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NATIONALIST MOVEMENT

IN
INDO CHINA
Made by :Himanshu Ahirwar

Indo - China is a small peninsula in South-East


Asia. It consists of Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.

VIETNAM AND CHINA


Vietnam was under the shadow of Chinese
empire.
(i)Vietnam followed the Chinese system of
government and Chinese culture.
(ii)Chinese language was the language of
the educated Vietnamese people. They
followed Chinese system of education.
(iii)Confucianism, a Chinese religion, had
many followers in Vietnam.
(iv)Vietnam was connected to Maritime silk
route.

The French troops reached Vietnam in 1858. They


defeated china in a war and got control over Tonkin
and Annam. In 1887, the French Indo-China was
formed.

FRANCE AND OTHER EUROPEAN


POWERS LOOKED FOR COLONIES
Colonies were necessary

due to the following reasons:


(i)They were rich in natural
resources. So, they provided raw
materials to European industries.
(ii)Europeans could use colonies as
markets to sell their finished goods.
(iii) Europeans wanted to spread
western culture in the colonies.

DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
UNDERTAKEN BY FRANCE IN VIETNAM
The French built irrigation canals. They
drained Mekong delta and encouraged
rice cultivation.
They built roads and railway lines. For
example:- Trans Indo-China railway route.
Rubber plantation was introduced in
Vietnam.
Land reform measures were undertaken.
Modern education was introduced.

RICE AND RUBBER


CULTIVATION IN VIETNAM

TRANS INDO CHINA RAILWAY

PAUL BERNARD ASKED THE FRENCH


TO TAKE STEPS TO DEVELOP VIETNAM
According

to Paul Bernard,
colonies were acquired with the
aim of making profits.
If colonies were developed, the
standard of living of the people
would improve.
The people would demand more
and more foreign goods. So, the

BARRIERS TO ECONOMIC
GROWTH IN VIETNAM
Huge

population size.
Low agricultural
productivity.
Indebtedness among the
peasants.

INTRODUCTION OF MODERN
EDUCATION IN VIETNAM
The French introduced modern
education: to spread western culture and
civilization.
to get educated workers for low-paid
jobs.
to make the Vietnamese , their loyal
supporters.

DILEMMA OF MODERN
EDUCATION
The French wanted to civilise the people of
Vietnam. They were also in the need of an
educated labour force. So, they decided to
introduce modern education.
At the same time, the French had a fear that
the education would create the following
problems: Educated people may oppose colonial
domination.
The colons feared that, they would lose their
jobs to the educated Vietnamese.

MEDIUM OF EDUCATION
Some people argued that the French should be
used as the medium of education. It would help
in spreading western culture and civilisation.
Some others argued that
Vietnamese should be the medium in the lower
classes and French in the higher classes.
Those who learn French and adopt French
culture could be given French citizenship.
Finally, the rich were allowed to study in
French schools and poor in the Vietnamese
schools.


DRAWBACKS OF THE EDUCATIONAL
SYSTEM INTRODUCED BY THE FRENCH IN
VIETNAM

The government followed the policy of


deliberately failing the students.
Education was limited to the rich people.
The textbooks glorified the French rule
and culture and degraded Vietnamese
culture.

TONKIN FREE SCHOOL


It was started in 1907 to provide western
education.
Science, hygiene and French were taught
along with the other subjects.
The school encouraged students to adopt
western style of living. Students had to
cut their hair short.

TONKIN FREE SCHOOL

SCHOOL TEXT BOOKS


The school textbooks glorified French
culture and supported French rule.
The Vietnamese were shown as primitive and
backward people.
The Vietnamese could do only manual
labour not intellectual labour.
The children were made to believe that only
French rule could provide peace to Vietnam.
The schools forced the students to give up
Vietnamese lifestyle and follow French
lifestyle.

