬/‫ورو َن‬ ‫ين‬ ُ ‫َمْن‬ ُ‫ص‬ َ ‫صور‬ ‫صور‬ ُ ‫َمْن‬ persons who are helped Examples from the Qur’ān: ٍ ‫َّمأْ ُك‬ 1. َ Passive Nouns. Please note that a similar pattern on this stem can be found in َِ [/]‫]علِيم‬. ﴾‫ول‬ ٍ‫ص‬ ‫ف‬ ْ ‫﴿ فَ َج َعلَ ُه ْم َك َع‬ “And He made them like eaten straw. Doer Noun [‫الفاعل‬ ‫]اسم‬. The Passive Noun Pattern ]‫[اِ حسمُاملَحفعول‬ ‫ ]اِ ْس ُم‬similar to Doer Nouns are also derived from verbs. or [‫امل ْف ُعول‬ They specify something that is a recipient of an action. Similar to the Doer Noun. these nouns also take the Sound Plural Pattern. They have a specific morphology based on the [‫ ] َم ْف ُعول‬stem and typically begin with the letter [‫]م‬.The Passive Verb [‫]الفعل اجملهول‬. Passive Noun [‫]اسم املفعول‬.”(105:5) 82 Please note the [‫ ]فَعِيل‬pattern is less common pattern that some [‫ ]اِ ْس ُم امل ْف ُعول‬take. and the Verbal Noun [‫]املصدر‬ III.

‫ ]اِ ْسم‬or Passive Noun [‫]اِسم امل ْف ُعول‬. present. or future). Passive Noun [‫]اسم املفعول‬. Memorizing the Maṣdars for common verbs is strongly recommended. Table 40: Common Verbal Noun Pattern ‫فِ حعل‬ [‫ ]فعل‬Stem ‫ص َدر‬ ‫ُاملَ ح‬ ‫فَ ْعل‬ ‫فَ ْتح‬ ‫فَتَ َح‬ ‫فُ ْعل‬ ‫ُش ْكر‬ ‫َش َكَر‬ ‫قَ َع َد‬ ‫فُعُول‬ ‫فِ ْعل‬ ‫فَ َعل‬ ‫قُعُود‬ ‫ِص ْدق‬ ‫َع َمل‬ 117 ‫ص َد َق‬ َ ‫َع ِم َل‬ . Examples of Verbal Nouns in English include words such as ِ knowledge. a Verbal Noun of any given verb (Family I) can take one of many different morphological patterns. The Verbal Noun ]‫ص َدر‬ ‫[اَُلح َُم ح‬ The Verbal Noun. and help. which are detailed below in Table 40.”(37:41) IV. disbelief. Other common patterns are on [‫ ]فُ ْعل‬and [‫ ]ف ْعل‬as in ]‫ [ ُك ْفر‬and [‫] ِع ْلم‬. Please note that the Verbal Nouns of the high-yield verbs from “80% of Qur’ānic Vocabulary” are listed on the last column on the left (pgs. ﴾‫م ْعلُوم‬ “Those will have a provision determined. Unlike the previously mentioned Derived Nouns comes in several different morphological patterns on the [‫ ]فعل‬stem numbering approximately thirty. Similar to Broken Plurals.The Passive Verb [‫]الفعل اجملهول‬. The most common Verbal ِ Noun pattern is of the ]‫ [فَ ْعل‬pattern like ]‫ [قَ ْتل‬or ]‫صْب ر‬ َ [. 161-165). there are a few more common than the rest. murder. and will facilitate learning the language Insha Allah. Among the many Maṣdar patterns that are present. and the Verbal Noun [‫]املصدر‬ َ ِ‫﴿ أُولَئ‬ َ ‫ك ََلُْم ِرْزق‬ 2. Unlike the Doer Noun[‫الفاعل‬ Verbal Noun is not considered a Derived Noun [‫شتَق‬ ْ ‫ُم‬ ‫]اسم‬. Doer Noun [‫الفاعل‬ ‫]اسم‬. or Maṣdar essentially functions as a verb in the infinitive sense. the َ This is so even though it has a binding relationship with its root verb. not being confined to a specific time or tense (past.

85 118 . Hans Wehr and other Classical Arabic Dictionaries 84 It is our opinion that the best dictionary for the Arabic student is the Hans Wehr Dictionary . Lane’s Lexicon is the dictionary to use. Volumes 1-8. and has included online dictionaries. Edited by J. by Edward W. accurate and easy language. it is best to use a classical “Arabic-Arabic 83 The dictionaries in this book that are discussed are best for Qur’ānic Arabic versus those that are best for conversational Arabic 84 Arabic-English Dictionary: The Hans Wehr Dictionary. Most dictionaries related to conversational Arabic however are often arranged alphabetically. and compact size make it more useful than other dictionaries in its class.com/tabs/lane/ since the older eight-volume edition is out of copyright.‫ض‬ “Those who remember Allah while standing or sitting or [lying] on their sides and give thought to the creation of the heavens and the earth.The Passive Verb [‫]الفعل اجملهول‬.. Its organization by root verbs. 4th edition. An Arabic-English Lexicon.﴿ ‫ات قَالُوا َﻫ َذا ِس ْحر‬ َ َُ َ “. they said. and the Verbal Noun [‫]املصدر‬ Examples from the Qur’ān: ِ َّ ‫﴿ ٱلَّ ِذين ي ْذ ُكرو َن ٱّلل قِياما وقُعودا وعلَى جنُوبِِم وي تَ َف َّكرو َن ِف خ ْل ِق‬ َ َ ‫ٱلس َم َاوات‬ ُ ََ ْ ُ َ َ ‫َ َ ا َ ُ ا‬ ُ ََ ِ ‫وٱأل َْر‬ 1. A. by Hans Wehr. Passive Noun [‫]اسم املفعول‬.. Doer Noun [‫الفاعل‬ ‫]اسم‬. the vocabulary that is learned is more effectively applied and organized.(61:6) V. Please note that the most detailed Arabic dictionary in English is the eight-volume Lane's Lexicon. Using Arabic Dictionaries83 Using an Arabic Dictionary is an essential component in Arabic learning since Arabic has a very deep and rich vocabulary. For those who do wish to obtain a more in-depth meaning than Hans Wehr..”(3:191) 2. 1994. ﴾. Lane available for free online at http://www. Despite the ease of the internet and search engines. Most dictionaries of Classical Arabic are arranged by the Arabic root.. but it is huge. It is more detailed and comprehensive. Furthermore. both in English and Arabic.tyndalearchive. Furthermore. The past few years has seen the appearance of numerous resources online for Arabic students.But when he came to them with clear evidences. most Arabic words are related and/or derived from a certain root verb or Maṣdar.85 For in-depth Qur’ānic study. using a dictionary in the traditional way (by the book) is still the more effective method for memorizing vocabulary.. Using a Classical Arabic Dictionary allows the student to connect one word (of a certain root) to several other words having similar meanings and relationships. ﴾‫ُّمبِي‬ ِ َ‫فَلَ َّما جاءﻫم بِٱلْبيِن‬. as you already should have noted.. Fortunately. and thus of less utility to the novice student. It helps greatly in acquainting oneself with the root words of a word that is being learned or memorized. it is now available for free with an index for root verbs for easy navigation. ISBN 0879500034 Lane’s Lexicon. Milton Cowan. "This is obvious magic"”.

the student has simultaneous access to these three classical dictionaries.. [‫] اُأُُبُتُثُجُحُخُُدُذُرُزُسُشُصُضُطُظُعُغُُفُُقُُكُُلُُمُُنُُهُُُوُُي‬ 2..info/ contains this and other Classical Arabic-Arabic dictionaries. Remember the Arabic alphabet. among other sources. Any Arabic word having the root letters [‫ ]علم‬are listed and defined after the verb. especially in cases of long words. the verb is transliterated in its Past Tense Family I form. the search will be cumbersome and time consuming.H. A Kasrah is represented by “i”. B. The term “ilm” represents it the Maṣdar of the verb. Hans Wehr. There are certain specific Verb Families (from II through X) which actually exist in Arabic from a given verb root. and other dictionaries in English and other languages. study…… X to inquire. Nonetheless.The Passive Verb [‫]الفعل اجملهول‬. 119 . and the Verbal Noun [‫]املصدر‬ ِ dictionary” such as [‫حع َرب‬ َ ‫ ]لسان ُال‬. which is available online 86 87 or a grammar based Tafsīr. This will require practice in many cases. V to learn. It was just a few years ago that both these resources were available only textbook form. 87 The website [‫]الباحث العرب‬ ِ at www. Determining the three-letter root word/root verb. Search the word by the Arabic alphabet of its root word.  ‫علم‬ (alima) “a” (ilm) to know. As you look in the entry for [‫( علم‬a‛lima)]. Let us practice by looking up the verb [‫] َعلِ َُم‬. These Roman Numerals represent the Verb Families II through X. 3. It is available in a pdf version that can be found online. You see the following:  II to teach………. or words derived from the higher Verb Families. while a Ḍammah is a “u”. The “ a ” represents the Fatḥah vowel present in its Present Tense [‫ ]مضارع‬form.baheth. Arabic Almanac88 has now made it very easy to access the knowledge contained within Hans Wehr and Lane’s Lexicon. This is the same format for all other verbs. Otherwise.IV to let know…. 86 ِ The dictionary [‫الع َرب‬ َ ‫ ]لسا ُن‬by Ibn Manzūr (711 A. Word Search using the Hans Wehr Dictionary 1. A new online search engine. Passive Noun [‫]اسم املفعول‬. Page 121 shows a page from Hans Wehr that defines the verb [‫]علم‬. Doer Noun [‫الفاعل‬ ‫]اسم‬. Here. the Hans Wehr Dictionary does offer meanings that are for the most part in keeping with classical definitions. We see the following entry in the dictionary. By simply inputting a Verb root in either Arabic or English. 88 The Arabic Almanac is available for free download from the website http://ejtaal. These actually represent the various “higher” Verb Families that are derived from a respective three-letter root. Each verb root has a certain number of higher Verb Families derived that are actually used in the language. words derived from Irregular Verbs.. you will note various Roman Numerals..net/m/aa/ is a search engine which enables the Arabic student to access the knowledge contained within Lane’s Lexicon.) is among the best-known and most comprehensive dictionaries of the Arabic language encompassing 20 volumes.

You will see that compared to Hans Wehr...) As you look through this definition for [‫]دعا‬. For example. Recall that the Transitive Verb [‫ ]غَ َف َُر‬which was previously discussed also is associated with a Ḥarf Jarr.. For example. Often in the Irregular Verbs.  (‫ دعو‬and ‫ دعي) دعا‬da’ā ū (‫ دعاء‬du’ā’) to call. Word Search Using Lane’s Lexicon Similar to the Hans Wehr Dictionary. and the Verbal Noun [‫]املصدر‬ The next entry after the verb [‫ ]علم‬is the noun [‫‛ ]علم‬ilm. Passive Noun [‫]اسم املفعول‬. The root letters are not [‫]دعا‬. it is associated with certain Ḥarf Jarr which causes a change in its ultimate meaning. We see after it the following:  (pl. call down evil.. Lane’s Lexicon often references its meanings with sentence examples. Please note the even though this verb is Transitive. C. for the verb [َُ‫]قَال‬. ‘ulūm ‫ )علوم‬science This represents the plural of the noun [‫] ِع ْلم‬. Let us look up the verb [‫] َدعا‬. using the Ḥarf [‫ ]على‬with this verb [‫ ]دعا‬causes the meaning to change to “invoking God against” versus “calling”. ask to come (‫…)…اىل‬ …. Recall that Irregular verbs have in their root word one of the following letters: [‫ُُُُا‬/ُُُُُ/ُُ‫ُُأ‬/ُُُ‫ُُُُي‬/ُُُ‫] و‬. Nonetheless. the [‫ ]ا‬or [‫ ]ي‬can represent a different root letter. Please see the entry for [‫ ]علم‬in Lane’s Lexicon on page 123.o. Looking up a Root with a vowel or a “weak letter” Even though the Irregular Verbs are not discussed much in this First Volume. the information provided on the Verb I form [‫ ] َعلِ َُم‬is more in-depth and that several examples are given to correctly show its proper meaning and usage. to invite. . invoke evil (‫ على‬upon s. Lane’s Lexicon is also organized by three-letter roots.The Passive Verb [‫]الفعل اجملهول‬. On page 122.o. The meanings that this dictionary provides are very detailed and thorough. but are [‫]دعو‬. the root verb letters are actually [‫]قول‬.). the following verbs are all Irregular and have one vowel root letter: [‫ن‬ َُ ‫يَق‬ / ‫ َدعا‬/ ‫] قَال‬. 4. 120 . the Hans Wehr Dictionary is still more suitable for the beginner and more than adequate for the intermediate student.to invoke God against s. you will notice that there are several Ḥarf Jarr that are associated with a specific shade of meaning from the original “to call”. it is important for the student to be somewhat acquainted with Irregular Verbs. we see the entry for [‫]دعو‬.o. For example. This is the most comprehensive Arabic dictionary in English and is the result of more than thirty years of research. Doer Noun [‫الفاعل‬ ‫]اسم‬.)…. specifically how the word is used in an Arabic sentence.To summon (‫ ب‬or ‫ ه‬s.

Doer Noun [‫الفاعل‬ ‫]اسم‬.The Passive Verb [‫]الفعل اجملهول‬. and the Verbal Noun [‫]املصدر‬ Page from the Hans Wehr Dictionary Adapted from page 635 from Third edition of “Hans Wehr: A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic”. 121 . Passive Noun [‫]اسم املفعول‬.

Passive Noun [‫]اسم املفعول‬. Doer Noun [‫الفاعل‬ ‫]اسم‬.The Passive Verb [‫]الفعل اجملهول‬. and the Verbal Noun [‫]املصدر‬ Page from the Hans Wehr Dictionary Adapted from page 282 from Third edition of “Hans Wehr: A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic”. 122 .

Doer Noun [‫الفاعل‬ ‫]اسم‬. 123 . and the Verbal Noun [‫]املصدر‬ Page from Lane’s Lexicon Adapted from pages 423 and 424 from Volume 5 of “Arabic –English Lexicon” (1968) by Edward W.The Passive Verb [‫]الفعل اجملهول‬. Passive Noun [‫]اسم املفعول‬. Lane.

Leiden. We have already discussed some excellent supplementary material in learning Qur’ānic Arabic. this website is a great tool for studying Qur’ānic Grammar. Badawai. 2. one should certainly explore other resources for better understanding. This Tafsīr series places much focus on the Qur’ān's eloquence. Ebrāhīm. Elsaid M. Muḥammad. 89 Koninklijke Brill NV (2008). Listed below are other 1.quran. 6. There is much that is expounded upon of the Qur’ān from several classical Tafsīrs of the past. HdO Arabic-English Dictionary of Qur’ān Usage89. when the need arises or when finishes the curriculum. Arabic Tutor -Volumes 1 through 4. It is ideal that student study this textbook series in concert with this course or the like. It is important to adhere to one primary resource or Arabic curriculum. 4. 5. and take to its finale.islamiconlineuniversity. ISBN 9789004149489. This is the best book on the topic of Morphology or Ṣarf in the English language. Other Important Qur’ānic Arabic References in English It is important for the novice student not to overwhelm themselves with the numerous resources and books available on Arabic learning. and based on Classical Arabic Dictionaries and Qur’ānic commentaries.com/: This is the most comprehensive website on Qur’ānic grammar in English. The Quranic Arabic Corpus at http://corpus. 3. Islamic Online University – Diploma Series Course “Introduction to Qur’ānic Arabic” at: http://www. Nonetheless. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology. and its inimitable grammar. Abdul Sattar Khan: This four volume series is among the best grammar series on Classical Arabic translated in the English Language. Bayyinah Institute Tafsīr Podcast at http://bayyinah. 124 .com/podcast: This excellent initiative by Ustādh Noumān Ali Khān and Sheikh Abdul-Nāsir Jungda explains the Qur'ānic āyah by āyah in great detail and depth. and the Verbal Noun [‫]املصدر‬ D. As one goes forward in Qur’ānic Arabic studies. Passive Noun [‫]اسم املفعول‬. Doer Noun [‫الفاعل‬ ‫]اسم‬. Muḥammad Abel Ḥaleem: This dictionary is the most comprehensive Arabic-English dictionary of the Qur’ān.com/opencampus/: This is a free online three level course with videos and exams is actually based on this textbook series. cohesiveness. The Netherlands. It is far more effective to learn the grammar and vocabulary well presented here than to go tangentially into other areas prematurely.The Passive Verb [‫]الفعل اجملهول‬. There is also excellent commentary with respect to contemporary issues.

Review of Verb Family I Conjugations ِ Table 41: Review of Verb Family I [‫ج َّرُِد‬ َ ‫]الف حعلُالثالثيُامل‬ ‫اَل ِحف حعلُالحماضي‬ ‫اَل ِحف حعلُالحمضارِع‬ ‫ُاْل حَمر‬ ‫اَل ِحف حعل ح‬ ُ‫فَ َع َل‬ ‫فَ ِع َُل‬ ُ‫يَ حف َعل‬ ُ‫يَ حف َعل‬ ُ‫ُافح ع حل‬/ُ‫اِفح َع حل‬ ‫اِفح َع حُل‬ ُ‫فَ ع َل‬ ُ‫يَ حفعل‬ ُ‫افح ع حل‬ ‫ََْمهول‬ ‫ََْمهول‬ ‫صب‬ ‫نَ ح‬ ُ‫ف ِع َل‬ ُ‫ي حف َعل‬ ‫َج حزم‬ ]‫[املصدر‬ ‫فَ ْعل‬ ]‫[اسم الفاعل‬ ِ ‫فاعل‬ 125 ُ‫يَ حفع َل‬ ‫يَ حفع حُل‬ ]‫املفعول‬ ‫َم ْفعول [اسم‬ . That topic will be left to Volume 2 of this series. and IV . we have been studying what we have termed Family I Verbs. III. future. the Doer Noun. These represent Families II through X. and the Passive Noun. I. We have also examined particles that affect verbs and the rules that govern Verbal Sentences. In this lesson. which have a minimum of three base letters [‫ج َّرد‬ َ ‫الْ ُم‬ ‫]اَلْ ِف ْع ُل الثُالثي‬. We have already studied the conjugations in the past. which have more than three base letters. present. we will look at verbs of higher Verb Families derived from a 3-letter root. In particular.Verb Families II. Please note that we will also continue to shy away from discussing the Irregular Verbs of the higher families just like those of Verb Family I. We have also looked at verb-like nouns that stem from all respective verbs such as the Verbal Noun. command. and passive tenses of Family I Verbs. III. All these grammatical points relative to verbs should be mastered before discussing the higher Verb Families. and IV [‫]الفعل الثالثي املزيد فيه‬ Lesson 12: Verb Families II.‫فيه‬ ُِ ُُ‫حمزيد‬ َُ ‫اَل ُِحف حُعلُُالُثُّالثيُال‬ Up until this point in our study of verbs. we have been focusing on the verbs based on a 3-letter root ِ [‫ل الثُّالثي‬ ُ ‫]اَلْف ْع‬.

and IV [‫]الفعل الثالثي املزيد فيه‬ A. We briefly mentioned that there are only certain specific Verb Families that exist for any respective 3-letter root. Although there can theoretically be 10 derived verbs from a given 3-letter root. this does not occur in reality. The Roman Numerals. These Families are derived from a respective 3-letter root.Verb Families II. which denote these Verb Families. This is one important reason to pay close attention to nouns and their verb roots. This allows one to connect several different words based on a single verb root with one-another. and further give rise to several additional nouns related by meaning. Diagram of Verb Families I through X II X ‫فَعَّ َل‬ ‫اِ ْستَ ْف َع َل‬ III ‫فاع َل‬ َ IX IV ‫اِفْ َع َّل‬ Family I ‫أَفْ َع َل‬ ‫فَ َع َل‬ V VIII ‫اِفْ تَ َع َل‬ ‫تَ َفعَّ َل‬ VII VI ‫اِنْ َف َع َل‬ ‫اع َل‬ َ ‫تَ َف‬ ِ B. We also prefer the the Roman Numeral classification due to its ease of notation. Relation of Verb families to its Family I Root Verb [‫ج َّرد‬ َ ‫]اَل ُحف حعلُالثالثيُالحم‬ All of the higher Verb Families (II through X) are related by meaning to its Root three-letter Verb (Family I). verbs [‫ ] َعلِ َُم‬and [‫سُلِ َُم‬ َ ] derive all higher Verb Families except VII. perhaps more than the traditional notation of using the Verbal Noun to identify the Verb Families. They are very helpful in notation of Verb Families. III. were originally designated by Orientalists. For example. 126 .

Remember the sign for Rafʽ is the Ḍammah. the verb [‫ ]قَتَل‬means “to kill”. which means. we should focus on the verbs found in the Qur’ān on a frequent basis. Another example of Family II meaning and its relation to its root verb can be seen with the verb [‫] َعلِم‬. The verb [‫سُلِ َُم‬ َ ] derives all higher families except VII and IX. For example. The verb [‫]نََزَل‬ means “to go down” and is intransitive. Thus. the exact number of conjugated families from a certain root will also vary.Verb Families II. extra letters are added to the front and end of the 5-letter stem [ُ‫]ي َف ِعل‬. Conjugation of Verb Family II in the Past and Present Tenses identical to the scheme of the Verb I Family. II. In terms of meaning. there is no variability of the [‫ ]ع‬vowel in the past or present tense.  I teach. For our purposes. The present َ tense of [‫ ] َعلَّم‬would be [‫]يُ َعلِم‬. Please note that depending on the depth of the Arabic Dictionary used. it is the action done onto others. but not others. َ “to know”. Verb Family II is generally transitive or ]‫[ ُمتَ َع ِدى‬. Sometimes. The stem in the Past Tense and the Present Tense is the same. the Verb II form is usually the intensive meaning of its Verb I root. In other words. In the Present Tense. The Family II Verb [‫ ] َعلَّم‬means to “apply knowing on others” or simply “to teach”. 127 . Its Verb Family II derivative [‫ ]نََّزَل‬means. For Past Tense. Unlike in the Verb I Family. III. extra letters are added to the end of the 4-letter Past Tense stem [‫ل‬ َُ َّ‫]فَ ع‬. Verb Family II can impart a more intense form of the verb َ ُ compared to its root.  They (men) teach. while its Verb II Family derivative [‫]قَتَّل‬ َ َ means “to massacre”. Verb Family II [‫فَ َّع َُل‬/ُ‫]ي َف ِعل‬ Verb Family II along with Family IV are the most frequently found higher Verb Families in the Qur’ān. Please look at the following conjugations from the verb [‫] َعلَّ َُم‬. just like in Family I Verbs. which the Present Tense ends with. The same principle holds for the other Higher Families as well. ‫َعلَّ ُموا‬ ‫يُ َعلِ ُمو َن‬ ‫أ َُعلِ ُم‬ ‫َعلِ ْم‬  They (men) taught.  Teach (command). This also varies between Hans Wehr and Lane’s Lexicon. “to send down”. where one will find more derived Verb Families in the latter. and IV [‫]الفعل الثالثي املزيد فيه‬ and IX.

Family II Conjugations for Advanced Forms [‫]فَعَّ َل‬ Verbal Verbal Noun Doer ‫ص َدر‬ ‫ُاملَ ح‬ ‫تَ ْعلِيم‬ ُ‫اسم‬ Table 43: Family II Conjugations for Advanced Forms [‫ل‬ َُ ‫]فَ َّع‬ Passive Noun ُ‫اسم‬ Present Passive ‫املُضارِع‬ ‫الفاعل‬ ‫املفعول‬ ‫ُم َعلِم‬ ‫ُاملَ حجهول‬ ‫ُم َعلَّم‬ ‫يُ َعلَّ ُم‬ Past Passive ُ‫املاضي‬ ‫ُاملَ حجهول‬ ‫عُلِ َم‬ Forbidding Command Present Past ‫ْلُالنَّ ِهيَّة‬ ‫ُاْل حَمر‬ ‫اَل ِحف حعل ح‬ ‫املُضارِع‬ ِ ‫امل‬ ‫اضي‬ Verb Family II Stem ] ‫ال تُ َعلِ ْم‬ ُ‫َعلِ حم‬ ‫ي َعلِ ُم‬ ُ‫َعلَّ َم‬ ُ‫[فَ َّع َل‬ ‫َعلَّ َم‬ ِ ‫ ]اسم ال‬forms. and IV. Conjugation of Family II Verbs [‫ل‬ َُ َّ‫فَع‬/ُ‫]ي َف ِعل‬ Table 42: Conjugation of Family II Verbs [‫ل‬ ُ ‫فَ َّع‬/ُ‫]ي َف ِعل‬ َ ‫اَل ِحف حعلُُاملاضي‬ ‫اَل ِحف حعلُالحمضارِع‬ ‫ََجحع‬ ُ‫مثَ َّىن‬ ‫يُ َف ِسُرو َن‬ ‫يُ َف ِسْر َن‬ ‫تُ َف ِسُرو َن‬ ‫تُ َف ِس ْر َن‬ ‫نُ َف ِسُر‬ ‫يُ َف ِسَر ِان‬ ‫تُ َف ِسَر ِان‬ ‫تُ َف ِسَر ِان‬ ‫تُ َف ِسَر ِان‬ ‫نُ َف ِسُر‬  ‫م حف َرد‬ ‫يُ َف ِسُر‬ ‫تُ َف ِسُر‬ ‫تُ َف ِسُر‬ ِ ‫ين‬ َ ‫تُ َفس ِر‬ ‫أُفَ ِسُر‬ ‫ََجحع‬ ُ‫مثَ َّىن‬ ‫م حف َرد‬ ‫فَ َّسُروا‬ ‫فَ َّسَرا‬ ‫فَ َّسَرَت‬ ‫فَ َّسَر‬ ‫ت‬ ْ ‫فَ َّسَر‬ ‫فَ َّسْر َن‬ ‫فَ َّسْرُت‬ ‫فَ َّسْرتُ َّن‬ ‫فَ َّسْرَّن‬ ‫فَ َّسْرُُتا‬ ‫ت‬ َ ‫فَ َّسْر‬ ِ ‫فَ َّسر‬ ‫ت‬ ْ ‫ت‬ ُ ‫فَ َّسْر‬ ‫فَ َّسْرُُتا‬ ‫فَ َّسْرَّن‬ [‫س َُر‬ َّ َ‫]ف‬ to explain ‫غائِبُم َذ َّكر‬ َّ‫غائِبُم َنَؤن‬ ‫ُماطَبُم َذ َّكر‬ َّ‫ُماطَبُم َنَؤن‬ ‫متَ َكُِلم‬ Please note that for Verb Families II. III. which makes this big distinction. III. it has a Fatḥah vowel before its last 128 . For example. B. while [‫ ] ُم َعلَّم‬is a student. as for the Passive Noun. [‫ ] ُم َعلِم‬is a teacher. 2. the present tense letter will always have a Ḍammah on the first letter. You will notice in the other Verb Families including Family II that a Kasrah before the last letter denotes the Doer Noun. all other present tense forms have a Fatḥah on the first letter (with the exception of passive tense). It is just one vowel. each of the families with more than three 1. Please note that for Doer Noun [‫فاعل‬ letters will have [‫ ] ُم‬as its first letter. and IV [‫]الفعل الثالثي املزيد فيه‬ A. However.Verb Families II.

