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Definition: the use of ones body to produce motion that is: -safe, -energy conserving, -and
efficient, all of which allows the person to maintain balance and control.
Gravity: The force that pulls toward the center of the earth and affects all objects
Friction: The act of rubbing one object against another.
Center of gravity (COG): The point at which the mass of a body or object is centered;
when weight on all sides is equal Base of Support (BOS).
Base of Support (BOS): Area on which an object rests and that provides support for the
Line of Gravity: The vertical line between the center of gravity and the ground.
Must fall within the BOS if the body is to stay upright.
May be shifted.
Proper Body Mechanics
Gravity & Friction are forces that add resistance to many activities: lifting, reaching,
pushing, pulling, and carrying an object.
Select and use techniques that:
- reduce the adverse effects of gravity or friction
- and/or enhance the positive effects of these 2 forces.
Principles of Body Mechanics
Remain close to the object
Use short lever arms for better control & efficiency (with less strain)
Maintain your COG close to the objects (or patients) COG
Widen your BOS and position your feet according to the direction of movement you will
use to perform the activity
Use the largest & strongest muscles of your arms, legs and trunk
Avoid twisting your body when you lift
When possible, push, pull, roll, or slide an object rather than lifting it
Principles in Summary
Position yourself close to an object or position the object close to you
Increase your BOS, and approximate the COG of your body close to the objects COG
before attempting to lift, pull, reach or carry an object
Prepare yourself mentally & physically
What is the best method to move the object?
All obstacles should be removed so there is a clear path from point A to B
Determine the distance
Determine the need for assistance
Determine the final location of the object (or patient)
Gravity and momentum should be used whenever possible
"You need to exercise." Everyone dreads hearing their doctor say these words, and from
the first time they were uttered, people have been looking for a way to make exercise fun. One
solution is dancing. Dance exercise has its origins in traditional dance, but at most gyms and
other recreational outfits.


Dance exercise forerunners Aerobic Dance and Jazzercise helped to pave the way for many
new forms of dance exercise, such as 24 Dance, which combines various dance styles such as
salsa, cowboy boogie and tease into a total dance workout, according to 24 Hour Fitness. With
the help of successful dance competition programs on television, dancing in general is making a
comeback. People realize the fitness benefits of dance exercise, such as burning 300 to 500
calories per hour, according to 24 Hour Fitness.
Dance Fitness
Most gyms and other recreational venues offer a variety of dance exercise classes. For
example, participate in Zumba; for a Latin-flavored class or Bollywood Dance for an experience
based on Indian traditional dances, according to 24 Hour Fitness. Most classes are designed for
all fitness levels but combine techniques and moves from interval training and dance routines for
a workout that promotes ultimate fat burning and fitness, says 24 Hour Fitness. Most facilities
offer an array of dance exercise classes, from hip-hop to belly dancing. Ultimately, any form of
dance including a lot of movement will provide you with aerobic or cardio exercise.
Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that
depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process. Aerobic literally means "relating to,
involving, or requiring free oxygen", and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy
demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism. Generally, light-to-moderate intensity activities
that are sufficiently supported by aerobic metabolism can be performed for extended periods of
When practiced in this way, examples of cardiovascular/aerobic exercise are medium to
long distance running/jogging, swimming, cycling, and walking, according to the first extensive
research on aerobic exercise, conducted in the 1960s on over 5,000 U.S. Air Force personnel
by Dr. Kenneth H. Cooper.
Among the recognized benefits of doing regular aerobic exercise are:
Strengthening the muscles involved in respiration, to facilitate the flow of air in and out of
the lungs
Strengthening and enlarging the heart muscle, to improve its pumping efficiency and
reduce the resting heart rate, known as aerobic conditioning
Improving circulation efficiency and reducing blood pressure
Increasing the total number of red blood cells in the body, facilitating transport of oxygen
Improved mental health, including reducing stress and lowering the incidence of
depression, as well as increased cognitive capacity.
Reducing the risk for diabetes. One meta-analysis has shown, from multiple conducted
studies, that aerobic exercise does help lower Hb A1C levels for type 2 diabetics.
As a result, aerobic exercise can reduce the risk of death due to cardiovascular problems. In
addition, high-impact aerobic activities (such as jogging or using a skipping rope) can stimulate
bone growth, as well as reduce the risk of osteoporosis for both men and women.
In addition to the health benefits of aerobic exercise, there are numerous performance
Increased storage of energy molecules such as fats and carbohydrates within the muscles,
allowing for increased endurance
Neovascularization of the muscle sarcomeres to increase blood flow through the muscles
Increasing speed at which aerobic metabolism is activated within muscles, allowing a
greater portion of energy for intense exercise to be generated aerobically