PROTEST BY TEACHERS AND


STUDENTS
Teachers and students did not follow the
curriculum blindly. They opposed it
openly.
Students organised a movement against
the Saigon Native Girls schools which
expelled a student.
They formed political parties like Party of
Young Annan and published a journal

SAIGON NATIVE GIRLS SCHOOL


INCIDENT
In Saigon Native Girls School, a Vietnamese
girl sitting in the first bench was asked to go
to the back bench in order to allow a colon
girl to occupy the firs bench.
She was expelled from the school when she
refused to obey.
The students who opposed this action were
also expelled.
This led to large scale protests. So, the
government asked theschool to take back
the students.

GO EAST MOVEMENT

Nearly 300 students of Vietnam went to


Japan to get modern education.
Their real aim was to overthrow the
French rule with the help of Japan.
They set up Restoration Society in Tokyo.

PLAGUE IN HANOI
The French part of the city of Hanoi was
beautiful with all modern facilities.
The native part was unclean without
sanitation facilities.
The dirty water from the old city joined
the river. The sewers of modern city
became a breeding ground of rats.
The rats entered the French houses
throughsewage pipes and spread plague.

RAT HUNT
The modern city of Hanoi was affected
by plague.
It was spread by the rats which lived in
sewers. So, rats had to be killed.
Vietnamese were employed to kill the
rats. The workers started collective
bargaining.
Some of them cut the tail to show as
proof and released the rats.
Some of them reared rats to earn money.

NATIVE PART OF HANOI

MODERN PART OF HANOI

RELIGION AND ANTI


COLONIALISM
The French effort to destroy the religious
believes and traditions of Vietnam
created anti-French feelings.
Scholars revolt was organised by the
French.
Hoa Hao movement encouraged antiFrench feelings among the people.
Political parties got the support of the
religious groups in the struggle for
freedom.

SCHOLARS REVOLT

It was an armed revolt led by the officers


of the Kings Court.
It was against the spread of Christianity
and the French rule.

HOA HAO MOVEMENT


It was a religious movement started by
Huynh Phu So in 1939.
He performed miracles and helped the
poor. He opposed child marriages, useless
expenditure, gambling and the use of
liquor.
The French called him mad [MAD BONZE]
and sent him to a mental hospital. Later
he was sent out of Vietnam.

PHAN BOI CHAU


He was a Vietnamese nationalist. He formed
the revolutionary society in 1903. He wrote a
book titled The History Of The Loss Of
Vietnam. He wanted to overthrow the
French rule with the help of the Monarchy.

PHAN BOI CHAU


He accepted monarchy.
He did not want to revolt against
monarchy.
He wanted to get the help of monarchy to
oppose French rule.
He supported Vietnamese culture and
opposed western ideas.
He wanted to establish a constitutional
monarchy

PHAN CHU TRINH


He was a Vietnamese nationalist. He was
against Monarchy. He wanted to establish
a Modern Democratic Republic. He
supported the French ideas of Liberty,
Equality and Fraternity.

PHAN CHU TRINH


He wished to overthrow monarchy.
He planned an uprising against monarchy.
He did not want to get the help of
monarchy.
He supported modern ideas like liberty,
fraternity and equality.

INFLUENCE OF JAPAN AND CHINA


ON VIETNAMES NATIONALISTS
Japan became a modern nation. So,
Vietnamese considered it as a model. The
people who escaped from French police took
refuge in Japan.
Many students went to Japan in the name of
education, but their real aim was to get
Japans support for freedom struggle.
They set up restoration society in Japan.
Sun Yat Sens movement ,which overthrew
monarchy in China, inspired Vietnamese
nationalists.

EFFCTS OF GREAT DEPRESSION


ON VIETNAM
Great depression led to a fall in the prices of
rice and rubber. This affected the farmers
badly.
Export earnings of Vietnam decreased sharply.
Unemployment and poverty became severe.
It led to many revolts in villages.

HO CHI MINH

HO CHI MINH
Ho Chi Minh was the greatest leader of the
Vietnamese freedom struggle. He:
united the nationalist groups and formed the
Indo-Chinese communist party.
became the president of North Vietnam and
introduced many socialist policies.
formed a peoples army called Vietminh to fight
against foreign powers.
led the communists and the struggle for
freedom for 40 years.
organised his people for their heroic struggle
against American troops.