﴿ “. while we declare Your praise and sanctify You?"….And they will have therein purified spouses. The Past Tense morphology is that the first stem letter take a Ḍammah and the second stem letter take a Kasrah. ﴾‫ي‬ َ ‫ٱلْ َعالَم‬ ‫]فعل‬ ِ‫﴿َي ب ِِ إِسرآئ‬ ِ ‫يل ٱذْ ُك ُرواْ نِ ْع َم‬ ‫ض ْلتُ ُك ْم َعلَى‬ َّ َ‫ت َعلَْي ُك ْم َوأَِِن ف‬ ُ ‫ِت ٱلَِِّت أَنْ َع ْم‬ َ َْ َ َ َ “O Children of Israel. 3.. the first letter is removed and the last letter is made Sākin (from vowel to a Sukūn). and IV [‫]الفعل الثالثي املزيد فيه‬ letter. e. 4. 6. the Present Tense [ُ‫ ]ي َعلِم‬that means. ‫ اِ ْستَ َح َّق‬/ ‫ اِ ْستِقام‬/ ‫أَقَ َام‬ C. III. which has several variable patterns. 5.. ﴾‫كا ِر‬ َ ْ‫وٱِْْلب‬ “.﴿ ‫س‬ ُ ْ ََ َ َ َ ُ َْ ُ ‫ك ٱلد َماءَ َوََْن ُن نُ َسب ُح ِبَ ْمد َك َونُ َقد‬ “. which means. Because the morphology of a respective Higher Family verb may not allow this to always occur.” (2:47) [‫ماض‬ ِ ِ ِ ِ َ َّ‫وٱذْ ُكر َّرب‬.And remember your Lord much and praise [Him] in the evening and the morning.. Please also note that both the Doer and Passive Nouns take the Proper Plural pattern... the first stem letter takes a Ḍammah while the [‫ ]ع‬letter takes a Fatḥah.‫ك‬ َ َ‫ل‬ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ‫ قَالُواْ أ َََتعل فِيها من يُّ ْف ِس ُد فِيها ويس ِف‬. The conjugation of the Verbal Noun is also simpler than that of the Verb I Family forms.. For example.” (3:41) [‫َمر‬ ْ ‫ْاأل‬ ‫]اَلْ ِف ْع ُل‬ 4. Family III of note has two Verbal Noun patterns.. Thus. From the bare [‫ ] ُمضا ِرع‬Present Tense stem. "Will You place upon it one who causes corruption therein and sheds blood..(2:30) [‫ُمضارع‬ ِ 2. For Present Tense Passive Verbs..Verb Families II.g. and they will abide therein eternally. “learn!”.. Higher Families have one set pattern unlike the Verb I Family. (2:25) [‫امل ْفعول‬ َ ‫]اسم‬ 129 . Conjugation of the Command Tense is also simpler than that of Family I Verbs.They said. The conjugation of the Passive Tense does not change for the Past and Present Tenses respectively...﴿ َ ‫ك َكث اريا َو َسب ْح بٱلْ َعش ِي‬ َ 3.. remember My favor that I have bestowed upon you and that I ٍ ‫]فعل‬ preferred you over the worlds. This is indeed simpler. Please also note there can be Irregular forms (just like Form I) in each Verb Family II through X containing one of the vowel letters [ ‫ أ‬/ ‫ ا‬/ ‫ ي‬/ ‫ ]و‬or a letter with an Shadda. ﴾. this sharp difference in meaning stems from a single vowel. the general rule applies. Verb Family II examples from the Qur’ān 1. ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫َخالِ ُدو‬ ‫ َوََلُْم فِ َيها أ َْزَواج ُّمطَ َّهَرة َّوُﻫ ْم فِ َيها‬. like those from the Verb I Family. “he is learning” is converted to [‫] َعلِ حُم‬.

. it is typically Transitive or [‫] ُمتَ َع ِدي‬. It can also be defined as “an attempt to kill”. The verb [‫سبَ َق‬ َ ] means to precede or be ahead... and IV [‫]الفعل الثالثي املزيد فيه‬ ِ III.” (58:1) [‫الْمضا ِرع‬ 2. An example is [‫ل‬ َ َ‫]قَات‬. but has recorded it (with numbers)!"” (18:49) [‫الْمضا ِرع‬ 130 . It often expresses an attempt to do something. or to compete with one another. Verb Family III examples from the Qur’ān ِ ِ ُ‫﴿قَ ْد َِمسع ٱ َّّلل قَوَل ٱلَِِّت َُت ِادل‬ ِ ِ ِ َ َ ْ ُ َ َ َ ُ ‫ك ف َزْوج َها َوتَ ْشتَكي إ َىل ٱ َّّلل َوٱ َّّللُ يَ ْس َم ُع‬ 1. ﴾. ﴾. III.. "We testify that you are the Messenger of Allah.. َ ] and [ُ‫ ]يفاعل‬while its Command form is [‫فاع حُل‬ A. Therefore.” (63:1) [‫الفاعل‬ 3. Its Verb III derivative [‫ ] َسابَ َق‬means an attempt to precede.. Verb Family III Conjugations Table 44 – Verb Family III Conjugations Verbal Noun ‫ص َدر‬ ‫ُاملَ ح‬ ‫اﻫ َدة‬ َ ‫َُم‬ ‫ِج َهاد‬ Doer Noun Passive Noun Present Passive ُ‫املاضي‬ ‫الفاعل‬ ‫املفعول‬ ‫املُضارِع‬ ‫ُاملَ حجهول‬ ‫ُاملَ حجهول‬ ِ ‫َُم‬ ‫اﻫد‬ ‫اﻫد‬ َ ‫َُم‬ ‫اﻫ ُد‬ َ ‫ُُي‬ ‫ُج ْوِﻫ َد‬ ُ‫اسم‬ ُ‫اسم‬ Past Passive Forbidding Command Present Past ‫ْلُالنَّ ِهيَّة‬ ‫ُاْل حَمر‬ ‫اَل ِحف حعل ح‬ ِ ‫امل‬ ‫اضي املُضارِع‬ Verb Family III Stem ] ِ ‫ال َُت‬ ‫اﻫ ْد‬ ِ‫ج‬ ُ‫اه حد‬ َ ِ ‫ُي‬ ‫اه ُد‬ َ ُ‫فاع َل‬ َ [ ُ‫اه َد‬ َ ‫اﻫ َد َج‬ َ ‫َج‬ B. Verb Family III [‫ل‬ َُ ‫اع‬ َ َ‫ف‬/ُ‫]يفاعل‬ Verb Family III in meaning compared to its root is often related to doing an action against others. which means. ﴿ ‫اﻫا‬ َ‫ص‬ ْ ‫صغ َرياة َوالَ َكبِ َرياة إِالَّ أ‬ َ ‫َح‬ َ ُ ُ َ َ َ ََ “They will say: "Woe to us! What sort of Book is this that leaves neither a small thing nor a ِ ُ ‫]اَلْف ْع ُل‬ big thing. The conjugation patterns for the Past and Present Tense stems ِ are respectively [‫ل‬ َُ ‫فاع‬ ُِ ]... they say.Verb Families II..‫كما‬ ُ‫ََتَاور‬ “. “fighting with others”.. “to kill”. ‫] اِسم‬ ِ ‫اب الَ ي غَ ِادر‬ ِ َ‫وي ُقولُو َن َي ويْلَتَ نَا م ِال َﻫ َذا ٱلْ ِكت‬. ِ‫ّلل‬ َّ ‫ٱ‬ ِ ‫ول‬ ُ ‫َّك لََر ُس‬ َ ‫﴿إِذَا َجاءَ َك ٱلْ ُمنَاف ُقو َن قَالُوا نَ ْش َه ُد إِن‬ “When the hypocrites come to you. ﴾. and Allah hears the contentions of both of you.Allah indeed has heard the plea of her who pleads with thee about her husband and ِ ُ ‫]اَلْف ْع ُل‬ complains to Allah.". since [‫ ]قَتَ َل‬means..

the verb [‫ل‬ َُ ‫ ] َد َخ‬means “to enter”. The verb [َُ‫ ]نَ َزل‬means. III. and IV [‫]الفعل الثالثي املزيد فيه‬ 4. Thus.” (9:73) [‫َمر‬ ْ ‫ْاأل‬ ‫]اَلْ ِف ْع ُل‬90 ِ IV.. “to go down” while [َُ‫ ]أَُنح َزل‬means “to bring down” similar to [َُ‫]نَ َُّزل‬. Verb Family IV ]ُ‫ل‬ َ ‫أَفح َع‬/ُ‫[ي حفعل‬ The general meaning of Verb Family IV is related to forcing or doing an action on others. In terms of structure. the action on others.e.and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing. One interesting thing to note regarding the Past Passive Tense conjugation of Family IV [ُ‫ ]ي حن َزل‬is that it is identical to the Past Passive Tense of Family I.. 131 IV Stem ‫[أَفْ َع َل‬ ‫أَنْ َزَل‬ .﴿ “. context clarifies the identity of the verb. Its meaning is similar to that of the Transitive Verb Family II and is very commonly used. This Kasrah is necessary because Please note that the Kasrah on the last letter of [‫]جاﻫ ِد‬ without it... fight against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and be harsh upon them. In these rare cases.. Verb Family IV examples from the Qur’ān 1. For example. ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫تَكْتُمو‬ ُ ‫ َوأ َْعلَ ُم َما تُْب ُدو َن َوَما ُكنتُ ْم‬. there would be two consecutive Sukūn. which are grammatically impossible in Arabic. it is generally [‫]متَ َع ِدى‬. The Verbal Noun ِ for [‫َسلَ َُم‬ ‫ ]أ ح‬which means “to submit”.”(2:33) [‫ُمضارع‬ 90 ‫]فعل‬ ِ is added onto the Sukūn and original word [‫جاﻫ ْد‬ ِ ]. The Verbal Noun pattern for Verb Family IV is on the pattern of [ُ‫]اِفح َعال‬. which means submission. this is the only Verb Family where a Hamzah [‫ ]أ‬is used at the beginning of its Command form.‫علَْي ِهم‬ َ ْ ِِ ِ ِ ِ‫﴿َي أَيُّها ٱلن‬ ‫ي َوٱ ْغلُ ْظ‬ ُّ َ َ َ ‫َّار َوٱلْ ُمنَافق‬ َ ‫َّب َجاﻫد ٱلْ ُكف‬ “O Prophet. is [ُ‫]ا حسالم‬..Verb Families II. while [‫ ]أَ حد َخ َُل‬means to “make others enter”.. i. Verb Family IV Conjugations Table 45 – Verb Family IV Conjugations Verbal Noun ‫ص َدر‬ ‫ُاملَ ح‬ ‫إِنْزال‬ Doer Noun Passive Noun ُ‫اسم‬ ُ‫اسم‬ ‫املفعول‬ ‫الفاعل‬ ‫ُمْن ِزل‬ ‫ُمْن َزل‬ Present Passive ‫املُضارِع‬ ‫ُاملَ حجهول‬ ‫يُْن َزُل‬ Past Passive Forbidding ُ‫املاضي‬ ‫ُاملَ حجهول‬ ‫أُنْ ِزَل‬ ‫ْلُالنَّ ِهيَّة‬ Command ‫ُاْل حَمر‬ ‫اَل ِحف حعل ح‬ Present ‫املُضارِع‬ Past Verb ِ ‫امل‬ ‫اضي‬ Family ] ‫ال تُْن ِزْل‬ ُ‫أَنح ِزلح‬ ُ‫ي حن ِزل‬ َُ‫ُأَنح َزل‬ B. A. ﴾.

[‫اَلْ ِف ْعل الْماضي‬/‫َمر‬ ْ ‫]اَلْف ْعل ْاأل‬ ُ ُ V. this involves fully identifying and characterizing nouns and particles involved in the Verbal Sentence. as the verb may be [‫]ال ِزم‬. 2. is to identify the Doer. 1. or be present sequentially after the Doer or Verb. ﴾ُ‫ظيما‬ َ ‫ا‬ ِ ِ ِ ِ ‫نت تُِرْد َن ٱ َّّلل ورسولَه وٱلدَّار ٱْآل ِخرةَ فَِإ َّن ٱ َّّلل أ‬ ‫َجارا‬ َّ ُ ‫﴿ َوإِن ُك‬ َ َ ْ ‫َع َّد ل ْل ُم ْحسنَات من ُك َّن أ‬ َ َ ُ ُ ََ َ َ “But if you desire Allah and His Messenger. This may be attached to the verb itself. Present. and subsequently the translation becomes deficient. or Command. Present. whether Past. and IV [‫]الفعل الثالثي املزيد فيه‬ 2. First. Passive) and then its conjugation (pronoun in terms of gender. Allah has prepared for the righteous (women) amongst you an enormous reward” (33:29). and may not necessary be found immediately after the verb as in the typical case. then verily. Command. The First step in analyzing a Verbal Sentence similar to the methodology of analyzing Nominal Sentences is Word Analysis. things can be missed. The Second step is Verb Analysis. The Fourth step is to identify the Direct Object if present. 3. If not present. The analysis of verbs occurs in the next step. "Warn your people before there comes to them ِ a painful punishment.” (71:1). ﴾ُ‫ن‬ َ ‫تَنظُرو‬ ُ ‫آل فِْر َع ْو َن َوأَنتُ ْم‬ َ ‫﴿ َوإِ ْذ فَ َرقْ نَا بِ ُك ُم ٱلْبَ ْحَر فَأََنَْي نَا ُك ْم َوأَ ْغَرقْ نَا‬ “And [recall] when We parted the sea for you and saved you and drowned the people of Pharaoh while you were looking on. and the basic structure of Verbal Sentences. ﴾‫أَلِيم‬ ِ ِ ‫ك ِمن قَ ْب ِل أَن ََيْتِيَ ُه ْم َع َذاب‬ َ ‫وحا إِ َىل قَ ْوِم ِه أَ ْن أَنذ ْر قَ ْوَم‬ ‫﴿إ ََّّن أ َْر َس ْلنَا نُ ا‬ “Indeed. 4. Using the following methodology is useful in extracting an appropriate meaning when analyzing a respective Verbal Sentence from the Qur’ān or Ḥadīth.” (2:50) [‫]اَلْ ِف ْعل الْماضي‬ ُ ِ‫ع‬ 3. [‫اسم الفاعل‬ ُ ] 4. If the specific family is not identified first. The Third step after appropriately analyzing the verb. then identify its tense (Past. and person). it is useful to be systematic when reading and analyzing Verbal Sentences. After identifying the Family. and the home of the Hereafter.. check to see if there is an indirect Object (Jarr Construction). plurality. Specifically. We sent Nūḥ to his people. its conjugations. identify the Verb Family of the verb in question (Family I through X).Verb Families II. it will easier to identify the specific tense that the verb is taking. III. [saying]. When present. If a specific methodology is not used. Remember the Doer if explicitly mentioned is Raf‛. it is always Naṣb. 132 . Method for Analyzing Verbal Sentences After the student becomes familiar with verbs.

Example of Analyzing a Verbal Sentence: ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ َ ‫( ﴿ َوإ ْذ يَ ْرفَ ُع إبْ َراﻫ ُيم ٱلْ َق َواع َد م َن ٱلْبَ ْيت‬2:127) ِ ‫وإِ ْمس‬ ﴾.. there may be additional details noted in the Verbal Sentence. The final step is putting everything together and deriving an appropriate translation/meaning. The discussion on other nouns that are Naṣb in Verbal Sentences is presented in detail in Volume 2. and IV [‫]الفعل الثالثي املزيد فيه‬ After screening for the Direct Object.Verb Families II. 133 .‫اعيل‬ َ ُ Step #1 Word Analysis Step #2 Verb Analysis Step #3 ID the Doer Step #4 ID object and rest Final Step ِ ِ ‫يل‬ ُ ‫إ ْمسَاع‬ -noun -male -singular -definite (partiallyflexible) -Raf‛ ِ ‫الْب ي‬ ‫ت‬ َْ ‫َو‬ Ḥarf [‫] َعطْف‬ -noun Connecting particle -male -singular -definite -Jarr ‫ِم َن‬ Ḥarf Jarr [‫ =]يَ ْرفَ ُع‬Verb family I ِ ‫الْ َقو‬ ‫اع َد‬ َ -noun -feminine -definite -singular (broken plural) -Naṣb ‫إِبْ َر ِاﻫ ُيم‬ -noun -male -singular -definite (partiallyflexible) -Raf‛ Present tense [‫مضارع‬ ‫يَ ْرفَ ُع‬ verb ‫َوإِ ْذ‬ [‫ ]و‬is particle [‫ ]إِ ْذ‬is an Adverb particle ‫ ]فعل‬on conjugation [‫] ُه َو‬.. ِ ِ [‫يم‬ ُ ‫]إبْ َراﻫ‬ ِ ِ [‫يل‬ ُ ‫]إ ْمسَاع‬ Doer through [‫]و‬ Doer ِ ‫] ِمن الْب ي‬ [‫ت‬ َْ َ ِ ‫]ال َقو‬ [‫اعد‬ Jarr Construction Direct Object And remember when Ibrāhīm was raising the foundations of the house and (with him) Ismaīl.. Also.. III. note that not every noun in the Naṣb state is a Direct Object.

Verb Families V through X [‫]الفعل الثالثي املزيد فيه‬

ِ
ِ ‫يد‬
Lesson 13: Verb Families V through X - ‫فيه‬
ُ ‫اَلْف ْع ُل الثُّالثي الْ َمز‬
The same rules that applied to Verb Families II, III, and IV also apply to these Families V through X as
previously discussed. The most frequently used Families in the Qur’ān from here are Family VIII and X.
Family IX is rarely used. The Verb Families from VII to X all start with the letter Alif.

II

‫فَ َّع َل‬
‫يُ َفعِ ُل‬

X

IX

‫اِ ْستَ ْف َع َل‬
‫يَ ْستَ ْفعِ ُل‬

‫اِفْ َع َّل‬
‫يَ ْف َع ُّل‬

‫فاع َل‬
َ
ِ
‫يُفاع ُل‬

IV

‫أَفْ َع َل‬
‫يُ ْفعِ ُل‬

Family I

‫يَ ْف َع ُل‬/‫فَ َع َل‬

VIII

‫اِفْ تَ َع َل‬
‫يَ ْفتَعِ ُل‬

III

V
VI

VII

‫اعل‬
َ ‫تَ َف‬

‫اِنْ َف َع َل‬
‫يَْن َفعِ ُل‬

‫فاع ُل‬
َ َ‫يَت‬

‫تَ َفعَّ َل‬
‫يَتَ َف َّع ُل‬

I. Verb Family V [ُ‫يَتَ َفعَُّل‬/‫ل‬
َ َّ‫]تَ َفع‬

This Family is essentially a Tā attached to the Verb Family II pattern in the Past Tense. This Verb Family
can be [‫ ]ال ِزم‬or [‫] ُمتَ َع ِدى‬. In terms of meaning, it is also closely tied to Family II, and is its reflexive form (the
action done on oneself). For example , the Verb II [‫ ] َعلَّم‬means “to teach”, while the Verb V [‫ ]تَ َعلَّم‬from the
same root means “to teach oneself” or “to learn”.

َ

َ
Similarly, [‫ق‬
َ ‫ ]فَ َّر‬means “to separate”, while [‫ ]تَ َفَّر َق‬means to

separate oneself.
In terms of structure, Verb Families V through X differ from the Present Tense stems of Verbs II, III, and
IV as their first stem letter takes a Fatḥah. Verb V is also different from these three Verb families in that it’s
[‫ ]ع‬or next to last stem letter takes a Fatḥah (not a Kasrah). The Verbal Noun of Family V (and VI) is a bit

different from the rest. Its structure is [ُ‫ ]تَ َف ُّعل‬pattern, which is essentially the stem past tense form [‫]تَ َف َُّعل‬
with its [‫ ]ع‬letter carrying the Ḍammah vowel. Another way in which Families V through X differ from the

rest is in their conjugation of the Past Passive Tense. These Verb Families with stems of five letters or more

134

Verb Families V through X [‫]الفعل الثالثي املزيد فيه‬

ِ
contain two Ḍammahs in their Past Passive Tense conjugation. For example, the verb [‫ستَ حغ َف َُر‬
‫ ]ا ح‬becomes
[‫ست حغ ِف َُر‬
َُ َ‫ ]اِ حجتَ ن‬becomes [‫ب‬
َُ ِ‫]ا حجتن‬. Here, in these cases, a Kasrah follows the second Ḍammah in
‫ ]ا ح‬whereas [‫ب‬
keeping with the original conjugation found in Family I Verbs.

A. Verb Family V Conjugations
Table 46 – Verb Family V Conjugations
Verbal
Noun

Verbal
Doer

‫ص َدر‬
‫ُاملَ ح‬

ُ‫اسم‬

‫تَ َكبُّر‬

Passive
Noun

ُ‫اسم‬

‫املفعول‬

‫الفاعل‬

‫ُمتَ َكِب‬

‫ُمتَ َك َّب‬

Present
Passive

Past
Passive

‫املُضارِع‬

ُ‫املاضي‬

‫ُاملَ حجهول‬

‫ُاملَ حجهول‬

Forbidding

Command

Present

Past

‫ْلُالنَّ ِهيَّة‬

‫ُاْل حَمر‬
‫اَل ِحف حعل ح‬

‫املُضارِع‬

ِ ‫امل‬
‫اضي‬

‫تُ ُكِ َب‬

‫يُتَ َكبَّ ُر‬

Verb

Family
V
Stem
]

ُ‫تَ َكبَّ حر‬

‫ال تَتَ َكبَّ ْر‬

ُ‫يَتَ َكبَّ ر‬

ُ‫تَ َكبَّ َر‬

‫[تَ َف َّع َل‬

‫تَ َكبَّ َر‬

B. Verb Family V examples from the Qur’ān and Ḥadīth
1. ﴾ُ...‫ٱألَنْ َهار‬

ُ

ِ
ِ ِ
ُ‫ َوإِ َّن م َن ٱ ْْل َج َارةِ لَ َما يَتَ َف َّج ُر مْنه‬... ﴿

“...And indeed, there are stones out of which rivers gush forth ...”(2:74) [‫الْماضي‬

ِ
ِ
ِ
َ ْ َ‫فَيَ تَ َعلَّ ُمو َن مْن ُه َما َما يُ َف ِرقُو َن بِه ب‬..﴿
َ ‫ي ٱلْ َم ْرء‬

2. ﴾..ُ‫وَزْوِج ِه‬

‫]اَلْ ِف ْع ُل‬

“......And they learned from these two (angels) by what causes separation between man and
his wife....”(2:102) [‫]اَلْ ِف ْعل الْماضي‬

ُ

ِ َّ
ِ ِ‫ين َآمنُوا إِ َذا قِيل لَ ُك ْم تَ َف َّس ُحوا ِف ٱلْ َم َجال‬
ْ ُ‫س فَٱفْ َس ُحوا يَ ْف َس ِح ٱ َّّلل‬
َ ‫﴿ ََي أَيُّ َها ٱلذ‬
َ

3. ﴾ُ...‫كم‬
ُ َ‫ل‬

“O you who have believed, when you are told, "Space yourselves" in assemblies, then make
space; Allah will make space for you.....”(2:102) [‫]اَلْ ِف ْعل ْاألَ ْمر‬

ُ

4. ]ُ‫علَّمه‬
َ

َ ‫[ َخْي ُرُك ْم َم ْن تَ َعلَّ َم ال ُقرآ َن َو‬

“The best of you is one who learns the Qur’ān and teaches it”. (Bukhāri)91 [‫الْماضي‬

ِ
ِ ِ ‫ك يطْبع ٱ َّّلل َعلَى ُك ِل قَ ْل‬
َ ‫ب ُمتَ َك ٍب‬
ُ ُ َ َ َ ‫ َك َذل‬... ﴿

5. ﴾‫جبَّا ٍر‬

‫]اَلْ ِف ْع ُل‬

“Thus does Allah seal over every heart [belonging to] an arrogant tyrant.” (40:35)

ِ ْ‫]اِسم ال‬
[‫فاعل‬
ُْ

91

Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhāri, Chapter on the Bounties of the Qur’ān: ‫ كتاب فضائل القرآن‬, Ḥadīth #4739.

135

Verb Families V through X [‫]الفعل الثالثي املزيد فيه‬

C. Omission of Consecutive Tā from Verb Family V Conjugates
Please note that in the Present Tense or noun derivatives from Family V, one of the consecutive Tā’s
may be deleted. This usually occurs in conjugations of second person (which start with Tā).

Examples
1. ﴾ُ‫ن‬
َ ‫تَ َذ َّكرو‬

ُ

ِ ‫﴿وَال بَِقوِل َك‬
‫اﻫ ٍن قَلِ ايال َّما‬
ْ َ

“Nor the word of a soothsayer; little do you remember.” (69:42)

Please note that the full conjugation of the highlighted verb should have been ]‫ن‬
َُ ‫[تَتَ َذ َّكرو‬
without the omission of the beginning Tā.

2. ﴾ُ‫ن‬
َ ‫تَ ْعلَمو‬

ُ

ِ
‫ص َّدقُواْ َخْي ر لَّ ُك ْم إِن ُكنتُ ْم‬
َ َ‫﴿ َوإِن َكا َن ذُو عُ ْسَرةٍ فَنَظَرة إِ َىل َمْي َسَرةٍ َوأَن ت‬

“And if someone is in hardship, then [let there be] postponement until [a time of] ease. But if
you give charity, then it is better for you, if you only knew.” (2:280)

Please note that the full conjugation of the highlighted verb should have been [‫صدَّقوا‬
َ َ‫ ]تَت‬without
the omission of the beginning Tā.

II. Verb Family VI [ُ‫فاعل‬
َ َ‫يَت‬/‫فاع َُل‬
َ َ‫]ت‬

ُُُُُFamily VI is the reflexive of Family III, which represents the action done to oneself or the action done
within. For example, Verb III [‫ل‬
َُ َ‫ ]قات‬means “to fight” while Verb VI [‫ ]تَقاتَ َُل‬means “to fight with one another”.
Likewise, Verb I [َُ‫سأَل‬
َُ َ‫ ]ت‬means “to ask each other”.
َ ] means “to ask”, while the Verb VI [‫ساُئَ َُل‬
Family VI structure is essentially a Tā added to the beginning of the Family III Verb pattern [‫ل‬
َُ ‫فاع‬
َ ].

However, unlike Family III, the Present Tense first letter stem in Family VI takes a Fatḥah. Thus, Family VI is
similar to Family V in this regard. As a point of contrast with the other higher Verb Families , Verb Families
V, VI, and IX maintain an [‫ ]ع‬Fatḥah (on second to last stem letter) instead of a Kasrah in their Present

Tense conjugations. The Verbal Noun of Family V (like VI) is its stem Past Tense [‫ل‬
َُ ‫اع‬
َ ‫ ]تَ َُف‬pattern with a
Ḍammah on its [‫ ]ع‬letter to form [ُ‫]تَ َُفاعل‬.

136

Verb Families V through X [‫]الفعل الثالثي املزيد فيه‬

A. Verb Family VI Conjugations
Table 47 – Verb Family VI Conjugations
Verbal
Noun

‫ص َدر‬
‫ُاملَ ح‬

‫تَكاثُر‬

Doer
Noun

Passive
Noun

Present
Passive

Past
Passive

‫الفاعل‬

‫املفعول‬

‫املَ حجهول‬

‫املَ حجهول‬

ُ‫اسم‬

ُ‫اسم‬

‫ُمتَكاثِر‬

‫ُمتَكاثَر‬

‫املضارِع‬

‫يُتَكاثَ ُر‬

Forbidding

Command

Present

Past

‫ْلُالنَّ ِهيَّة‬

‫ُاْل حَمر‬
‫اَل ِحف حعل ح‬

‫املضارِع‬

ِ
‫املاضي‬

ُ‫املاضي‬

‫تُ ُكوثَِر‬

Verb
Family
VI
Stem
]

‫ال تَتَكاثَ ْر‬

ُ‫تَكاثَ حر‬

ُ‫يَتَكاثَر‬

ُ‫تَكاثَ َر‬

‫[تَقاتَ َل‬

‫تَكاثََر‬

B. Verb Family VI Examples from the Qur’ān

ِ ‫بِٱْألَلْ َق‬
1. ﴾...ُ‫اب‬

‫ َوَال تَ ْل ِم ُزوا أَن ُف َس ُك ْم َوَال تَنَابَ ُزوا‬... ﴿

“....and do not defame one another, nor insult another by nicknames...”(49:11).

