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FLOSPORTS

Editorial Style Guide
(v3.1 – October 2015)






TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1: Introduction
Pages 4-6: Who are we, and what do we do?
Chapter 2: Headlines
Pages 7-9: Best Headline Practices
Chapter 3: Grammar & Punctuation
Page 10: Colons
Page 11-14: Commas
Page 15: Semi-colons
Pages 16-17: Slashes, Dashes, and Apostrophes
Pages 18-19: Quotation Marks, Ellipses
Page 20: Verb Tense and Dangling Modifiers
Page 21: Capitalizing Job Titles
Chapter 4: Abbreviations & Acronyms
Page 22: States and the USA, and Other Abbreviation Rules
Page 23: Uncommon Acronyms
Chapter 5: Numbers, Times, Weights & Measures
Pages 24-25: General Guidelines
Pages 26-28 Sport-Specific Guidelines
Chapter 6: Foreign Words, Titles, Internet Terms, Social Plugs
Page 29: Foreign/Unfamiliar Words
Page 30: Titles of Things
Page 31: The World Wide Web and Social Media Touts

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Chapter 7: Formatting
Page 32: Q&As
Page 33: Boldface Type
Page 34: Subheads
Page 35: People, Places and Parentheses
Pages 36-37: Datelines
Page 38: FloFilms Video Series
Page 39: Photos
Chapter 8: Sport-Specific Style
Page 40: Semifinals and Finals
Page 41: World Championships and Nationals
Page 42: Olympic Trials and Olympic Teams
Page 43: Referring to the 2016 Olympics and The Ceremonies
Chapter 9: Foreign Affairs
Page 44: Foreign Names
Page 45-46: Countries
Chapter 10: Diseases, Disabilities, Disorders:
Pages 47-48: Guidelines and policies
Chapter 11: LGBT:
Pages 49-51: Guidelines and policies
Chapter 12: Profanity:
Page 52: Guidelines and policies


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Chapter 13: Because We Frigging Said So
Pages 53-54: Important grammar, style, syntax rules
Chapter 14: The FloSports “Never Say ‘On a Mission’ Statement”
Pages 55-57: General guidelines, philosophies to be mindful of
Chapter 15: FloSports Lexicon
Pages 58-59: FloTrack/MileSplit Glossary of Terms
Pages 60-61: FloWrestling Glossary of Terms
Pages 62-63: FloGymnastics Glossary of Terms
Pages 64-66: FloElite Glossary of Terms
Pages 67-69: FloSoftball Glossary of Terms
Pages 70-71: FloGrappling Glossary of Terms
Pages 72-75: FloMuscle Glossary of Terms
Pages 76-80: FloCheer Glossary of Terms
Pages 81-84: FloBoxing Glossary of Terms
Chapter 13: Colleges
Pages 85-95: Division 1 schools
Pages 96-105: Division 2 schools
Pages 106-118: Division 3 schools
Pages 119-126: NAIA schools
Pages 127-136: JUCO schools




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CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION
Adhering to and following proper style guidelines is important. It sets the tone for
your editorial work and establishes a consistency in the presentation of content. In
this document, we will spell out how we approach content at FloSports.
Is it life or death important? Depends on who you talk to.

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Who Are We?
FloSports is the badassest sports media company in the land, providing the
compelling coverage that diehard fans of our sports crave on a daily basis. As
members of the content team, your work is the backbone of the company and as
such needs to be of the highest standard. We’ve come up with a couple thousand
or so pages of guidelines, tips and best practices to help make sure everything you
do is bleeping awesome.

What Are We Doing Here?
The Flo way is to create unique content following a few tried and true principles:
• Be immersive: We take our audience inside the sports, behind the
personalities and beyond the scenes of the competition, providing access
and perspective they cannot find elsewhere.
• Provide the inside scoop: Our audience comes to us for our sports
expertise. We showcase our knowledge by speaking in specifics, not
superlatives.
• Look through a different lens: We cover all of our sports from athletes’ and
competitors’ point of view, giving our content a distinctive voice.
• Don’t patronize, contextualize: We speak up to the sport and not down to
it. We are not afraid to get into the nitty-gritty, but make sure it always has
a fresh perspective. Those granular details and specifics we provide are
better than the washed-down versions presented by other media outlets.
• Humanize the athlete: It’s not just about the X’s and O’s, but the stories
behind the men and women, boys and girls that everyone can relate to.
Stick to this winning formula!

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Say My Name!
So a good place to start would be by correctly referring to our sites within articles,
video descriptions, etc. Per the brand style guide, we should capitalize the first
letter of the site and first letter of the sport. Our sites are:









FloTrack
FloWrestling
FloElite
FloSoftball
FloGymnastics
FloGrappling
FloMuscle
FloCheer
FloBoxing
MileSplit

Where this changes is when referring to the site URLs. Those should be in all
lowercase and should not take the URL prefix (http://). Our sites are:









flotrack.org
flowrestling.org
floelite.com
flosoftball.com
flogymnastics.com
flograppling.com
flomuscle.com
flocheer.com
floboxing.com
milesplit.com

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CHAPTER 2 - HEADLINES
Getting A-head In Life
Whether it’s an article, a video or a photo album, the key to getting people to click
on your content is the headline. To quote “The Father of Advertising,” David
Ogilvy: “On the average, five times as many people read the headline as read the
body copy. When you have written your headline, you have spent 80 cents out of
your dollar.” Think of our headlines like movie trailers. They should build
excitement, pique curiosity, illicit an emotional response, and give our audience a
taste of what is to come.
Here are a half-dozen proven ways to get the job done:
Make it short: This is probably the most challenging task. Getting the gist of your
content across doesn’t always require you to be the best writer. Doing that in eight
words or less and 55 characters does require greatness.
Make it clear, not clever: Plays on words and names, turning cute phrases, and
attempts at humor in headlines can often leave your audience guessing about the
relevancy of your content to their search. Clear, direct, and intuitive headlines
have proven to be more effective on the web than the witty headlines that turn up
frequently in print. So save the other stuff for your content and make sure the
headline tells the reader/viewer exactly what the content is poised to deliver. In
other words, caveman it!
Three letters: S-E-O: The bottom-line goal is to attract the most views to the
website, our business, and our product. That means all headlines should be
optimized for search engines. How do we do that?
1)
2)
3)
4)

Begin every headline with primary keywords.
Keep headlines to 55 characters so full headline appears in search results.
Always use full names in headlines. No abbreviations.
Make sure you use primary (i.e. names, staples) and secondary (i.e. events)
keywords within the headline.

Don’t over-think it! Remember, Google doesn’t give a rat’s behind how witty or
funny you are.
Here are some examples of good and bad SEO:

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GOOD SEO

• Headline begins with primary keyword (name of coach)
• Headline includes the full name of the coach
• Headline includes secondary keyword (name of school)
• Primary and secondary keywords are included within the first 100 words
• Headline is less than 55 characters
(The meta description still sucks but that is out of his control)

BAD SEO




Headline doesn't mention any primary or secondary keywords
Headline is vague and not descriptive
No alt text added to the top image
A few grammatical errors

For more in-depth guidelines, consult the SEO cheat sheets.

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Make it relevant: Given that most content today is consumed on the go, our
audience doesn’t have the time to invest in figuring out if a piece of content is
relevant to them. Every headline should convey the main message, letting the
audience judge with a high degree of confidence, whether they will be interested
in clicking our content.
Make it compelling: Gripping headlines should always strive to speak to the
audience’s immediate needs, desires and emotional triggers. Often,
communicating the relevancy of your content is not enough to have online users
click on the link. In order to motivate people to choose our content, it piece must
have a powerful, mouth-watering title that remains true to the spirit of the
content.
Extract the juice: All other things being equal -- headlines are all relevant, clear
and SEO friendly -- the headline that typically generates the most clicks is the one
that uses emotionally stirring words that capture the audience’s attention. You can
dress up your headlines by adding compelling adjectives like: “eye-catching,”
“sizzling,” “compelling,” “magnetic,” “fast,” “simple,” “easy,” or “powerful.”

Think broadly: When writing headlines be mindful about what will appeal to the
most number of visitors. We should cast the widest possible net with our headlines
instead of speaking to only a subset of visitors to the site. Write the article, and
then ask yourself what keywords people would use to search for that article. You
should use that thought process to determine the optimal keywords to include in
the headline.









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CHAPTER 3 – GRAMMAR & PUNCTUATION
Since developing the first form of communication by scribbling on a rock wall with
a charred goat claw 100,000 years ago, man has been chased by the grammar
police, and with good reason. Grammar rules facilitate clear and concise
communication. Errors detract from your intended message. The good news is we
are here to get you back up to speed on everything you learned in school but have
forgotten.

Punctuation Marks
Colon
What is a colon?
It is the part of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum.
Woops, wrong colon.
The colon is actually a punctuation mark that introduces a list, an argument, or
any other element that illustrates, explains, or otherwise strengthens the
sentence preceding the colon. It may also be used in front of dialogue, but in
general, it should be used sparingly to emphasize the sentence immediately
preceding this colon you've heard so much about.

Always capitalize the first word after a colon if it is a question or a complete
sentence. Do not capitalize if it is a list or a sentence fragment.
Here are two examples:
When USA Wrestling was faced with the task of best publicizing the sport
nationwide, it had two options: Give broadcast rights to ESPN, where
tournaments would air on ESPN8 “The Ocho,” or partner with FloSports
and get badass coverage across the board from the FloWrestling team.
Jamaican sprinters Usain Bolt and Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce share the same
ambitions at the 2016 Rio Olympics: beat the piss out the USA and win
third-straight 100m gold medals.

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Comma
What is a comma?
The comma is a punctuation mark customarily used to indicate a brief pause. There
are enough comma usages to bore you into a coma. Seriously, there are only 20
things to remember (good luck!)
1) Use commas to separate words and word groups in a simple series of three or
more items. For example:
Before every competition, Simone Biles eats ham and eggs, orange juice,
coffee, and toast for breakfast.
2) Use commas to separate two adjectives when the adjectives are
interchangeable. For example:
Kyle Dake is a strong, healthy man.
3) Many inexperienced writers run two independent clauses together by using a
comma instead of a period. This results in the dreaded run-on sentence or, more
technically, a comma splice.
Incorrect: Jenny Simpson walked home from the track, she shut the door.

Correct: Jenny Simpson walked home from the track. She shut the door.

Correct: After Jenny Simpson walked home from the track, she shut the
door.

Correct: Jenny Simpson walked home from the track, and she shut the door.

4) In sentences where two independent clauses are joined by connectors such as
and, or, but, etc., put a comma at the end of the first clause.
Incorrect: Andrew Wheating finished his workout and he threw up in a
garbage can.
Correct: Andrew Wheating finished his workout, and he threw up in a
garbage can.

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5) If the subject does not appear in front of the second verb, a comma is generally
unnecessary. For example:
Rich Froning moved quickly but still did not escape the falling bar.
6) Use a comma after certain words that introduce a sentence, such as well, yes,
why, hello, hey, etc. For example:
Why, I can’t believe this!
No, you cannot borrow Ray’s car.
7) Use commas to set off expressions that interrupt the sentence flow
(nevertheless, after all, by the way, on the other hand, however, etc.). For example:
Willie, by the way, is getting very bleary-eyed reading all of this.
8) Use commas to set off the name, nickname, term of endearment, or title of a
person directly addressed. For example:
Will you, Alicia Sacramone, sweep up that spilled chalk for me?

Yes, Becca, I will.

9) Use a comma to separate the day of the month from the year, and—what most
people forget! Always put one after the year, also. For example:
I read about this grammar in The New York Times’ April 1, 2015, edition.
No comma is necessary for just the month and year. For example:
It was an April 2015 article.
10) Use a comma to separate a city from its state, and remember to put one after
the state, also. For example:
Carl Lewis is from the Houston, Texas, area.
11) Traditionally, if a person's name is followed by Sr. or Jr., a comma follows the
last name: Martin Luther King, Jr. This comma is no longer considered mandatory.
However, if a comma does precede Sr. or Jr., another comma must follow the
entire name when it appears midsentence.
Incorrect: Ray Machuca, Jr. is here.

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Correct: Ray Machuca Jr. is here.
Correct: Ray Machuca Jr., is here.
12) Similarly, use commas to enclose degrees or titles used with names. For
example:
Gordon Mack, M.D., is here.
13) When starting a sentence with a dependent clause, use a comma after it. For
example:
If you are not sure what to do, let Martin know now.
But often a comma is unnecessary when the sentence starts with an independent
clause followed by a dependent clause. For example:
Let Martin know now if you are not sure about this.
14) Use commas to set off nonessential words, clauses, and phrases.
Incorrect: Mo Farah who is the two-time Olympic champion kicked my butt.

Correct: Mo Farah, who is the two-time Olympic champion, kicked my butt.

In the preceding example, note the comma after champion. Nonessential words,
clauses, and phrases that occur midsentence must be enclosed by commas. The
closing comma is called an appositive comma. Many writers forget to add this
important comma. Here is an example of the need for an appositive comma with
one or more nouns.
Incorrect: My best friend, Jake Varner won gold.
Correct: My best friend, Jake Varner, won gold.
15) Use commas to introduce or interrupt direct quotations. For example:
McKayla Maroney said, “I don’t care.”

“Why,” Marta Karolyi asked, “don’t you care?”

This rule is optional with one-word quotations. For example:
“She said “Stop!”

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16) If the quotation comes before he said, she wrote, they reported, Dana insisted,
or a similar attribution, end the quoted material with a comma, even if it is only
one word. For example:
"I don't care," she said.
"Stop," she said.
17) Use a comma to separate a statement from a question. For example:
I can go to the Rio Olympics, can’t I?
18) Use a comma to separate contrasting parts of a sentence. For example
That’s my singlet, not yours.
19) Use a comma before and after certain introductory words or terms, such as
namely, that is, i.e., e.g., and for instance, when they are followed by a series of
items. For example:
You may be required to bring many items to work, e.g., pens, paper, laptops,
and portable hard drives.
20) Commas should precede the term etc. and enclose it if it is placed
midsentence. For example:
Cameras, camera bags, memory cards, tripods, etc., are in the storage
cabinet inside the studio.