CHALLENGES FACED BY THE


NEW REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM
The french troops tried to re-establish their
control over Vietnam. So, the new republic
had to fight a war.
Vietnam was divided into two parts in the
Geneva Conference.
The U.S.A entered into the Vietnamese war.
So, the new republic had to fight against the
most powerful country of the world.
Use of chemical weapons and destruction of
towns and villages by the American forces
made the peoples life miserable.

BATTLE OF DIEN BIEN PHU:It was a


battle fought between the French and
the Vietminh in 1954. The French were
defeated in this battle.

GENEVA CONFERENCE OF
1954
It was organised by the U.N.
It was decided to divide Vietnam into two
parts.
The North under Communist rule and
South under Bao Dai[Puppet of the U.S.A]

NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONT


Bao Dais government in South Vietnam
was overthrown by Ngo Dinh Diem.
He set up an oppressive and dictatorial
government. Anyone who opposed him
was called a communist and jailed.
He allowed Christianity and banned
Buddhism. So, the people turned against
him.
They formed the NLF and started a war
against his government with the support

USA INTERFERES IN
VIETNAMESE WAR

The U.S.A decided to interfere in


Vietnamese war because:
America was strongly against communist
movement. They had a fear that the
victory of communists of Vietnam would
lead to the spread of communism in Asia.
The U.S.A policy makers underestimated
the strength of the Vietnamese
nationalists. They expected a quick
victory.

EFFECTS OF VIETNAMESE WAR


ON USA
American people opposed their countys
involvement in the war.
Only non-graduates had to join the army.
So, many poor men had to go to Vietnam.
Many Americans were killed and many
were wounded. So, their relatives turned
against the government.
Many books were written and films were
made to show the sufferings of the
American troops.

US MEDIA AND FILMS


U.S media and films were divided over
the issue of U.S involvement in
Vietnamese war.
Some movies like Green Berets directed
by John Wayne supported the war.
Some other movies like Apocalypse
Now, directed by John Ford Coppola
opposed the war and showed its bad
effects.

HO CHI MINHS TRAIL


Ho Chi Minhs Trail was a network of roads and
footpaths. Most of the trail was in Laos and
Cambodia. It was used by the Vietnamese in
their war against the U.S forces.
It was used to transport goods and people from
North Vietnam to South Vietnam.
It was used for the quick movement of forces
from one war front to the other.
It was used to supply food, arms and ammunition
to the soldiers.
It had support bases and hospitals along the way.

HOCHI MINHS TRAIL

ROLE OF WOMEN IN ANTIIMPERIALIST STRUGGLE IN VIETNAM


Plays, novels and paintings were made about the
heroic women of the past such as Trung sisters and
Trieu Au in order to create patriotism among the people.
Women joined the army and fought bravely against the
American troops. They succeeded in shooting down war
planes.
They were dedicated workers. They carried rifle on their
back and worked in the field.
They were involved in nursing the injured, constructing
underground rooms and tunnels.
They worked as helpers in Ho Chi Minhs Trail. They
carried goods.

TRUNG SISTERS
They were two Vietnamese women who
fought against the Chinese domination.
Phan Boi Chau wrote a play based on
their lives.
When they lost the war, they killed
themselves. The Vietnamese people
considered the Trung sisters as great
patriots.

TRUNG SISTERS

TRIEU AU
She organized an army to fight against
the Chinese.
She lived in the forest and led the war.
She killed herself when she lost the war.

TRIEU AU

END OF THE WAR


Common people of the U.S.A opposed their
countrys involvement in the war. Movies and
media showed the miseries of the American
soldiers.
(ii)American forces suffered
heavy damages. Many were killed in the war.
(iii)World opinion turned against
the U.S. many writers and thinkers supported
Vietnam.
(iv) A peace agreement was signed in
January 1974 and the war ended when Saigon
was freed.

NEW REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM

Made By :Himanshu Ahirwar