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Removal and Destruction


of
Syrian Chemical Weapons

Chemical Demilitarisation Branch


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UN Investigation of CW Use in Syria


UN team (including OPCW and WHO
experts) arrived in Damascus on 18 August
2013
Alleged chemical attack occurred in suburb
of Damascus on 21 August 2013
UN team accessed sites of alleged attack
from 26 to 29 August 2013
Team took samples, interviewed
witnesses and examined munitions
A UN led Investigation report (released
in September 2013) concluded that CW
was used
UN Team had no Mandate to
investigate who did the attack
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Operation Platform: OPCW-UN Joint Mission


As a result of OPCW Executive
Council decision and UN
Security Council Resolution:
OPCW-UN Joint Mission was
established in October 2013

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Support base established in Cyprus


OPCW and UN established
coordinated trust funds
Agreement concluded between
OPCW, UN and Syria concerning
status of OPCW-UN Joint Mission
for elimination of Syrian CW
(SOMA)

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Declaration of Syrian Chemical Weapons

23 October submission

14 September
accession to the CWC

19 September
Disclosure

14 October CWC Entry

of Initial Declaration

2013

into Force

Syria declared possession of Chemical Weapons, Chemical Weapons Production Facilities,


Abandoned Chemical Weapons, other CW-related facilities and Riot Control Agents, import
of chemicals for Chemical Weapons program and for industrial purposes.
Ten (10) amendments to initial declaration received until 1 December 2014

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Syria Chemical Weapons Inspections


Objectives: Elimination of Syrian CWs and Verification of
Syrian Declarations:

Initial inspections of CW production and storage facilities


Destruction of CW production capabilities
Destruction of CW munitions and some chemicals on-site
Planning for removal of chemicals from Syria in order for quick
destruction

30-35 OPCW inspectors organised as multidisciplinary


inspection teams plus supporting staff in Damascus
Security situation in Syria: serious impacts on planning but
manageable

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Syria CW Programme: Declared Chemicals


Category 1 chemicals:
Seven (7) different chemicals

Chemical warfare agents or chemicals used in the binary chemical


weapon systems
Approximately 1,040 tonnes

Category 2 chemicals:
Thirteen (13) different chemicals
Approximately 260 tonnes

Approximately 1,300 tonnes total declared chemicals


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Syria CW Programme: Storage of Chemicals

Mustard tanks in Storage


facility
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DF tanks and sealed valve

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Syria CW Programme: Storage Facilities


Syria declared twelve (12) Chemical Weapons
Storage Facilities (CWSFs)
OPCW inventoried all declared chemicals in CWSFs
OPCW verified that all declared chemicals were
removed from CWSFs and CWSFs were closed
OPCW verified that all declared chemicals were
removed from Syria (except Isopropanol destroyed
inside Syria)
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Syria CW Programme: Production Facilities


Syria declared twenty-seven (27) Chemical
Weapons Production Facility (CWPF);
Such facilities were render not operational when
Syria acceded the Treaty;
All production equipment were verified as
destroyed on October and November 2013;
OPCW verified so far the destruction of thirteen (13)
CWPFs
Eight mobile units
Five above-ground structures
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Syrian CW programme: Precursors Production

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CW Precursors Production Facility

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Transfer of Chemicals Outside of Syria


Syria packed and transferred chemicals from storage sites
to Port of Latakia by road, using equipment provided by the
Assisting States Parties and UN
OPCW verified that all chemicals were inventoried, packed
and moved to port of Latakia;
OPCW verified the leaving chemicals in Port of Latakia:
Random sampling and on-site analysis for agent characterisation
Verification of OPCW applied seals on drums, tanks, cylinders and
maritime containers used to carry chemicals
Visual observation

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Inventory and Packing

HF cylinder sealed by OPCW


with IMDG designation

HF tanks before

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HF tanks after packing


inside shipping container

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Transfer Operation: International Fleet


Taiko:
Norwegian vessel carried category 1 and 2 chemicals to
Finland and category two chemicals to US