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Semi-colon
What is a semi-colon?
No, it is not the butt end of a tractor-trailer. The semi-colon is a punctuation mark
that separates major sentence elements. Generally, we advise against using the
semicolon. It's difficult even for veteran writers and editors to use correctly and
many great writers feel it has no place in good writing. But if you must, there are
four basic uses of the semicolon.
1) A semi-colon can be used between two closely related independent clauses,
provided they are not already joined by a coordinating conjunction. For example:
After a long workout, Usain Bolt prefers to recover by drinking two bottles of
Gatorade; Tyson Gay prefers chocolate milk.
2) A semi-colon is used between items in a series or listing containing internal
punctuation, especially parenthetic commas, where the semicolons function as
serial commas. For example:
Olympic stadiums can be found within the following cities: London, England;
Paris, France; Athens, Greece; Barcelona, Spain; Sydney, Australia.
3) A semi-colon is used when a comma replaces a period in a quotation, or when a
quotation otherwise links two independent sentences. For example:
“I don’t need this leotard,” Nastia Liukin said; “you can have it.”
“Is this your jock strap?” Logan Stieber asked; “I found it on Willie’s laptop.”
4) A semi-colon is used between independent clauses linked with a transitional
phrase or a conjunctive verb. This is the least common use so generally don’t worry
about it. But, for laughs, here is an example:
Everyone knows Ray Machuca is the second coming of Jesus Christ; of
course, it will never be proven.



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Slashes and Dashes
In music, there may be one and only one Slash, but in the world of punctuation
there are actually four of them.
Let’s start with the hyphen (right next to the zero on your keyboard).
The hyphen is used to form compound words – usually adjectival compounds
preceding nouns –and as a separator between non-inclusive numbers. For
example:

Ed Ruth is the gold-medal favorite at 86kg

Meb Keflezighi’s social security number is 123-45-6789

Gabby Douglas gave me her digits: 512-867-5309

Next, is the em dash (SHIFT + ALT + the hyphen right next to the zero on your
keyboard).
The em dash is a pretty versatile dude. It is used most often to set up information
that is explanatory or of particular emphasis and can be set off within as sentence
or simply at the end of a sentence. Think of it as an alternative to parentheses or a
colon. For example:
Haile Gebrselassie has won 234 gold medals in his lifetime — only two of
them, in the 10,000m in 1996 and 2000, came at the Olympics — making
him the most successful distance runner in history.
Then, there is the en dash (ALT + the hyphen right next to the zero on your
keyboard).
This guy isn’t used enough. It’s purpose is to connect things like numbers and
words. Think of it this way: if you can replace the word to with a dash in things like
dates, times and scores, then the en dash is what you want to use. For example:

Tervel Diagnev lost in the final, 8–6.

Jesse Owens (1913–1980) is one of the greatest Olympians of all-time.
If you’re from New Jersey, chances are you don’t posses Iowa–style wrestling
skills.

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Finally, there is the backslash. This should be used sparingly and/or not at all. The
best usage for the backslash is in listing out song lyrics. When doing so, make sure
the slash is enclosed by spaces. For example:
“One, two, three and to the fo' / Snoop Doggy Dogg and Dr. Dre are at the
do' / Ready to make an entrance, so back on up / Cause you know we 'bout
had to rip shit up / Gimme the microphone first, so I can bust like a bubble /
Compton and Long Beach together, now you know you in trouble”
Apostrophes
The apostrophe is a punctuation mark that you should make your own. It serves
three purposes:
1) The marking of the omission of one or more letters (as in the contraction of do
not to don't).
2) The marking of possessive case (as in the official's whistle, or in four year's time).
3) The marking by some as plural of written items that are not words (as in minding
one’s P's and Q's).
For our purposes whenever we want to show possession for words ending in s,
always use s’. This breaks the AP style but it is becoming more acceptable. For
example:
Kirani James’ victory in the 400m capped off an impressive London Games.
Generally, you don't use apostrophes to make words or abbreviations plural (e.g.,
CDs, 1970s, hats), but we have a few exceptions.
For example, you can use apostrophes when they help eliminate confusion, which
happens most often with single letters. Mind your p's and q's is the typical spelling,
and we write that the word aardvark has 3 a's, not 3 as.
Dos and don'ts is an especially unusual exception. The apostrophe in the
contraction don't seems to make people want to use an apostrophe to make do
plural (do's and don'ts), but then to be consistent, you'd also have to use an
apostrophe to make don't plural, which becomes downright ugly (do's and don't's).
However, in this case ugly happens to be correct so that is what we’re going with.

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Quotation marks
You know what these are for, right? For quotes, and stuff. They’re also for some
titles. Let’s go over the rules for proper usage.
1) Use double quotation marks to set off a direct (word-for-word) quotation.
Incorrect: Logan Massa asked “when I would interview him.”
Correct: “When the hell are you going to interview me,” Logan Massa asked.
2) Quotation marks are customary for titles of magazines, books, plays, films,
songs, poems, article titles, chapter titles, etc. For example:
Ryan Hall told “The New York Times” he is not a religious fanatic.
Meb Keflezighi is promoting his new book, “Meb For Mortals.”
3) Periods and commas always go inside quotation marks. For example:
Ray said, “That should be an article.” Then he said, “Make it a video,” then,
“Make it a varticle,” then, “Make it premium,” all within one minute.
Joe yelled, “What the hell!”
4) Use single quotation marks for quotations within quotations. For example:
Ryan Bailey said, “After I gave the throat slash, Usain Bolt whispered in my
ear, ‘Next time, I am taking your ass out!’”
Note that the exclamation point (or period) would go inside both the single and
double quotation marks.
5) Quotation marks are often used with technical terms, terms used in an unusual
way, or other expressions that vary from standard usage. For example:
Periods of fast running intermixed with periods of slower running during
interval training are also known as “fartleks.”
Marion Jones did some “experimenting” with performance enhancers during
her career.
No athlete wants a 4 am visit from his or her “friends” at WADA.

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6) When quoted material runs more than one paragraph, start each new paragraph
with opening quotation marks, but do not use closing quotation marks until the
end of the passage. For example:
Justin Gatlin said, "I don't try and convince people I am a clean athlete
anymore. For a while, I thought everyone would just give me the benefit of
the doubt, but all I seem to get is hatred at every turn.
"Now, I don't even try."
7) Use quotation marks when referring to words or letters as words or letters.
Confused? Don’t be. For example:

Jordan Burroughs doesn’t know the meaning of the word “quit.”

The letter “L” is not in Alicia Sacramone’s vocabulary

Ellipses
An ellipsis is a set of three periods indicating an omission of some kind. There
should be no space between the periods, and a single space after and before the
next sentence.
An ellipsis can be used to represent a trailing off of thought. For example:

If only she had… Oh, it doesn’t matter now.

An ellipsis can also indicate hesitation, though in this case the punctuation is more
accurately described as suspension points. For example:

I wasn’t really… well, what I mean… see, the thing is… I didn’t mean it.

Don't start a sentence with an ellipsis, even if the first part of the original sentence
is left out. Not even in dialogue.
Don't use ellipses in direct quotes unless absolutely necessary.




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Verb Tense
1) Says vs. Said: When quoting someone, always put the name of the person first,
then the word "says" or "said." For example:

"I trained very hard for that moment," Hoffa says.
"We'll win the World Championships," Karolyi said.

2) Use past tense when writing text accompanying headlines, and
stories/slideshows recapping competitions.

Dangling modifiers
Modifiers are words, phrases, or clauses that add description. In clear, logical
sentences, you will often find modifiers right next to—either in front of or
behind—the target words they logically describe. Sometimes, however, an
inexperienced writer will include a modifier but forget the target. The modifier
thus dangles because the missing target word leaves nothing for the modifier to
describe. Dangling modifiers are errors. Their poor construction confuses readers.
For example:
Incorrect: Hungry, Tuesday’s leftover lunch was devoured by the FloSports
engineering department.
Correct: Horrified, Martin snatched the last taco from Mark, whose fingers
were covered in tomato sauce.








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Capitalizing Job Titles
With capitalization of job titles, there are rules and then there is the “rule.” The
rules are based on some precedent while the “rule” is based on ego. Let’s go over
the rules that have precedent first.
Rule: Capitalize job titles immediately preceding the name when used as
part of the name.
Example: We asked President Obama why he likes basketball more than
wrestling, track or gymnastics.
Rule: Titles immediately following the name do not ordinarily require
capitalization.
Examples:
Martin Floreani, chief executive officer, will join us in the content meeting.
Joe Battaglia, director of content for FloSports, wrote this behemoth of a
style guide.
Rule: When the appears in front of the job title, do not capitalize.
Example:
Mr. Machuca, the chief creative officer, helped draft the style guide.
Rule: Capitalize titles in signature lines.
Examples:
Mark Floreani, Chief Operations Officer
Ray Bennett, Chief Technical Officer
Rule: Do not capitalize titles when used descriptively.
Example: Mr. Floreani, who will chair the meeting, is always on time.
“Rule”: The “ego rule” is that you may have to ignore the above rules in real life. If
someone at FloSports (as in your boss) wants his or her title capitalized in all
situations, then do so. Generally, the higher in rank someone is in an organization,
the more likely his or her title will be capitalized at all times.




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CHAPTER 4 – ABBREVIATIONS & ACRONYMS
States and the USA
In general, acronyms do not take periods, but abbreviations sometimes do. For
example:

Alcoholics Anonymous should be abbreviated A.A.

Central Intelligence Agency should be abbreviated CIA

State, city, and country abbreviations do not take periods. For example:

New Jersey should be abbreviated NJ

New York City should be abbreviated NYC

United States should be abbreviated US

Don't abbreviate days of the week. Use the word "on" prior to a day (or date) when its
absence would lead to confusion. Also, a good but not strict rule is to add "on" before a
day when that day follows an upper-case word. For example:
Their rematch will be Monday.
Gardner defeated Karelin on Wednesday.
At the Olympic Trials on Thursday, Tyson Gay was never challenged.

Other abbreviation rules to follow
Internet abbreviations are in all-caps: (LOL, LOLZ, ICYMI, etc.)
Time: It’s AM and PM, all-caps, no periods.
Names: Some get periods (E.B. White, C.S. Elliott) others do not (JFK, FDR).
Degrees: Caps, no periods (BA, PhD, etc.)
Addresses: In most cases, write them out (42nd Street, Fifth Avenue) unless in a
headline where space is prized at the expense of style.
Other common A&As: DJ, DJs, MCs, CD, CDs, LP, LPs, EP, EPs (never emcee or Dee
Jay), GIF, JPEG, MP3, OD'd.

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Uncommon acronyms
Uncommon acronyms, like those of international and national governing bodies,
should always be contextualized.
IOC: Spell this out on first references, with (IOC) in parentheses, then use IOC from
that point forward. For example:
Yesterday, International Olympic Committee (IOC) president Thomas
Bach said the IOC would have a verdict by Friday.
LOCOG: Treat this the same way as IOC. For example:
Two-time Olympic champion Sebastian Coe was the Chair of the
London Organizing Committee (LOCOG).
USOC: Call it the "U.S. Olympic Committee (USOC)" on first reference, then USOC
thereafter.
UWW, IAAF, FIG and other governing bodies: Rarely should you need to write
these out (especially those whose acronyms are based on French words). But on
first reference, explain what they are. For example:
UWW, wrestling's international governing body, approved of the use of fight
shorts for the 2015 World Championships. Some feel UWW should ban their
use at the Rio Olympics, however.
According to rules established by the FIG, which governs international
gymnastics, Ran Cheng should be disqualified.







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CHAPTER 5 – NUMBERS, TIMES, WEIGHTS & MEASURES
General Guidelines
When it comes to numbers, the most basic of rules to follow are:

1) Spell out all numbers from zero through nine. Once you get to ten, I mean 10,
then start using numerals.
2) Always spell out a number if it is the first word of a sentence.
3) Numerals go before percentages and figures bigger than 999,999. For example:
There are 5 million pages in this style guide, but you’ll probably only read 2
percent of them.
The one exception is for fractions of millions, billions, etc. For example:
• Half a million.
• Two-thirds of a million.
4) When it comes to ages, they should be written out like this:



A three-year-old
A three-year-old kid
A group of three- to five-year-old kids
The kid was three years old.

5) Years and decades should be written out like this:



Correct: The 1980s
Correct: The 80s
Correct: 1980
Incorrect: The 80's, '80s or 80

6) When writing out times of the day using AM / PM, always use numerals. For
example:
The content meeting begins at 10 AM sharp.
If using o'clock, always spell out, but do this sparingly. For example:

24

The content meeting begins at nine o’clock.
7) When writing out dates, never use a suffix on a number for a date, unless
you're spelling the whole thing out. For example:
On March 13, FloSports will be hosting the biggest youth wrestling
tournament in America, featuring 15,000 athletes competing on 75 mats.
NEVER use th, rd, st. Using th with centuries is the only time we do it. For example:
Correct: Carl Lewis was one of the winningest Olympians of the 20th century.
Incorrect: Carl Lewis ranks 1st on the list of most decorated athletes in the
last 50 years.
8) When writing out percentages, spell out the word percent in 99 percent of cases,
but use numerals for the actual number. For example:
Only 14 percent of FloSports employees believe in aliens.
9) In text, most simple fractions are spelled out: one third, two thirds, three
fourths, etc. Hyphenate when using them as modifiers. For example:
After two beers at the FloSports Christmas party, he was three-fourths in the
bag.
10) When referencing currency, always use numerals for money. For example:
• What’s rarer than a $2 bill?
• You can get into the Beer Mile if you buy a $20 ticket.
• I spent $29.99 on an “I Love FloElite” t-shirt.
An exception to this rule is a dollar, which is preferable written out as opposed to $1.
11) Calibers of weapons are written like this:
• .44-caliber revolver
• 9mm
• 5.56mm


25

Sports-specific Guidelines
1) When dealing with events with meter or meters in their titles, don't follow the
AP style, which calls for 200-meter butterfly on first reference and then 200
thereafter. Instead, put a lower-case "m" after a distance (at all times, even after
first reference). For events in kilometers, use "km." When using “K” capitalize the
letter. For example:
Usain Bolt is the defending 100m champion.
Sally Pearson won Olympic gold in the 100m hurdles in 2008.
LaShawn Merritt smoked Kirani James in the 400m final.
Allyson Felix has no chance at beating Jenny Simpson in the 1500m.
The men's 20km walk is a competition to see who can whisper the
loudest.
Ryan Hall needs to get into next weekend’s 10K in New York.
2) Don't use commas for four-digit distances (i.e. 1500m, 5000m). Use a comma for
10,000m.
3) When not referring to a specific race or event, write out the word "meters." For
example:
With 250 meters to go, Grant Fisher was in third place.