ِ
[‫جزوم‬
ْ ‫]اَلْف ْع ُل الْماضي امل‬
َ

ِ
ِ
َ ‫ َوإ ْن تَ َع‬... ﴿
َ ُ‫اس ْرُْت فَ َستُ ْرض ُع لَه‬

2. ﴾‫ُخرى‬
ْ‫أ‬

“....But if you disagree, then some other woman may suckle for him (65:6).

ِ
[‫ل الْماضي اجملزوم‬
ُ ‫]اَلْف ْع‬

3. ﴾...ِ‫ٱّلل‬

ِ َ‫ فَمن ََّّل َُِي ْد ف‬... ﴿
ِ ْ ‫صيَ ُام َش ْهريْ ِن ُمتَ تَابِ َع‬
‫ي تَ ْوبَةا ِم َن‬
ْ َ
َ

“….And whoso finds this beyond his means, he must fast for two consecutive months in
order to seek repentance from Allah” (4:92). [‫]اسم الفاعل‬

ِ ِ
III. Verb Family VII [ُ‫ل‬
َ ‫انح َف َع‬/ُ‫]يَ حن َفعل‬

Verb Family VII represents passive or intransitive actions that are done. Thus, verbs from this family are
[‫]ال ِزم‬, or Intransitive. For example, for the verb [‫ ] َكسر‬that means, “to break”, its VII derived form is [‫]اِنْ َكسر‬,

which means, “to be broken”.

ََ

ََ

In terms of structure, the first two letters of the verb are [‫ن‬
ُ‫]اِ ح‬. Please note that this verb begins with Alif

(not Hamzah) similar to Verb families VIII, IX, and X. Due to this, the Command Tense also begins with an
Alif. In terms of the Verbal Noun pattern for this family, it is on the pattern of [ُ‫]اِنح ِفعال‬. This pattern is
obtained by taking the Past Tense stem pattern [‫ل‬
َُ ‫ ]اِنح َف َع‬and adding an Alif on the [‫ ]ع‬letter along with adding
a Kasrah to the letter before the [‫]ع‬. This pattern is actually not a new pattern and perhaps you may recall

137

Verb Families V through X [‫]الفعل الثالثي املزيد فيه‬

that Verb Family IV also used this pattern as its Verbal Noun. The verb [‫ل‬
َُ ‫ ]أفح َع‬becomes the Maṣdar [ُ‫]إحفحعال‬.

This same Verbal Noun pattern is seen in Verb Families VIII, IX, and X respectively as we will inshā Allah
soon see. Another variance that may be noted is Family VI Passive Past Tense structure. Here, the Past

ِ
Tense stem [‫ل‬
َُ ‫اع‬
َ ‫ ]تَ َف‬becomes [‫]ت فوع َُل‬. The Alif becomes a Wāw because of Morphology (Ṣarf) rules.
A. Verb Family VII Conjugations
Table 48 – Verb Family VII Conjugations
Verbal
Noun

Doer
Noun

‫ص َدر‬
‫ُاملَ ح‬

ُ‫اسم‬

‫اِنْ ِكسار‬

Passive
Noun

ُ‫اسم‬

‫املفعول‬

‫الفاعل‬

‫ُمْن َك ِسر‬

‫ُمْن َك َسر‬

Present
Passive

Past
Passive

‫املضارِع‬

ُ‫املاضي‬

‫املَ حجهول‬

‫املَ حجهول‬

‫يُْن َفطََر‬

Forbidding

Command

Present

Past

‫ْلُالنَّ ِهيَّة‬

‫اَل ِحف حعلُ حاْل حَمر‬

‫املضارِع‬

ِ
‫املاضي‬

‫اُنْ ُك ِسَر‬

Verb
Family
VII
Stem
]

‫ال تَ ْن َك ِس ْر‬

ُ‫اِنح َك ِس حر‬

ُ‫[اِنح َف َع َل‬

ِ
ِ
‫س َرُ يَ حن َك ِس ُر‬
َ ‫انْ َك َسر انح َك‬

B. Verb Family VII examples from the Qur’ān
1. ﴾...‫عْينا‬
َ

‫ت ِمْنهُ ٱثْنَ تَا َع ْشَرَة‬
ْ ‫ فَٱنْ َف َجَر‬... ﴿

ٍ
“...then gushed forth therefrom twelve springs...” (2:60). [‫ماض‬

2. ﴾‫ن‬
َ ‫تُ َك ِذبو‬

ُ

‫]فعل‬

‫﴿ُٱنْطَلِ ُقوا إِ َىل َما ُكْن تُ ْم بِِه‬

“[They will be told], "Proceed to that which you used to deny”(77:29)[‫أمر‬

‫] فعل‬

ِ ِ َّ ‫﴿ُفَٱنطَلَ َقا ح َّّت إِ َذا ركِبا ِف‬
ََ
َ
َ ‫ٱلسفينَة‬

3. ﴾...‫خرقَ َها‬
َ

“So they both proceeded, till, when they embarked the ship, he (Khidr) scuttled it…”(18:71)

ٍ ‫]فعل‬
[‫ماض‬

ِ ِ
IV. Verb Family VIII [ُ‫ل‬
َ ‫افح تَ َع‬/ُ‫]يَ حفتَعل‬

In this Verb Family, there is an Alif at the beginning, and there is a Tā is placed between the [‫ ]ف‬and [‫]ع‬

letters. In terms of meaning, this family of verbs often is related to actions done for oneself. For example,
ِ
the verb [‫ب‬
َ ‫ ] َكس‬means “to earn”, while [‫ب‬
َ ‫ ]ا ْكتَس‬means “to gain”. In terms of Verbal Noun pattern, the Past

َ
َ
ِ
ِ
Tense stem [‫ل‬
َُ ‫ ]افح تَ َع‬is converted to [ُ‫]افحُتِ َُعال‬, which is similar to the pattern of Family VII.

138

139 . then seek refuge in the Cave.” (57:13)... [‫]اسم الفاعل‬ V... "Go back behind you and seek light. the righteous will be in the midst of Gardens and Rivers.. near the Omnipotent Sovereign (54:54-55). Verb Family VIII examples from the Qur’ān ِ ‫ٱلْ َك ْه‬ 1. [‫]اَلْ ِف ْعل الْماضي‬ ُ ِ ِ‫ق‬. [‫َمر‬ ْ ‫ْاأل‬ ِ ‫ُّم ْقت‬ 3. ﴾‫د ٍر‬ َ ‫] اَلْ ِف ْع ُل‬ ِ ٍ ِ ٍ ِ ِ ٍ ِ‫ند مل‬ ‫يك‬ َ ‫﴿ إِ َّن ٱلْ ُمتَّق‬ َ َ ‫ي ِف َجنَّات َونَ َه ٍر۝ ِف َم ْق َعد ص ْدق ع‬ “Verily..‫ف‬ ‫﴿ َوإِ ِذ ٱ ْعتَ َزلْتُ ُموُﻫ ْم َوَما يَ ْعبُ ُدو َن إِالَّ ٱ َّّللَ فَأْ ُووا إِ َىل‬ And when you withdraw from them. Verb Family VIII Conjugations Table 49 – Verb Family VIII Conjugations Verbal Noun Verbal Doer ‫ص َدر‬ ‫ُاملَ ح‬ ُ‫اسم‬ ‫اِ ْجتِناب‬ Passive Noun ُ‫اسم‬ Present Passive Past Passive ‫املضارِع‬ ُ‫املاضي‬ ‫املَ حجهول‬ ‫الفاعل‬ ‫املفعول‬ ‫َُْمتَنِب‬ ‫املَ حجهول‬ ‫َُْمتَ نَب‬ ‫ب‬ ُ َ‫ُُْيتَ ن‬ Forbidding Command Present Past ‫ْلُالنَّ ِهيَّة‬ ‫ُاْل حَمر‬ ‫اَل ِحف حعل ح‬ ‫املضارِع‬ ِ ‫املاضي‬ ِ ‫ب‬ َ ‫اُ ْجتُن‬ Verb Family VIII Stem ] ِ ‫ب‬ ْ ‫ال ََْتتَن‬ ِ ِ ُ‫ب‬ ‫ا حجتَن ح‬ ُ‫[اِفحُتَُ َع َل‬ ِ ِ ُ‫بُ َحُيتَنِب‬ َ َ‫ب ا حجتَ ن‬ َ َ‫ا ْجتَ ن‬ B. (18:16).. ﴾.Verb Families V through X [‫]الفعل الثالثي املزيد فيه‬ A. Its structure is different from the rest of the Verb Family stems since it has a Shadda on its last letter. It is often used to express colors and defects. Verb Family IX [‫ل‬ َُّ ‫اِفح َع‬/‫]يَ حف َع ُُّل‬ This form is used rarely in Arabic. ﴾. ﴿ ِ ‫يل ْٱرجعُوا َوَراءَ ُك ْم فَٱلْتَم ُسوا ا‬ َ 2. and that which they worship. except Allah..‫نُورا‬ “…It will be said. In a seat of truth..

Verb Family X [ُ‫ل‬ َ ‫ا حستَ حف َع‬/ُ‫]يَ حستَ حفعل‬ ُ Family X is frequently found in the Qur’ān and has six base letters in its stem Past Tense third person ِ male form."”(3:106) [‫]اَلْ ِف ْعل الْ ُمضا ِرع‬ ِ ِ VI. "Did you disbelieve after your belief? Then taste the punishment for what you used to reject. Verb Family IX examples from the Qur’ān ِ َّ ِ ‫اب ِِبَا ُكْن تُ ْم‬ ُّ َ‫﴿يَ ْوَم تَ ْب ي‬ ْ ‫ين ٱ ْس َوَّد‬ ُ ‫ت ُو ُج‬ َ ‫وﻫ ُه ْم أَ ْك َف ْرُت بَ ْع َد إُِيَان ُك ْم فَ ُذوقُواْ ٱلْ َع َذ‬ َ ‫ض ُو ُجوه َوتَ ْس َوُّد ُو ُجوه فَأ ََّما الذ‬ ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫تَ ْك ُف ُرو‬ “On the Day faces will turn white and [some] faces will turn black. As for those whose faces turn black. This family contains the starting letters [‫ست‬ ْ ‫]ا‬. [to them it will be said]. where [‫ستَ ْعلَم‬ ْ ‫ ]ا‬means to “ask for information” or in a sense to َ َ ِ “ask for knowledge”. 140 . Verb Family IX Conjugations Table 50– Verb Family IX Conjugations Verbal Noun Verbal Doer ‫ص َدر‬ ‫ُاملَ ح‬ ُ‫اسم‬ ِ ‫اِخ‬ ‫ضرار‬ ْ ‫الفاعل‬ ‫ض ٍر‬ َ ُْ‫َّم‬ Passive Noun ُ‫اسم‬ ‫املفعول‬ -- Present Passive Past Passive Forbidding ‫املاضيُ املُضارِع‬ ‫ُاملَ حجهول ُاملَ حجهول‬ ‫ضُّر‬ َ ْ‫َُي‬ ‫ضَّر‬ ُ ‫اُ ْخ‬ Command 92 Present Past ‫ْلُالنَّ ِهيَّة‬ ‫ُاْل حَمر‬ ‫اَل ِحف حعل ح‬ ‫املُضارِع‬ ِ ‫امل‬ ‫اضي‬ ‫ضر‬ َ ْ‫ال ََّت‬ ِ ُ‫ض َّر‬ َ ‫ا حخ‬ ُ‫ض ُّر‬ َ ‫ََيح‬ ِ ُ‫ض َّر‬ َ ‫ا حخ‬ Verb Family IX Stem ِ [‫ل‬ َّ ‫]افْ َع‬ ِ ‫ضَّر‬ َ ‫ا ْخ‬ B. and [‫ض ِرْر‬ َ ‫]ا ْخ‬. The verb [‫ ] َغ َفر‬means to forgive. It often has the meaning of asking. 92 َ َ There are three possible conjugations for the command form due to the doubled last letter (with Shadda).]‫ضَّر‬ َ ‫]ا ْخ‬. while [‫ستَ ْغ َفر‬ ْ ‫ ]ا‬means to “ask for forgiveness”. ِ For example. or “to ask for”.Verb Families V through X [‫]الفعل الثالثي املزيد فيه‬ A. The three possible conjugations are ِ ِ ِ [‫ض ِر‬ َ ‫ [ا ْخ‬. [‫ ] َعلِم‬means to have knowledge.

. "Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower?. and spend of that whereof He has made you trustees.” (12:54). and were arrogant with ٍ ‫فِعل‬/‫ماض‬ ٍ ‫]فعل‬ [great] arrogance.. It is also important the the selected high yield vocabulary from the Qur’ān be memorized. Before the student goes further. These include but are not limited to the following: 141 .” (57:7) [‫] اسم املفعول‬ 4.he said.” (71:7) [‫ص َدر‬ ْ ‫امل‬/‫ماض‬ َ VII..‫خْي ر‬ َ ‫قَ َال أَتَ ْستَ ْب ِدلُو َن ٱلَّ ِذي ُﻫ َو أ َْد َّن بِٱلَّ ِذي ُﻫ َو‬.” ِ (2:61).. they put their fingers in their ears. Verb Family X examples from the Qur’ān 1.. ﴾‫يه‬ َ ِ ِ ِِ َِّ ِ‫﴿ ِآمنوا ب‬ ِ ‫ي‬ ُ َ ‫ٱّلل َوَر ُسوله َوأَنف ُقوا ممَّا َج َعلَ ُكم ُّم ْستَ ْخلَف‬ “Believe in Allah and His Messenger. Future Topics Covered in Volume Two of “Essentials of Qur’ānic Arabic” All of what has been presented here in this Volume represents the core of Qur’ānic Arabic.. ﴾...Verb Families V through X [‫]الفعل الثالثي املزيد فيه‬ A. and teaches other principles that are essential to Qur’ānic Arabic studies.. ﴿ ُ ُ َ ْ ‫َستَ ْخل‬ ُ‫صه‬ ْ َ “And the king said: "Bring him to me that I may appoint him for myself. [ ‫ل الْ ُمضا ِرع‬ ُ ‫] اَلْف ْع‬ ِ ‫لِنَ ْف‬ 2.. Verb Family X Conjugations Table 51 – Verb Family X Conjugations ‫ص َدر‬ ‫ُاملَ ح‬ ‫املُضارِع‬ ‫اسمُاملفعول اسمُالفاعل‬ ‫ُاملَ حجهول‬ ُ‫املاضي‬ ‫ْلُالنَّ ِهيَّة‬ ‫ُاملَ حجهول‬ ‫ُاْل حَمر‬ ‫اَل ِحف حعل ح‬ ‫املُضارِع‬ ُ‫اِ حستَ غح ِف حر‬ ‫اِ حستَ غح َف َرُ يَ حستَ غح ِف ُر‬ ‫ال تَ ْستَ ْغ ِف ْر اُ ْستُ ْغ ِفَر يُ ْستَ ْغ َف ُر ُم ْستَ ْغ َفر ُم ْستَ ْغ ِفر اِ ْستِ ْغفار‬ ِ ‫امل‬ ‫اضي‬ Verb Family X ] ُ‫[ُاِ حستَُ حُف َع َل‬ ‫اِ ْستَ ْغ َفَر‬ B.. ِِ ِ ِ ِ ‫ٱستَكْبَ ُروا‬ ْ ‫َصُّروا َو‬ ْ ‫َصابِ َع ُه ْم ِف آ َذاِن ْم َو‬ َ ‫ٱستَ ْغ َش ْوا ثيَابَ ُه ْم َوأ‬ َ ‫﴿ َوإِِِن ُكلَّ َما َد َع ْوتُ ُه ْم لتَ ْغفَر ََلُْم َج َعلُوا أ‬ ﴾‫ٱستِكْبارا‬ ‫ْ َا‬ “And indeed.... ﴿ “…. every time I invited them that You may forgive them.‫سي‬ ِ ‫ وقَ َال ٱلْملِك ٱئْ ت ِوِن بِِه أ‬. ﴾. covered themselves with their garments. persisted. it is paramount for them to review and master the grammar principles of this Volume. ِ [‫ل الْ ُمضا ِرع‬ ُ ‫]امل ْجزوم اَلْف ْع‬ ِ ِ‫ف‬ 3. The Second Volume of this series builds upon this knowledge.

and Examples of Qur’ānic Eloquence‬‬ ‫‪Table 52 – Conjugation of the Ten Families‬‬ ‫‪Family‬‬ ‫‪I‬‬ ‫‪II‬‬ ‫‪III‬‬ ‫‪IV‬‬ ‫‪V‬‬ ‫‪VI‬‬ ‫‪VII‬‬ ‫‪VIII‬‬ ‫‪IX‬‬ ‫‪X‬‬ ‫الفعلُ‬ ‫ال ِف حعلُ‬ ‫اَل ِحف حعلُ‬ ‫نَ حوعُ‬ ‫ال ِحف حعلُ‬ ‫املاض‬ ‫املضارِع‬ ‫حاْل حَمر‬ ‫فَ َع َل‬ ‫فَعَّ َل‬ ‫صَر‬ ‫نَ َ‬ ‫َعلَّ َم‬ ‫صُر‬ ‫يَْن ُ‬ ‫يُ َعلِ ُم‬ ‫صْر‬ ‫صْر ال تَْن ُ‬ ‫اُنْ ُ‬ ‫َعلِ ْم ال تُ َعلِ ْم‬ ‫ْلُالُنَّ ِ‬ ‫اهيَّة‬ ‫اﻫ َد‬ ‫فَ َ‬ ‫اع َل َج َ‬ ‫اﻫ ْد ال َُت ِ‬ ‫اﻫ ُد ج ِ‬ ‫ُُي ِ‬ ‫اﻫ ْد‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫أَنْ َزَل‬ ‫تَ َكبَّ َر‬ ‫ال تُْن ِزْل‬ ‫أَفْ َع َل‬ ‫تَ َفعَّ َل‬ ‫فاع َل‬ ‫تَ َ‬ ‫اِنْ َف َع َل‬ ‫اِفْ تَ َع َل‬ ‫اِفْ َع َّل‬ ‫اِ ْستَ ْف َع َل‬ ‫تَكاثََر‬ ‫اِنْ َك َسَر‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا ْجتَ نَ َ‬ ‫ض‬ ‫اِبْيَ َّ‬ ‫اِ ْستَ ْغ َفَر‬ ‫يُْن ِزَل‬ ‫يَتَ َكبَّ ُر‬ ‫يَتَكاثَُر‬ ‫يَْن َك ِسُر‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫َُْيتَن ُ‬ ‫ض‬ ‫يَْب يَ ُّ‬ ‫يَ ْستَ ْغ ِفُر‬ ‫أَنْ ِزْل‬ ‫ال تَتَ َكبَّ ْر‬ ‫ال تَتَكاثَْر‬ ‫ال تَْن َك ِسْر‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ال ََْتتَن ْ‬ ‫تَ َكبَّ ْر‬ ‫تَكاثَْر‬ ‫اِنْ َك ِسْر‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا ْجتَن ْ‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫ض ال تَْب يَض‬ ‫ابْيَض ْ‬ ‫اِ ْستَ ْغ ِفْر ال تَ ْستَ ْغ ِفْر‬ ‫‪142‬‬ ‫ماضي‬ ‫مضارع‬ ‫َحَمهول‬ ‫َحَمهول‬ ‫ص َدر‬ ‫املَ ح‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫صر‬ ‫صُر نَ ْ‬ ‫نُصَر يُْن َ‬ ‫عُلِ َم يُ َعلَّ ُم تَ ْعلِيم‬ ‫اﻫ َدة‬ ‫وﻫد ُياﻫد َُم َ‬ ‫ُج ِ َ ُ َ ُ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ج َهاد‬ ‫اِ حسم‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫الفاعل‬ ‫اِ حسم‬ ‫املَحفعول‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫صور‬ ‫َّنصر َمْن ُ‬ ‫ُم َعلِم ُم َعلَّم‬ ‫َُم ِ‬ ‫اﻫد‬ ‫اﻫد‬ ‫َُم َ‬ ‫أُنْ ِزَل يُْن َزُل إِنْزال ُمْن ِزل ُمْن َزل‬ ‫تُ ُكِ َب يُتَ َكبَّ ُر تَ َكبُّر ُمتَ َكِب ُمتَ َكبَّر‬ ‫تُ ُكوثَِر يُتَكاثَُر تَكاثُر ُمتَكاثِر ُمتَكاثَر‬ ‫اُنْ ُك ِسر ي ْن َكسر اِ ِ‬ ‫نكسار ُمْن َك ِسر ‪--‬‬ ‫َ ُ َُ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ب اِ ْجتِناب َُْمتَنِب َُْمتَ نَب‬ ‫ب ُُْيتَ نَ ُ‬ ‫اُ ْجتُن َ‬ ‫ض اِبْيِضاض ُمْب يَ ٍ‬ ‫ض ‪--‬‬ ‫ض يُْب يَ ُّ‬ ‫اُبْيِ َّ‬ ‫اُ ْستُ ْغ ِفَر يُ ْستَ ْغ َفُر اِ ْستِ ْغفار ُم ْستَ ْغ ِفر ُم ْستَ ْغ َفر‬ . Exceptions‬املَحنصوبت[ ‪]. Numbers and‬‬ ‫‪].‬البالغة[ ‪Warnings.‬اإلستثناء[ ‪]. The Incomplete Verbs‬‬ ‫كانُ‪ُ/‬كاد‪/‬لي ُ‬ ‫‪]. the Naṣb Nouns‬الصرف[‬ ‫‪Methodology of Grammatically Analyzing Āyāt from the Qur’ān and Ḥadīth. Review of Particles.‫]الفعل الثالثي املزيد فيه[ ‪Verb Families V through X‬‬ ‫س[ ‪The Irregular Verbs. Important points from Morphology‬‬ ‫ح‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪] and Negation.

“high-yield” vocabulary from the Qur’ān listed on the vocabulary sheet “80% of Qur’ānic Vocabulary” should be memorized.asp. 161 . 158-160. Here.157 and pages 163-176. 158 . 159 Lesson 4 (a / b / c / d) pgs. it has been adapted on pages 144 .173 pg.160 review pg. 156-157 pg. 163-166 --- (focus on the two right columns) --- Review pgs. 158 Lesson 7 Review pgs.166 (focus on the two left columns) --- Lesson 12 (a / b /c /d) pgs. 144-145 ---Lesson 2 (a / b / c / d) pgs. 160 Lesson 6 Review pgs.com/quran/English80. 158 Lesson 3 (a / b) pgs. 174) Lesson 1 (a / b) pgs.  Another supplementary vocabulary list is detailed on pages 158-160 and on page 174 that need to be learned along with the former mentioned list. It is available for free access on the website http://emuslim. 150-151 pg.  Memorization of high-yield Qur’ānic vocabulary is essential for understanding the Qur’ān. Table 53: Qur’ānic Vocabulary Assignments Supplemental Qur’ānic 80% of Qur’ānic Required Vocabulary Vocabulary Vocabulary Handout (pgs. 152-155 ---- Lesson 5 (a / b) pgs. 159-160 Lesson 8 (a / b) Lesson 9 (a / b / c / d) Lesson 10 Lesson 11 pgs. 161-162 (focus on the two right columns) pgs. 174 143 .Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic Required Vocabulary Assignments for Qur’ānic Arabic  Alongside each lesson. 171 . 164 . 146-149 pg.157 review pg. 167 – 170 --- Lesson 13 (a / b/ c /d) pgs. 147 .166 --- pgs.

asp 144 .com/quran/english80.Qur’ânic Vocabulary . page 9 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.Nouns Lesson 1 Vocabulary (part a) )‫أ حَُبر‬/‫)ُِبار‬ )‫)أَنح هر‬ Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.

Nouns Lesson 1 Vocabulary (part b) Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.Qur’ânic Vocabulary .asp 145 . page 10 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.com/quran/english80.

Nouns Lesson 2 Vocabulary (part a) Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.Qur’ânic Vocabulary . page 11 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.com/quran/english80.asp 146 .

com/quran/english80.Qur’ânic Vocabulary . page 12 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.Nouns Lesson 2 Vocabulary (part b) Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.asp 147 .

Qur’ânic Vocabulary .asp 148 .com/quran/english80.Nouns Lesson 2 Vocabulary (part c) Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”. page 13 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.

page 14 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.Nouns Lesson 2 Vocabulary (part d) Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.Qur’ânic Vocabulary .com/quran/english80.asp 149 .

page 1 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.com/quran/english80.asp 150 .Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Nouns and Particles Lesson 3 Vocabulary (part a) Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.

com/quran/english80.asp 151 . page 2 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Nouns and Particles Lesson 3 Vocabulary (part b) Pronouns for verbs only Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.

Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Nouns and Particles Lesson 4 Vocabulary (part a) Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.com/quran/english80.asp 152 . page 3 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.

asp 153 .com/quran/english80. page 4 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Nouns and Particles Lesson 4 Vocabulary (part b) Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.

com/quran/english80.asp 154 .Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Nouns and Particles Lesson 4 Vocabulary (part c) Not from Ḥarf Jarr Ḥarf Jarr Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”. page 5 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.

asp 155 .Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Nouns and Particles Lesson 4 Vocabulary (part d) Lām of Emphasis Inna and its Sisters (Ḥarf Naṣb for Verbs) (Ḥarf Jazm for Verbs) (Harf Jazm for Verbs) (attached to a pronoun) (Particle of Calling) Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.com/quran/english80. page 6 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.

asp 156 . Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.com/quran/english80.Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Nouns Lesson 5 Vocabulary (part a) Derived Adjectives Intransitive Superlative Adjectives Transitive ِ & ‫شبَّ َهة‬ ِ ‫صيغَةُمبالَغَة‬ َ ‫ص َفةُم‬ )‫)أ حَربب‬ * * * These words are not adjectives nor are they derived nouns. page 7 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.

Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Nouns Lesson 5 Vocabulary (part b) Derived Adjectives Intransitive Superlative/ Comparative Noun: ِ ‫اسمُتَ حف‬ ‫ضيل‬ Superlative Adjectives Transitive ِ & ‫شبَّ َهة‬ ِ ‫صيغَةُمبالَغَة‬ َ ‫ص َفةُم‬ Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.asp 157 . page 8 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.com/quran/english80.

foot‬‬ ‫لَ ِعب‬ ‫ََث َحرة‬ ‫‪fruit‬‬ ‫أَقحدام‬ ‫َش حهر‬ ‫َك حوَكب‬ ‫‪star‬‬ ‫‪hoping‬‬ ‫أَ حشهر‬ ‫‪sincere‬‬ ‫ضرار‬ ‫أَ ح‬ ‫َرجاء‬ ‫‪truthful person‬‬ ‫ُمحلِص‬ ‫َك َواكِب‬ ‫‪appointment.‫‪Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Nouns‬‬ ‫‪Supplementary Vocabulary Part A‬‬ ‫َج ْمع‬ ‫كِالب‬ ‫الكَلَِمة‬ ‫َج ْمع‬ ‫الكَلَِمة‬ ‫َكلحب‬ ‫ق َرانء‬ ‫قَرين‬ ‫َرأحس‬ ‫س َاىلُ‬ ‫كَ‬ ‫قَرن‬ ‫أَقحالم‬ ‫‪dog‬‬ ‫رؤوس‬ ‫‪head‬‬ ‫قرون‬ ‫‪---‬‬ ‫‪filth. soil‬‬ ‫َُنحلَة‬ ‫‪open sinner‬‬ ‫َجديد‬ ‫صعد‬ ‫َمدينَة‬ ‫‪balance. harm‬‬ ‫َحماُِريب‬ ‫ن‪/‬مدائِن‬ ‫مد َ‬ ‫َنحل َِ‬ ‫‪/‬نيل‬ ‫َم َوا ِزين‬ ‫‪158‬‬ ‫ميزان‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫فاسقون‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫فاسق‬ ‫أَفحئِ َدة‬ ‫‪new‬‬ ‫‪earth. sin‬‬ ‫‪pen‬‬ ‫ِظ ُل‬ ‫ُمحِلصون‬ ‫طاَي‪/‬خ ِطيئات‬ ‫َخ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪close friend‬‬ ‫‪generation‬‬ ‫ِظالل‬ ‫َج ْمع‬ ‫الكَلَِمة‬ ‫َج ْمع‬ ‫الكَلَِمة‬ ‫ف َنَؤاد‬ ‫‪heart‬‬ ‫صعيد‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َموا ُِعظ‬ ‫َم حو ِعظَة‬ ‫‪admonition‬‬ . meeting point‬‬ ‫‪play. scale‬‬ ‫َك حيل‬ ‫جدد‬ ‫‪sacrifice‬‬ ‫ِ ححمراب‬ ‫‪date-palm‬‬ ‫‪measure‬‬ ‫‪admonition‬‬ ‫أ ذن‬ ‫َر ححل‬ ‫‪one time‬‬ ‫ِع حب َرة‬ ‫‪---‬‬ ‫‪city‬‬ ‫َم َّرة‬ ‫‪course. way‬‬ ‫ِس ُر‬ ‫ص حي َحة‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ِرحال‬ ‫‪orphan‬‬ ‫أَ ًذى‬ ‫‪private chamber‬‬ ‫‪bag‬‬ ‫يَتامى‬ ‫َسباب‬ ‫أح‬ ‫فِئات‬ ‫‪shout‬‬ ‫يَتيم‬ ‫‪matter‬‬ ‫َسرار‬ ‫أح‬ ‫‪call‬‬ ‫‪effort‬‬ ‫َشأحن‬ ‫‪----‬‬ ‫نِداء‬ ‫‪---‬‬ ‫ا‪/‬الس حُعي‬ ‫َس حعيً َُّ‬ ‫‪injury‬‬ ‫ََلحو‬ ‫ص حيحات‬ ‫َ‬ ‫فِئَة‬ ‫‪group‬‬ ‫‪entertainment‬‬ ‫‪requirement‬‬ ‫ضرُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫شنَؤون‬ ‫قَ َدم‬ ‫‪------‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫صادق‬ ‫فَرائِض‬ ‫‪--‬‬ ‫ََثَرات‬ ‫‪step. amusement‬‬ ‫َمصري‬ ‫‪ear‬‬ ‫‪lazy‬‬ ‫‪footstep‬‬ ‫ِميقات‬ ‫َم َواقِيت‬ ‫‪month‬‬ ‫ِر حجس‬ ‫آذان‬ ‫َك حسالن‬ ‫قَ لَم‬ ‫‪shade‬‬ ‫َخ ِطيئَة‬ ‫خطوات‬ ‫خط َحوة‬ ‫‪fault. impure‬‬ ‫َمصائِر‬ ‫‪destination‬‬ ‫‪----‬‬ ‫‪--‬‬‫ِ‬ ‫صادقون‬ ‫ضة‬ ‫فَري َ‬ ‫ِمر ًارا‬ ‫‪repeatedly‬‬ ‫َم َّرات‬ ‫أَ حكيال‬ ‫َسبَب‬ ‫ِع َبُ‬ ‫‪----‬‬ ‫نسك‬ ‫‪happiness‬‬ ‫‪injury. means.

tracks‬‬ ‫‪servant.‫‪Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Nouns‬‬ ‫‪Supplementary Vocabulary Part A‬‬ ‫‪B‬‬ ‫الكَلَِمة‬ ‫َج ْمع‬ ‫أ حَمنِيَة‬ ‫أ ِ‬ ‫َماينُ‬ ‫َج ْمع‬ ‫ِعظام‬ ‫‪false hope‬‬ ‫َمقابِر‬ ‫ب حكم‬ ‫‪---‬‬‫بطون‬ ‫أَط ِحع َمة‬ ‫أصابِع‬ ‫صبَع‬ ‫إِ ح‬ ‫‪finger‬‬ ‫‪monk‬‬ ‫أَبحرار‬ ‫‪righteous person‬‬ ‫َمواقِع‬ ‫‪place‬‬ ‫غ حرفَة‬ ‫لبُ‬ ‫َنوم‬ ‫َم ِلك‬ ‫دابَّة‬ ‫)‪creature (4-legged‬‬ ‫دبر‬ ‫ِح حزب‬ ‫َصوات‬ ‫أح‬ ‫فِضَّة‬ ‫‪--‬‬‫نذور‬ ‫‪body‬‬ ‫‪news‬‬ ‫حلم‬ ‫أَ حعقاب‬ ‫‪dream‬‬ ‫‪159‬‬ ‫ُمحتَِلفوب‬ ‫ُمحتَِلف‬ ‫‪differing/varying‬‬ ‫َخزانَة‬ ‫‪treasure‬‬ ‫َع ِقب‬ ‫‪end‬‬ ‫َخ َبُ‬ ‫َخزُائِن‬ ‫َش حعب‬ ‫‪nation/people‬‬ ‫ص حوت‬ ‫َ‬ ‫أَ حخبار‬ ‫نَ حذر‬ ‫شعوب‬ ‫‪voice‬‬ ‫ِج حسم‬ ‫َحالم‬ ‫أح‬ ‫َمساكني‬ ‫‪vow‬‬ ‫‪party‬‬ ‫‪wall‬‬ ‫َجسام‬ ‫أح‬ ‫ِم حسكني‬ ‫‪star‬‬ ‫‪king‬‬ ‫‪intellect‬‬ ‫بَراهني‬ ‫‪silver‬‬ ‫ََنَم‬ ‫َحزاب‬ ‫أح‬ ‫ِجدار‬ ‫ب حرهان‬ ‫‪poor person‬‬ ‫نَدُ‬ ‫‪one brought/presented‬‬ ‫جدر‬ ‫‪gold‬‬ ‫‪partner‬‬ ‫ضر‬ ‫حم َ‬ ‫ملوك‬ ‫‪--‬‬ ‫َذ َهب‬ ‫‪evidence‬‬ ‫َم حوقِع‬ ‫أَنحداد‬ ‫ََجَل‬ ‫‪camel‬‬ ‫‪throne‬‬ ‫َمريض‬ ‫ضرون‬ ‫ححم َ‬ ‫‪room. garment‬‬ . boy‬‬ ‫ر ِاهب‬ ‫رحهبان‬ ‫أَثَر‬ ‫‪food‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫لمة‬ ‫غلحمان‪/‬غ َ‬ ‫‪guidance‬‬ ‫غالِب‬ ‫آاثر‬ ‫طَعام‬ ‫‪black‬‬ ‫‪---‬‬ ‫ه ًدى‬ ‫‪dominant/ victorious‬‬ ‫‪stomach‬‬ ‫‪/‬سوداء‬ ‫أح‬ ‫َس َود َ‬ ‫‪back‬‬ ‫غالِبون‬ ‫بَطَن‬ ‫‪tale. plant‬‬ ‫َم حقبَُ َرة‬ ‫‪nose‬‬ ‫أَساطري‬ ‫َعظحم‬ ‫نَبااتت‬ ‫نَُبَات‬ ‫‪---‬‬ ‫َريب‬ ‫‪bone‬‬ ‫أَنحف‬ ‫أنوف‬ ‫الكَلَِمة‬ ‫َج ْمع‬ ‫الكَلَِمة‬ ‫َج ْمع‬ ‫الكَلَِمة‬ ‫ثِياب‬ ‫ثَ حوب‬ ‫‪clothes. footsteps. quarter‬‬ ‫أَلحباب‬ ‫أَري َكة‬ ‫‪sick person‬‬ ‫بَرُ‬ ‫غُ َرف‪/‬غرفات‬ ‫أَرائِك‬ ‫غالم‬ ‫ضى‬ ‫َم حر َُ‬ ‫َِجال‪ُ/‬إِبِل‬ ‫‪trace. story‬‬ ‫‪doubt‬‬ ‫‪blind‬‬ ‫‪innocent‬‬ ‫أ حسطورة‬ ‫أَ حدبر‬ ‫ع حميُ‬ ‫بَريئ‬ ‫‪dumb‬‬ ‫َدواب‬ ‫أَ حعمى‬ ‫‪grave‬‬ ‫أَبح َكم‬ ‫س حودُ‬ ‫‪vegetation.

couch page fruit ُ‫صنَ حم‬ َ ‫َسباط‬ ‫أح‬ ‫َسرير‬ ‫نيل‬/‫ل‬ َ ‫َنح‬ chapter from al-Qur’ān ‫شاعر‬ ُِ -- ‫صحي َفة‬ َ neck. hardship covenant. bedouin ‫َُحوراء‬ back ‫ََن َاوى‬ level ‫َح حبل‬ ‫ظهور‬ limit ‫َد َر َجات‬ ‫َمحال‬ ‫أح‬ blood ‫ظَ حهر‬ ‫َد َر َجة‬ maiden of paradise ‫َدم‬ load. smell tribe date-palm ‫س َور‬ ‫فاكِ َهة‬ ‫ُِحبال‬ ‫ِس حبط‬ dwelling place. burden ‫ُمحر‬/‫َمحري‬ ‫حور‬ tear ‫أَثحقال‬ ‫َج ْمع‬ load. rebellion. slave wind. oppression cloud ‫َسحاب‬ ‫أَ حشراط‬ ُ‫البَ غحي‬/‫بَ ُغحيًا‬ ‫علَماء‬ paternal uncle --- ‫َش حرط‬ ‫عقود‬ ‫غَ َم َامة‬ ِ ‫عليم‬ difficulty.Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Nouns Supplementary VocabularyPart Part Supplementary Vocabulary AC ‫الكَلَِمة‬ ‫ِجلد‬ ‫َج ْمع‬ ‫الكَلَِمة‬ ‫جلود‬ ‫َخفيف‬ skin ‫َج حنب‬ ‫َد حمع‬ ُ‫َحد‬ ‫حدود‬ ‫ِدماء‬ ‫َحَن َوى‬ secret talk/counsel ِ ‫ِس‬ ‫لسلَة‬ ِ ‫سالسل‬ ‫سورة‬ ‫فَواكِه‬ poet idol cloud ‫َش ِفيع‬ -- ‫َش حيخ‬ ‫ِعماد‬ ‫شيوخ‬ ‫قِنطار‬ ‫ِعنَب‬ intercessor ‫أَ حعوام‬ year 160 ‫أَ حعناق‬ ‫عُنُق‬ neck ‫ُِش َيعة‬ ‫ُِشيَع‬ sect ‫قَناطري‬ ‫عام‬ ‫أَ حعناب‬ grape ‫َك حنز‬ large amount (of gold) ‫ش َفعاء‬ ‫َع َمد‬ pillar old man ‫غَ َمام‬ ‫أَ حعمام‬ ُ‫َعم‬ envy. sign way. pact ‫َصنام‬ ‫أح‬ ‫َسحابَة‬ ‫طَرائِق‬ ‫َع حقد‬ ‫ِرَيح‬ condition. abode chain ‫ِرقاب‬ ‫َرقَ بَة‬ rope ُ‫م حستَ َقر‬ ‫َنحلَة‬ ‫أَ حعراب‬ --- nomad. path ‫ش َعراء‬ ‫سرر‬ ‫ع حسر‬ ‫صحف‬ ‫طَري َقة‬ ‫ِريحح‬ knowledgeable bed. burden ‫دموع‬ army ‫الكَلَِمة‬ ‫َمححل‬ close friend ‫جنود‬ ‫َج ْمع‬ donkey ِ‫أ‬ ‫َخ َّالء‬ ‫َخليل‬ side ‫ثِحقل‬ ‫ِمحار‬ ‫ُِخفاف‬ light (in weight) ‫جنوب‬ ‫ج حند‬ ‫الكَلَِمة‬ ‫َج ْمع‬ ‫كنوز‬ treasure ‫غرور‬ --deception .

Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Verbs Lesson 8 Vocabulary (part a) Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.com/quran/english80.asp 161 . page 15 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.

asp 162 .Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Verbs Lesson 8 Vocabulary (part b) Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.com/quran/english80. page 16 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.

Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Verbs Lesson 9 Vocabulary (part a) Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.asp 163 .com/quran/english80. page 17 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.

page 18 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.asp 164 .com/quran/english80.Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Verbs Lesson 9 Vocabulary (part b) ‫عا ِرف‬ ‫ذبُ كاذب‬ ‫ا حك ح‬ ‫سب كاسب‬ ُ‫ا حك ح‬ Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.

asp 165 .Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Verbs Lesson 9 Vocabulary (part c) ‫بُ حاسب‬ ‫ح‬ ‫اح َس ح‬ Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”. page 19 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.com/quran/english80.

page 34 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.asp 166 .com/quran/english80.Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Verbs Lesson 9 Vocabulary (part d) *Focus on Verbs that are not Irregular (those without a Vowel root letter) Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.

com/quran/english80.Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Verbs Lesson 12 Vocabulary (part a) Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.asp 167 . page 25 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.

com/quran/english80.Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Verbs Lesson 12 Vocabulary (part b) to be a hypocrite Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.asp 168 . page 26 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.

asp 169 .com/quran/english80. page 27 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Verbs Lesson 12 Vocabulary (part c) Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.

com/quran/english80. page 28 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Verbs Lesson 12 Vocabulary (part d) Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.asp 170 .

Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Verbs Lesson 13 Vocabulary (part a) Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”. page 31 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.com/quran/english80.asp 171 .

com/quran/english80.asp 172 .Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Verbs Lesson 13 Vocabulary (part b) Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”. page 32 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.

page 33 by ʻAbdul-Raḥeem ʻAbdul-ʻAzeez available for free download at http://emuslim.asp 173 .Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Verbs Lesson 13 Vocabulary (part c) Adapted from “80% of Quranic Vocabulary”.com/quran/english80.

to rest. to reveal (IV) ُ‫أَنحظََر‬ ‫ي حن ِظ ُر‬ ُ‫حس َم‬ َ ‫أَق‬ ‫ي حق ِس ُم‬ ُ‫ك‬ َ‫س‬ َ ‫أ حَم‬ ُ‫َيح ِسك‬ ُ‫َمسَ َع‬ ‫أح‬ ‫ي حس ِم ُع‬ to give respite (IV) to swear (IV) to retain. to plot (II) ُ‫َحُي َذر‬ ُ‫عاه َد‬ َ ِ ‫ي‬ ‫عاه ُد‬ to beware. to fear (‫)ﹷ‬ to make a covenant (III) ُ‫ك‬ َ َ‫َسل‬ َُ‫جادل‬ َ ُ‫يَ حسلك‬ ِ ‫ُي‬ ‫اد ُل‬ to argue. to withhold (IV) to make listen (IV) ُ‫أَط َحع َم‬ ‫يط ِحع ُم‬ ُ‫أَتح بَ َع‬ ‫ي حتبِ ُع‬ to feed (IV) to follow (IV) ُ‫َيحلِف‬ ُ‫ف‬ َ َ‫أَ حخل‬ to break. to bestow (II) to uncover (‫)ﹻ‬ ُ‫َز َع َم‬ ُ‫َس ِخ َر‬ to display. to mock to make. to divert (‫)ﹻ‬ ُ‫ف‬ َ َ‫َحل‬ ُ‫يَ حع ِرض‬ to forbid (II) to marry (‫)ﹷ‬ ُ‫ف‬ َ ‫ص َر‬ َ ُ‫ض‬ َ ‫َع َر‬ ُ‫َح َّرَم‬ ُ‫يَ حزعُم‬ to claim (‫)ﹹ‬ ُ‫يَ حس َخر‬ to grant . to stretch (‫)ﹹ‬ ُ‫فَ َق َه‬ ُ‫صنَ َع‬ َ ُ‫يَ حف َقه‬ ُ‫صنَع‬ ‫يَ ح‬ ُ‫ب‬ َ َ‫غَل‬ ُ‫يَغحلِب‬ ُ‫ف‬ َ ‫ش‬ َ ‫َك‬ ‫يَ حع ِد ُل‬ ُ‫يَ حك ِشف‬ ُ‫نَ َك َح‬ ُ‫يَ حن َكح‬ ُ‫ص ِرف‬ ‫يَ ح‬ ُ‫َح َذ َر‬ ُ‫يَ حن َفخ‬ to breathe (‫)ﹷ‬ to rejoice ُ‫يَ حف َرح‬ ُ‫َّر‬ َ ‫أَخ‬ ِ ‫ُي‬ ‫َخ ُر‬ ُ‫ذَ َّك َر‬ ‫ي َذكِ ُر‬ ُ‫َكلَّ َم‬ ‫ي َكلِ ُم‬ ُ‫َك َّف َر‬ ‫ي َك ِف ُر‬ ُ‫قَ َّد َر‬ ‫ي َق ِد ُر‬ to remove (II) ُ‫َحُيبَط‬ ُ‫نَ َف َخ‬ ‫ُيَ ِرُم‬ to speak (II) ُ‫َحُيلِف‬ to become worthless ‫َيَتِ ُع‬ to remind (II) to swear (‫)ﹻ‬ ُ‫ط‬ َ ِ‫َحب‬ ُ‫َّع‬ َ ‫َمت‬ to delay. to fail (IV) ‫ي حعتِ ُد‬ ُ‫أَ حعتَ َد‬ to prepare (IV) ُ‫ص‬ َ َّ‫تَ َرب‬ ُ‫يَتَ َربَّص‬ to await (V) ُ‫اِ حستَ َم َع‬ ‫يَ حستَ ِم ُع‬ to listen (VIII) .Part d ‫الَْلفِ ْعلا ا ْلما‬ ِ‫الَْلفِ ْعلا ا ْل امرار‬ َ‫نَبَُأ‬ ‫يَ حن بَُأ‬ to inform (‫)ﹷ‬ ُ‫َس َك َن‬ ُ‫يَ حسكن‬ to live.Qur’ânic Vocabulary – Verbs Lesson 13 Vocabulary . hide (‫)ﹹ‬ ‫يَ حسبِ ُق‬ ُ‫َسبَ َق‬ to precede (‫)ﹻ‬ ُ‫ك‬ َ ِ‫أَف‬ ُ‫َُيحفَك‬ to delude. to insert (‫)ﹹ‬ 174 ‫الَْلفِ ْعلا ا ْلما‬ ‫الفعل المرار‬ ‫ي حع ِل ُن‬ ُ‫أَ حعلَ َن‬ to announce. to construct (‫)ﹷ‬ to understand (‫)ﹷ‬ ُ‫ِح‬ َ ‫فَر‬ ‫الَْلفِ ْعلا ا ْلما‬ ‫الفعل المرار‬ to be just (‫)ﹻ‬ ُ‫يَ حفت‬ ُ‫َكتَ َم‬ ‫الَْلفِ ْعلا ا ْلما‬ to determine. to try. to turn away ُ‫ط‬ َ‫س‬ َ َ‫ب‬ ُ‫يَ حبسط‬ To extend. to dispute (III) to make enter. to turn away to overcome (‫)ﹻ‬ َُ‫َع َدل‬ ‫الفعل المرار‬ to ridicule. to dwell (‫)ﹹ‬ ُ‫ب‬ َ ‫َش ِر‬ to drink ُ‫ت‬ ََ َ‫ف‬ ُ‫يَ حش َرب‬ to persecute. to give respite (II) to turn. to test (‫)ﹹ‬ ُ‫يَ حكتم‬ to conceal.

Sukūn . ‫ أَخ‬.Glossary of Arabic Grammar Terms Glossary of Arabic Grammar Terms [ ‫ا‬ ‫اِ حستِ حقبال‬ ‫َمساء‬ ‫أ ح‬/‫اِ حسم‬ ‫َمسَاءُُ ح‬ ‫سة‬ ‫اْل ح‬ َ ‫اْلَ حم‬ ِ ‫شارة‬ َ ‫اسمُ حاإل‬ ِ ُُ‫اسم‬ ‫الصلَة‬ ِ ‫اِسمُال‬ ‫حفاعل‬ ‫ح‬ ‫اِسمُال َحم حفعول‬ ‫ضافَة‬ َ ‫اَحإل‬ ‫إِ حعراب‬ ُ‫َجحعُُامل َذ َُّك ُِرُالس ِال‬ َُ Future ‫اجلِحنس‬ Noun ُ‫ََجحعُُالتَّ حك ِس حري‬ The Five Special Nouns (‫ ذُو‬. Kasrah. Naṣb. Doer Noun ‫َجوابُالشرط‬ Response statement after a condition Passive Participle. also known as Jazm .‫حُو فُو‬ َ . these include those causing a change in I‛rāb. or those that do not. Possession Construction ‫روفُاْلستِ حفهام‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ح‬ Inflected state or Case of a Noun or Verb: either Raf‛. A vowel letter such as [ ‫ُأ‬/ُُ/ُ‫ُو‬/ُ‫ي‬/ُ‫]ا‬ Predicate Mark of stopping on a letter.‫]س‬ Masculine Sound Plural Gender broken plural nominal sentence verbal sentence Active Participle. Passive noun ‫حركات‬ َ ُ/ُ‫َح َرَكة‬ Vowel(s) Ḍammah. and Fatḥah ‫حروف‬/‫َح حرف‬ Particle(s). or Jazm Particles of Interrogation ‫َخواُتا‬ َ ‫ُُوُأ‬ َ ‫إِ َّن‬ Inna and its Sisters: Ḥarf Naṣb Particles ُ‫حروفُاجلر‬ Particles that cause Jarr such ‫البالغَة‬ َ The study of rhetoric and eloquence ‫حروفُُا حجلَحزم‬ Particles that cause verbs to be in Jazm ‫اتءُاملَحربوتَة‬ ‫اجلَّا ُُّرُ َوُال َحم حجرور‬ ُ‫َمزوم‬/‫اجلزم‬ ‫َح‬ ‫ََجحعُامل َنَؤُنَّ ُُِالسال‬ ‫حروفُال ِحعلَّة‬ The Tā of femininity : ‫ة‬ ُ‫َخ َب‬ Jarr Construction ‫ُسكون‬/ُ‫َساكِن‬ Jazm I‛rāb (with verbs) Feminine Sound Plural 175 ِ as [‫ُإِىل‬/ُ‫ُب‬/ُ‫ن‬ ‫ ] ِم‬etc. Jarr.‫)أَبو‬ ‫َجحلَةُإِ حِمسيَّة‬ Pointing Noun ‫َجحلَةُ ِف حعليَّة‬ Relative Pronoun .

Glossary of Arabic Grammar Terms Glossary of Arabic Grammar Terms [ ‫ش‬ ‫ِش حبهُاجل حملَة‬ َّ ‫الشرط‬ ِ ‫ص َفة‬ ِ ‫صفات‬/ ِ‫ض‬ ‫ُض َمائِر‬/ُ َ ‫َّم حري‬ ِ ‫ضمريُمت‬ ‫َّصل‬ َ ِ ‫ض ِمريُم حن َف‬ ‫صل‬ َ ‫ُاْل حَمر‬ ‫اَل ِحف حعل ح‬ [‫ب‬ َُ ‫ ] َخ‬which is essentially a Jarr Construction ُ‫فِ حعلُالثالثيُامل َج َّرِد‬ condition that is denoted by a Condition Particle ُ‫فِ حعلُالثالثيُاملُزيدُفِ ِيه‬ adjective(s) ‫ُالربعي‬ ُّ ‫ال ِف حعل‬ pronoun(s) Higher Verb families which are derived from the Verb I Family Four-letter root verb Intransitive Verb: it does not take a Direct Object Detached Pronoun ُ‫فعلُماض‬ verb in the Past Tense ‫فِ حُعلُُمتَ َع ِدي‬ ‫ظَ حرفُال َحمكان‬ Noun in Naṣb that indicates the place when an action occurs ‫فِعلُُ َحَمهول‬ ‫عائِد‬ A pronoun that connects the ِ to the word it is [‫]صلَة‬ describing ‫ضارِع‬ َ ‫فِ حعلُُم‬ ‫صحى‬ ‫الف ح‬ Family I Verb. Definiteness of a word Partially Flexible word ‫ْلُالنَّافِيَة‬ Lā of Negation negation particle The original Classical Arabic language ‫ْلُالنَّ ِهيَّة‬ Forbidding done by a Lā (negative command) 176 .‫]ل‬ ِ ‫الق حسم‬ Third Person Transitive verb. Passive Verb Present or Future Tense verb. the “root verb” ‫فعلُْل ِزم‬ Noun in Naṣb that indicates the time when an action occurs ‫ص ِرف‬ َ ‫غَحي رُم حن‬ Command Tense verb Connected Pronoun ‫ُالزمان‬ َّ ‫ظَ حرف‬ ‫غائِب‬ .

also used to indicate a type of [‫خ َب‬ َ] masculine ‫َم حوصوف‬ ‫ُُم َركِبات‬/ُ‫م َرَّكب‬ ِ ِ‫مرَّكبُإ‬ ُ‫ضاف‬ َ ِ َ‫مرَّكبُت‬ ‫وصيف ُي‬ َ ‫ص َحف‬ ‫املُ ح‬ ِ ‫انئِب‬ ‫ُالفاعل‬ َ Word Construction(s) direct object of a verb word being described Deputy Doer.Glossary of Arabic Grammar Terms Glossary of Arabic Grammar Terms [ ‫م‬ َّ‫املُ َنَؤن‬ ِ ‫مصادر‬/ ‫ص َدر‬ ‫َم ح‬ feminine ‫م حب تَ َدأ‬ Subject (Nominal sentence) ُ‫َم حب ِين‬ Inflexible. it is always in the Jarr state dual ‫م حع َرب‬ Verb or noun that is Flexible.‫]ي‬ verbal noun(s) 1st Particle of the Iḍāfah Construction ُ‫ضافُإِلَحي ِه‬ َ ‫امل‬ Second Particle of the Iḍāfah Construction. it means they cannot take I‛rāb ُ‫مثَ َّىن‬ ‫ضاف‬ َ‫م‬ . substitutes the Doer in Passive Verbal Sentences Possession Construction ‫النَّحو‬ Science of grammar Describing Construction ‫الُنَّ ِك َرة‬ indefinite (noun) Al-Qur’ān in book form preserved according to Uthmāni script 177 . its vowel(s) adapt fully according to its I‛rāb. when used for verbs. ‫َحَمرور‬ Noun that is in the Jarr state ‫ُاملَحع ِرفَة‬ Definite (noun) ‫َحَمهول‬ passive ‫م حف َرد‬ ‫ُماطَب‬ Second person ‫املُ َذ َُّكر‬ ُ‫َم حفعولُبِ ِه‬ Singular.