Improving the ability of muscles to use fats during exercise, preserving

intramuscular glycogen
Enhancing the speed at which muscles recover from high intensity exercise
Neurobiological effects: improvements in brain structural connections and increased gray
matter density, new neuron growth, improved cognitive function (cognitive control and
various forms of memory), and improvement or maintenance of mental health
downfalls of aerobic exercise include:
Overuse injuries because of repetitive, high-impact exercise such as distance running.
Is not an effective approach to building muscle.
Only effective for fat loss when used consistently.
Both the health benefits and the performance benefits, or "training effect", require a
minimum duration and frequency of exercise. Most authorities suggest at least twenty
minutes performed at least three times per week.

Aerobic capacity describes the functional capacity of the cardiorespiratory system, (the
heart, lungs and blood vessels). Aerobic capacity refers to the maximum amount of oxygen
consumed by the body during intense exercises, in a given time frame. It is a function both of
cardiorespiratory performance and the maximum ability to remove and utilize oxygen from
circulating blood. To measure maximal aerobic capacity, an exercise physiologist or physician will
perform a VO2 max test, in which a subject will undergo progressively more strenuous exercise on
a treadmill, from an easy walk through to exhaustion. The individual is typically connected to
a respirometer to measure oxygen consumption, and the speed is increased incrementally over a
fixed duration of time. The higher the measured cardiorespiratory endurance level, the more
oxygen has been transported to and used by exercising muscles, and the higher the level of
intensity at which the individual can exercise. More simply put, the higher the aerobic capacity,
the higher the level of aerobic fitness. The Cooper and multi-stage fitness tests can also be used
to assess functional aerobic capacity for particular jobs or activities.
The degree to which aerobic capacity can be improved by exercise varies very widely in
the human population: while the average response to training is an approximately 17% increase
in VO2max, in any population there are "high responders" who may as much as double their
capacity, and "low responders" who will see little or no benefit from training. Studies indicate
that approximately 10% of otherwise healthy individuals cannot improve their aerobic capacity
with exercise at all. The degree of an individual's responsiveness is highly heritable, suggesting
that this trait is genetically determined.
Higher intensity exercise, such as High-intensity interval training (HIIT), increases
the resting metabolic rate (RMR) in the 24 hours following high intensity exercise, [17] ultimately
burning more calories than lower intensity exercise; low intensity exercise burns more calories
during the exercise, due to the increased duration, but fewer afterwards.
Stair climbing, Elliptical trainer, Indoor rower, Stairmaster, Stationary bicycle, Treadmill
Walking, Cycling, Running, Cross-country skiing, Cross-country running, Nordic walking,
Inline skating
Indoor or Outdoor
Swimming, Kickboxing, Skipping rope or jump rope, Circuit training, Jumping jacks,
Jogging, Water aerobics