4) When referring to heights and lengths in copy, always give the metric
measurement first (with no space between the number and "m"), followed by a
backslash and then the conversion. For example:
The world record in the men's long jump is 8.95m/29-2 1/2.

5) When not referring to a specific result, write "meter" or "centimeter" or
whatever. Example:
With her final clearance of 4.75m/15-7, Yelena Isinbayeva improved her
Russian record by 3 centimeters.

26

6) When using height to describe how tall a person is, spell out the first reference,
then use just numbers thereafter. Example:

At 7-foot-6, Yao Ming is an imposing figure. He must have been 6-4 upon
birth.
7) When writing out times in results, never write out the first result, to show hours,
minutes, seconds. Always use numerals. Note that with times of 60 minutes or
longer, the hours, minutes and seconds are separated by colons; if fractions of a
second are given, they would be separated, as usual, by a decimal point. For
example:
Incorrect: Bernard Lagat won the men's 1500m in 3 minutes, 32.99
seconds.
Correct: Bernard Lagat won the men's 1500m in 3:32.99.
Incorrect: Abebe Bikila won the men's marathon in 2 hours, 12
minutes, 11.2 seconds.
Correct: Abebe Bikila won the men’s marathon in 2:12:11.2.
8) When noting times of less than one second, use the number with a decimal
point and then add "of a second." Never write out the fractions. For example:

Incorrect: Usain Bolt edged Justin Gatlin by three-hundredths of a second.
Correct: Usain Bolt edged Justin Gatlin by .03 of a second.

9) If there is a name assigned to a weight class, always list the kg first and put the
lbs conversion details in parentheses. For example:
The men’s 56kg (123 lbs) division is wide open.
Kyle Dake is the gold-medal favorite at 60kg (132 lbs).
10) When writing out scores and times in games, we should follow the AP style
guide. For example:
• The U.S. won 110-67.
• The U.S. won easily, 110-67.
• The final score was U.S. 110, China 67.

27




Hall upset Valencia 1-0 in overtime.
Cameroon went ahead 3-2 on a penalty kick.
Houston led 97-95 with five seconds left.
Houston led 97-95 with 5.7 seconds left.

28

CHAPTER 6 – FOREIGN WORDS, TITLES, INTERNET TERMS
Foreign/Unfamiliar Words
We’re all American here, for the most part, but not everyone we write about is. So
what do we do when our subjects start speaking in tongues? Don’t sweat it, we’ve
got you covered.
Do not italicize foreign words like déjà vu, in utero, gelato, bandito, adios, etc.
Unfamiliar words are italicized only the first time they appear in an article. For
example:
Before she won the Tokyo Marathon, Mizuki Noguchi’s father threw her out
of the house for being a kogal girl, a rebellious teen of sorts. Kogal girls like
Noguchi standout in a crowd by wearing outlandish socks.
Translations of foreign words go in brackets and quotes when directly following
the foreign word. For example:
The shabiha [“thug” in Arabic] was arrested for stabbing an Ethiopian tourist
outside the national stadium before the Diamond League meet in Doha.











29

Titles Of Things
Use italics for:















Video games (but not tabletop games)
Publications
Movies
TV shows
Radio shows
Works of art
Art gallery exhibitions
Museum exhibitions
Art projects consisting of multiple works
Album titles
Ships
Spaceships
Comic book series/graphic novels
Comic strips
Videos (unless it's a music video for a single song, then quotes)
Published reports

Use quotation marks for:
• Song titles
• TV-show episode titles
• Poems
• Short stories
• Individual comic book stories

When writing about book/TV/movie trilogies and series, as a collection, (i.e. the
Harry Potter books or Star Wars Trilogy) are not in italics or in quotes. They are
left in roman. The individual titles within the series, get the appropriate
italic/quotation treatment, however. For example:
Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope“Harry Potter and the Chamber of
Secrets”



30

The World Wide Web

The FloSports preference is to spell internet with a lowercase i. Most places
spell it with a capital I but that’s because they are pretentious jerks run by a
bunch of old fuddy-duddies who think that the internet is just a fad like
women's rights.

Blog and website names are not in quotes or italicized, and never take URL
prefixes. For example:
• Incorrect: http://www.letsrun.com
• Incorrect: www.letsrun.com
• Correct: letsrun.com

A handful of websites are actually becoming legitimate, respected news outlets;
some might even call them "online magazines." On a case-by-case basis, we will
italicize those. On a case-by-case basis, we will italicize those. Huffington Post is
a good example of one that should get the italicized treatment.

Social Media Touts

If you want to plug your social media accounts, do so at the end of the articles
and in italics, since the tout is an editorial note. The lone exception here would
be posting Race Results Weekly articles as we are contractually obligated to link
to their site/Twitter handles at the top of articles.

When plugging social media accounts, please refrain from the following:
• Follow Joe Battaglia on Twitter: @joebattaglia75
• Follow @joebattaglia75
• @joebattaglia75

Instead, the plug should take the form of a full sentence with a full stop, should
avoid using a clunky URL or Twitter handle, and should hyperlink the website
being mentioned. For example:

Follow Joe Battaglia on Twitter

31

CHAPTER 7 - FORMATTING
Q&As
The correct formatting for written Q&As is for the introduction paragraph(s) to
appear in italics, questions to be in bold type, and answers to be in plain type.
The first question in the Q&A should be preceded by the name of the site
conducting the interview. The first answer in the Q&A should be preceded by the
name of the person providing the answer. All subsequent questions and answers
do not need the site name or the subject’s name. For example:
Two-time world champion Simone Biles participated in an interview this afternoon
to discuss her experience at the recent World Championships.
After winning her second consecutive title in Naning, China, she became the first US
woman to win back-to-back all-around titles since Shannon Miller, who win in 1993
and 1994.
Last evening, Biles was named the Women’s Sports Foundation’s 2014 Individual
Sportswoman of the Year at the organization’s annual gala in New York City. We
caught up with her on the phone after the event.
FloGymnastics: Can you tell us a little bit about winning the Women’s Sports
Foundation’s 2014 Individual Sportswoman of the Year award and what it was
like at the gala?
Simone Biles: Last night was a very fun night for me because there were so many
talented athletes that I got to meet. Winning the award meant a lot to me because
I’ve done a lot throughout the year to get better. It made me feel good about my
accomplishments over the last 12 months. It’s an honor.
What is your favorite memory from Naning outside of the gym?
My favorite memories were going to the mall, which they said was five-times
bigger than any mall in the United States, and then later that night hitting up all of
the street food vendors. Marta Karolyi dared me to eat scorpions on a stick and I
did it. They were crunchy, but I don’t think I will ever do that again.

32

Boldface type
It has become a widespread practice to use boldface type to highlight the names of
athletes and coaches within articles, particularly longer recaps and features. For
example:

While this practice has its visual benefits, it can also be quite confusing as readers could
be looking for those bolded names to hyperlink to a bio page or another piece of
content.
Unless you are hyperlinking a name within an article, it should NEVER be in bold face
type.

Subheads
Including subheads in running text is a great way to attract and hold your reader’s
interest and improve SEO. Subheads serve to preview and highlight the content by
dividing it into readable chunks, making the text more inviting to scan and peruse
selectively, especially for the hurried or restless reader. For example:

The text should never just be a bolded version of the article text set off by end
paragraphs. You should go into the source coding and apply the subhead coding to
distinguish this from the other text. For example:
<h2>A Season, Interrupted</h2>

34

People and places in parentheses
While our sports communities are tight and may seem small, it is indeed a big world that
we live in. That said, it is probable, even likely, that not everyone knows whom everyone
is or where they are from. Being mindful of that fact is important.
We should always strive to provide this information and context within our previews,
features and recaps, but need to do so in a fashion organic to the flow of the piece.
Parenthetical references, especially when used frequently, are choppy and break up the
flow of text. Here are some examples of what to do and not to do:
Incorrect: Edward Cheserek (Newark, NJ) is the leading 5000m runner in America.
Correct: Edward Cheserek is the leading 5000m runner in America. The Newark,
NJ-native has broken 13 minutes six times in seven races this season.
The one exception to this rule would be lists of performances, where parenthetical
listing of an athlete’s origin is acceptable.











35

Datelines
Speaking of faces in places, in journalism datelines are simply a line of text providing the
place of origin of a news dispatch or the like. In sports writing, datelines allow the
reader to know that the article, feature, or recap was written onsite.
Whenever you are traveling to an event, a video shoot, or anywhere outside of
FloSports HQ and are posting written content, your article must use a dateline. Similar
articles written from HQ do not need to include a dateline because the whole world
knows we are located in Austin, Texas.
There is one exception to this rule, however. Please use an Austin dateline when writing
or posting press releases, because we do not know where the press release will
ultimately appear.
Datelines on stories should contain a city name, entirely in capital letters, followed in
most cases by the name of the state, county, or territory where the city is located, and
an em dash (SHIFT + ALT + the hyphen right next to the zero on your keyboard). For
example:
NEW YORK — Sparked by a surge over the final 500 meters, Wilson Kipsang
pulled away from Dennis Kimetto to win his second straight TCS New York City
Marathon on Sunday.
Some cities are so widely known that they are capable of standing alone, without the
name of a state or country for additional reference. The FloSports lists of stand-alone
datelines:







36

Domestic Stand-Alone Cities International Stand-Alone Cities
Atlanta
Atlantic City

Miami
Milwaukee

Austin
Baltimore
Beverly Hills
Boston
Boulder
Chicago

Minneapolis
Nashville
New Orleans
New York
Oakland
Oklahoma City

Chula Vista
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Colorado Springs

Orlando
Palo Alto
Philadelphia
Phoenix

Dallas
Denver
Detroit
Eugene
Flagstaff
Honolulu
Houston
Indianapolis
Iowa City
Jersey City
Las Vegas
Lehigh

Pittsburgh
Providence
Sacramento
St. Louis
Salt Lake City
San Antonio
San Diego
San Francisco
Santa Fe
Savannah
Scottsdale
Seattle

Los Angeles
Mammoth Lakes
Memphis

Stillwater
Tucson
Washington D.C.

Addis Ababa Havana
Algiers
Hong Kong

Oslo
Ottawa
Panama
Amsterdam Istanbul
City
Athens
Iten
Paris
Bangkok
Jerusalem
Pyongyang
Barcelona
Johannesburg Prague
Beirut
Kabul
Provence
Bogota
Kiev
Quebec City
Rio de
Beijing
Kingston
Janeiro
Berlin
Kuwait City
Rome
Brussels
Kyoto
Sicily
Budapest
London
Sau Paulo
Buenos
St.
Aires
Luxembourg Petersburg
Cairo
Macau
Seoul
Copenhagen Madrid
Seville
Delhi
Marrakech
Singapore
Djibouti
Melbourne
Stockholm
Doha
Mexico City
Sydney
Dublin
Milan
Tehran
Edinburgh
Monaco
Tokyo
Florence
Montreal
Toronto
Frankfurt
Moscow
Vatican City
Geneva
Mumbai
Venice
Gibraltar
Munich
Vienna
Guatemala
City
Nairobi

Hamburg
New Delhi


37

FloFilms Video Series
In an effort to create cleaner presentation on the websites, you should follow a
standard procedure when posting premium video to the site. Use the following
examples as guideline:
[Name of series]: [Name of episode] – (Episode)
For example:
The Mind Of Mark Schultz: The Return – (Episode 1)
Driven Kara Goucher: Motherhood And The Marathon – (Episode 2)
Documentary series trailers should follow this naming guideline:
[Name of series]: [Name of subject] (The Trailer)
For example:
All Access: Jesolo (Trailer)
SAM DANCER: The Power Of Love (Trailer)











38

Photos
On our new 2.0 sites, the required dimension for all photos is 16:9 ratio. That includes flashes,
banners and thumbnails. To help you choose the optimal, high-resolution image for your
content, please consult this chart:

39

CHAPTER 8 – Sports Specific Style
Semifinals and Finals
1) When referring to the stage of competition prior to the final, use the plural form:
semifinals. When referring to a specific race or game or match within that stage before
the final, use the singular form: semifinal. As an adjective, it's always semifinal. For
example:
The U.S. will need a win over Italy to reach the men's volleyball semifinals.
In the first semifinal, the U.S. crushed Iraq, 24-0.
David Rudisha cruised to victory in his semifinal heat, clocking 1:42.76.
2) Final is always singular, unless multiple finals are being referred to. For example:
Jordan Burroughs will be the overwhelming favorite in tonight's 74kg final.
The U.S. has reached three consecutive men's 4x400m finals.
The women’s 5000m final was run in a steady downpour.
3) When referring to Round of 16 or specific medal match, capitalize Round of 16 as well
as Gold Medal Match or Game.








40

World Championships
1) When referring to a specific year, upper-case both words (or the abbreviation
"Worlds.") even if you're not using the exact, official name for the event. When using
the term more broadly, lower-case both words (and don't use the "worlds" shorthand).
For example:
He finished fifth at the 2013 Track and Field World Championships.
At the 2001 Worlds, she took gold on balance beam and floor.
He has performed poorly at the past three world championships.
ADJECTIVE: His world championship results have not been good.
2) It's always "world champion" (never upper-case). While acceptable, it's better not to
say someone won a world championship (or three world championships, or whatever).
Say world title. It’s less confusing. For example:
He's a five-time world champion in the 800m.
He's won five world titles.
He was crowned world champion in 2009.
Nationals
1) Unless you're using the official name of an event, and it says "National
Championships," you can almost always just go with Nationals. If it's clear that the
subject is American, don't bother adding "U.S." when naming the event (again, unless
you're using the official name). Follow the general principle laid out in Part V above:
upper-case Nationals when referring to a specific event, otherwise it's lower-case. Same
would apply for “Regional Championships.” That can be shortened to Regionals. Always
capitalize Nationals and Regionals. For example:
He hasn't been the same since breaking his leg at the 2002 Regionals.
At his past five Nationals, he's amassed 16 silver medals.
2) Always go with "national team" or "national champion."

41

Olympic Trials
Always upper-case both words. Most of the time, you won't need to include the sport
within the title, because the sport will be implicit in the context. If you've established
the term Olympic Trials, you can get away with omitting "Olympic." For example:
At the upcoming Olympic Trials, he will run the 200m, 400m, 4x100m and
4x400m.
At the 2012 Trials, she placed fifth.
He has competed at four Olympic Trials, but never qualified for the Games.

Olympic Teams
This is a judgment call: When it sounds big-picture and official, upper-case both words.
When it's referring to a specific sport, lower-case "team." For example:

The 2012 U.S. Olympic Team features 112 athletes from California.