ArkFutura
Danish vessel carried category 1 chemicals (DF and HD)
for tarnsloading to Cape Ray. In addition, some category
1 chemicals and 2 chemicals to UK and Finland

Cape Ray:
US vessel equipped with Field Deployable Hydrolysis
System to neutralise DF and HD on board
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Transfer of chemicals by International Fleet

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Chemicals Destruction Outside of Syria


Destruction of chemicals was organised through in-kind
contribution of some States Parties (US, UK and Germany) or
in commercial disposal facilities (Finland and US)
Cape Ray-US vessel
In-kind contribution by US
Received and completed destruction of 20 tonnes of sulfur mustard
and 580 tonnes of DF

Ekokem-Finland
Commercial facility selected by tender process
Received and completed destruction of 320 tonnes of category 1 & 2
chemicals
Destroying DF effluents resulted from Cape Ray operation (28%
progress)

Ellesmere Port High Temperature Incinerator-UK


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In-kind contribution by UK
Received and completed destruction of 200 tonnes of category 1 & 2
chemicals;

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Cape Ray: Field Deployable Hydrolysis System

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Destruction outside of Syria


Mexichem-UK
In-kind contribution by UK
Will destroy 7 tonnes of HF by January 2015

Veolia ES Technical Solutions- US


Commercial facility selected by tender process;
Received 65 tonnes of category 2 chemicals
Completed 65% of destruction

GEKA, Munster-Germany
In-kind contribution by Germany
Destroying HD effluents resulted from Cape Ray
operation (36% progress)
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Destruction of chemicals Progress


Progress in Destruction of Syrian Chemicals and Related Materials
As of 1 Decmber 2014

Total
Amount

Amount
Destroyed

Destroyed (%)

Total Category 1*

1,046,981 kg

1,046,981 kg

100.0%

Total Category 2**

261,040 kg

231,856 kg

88.8%

Total Chemicals (Cat. 1 and 2)

1,308,021 kg

1,278,837 kg

97.8%

Total amount comprises the quantities of Category 1 chemicals which have been transferred outside of Syria and which have already been destroyed in Syria

**

Total amount comprises the quantities of Category 2 chemicals transferred outside of Syria

(isopropanol).
Amount destroyed comprises the quantities of Category 1 chemicals destroyed outside Syria (by the commercial facilities and on the Cape Ray) and destroyed in Syria
(isopropanol);

Amount destroyed comprises the quantities of Category 2 chemicals destroyed by the commercial facilities

Effluents

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Fluorinated effluents (DF) Ekokem, Finland

Total
Amount
5,867,000 kg

Amount
Destroyed
1,617,320 kg

Effluents containing Sulfur (HD) GEKA, Germany

333,520 kg

120,235 kg

Destroyed (%)
27.6%
36.1%

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Conclusions
OPCW since November 2013:
Inspected all Syrian Chemical Weapons Storage
Facilities and verified that all were emptied
Verified that 100% of declared chemicals were either
destroyed in Syria or removed form its territory
Verified that 98% of removed chemicals have been
destroyed
Verified that all accessible Chemical Weapons
Production Facilities were inspected and disarmed;
Verified that half of production facilities were destroyed
and the other half are planned to be destroyed by 2015
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Complete Chemical Demilitarisation:


Way Forward
OPCW continues verification of another fourteen
(14) CWPFs yet to be destroyed by 2015
Five tunnels
Seven hangers
Two structures (not accessible currently due to their
location within the anti- government forces controlled
areas)

Declarations Assessment Team


Fact Finding Mission
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Challenges
Internal

Unprecedented operation for OPCW


Time constraints due to Executive Council expedited timelines
Unforeseen situations made planning difficult
Lack of some of required expertise and technical skills within TS
Legal interpretations/ Treaty complications
Lack of required policies

External

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Political pressure and debate between States Parties


Security situation in Syria
Public Opinion, NGOs, Social Media
Logistics challenge
International Maritime Regulations

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Thank You

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