Zumba is
a dance fitness program
by Colombian dancer
and choreographer Alberto "Beto" Perez during the 1990s. Zumba is a trademark owned by
Zumba Fitness, LLC. Zumba involves dance and aerobic elements. The choreography
incorporates hip-hop, soca, samba, salsa, merengue and mambo.Squats and lunges are
included. Zumba Fitness, the owner of the Zumba program, does not charge licensing fees to
gyms or fitness centers. Approximately 15 million people take weekly Zumba classes in over
200,000 locations across 180 countries.
In the mid 1990s, Beto Perez forgot his tape of aerobics music for a class he was teaching.
He went to his car, listened to music consisting of non-traditional salsa andmerengue music
and improvised a class using this non-traditional aerobics music. After finding initial success
in Colombia, he moved to the United States in 2001, where he teamed up with cofounder Alberto
Perlman and a childhood friend, COO Alberto Aghion. The trio produced a demo reel, and the
concept was discovered and licensed by a company called Fitness Quest to create a direct
marketing campaign and a line of home videos.
The name "Zumba" has no particular meaning, it was chosen arbitrarily as a brand name.
Zumba classes are typically about an hour long and are taught by instructors licensed by
Zumba Fitness, LLC. The exercises include music with fast and slow rhythms, as well as
styles: cumbia,salsa, merengue, mambo, flamenco, chachacha, reggaeton, soca, samba, hip hop
music, ax music and tango.
There are nine different types of classes for different levels of age and exertion.
Zumba Gold mainly targets the older population. It is specifically designed to the
needs of the elderly and includes the same kind of music as the Zumba fitness party
Zumba Step, the newest Zumba program, tones and strengthens glutes and legs
with a gravity-defying blend of Zumba routines and step aerobics.
Zumba Toning is for the people who do their workouts with toning sticks. Zumba
Toning will target the abs, thighs, arms, and other muscles throughout the body.
Zumba Toning sculpts the body and provides participants with a cardio workout.
Aqua Zumba classes are held in a swimming pool. The instructor leads the class
poolside while participants follow in shallow water. Moves have been specially
adapted to combine the same dance movements used in a Zumba Fitness class with
those used in aqua fitness classes.
Zumba in The Circuit combines dance with circuit training. These classes usually
last 30 minutes and feature strength exercises on various stations in timed

Zumba Kids and Zumba Kids Jr. classes are designed for children between the ages
of 4 and 12. They have the same dance and music styles as regular Zumba classes,
but have routines designed specifically for kids.
Zumba Gold-Toning is a toning class for older participants with goals of improving
one's muscle strength, posture, mobility, and coordination.
Zumba Sentao is a chair workout that focuses on using body weight to strengthen
and tone the body. Zumba instructors have the option to become ZIN Members
(Zumba Instructor Network members) to receive bimonthly training DVDs to assist
with the creation of music and choreography for their personal Zumba classes.
Because Zumba offers different options, proponents of the Zumba program claim that it is
safe for all ages, meaning that anyone from age 0 to 100 can participate in this form of aerobic
exercise. At least some of the classes are specifically aimed at elderly people, to help them build
strength, improve motion and posture, and socialize.

Zumba sold DVDs via infomercials in 2002. In 2005, the Zumba Academy was launched to
license instructors for teaching Zumba classes. In 2007 the company launched a clothing line
called Zumba wear. In July 2012, it released the compilation album Zumba Fitness Dance Party.
More than 10 million DVDs have been sold.
As of 2012, official apparel sales amounted to $10 million per year.
Video games
In 2010 Zumba released its first fitness video game on November 30, 2010. As of August
2011, it has sold 3 million copies.
The Zumba Fitness 2 video game was released in November 2011. A similar game was
released on the Xbox 360 as Zumba Fitness Rush in February 2012.
Zumba Fitness Core was released in October 2012 for the Wii and Xbox 360. The game
includes new features such as nutrition tips and ability to set personal goals.
Most recently, Zumba Fitness: World Party was released on November 5, 2013. That game
features the new World Tour mode that unlocks songs from seven global destinations as you
progress, exposing you to authentic customs, local rhythms and native dance styles.
The game was followed by Zumba Kids on November 19, 2013.
All of the Zo Mode-developed Zumba titles run on Epic Games' Unreal Engine 3.
Zumba Fitness (video game) (2010)
Zumba Fitness 2/Zumba Fitness Rush (2011)/(2012)
Zumba Fitness Core (2012)
Zumba Fitness: World Party (2013)
Zumba Kids (2013)
Charitable Causes
Zumba Fitness has raised millions of dollars for charitable organizations, including Susan
G. Komen, Augie's Quest, World Food Programme, Feeding America and the American Heart

Celebrity trend
Part of the Zumba programs' popularity can be explained by its adoption by
celebrities. Jennifer Lopez, Jackie Chan and Kirstie Alley are known to take Zumba classes. Other
celebrity fans of Zumba include Eva LaRue, Jennifer Love Hewitt, Natalie Portman, Emma
Watson, Victoria Beckham, Halle Berry, Toni Braxton, Nicky Hilton, Shakira and Wyclef Jean.
Kosher Zumba
Kosher Zumba is a trend in Orthodox Jewish circles where woman-only Zumba dances are
performed. Music lyrics containing sexual references are replaced with non-explicit material.