With the victory, Amy Acuff earned a spot on her fifth Olympic track team.
USA Gymnastics Head Coach Martha Karolyi…
U.S. track assistant coach Jon Drummond…

42

Referring to the 2016 Olympics
1) The word "Olympics" and the term "Olympic Games" are plural nouns. When it
sounds awkward (i.e., "These will be Bolt’s third Olympics."), figure out a different way
to say the same thing (i.e. "Bolt is now a three-time Olympian."). For example:

The 2016 Olympics are scheduled to open Aug. 5.
The Olympic Games were revived in 1896.
The Olympics last 19 days, including soccer games prior to the Opening
Ceremony.

2) Do NOT use the word "Olympiad" as a synonym for "Olympics." An Olympiad is the
four-year period between Olympics. Also try not to say "Summer Games," though in
certain circumstances, it is acceptable. Here are various ways to refer to the sporting
event in Rio:





The 2016 Olympics
The 2016 Olympic Games
The 2016 Rio Olympics
The 2016 Rio Games
The Games of the XXXI Olympiad (not the Games of the 31st Olympiad)
The 2016 Games

The Ceremonies
1) There is an Opening Ceremony and a Closing Ceremony. DO NOT PLURALIZE, unless
referring to them together. For example:
The Opening Ceremony includes pageantry, ritual and the Parade of Nations. The
Closing Ceremony is more of a giant party.

The Opening and Closing Ceremonies were spectacular.

43

CHAPTER 9 – FOREIGN AFFAIRS
In this section, we will deal with all of the confusing and intricate elements and
guidelines dealing with international names and countries.
Foreign Names
1) Brazilian: Many athletes from Brazil – especially soccer and volleyball players – are
referred to only by their first names (i.e. Marta). This is permissible in all cases.
2) Chinese: Proper names are written and spoken with the family name (or "last" name),
then given name (or "first" name). For an athlete named Fu Mingxia, her family name is
Fu. Her given name is Mingxia. She should be referred to as “Fu Mingxia” on first
reference, and “Fu” thereafter.
3) German: We will not use "umlauts." Where they exist, add an "e" after the vowel
taking the mark. For instance: instead of Xeno Müller, we would write Xeno Mueller.
4) Korean: Same as Chinese. In Kim Young-Sam and Park Seh-Jik, Kim and Park are the
family names. They should be called “Kim Young-Sam” and “Park Seh-Jik” on first
reference, and “Kim” and “Park” thereafter. Use a hyphen between a Korean’s two
given names, capitalizing the second one. There is no standard procedure; other
systems may differ.
5) Russian. There is not a universally accepted, glitch-free transliteration system for
turning names based on the Cyrillic alphabet into names based on the Roman alphabet.
There inevitably will be inconsistencies on our sites, but we should try to minimize
them.
6) Spanish. Spanish names often appear in three- or four-name forms. When two
surnames are listed, the first represents the surname of the person’s father, and the
second represents the surname of the person’s mother. When there are two given
names listed, use only the first. Except in special cases of pre-established familiarity (i.e.
Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario), always follow the pattern of these examples:

Cacho Ruiz, Fermin (ESP): Fermin Cacho

Servin Ortiz, Maria Luisa (MEX): Maria Servin

44

Countries
1) Former Soviet Republics: Today, minority populations of ethnic Russians exist in
every former Soviet republic. For example, gymnast Ivan Ivankov, who competed for
Belarus, is ethnically Russian. When referring to such athletes as Belarusian, Ukrainian,
etc., keep in mind that there are such because they are representing that country, not
necessarily because they are descendants of ethnically Belarusian, Ukrainian, etc.,
people.
2) Former Yugoslavia: Before disintegrating in the early 1990s, Yugoslavia consisted of
six republics: Slovenia (SLO); Croatia (CRO); Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH); Macedonia
(MKD); Serbia; and Montenegro.
3) Czech Republic (CZE) and Slovakia (SVK): Athletes from the Czech Republic are
Czechs. Those from Slovakia are Slovaks.
4) South Korea (KOR) and North Korea (PRK): You will encounter situations where
"Korea" is used when "South Korea" is meant. Never write "Korea" or "Korean" without
a South or North in front of it. South Korea is officially the Republic of Korea. North
Korea is officially the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, but we won't be official.
Shortening N. Korea or S. Korea in headlines is acceptable.
5. Germany (GER): All athletes from Germany should be referred to as “German,”
regardless of having been born and raised in East or West Germany. In differentiating
between the former countries, the German Democratic Republic (GDR) refers to the
eastern half of Germany that came under the control of the Soviet Union at the end of
World War II. Americans refer to it as “East Germany.” It called itself the Deutsche
Demokratische Republik, or DDR for short, which translates as GDR. The Federal
Republic of Germany (FRG), or the Bundesrepublik Deutschland, was the western part of
Germany occupied by the British, French and American armies after World War II. It was
widely known as “West Germany” before reunification. Today, a united Germany is
officially known as the Federal Republic of Germany (country code: GER).
6. The People’s Republic of China (CHN) and Chinese Taipei (TPE): In the late 1940s, a
civil war erupted in China. By 1949, Mao Zedong’s communist forces had driven Chiang
Kai-Shek’s Nationalists onto the island of Taiwan (formerly Formosa), where the city of
Taipei became the capital of the Republic of China. That same year, Mao proclaimed the
establishment of the People’s Republic of China. Almost immediately, the Olympics had

45

a problem. The People’s Republic of China sent one swimmer to the 1952 Olympics, but
refused to attend the 1956 Games when a Taiwanese delegation was recognized. The
People’s Republic would not appear in the Olympics again until 1984, following the
resolution of the name issue. In 1981, the IOC decided to award the code CHN to the
People’s Republic of China and TPE to Chinese Taipei. Furthermore, the IOC ruled that
Taipei must appear under the flag of its National Olympic Committee while the People’s
Republic of China could appear under its national flag. For Samaranch and the IOC, it
was a simple solution meant to placate the People’s Republic of China. Though deeply
embarrassing to the Republic of China, it has accepted the move. Where possible, then,
the IOC designations of “People’s Republic of China,” or simply “China,” and “Chinese
Taipei” should be used. The IOC abbreviations CHN and TPE should always be used.
7) It's Ukraine (not the Ukraine). It's Russia (not Russian Federation). It's United States
(not United States of America).
8) Try not to use Holland as a synonym for the Netherlands (unless it's in a quote).













46

CHAPTER 10 – DISEASE, DISABILITY, DISORDERS
Below are some guidelines for proper referencing of diseases, disabilities, disorders, and
mental health conditions that might crossover into our human-interest pieces.
Autism: Use the phrasing “autistic person” rather than “person with autism” unless
it appears in a direct quote.
Disability: In general, do not describe an individual as disabled or handicapped
unless it is clearly pertinent to a story. Remember, we speak in specifics. For
example:
• Incorrect: Tatyana McFadden is arguably the top disabled athlete in the world.
• Correct: Tatyana McFadden, who was born with Spina Bifida, is arguably the top
Paralympian in the world.
Other things to keep in mind when referencing disorders:
• Use people-first language. For example, “people with disabilities,” not, “disabled
people.”
• Never use “mentally retarded.” Preferred alternatives would be mentally
disabled, developmentally disabled, or intellectually disabled.
• Use “wheelchair user” rather than “confined to a wheelchair” or “wheelchairbound.” Again, if known/when possible, say specifically why a wheelchair is
used.
• The lowercase “deaf” refers to someone with no hearing. The capitalized
“Deaf” is used by members of the Deaf community in relation to identity and
culture. Avoid using “hearing-impaired.” The preferred alternatives would be
“hard of hearing” or “partially deaf.”
• Do not use the term “deaf-mute.” The preferred alternative would be to say
that an individual cannot hear or speak. A mute person may actually not be
deaf.
• The term “sign language” is lowercase, but capitalize American Sign Language
(ASL on second reference). Someone who communicates in sign language is a
signer, lowercase.

47

Disease: Avoid using expressions such as “He is battling cancer,” or, “She is a stroke
victim. Instead, use neutral phrasing such as, “He has Stage 4 colon cancer,” or, “She is a
stroke patient.”
Mental Health: Never use “bipolar” or “OCD” in non-clinical senses. Never describe an
individual as being “mentally ill” unless it is absolutely pertinent to the story. “Mental
illness” is permissible as a general term, but specifics should be used in all cases when
possible. Also, never use the term “the mentally ill.”
Little People/Dwarfism: Use the term “little person” when referring to someone of
short stature. Use “dwarfism” only if referring to the medical condition. Per personfirst guidelines, use “person with dwarfism” rather than “dwarf.” Never use the
word “midget.” Some people prefer “short stature” instead of “little person.” When
possible, ask the person which term is suitable.














48

CHAPTER 11 – LGBT
Below are some guidelines for proper practices in referencing sensitive lesbian, gay,
bisexual and transgender topics.
The LGBT Community: When referring to the broader community, “queer” (as in
“queer people” or “LGBT” as in “LGBT people”) is appropriate. “Gay” is not. “LGBT” is
only appropriate when referring to the broader community or groups of people, not
when referring to individuals.

Discrimination: When covering this topic, use “anti-gay” rather than “homophobic”
and “anti-trans” instead of “transphobic.”

Identification: Unless you already know based on research, it should be standard to
ask how people identify themselves: gay, bisexual, genderqueer, queer, trans, etc. A
person can be trans WITHOUT also being gay or lesbian. Don’t assume.

Marriage: Use “marriage equality” and “same-sex marriage” rather than “gay
marriage.” When reporting on legal issues, it is more accurate to refer to “same-sex
couples’ marriage rights” or something similar rather than “same-sex marriage.”
“Same-Sex Marriage” is permissible in headlines for space and clarity
considerations.

Openly vs. out: “Openly” is preferred over “out” as a modifying phrase. For example
“openly gay” or “openly trans.” The terms can be used interchangeably, but be
mindful, however, of whether a modifier is necessary given a story’s or sentence’s
context. Sometimes, using it may be redundant.

Pronouns: Always defer to the pronouns a person chooses to use for himself /
herself / themselves. When doing interviews, it’s not rude to ask them for their
preferred pronoun. Most times, you’ll find it to be encouraged. If it is not possible to
ask a transgender person which pronoun he or she prefers, use the pronoun that is
consistent with that person’s appearance and gender expression.

Transgender terms: The following are clarifications of terms specific to the
transgender community:

• Transgender: An overarching adjective for people whose gender identity
and/or gender expression differs from the sex they were assigned at birth.

• Transsexual: An older term (NOT overarching), which originated in the
medical and psychological communities. While some transsexual people still

49

prefer to use the term to describe themselves, many transgender people
prefer the term transgender to transsexual.
• Cross-dressing: To occasionally wear clothes traditionally associated with
people of the other sex. “Cross-dresser” should NOT be used to describe
someone who has transitioned to live full-time as the other sex or who
intends to do so in the future.

• Naming: Always use a transgender person’s chosen name. It is never
appropriate to put quotation marks around either a transgender person’s
chosen name or the pronoun that reflects that person’s gender identity.

• Deadnaming: The preferred term in the community for using a trans
person’s assigned name at birth.
• Identity: Always use the correct term or terms to describe gender identity.
For example, a person who transitions to become female is a transgender
woman, whereas a person who transitions to become male is a transgender
man.

Transgender terms to avoid: Follow these guidelines at all times:

• Incorrect: “transgenders,” “a transgender”
• Correct: “transgender people,” “a transgender person”

• Incorrect: “Tony is a transgender.”
• Correct: “Tony is a transgender man.”

• Incorrect: “transgendered” used as an adjective
• Correct: “transgender” used as an adjective

• Incorrect: “sex change operation”
• Correct: sex reassignment surgery (SRS)

• Incorrect: “transvestite”
• Correct: “cross-dresser”

• Incorrect: “sex change,” “pre-operative,” “post-operative”
• Correct: “transition”

Transgender terms to NEVER use:

50

• Gender Identity Disorder (GID) (it is offensive because it labels people as
“disordered.”
• She-male
• He-she
• It
• Trannie
• Tranny
• Shim
• Gender-bender

51

CHAPTER 12 – USE OF PROFANITY
Once upon a time, the universally accepted policy among publications was that the use
of any profanity in print was strictly prohibited as no one was comfortable with the risk
of offending audiences or corrupting the minds of children should they read such
language.
But clearly, language is changing quickly, and the acceptable-in-any-companyconversation bar is lower than ever. That increase in salty vernacular has in recent
years led even the stuffiest of publications (yes, we mean you The New York Times) have
loosened their standards on profanity.
At FloSports, we have a middle-ground policy on the use of obscenities in our content.
We don’t publish or air gratuitous vulgarities, but we shouldn’t strike it out altogether if
its use delivers as impact.
If the nature of an obscenity, vulgarity or other offensive expression is essential to the
reader’s understanding of a newsworthy event — not merely to convey color or
emotion — or part of a direct quote, you should feel free to consider using the term.
In headlines, we should be judicious in our use of profanity. In all cases, the word “Fuck”
should be truncated to “F***.”
The exception to this policy would be FloGymnastics and FloCheer where the use of
profanity is strictly prohibited due to the youthful nature of our audience.
If you should have any questions about whether the use of profanity in your story, video
or headline is appropriate, please consult with editorial management before using.





52

CHAPTER 13 – BECAUSE WE FRIGGING SAID SO
Important Grammar, Style, Syntax Rules
1) Be careful about throwing around the word "favorite." Reserve it for instances where
a person or team is expected to win gold. For example:
The U.S. is an overwhelming favorite in the women’s 4x100m.
There can't be multiple favorites, but there can be multiple contenders or leading
contenders.
2) Farther vs. Further: Use farther in contexts involving literal distance. Use further in
contexts involving figurative distance. For example:

Joe Kovacs now throws the shot put farther than he did in 2013.
We can discuss this issue further, if you like.

3) At vs. In: This is another of those without strict guidelines. One general rule: you
compete "at" a competition and "in" a particular event. Here are some examples:
Carl Lewis competed at four Olympics.
At the 2012 London Olympics, Allyson Felix won gold in the 200m, 4x100m relay
and 4x400m relay.
He's had success at major competitions, but never in his best event.
4) It's Track and Field in all written text. Never use an ampersand.
5) You write email (not e-mail or E-mail).
6) You're building a website (not a web site or a Web site).
7) You sometimes go online (not on line, or on-line).
8) You can use "Team USA" as a synonym for "the U.S." in team sports.
9) You can use gold, silver and bronze as nouns (He won silver in 2008 and gold in 2012).
10) For names with Jr. or Sr., do not use a comma: "Gary Hall Jr. is a fast swimmer."