Review Questions Review Questions for Essentials of Qur’ānic Arabic Instructions: Questions from each lesson should be done after a thorough study of the respective lesson and without looking at any of the notes. What are the two endings that can occur on Dual nouns? 10. Raf‛ state is denoted by a Ḍammah at the end of the noun. You can have Tanwīn with words that have "Al" on them. Short Answer: 6. LESSON 1 REVIEW QUESTIONS True/False: 1. Exercises should be checked with the Answers provided on pgs. A noun is considered feminine by default unless there is a reason for it to be masculine.. Most Arabic words are derived from one single Arabic root verb. 9. What are the names of three types of Words in Arabic? 8. Some feminine words are ‫َُُخحر‬/ُ‫س‬ ‫ُُنَ حف‬/ُ‫ُح حرب‬/ُ‫س‬ َ ‫ََشح‬ َ 2. ﴾‫وٱلْ َقمر‬ Check Answers. etc. 3. LESSON 2 REVIEW QUESTIONS True/False 1. 5. 178 . 15-16. Most plurals of nouns are on a specific Broken Plural pattern. This will benefit the student by allowing them to realize areas of deficiency.‫يها أَب ادا‬ ْ ٍ ‫ات َسنُ ْد ِخلُ ُه ْم َجن‬ َ َ َُ َ َ َْ َ َ ‫ين ف‬ َ ‫ٱلص‬ َ َ َُ ِ ‫ٱلسماو‬ ِ ِ ‫ات َوَم ْن ِف ْٱأل َْر‬ َّ ‫[ ﴿أَََّلْ تَ َر أ‬22:18] ‫َّم‬ ‫ٱلش‬ ‫و‬ ‫ض‬ َّ ‫َن‬ ْ َ َ َ َّ ‫ٱّللَ يَ ْس ُج ُد لَهُ َم ْن ف‬ َُ َ ‫س‬ ُ 17-20. ِِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ُ ‫ٱلرس‬ ُ َّ ‫[ ﴿ َآم َن‬2:285] ُ َ ‫ول ِبَا أُنْ ِزَل إلَْيه م ْن َربه‬ ِ ﴾‫حساِب‬ َ ِ‫[ ﴿ َجَزاءا ِم ْن َرب‬78:36] ‫ك َعطَاءا َ ا‬ ِ ‫َّات ََت ِري ِمن ََتتِها ْٱألَنْهار خالِ ِد‬ ِ َّ ْ‫[ ﴿وٱلَّ ِذين آمنواْ وع ِملُوا‬4:57] ِ ‫اْل‬ ﴾. Adjectives and Verbal nouns are not considered nouns. 194-204. 4. 4. Briefly discuss how a Hamzah is different from an Alif when it is at the beginning of a word 7. All nouns have an I‛rāb even if they cannot change their endings. The sign of a partially flexible noun in the Jarr state is Ḍammah. ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫وٱلْم ْؤِمنُو‬ 13-14. What is the most common sign on a noun to indicate that it is feminine? Vocabulary Review: translate the underlined words in the following Qur’ānic Āyāt. Tajwīd is not that important in when learning Arabic grammar. The regular plural pattern ending can only be of two specific endings. 6. 2. What are the two possible endings for plural of ?‫سلِ َمة‬ ‫مح‬ 8. 11-12. What four characteristics do nouns have? 9. 5. Briefly describe the difference between nouns that are partially flexible and fully inflexible. 3. Name one noun that is partially flexible and one noun that is fully inflexible. Short Answer: 7.

‬‬ ‫]‪[00:42‬‬ ‫‪Vocabulary Review: translate the underlined words in the following Qur’ānic Āyāt....‬‬ ‫‪24.‬‬ ‫‪14..‬‬ ‫‪28.‬‬ ‫﴿أ َْو َكظُلُ َمات ِف َِْب ٍر ُّْل ٍي يَ ْغ َشاهُ َم ْوج من فَ ْوقه َم ْوج من فَ ْوقه َس َحاب ظُلُ َمات بَ ْع ُ‬ ‫ٱلْ َق ِ‬ ‫ن‪10...‬‬ ‫‪12...‬‬ ‫‪gender. definiteness.‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫كُ ََل حمُع حق ََب َّ‬ ‫ُٱلدا ِرُُ﴾ُ‬ ‫]‪َ .‬‬ ‫‪Plural‬‬ ‫بي ٍ‬ ‫وت‬ ‫ُُ‬ ‫َكلِ َمات‬ ‫)‪Dual (Naṣb‬‬ ‫‪Single‬‬ ‫مسلِمتَ ِ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ُْ َ‬ ‫بَْي تَ ْ ِ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ُمسلِم ْ ِ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ْ َ‬ ‫َكلِمتَ ِ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َُم ِ‬ ‫اﻫ َديْ ِن‬ ‫َُم ِ‬ ‫اﻫ ٍد‬ ‫‪Naṣb‬‬ ‫‛‪Raf‬‬ ‫ِعيسى‬ ‫ُُمَ َّمد‬ ‫ِعيسى‬ ‫َم ْرََي‬ ‫َم ْرَيُ‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫ُُمَ َّم ٍد‬ ‫)‪(check answers‬‬ ‫‪179‬‬ ‫ُم ْسلِ َمة‬ ‫ُم ْسلِ اما‬ ‫‪23.‬‬ ‫كم‪19-20.﴿ [72:14‬وأَ ََّّن ِمنَّا ٱلْ ُم ْسلِ ُمو َن َوِمنَّا‬ ‫ات وٱلْم ْؤِمنِي وٱلْم ْؤِمنَ ِ‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫ِِ‬ ‫ات‪﴾.‫‪Review Questions‬‬ ‫‪For each highlighted noun in the following Qur’ānic Āyāt. Please fill in the blank spaces with the appropriate noun with the appropriate I‛rāb.‬‬ ‫اسطُو َ‬ ‫]‪[04:42‬‬ ‫﴿‪. Include all possible I‛rāb that the noun may take if‬‬ ‫‪used outside the respective āyah.‬‬ ‫ُ َ ْ َْ‬ ‫ٱّلل َو ْ ُ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ي﴾‬ ‫ص َد َق ٱّللُ فَٱتَّبِعُواْ ملَّةَ إِبْ َراﻫ َيم َحني افا َوَما َكا َن م َن ٱلْ ُم ْش ِرك َ‬ ‫]‪﴿ [3:95‬قُ ْل َ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ِ ِِ‬ ‫ِ ِِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ض َها فَ ْو َق بَ ْع ٍ‬ ‫ض‪﴾ .‬‬ ‫‪30.‬‬ ‫‪25.‬‬ ‫‪15..‬‬ ‫]‪َ ....‬‬ ‫]‪﴿ [33:35‬إِ َّن ٱلْ ُم ْسلم َ‬ ‫ي َوٱلْ ُم ْسل َم َ ُ َ َ ُ‬ ‫]‪﴿ [7:128‬قَ َال موسى لَِقوِم ِه ٱستعِينُوا بِ َِّ‬ ‫ٱصِبوا‪﴾. ﴾.‬‬ ‫‪26..‬‬ ‫‪13.‬‬ .‬‬ ‫‪23-30.‬‬ ‫‪29.‬‬ ‫ربِ ُ‬ ‫‪21-22. determine its four qualities (plurality..‬‬ ‫ين يَْن ُق ُ‬ ‫ضو َن َع ْه َد َّ ْ َ ْ‬ ‫]‪﴿ [2:27‬ٱلذ َ‬ ‫‪16-18...‬‬ ‫َوبِيَع َو َ‬ ‫ٱّلل َ ا‬ ‫صلَ َوات َوَم َس ُ ُ َ ْ ُ‬ ‫‪11.‬‬ ‫‪27.‬ولَوَال دفْع ٱ َّّللِ ٱلنَّاس ب عضهم بِب ع ٍ ِ‬ ‫ص َو ِام ُع‬ ‫ض ََّلُد َم ْ‬ ‫َ َْ َ ُ َ ْ‬ ‫ت َ‬ ‫َْ َ ُ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫اج ُد ي ْذ َكر فِيها ٱسم َِّ‬ ‫كثِريا‪﴾...﴿ [13:22‬وأَقَامواح َّ‬ ‫ُويَ حد َرؤو َنُبُِٱ حْلَ َسنَ ِة َّ‬ ‫ُُٱلسيِئَةَُُأ حولَئِ َ‬ ‫اُو َعالَنيَةً َ‬ ‫اُرَزقحنَاه حمُس ًّر َ‬ ‫ُُوأَن َفقواحُِمَّ َ‬ ‫ُٱلصالَةَ َ‬ ‫]‪﴿ [2:198‬لَيس علَي ُكم جنَاح أَ ْن تَب تَ غُوا فَ ْ ِ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ َ َْ ْ ُ‬ ‫ض اال م ْن َ ْ‬ ‫ٱّللِ ِمن ب ع ِ‬ ‫َّ ِ‬ ‫د ِميثَاقِ ِه‪﴾. and I‛rāb) and its flexibility. ﴾.

Complete the table below: Plural Dual Single ُ‫ه حم‬ ُ‫ه َو‬ ‫ُها‬ ‫أَنحتما‬ ُ‫ت‬ َّ ‫أَنح‬ ُ‫َحَنن‬ 3rd person masculine ُ‫ِه َي‬ 3rd person feminine ِ ‫أَنح‬ ُ‫ت‬ 2nd person feminine ‫أَان‬ 2nd person masculine 1st person 15-19. Pronouns are of two types. complete the table: use [‫ ]كِتاب‬as the Noun in the Jarr state. 3rd person feminine ُ‫ك‬ َ ِ‫كِتاب‬ 17. Plural 15. 4. Words like [‫ ]اَلَّ ِذي‬function to describe the definite word that precedes it. Without looking at the notes. 19. 7. attached and detached. Without looking at the notes. and very far. [‫ ]ما‬and [‫ن‬ ُ‫ ] َم ح‬are pointing nouns. 8.Review Questions LESSON 3 REVIEW QUESTIONS True/False: 1. In Verbal sentences. far. Pointing nouns and Relative pronouns are nouns that are always Definite. Pointing nouns are of three types: near. 9. When Pronouns are attached they can be in the Raf‛ state. 5. 3rd person masculine ُ‫كِتابِك َّن‬ 2nd person masculine 2nd person feminine ‫كِتابِنا‬ 1st person 180 . Detached pronouns are typically in the Naṣb state. 10. Dual Single ‫كِتابِِما‬ ُ‫كِتابِ ِه‬ 16. 3. 6. the Doer (Subject) is in the Raf‛ state. 2. 18. ‫ هناك‬/ ‫ هنا‬/ َّ‫ َُث‬are pointing nouns. 11-15. Write the words properly in the blank spaces with the appropriate pronoun. All pronouns are Partially Inflexible.

Typically. 11-21. Ḥarf Jarr can never be attached to a noun. ﴾. Verbs cannot be in the Jarr state. ﴾‫ٱّلل قُلُوب ُهم لِلتَّ ْقوى‬ َّ ‫ول‬ َ َُ ْ ُ َ ْ ‫ين يَغُضُّو َن أ‬ َ ‫ك ٱلذ‬ َ ‫[ ﴿إ َّن ٱلذ‬49:3] َ ْ َ َُّ ‫ين ْٱمتَ َح َن‬ ِ ‫ٱلْمو‬ 24.﴿ [2:19] َْ ْ َ ‫ٱلص َواع ِق َح َذ َر‬ ْ َُ َ َ ْ ِ ِ ِ َ‫ٱّلل خلَق ُك َّل دابٍَّة ِمن َّم ٍاء فَ ِمْن هم َّمن ُيَْ ِشي علَى بطْنِ ِه وِمْن هم َّمن ُيَْ ِشي علَى ِرجل‬ 25. 4. ‫علَى‬ ْْ َ َ َ َ َُّ ‫﴿ َو‬ َ ‫ي َومْن ُهم َّمن ُيَْشي‬ ُ َ َ َ ُ ِ َ‫[ أَرب ٍع ََيْلُق ٱ َّّلل ما يشاء إِ َّن ٱ َّّلل علَى ُك ِل شي ٍء ق‬24:45] ﴾‫دير‬ ََ ُ َ َ َ ُ ُ َْ َْ ِ َّ ِ‫ٱّللِ أُولَئ‬ ِ َّ ِ ِ ‫َصواتَهم ِعْن َد رس‬ 26. Translate the following highlighted Ḥarf along with its corresponding Noun in the following Qur’ānic Āyāt: ِ ِ ِ َّ ِ ٍ ِ ِ ِ َّ ُ ‫ ُكل َما ُرزقُوا مْن َها م ْن ََثََرة رْزقاا قَالُوا َﻫ َذا ٱلذي ُرزقْ نَا م ْن‬. Nouns can sometimes be in the Jazm state.. any noun followed by a Ḥarf will change its I‛rāb to Naṣb or Jarr. [‫]بَ حعض‬.. What is the masculine counterpart to [‫حك‬ َُ ‫?]تِل‬ 23. What is the feminine counterpart to [‫?]هُذا‬ 22. ِ ِ ‫ضن ِمن أَب‬ ِ ِ ِ ‫ين ِزينَ تَ ُه َّن إَِّال َما ظَ َهَر‬ ُ ‫[ ﴿ َوقُل ل ْل ُم ْؤمنَات يَ ْغ‬24:31] َ ْ ْ َْ ‫ض‬ َ ‫صا ِرﻫ َّن َوَُْي َفظْ َن فُ ُر‬ َ ‫وج ُه َّن َوَال يُْبد‬ LESSON 4 REVIEW QUESTIONS True/False: 1. or Relative Pronoun. 6. Ḥarf Jarr can sometimes cause the noun before it to be in Jarr. identify whether it is a pointing noun (near). ﴾ ُ‫ستَ ِعني‬ ‫ُوإِ ََّي َكُنَ ح‬ َ ‫﴿إِ ََّي َكُنَ حعبد‬ 21. Ḥarf cannot act on Verbs. َّ ] cause the word after it to be in the Jarr state.Review Questions Short answer: 20.‫ت‬ 27. 5. 9.. ﴾. [‫ ]أَفحعال‬and ]‫ ]ف عول‬and [‫ساجد‬ َ 10. ِ ‫ ]م‬are very common broken plural patterns. ِ َّ ‫ َُيعلُو َن أَصابِعهم ِف آ َذاِنِِم ِمن‬.﴿ [2:25] 11. The following act as Ḥarf Jarr: [‫قَ حبل‬/‫ب‬/‫لى‬ َ ‫] ََتح‬. For the Nouns that are underlined. What is plural of [‫?]هذا‬ Vocabulary Review from the Qur’ān: Translate the highlighted word(s). 2. 3.‫قَ ْبل‬ 181 . pointing noun (far). or [‫] ََتحت‬. Sometimes Isms act as Ḥarf Jarr like [‫] َح حول‬. ﴾.‫ِمْن َها‬ Check Answers. 7... How would the meaning of the following āyah change if [‫ك‬ َُ ‫ ]إِ ََّي‬was omitted and replaced with [‫ ] َُك‬after the verb... [‫لكن‬/ ُِ ‫َعل‬ َّ ‫ل‬/‫إن‬ ِ ‫ع‬/‫ت‬ 8...

.﴿ [2:229‬وَال َُي ُّل لَ ُك ْم أَ ْن ََتْ ُخ ُذوا ممَّا آتَ ْي تُ ُم ُ‬ ‫َّ ِ‬ ‫ن﴾ ‪13. ﴾.‬‬ ‫اﻫا قُ ْل إََِّّنَا ِع ْل ُم َها ِع َ‬ ‫﴿يَ ْسأَلُونَ َ‬ ‫ك َع ِن َّ َ‬ ‫اعة أ َََّي َن ُم ْر َس َ‬ ‫ت ف َّ َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ند ٱّللِ َولَ ِك َّن أَ ْكثَ َر ٱلن ِ‬ ‫َو ْٱأل َْر ِ‬ ‫ن﴾‬ ‫َّاس الَ يَ ْعلَ ُمو َ‬ ‫َّك َح ِف ٌّي َعْن َها قُ ْل إََِّّنَا ِع ْل ُم َها ِع َ‬ ‫ك َكأَن َ‬ ‫ض الَ ََتْتِي ُك ْم إِالَّ بَ ْغتَةا يَ ْسأَلُونَ َ‬ ‫شْي ئاا‪12.‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ت﴾‬ ‫سجر ْ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫]}فُعال{ ...‬‬ ‫‪] and does not have Tanwīn. The Muḍāf I’lai can be in the Raf‛..‬‬ ‫س ِف قُلُوبِِ ْم َو َّ‬ ‫ٱّللُ أ َْعلَ ُم ِِبَا يَكْتُ ُمو َ‬ ‫]‪.﴿ [24:35‬كأَن ََّها َك ْوَكب ُد ِر ٌّ‬ ‫‪20.‬‬ ‫]}ف َعالء{ ...‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫]‪[7:187‬‬ ‫‪19-25.‪َ .‬‬ ‫‪22. ﴾.‬‬ ‫‪24.‬‬ ‫]}أَفحعال{ . The Muḍāf is the object belonging to the noun that follows it...﴿ [25:2‬وََّلْ يَت َ َ ْ َ ْ ُ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫نَ ْف ِ‬ ‫س ِه‪19..‬‬ ‫]‪ُُ ﴿ [2:56‬ثَّ بَ َعثْ نَا ُك ْم ِم ْن بَ ْع ِد َم ْوتِ ُك ْم لَ َعلَّ ُك ْم تَ ْش ُك ُرو َ‬ ‫]‪. convert it to its plural. Naṣb.‪َ ﴿ [81:6‬ما نَْن َس ْخ م ْن آيَة أ َْو نُْنس َها ََنْت ِبٍَْري مْن َها أ ْ‬ ‫]}فَ ِ‬ ‫ك ٍة‪﴾.‬‬ ‫‪21.. the broken plural stem pattern is given for the highlighted‬‬ ‫‪noun.‬‬ ‫ت إِ َّن ٱلْ ُملُ َ‬ ‫]}فُعول{ .‪َ ﴿ [12:30‬وقَ َال ن ْس َوة ِف ٱلْ َمدينَة ْامَرأ ُ‬ ‫َت ٱلْ َع ِزي ِز تَُرا ِوُد فَتَ َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫َّخ ْذ ولَ ادا وََّل ي ُكن لَه َش ِريك ِف ٱلْم ْل ِ‬ ‫ك‪﴾.. In the following Qur’ānic Āyāt..‬‬ ‫اب ٱلنَّا ِر ُﻫ ْم فِ َيها َخالِ ُدو َ‬ ‫ين َك َف ُروا َوَك َّذبُوا ِِب ََيتِنَا أُولَئِ َ‬ ‫كأ ْ‬ ‫َص َح ُ‬ ‫]‪َ ﴿ [2:39‬وٱلذ َ‬ ‫ِ ِِ‬ ‫ن﴾ ‪14.‪َ ﴿ [81:6‬وإذَا ٱلْب َح ُار ُ َ‬ ‫وﻫا‪﴾.‬‬ ‫]‪﴿ [23:25‬إِ ْن ُﻫ َو إَِّال َر ُجل بِه جنَّة فَتَ َربَّ ُ‬ ‫ٱلسماو ِ‬ ‫ٱلس ِ‬ ‫ند َرِب الَ ُُيَلِ َيها لِوقْتِ َها إِالَّ ُﻫو ثَ ُقلَ ْ ِ‬ ‫ات ‪18.‬‬ ‫‪].‬‬ ‫ي يُوقَ ُد ِم ْن َش َجَرةٍ ُمبَ َارَ‬ ‫واعل{ .‬‬ ‫َّ‬ ‫‪Check answers.‪﴿[3:29‬قُ ْل إِ ْن َُّتْ ُفوا َما ِف ُ‬ ‫ص ُدوِرُك ْم أ َْو تُْب ُدوهُ يَ ْعلَ ْمهُ ُ‬ ‫ٱّلل‪25.‪َ . ﴾..‬‬ ‫‪23. The Iḍāfah is typically definite except when the Muḍāf I’lai is common without‬‬ ‫‪182‬‬ . or Jarr state.﴿ [2:156‬ٱلَّ ِذين إِ َذا أَصاب ْت هم م ِ‬ ‫ن﴾ ‪16.‪﴿[27:34‬قَالَ ْ‬ ‫وك إِ َذا َد َخلُوا قَ ْريَةا أَفْ َس ُد َ‬ ‫ِ ِ ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ ٍ‬ ‫َو ِمثْلِ َها‪﴾.‫‪Review Questions‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫وﻫ َّن‬ ‫]‪َ .‬‬ ‫‪LESSON 5 REVIEW QUESTIONS‬‬ ‫‪True/False:‬‬ ‫‪1.‬‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫اﻫا َع ْن‬ ‫] }ف عل{ ...‬‬ ‫]}فُعول{ . if plural change it to its singular‬‬ ‫‪form....﴿ [3:167‬يَ ُقولُو َن ِبَفْ َواﻫه ْم َما لَْي َ‬ ‫ن﴾ ‪15.... The Muḍāf can never have‬‬ ‫‪3.‬ال[ ‪2.‬‬ ‫صيبَة قَالُوا إِ ََّّن َِّّللِ َوإِ ََّّن إِلَْي ِه َر ِاجعُو َ‬ ‫َ َ ُْ ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ِِ‬ ‫صوا بِِه َح َّّت ِح ٍ‬ ‫ي﴾ ‪17.‬ال[ ‪4. If the highlighted noun is singular.

When describing a word. ﴾‫سلِي ٍم‬ 14. and Pointing Constructions with wavy lines. Different Constructions can be merged together forming a single larger construction. The [‫ص َفة‬ 7. Broken Plural is considered Feminine Singular. ﴾‫ظي ٍم‬ َ ‫َّك لَ َعلى ُخلُ ٍق‬ َ ‫[ ﴿ َوإِن‬68:4] ِ َ‫[ ﴿تَبارَك ٱلَّ ِذي بِي ِدهِ ٱلْملْك وﻫو علَى ُك ِل شي ٍء ق‬67:1] 19. 8. In Plural and Dual Nouns with a [‫ ]ن‬ending. A Word Construction in many respects acts as a single word or unit in a sentence. this is chopped off when it is a Muḍāf. ﴾‫صري‬ ُ ‫ين َك َف ُروا بَرِب ْم َع َذ‬ ُ ‫س ٱلْ َم‬ َ ‫[ ﴿ َوللذ‬67:6] َ ‫اب َج َهن ََّم َوبْئ‬ ِ ‫[ ﴿ووَﻫ َذا ٱلْبَ لَ ِد ٱْأل َِم‬95:3] 21. ﴾‫دير‬ َ ََُ ُ ُ َ ََ َْ ِ َِّ ِ ِ ِ ِ 20. Pointing. 16. and Jarr Constructions. 183 . ﴾‫ي‬ َ ِ ‫﴿ولَ َّما جاءﻫم رسول ِمن ِع‬ ِ ِ َ‫ند ٱّللِ مص ِدق لِما معهم نَب َذ فَ ِريق ِمن ٱلَّ ِذين أُوتُواْ ٱلْ ِكت‬ 22. Describing Constructions with dotted lines. 10. Describing. 13. 17. 6. A noun attached to a Pronoun is really an Iḍāfah Construction. Translate the following highlighted Constructions in the following Qur’ānic Āyāt (be exact as possible). 11. the descriptive word can come before or after the word. Nothing comes between the Mawṣūf and Ṣifah. ‫اب ٱّلل وراء‬ َ َ ْ ََُ َ َ ُ ْ ُ َ ْ َُ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ‫اب كت‬ َ َ ِ ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫َّه ْم الَ يَ ْعلَ ُمو‬ ُ ‫[ ظُ ُهوِرﻫ ْم َكأَن‬2:101] ِِ ِ ِ ِ ِ 23. 12. 9. ِ ] (adjective) has all four characteristics of the noun described. ِ‫ع‬ 18. ﴾‫صري‬ ُ ‫ين َك َف ُروا بَرِب ْم َع َذ‬ ُ ‫س ٱلْ َم‬ َ ‫[ ﴿ َوللَّذ‬78:40] َ ‫اب َج َهن ََّم َوبْئ‬ Check answers.Review Questions 5. 15. Constructions that are merged should be highlighted. Possession Constructions with two lines. Underline Jarr Constructions with one line. ٍ ‫ٱّللَ بَِق ْل‬ َّ ‫[ ﴿إَِّال َم ْن أَتَى‬26:89] َ ‫ب‬ ِ ِ‫الر‬ ِ َ ‫[ ﴿إِن‬36:3-5] ِ ٍِ ٍ ِ ﴾‫حي ِم‬ َّ ‫يل الْ َع ِزي ِز‬ َ ‫َّك لَم َن ٱلْ ُم ْر َسل‬ َ ‫ي۝ َعلَى صَراط ُّم ْستَقيم۝تَ ْنز‬ ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫اب ٱلْ َق ْريَِة إِ ْذ َجاءَ َﻫا ٱلْ ُم ْر َسلُو‬ ْ ‫[ ﴿ َو‬36:13] ْ ‫ب ََلُم َّمثَالا أ‬ ْ ‫ٱض ِر‬ َ ‫َص َح‬ ِ ﴾‫غ اد‬ َ ‫ث ِشْئ تُ ْم َر‬ ُ ‫[ ﴿ َوإِ ْذ قُ ْلنَا ْٱد ُخلُوا َﻫذهِ ٱلْ َق ْريَةَ فَ ُكلُوا ِمْن َها َحْي‬2:58] ِ ْ ‫َخ ِيه فَ َقتَ لَه فَأَصبح ِمن‬ ِ ‫[ ﴿فَطََّوعت لَه نَ ْفسه قَ ْتل أ‬5:30] ﴾‫اس ِرين‬ َ َ‫ٱْل‬ َ َ َْ ُ َ ُُ ُ ْ َ Identify all constructions in the following Qur’ānic Āyāt (Possession.

﴿ [61:5] ْ ُ ‫ٱّلل إلَْي‬ 21.Review Questions LESSON 6 REVIEW QUESTIONS True/False: 1. 12. A Nominal Sentence can have within it a Verbal Sentence or another Nominal Sentence...﴿ [65:4] 16..﴿ [65:1] ِ َّ ‫إِ َّن‬..ِ‫َم ِره‬ ْ ‫ٱّللَ َِبل ُغ أ‬ ِ ﴾ . the Nominal Sentence has been extracted. 3.. 18. 6. That is a house.. 10. Your house is big You are in the city. 8. Interrogative particles work by acting at the beginning of a sentence. In a Nominative Sentence.﴿ [64:4] 19. A Ḥarf Jarr Construction cannot be part of a Nominative Sentence. ﴾ 22. I am a Muslim. 184 . َ. (1) Identify the Subject [‫ ]م حب تَ َدأ‬by underlining it and (2) translate the highlighted word with its respective plural or singular. The Predicate or [‫ب‬ َُ ‫ ] َخ‬is generally definite.. The [‫ب‬ َُ ‫ ] َخ‬can only be a single word. 7. Pointing nouns can act as [‫ ]م حب تَ َدأ‬or [‫ب‬ َُ ‫] َخ‬.ِ‫ َوتِْل َك ُح ُد ُود َّاّلل‬..﴿ [61:5] ِ َِّ ‫ول‬ ﴾ َ‫كم‬ ُ ‫أَِِن َر ُس‬. 15. ِ ِ َ ‫[ ﴿ َذل‬70:44] ُ ‫ك ٱلْيَ ْوُم ٱلَّذي َكانُوا‬ ِ ‫ٱّلل علِيم بِ َذ‬ ﴾ ‫دوِر‬ ُّ ‫ات‬ ُ ‫ٱلص‬ َ َُّ ‫ َو‬.﴿ [65:3] ﴾َ... the word "is" is implied.ِ‫ٱّلل‬ َّ ‫ك أ َْم ُر‬ َ ‫ذَل‬. ِ ‫يش ٍة َّر‬ ‫اضيَ ٍة‬ َ ‫[ ﴿فَ ُه َو ِف ِع‬69:21] ِ ﴾ ‫حر ُّمبِي‬ ْ ‫ َﻫ َذا س‬. Write the following in Arabic: 11. The [‫ ]م حب تَ َدأ‬and [‫ب‬ َُ ‫ ] َخ‬typically match in all qualities except definiteness.. [‫َي‬ ُُّ ‫ ]أ‬as an interrogative particle acts as a Muḍāf unlike other interrogatives. 13. 23. 2. the Subject [‫ ]م حب تَ َدأ‬and Predicate [‫ب‬ َُ ‫ ] َخ‬are Raf‛. That masjid is big. 9. 5. ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫وع ُدو‬ َ ‫ي‬ 20. 14. 4. In a Nominal Sentence. ﴾ 17. In the following parts from the Qur’ānic Āyāt.