53

11) Whenever possible, note an athlete's country ahead of his/her name. For example:
Correct: Qatar's Mutaz Essa Barshim won the Diamond League.
Incorrect: Mutaz Essa Barshim of Qatar, won the Diamond League.
12) Like vs. Such as: Don't use "like" when citing examples:

Incorrect: I enjoy individual sports like track and wrestling.
Correct: I enjoy individual sports such as track and wrestling.

13) Due vs. Because of: Don't say, "Due to bad weather, the meet was cancelled." Only
use "due" when referring to time, as in, "He's due to arrive at 5 PM"
14) Never say "we" or "us" when referring to the United States, unless it's in a quote.

15) Be careful with pronouns and verbs when attaching them to teams/countries.
Almost always go singular, except when referencing a plural nickname. For example:
Despite its preliminary-round struggles, the United States is expected to contend
for gold. Australia hasn't looked good, either, but the Socceroos are always
dangerous.
16) Please use round-robin (hyphenated) in all references.
17) It is preferable to use “more than” as opposed to “over.” For example:
Incorrect: Kyle Snyder has over 100 victories to his credit the last three years.
Correct: Kyle Snyder has more than 100 victories to his credit the last three years.
18) Good writers never break up participles. For example:

Incorrect: I have only counted six runners on the start line.

Correct: I have counted only six runners on the start line.

54

CHAPTER 14 – THE FLOSPORTS “NEVER SAY ‘ON A MISSION’
STATEMENT”
The following are some general guidelines, philosophies, and rules to keep in mind as
you're producing the content that will influence the tone -- and thus perception -- of our
websites.
1) Consider the medium and audience. We're a website, not a magazine. Your challenge
is to write content that is concise yet compelling, exhaustive but not exhausting. While
there is room for long-form writing, provided the subject matter is compelling and the
writing is good, the general rule of thumb is to adhere to the theory that "bits and
pieces" are preferable to "War and Peaces." Ideal word count for articles is either under
700 words or over 1000 words. Anything in between tends to lose audience.
2) Be ever vigilant about clichés. They can instantly sap our sites of their sense of
intelligence and creativity. Clichés scream lazy. Yes, a cleverly-tweaked cliché can make
for a nice headline or title, but be careful. If you're writing something that makes you
think, "This sounds like a tired phrase," it probably is. Better to be bland than
hackneyed. Here are a few examples of words/phrases to avoid like the plague (oops,
that’s a cliché!):
"On a mission." Only Jake and Elwood from Blues Brothers, "on a mission
from God," can say this without triggering the cliché alarm.
"Mission accomplished." If splitting the atom were an Olympic event,
we'd accept the headline, "Fission Accomplished," otherwise retire this
unless it's in a quote.
"Dream" and "glory." It is every athlete's "dream" to win an Olympic
medal. For some athletes, that "dream will come true." Some might even
"achieve Olympic glory" in the process. These words and phrases are
beyond over-used. Please help put them to bed (unless, again, you're
quoting someone).
"Stole the show." Another cliché that needs to die a quick, painful death.

55

"Stealing hearts." No need for this, even for the cutest of athletes.
Example: "Marion Jones stole hearts while earning five medals." Marion
Jones did a lot of things in Sydney, but stealing hearts wasn't one of them.
"Settled for bronze." Be careful. Many athletes will be happy to leave a
major competition with a bronze medal. If you have a quote that clearly
supports the idea that an athlete expected gold and is disappointed about
finishing third, then OK.
3) "Overcoming adversity." This will be a common and often justified notion to address
when telling an athlete's tale. Many athletes have endured tragedy, recovered from
misfortune, survived a health scare, etc. Just be careful not to over-use this angle. Too
many heart-warming, inspirational stories -- even if they're all valid -- serve only to dull
the effect of the extraordinarily good ones. Also, don't editorialize. State the facts of
the situation; the reader will discern the miraculous.

4) Be judicious about using factoids. An example: "The Americans had won three of five
previous meetings against the Japanese, but they never led Saturday." Three of five?
That's hardly dominance, so it's not a relevant point. This is akin to Sportscenter anchors
noting that a college basketball team reached its conference's tournament final "for the
first time since 2013." Really? Has it been that long?
5) Be sensible about words that, post-9/11, have supposedly become taboo. It's OK to
say that an athlete showed courage, or is a hero in his/her homeland. Readers
understand the context: We're not implying that said athlete is courageous or heroic,
the same way a firefighter or soldier is courageous or heroic.
6) Headlines. This is where avoiding clichés can be especially challenging. You need
something concise and catchy that readers will understand. Please endeavor to be
creative -- alliteration, rhymes, word play, etc. are always nice -- but don't feel that
every headline has to be a work of genius. If it makes sense, gets the point across and
fits the character limit, move on.
7) Capturing images. When you're choosing pictures and screen grabs, be on the
lookout for those that convey emotion, fatigue, pain, skill, etc. As you're proceeding, if
you come across especially good pictures, make a note of where they occurred -- at a

56

certain point in a wrestling match, from a certain angle at the track, etc., -- and then
look for (or cue the video to) that same point.
8) Irony. All too often, sportscasters and scribes (and Alanis Morissette) equate
interesting coincidence to irony, which is difficult to define and very rarely applies to
stuff that happens in sports. The suggestion here is to leave the irony to Shakespeare.
9) Literally. This is a word commonly misused by people who think it adds emphasis. If
Lebron James makes 11 consecutive shots in a game, he will not literally be on fire,
unless flames are crackling on his jersey. Nobody other than Atlas should ever be said to
literally have the weight of a nation on his or her shoulders. An announcer actually once
said to a football player whose team had rallied from way back to make the playoffs,
"You guys have literally risen from the dead." Alas, the team did not comprise zombies.
10) Verbs. When possible, try to use one-word verbs. Disturbed is better than broken
up. Surpassed is better than made it past. Captured is better than walked away with.
11) At FloSports, issues involving race, religion and politics are ones we generally steer
clear of. If your content needs to broach and of these subjects, please clear it with your
manager beforehand.
12) As a new-media company, FloSports works with a lot of corporate partners and
national and international governing bodies. None of these entities are above criticism,
but someone in editorial management needs to be made aware before we do.
13) Be mindful of the words you are using in everyday language. Words that may seem
innocuous due to their prolific use, like retarded, blacklisted, Black sheep, Oriental,
White lie, and manning the project, actually carry negative or hurtful connotations.
When in doubt, check with someone in editorial management.
14) PAY ATTENTION TO GOOD WRITING! This is not said to encourage plagiarism, but
when you're reading sports-related articles -- especially in high-quality publications such
as Sports Illustrated and The New York Times -- make note when you find yourself
thinking, “Hey, that's a perfect way to describe something,” or, “That's an interesting
word I haven't seen used in such context before.” Along these lines, if you ever think of
a word or phrase that might come in handy when you're writing headlines, make a note
so you don't forget.

57

CHAPTER 15 – THE FLOSPORTS LEXICON
Glossary
Every sport has keywords and terminology that might not be familiar to all. We have
come up with lists of these terms in all of our sports and the correct way to spell and
capitalize them in all instances. Unless otherwise noted in these tables, all words should
begin with lowercase lettering in text, unless found at the beginning of a sentence.

FloTrack/MileSplit Glossary of Terms
acceleration

discus

intensity

recovery

aerobic

doping

intermediate
hurdles

relay

aerobic
threshold

draft

interval training

runway

anabolic

drive phase

javelin

scratch line

anaerobic

dual-alley start

junior

set position

anaerobic
threshold

electrolytes

kick

shot put

anchor

endurance

lactate threshold

sit-and-kick

ancillary
training

exchange zone

lactic acid

slow twitch muscle
fiber

anterior pelvic
tilt

extension

lap

spikes

approach

false start

leg

spin technique

athletics

fartlek

lifting

split

baton

fast twitch muscle
fiber

long distance

sprint

58

bell lap

field event

marathon

staggered start

biomechanics

flexion

metabolism

standards

blind pass

flight phase

middle distance

starting blocks

blocking

force

Mondo track

tailwind

blocks

Fosbury flop

overstriding

takeoff

bounding

frontside mechanics overload training take-off board

break-line

glide technique

overtraining

throwing circle

center of mass

grip height

overuse injuries

throwing ring

changeover

ground contact time pacemaker

throwing sector

check mark

half marathon

passing zone

trial

hammer

PB (personal
best)

visual pass

crouch start

headwind

PR (personal
record)

VO2 max

dashes

heat

rabbit

volume

decathlon

high hurdles

race walk

walk

deceleration

impact area

racing flats

waterfall start

die

implement

rail

wind-aided

crossbar

59

FloWrestling Glossary Of Terms
ankle pick

dual

limp leg

scramble

arm bar

dual
meet

locked hands

sectionals

back points

duck
under

low leg cradle

semifinals

barrel roll

duckwal
k

low single

semis

belly down

escape

major

seniors

blast double

exposure major decision

short sit

boot scoot

face off

mat

shrug

bout sheet

fall

midget

single leg

brackets

fireman's
carry
novice

butterfly lock floating

snap

Olympic

stalemate

bye

folkstyle one on one

stalling

cadet

front
head

stand up

cement job

front
headlock pass the leg

par terre

Standing Granby

cement mixer funk

passivity

States

center circle

gas tank

pigtails

super duck

clinch

Granby

pin

suplex

college

Granby
Roll

potentially
dangerous

takedown

60

consis

GrecoRoman

power half

tech fall

consolations

gut
wrench

preliminaries

tilt

Continentals

half
nelson

prelims

turk

crossface

headgear push out

two on one

crossface
cradle

headlock quarter nelson

underhook

crotch lift

high
school

quarterfinals

university

cutting

inside
trip

quarters

unsportsmanlike conduct

danger
position

internati
onal

rashguard

weigh ins

decision

junior
high

regionals

weight cut

default

juniors

reversal

wizzer

round robin

Worlds

Districts

knee
pick

Russian

wrestle backs

double arm
bar

lateral
drop

Russian Tie

disqualificatio knee
n
pads

double
elimination

leg lace

Schalles roll

double leg

leg pass

schoolboy

61

FloGymnastics Glossary Of Terms

all-around

Ezhova

Khorkina

series

apparatus

FIG

Kim

Shaposhnikova

arabesque

flair

kip

Shushunova

Arabian

flight series

layout

side somi

aerial

floor

leap

sissone

back handspring

flyaway

leotard

split

back tuck

flyspring

Maltese

split half

back walkover

forward roll

Manna

spot

back layout

free hip

mat

springboard

bail

front giant

meet

stalder

balance beam

front handspring

mixed grip

start value

Barani

front tuck

mount

step out

Bhardwaj

front walkover

Mo salto

stick/stuck

blind change

full in

neutral deduction

still rings

bridge

full out

needle scale

sting mat

butterfly

full twist

Okino

stoop

cartwheel

Gainer

Omelianchik

straddle

cast

Gaylord

Onodi

straddle back

cat leap

Geinger

out of bounds (OOB)

switch leap

chalk

German giants

overshoot

switch half

62

Cheng

giant

Pak

switch ring

clear hip

giant full

parallel bars

tap swing

code of points

glide kip

Patterson

Tkatchev

Comaneci

grips

pike

tour jete

competition

half in half out

pirouette

triple turn

conditioning

handspring

planche

triple full

connection

handstand

pommel horse

Tsukahara

counter Kim

Healy

press handstand

tuck

dance

hecht

pullover

tumbling

Def

Higgins

punch front

turn

Deltchev

high bar

release moves

undershoot

dismount

hit

reverse hecht

uneven bars

dive roll

hitch kick

reverse planche

Valdez

double back

Hindorff

ring leap

value

double layout

horizontal bar

rings

vault

double pike

Humphrey

rip

Weiler kip

double tuck

inverted giants

roll

whip back

double twist

Jaeger

round-off

wolf jump

element

jam

Rulfova

wolf turn

elite

jump

salto

Yang Bo

Endo

junior

scale

Yurchenko

events

Kasamatsu

senior

y-turn

63

FloElite Glossary Of Terms
3-2-1 Go!

deficit deadlift

air squat

deficit handstand push
up
kipping

score

abmat

Diane

kipping pull-up

second pull

absolute intensity double knee bend

knees to elbows

set

affiliate

double under

Linda

shoulder press

Angie

drive position

load

snatch

Annie

dumbell

Lynne

snatch balance

average absolute
intensity

dynamic start

macrocycle

split

AMRAP

dip and drive

Mary

split jerk

ass to grass

eccentric

mesocycle

squat

Barbara

Elizabeth

metcon

squat clean

barbell

EMOTM (EMOM)

microsycle

squat snatch

bar muscle-up

every minute on the
minute

military press

starting
position

back squat

false grip

Murph

static start

band-assisted
pull-up

free standing
handstand push up

muscle up

strongman

bench press

filthy fifty

Nancy

strict press

overhead

strict muscle
up

bear complex

kettle bell

first pull

64

scoop

below parallel

for time

olympic weightlifting strict pull up

bodyweight

Fran

overhead squat

straps

bounce

front squat

paralettes

Sport of
Fitness

box

functional movement

pistol

sumo deadlift

box jump

GHD sit-up

power

sumo deadlift
high pull

bumper plates

Grace

powerlifitng

swim

burpees

halting

power clean

tabata

C2 rower

hand release pushups

power position

technique
primer

Chelsea

handstand push-up

power snatch

third pull

chest to bar

handstand hold

pulling position

triplet

chipper

handstand walk

pull-up

triple under

Cindy

hang

push jerk

thruster

clean

hang clean

push press

toes to bar

clean & jerk

hang snatch

rack position

variance

complex

Helen

range of motion

volume

couplet

hero WODs

receiving position

walking lunge

CrossFit Games

hookgrip

relative intensity

wallball

rep

weightlifting

CrossFit Regional intensity

CrossFit HQ

Jackie

ring dip

warm-up
couplet

CrossFit Open

jerk

rings

WOD

65

CrossFit Total

k-value

rope climb

concentration

Karen

row

deadlift

Kelly

run

66

FloSoftball Glossary Of Terms

ace

dinger

in flight

rundown

around the horn

double

infield

sacrifice bunt

assist

double play

infield fly

sacrifice fly

at bat

doubleheader

infielder

safe

away team

drag bunt

inning

safety base

backdoor

drop ball

intentional walk

save

backdoor play

drop curve

interference

scoring position

backstop

dugout

junkball

screw ball

ball

earned run

K

second base

base

earned-run average

knuckleball

shoestring catch

base coach

error

lead

shoot a pair

base on balls

extra innings

lead-off hitter

showboating

baseline

extra-base hit

left field

shutout

basket catch

face guard

line drive

single

bat

facemask

lineup

slap hitting

batter

fair ball

loss

slapper

batter's box

fair territory

married to the bag

slide

batting average

fastball

no pitch

slugging
percentage

batting order

fielder

no-hitter

slump

bleachers

fielder's choice

obstruction

snow cone catch

67

breaking ball

fielding percentage

offense

southpaw

brushback

figure-four slide

on deck

squeeze bunt

bullpen

first base

on-deck circle

starter

bunt

fly ball

opposite field

stinger

can o' corn

fly out

out

stolen base

cannon

force out

outfield

strike

catch

forfeit

outfielder

strike zone

catcher

foul ball

passed ball

strikeout

catcher's box

foul line

pepper

suicide squeeze

catcher's interference foul pole

perfect game

switch hitter

caught looking

foul territory

pickle

tag

centerfield

foul tip

pick-off

tag up

change-up

frozen rope

pinch hitter

take

choke up

fungo

pinch runner

team

clean-up hitter

glove

pitch

the black

closer

going

pitcher

third base

coach's box

grand slam

pitcher's circle

triple

complete game

ground ball

pitcher's rubber

triple play

corners

ground out

pitchout

umpire

count

ground-rule double

pull

unearned run

courtesy runner

hit

push bunt

up the ally

crow hop

hit by pitch

reached base on

68

up the middle

error
curveball

hit-and-run

relief pitcher

utlility player

cut-off person

home plate

rise ball

walk

cycle

home run

roster

walk-off

dead ball

home team

run

warning track

defense

hook slide

run and slap

wild pitch

designated hitter

hot corner

run batted in

win

diamond

hot stick

run rule

windmill

69

FloGrappling Glossary Of Terms
English terms are preferred over Portuguese or Japanese unless the foreign word is
part of common vocabulary.
NOTE: If you have any doubts/questions to the technical nature of a move you are
seeing, please reach out to Hyewl Teague. Also, don’t be afraid to keep things simple if
you don’t know and use "choke."

POSITIONS
Back control

Half guard

North-south

Spider guard

Butterfly guard Headlock

Open guard

Turtle
X-guard

Closed guard

Reverse de la
riva guard

De la riva guard Knee ride

Scarfhold

50-50

Guard

Side control

Knee on belly

Mount

SUBMISSIONS
Achilles lock

Brabo choke

Footlock

Lapel choke

Americana

Calf slicer

Gogoplata

Loop choke
Mata leao

Anaconda
choke

Choke

Ankle lock

Choke from crucifix Heel hook

Arm-in Ezekiel Choke from mount
Arm-in
guillotine

Guillotine

Inverted
armbar

Inverted
Choke from the back katagatame

70

Mounted triangle
Neck crank
North-south choke

Omoplata

Clock choke

Inverted
omoplata

Rear naked choke

Armbar

Copacabana choke

Inverted
triangle

Armlock

Cross choke

Jegueplata

Straight ankle lock

Banana split

Cross choke from
mount

Arm-triangle
choke

Toehold
Katagatame

Baseball choke Darce choke

Keylock

Triangle

Bicep slicer

Kimura

Triangle armbar

Bow and arrow Ezekiel

Knee choke

Twister

Brabao choke

Kneebar

Wrist lock

Estima lock

Flying armbar

71

FloMuscle Glossary Of Terms

abduction

deficiency

layoff

pumping iron

abs

definition

lean body mass

quads

abyss

delts

lift off

quality training

accommodating
resistance

density

ligament

repetition (rep)

adduction

diet

linoleic acid

rep out

adhesion

dipping bars

lock out

reps

aerobic exercise

dip belt

low-density
resistance
lipoprotein (LDL) exercise

agonist

diuretics

lower abs

all-or-none

double (split
training) routine mass

rest pause
training

amino acids

drying out

meal

rest period

AMUR

dumbell

metabolic rate

ripped

anabolic drugs

easy set

metabolism

roid

anabolic steroid

eccentric

midsection

routine

androgenic drugs energy

military press

saturated fats

antagonist

endurance

minerals

set

antioxidant

essential fatty
acids

mixed pairs
competition

sleeve

arm blaster

estrogen

muscle

slow-twitch

atrophy

exercise

muscle head

snatch

Baby's Butt

extension

muscle spasm

spot

72

rest interval

back-cycling

failure

muscle tone

spotter

bar

fascia

muscularity

steroids

barbell

fast-twitch

myositis

sticking point

balance

fat

nautilus

straight sets

fat free mass
(FFM)

National Physique
Committee, Inc.
(NPC)
strength

basic exercise

benches

figure

negative reps

strength
training

bikini

flexibility

nutrients

stretching

biomechanics

flexion

nutrition

stretch marks

body
composition

flush

non-locks

striations

bodybuilding

forced reps

obliques

super set

buffed

form

odd lifts

supplement

bulking up

freestyle training Olympian

symmetry

burn

free weights

Olympic barbell

tendon

burns

frequent feeding

Olympic lifting

testosterone

calories

fructose

onion skin

thick skin

carbohydrates

giant sets

optimal nutrition

tone

cardiorespirator
y fitness

glucose

overall

training effect

cardiovascular
training

gluteals

overload
principle

training straps

categories

glycogen

partial reps

73

training to

failure
chalk pwder

gorging

peak contraction

traps

cheating

grazing

Peripheral Heart
Action (PHA)

trimming down

chinning bar

hand off

physique

tri sets

hard set

plates

universal
machine

circuit training

height class

plyometric
exercise

unsaturated fat

classes

high-density
lipoprotein
(HDL)

portion

upper abs

cholesterol

clean

hypertrophy

pose

variable
resistance

clean diet

intensity

pose down

vascularity

clean and jerk

International
Federation of
Bodybuilders
(IFBB)

poundage

veining

clean and snatch

isokinetic
exercise

power

vitamins

collar

isometric
exercise

power lifts

warm-up

compound
training

isolation exercise power lifting

weight

couples'
competition

isotonic exercise power mindset

weight class

74

concentric

power training

weightlifting

juice

progression

weight training
belt

curl-bar

kinesiology

progressive
resistance

workout

cut

knee wraps

proteins

cut up

lats

pump

dead lift

law of nature

pumped

crunches

judging rounds

75

FloCheer Glossary Of Terms

1/2 wrap around

double
down

leg/foot

single-based double
awesome/cupie

3/4 front flip

double full

Liberty

single-based stunt

8 count

double full
down

load in

single-leg stunt

18 inches above
extended arm level

double hook log roll

slingshot

abstract

double-leg
stunt

Low-V

spirit

accuracy drill

double nine

main base

spirit fingers

aerial

downward
inversion

mascot

split

airborne

downward
motion

megaphone

split catch

airborne tumbling
skill

drop

motions

split extension

All 4s

elevator

mount

split mount

all-star

entrance
skill

moving
stunts

sponge toss

Arabian

extended
arm level

multi-based
stunt
spotter

around the world

extended
position

needle
(stunt)

squad

assisted flipping
mount

extended
stunt

new base

spread eagle

76

noninverted
position

squishy (toss)

attack the crowd

extension
prep

nugget

stag

awesome

facials

Onodi

standing tumbling

back bend

flat back

open

step and lock

back handspring

flip (stunt)

original
base

sticking it

back spot

flip
(tumbling)

paper dolls

straddle

back tuck

flip flop

partner
stunt

straight cradle

back tuck basket toss

flick flack

peel-off

straight ride

back walkover

flipping toss pencil drop

stunt

backward dismount

floor stunt

pendulum

stunt group

backward roll

Flying C

pike

stunt-single base

backwards load in

fly over

pirouette

Superman

Ball-X

flyer/flier

platform
position

suspended backward
roll

banana

forward roll pom pon

assisted flipping stunt extension

suspended flip

suspended forward
pony mount roll

barrell roll

fountain

base

free-flipping
stunt
pop

suspended roll

basket toss

frog jump

Swedish fall

pop cradle

77

blades

front limber popper

sweep

block

front spot

post

T-motion

block cartwheel

front tuck

power press table top

bloomers

front
walkover

prep

tension roll/drop

Bow-N-Arrow (arms) full

prep
extension

thigh stand

bow and arrow
(stunt)

full down

prep-level

third-level flyer

brace

full-up toe
touch

press

tick tock

bracer

giddy-up

press down

toe/leg pitch

braced flip

primary
ground level support

toe touch

Brannie or Brandy

half

prone
position

bridge

hand/arm
connection

prop

top person

briefs

handspring

punch

torch

bucket

handstand

punch front

toss

butt sit (stunt)

hanging
pyramid

Purdue

toss to hands

calisthenics

heel stretch

pyramid

touchdown

candle sticks

helicopter

rebound

transitional pyramid

captain

helicopter
toss

Regionals

transitional stunt

78

top

cartwheel

Herkie

release
move

catcher

High V

reload

trip cradle

chair

hitch

retake

tuck

chant

hook

rewind

tuck arch

cheer

horizontal
axis

round off

tuck jump

choreography

hurdler

routine

tuck position

chorus line flips

interlocking running
grip
tumbling

tumbling

clap

inversion

Russian

twist

clasp

inverted

salto

twist cradle

co-ed

jump

sassy

twisting mount

co-ed stunt

jump
approach

scale

twisting stunt

co-ed style toss

jump ball

scissors

twisting toss

connected tumbling

jump skill

scooper

twisting tumbling

cradle

jump turn

scorpion

two-high pyramid

cradle catch

K-motion

two-and-a-half-high
scrunch toss pyramid

cradle position

Kerrigan

second level two-leg stunt

cradle reload

Kewpie

second level
leap frog
upright

crowd response

kick arch

sell it

V-sit

series front

varsity

cupie

kick double

79

travelling toss

full
dead man stunt

kick full

show and go vault

diagonal

kick
shoulder
out/kiss out level

vertical axis

Dirty Bird

kick toss

walkover

Diamond Head

knee (body) shoulder
drop
stand

waterfall

dismount

L-motion

shove drop

whip

dive roll

landing

show-n-go

whip back

double cartwheel

layout

Shushunova Wolf Wall transition

double cupie

leap frog

sign

shoulder sit

80

X-out

FloBoxing Glossary Of Terms
10-point-must system

flash
knockdown

middleweight

accidental butt

flyweight

minimumweight scoring hit

alphabet soup

footwork

mouse

second

amateur

foul

mouthpiece

shadow
boxing

Association of Boxing
Commissions

fringe
contender

neutral corner

shifting

bag gloves

gate

no contest

shopworn

no-decision

shoulder
guard

bantamweight

sanctioning
body

gatekeeper

bare-kuckles boxing

getting off first

novice

skinning the
gloves

beat the count

glass jaw

official

slipping

below the belt

Golden Gloves

on the ropes

Solar Plexus

belt

go the distance

one-two

southpaw

bleeder

go to the body

open class

sparring

blocking

go to the
scorecards

open scoring

speed bag

bob and weave

handwraps

opening

spit bucket

body punch

haymaker

orthodox

split decision

bolo punch

head butt

out for the
count

split draw

bout

heavybag

outclassed

spoiler

81

boxers' handshake

heavyweight

outside fighter

stable

boxing commission

hitting on the
break

overhand

stablemate

boxing shoe

holding

palooka

stance

parrying

standing
eight-count

passbook

stick and
move

brawler
breadbasket

infighting

break

inside fighter

paw

straight
punches

canvas

jab

peek-a-boo

strawweight

card

journeyman

pitty-pat
punches

stylist

catch weight

judge

play possum

sucker punch

caught cold

junior
bantamweight

plodder

super
bantamweight

challenger

junior
featherweight

super
point deduction featherweight

champion

junior flyweight points

super
flyweight

check hook

junior
heavyweight

pound-forpound

super
middleweight

chief second

junior light
heavyweight

power punches

sweet science

chin

junior
lightweight

prizefight

take a dive

clinching

hook

professional

junior
82

technical

middleweight
combination
Compubox

kidney punch

contender

kissing the
canvas

corkscrew punch

knockdown

promoter

technical draw

protective cup

technical
knockout

pull

third man in
the ring

pull your
punches

three
knockdown
rule

corner

knockout

punch

throw in the
towel

cornerman

lacing

punch drunk

time keeper

count

lead right

puncher's
chance

title bout

counterpunch

lead with the
chin

purse

titlist

covering up

light
bantamweight

queer street

toe-to-toe

cross

light
featherweight

rabbit punch

tomato can

cruiserweight

light flyweight

range

trainer

cut man

light
heavyweight

reach

trialhorse

dancing

light
middleweight

referee

unanimous
decision

reflex bag

undercard

decision

junior
welterweight

decision

light

83

welterweight
defense

lightweight

rest period

uppercut

deflection

lineal champion ring doctor

disqualification

liver punch

ring generalship USA Boxing

dive

loss

ringside

venue

division

loss on points

roadwork

verdict

double-end bag

low blow

rolling

walkout bout

down and out

main event

roll with the
punches

warning

draw

majority
decision

rope a dope

weigh-in

ducking

majority draw

roughhousing

weight classes

endwell

manager

round

welterweight

evasion

mandatory
eight-count

RSC

whiskers

upstart

faded

match

RSCH

white collar
boxing

fall through the ropes

mauler

RSCOC

white corner

featherweight

medicine ball

rubber match

win on points

feint

memorial tencount

rules of boxing

wind

fight record



84

CHAPTER 16 – COLLEGES
College athletics comprise an enormous part of our everyday coverage across multiple
sports, and will soon become a searchable dropdown offering on our sites. It is
important that in our writing and especially crucial in our labeling/tagging of content
that we are uniform in the way that we refer to all colleges and universities. Below are
tables, broken down by division, with our standard nomenclature for these schools.