ِ‫ٱّلل‬ َّ ‫َنصا ِري إِ َىل‬ َ ‫ َم ْن أ‬.Review Questions 24. 12. messenger of the king 6. For a Past tense verb with a Fatḥah on the middle letter. This Muslim is the king. ‫يق‬ َ َ َ ‫وسى ُم‬ َ ‫﴿قَالُوا ََي قَ ْوَمنَا إ ََّّن َمس ْعنَا كتَ ااِب أُن ِزَل من بَ ْعد ُم‬ َ ْ ‫ي يَ َديْه يَ ْهدي إ َىل‬ ﴾‫[ ُّمستَ ِقي ٍم‬46:30] ْ ِ ِ ‫[ ﴿وأ ََّما من أ‬84:10-11] 20-21.. Iḍāfah construction can sometimes be Indefinite. 11. The king is a Muslim. Translate the following into Arabic: 5. 185 . the Muslim teacher of the city. ﴾ .. the [‫ب‬ َُ ‫ ] َخ‬is always indefinite.‫ٱّلل‬ Check answers. LESSON 7 REVIEW QUESTIONS True/False: 1.. 5. 10. messenger of a king 7. When [‫ ]مبتَ َدأ‬and [‫ب‬ َُ ‫ ] َخ‬are definite. 4. ٍ ِ‫بع‬ 14-15. This is the teacher of the king. 4. this teacher of the king From the following Qur’ānic Āyāt.. any vowel may be present on the same letter in the Present tense form of the verb. ﴾‫ِِم‬ َ ‫ين َّٱَّتَ ُذوا ٱلْع ْج َل َسيَ نَا َُلُْم َغ‬ ْ ‫ضب م ْن َرب‬ َ ‫[ ﴿إ َّن ٱلذ‬7:152] ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ َ ْ ‫ص ِدقاا لِما ب‬ ٍ ‫ٱْلَِق وإِ َىل طَ ِر‬ 18-19. This Muslim teacher is a king. The Arabic root verb is 3rd person single present tense. 3. 9. 2. ﴾‫يد‬ ٍ َ ‫[ ﴿قَ َال قَ ِرينُه ربَّنَا ما أَطْغَي تُه ولَ ِكن َكا َن ِف‬50:27] َ ‫ض َالل‬ ْ َُْ َ َُ ِ َّ ِ ِ ِ 16-17. Verbs in Family I can derive other verbs in different families.﴿ [61:14] Check answers. 2. [‫ ]م حب تَ َدأ‬can be a word construction such as an Iḍāfah or a Describing Construction. Each verb comes with its own verbal noun. LESSON 8 REVIEW QUESTIONS True/False: 1. ﴾‫ف ي ْدعُواْ ثُبورا‬ َ َ ‫ُوِتَ كتَابَهُ َوَراءَ ظَ ْه ِرهِ ۝ فَ َس ْو‬ َْ َ ‫ُا‬ 22-23. 3. In a Nominative Sentence. ِ ِ ‫[ ﴿قُل أَنَ ْدعواْ ِمن د‬6:71] ِ ِ ُ َ‫ون ٱّلل َما الَ يَن َفعُنَا َوالَ ي‬ ُ ُ ْ ُ ‫ضُّرََّن َونَُرُّد َعلَى أ َْع َقابنَا بَ ْع َد إ ْذ َﻫ َد َاَّن‬ ﴾. 13. the Muslim king 8. The Present tense verb by default ends in Ḍammah if in its single form. translate the highlighted words with their respective plural/singular if possible. a pronoun is usually used to prevent it from becoming a Describing Construction.

. then the vowel on the middle letter in the Present tense gets a Fatḥah. 8. ﴾‫بِ ِه‬ ْ‫آؤوُك ْم قَالُواْ َآمنَّا َوقَد َّد َخلُواْ بِٱلْ ُك ْف ِر َوُﻫ ْم قَ ْد َخَر ُجوا‬ ُ ‫[ ﴿ َوإِ َذا َج‬5:61] 22.. Plural Dual Single ‫قَ َرآ‬ ‫قَ َرأَات‬ َ‫قَ َرُأ‬ ‫قَ َرأحُتا‬ ‫قَ َرأحان‬ 3rd Person Masculine 3rd Person Feminine 2nd Person masculine ِ ‫قَ رأح‬ ُ‫ت‬ َ 2nd Person feminine 1st Person 15-19. If the verb has a Fatḥah in the middle letter.﴿ [3:117] َ ‫ٱّللُ َولَ ِك ْن أَنْ ُف َس ُه ْم يَظْلِ ُمو‬ ِ ‫[ ﴿فَويل ََلم ِممَّا َكتَ بت أَي ِدي ِهم وويل ََلم ِممَّا يك‬2:79] 23.‫ن‬ َّ ‫يما فَ َع ْل َن ِف أَنْ ُف ِس ِه‬ َ ‫فَإ َذا بَلَ ْغ َن أ‬. ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫ْسبُو‬ َ ُْ ْ َ َ ْ ْ ْ َ ُْ ْ َ ِ ِ 24-25.﴿ [2:234] َ َ‫َجلَ ُه َّن فَ َال ُجن‬ َ ‫اح َعلَْي ُك ْم ف‬ 186 . male singular) (2) Translate them. For a Past tense verb with a Ḍammah on the middle letter. Only verbs in the Present tense state take I‛rāb.. (1) convert them into the Root verb form (3rd person past. 9. For a Past tense verb with a Kasrah on the middle letter. Fill in the empty spaces with the appropriately conjugated verb [َ‫ ]قَُ َرُأ‬with the attached pronoun [‫ ] ُه‬at its end. and if its last two letters is one of the letters of the throat. ﴾. ْ Plural ُ‫ض ِربو َن‬ ‫تَ ح‬ Dual ِ ‫ض ِر‬ ُ‫بن‬ ‫تَ ح‬ Single ُ‫ض ِرب‬ ‫يَ ح‬ ُ‫ض ِرب‬ ‫تَ ح‬ 3rd Person Masculine 3rd Person Feminine 2nd Person masculine ِ ‫ض ِر‬ ُ‫بن‬ ‫تَ ح‬ ُ‫ض ِرب‬ ‫نَ ح‬ 2nd Person feminine 1st Person Qur’ānic Vocabulary: For the following highlighted verbs. 10-14.. any vowel may be present on the same letter in the Present tense form of the verb.. a Kasrah is usually present on the same letter in the Present tense form of the verb. Fill in the empty spaces with the appropriately conjugated verb [ُ‫ض ِرب‬ ‫ ]يَ ح‬with the attached pronoun [‫ ] ُﻫم‬at its end. 7. and (3) identify their conjugation referring to the detached pronoun they represent.Review Questions 6. 20-21. ﴾‫ن‬ َّ ‫ َوَما ظَلَ َم ُه ُم‬.

. The term for Direct Object acted on by a verb is called [‫بِِه‬ 6.. ‫اب ٱّللِ وراء‬ َ َ ْ ََُ َ َ ُ ْ ُ َ ْ َُ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ‫اب كت‬ َ َ ِ ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫َّه ْم الَ يَ ْعلَ ُمو‬ ُ ‫[ ظُ ُهوِرﻫ ْم َكأَن‬2:101] ِ ِ 14. In the following Qur’ānic Āyāt below (1). 27. An Indirect Object is the same as a [‫بِِه‬ 8. ‫] َم ْفعُول‬. 26. 1. The Doer and Direct Object in a [ُ‫الف ْعلِيَّة‬ ُ ِ ُ‫ ]اْلملَة‬starts with a verb. LESSON 9 REVIEW QUESTIONS True/False: ِ ُ‫ ]اْلملَة‬take the Raf‛ state.. [‫فاعل‬ ِ َّ ‫فَأَخ َذتْ ُكم ٱ‬. A verb can be in the dual or plural state if the Subject is not explicitly mentioned.﴿ [2:55] ُ ‫لصاع َقةُ َوأَنتُ ْم‬ ُ َ 12. 26. and (3) identify their conjugation referring to the detached pronoun they represent. Then (2) identify their Doer ِ ] by underlining twice. In verbs that cannot take a [‫] َم ْفعُول بِِه‬. ‫] َم ْف ُعول‬. the verb [‫ ]نَصر‬would be conjugated as [‫ ]نَصروا‬at the In a [ُ‫الف ْعلِيَّة‬ ُ ََ َُ ُ beginning of the sentence.. If Doer not explicitly mentioned. 5.. ﴾.﴿ [2:88] ِ ‫﴿ولَ َّما جاءﻫم رسول ِمن ِع‬ ِ َ‫ند ٱّللِ مص ِدق لِما معهم نَب َذ فَ ِريق ِمن ٱلَّ ِذين أُوتُواْ ٱلْ ِكت‬ 13. ِ ُ‫ ]اْلملَة‬with the mentioned Doer is [‫]املسلمون‬.‫ت‬ َْ َ َ ُ َ ْ ُ َْ َ 11. a Jarr Construction is used and acts similar to a Direct Object. ﴾.‫ض‬ ُ ‫ت ُس َورة نَظََر بَ ْع‬ ْ َ‫[ ﴿ َوإِ َذا َما أُنْ ِزل‬9:127] ِ ٍ ‫ك وإِ َّن لَهُ ِعْن َد ََّن لَزلْ َفى وحسن م‬ ﴾‫آب‬ َ َْ َُ ُ َ َ ‫[ ﴿فَغَ َف ْرََّن لَهُ َذل‬38:25] ِ َّ ﴾. ِ ‫بِٱلْ ِقس‬ ﴾‫ط‬ َ ‫[ ﴿ َوإِ ْن َح َك ْم‬5:42] ْ َ‫ت ف‬ ْ ‫اح ُك ْم بَْي نَ ُه ْم‬ ٍ ‫ض ُه ْم إِ َىل بَ ْع‬ ﴾. 10. underline all verbs (Family I).Review Questions Qur’ānic Vocabulary: For the following highlighted verbs..ْ‫ك َفروا‬ َ ‫ َوَما َك َفَر ُسلَْي َما ُن َولَك َّن ٱلشَّيَاط‬. ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫بَ ْل لَّ َعنَ ُه ُم ٱ َّّللُ بِ ُك ْف ِرِﻫ ْم فَ َقلِْيالا َّما يُ ْؤِمنُو‬.. 25. A Transitive verb is typically associated with a Ḥarf Naṣb. ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫تَنظُرو‬ 187 .﴿ [2:102] َُ‫ي‬ ِ ‫[ ﴿وإِ ْذ ي رفَع إِب ر ِاﻫيم ٱلْ َقو‬2:127] ِ ‫اع َد ِمن ٱلْب ي‬ 15. 9. If the Doer is not mentioned in a Verbal Sentence then there is no Doer. A pronoun attached to a verb is always a [‫ ] َم ْفعُول بِِه‬and is Naṣb.. A [ُ‫الف ْعلِيَّة‬ ُ 3. (1) convert them into their present tense form in the same exact conjugation (2) Translate them.. 4. 2.‫اﻫم النَّار‬ ُ ُ ُ ‫ين فَ َس ُقوا فَ َمأْ َو‬ َ ‫[ ﴿ َوأ ََّما الذ‬32:20] Check answers. then write the implied doer (pronoun). 7..

Naṣb. The most important information that can be used in conjugating the [‫أمر‬ ‫ ] ح‬of a verb is its vowel on the middle letter in the Past Tense. Short Answer. In the following Āyāt. Nouns can only go into the Jarr state due to a Ḥarf. ِ ِ ‫[ ﴿وٱلَّ ِذ‬3:135] َ ْ‫ين إذَا فَ َعلُواْ فَاح َشةا أ َْو ظَلَ ُمواْ أَنْ ُف َس ُه ْم ذَ َك ُروا‬ َ َ ِ ‫اع ِق ح َذر ٱلْمو‬ ِ َّ ‫[ ﴿ َُيعلُو َن أَصابِعهم ِف آذَاِنِِم ِمن ٱ‬2:19] ﴾‫ت‬ َْ ْ َ َ َ ‫لص َو‬ ْ َُ َ َ ِ ﴾. 4. What are the similarities in terms of verb structure between the Command state and when the Lām of Forbidding acts on the verb? 13. Then (2) identify the Direct Object [‫ ] َم حفعول ُبُِِه‬Doer by underlining twice. [‫ن‬ َُّ ‫َك‬ َ 9. Nouns can go into Naṣb because of a Ḥarf or a Verb. Name two particles of Jazm and two Particles of Naṣb that act on verbs. ﴾. 19.. 21. To provide/sustain 23. Vocabulary (Verbs): Translate into past and present tense verb (3rd Person Masculine single).. state the I‛rāb of the highlighted Verb below. Name two particles in Arabic that are structurally identical but have completely different grammatical functions and roles. LESSON 10 REVIEW QUESTIONS True/False 1.Review Questions In the following Qur’ānic Āyāt below (1). check to see if it has an Indirect object underline it with dots. 5. 15. If a verb is in Naṣb or Jazm. underline all verbs (Family I). Past tense verbs can go into one of three states. 11. 14. 3. There is a Sukūn instead of Ḍammah on single verbs if in Jazm state. and underline the Ḥarf if applicable. If the respective verb does not have a Direct object.‫كم ِمن ِدَي ِرِﻫم‬ ْ َ ْ ْ ُ ‫تَ ْقتُلُو َن أَن ُف َس ُك ْم َوَُّتْ ِر ُجو َن فَ ِريقا مْن‬. 20. Name one particle that functions in conditional statements.‫ٱّلل‬ 17. 18. 7.. 6. and Jarr states.﴿ [2:85] ِ َّ ‫[ ﴿ﻫو ٱلَّ ِذي خلَق ٱ‬57:4] ِ ‫ض ِف ِست َِّة أ َََّيٍم ُُثَّ ٱ ْستَ َوى َعلَى ٱلْ َع ْر‬ ﴾‫ش‬ َ ‫لس َم َاوات َوٱْأل َْر‬ َ َ َُ ِ ِ ‫[ ﴿قَ َال ر‬28:16] ﴾ُ‫غ ِفر ِِل فَغَ َفر لَه‬ ُ ‫ب إِِِن ظَلَ ْم‬ ْ ْ ‫ت نَ ْفسي فَٱ‬ َ َ 16. What are the two particles that can be used to put verbs in the Future Tense? 12. To remember 22. there is Ḥarf acting on it. 188 . ]‫ [مضارع‬Verbs go into Raf‛. 2.. To hit/ strike 24. To lie Check answers. [‫ن‬ ُ‫ ]إِ ح‬and [‫ ] َُلح‬are two Ḥarf Jazm ِ ‫ ]ل‬and [‫ ]لَع َُّل‬are two Ḥarf Naṣb for verbs. To carry 25. The Feminine Nūn is cut off if the verb is in the Naṣb or Jazm state. 10. 8.

3.. َ َ‫نص ُروهُ فَ َق ْد ن‬ ُ َ‫[ ﴿ إِالَّ ت‬9:40] ُ ُ‫صَره‬ ِ ِ ِ ِ ‫ت َِّل تَعب ُد ما الَ يسمع والَ ي ب‬ ﴾‫شْي ئاا‬ َ ‫نك‬ َ ‫ص ُر َوالَ يُ ْغ ِِ َع‬ ُْ َ ُ َ ْ َ َ ُ ْ َ َ‫[ ﴿ إِ ْذ قَ َال ألَبِيه ََي أَب‬19:42] ِ ِ ِ ِ ﴾‫علِيما‬ ‫[ ﴿ َّما يَ ْف َع ُل ٱّللُ ب َع َذاب ُك ْم إن َش َك ْرُْت َو َآمنتُ ْم َوَكا َن ٱّللُ َشاكارا َ ا‬4:147] ِ ﴾‫َدِب ِرِﻫم نُ ُفورا‬ َ َّ‫ت َرب‬ َ ‫ َوإِ َذا ذَ َك ْر‬. 25. 6. 7. 8.. In the following Āyāt. Only a few verbs have associated Maṣdars that come in a few patterns. Every verb in the Passive Tense takes a Deputy Doer or ‫ُالفاعل‬ 2. 24. The I'rāb of the Deputy Doer is Naṣb since there is no Doer present. A very common Maṣdar pattern for Family I verbs are [ُ‫]فَ حعل‬. [2:149] Check answers. ﴾. ِ ‫ ]اسمُال‬and [‫ ]اسمُاملفعول‬can be derived from most verbs. A verb that is Intransitive cannot take a ‫ َم حفعولُبُِِه‬. ‫ن ِمن‬ َ ‫﴿ َوإ ْذ قَ َال ُم‬ َ َ ‫وسى ل َق ْومه إ َّن ٱّللَ ََيْ ُم ُرُك ْم أَ ْن تَ ْذ َِبُواْ بَ َقَراة قَالُواْ أَتَتَّخ ُذ ََّن ُﻫ ُزوا قَ َال أَعُوذُ بٱّلل أَ ْن أَ ُكو‬ ِِ ﴾‫ي‬ َ ‫ٱ ْْلَاﻫل‬ 16. 10. 4. Verbs can be either [‫ ]ْل ِزم‬or [‫]متَ َع ِدي‬. 1. [‫فاعل‬ 5.﴿ [17:46] ‫ك ِف ٱلْ ُق ْرآن َو ْح َدهُ َولَّْواْ َعلَى أ ْ َ ْ ا‬ ﴾‫ن‬ ْ ‫ك َشطَْر ٱلْ َم ْس ِج ِد‬ َ ‫ك َوَما ٱّللُ بِغَافِ ٍل َع َّما تَ ْع َملُو‬ ُ ‫﴿ َوِم ْن َحْي‬ َ ِ‫ٱْلََرِام َوإِنَّهُ لَْل َح ُّق ِمن َّرب‬ َ ‫ت فَ َوِل َو ْج َه‬ َ ‫ث َخَر ْج‬ 21. Every verb can take a Passive Tense. 189 . ﴾‫أَح ادا‬ [2:67] ِ‫ٱّللِ فَ َق ِد ٱستمسك بِٱلْعروة‬ ِ ُ‫[ ﴿ فَمن ي ْك ُفر بِٱلطَّاغ‬2:256] َّ ِ‫وت َويُ ْؤِم ْن ب‬ ْ َ َْ ُ َ ُْ َ َ ْ َ ْ ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫[ ﴿ َويُ َعلِ ُم ُك ْم َما ََّلْ تَ ُكونُوا تَ ْعلَ ُمو‬2:151] 19. In the following Qur’ānic Āyāt below. convert the highlighted verb in the Command Tense [‫ُاْل حَمر‬ ‫ ]اَل ِحف حعل ح‬in the same conjugation. The beginning Vowel in either Passive Present or Past Tense verb is a Ḍammah. ‫ٱّلل‬ 22. ﴾ ‫ٱلْوثْ َقى‬ 20.. convert the highlighted verbs to the passive tense.Review Questions ِِ َ‫الر ْش ِد ف‬ ِ ُّ ‫[ ﴿يَ ْه ِدي إِ َىل‬72:2] َ ‫آمنَّا به َولَن نُّ ْش ِرَك بَربِنَا‬ َ ِ ِ ِِ 17. 9. LESSON 11 REVIEW QUESTIONS True/False: ِ ‫انئِب‬. [‫ ]املصدر‬and [‫ ]اسمُالفاعل‬are similar to verbs in that they relate to a particular action. ﴾ ‫ٱستَطَاعُوا‬ ْ ‫[ ﴿ َوَال يََزالُو َن يُ َقاتلُونَ ُك ْم َح َّّت يَ ُرُّدوُك ْم َع ْن دين ُك ْم إِن‬2:217] ِ ِ ِ ِ ِِ ِ ِ 18. 23..

. All Verb Families from II through X are somehow related to its Family I verb in meaning.. ﴿ [2:234‬فَإذَا بَلَ ْغ َن أ َ‬ ‫َجلَ ُه َّن فَ َال ُجنَ َ‬ ‫اح َعلَْي ُك ْم ف َ‬ ‫]‪﴿ [57:4‬ﻫو ٱلَّ ِذي خلَق َّ ِ‬ ‫ِِ‬ ‫ٱستَ َوى َعلَى ٱلْ َع ْر ِ‬ ‫ش﴾‬ ‫ٱلس َم َاوات َو ْٱأل َْر َ‬ ‫ض ِف ستَّة أ َََّيٍم ُُثَّ ْ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َُ‬ ‫ِِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِِ‬ ‫ي﴾‬ ‫َّجَرَة فَتَ ُكو ََّن م َن ٱلْظَّالم َ‬ ‫]‪َ ﴿ [2:35‬والَ تَ ْقَرَِب َﻫ ذه ٱلش َ‬ ‫ٱّلل‪16.‬‬ ‫‪Check answers.‬‬ ‫َّ‬ ‫‪12..‬متَ َع ِدى[ ‪4.. The rules for verb conjugation for Families II through X do not change.‬‬ ‫‪23.‬‬ ‫‪13. The Maṣdar patterns to conjugate Verb Families II through X are based on many different patterns.‬‬ ‫‪24.‬‬ ‫‪2. convert the highlighted verbs into the Passive Noun‬‬ ‫ُاملَحفعوُل[‬ ‫‪].‬‬ ‫‪22..‬‬ ‫‪25. ﴿ [2:234‬فَإ َذا بَلَ ْغ َن أ َ‬ ‫َجلَ ُه َّن فَ َال ُجنَ َ‬ ‫اح َعلَْي ُك ْم ف َ‬ ‫ٱّللِ﴾ ‪11.‬‬ ‫‪15. ﴾..‬اِ حسمُالفا ِعل[‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫]‪﴿ [3:135‬وٱلَّ ِذ ِ‬ ‫ين إ َذا فَ َعلُواْ فَاح َشةا أ َْو ظَلَ ُمواْ أَنْ ُف َس ُه ْم ذَ َك ُرواْ َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫ِ ِ ِ‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫سريا ﴾‬ ‫]‪َ ﴿ [33:14‬ولَ ْو ُدخلَ ْ‬ ‫ت َعلَْيهم م ْن أَقْطَارَﻫا ُُثَّ ُسئلُوا ٱلْفْت نَةَ َآلتَ ْوَﻫا َوَما تَلَبَّثُوا بَا إَّال يَ ا‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ن﴾‬ ‫يما فَ َع ْل َن ِف أَنْ ُف ِس ِه َّ‬ ‫]‪... match the gender and plurality.. ﴿ [2:234‬فَإ َذا بَلَ ْغ َن أ َ‬ ‫َجلَ ُه َّن فَ َال ُجنَ َ‬ ‫اح َعلَْي ُك ْم ف َ‬ ‫]‪﴿ [57:4‬ﻫو ٱلَّ ِذي خلَق َّ ِ‬ ‫ِِ‬ ‫ٱستَ َوى َعلَى ٱلْ َع ْر ِ‬ ‫ش﴾‬ ‫ٱلس َم َاوات َو ْٱأل َْر َ‬ ‫ض ِف ستَّة أ َََّيٍم ُُثَّ ْ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َُ‬ ‫ِِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِِ‬ ‫ي﴾‬ ‫َّجَرةَ فَتَ ُكو ََّن م َن ٱلْظَّالم َ‬ ‫]‪َ ﴿ [2:35‬والَ تَ ْقَرَِب َﻫ ذه ٱلش َ‬ ‫ٱّلل‪21..‬‬ ‫‪17.‬‬ ‫ٱّللَ قيَ ااما َوقُعُ ا‬ ‫ودا َو َعلَى ُجنُوب ْ‬ ‫ََ ُ‬ ‫]‪ ﴿ [2:65‬ولََق ْد علِمتُم ٱلَّ ِذين ْ ِ‬ ‫ٱلسب ِ‬ ‫ت‪﴾. match the gender and plurality...‬‬ ‫‪]..‫‪Review Questions‬‬ ‫]‪.﴿ [3:117‬ما ظَلَ َم ُه ُم َّ‬ ‫ٱّللُ َولَكِ ْن أَنْ ُف َس ُه ْم يَظْلِ ُمو َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ن﴾‬ ‫يما فَ َع ْل َن ِف أَنْ ُف ِس ِه َّ‬ ‫]‪.‬‬ ‫‪18.‬‬ ‫‪14.﴿ [9:81‬وَك ِرﻫوا أَ ْن ُُي ِ‬ ‫اﻫ ُدوا ِِب َْم َواَلِِ ْم َوأَنْ ُف ِس ِه ْم ِف َسبِ ِيل‬ ‫َ ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫]‪ ﴿ [3:191‬ٱلَّ ِذين ي ْذ ُكرو َن َّ ِ‬ ‫ِِم‪﴾. ﴾.‬‬ ‫‪20.‬‬ ‫‪19...‬‬ ‫‪In the following Qur’ānic Āyāt below..‬‬ ‫‪In the following Qur’ānic Āyāt below. convert the highlighted verbs into the Doer Noun‬‬ ‫‪].. Verb Families II through IV are typically‬‬ ‫‪190‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ٱعتَ َد ْوا مْن ُك ْم ِف َّ ْ‬ ‫َ َُْ َ‬ ‫ن﴾‬ ‫]‪َ .‬اِ حسم ُ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫]‪﴿ [3:135‬وٱلَّ ِذ ِ‬ ‫ين إ َذا فَ َعلُواْ فَاح َشةا أ َْو ظَلَ ُمواْ أَنْ ُف َس ُه ْم ذَ َك ُرواْ َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫ِ ِ ِ‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫سريا ﴾‬ ‫]‪َ ﴿ [33:14‬ولَ ْو ُدخلَ ْ‬ ‫ت َعلَْيهم م ْن أَقْطَارَﻫا ُُثَّ ُسئلُوا ٱلْفْت نَةَ َآلتَ ْوَﻫا َوَما تَلَبَّثُوا بَا إَّال يَ ا‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ن﴾‬ ‫يما فَ َع ْل َن ِف أَنْ ُف ِس ِه َّ‬ ‫]‪.‬‬ ‫‪LESSON 12 REVIEW QUESTIONS‬‬ ‫‪True/False:‬‬ ‫‪1.‬‬ ‫‪3.