Division I

School

Mascot

School

Mascot

Air Force

Falcons

Montana

Grizzlies

Akron

Zips

Montana State

Bobcats

Alabama

Crimson Tide

Morehead State

Eagles

Alabama
A&M

Bulldogs

Morgan State

Bears

UAB

Blazers

Mount St. Mary's

Mountaineers

Alabama
State

Hornets

Murray State

Racers

Albany

Great Danes

Navy

Midshipmen

Alcorn State Braves

Nebraska

Cornhuskers

American

Nebraska-Omaha

Mavericks

Appalachian
State
Mountaineers

Nevada

Wolf Pack

Arizona

Wildcats

New Hampshire

Wildcats

Arizona
State

Sun Devils

NJIT

Highlanders

Arkansas

Razorbacks

New Mexico

Lobos

Eagles

85

ArkansasLittle Rock

Trojans

New Mexico State

Aggies

ArkansasPine Bluff

Golden Lions

New Orleans

Privateers

Arkansas
State

Red Wolves

Niagara

Purple Eagles

Army

Black Knights

Nicholls State

Colonels

Auburn

Tigers

Norfolk State

Spartans

Austin Peay
State

Governors/Lad
y Govs

North Carolina A&T

Aggies

Ball State

Cardinals

North Carolina
Central

Eagles

Baylor

Bears

North Carolina

Tar Heels

Belmont

Bruins

North Carolina State Wolfpack

BethuneCookman

Wildcats

North Dakota

North Dakota

Binghamton Bearcats

North Dakota State

Bison

Boise State

Broncos

North Florida

Ospreys

Boston
College

Eagles

North Texas

Mean Green

Boston

Terriers

Northeastern

Huskies

Bowling
Green State

Falcons

Northern Arizona

Lumberjacks

Bradley

Braves

Northern Colorado

Bears

Brigham
Young

Cougars

Northern Illinois

Huskies

86

Brown

Bears

Northern Iowa

Bryant

Bulldogs

Northwestern State Demons

Bucknell

Bison

Northwestern

Wildcats

Buffalo

Bulls

Notre Dame

Fighting Irish

Butler

Bulldogs

Oakland

Golden Grizzlies

Cal

Golden Bears

Ohio

Bobcats

Cal Poly SLO Mustangs

Ohio State

Buckeyes

Cal StateBakersfield

Roadrunners

Oklahoma

Sooners

Cal StateFullerton

Titans

Oklahoma State

Cowboys/Cowgirls

Cal StateNorthridge

Matadors

Old Dominion

Monarchs

Campbell

Fighting Camels Oral Roberts

Golden Eagles

Canisius

Golden Griffins

Oregon

Ducks

Central
Arkansas

Bears/Sugar
Bears

Oregon State

Beavers

Central
Connecticut
State

Blue Devils

Pacific

Tigers

Central
Florida

Knights

Penn State

Nittany Lions

Central
Michigan

Chippewas

Pepperdine

Waves

CollegeCharl
eston

Cougars

Pittsburgh

Panthers

87

Panthers

Charleston
Southern

Buccaneers

Portland

Pilots

Chicago
State

Cougars

Portland State

Vikings

Cincinnati

Bearcats

Prairie View A&M

Panthers

The Citadel

Bulldogs

Presbyterian

Blue Hose

Clemson

Tigers

Princeton

Tigers

Cleveland
State

Vikings

Providence

Friars

Coastal
Carolina

Chanticleers

Purdue

Boilermakers

Colgate

Raiders

Quinnipiac

Bobcats

Colorado

Buffaloes

Radford

Highlanders

Colorado
State

Rams

Rhode Island

Rams

Columbia

Lions

Rice

Owls

Coppin State Eagles

Richmond

Spiders

Cornell

Big Red

Rider

Broncs

Creighton

Bluejays

Rio Grande Valley
State

Vaqueros

Dartmouth

Big Green

Robert Morris

Colonials

Davidson

Wildcats

Rutgers

Scarlet Knights

Dayton

Flyers

Sacramento State

Hornets

Delaware

Fightin' Blue
Hens

Sacred Heart

Pioneers

88

Delaware
State

Hornets

St. Bonaventure

Bonnies

Denver

Pioneers

St. Francis

Terriers

DePaul

Blue Demons

Saint Francis

Red Flash

Detroit
Mercy

Titans

St. John's

Red Storm

Drake

Bulldogs

Saint Joseph's

Hawks

Drexel

Dragons

Saint Louis

Billikens

Duke

Blue Devils

Saint Mary's

Gaels

Duquesne

Dukes

Saint Peter's

Peacocks/Peahens

East
Carolina

Pirates

Sam Houston State

Bearkats

East
Tennessee
State

Buccaneers

Samford

Bulldogs

Eastern
Illinois

Panthers

San Diego

Toreros

Eastern
Kentucky

Colonels

San Diego State

Aztecs

Eastern
Michigan

Eagles

San Francisco

Dons

Eastern
Washington Eagles

San Jose State

Spartans

Elon

Phoenix

Santa Clara

Broncos

Evansville

Purple Aces

Savannah State

Tigers

Fairfield

Stags

Seattle

Redhawks

89

Fairleigh
Dickinson

Knights

Seton Hall

Pirates

Florida

Gators

Siena

Saints

Florida A&M Rattlers

South Alabama

Jaguars

Florida
Atlantic

Owls

South Carolina

Gamecocks

Florida Gulf
Coast

Eagles

South Carolina State Bulldogs

Panthers

South CarolinaUpstate

Spartans

Florida State Seminoles

South Dakota

Coyotes

Fordham

South Dakota State

Jackrabbits

Fresno State Bulldogs

South Florida

Bulls

Furman

Paladins

Southeast Missouri
State

Redhawks

Gardner–
Webb

Runnin'
Bulldogs

Southeastern
Louisiana

Lions

George
Mason

Patriots

Southern Illinois

Salukis

George
Washington Colonials

Southern IllinoisEdwardsville

Cougars

Georgetown Hoyas

Southern Methodist Mustangs

Georgia

Bulldogs

Southern
Mississippi

Golden Eagles

Georgia
Southern

Eagles

Southern

Jaguars

Florida
Internationa
l

Rams

90

Georgia
State

Panthers

Southern Utah

Thunderbirds

Georgia
Tech

Yellow Jackets

Stanford

Cardinal

Gonzaga

Bulldogs

Stephen F. Austin

Lumberjacks/Ladyjack
s

Grambling
State

Tigers

Stetson

Hatters

Hampton

Pirates

Stony Brook

Seawolves

Hartford

Hawks

Syracuse

Orange

Harvard

Crimson

Temple

Owls

Hawaii

Rainbow
Warriors/Rainb
ow Wahine
Tennessee

High Point

Panthers

TennesseeChattanooga

Hofstra

Pride

Tennessee-Martin

Skyhawks

Holy Cross

Crusaders

Tennessee State

Tigers

Houston

Cougars

Tennessee Tech

Golden Eagles

Houston
Baptist

Huskies

Texas A&M

Aggies

Howard

Bison

Texas A&M–Corpus
Christi

Islanders

Idaho

Vandals

Texas

Longhorns

TCU

Horned Frogs/Lady
Frogs

Idaho State

Volunteers/Lady Vols

Bengals

91

Mocs

Illinois

Fighting Illini

Texas-San Antonio

Roadrunners

Illinois State Redbirds

Texas Southern

Tigers

Indiana
State

Sycamores

Texas State

Bobcats

Indiana

Hoosiers

Texas Tech

Red Raiders

IPFW

Mastodons

Toledo

Rockets

IPUI

Jaguars

Towson

Tigers

Iona

Gaels

Troy

Trojans

Iowa

Hawkeyes

Tulane

Green Wave

Iowa State

Cyclones

Tulsa

Golden Hurricane

Jackson
State

Tigers

UC Davis

Aggies

Jacksonville Dolphins

UC Irvine

Anteaters

Jacksonville
State

Gamecocks

UC Riverside

Highlanders

James
Madison

Dukes

UC Santa Barbara

Gauchos

Kansas

Jayhawks

UConn

Huskies

UCLA

Bruins

Kansas State Wildcats

Kennesaw
State

Owls

UMass

Minutemen/Minutewo
men

Kent State

Golden Flashes

UNC- Asheville

Bulldogs

Kentucky

Wildcats

UNC-Charlotte

49ers

La Salle

Explorers

UNC-Greensboro

Spartans

92

Lafayette

Leopards

UNC-Wilmington

Seahawks

Lamar

Cardinals

UNLV

Rebels

Lehigh

Mountain
Hawks

UPenn

Quakers

Liberty

Flames

USC

Trojans

Lipscomb

Bisons

UT-Arlington

Mavericks

Long Beach
State

49ers

Utah

Utes

LIU–
Brooklyn

Blackbirds

Utah State

Aggies

Longwood

Lancers

Utah Valley

Wolverines

LouisianaLafayette

Ragin' Cajuns

UTEP

Miners

LouisianaMonroe

Warhawks

Valparaiso

Crusaders

Louisiana
State

Tigers

Vanderbilt

Commodores

Louisiana
Tech

Bulldogs/Lady
Techsters

Vermont

Catamounts

Louisville

Cardinals

Villanova

Wildcats

Loyola
Marymount Lions

Virginia

Cavaliers

LoyolaChicago

Ramblers

Virginia
Commonwealth

Rams

Greyhounds

Virginia Military
Institute

Keydets

LoyolaMaryland

93

Maine

Black Bears

Virginia Tech

Hokies

Manhattan

Jaspers

Wagner

Seahawks

Marist

Red Foxes

Wake Forest

Demon Deacons

Marquette

Golden Eagles

Washington

Huskies

Marshall

Thundering
Herd

Washington State

Cougars

Maryland

Terrapins

Weber State

Wildcats

MarylandBaltimore
County

Retrievers

West Virginia

Mountaineers

Maryland
Eastern
Shore

Hawks

Western Carolina

Catamounts

McNeese
State

Cowboys/Cowg
irls

Western Illinois

Leathernecks

Memphis

Tigers

Western Kentucky

Hilltoppers/Lady
Toppers

Mercer

Bears

Western Michigan

Broncos

Miami

Hurricanes

Wichita State

Shockers

Miami-Ohio

Redhawks

William & Mary

Tribe

Michigan

Wolverines

Winthrop

Eagles

Michigan
State

Spartans

Wisconsin

Badgers

Blue Raiders

Wisconsin–Green
Bay

Phoenix

Middle
Tennessee
State

94

Minnesota

Wisconsin–
Golden Gophers Milwaukee

Panthers

Mississippi

Rebels

Wofford College

Terriers

Mississippi
State

Bulldogs

Wright State

Raiders

Delta
Mississippi Devils/Devilett
Valley State es

Wyoming

Cowboys/Cowgirls

Missouri

Tigers

Xavier

Musketeers

Missouri–
Kansas City

Kangaroos

Yale

Bulldogs

Missouri
State

Bears

Youngstown State

Penguins

Monmouth

Hawks

95

Division II
School

Nickname

School

Nickname

Academy of Art

Urban Knights

Mars Hill

Lions

Adams State

Grizzlies

University of Mary

Marauders

Adelphi

Panthers

Maryville

Saints

AlabamaHuntsville

Chargers

McKendree

Bearcats

AlaskaFairbanks

Nanooks

Mercy

Mavericks

AlaskaAnchorage

Seawolves

Mercyhurst

Lakers

Albany State

Golden Rams

Merrimack

Warriors

Battlers

Metropolitan State
College of Denver

Roadrunners

American
International

Yellow Jackets

Michigan
Technological

Huskies

Anderson

Trojans

Midwestern State

Mustangs

Angelo State

Rams

Miles

Golden Bears

Arkansas Tech

Wonder
Boys/Golden Suns

Millersville

Marauders

Arkansas–Fort
Smith

Lions

Minnesota StateMankato

Mavericks

ArkansasMonticello

Boll Weevils/Cotton Minnesota StateBlossoms
Moorhead

Alderson
Broaddus

Armstrong State Pirates

Dragons

Golden
Minnesota-Crookston Eagles

96

Ashland

Eagles

Minnesota-Duluth

Bulldogs

Assumption

Greyhounds

Minot State

Beavers

Augustana

Vikings

Mississippi

Choctaws

Cougars

Missouri College of
Science and
Technology

Miners

Buccaneers

Missouri Southern
State

Lions

Barton

Bulldogs

Missouri Western
State

Griffons

Bellarmine

Knights

Missouri–St. Louis

Tritons

Belmont Abbey

Crusaders

Molloy

Lions

Bemidji State

Beavers

Montana State
Billings

Yellowjacket
s

Benedict

Tigers

College of Montevallo Falcons

Azusa Pacific
Barry

Morehouse

Maroon
Tigers

Black Hills State Yellow Jackets

Mount Olive

Trojans

Bloomfield

Bears

Nebraska-Kearney

Lopers

Bloomsburg

Huskies

New Haven

Chargers

Bluefield State

Big Blues/Lady
Blues

New Mexico
Highlands

Cowboys/Co
wgirls

Bowie State

Bulldogs

New York Institute of
Technology

Bears

Brevard

Tornados

Newberry

Wolves

Bentley

Falcons

97

Bridgeport

Purple Knights

Newman

Jets

Brigham Young
–Hawaii

Seasiders

North Alabama

Lions

Caldwell

Cougars

North Georgia

Nighthawks

California
College of
Pennsylvania

Vulcans

North Greenville

Crusaders

California
Baptist

Lancers

Northeastern State

RiverHawks

Cal Poly Pomona Broncos

Northern Michigan

Wildcats

Cal State
Dominguez Hills Toros

Northern State

Wolves

Cal State East
Bay

Pioneers

Northwest Missouri
State

Bearcats

Cal State Los
Angeles

Golden Eagles

Northwest Nazarene

Crusaders

Otters

Northwestern
Oklahoma State

Rangers

Cal State
Monterey Bay

Cal State San
Bernardino

Coyotes

Northwood

Timberwolve
s

Cal State San
Marcos

Cougars

Notre Dame College

Falcons

Cal State
Stanislaus

Warriors

Notre Dame de
Namur

Argonauts

Cameron

Aggies

Nova Southeastern

Sharks

Carson–
Newman

Eagles

Nyack

Warriors

98

Catawba

Indians

Oakland City

Mighty Oaks

Cedarville

Yellow Jackets

Ohio Dominican

Panthers

Central Missouri Mules/Jennies

Ohio Valley

Fighting
Scots

Central
Oklahoma

Bronchos

Oklahoma Baptist

Bison

Central State

Marauders

Oklahoma Christian

Eagles

Central
Washington

Wildcats

Oklahoma Panhandle