17. Present. ﴾‫ي‬ َ ‫ٱلصادق‬ 22. III.... 20. For the following highlighted verbs. The [‫حفاعل‬ ‫ح‬ ِ 8. Command.]‫حفاعل‬ ‫ح‬ َ ‫ح‬ ِ ‫ ]اِسمُال‬has a Kasrah on the [‫ ]ع‬letter. The [‫حم حفعُول‬ َ ‫ ]ا حسمُال‬has a Fatḥah on the [‫ ]ع‬letter from Verb Families II and above.‫ذبْ ُهم‬ َ ِ ِ ِ َ ِ‫[ ﴿ فَأْتِياه فَ ُق َوال إِ ََّّن رس َوال رب‬20:47] ‫يل َوَال‬ َُ ْ َ َُ َ ‫ك فَأَْرس ْل َم َعنَا بَِِ إ ْسَرائ‬ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ‫[ ﴿إََِّّنَا ي ْؤِمن ِِبَيتِنَا ٱلَّ ِذ‬32:15] ﴾.. 14. 15. and (2) Identify its tense (Past. Doer Noun.. II. III.. 19.﴿ [24:55] ِ ِ ِ َّ ‫ٱعلَ ُمواْ أ‬ ﴾‫ي‬ ْ ‫ي َكآفَّةا َك َما يُ َقاتِلُونَ ُك ْم َكآفَّةا َو‬ َ ‫َن ٱّللَ َم َع ٱلْ ُمتَّق‬ َ ‫ َوقَاتلُواْ ٱلْ ُم ْش ِرك‬..﴿ [17:44] ‫يما َ ا‬ ‫يح ُه ْم إنَّهُ َكا َن َحل ا‬ Please note that the verb [‫ ]يُ ْؤِم ُن‬comes from [‫ ]آم َن‬an Irregular verb in Verb Family IV. If there is an associated Ḥarf. II.Review Questions 5. For Command State in Forms II and above. 16. 23. 6. 10. 7..... 11... identify the I‛rāb of the Verb. 12. ِ ‫تُع‬ ﴾. ﴿ [2:22] ْ ُ َ‫َخَر َج به م َن ٱلث ََّمَرات ِرْزقاا ل‬ ِ ِ َّ ‫[ ﴿ قَالُواْ َي نُوح قَ ْد جادلْت نا فَأَ ْكث رت ِج َدالَنا فَأْتَنِا ِِبا تَعِ ُد ََّن إِن ُكنت ِمن‬11:32] ﴾‫ي‬ َ َ َ ‫ٱلصادق‬ َ َْ ََ َ َ ُ َ َ َ 93 ‫ يَ ْعبُ ُدونَِِ َال يُ ْش ِرُكو َن ِب‬. 13.﴿ [9:36] ِْ ‫[ ﴿إِ ََّّن س َّخرََّن‬38:18] ِ ‫ٱْل ْشر‬ ِ ِ ِ ِ ﴾‫اق‬ ْ َ َ ْ ‫ٱْلبَ َال َم َعهُ يُ َسب ْح َن بٱلْ َعش ِي َو‬ ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫[ ﴿ َس َواء َعلَْي ِه ْم أَأَنْ َذ ْرتَ ُه ْم أ َْم ََّلْ تُْن ِذ ْرُﻫ ْم َال يُ ْؤِمنُو‬2:6] ِ َّ ِ ِ ِ ﴾‫اَّن‬ َّ ِ‫ب ِِبَا أَ ْشَرُكوا ب‬ ُّ ‫ين َك َف ُروا‬ ‫ٱّللِ َما ََّلْ يُنَ ِزْل بِِه ُس ْلطَ ا‬ َ ‫ٱلر ْع‬ َ ‫[ ﴿ َسنُ ْلقي ف قُلُوب ٱلذ‬3:151] ِِ َّ ‫[ ﴿وأ َْدخ ْلنَاﻫم ِف ر ْحتِنَا إِنَّهم ِمن‬21: 86] ﴾‫ي‬ َ ‫ٱلصاْل‬ َ ُْ َ َ ُْ َ َ ﴾.‫ِِم‬ َ ُ ُ ْ ‫ين إذَا ذُك ُروا بَا َخُّروا ُس َّج ادا َو َسبَّ ُحوا ِبَ ْمد َرب‬ َ ِ ِ ِِ ‫ٱلسم ِاء ماء فَأ‬ ِ ﴾... In terms of meaning Verb Families II through IV typically relate to doing an action on the self. or IV).‫كم‬ ْ ‫ َوأَنْ َزَل م َن َّ َ َ ا‬. (1) identify its Verb Family (I. ِ ‫]اِسمُال‬. The [‫ [مصدر‬. it is formed by simply replacing the [‫ ]ي‬of Present Tense verbs with Alif like in the Verb I Families.‫شْي ئاا‬ َ For the following highlighted nouns. 9. or Passive Doer. 18. 93 ِ ‫[ ﴿ قَالُواْ َي نُوح قَ ْد جادلْت نا فَأَ ْكث ر‬11:32] ِ ِِ ‫نت ِم َن‬ َ َْ ََ َ َ ُ َ َ ‫ت ج َدالَنَا فَأْتَنا ِبَا تَع ُد ََّن إِن ُك‬ ِ ‫ب أ َْد ِخ ْل ِِ م ْدخل ِص ْد ٍق وأَخ ِرج ِِ َّمُْرج‬ ِ ‫[ ﴿وقُل ر‬17:80] ﴾‫ص ْد ٍق‬ ََ ْ ْ َ َْ َ ََ ُ ِ ِ ِِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ٍِ ﴾‫غ ُفور‬ َ ِ‫ َوإن من َش ْيء إالَّ يُ َسبِ ُح ِبَ ْمده َولَكن الَّ تَ ْف َق ُهو َن تَ ْسب‬. or IV) ِ ِ َّ 21. or [‫ ]اِسمُالحم حفعُول‬from Verb Families II and above begin with the letter [‫]م‬.. or Passive). Form IV is the only verb type that actually has a Hamzah in its command form. 191 . (2) Identify its Verb Family (I. (1) identify the category to which it belongs (Verbal Noun.

‬‬ ‫ي تَ َف َّكرو َ‬ ‫‪For the following highlighted nouns.‬‬ ‫‪Present.‬‬ ‫‪LESSON 13 REVIEW QUESTIONS‬‬ ‫‪For the following highlighted verbs. (1) identify the category to which it belongs (Verbal Noun.‬‬ ‫ين َس ِخ ُروا ِمْن ُه ْم َما َكانُوا بِِه يَ ْستَ ْه ِزئُو َ‬ ‫]‪َ ﴿ [21:41‬ولََقد ْ‬ ‫ٱستُ ْه ِز َ ُ ُ ْ ْ َ َ‬ ‫اق بٱلذ َ‬ ‫ٱّللِ مرِجع ُكم َِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ن﴾ ‪8.‬‬ ‫‪26...‬‬ . ﴾. plurality.‬‬ ‫‪28. etc..‬‬ ‫]‪ُُ ﴿ [8:6‬يَادلُونَ َ‬ ‫ك ِف َْ َ ْ َ َ َ‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫َُ‬ ‫ن﴾ ‪1..‬‬ ‫]‪﴿ [6:48‬وما نُرِسل ٱلْمرسلِ ِ ِ‬ ‫ََ ْ ُ ُْ َ َ‬ ‫ين َ ُ َ‬ ‫ي إالَّ ُمبَش ِر َ‬ ‫ٱْلنْ َف ِ‬ ‫]‪﴿ [17:100‬قُل لَ ْو أَنْتُ ْم ُتَْلِ ُكو َن َخَزائِن ر ْحَِة رِب إِذاا َأل َْمسكْتُ ْم َخ ْشيَةَ ِْ‬ ‫اق‪﴾.. (2) Identify its Verb Family (V . If there is an associated Ḥarf. gender.‬‬ ‫ََ َ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪25. if applicable. or Passive Doer..‬‬ ‫‪Check answers. identify the I‛rāb of the Verb‬‬ ‫]‪﴿ [16:44‬وأَنْزلْنا إِلَي ِ ِ‬ ‫ي لِلن ِ ِ ِ ِ َّ‬ ‫َ ََ ْ َ‬ ‫ك ٱلذ ْكَر لتُبَ ِ َ‬ ‫َّاس َما نُزَل إلَْيه ْم َولَ َعل ُه ْم َ ُ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫َّ ِ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ين ٱتَّبَ عُواْ لَ ْو أ َّ‬ ‫علَْي ِهم وما ُﻫم ‪2. ﴾..‬‬ ‫‪30.‬‬ ‫ب َعلَْي ُك ُم ٱلْ ِقتَ ُ‬ ‫ال َوُﻫ َو ُك ْره لَ ُ ْ‬ ‫]‪ُ ﴿ [2:216‬كت َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫ٱألَبْرا ِر﴾‬ ‫]‪َ ﴿ [3:193‬ربَّنَا فَٱ ْغف ْر لَنَا ذُنُوبَنَا َوَكف ْر َعنَّا َسيئَاتنَا َوتَ َوفَّنَا َم َع ْ َ‬ ‫]‪﴿ [5:115‬قَ َال ٱّلل إِِِن منَ ِزَُلا علَي ُكم فَمن ي ْك ُفر ب ع ُد ِمن ُكم فَِإِِن أُع ِذبه ع َذاِب الَّ أُع ِذبه أ ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ي﴾‬ ‫َح ادا م َن ٱلْ َعالَم َ‬ ‫ُ ُ َ َ ْ ْ َ َ ْ َْ‬ ‫َ ُُ َ ا َ ُُ َ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫بِ ِه‪﴾..X‬‬ ‫ن﴾‬ ‫مْن تَ ِظرو َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫]‪﴿ [32:30‬فَأ َْع ِر ْ‬ ‫ض َعْن ُه ْم َوٱنْتَظ ْر إِن ُ‬ ‫َّه ْم ُ ُ‬ ‫‪192‬‬ ‫‪11. or Passive).. Command.‬‬ ‫‪27..‬‬ ‫‪Please retain the respective conjugation..‬‬ ‫]‪﴿ [19:47‬قَ َال َس َالم َعلَْي َ‬ ‫ك َرِب إنَّهُ َكا َ َ‬ ‫ك َسأ ْ ُ‬ ‫س لََّق ْد ِ‬ ‫]‪ ﴿ [18:74‬فَٱنطَلَ َقا ح َّّت إِذَا لَِ‬ ‫ت نَ ْفسا َزكِيَّةا بِغَ ِْ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫شْي ئاا نُّكْرا﴾ ‪5.‬‬ ‫َج ايعا فَيُنَ بِئُ ُك ْم ِِبَا ُكْن تُ ْم فِ ِيه ََّتْتَلِ ُفو َ‬ ‫]‪.﴿ [8:11‬ويُنَ ِزُل َعلَْي ُك ْم ِم َن َّ‬ ‫]‪﴿ [21:75‬وأ َْدخ ْلنَاه ِف ر ْحتِنَا إِنَّه ِمن َّ ِِ‬ ‫ي﴾‬ ‫ٱلصاْل َ‬ ‫َ َ ُ ََ ُ َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫كم‪﴾.﴿ [5:48‬إ َىل َّ َ ْ ُ ْ‬ ‫]‪﴿ [25:1‬تَبارَك ٱلَّ ِذي نََّزَل ٱلْ ُفرقَا َن علَى عب ِدهِ لِي ُكو َن لِْلعالَ ِم ِ‬ ‫ذيرا﴾ ‪9.‬‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ئ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ري‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ق‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ال‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ِ ِِ‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫يعا﴾ ‪6.﴿ [4:172‬وَم ْن يَ ْستَ ْن ِك ْ‬ ‫ْب فَ َسيَ ْح ُش ُرُﻫ ْم إِلَْيه ََج ا‬ ‫ف َع ْن عبَ َادته َويَ ْستَك ْ‬ ‫ئ بِرس ٍل ِمن قَبلِك فَح َ ِ َّ ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ن﴾ ‪7..‫‪Review Questions‬‬ ‫وم ِ‬ ‫نذ ِرين‪24...‬‬ ‫‪29.‬‬ ‫‪Convert the highlighted verbs or derived nouns into its identical counterpart from the Verb I Family.. (1) identify its Verb Family (V-X). and (2) Identify its tense (Past.‬‬ ‫ف َّ‬ ‫ٱّللُ َو ْ‬ ‫اب َولَ ْن َُيْل َ‬ ‫]‪َ ﴿ [22:47‬ويَ ْستَ ْعجلُونَ َ َ‬ ‫َستَ ْغ ِفر لَ َ ِ‬ ‫ن ِب ح ِفيًّا﴾ ‪4.‬‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫ْ َ َْ َ‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫ي نَ ا‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ٱْل ِق ب ع َدما تَب َّي َكأَََّّنَا يساقُو َن إِ َىل ٱلْمو ِ‬ ‫ت﴾ ‪10.‬‬ ‫]‪َ . Doer‬‬ ‫)‪Noun..‬‬ ‫ٱلس َم ِاء َماءا لِيُطَ ِهَرُك ْم‬ ‫]‪َ .‬‬ ‫َن لَنَا َكَّراة فَنَ تَبَ َّرأَ ِمْن ُه ْم َك َما تَبَ َّرُؤواْ ِمنَّا َك َذل َ‬ ‫ك يُِري ِه ُم ٱّللُ أ َْع َما ََلُْم َح َسَرات َ ْ َ َ‬ ‫﴿ َوقَ َال ٱلذ َ‬ ‫ِ ِِ‬ ‫ي ِمن ٱلنَّا ِر﴾‬ ‫]‪[2:167‬‬ ‫ِبَارج َ َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ك بِٱلْع َذ ِ‬ ‫ع َدهُ‪3.

‬‬ ‫‪I‬‬ ‫‪II‬‬ ‫‪III‬‬ ‫‪IV‬‬ ‫‪V‬‬ ‫‪VI‬‬ ‫‪VII‬‬ ‫‪VIII‬‬ ‫‪X‬‬ ‫ال ِف حعل‬ ‫امل ِ‬ ‫اضي‬ ‫فَ َع َلُ‬ ‫فَعَّ َُل‬ ‫بُ‬ ‫َك َّذ َ‬ ‫اع َلُ‬ ‫فَ َ‬ ‫أَفح َع َُل‬ ‫تَ َفعَّ َلُ‬ ‫قاتَ َلُ‬ ‫تَ َعلَّ َمُ‬ ‫فاخ َرُ‬ ‫تَ َ‬ ‫اِنح َف َع َُل اِنح َقلَ َُ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫اِفح تَ َع َُل اِ حكتَ َر َُ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫اِ حستَ حف َع َلُ اِ حستَ حقبَ َُل‬ ‫املُضارِع‬ ‫اْلمر‬ ‫‪Forbidding‬‬ ‫‪Past‬‬ ‫‪Passive‬‬ ‫‪Present‬‬ ‫‪Passive‬‬ ‫ض ِربُ‬ ‫يَ ح‬ ‫بُ‬ ‫اِ ح‬ ‫ض ِر ح‬ ‫َك ِذ حُ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫بُ‬ ‫ْلُتَ ح‬ ‫ض ِر ح‬ ‫بُ‬ ‫ض ِر َ‬ ‫ك ِذ َُ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫قوتِلُ‬ ‫ض َربُ‬ ‫ي ح‬ ‫ي حسلِ ُم‬ ‫يَتَ َعلَّ ُم‬ ‫تَ َع ِل حمُ‬ ‫فاخرُ‬ ‫يَتَ َ‬ ‫فاخ حرُ‬ ‫تَ َ‬ ‫اِنح َقلِ حُ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫يَ حن َقلِبُ‬ ‫ْلُتقاتِ حلُ‬ ‫ْلُت حسلِ حُم‬ ‫فاخ حرُ‬ ‫ْلُتَتَ َ‬ ‫ْلُتَ حن َقلِ حُ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ْلُتَ حك َُِت حُ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫اِ حستَ حقبِ حلُ ْلُتَ حستَ حقبِ حلُ‬ ‫‪193‬‬ ‫ت عل ُِ َمُ‬ ‫تف ِ‬ ‫وخ َُر‬ ‫‪--‬‬ ‫بُ‬ ‫ا حك ُِت َ‬ ‫ا حست حقبِ َُل‬ ‫اسمُالفاعل‬ ‫م َك ِذبُ‬ ‫تَ ِك ِذيب‬ ‫قِتال‬ ‫يقاتَلُ‬ ‫ي حسلَمُ‬ ‫مت ِ‬ ‫فاخ ُر‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪--‬‬ ‫ص َدر‬ ‫َم ح‬ ‫م حن َق ِلبُ‬ ‫تَ َعلُّ ُم‬ ‫اِنحِقالب‬ ‫ي حكتَ َربُ‬ ‫ي حستَ حقبَلُ‬ ‫‪Check answers.. present.‬‬ ..‬‬ ‫اب َو َّ‬ ‫ٱلزيْتُو َن َو ُّ‬ ‫ٱلرَّما َن ُم ْشتَبِ اها َو َغْي َر ُمتَ َ‬ ‫﴿‪َ . or command‬‬ ‫‪23‬‬ ‫‪22‬‬ ‫‪21‬‬ ‫‪20‬‬ ‫‪19‬‬ ‫‪18‬‬ ‫‪17‬‬ ‫‪16‬‬ ‫أَنْ ِزْل‬ ‫ََيُْر ُج‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫جاﻫ ْد‬ ‫يُ َسبِ ُحو َن‬ ‫يُْن ِزلُو َن‬ ‫َسلِ ْم‬ ‫أْ‬ ‫َستَ ْغ ِف ُر‬ ‫أْ‬ ‫ِِ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ََّتْتَلف َ‬ ‫‪24. The 10 Family Table: Complete the empty boxes below without referring to the book..‬‬ ‫)‪16-23.‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ي﴾‬ ‫متَ َقابِل َ‬ ‫]‪ ﴿ [15:47‬ونََز ْعنَا ما ِف ُ ِ ِ ِ ِ‬ ‫ص ُدوِرﻫ ْم م ْن غ ٍل إ ْخ َو ااَّن َعلَى ُس ُرٍر ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ٱلسج ِن أَأَرِبب ُّمتَ َف ِرقُو َن خي ر أَِم ٱّلل ٱلْو ِ‬ ‫]‪َ﴿ [12:39‬ي ِ ِ‬ ‫د ٱلْ َق َّهار﴾‬ ‫اح ُ‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫صاح َِب ْ ْ َ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ُ َ‬ ‫‪14..‫‪Review Questions‬‬ ‫أَلِي ٍم﴾‬ ‫ت َِّ‬ ‫]‪﴿ [45:8‬يسمع آَي ِ‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫صُّر مستَكِْبا َكأَن ََّّل يسم ْعها فَب ِشره بِع َذ ٍ‬ ‫اب‬ ‫ْ َ ْ َ َ َ ُْ َ‬ ‫ََُْ َ‬ ‫ٱّلل تُْت لَى َعلَْيه ُُثَّ يُ ُ ْ ا‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫َّخ ِل ِمن طَْلعِها قْن وان َدانِية وجنَّات ِمن أ َْعنَ ٍ‬ ‫شابِ ٍه‪﴾. Identify the Verb Family (I to X) and the tense (past.‬وم َن ٱلن ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫َ َ َ ََ‬ ‫]‪[6:99‬‬ ‫‪12.‬‬ ‫‪15.‬‬ ‫‪13.

and Flexible. ‫ة‬ Vocabulary Review: (from right to left as in the corresponding āyah) 11-12. Single. ]‫ان‬ ُِ [ and [‫]يح ُِن‬.. [‫ني‬ َُ ‫ ]ٱلحم حسلِ ِم‬is plural. male. Single. or Jarr. or Jarr. definite. and Flexible. F 6. female (broken plural). male. the evil . and partially flexible 16-18. covenant (his)…. Single. favor…sin 21-22. 15. the sun….treaty/pact 194 . Definiteness. the rivers……. a reward…. 14. T 5. T 4. Raf‛. 8. Jarr. female. while an Alif is only pronounced when at the beginning of a sentence or from a pause. F Short Answer: 6. the earth…. 9.. F Short Answer: ِ ‫]م‬. T 5. Single. T 3.Answer Key for Review Questions Answer Key for Review Questions LESSON 1 ANSWERS True/False: 1. Naṣb. definite. Partially flexible: [‫ساجد‬ َُ ِ‫]أ حولَ ئ‬. Hamzah is always pronounced. male.forever 17-20. Ḥarf. 11. and inflexible. Fully inflexible Nouns do not change their endings. F 4. T 3. indefinite. ِ ‫ ]م‬or [‫ ]م َّكة‬Completely Inflexible: [‫ك‬ 9. Fi'l.(his) Lord 13-14. Noun.. 7. nor can they have Tanwīn. 13. ]ُ‫سلِمات‬ ‫ [م ح‬or [ُ‫سلمات‬ ‫ح‬ 8. 10. account/reckoning 15-16. [‫ات‬ ُِ ‫ ]ٱلحم حسلِ َم‬is plural. and partially flexible. and I‛rāb. definite. َ َ 10. definite. male. while partially inflexible Nouns cannot take a Kasrah. Gender. 7.the good………………………the prayer 19-20. Raf‛. and flexible. the moon 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 ُ‫ه َو‬ ُ‫ك‬ َ ِ‫َذل‬ ‫َه َذا‬ ‫بَيِنَة‬ ‫َسبيل‬ ‫ُتََر‬ ‫َرسول‬ LESSON 2 ANSWERS True/False 1. Rafʽ. indefinite. the heavens…. definite.. and Flexible. Naṣb or Jarr. Naṣb or Jarr.. F 2. male. Naṣb. the Messenger…. 12. Number.. Plural. T 2.

Answer Key for Review Questions Single Dual Plural ‫ُم ْسلِمو َن‬ 23. T 7. F 4. Raf‛ ِِ ‫ين‬ َ ‫َُماﻫد‬ Naṣb Jarr ‫ُُمَ َّم ادا‬ 28. 29. T 11-15. T 9. F 5. Lesson 3 Answers True/False: 1. ٍ ‫بي‬ ‫ت‬ َْ 24. ‫ِعيسى‬ ‫َم ْرََي‬ 30. F 2. Plural Dual Single ُ‫ه حم‬ ‫ُها‬ ُ‫ه َّن‬ ‫ُها‬ ‫أَنحُتم‬ ‫أَنحتما‬ ُ‫ه َو‬ ‫ِه َُي‬ َُ ‫أَنح‬ ‫ت‬ ُ‫ت‬ َّ ‫أَنح‬ ‫أَنحتما‬ ِ ‫أَنح‬ ُ‫ت‬ ُ‫َحَنن‬ ُ‫َحَنن‬ ‫أَان‬ 195 . T 6. T 3. 27. ِِ ‫ي‬ َ ‫ُم ْسلم‬ ‫َكلِ َمة‬ 26. F 8. F 10. 25.

ُ‫َكواكِب‬ 25. with Allah…. from fruit…. F 5. F 8. its belly…. T 10. ‫ثاَلا‬ ‫ح‬ 24. F 11. ‫ك‬ َُ ِ‫ذَل‬ 23. ُ‫ك‬ َ ِ‫املَل‬ 196 ِ ‫أَم‬ 23. so that you 16. ‫كِتاُبِنا‬ --- ِ ِ‫ك‬ ُ‫تاب‬ Short answer: 20. 21. to you (all)…. Relative Pronoun…. T 7.two feet….. in their hearts…… with what ….. ِ‫َه ِذ ُه‬ 22.Relative Pronoun LESSON 4 ANSWERS True/False: 1. to Allah….. Indeed we… to Him 17. creature… from them…. their hearts 27.with their mouths 15. from it…. with its time… in the heavens and earth…. but most 19. from before 12. with our signs… in it 14. regarding the hour… with my Lord…. their sights (women)….. from after your death …. --- ‫كِتابِكما‬ ِ ِ‫كِتاب‬ ُ‫ك‬ 19. T 2. ‫ن‬ ُِ ‫املد‬ 20. T 4. from what 13. ‫َهنَؤْلء‬ 24.. their ears 25. ُ‫حر‬ ‫ُالبِ ح‬ 22. until a time 18. 16. The meaning would be "we worship You and we ask You for help" but it lacks exclusivity. Pointing Noun (far)… Relative Pronoun. F 6. …. ُ‫كِتابِك حم‬ 18.. Indeed we…. F 3. as if you…. Plural Dual Single ُ‫كِتابِِ حم‬ ‫كِتابِِ َُّن‬ --- --- ‫كِتابِِما‬ ِ ِ‫ك‬ ‫تابا‬ ‫كِتابِكما‬ --- 17. Relative Pronoun …their voices…..Answer Key for Review Questions 15. from it (feminine)…. T 9.ُ ‫ص حد ِركم‬ َ . with him…. Relative Pronoun… Relative Pronoun 26. ُ‫ش َركاء‬ 21. their fingers….

T 7. T 9. this tree 17. 15. T Translate the following highlighted Constructions in the following Qur’ānic Āyāt (be exact as possible). 14. ‫أَانُم حسلِ ُم‬ ُ‫كُ َكبِري‬ َ ‫بَ حي ت‬ 12. himself…killing of his brother…. F 4. ‫اب ٱّللِ وراء‬ َ َ ْ ََُ َ َ ُ ْ ُ َ ْ َُ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ‫اب كت‬ َ َ ِ ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫َّه ْم الَ يَ ْعلَ ُمو‬ ُ ‫[ ظُ ُهوِرﻫ ْم َكأَن‬2:101] ِِ ِ ِ ِ ِ 23. ُ‫تُفُال َحمدينَ ِة‬ َ ‫أَنح‬ 197 ُ ِ‫كُال َحم حس ِجدُ َكب‬ ‫ري‬ َ ِ‫َذل‬ . T 8. T 3. ﴾‫ظي ٍم‬ َ ‫َّك لَ َعلى ُخلُ ٍق‬ َ ‫[ ﴿ َوإِن‬68:4] ِ َ‫[ ﴿تَبارَك ٱلَّ ِذي بِي ِدهِ ٱلْملْك وﻫو علَى ُك ِل شي ٍء ق‬67:1] 19. people of the village/town 16. Most Merciful 15.from the losers 18-23. ﴾‫صري‬ ُ ‫ين َك َف ُروا بَرِب ْم َع َذ‬ ُ ‫س ٱلْ َم‬ َ ‫[ ﴿ َوللَّذ‬78:40] َ ‫اب َج َهن ََّم َوبْئ‬ LESSON 6 ANSWERS True/False: 1. T 6. ﴾‫ي‬ َ ِ ‫﴿ولَ َّما جاءﻫم رسول ِمن ِع‬ ِ َ‫ند ٱّللِ مص ِدق لِما معهم نَب َذ فَ ِريق ِمن ٱلَّ ِذين أُوتُواْ ٱلْ ِكت‬ 22. Constructions that are merged are highlighted. T Write the following: 11. ِ‫ع‬ 18. T 9. F 3. T 2. 13. T 7. a straight path…revelation from the Most Powerful. T 10. T 2. T 4. ﴾‫دير‬ َ ََُ ُ ُ َ ََ َْ ِ‫[ ﴿ولِلَّ ِذين َك َفروا بِرِب‬67:6] ِ ِ‫اب َج َهنَّم َوب‬ 20. T 11. T 5. Jarr Constructions have one line. T 8. F 6. F 5. Possession constructions have two lines. ُ‫َذلِكُبَ حيت‬ 13. a sound heart 14. T 12. F 10.Answer Key for Review Questions LESSON 5 ANSWERS True/False: 1. ﴾‫صري‬ ‫ئ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫م‬ َ ْ َ ُ ْ ُ ‫س ٱلْ َم‬ َ َ ُ َ َ َ ِ ‫[ ﴿وَﻫ َذا ٱلْبَ لَ ِد ْٱأل َِم‬95:3] 21. Describing Constructions have dotted lines and Pointing Constructions have wavy lines.

.. T 4. close friend[‫]ق حرانء‬ 15..23. path [‫طَرائِق‬/‫ ]طرق‬20. 12. LESSON 7 ANSWERS True/False: 1. F 2. (1) Identify the Subject [‫ ]م حب تَ َدأ‬by underlining it and (2) translate the highlighted word with its respective plural or singular. ﴾ 17..﴿ [limits/‫] َح َُّد‬ ِ َّ ‫إِ َّن‬.. ِ ِ َ ‫[ ﴿ذَل‬the day/‫]اَحْل َََّيم‬ ُ ‫ك ٱلْيَ ْوُم ٱلَّذي َكانُوا‬ ِ ‫ٱّلل علِيم بِ َذ‬ ﴾ ‫دوِر‬ َّ َ‫]ا‬ ُّ ‫ات‬ ُ ‫ٱلص‬ َ َُّ ‫ َو‬.. back [‫]ظهور‬ 22.. the Nominal Sentence has been extracted.. T 3. 13.﴿ [that/‫ك‬ 16.. calf [‫]عجول‬ 17.﴿ [magic/--] ِ َِّ ‫ول‬ ﴾ َ‫كم‬ ُ ‫أَِِن َر ُس‬. T Translate the following into Arabic: 5. 11.. 18. ُِ ‫َرسولُال َحم ِل‬ ‫ك‬ ُ‫ُملِك‬ َ ‫َرسول‬ ُ‫سلِم‬ ُ ‫ال َحم ِلكُالحم‬ ُ‫ال َحملِكُم حسلِم‬ 10.Answer Key for Review Questions In the following parts from the Qur’ānic Āyāt.. ُ‫م َعلِمُال َحم ِدينَ ِةُالحم حسلِم‬ ِ ِ‫مع ِلمُالحمل‬ ‫ُه َذا‬ َ‫ك‬ َ َ 16..ِ‫ٱّلل‬ َُ ِ‫]أولئ‬ َّ ‫ك أ َْم ُر‬ َ ‫ َذل‬.ِ‫َم ِره‬ ْ ‫ٱّللَ َِبل ُغ أ‬ ِ ﴾ . 24. heels [‫] َع ِقب‬ 198 18. َ.ِ‫ٱّلل‬ َّ ‫َنصا ِري إِ َىل‬ َ ‫ َم ْن أ‬. 6. 8.. anger 21. ِ ِ ُ‫ُملِك‬ ُ ِ‫الحمسلِمُه َوُال َحمل‬ َ ‫ك الحم َعلمُامل حسلم‬ 14. 22.﴿ [command/ِ‫]أموِرُه‬ ﴾َ. 21.﴿ [messenger/‫]رسل‬ ْ ُ ‫ٱّلل إلَْي‬ ِ ﴾ . far 19. ﴾‫ن‬ َ ‫وع ُدو‬ َ ‫ي‬ 20. confirming ____________________ .ِ‫ َوتِْل َك ُح ُد ُود َّاّلل‬..﴿ [{my}helpers/‫]انصر‬ 19. behind ِ ِ‫َه َذاُهوُمع ِلمُالحمل‬ ُ‫ك‬ َ َ َ 9.﴿ [the chests/‫لص حدر‬ ِ ٍ َ ‫[ ﴿فَهو ِف ِع‬life/---] ﴾ ‫اضي ٍة‬ َ ‫يشة َّر‬ َُ ِ ﴾ ‫حر ُّمبِي‬ ْ ‫ َﻫ َذا س‬. 23. 7. besides/-.

T 9. T 5. T 10-14. ُ‫َد َخ َل‬ َُ ‫َخ َر‬ ‫ج‬ ُ‫ظَلَ َم‬ َُ َ‫َكت‬ ‫ب‬ ُ‫بَلَ َغ‬ ُ‫فَ َع َل‬ --- 3rd person masculine --- 3rd person feminine ُ‫ض ِربُه حم‬ ‫تَ ح‬ ‫ض ِربينَُهم‬ ‫تَ ح‬ ‫ض ِربُهم‬ ‫أَ ح‬ 2nd person masculine 2nd person feminine 1st person (masculine/feminine) Translation Conjugation [pronoun] To enter ‫ُﻫم‬ ‫ُﻫم‬ To exit/leave ‫ََْن ُن‬ ‫ِﻫ َي‬ To transgress To write ‫ُﻫ َّن‬ ‫ُﻫ َّن‬ To reach To do 199 . Fill in the spaces with [ُ‫ض ِرب‬ ‫ ]يَ ح‬with the attached pronoun [‫ ] ُﻫ ْم‬at its end. Plural Dual Single ُ‫قَ َرأ ُوه‬ --- --- 3rd person masculine --- ُ‫قَ َرأَُتحه‬ 3rd person feminine 2nd person feminine ‫َُُنَُه‬ ‫قَ َرأ ح‬ ُ‫قَ َرأحُتُه‬ ُ‫قَ َرأحتُنَّه‬ ُ‫قَ َرأحُتاه‬ --- --- ُ‫قَ َرأحتُه‬ Plural Dual Single --- ُ‫قَ َرأحُتَه‬ 2nd person masculine 1st person (masculine/feminine) 15-19.Answer Key for Review Questions LESSON 8 ANSWERS True/False: 1. 25. 22. T 6. F 7. T 4. T 3. 24. 23. 21. F 2. F 8. Fill in the Spaces with [َ‫ ]قَ َرُأ‬with the attached pronoun [‫ ] ُه‬at its end. ُ‫قَ َرأحانه‬ ُ‫بنِِ حم‬ ُ ‫ض ِر‬ ‫يَ ح‬ --‫بنِِ حُم‬ ُ ‫ض ِر‬ ‫تَ ح‬ --- ُ‫ض ِربونَُه حم‬ ‫يَ ح‬ ‫ض ِربح نَُه حُم‬ ‫يَ ح‬ --ُ‫ض ِربح نَُه حم‬ ‫تَ ح‬ ‫ض ِربُه حُم‬ ‫نَ ح‬ --- Verb root 20.

T‬‬ ‫‪True/False:‬‬ ‫‪1.‬‬ ‫‪200‬‬ ‫‪17.‬‬ ‫َ َْ‬ ‫َ َْ ُ ْ َ ُ َ‬ ‫ن﴾ ‪11.‬‬ ‫يَ حفسقو َنُ‬ ‫‪29.‬‬ ‫‪18.‬‬ ‫يَ حنظرُ‬ ‫نَ حغ ِفرُ‬ ‫‪27.‬‬ ‫‪20.‬وَما َك َفَر ُسلَْي َما ُن َولَك َّن ٱلشَّيَاط َ‬ ‫يَُ‬ ‫﴿وإِ ْذ ي رفَع إِب ر ِاﻫيم ٱلْ َقو ِ‬ ‫اع َد ِمن ٱلْب ي ِ‬ ‫ت‪15.‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ُ َ َ ََُ ْ َ‬ ‫َ َ َُ ْ َ ُ ْ‬ ‫اب كتَ َ َ َ َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ن﴾‬ ‫ن[‬ ‫َّه ْم الَ يَ ْعلَ ُمو َ‬ ‫] ُﻫم ‪ ‬يَ ْعلَ ُمو َ‬ ‫ظُ ُهوِرﻫ ْم َكأَن ُ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ك َفرواْ‪14.‬‬ ‫] ُﻫم ‪َ [ ‬ك َف ُرواْ ﴿‪َ ... ﴾..‬‬ ‫تَنظُرو َ‬ ‫‪------------------------------------------------------‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫﴿وٱلَّ ِذ ِ‬ ‫ين إ َذا فَ َعلُواْ فَاح َشةا أ َْو ظَلَ ُمواْ أَنْ ُف َس ُه ْم ذَ َك ُرواْ َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫اع ِق ح َذر ٱلْمو ِ‬ ‫﴿ َُيعلُو َن أَصابِعهم ِف آ َذاِنِِم ِمن َّ ِ‬ ‫ت﴾‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫ٱلص َو َ َ َ ْ‬ ‫َ َُ ْ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫كم ِمن ِدَي ِرِﻫم‪﴾. F‬‬ ‫﴿‪.. T‬‬ ‫‪4. T‬‬ ‫‪9..‬فَأَخ َذتْ ُكم َّ ِ‬ ‫ٱلصاع َقةُ َوأَنتُ ْم ُ‬ ‫َ ُ‬ ‫ن﴾ ‪12. ﴾..‬بَ ْل لَّ َعنَ ُه ُم َّ‬ ‫ٱّللُ بِ ُك ْف ِرِﻫ ْم فَ َقلِْيالا َّما يُ ْؤِمنُو َ‬ ‫﴿ولَ َّما جاءﻫم رسول ِمن ِع ِ‬ ‫ند ٱّللِ مص ِدق لِما معهم نَب َذ فَ ِريق ِمن ٱلَّ ِذين أُوتُواْ ٱلْ ِكتَ ِ‬ ‫اب ٱّللِ وراء ‪13.‬تَ ْقتُلُو َن أَن ُف َس ُك ْم َوَُّتْ ِر ُجو َن فَ ِريقا مْن ُ ْ ْ َ ْ‬ ‫﴿ﻫو ٱلَّ ِذي خلَق َّ ِ‬ ‫ِِ‬ ‫ٱستَ َوى َعلَى ٱلْ َع ْر ِ‬ ‫ش﴾‬ ‫ٱلس َم َاوات َو ْٱأل َْر َ‬ ‫ض ِف ستَّة أ َََّيٍم ُُثَّ ْ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َُ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫﴿قَ َال ر ِ‬ ‫غ ِفر ِِل فَغَ َفر لَهُ﴾‬ ‫ب إِِِن ظَلَ ْم ُ‬ ‫ت نَ ْفسي فَٱ ْ ْ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ٱّلل‪16.‫‪Answer Key for Review Questions‬‬ ‫]‪Conjugation [pronoun‬‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أَنْ َ‬ ‫ُﻫ َو‬ ‫‪Translation‬‬ ‫‪To judge‬‬ ‫‪To see‬‬ ‫ََْن ُن‬ ‫ُﻫ ْم‬ ‫‪To forgive‬‬ ‫‪To corrupt‬‬ ‫‪Present tense‬‬ ‫‪form‬‬ ‫ََتحكمُ‬ ‫‪26.. T‬‬ ‫‪2. F‬‬ ‫‪6. F‬‬ ‫‪3.‬‬ ‫‪28.‬‬ ‫﴿‪. F‬‬ ‫‪8..‬‬ . F‬‬ ‫‪10..‬‬ ‫﴿‪..‬‬ ‫‪LESSON 9 ANSWERS‬‬ ‫‪5. F‬‬ ‫‪7.. ﴾.‬‬ ‫‪19..

Answer Key for Review Questions Vocabulary (Verbs): 21 22 23 24 25 ُ‫ذَ َك َر‬ ُ‫يَذحكر‬ ُ‫َرَز َق‬ ُ‫يَ حرزق‬ ُ‫ب‬ َ َ ‫ض َر‬ ُ‫ض ِرب‬ ‫يَ ح‬ ُ‫َمحَ َل‬ ُ‫َحُي ِمل‬ ُ‫ب‬ َ ‫َك َُذ‬ ُ‫يَ حك ِذب‬ LESSON 10 ANSWERS True/False: 1. ‫نُّ ْش ِرَك‬ 16. The verb structurally is changed in a similar fashion. F 2. 20. or [‫ّت‬ َُ ‫] َم‬ ِ ‫ل‬/‫لَن‬/‫ح َّّت‬/‫] َكي‬ ِ ‫م حن‬/ ِ ‫َك‬ 14.] َل‬Naṣb Particles =[‫أَ حُن‬/‫ل‬/‫ن‬ ‫َ ح‬ ‫ح‬ 15. F 7. ‫ يَ ْك ُف ْر‬Jazm ‫ تَ ُكونُوا‬Jazm 19. F 5. F 3. F 9. and underline the Ḥarf if applicable. [‫س‬ َُ ] and [‫ف‬ َُ ‫] َس حو‬ 12. ‫ يُ َقاتِلُون‬Raf‛ ْ‫ تَ ْذ َِبُوا‬Jazm ‫ يُ ْؤِم ُن‬Jazm ‫ تَ ْعلَ ُمو َن‬Raf‛ ‫ يَُرُّدو‬Naṣb ِ ‫ تَت‬Raf‛ ‫َّخ ُذ‬ ‫اعوا‬ ُ َ‫ٱستَط‬ ْ Jazm ‫ أَ ُكو َن‬Naṣb In the following Āyāt. 21 ‫اُنصرُوا‬ 22 ُ‫ُاُ حعبد‬ 23 24 25 ‫ا حشكروا‬ ُ‫اذحك حر‬ ُ‫ا حخر حج‬ ‫اِ حع َملوا‬ 201 . state the I‛rāb of the highlighted Verb below. 13. either by adding a Sukūn on 1st person or by dropping the Nūn at the end. [‫ن‬ َُ ‫[أَيح‬/]‫[ما‬/]‫[ َم حُن‬/ ]‫]ُإِ حُن‬/. ]‫ن‬ ُ‫[ َم ح‬/]‫[ما‬/]‫[ ُِل‬/]‫[ْل‬/]‫ّت‬ َُّ ‫[ َح‬/]‫[ َُو‬ In the following Āyāt. convert the highlighted verb in the command tense [‫َمر‬ ‫ ]اَل ِحف حعل ح‬in the same ‫ُاْل ح‬ conjugation. 18. T 4. F Short Answer. T 8. Jazm Particles = [‫ما‬/‫َما‬ َّ ‫ل‬/‫ْل‬/‫ل‬/ َ ‫ُإِ حن‬/‫ . Naṣb ‫ يََزالُو َن‬Raf‛ ‫ ََيْ ُمُر‬Raf‛ 17. T 6. 11. T 10.

T 5. T 5. F 7. F 3. T 2. T 2. T 9. T 4. T 4. F 6. T 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 ‫ُك ِرُﻫوا‬ ‫يُ ْذ َك ُرو َن‬ ‫عُلِ ْمتُ ُم‬ ‫ظُلِ َم‬ ‫يُظْلَ ُمو َن‬ ‫بُلِ ْغ َن‬ ‫فُعِْل َن‬ ِ ‫فاعلُو َن‬ ‫ظَالِ ُمو َن‬ ‫َذاكِ ُرو َن‬ ِ‫د‬ ‫اخلَة‬ َ ‫َسائِلُو َن‬ ‫َِبلِغَات‬ ِ ‫فاعالت‬ ‫َخالِق‬ ِ ‫قا ِر‬ ‫ِبن‬ ِ ِ‫كائ‬ ‫نان‬ 21 22 23 ‫َمْبلوغات َم ْد ُخولَة َم ْفعولو َن‬ ‫َم ْفعوالت َم ْسأُولُو َن َمظْلومو َن‬ ‫َم ْذ ُكورو َن‬ 24 25 ‫َّمَْلوق‬ ِ ‫م ْق‬ ‫روِبن‬ َ --- LESSON 12 ANSWERS True/False: 1. T 10. T 8. T 7. F 3. T 9. T 10. T 8. F 6. T Question# Verb Verb Family Tense ‫أ َْرِس ْل‬ IV command Question# Verb Verb Family Tense 11 ِ ‫ب‬ ْ ‫َال تُ َعذ‬ II present /Jazm ‫ذُكُِروا‬ 12 II past passive 15 ‫يَ ْعبُ ُدو َن‬ I present 13 14 ‫َسبَّ ُحوا‬ ‫أَنْ َزَل‬ ‫َخَر َج‬ ْ‫أ‬ ‫َج َادلْت‬ ‫ت‬ َ ‫أَ ْكثَ ْر‬ past past past past past II IV IV IV present ‫قَاتِلُوا‬ III command ‫يُ َقاتِلُو َن‬ III present 202 IV 17 16 ‫يُ ْش ِرُكو َن‬ III ْ‫ٱعلَ ُموا‬ ْ I command ‫َس َّخ ْرََّن‬ II past ‫يُ َسبِ ْح َن‬ II present .Answer Key for Review Questions LESSON 11 ANSWERS True/False: 1.

Answer Key for Review Questions 18 Question# Verb Verb Family Tense Question# Noun Category Family Question# Noun Category Family ‫ت‬ َ ‫أَنْ َذ ْر‬ IV IV present /Jazm past ‫ِج َد َال‬ ‫ََّلْ تُْن ِذ ْر‬ 21 verbal noun III ِ ِ َّ ‫ي‬ َ ‫ٱلصادق‬ Doer Noun I 24 ِ ‫ي‬ َ ‫ٱلْ ُم ْر َسل‬ ِ ‫ين‬ َ ‫ُمبَش ِر‬ Doer Noun IV Doer Noun II 26 ‫يَْن ِزُل‬ 19 ‫َك َفُروا‬ ‫أَ ْشَرُكوا‬ past past I 20 ‫ََّلْ يُنَ ِزْل‬ IV ‫أ َْد َخ ْلنَا‬ II present/ Jazm IV past 22 ‫ُم ْد َخ َل‬ passive noun IV ِِ ‫ين‬ َ ‫ُمنذر‬ Doer Noun IV ‫ِص ْد ٍق‬ ‫َّمَُْر َج‬ verbal noun I ‫َر ْحَِة‬ ‫حَْ ِد‬ passive noun IV 25 verbal noun I 23 verbal noun I ِ ‫يح‬ َ ‫تَ ْسب‬ verbal noun II ِ ‫ٱْلنْ َف‬ ِْ ‫اق‬ verbal noun IV 27 28 29 ‫َد َخ ْلنا‬ ‫ال َقْت ُل‬ ‫اُ ْك ُف ْر‬ 30 ‫َّن ِزل‬ LESSON 13 ANSWERS Question # Verb Verb Family Tense Question # Verb Verb Family Tense 1 2 ‫يَتَ َف َّكُرو َن‬ ْ‫ٱتَّبَ ُعوا‬ V present 3 ‫يَ ْستَ ْع ِجلُو َن‬ ْ‫تَبَ َّرُؤوا‬ َ‫نَتَ بَ َّرأ‬ 4 ِ ‫ف‬ َ ‫َُيْل‬ VIII V V X IV command Present Naṣb past present Present Naṣb 5 6 ‫َستَ ْغ ِف ُر‬ ْ‫أ‬ X present 7 ‫ٱنطَلَ َقا‬ ‫ت‬ َ ‫قَتَ ْل‬ ‫ف‬ ْ ‫يَ ْستَ ْن ِك‬ ِ ‫ْب‬ ْ ‫يَ ْستَك‬ ‫َُْي ُشُر‬ ‫ئ‬ َ ‫ٱستُ ْه ِز‬ ْ ‫َس ِخُروا‬ ‫يَ ْستَ ْه ِزئُو َن‬ VII I X X I X I X past past Present Jazm Present Jazm present Past Passive past present 203 .

‬‬ ‫‪IV‬‬ ‫‪IV‬‬ ‫‪command present‬‬ ‫‪Category‬‬ ‫‪Family‬‬ ‫‪17.‬‬ ‫‪22.‬‬ ‫‪19.‬‬ ‫‪X‬‬ ‫‪present‬‬ ‫‪16. The 10 Family Table: Answers are highlighted.‬‬ ‫‪III‬‬ ‫‪I‬‬ ‫‪command present‬‬ ‫‪Question‬‬ ‫‪#‬‬ ‫‪20.‬‬ ‫‪VII‬‬ ‫‪present‬‬ ‫‪24.‫‪Answer Key for Review Questions‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫ي‬ ‫تَبَ َّ َ‬ ‫ُُيَ ِادلُو َن‬ ‫نََّزَل‬ ‫تَبَ َارَك‬ ‫ََّتْتَلِ ُفو َن‬ ‫يُنَ بِ ُئ‬ ‫‪V‬‬ ‫‪III‬‬ ‫‪II‬‬ ‫‪VI‬‬ ‫‪VIII‬‬ ‫‪II‬‬ ‫‪past‬‬ ‫‪present‬‬ ‫‪past‬‬ ‫‪past‬‬ ‫‪present‬‬ ‫‪present‬‬ ‫‪15‬‬ ‫ُّمتَ َف ِرقُون‬ ‫‪Doer Noun‬‬ ‫‪V‬‬ ‫‪13‬‬ ‫‪14‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ُمتَ َقابِل َ‬ ‫‪Doer Noun‬‬ ‫‪VI‬‬ ‫‪23.‬‬ ‫‪I‬‬ ‫‪II‬‬ ‫ال ِف حعل‬ ‫امل ِ‬ ‫اضي‬ ‫مضارِع‬ ‫اْلمر‬ ‫‪Forbidding‬‬ ‫‪Past‬‬ ‫‪Passive‬‬ ‫‪Present‬‬ ‫‪Passive‬‬ ‫اسمُ ِ‬ ‫الفاعل‬ ‫ص َدر‬ ‫َم ح‬ ‫فَ َع َلُ‬ ‫فَ َّع َُل‬ ‫بُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ض َر َ‬ ‫َك َّذ َُ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ض ِربُ‬ ‫يَ ح‬ ‫بُ‬ ‫اِ ح‬ ‫ض ِر ح‬ ‫َك ِذ حُ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫قاتِ حُل‬ ‫بُ‬ ‫ْلُتَ ح‬ ‫ض ِر ح‬ ‫ْلُت َك ِذ حُ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ْلُتقاتِ حُل‬ ‫بُ‬ ‫ض ِر َ‬ ‫ك ِذ َُ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫قوتِلُ‬ ‫ض َربُ‬ ‫ي ح‬ ‫ضا ِربُ‬ ‫ض حربُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ي حسلِ ُم‬ ‫َسلِ حمُ‬ ‫أح‬ ‫تَ َع ِل حُم‬ ‫ْلُت حسلِ حمُ‬ ‫ْلُتَتَ َعلَّ حُم‬ ‫فاخ حرُ‬ ‫تَ َ‬ ‫اِنح َقلِ حُ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫اِ حك َُِت حُ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫فاخ حرُ‬ ‫ْلُتَتَ َ‬ ‫ْلُتَ حن َقلِ حُ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ْلُتَ حك َُِت حُ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫أ حسلِ َمُ‬ ‫ت عُِل َُم‬ ‫تف ِ‬ ‫وخ َُر‬ ‫‪III‬‬ ‫اع َلُ‬ ‫فَ َ‬ ‫قاتَ َلُ‬ ‫‪IV‬‬ ‫أَفح َع َلُ‬ ‫تَ َفعَّ َُل‬ ‫َسلَ َمُ‬ ‫أح‬ ‫تَ َعلَّ َُم‬ ‫‪V‬‬ ‫‪VI‬‬ ‫‪VII‬‬ ‫‪VIII‬‬ ‫‪X‬‬ ‫فاخ َرُ‬ ‫فاع َُل تَ َ‬ ‫تَ َ‬ ‫اِنح َف َع َُل اِنح َقلَ َُ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫اِفح تَ َع َُل اِ حكتَ َر َُ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫اِ حستَ حف َع َلُ اِ حستَ حقبَ َُل‬ ‫ي َك ِذبُ‬ ‫يقاتِ ُل‬ ‫يَتَ َعلَّ ُم‬ ‫فاخرُ‬ ‫يَتَ َ‬ ‫يَ حن َقلِبُ‬ ‫يَ حك َُِتبُ‬ ‫يَ حستَ حقبِ ُل‬ ‫اِ حستَ حقبِ حلُ‬ ‫ْلُتَ حستَ حقبِ حلُ‬ ‫‪204‬‬ ‫‪--‬‬ ‫بُ‬ ‫ا حك ُِت َ‬ ‫ا حست حقبِ َُل‬ ‫ي َك َّذبُ‬ ‫م َك ِذبُ‬ ‫تَ ِك ِذيب‬ ‫يقاتَلُ‬ ‫مقاتِ ُل‬ ‫قِتال‬ ‫ي حسلَمُ‬ ‫م حس ِل ُم‬ ‫إِ حسالمُ‬ ‫ي تَ َعلَّ ُم‬ ‫فاخرُ‬ ‫ي تَ َ‬ ‫‪-‬‬‫ي حكتَ َربُ‬ ‫ي حستَ حقبَلُ‬ ‫متَ َع ِل ُم‬ ‫مت ِ‬ ‫فاخ ُر‬ ‫َ‬ ‫م حن َق ِلبُ‬ ‫م حك َُِتبُ‬ ‫م حستَ حقبِ ُل‬ ‫تَ َعلُّ ُم‬ ‫تَفاخرُ‬ ‫اِنحِقالب‬ ‫اِ حكُِتابُ‬ ‫اِ حستِ حقبالُ‬ .‬‬ ‫‪IV‬‬ ‫‪command‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬ ‫ُمتَ َشابٍِه‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ْبا‬ ‫ُم ْستَك ا‬ ‫‪Doer Noun‬‬ ‫‪VI‬‬ ‫‪Verbal Noun‬‬ ‫‪X‬‬ ‫‪21.‬‬ ‫‪II‬‬ ‫‪present‬‬ ‫‪11‬‬ ‫‪Verb‬‬ ‫‪Verb‬‬ ‫‪Family‬‬ ‫‪Tense‬‬ ‫‪Question#‬‬ ‫ُمْن تَ ِظُرو َن‬ ‫‪Noun‬‬ ‫‪Doer Noun‬‬ ‫‪VII‬‬ ‫‪18.

1st Edition. 2nd Edition. 1st Edition. A Hundred and One Rules! A Short Reference for Syntactic. Qur’ānic Language Made Easy: Basic Grammar Required to Understand the Qur’ān. 5. Wehr.English Lexicon . 12.Essentials of Qur’ânic Arabic References 1. Ḥassan. 11. 13. Abdul Sattar. Darul-Ishaat. Al-Faṣeeḥ. 205 .britannica. Translated by Moulana Ebrāhīm Muḥammad. Inc. 8. 1st Edition. Abdul Sattar. 1976.com/>. <http://www. Karachi. University of Leeds. 2007. Libraire Beirut. 15. Translated by Moulana Ebrāhīm Muḥammad. Qur’ānic Arabic Corpus. Hans and Milton J. Karamali. Arabic Tutor – Part 1. Karachi. 2007. Āl Ash-Sheikh. 2010. Masood. PhD. Translated by Moulana Ebrāhīm Muḥammad. Karachi. Translation of the Meaning of the Glorious Qur’ān.net/ > 14. 4. Karachi. Translated by Moulana Ebrāhīm Muḥammad. 2008.php?t=54331***>. 2002. Morphological. Moḥammed. 3. ILF-NY Publications: New York. Ithica. 1st Edition. Khan. < http://www.alfaseeh. Khan. Arabic Tutor – Part 2. Naskhi Script. Darul-Ishaat. available for free download at <http://emuslim. 1968. Ebrāhīm. 9. 7. 10/10/12. Ṣaḥīḥ International. 2009-2011. Essentials of Quranic Arabic – Intermediate Level. [ُ‫]الفصيحُلِعلومُاللغةُالعربية‬.openburhan. Abdul Sattar. Illinois: IQRA International Educational Foundation. 16. Pakistan. Abdul-Azeez. 10.com/vb/showthread. Khan. AbulQasim Publishing House (1997).com/EBchecked/topic/403972/naskhi-script>. Riyaḍh.quran. Language Research Group. From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology. Kais.com/>. Ranginwala.asp>. Hamza. January 2007. Sāliḥ bin Abdul Azīz bin Muḥammad bin Ibrāhīm [‫] َموقعُاإلسالمُالدعويُوُاإلرشادي‬. NY: Spoken Language Services. Darul-Ishaat. Sunnipath Academy. Pakistan. & Phonological rules for Novice and Intermediate Levels of Proficiency. Pakistan. Iffath. 2007. 2. Muḥammad. Arabic Tutor – Part 3. Encyclopaedia Britannica.com/quran/english80. Hans Wehr: A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. Lebanon. Cowan (Editor). Khan. Volume 2. 80% of Quranic Words. 6. ARB201 and ARB202: Introductory Arabic 1 and 2. Dukes. < http://www. 2013. Arabic Tutor – Part 4. Lane. Jiyād. Abdul Sattar.. Fall 2007 to Spring 2008. Farooq Sarar. Zam Zam Publishers. Section on Ḥadīth < http://www. Abdul-Raḥeem. Open Burhan. Lambert Academic Publishing. 18. Darul-Ishaat. Pakistan. 3rd Edition. 1st Edition. Khan. 17. 2007. < http://corpus. Edward William An Arabic.al-islam.

Young Muslims. He obtained a Diploma in Islāmic Studies from the Islāmic Online University (IOU) where he serves as the Arabic Studies Coordinator for the Diploma Series since 2012. He is a member of ICNA. At IOU. and a founding member of its youth organization. He has been teaching basic Qur’ānic Arabic over the past few years at the Islāmic Learning Foundation.About the Author Masood Ranginwala has studied Arabic with various teachers and institutions. ِ ِِ‫و الصَّالةا و السَّالم عَلى محمَّ ٍد و عَلى آل‬ ‫أَج َمعين‬ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬ ْ ‫أص ْحابِه‬ َ َ‫ا‬ َ َ َ َ ِ ‫هللا سبحانه و تعالى حسبنا و نِعم ا ْلو‬ ‫كيل‬ َ ‫ا ا ْ َا‬ َ َْ ‫َ ْا‬ . he is the instructor for the Diploma Course Series “Introduction to Qur’anic Arabic”. an institution of Islāmic Circle of North America (ICNA). He earned the Sībawayh Degree in Arabic Studies from the Qibla Institute. He is a practicing emergency physician and resides with his wife and three children in New Jersey.