State

Aggies

Chadron State

Eagles

Ouachita Baptist

Tigers

Chaminade

Silverswords

Pace

Setters

Charleston

Golden Eagles

Paine

Lions

Chestnut Hill

Griffins

Palm Beach Atlantic

Sailfish

Cheyney State

Wolves

Pfeiffer

Falcons

Chico State

Wildcats

Philadelphia

Rams

Chowan

Hawks

Pittsburg State

Gorillas
Mountain
Cats

Christian
Brothers

Buccaneers

Pitt-Johnstown

Claflin

Panthers

Point Loma Nazarene Sea Lions

Clarion

Golden Eagles

Post

Eagles

Clark Atlanta

Panthers

Queens College of
Charlotte

Royals

Clayton State

Lakers

Queens

Knights

Coker

Cobras

Quincy

Hawks

99

Colorado
Christian

Cougars

Regis

Rangers

Colorado Mesa

Mavericks

Roberts Wesleyan

Redhawks

Colorado School
of Mines
Orediggers

Rockhurst

Hawks

Colorado State–
Pueblo

ThunderWolves

Rogers State

Hillcats

ColoradoColorado
Springs

Mountain Lions

Rollins

Tars

Saginaw Valley State

Cardinals

Concord

Mountain
Lions/Lady Lions

Saint Anselm

Hawks

Concordia

Clippers

Saint Augustine's

Falcons

Concordia–
Irvine

Eagles

St. Cloud State

Huskies

Concordia–
Portland

Cavaliers

St. Edward's

Hilltoppers

Concordia–St.
Paul

Golden Bears

Saint Joseph's

Pumas

Converse

Valkyries

Saint Leo

Lions

Daemen

Wildcats

Saint Martin's

Saints

Dallas Baptist

Patriots

St. Mary's

Rattlers

Saint Michael's

Purple
Knights

Saint Rose

Golden
Knights

Columbus State Cougars

Davis & Elkins
Delta State

Senators
Statesmen

100

District of
Columbia

Firebirds

St. Thomas Aquinas

Spartans

Dixie State

Red Storm

Salem International

Tigers

Dominican

Penguins

San Francisco State

Gators

Dominican

Chargers

University of the
Sciences

Devils

Dowling

Golden Lions

Seattle Pacific

Falcons

Drury

Panthers

Seton Hill

Griffins

East Central

Tigers

Shaw

Bears

East
Stroudsburg

Warriors

Shepherd

Rams

Eastern New
Mexico

Greyhounds/Zias

Shippensburg

Red Raiders

Eckerd

Tritons

Shorter

Hawks

Edinboro

Fighting Scots

Simon Fraser

Clan

Elizabeth City
State

Vikings

of Sioux Falls

Cougars

Embry–Riddle
Aeronautical

Eagles

Slippery Rock

The Rock

Emmanuel

Lions

Sonoma State

Seawolves

Emporia State

Hornets

South Carolina-Aiken

Pacers

Flying Fleet

South Dakota School
of Mines and
Technology

Hardrockers

Falcons

Southeastern
Oklahoma State

Savage
Storm

Erskine
Fairmont State

101

Fayetteville
State
Felician

Broncos

Southern Arkansas

Golden Falcons

Southern Connecticut Fighting
State
Owls
Southern Indiana

Screaming
Eagles

Oilers

Southern Nazarene

Crimson
Storm

Flagler

Saints

Southern New
Hampshire

Penmen

Florida
Southern

Moccasins

Southern Wesleyan

Warriors

Florida Institute
of Technology
Panthers

Southwest Baptist

Bearcats

Fort Hays State

Tigers

Southwest Minnesota
State
Mustangs

Skyhawks

Southwestern
Oklahoma State

Bulldogs

Fort Valley State Wildcats

Spring Hill

Badgers

Francis Marion

Patriots

Stillman

Tigers

Franklin Pierce

Ravens

Stonehill

Skyhawks

Fresno Pacific

Sunbirds

Tampa

Spartans

Golden Knights

Tarleton State

Texans/TexA
nns

Bobcats

Texas A&M
International

Dustdevils

Ferris State
Findlay

Fort Lewis

Gannon
Georgia College
& State

Bulldogs

Georgia Regents Jaguars

Muleriders

Texas A&M–
102

Lions

Commerce
Georgia
Southwestern
State

Hurricanes

Texas A&M–Kingsville Javelinas

Georgian Court

Lions

Texas Woman's
College

Pioneers

Glenville State

Pioneers

Texas-Permian Basin

Falcons

Goldey–Beacom Lightning

Tiffin

Dragons

Grand Valley
State

Lakers

Trevecca Nazarene

Trojans

Harding

Bisons

Truman State

Bulldogs

Hawaii Pacific

Sharks

Tusculum

Pioneers

Tuskegee

Golden
Tigers

Henderson State Reddies

UC San Diego

Tritons

Hillsdale

Chargers

UNC-Pembroke

Braves

Holy Family

Tigers

Union

Bulldogs

Holy Names

Hawks

Upper Iowa

Peacocks

Humboldt State Lumberjacks

Urbana

Blue Knights

IllinoisSpringfield

Prairie Stars

Ursuline

Arrows

Indiana College
of Pennsylvania

Crimson Hawks

Valdosta State

Blazers

College of
Indianapolis

Greyhounds

Virginia State

Trojans

Hawaii-Hilo

Vulcans

103

Johnson C. Smith Golden Bulls

Panthers

Kentucky State

Thorobreds/Thorob Virginia's College at
rettes
Wise

Highland
Cavaliers

Kentucky
Wesleyan

Panthers

Walsh

Cavaliers

King

Tornado

Washburn

Ichabods

Kutztown

Golden Bears

Wayne State

Warriors

Lake Erie

Storm

Wayne State

Wildcats

Lake Superior
State

Lakers

West Alabama

Tigers

Lander

Bearcats

West Chester

Golden Rams

Lane

Dragons

West Florida

Argonauts

Le Moyne

Dolphins

West Georgia

Wolves

Lee

Flames

West Liberty

Hilltoppers/
Lady
Toppers

Lees–McRae

Bobcats

West Texas A&M

Buffaloes

LeMoyne–Owen Magicians

West Virginia State

Yellow
Jackets

Lenoir–Rhyne

Bears

West Virginia
Wesleyan

Bobcats

Lewis

Flyers

Western New Mexico Mustangs

Limestone

Saints

Western Oregon

Wolves

Blue Tigers

Western State
Colorado

Mountaineer
s

Lincoln (MO)

Virginia Union

104

Lincoln (PA)

Lions

Western Washington Vikings

Lincoln
Memorial

Railsplitters

Wheeling Jesuit

Cardinals

Lindenwood

Lions

William Jewell

Cardinals

Livingstone

Blue Bears

Wilmington

Wildcats

Lock Haven

Bald Eagles

Wingate

Bulldogs

L.I. Post

Pioneers

Winona State

Warriors

Lubbock
Christian

Chaparrals/Lady
Chaps

Winston–Salem State Rams

Lynn

Fighting Knights

Wisconsin–Parkside

Rangers

Young Harris

Mountain
Lions

Malone

Pioneers

Mansfield

Mountaineers

105

Division III

School

Nickname

School

Nickname

Adrian

Bulldogs

Medgar Evers

Cougars

Agnes Scott

Scotties

Merchant Marine

Mariners

Albertus
Magnus

Falcons

Meredith

Angels

Albion

Britons

Messiah

Falcons

Albright

Lions

Methodist

Monarchs

Alfred

Saxons

Middlebury

Panthers

Alfred State

Pioneers

Millikin

Big Blues

Allegheny

Gators

Mills

Cyclones

Alma

Scots

Millsaps

Majors

Alvernia

Crusaders

Milwaukee School of
Engineering

Raiders

Alverno

Inferno

Minnesota-Morris

Cougars

Amherst

Lord Jeffs

Misericordia

Cougars

Anderson

Ravens

MIT

Engineers

Anna Maria

AMCATS

Mitchell

Mariners

Arcadia

Knights

Monmouth

Scots

Augsburg

Auggies

Montclair State

Red Hawks

Augustana

Vikings

Moravian

Greyhounds

Aurora

Spartans

Morrisville State

Mustangs

Austin

Kangaroos

Mount Aloysius

Mounties

106

Averett

Cougars

Mount Holyoke

Lyons

Babson

Beavers

Mount Ida

Mustangs

Baldwin
Wallace

Yellow Jackets

Mount Mary

Blue Angels

Baptist Bible

Defenders

Mount St. Joseph

Lions

Bard

Raptors

Mount Saint Mary

Knights

Baruch

Bearcats

Mount Saint Vincent

Dolphins

Bates

Bobcats

Mount Union

Purple Raiders

Bay Path

Wildcats

Muhlenberg

Mules

Becker

Hawks

Muskingum

Fighting
Muskies

Beloit

Buccaneers

Nazareth

Golden Flyers

Benedictine

Eagles

Nebraska Wesleyan

Prairie Wolves

Berea

Mountaineers

Neumann

Knights

Berry

Vikings

New England

Pilgrims

Bethany

Bison

New England

Nor'easters

Bethany
Lutheran

Vikings

The College of New
Jersey

Lions

Bethel

Royals

New Jersey City

Gothic Knights

Birmingham–
Southern

Panthers

New Rochelle

Blue Angels

Blackburn

Beavers

SUNY Brockport

Golden Eagles

Bluffton

Beavers

SUNY Canton

Kangaroos

Bowdoin

Polar Bears

SUNY Cobleskill

Fighting Tigers

107

Brandeis

Judges

SUNY Cortland

Red Dragons

Bridgewater

Eagles

SUNY Fredonia

Blue Devils

Bridgewater
State

Bears

SUNY Geneseo

Blue Knights

Brooklyn

Bulldogs

SUNY Maritime

Privateers

Bryn Athyn

Lions

SUNY Polytechnic

Wildcats

Bryn Mawr

Owls

SUNY New Paltz

Hawks

Buena Vista

Beavers

SUNY Old Westbury

Panthers

Buffalo State

Bengals

SUNY Oneonta

Red Dragons

Cabrini

Cavaliers

SUNY Oswego

Lakers

Cairn

Highlanders

SUNY Plattsburgh

Cardinals

Cal Tech

Beavers

SUNY Potsdam

Bears

California
Lutheran

Kingsmen

SUNY Purchase

Panthers

Calvin

Knights

NYU

Violets

Capital

Crusaders

Newbury

Nighthawks

Carleton

Knights

Nichols

Bison

Carnegie
Mellon

Tartans

North Carolina
Wesleyan

Bishops

Carroll

Pioneers

North Central

Cardinals

Carthage

Red Men/Lady
Reds

North Central

Rams

Case Western
Reserve

Spartans

North Park

Vikings

108

Castleton State Spartans

Northland

Lumberjacks/Lu
mberjills

Catholic
University of
America

Cardinals

Northwestern–St.
Paul

Eagles

Cazenovia

Wildcats

Norwich

Cadets

Falcons

Notre Dame of
Maryland

Gators

Oberlin

Yeomen/Yeowo
men

Centenary (NJ) Cyclones

Occidental

Tigers

Central

Dutch

Oglethorpe

Stormy Petrels

Centre

Colonels

Ohio Northern

Polar Bears

Chapman

Panthers

Ohio Wesleyan

Battling Bishops

Chatham

Cougars

Olivet

Comets

Chicago

Maroons

Otterbein

Cardinals

Christopher
Newport

Captains

College of the Ozarks Eagles

CCNY

Beavers

Pacific Lutheran

Lutes

Claremont–
Mudd–Scripps Stags/Athenas

Pacific

Boxers

Clark

Cougars

Penn Tech

Wildcats

Clarkson

Golden Knights

Penn State-Abington

Nittany Lions

Coast Guard

Bears

Penn State-Altoona

Lions

Coe

Kohawks

Penn State-Berks

Nittany Lions

Cedar Crest
Centenary
(LA)

Gents/Ladies

109

Colby

Penn State-Erie

Lions

Colby–Sawyer Chargers

Penn StateHarrisburg

Lions

Colorado

Tigers

Piedmont

Lions

Concordia

Cobbers

Pine Manor

Gators

ConcordiaChicago

Cougars

Pitt-Bradford

Panthers

ConcordiaTexas

Tornados

Pitt-Greensburg

Bobcats

ConcordiaWisconsin

Falcons

Plymouth State

Panthers

Connecticut
College

Camels

Pomona and Pitzer

Sagehens

Cornell

Rams

Principia

Panthers

Covenant

Scots

Puget Sound

Loggers

Crown

Storm

Ramapo

Roadrunners

CUNY York

Cardinals

Randolph

WildCats

Curry

Colonels

Randolph–Macon

Yellow Jackets

College of
Dallas

Crusaders

Redlands

Bulldogs

Daniel
Webster

Eagles

Regis

Pride

Defiance

Yellow
Jackets/Lady
Jackets

Rhode Island

Anchormen

Aggies

Rhodes

Lynx

Delaware

White Mules

110

Valley
Denison

Big Red

Ripon

Red Hawks

DePauw

Tigers

Rivier

Raiders

DeSales

Bulldogs

Roanoke

Maroons

Dickinson

Red Devils

Rochester

Yellowjackets

Dominican

Stars

Rochester Institute
of Technology

Tigers

Drew

Rangers

Rockford

Regents

University of
Dubuque

Spartans

Roger Williams

Hawks

D'Youville

Spartans

Rose-Hulman
Institute of
Technology

Engineers

Earlham

Quakers

Rosemont

Ravens

East Texas
Baptist

Tigers

Rowan

Profs

Eastern
Connecticut
State

Warriors

RPI

Red Hawks

Eastern
Mennonite

Royals

Russell Sage

Gators

Eastern
Nazarene

Lions

Rust

Bearcats

Eastern

Eagles

Rutgers–Camden

Scarlet Raptors

Edgewood

Eagles

Rutgers–Newark

Scarlet Raiders

Saint Benedict

Blazers

Elizabethtown Blue Jays

111

Elmhurst

St. Catherine

Wildcats

Elmira

Soaring Eagles

Saint Elizabeth

Screaming
Eagles

Elms

Blazers

St. John Fisher

Cardinals

Emerson

Lions

Saint John's

Johnnies

Emmanuel

Saints

Saint Joseph

Blue Jays

Wasps

St. Joseph's
(Brooklyn)

Bears

Eagles

St. Joseph's (Long
Island)

Golden Eagles

Endicott

Gulls

Saint Joseph's of
Maine

Monks

Eureka

Red Devils

St. Lawrence

Saints

Farmingdale
State

Rams

Saint Mary's

Belles

Devils

St. Mary's of
Maryland

Seahawks

Ferrum

Panthers

Saint Mary's of
Minnesota

Cardinals

Finlandia

Lions

St. Norbert

Green Knights

Fitchburg
State

Falcons

St. Olaf

Oles

Fontbonne

Griffins

The College of St.
Scholastica

Saints

Framingham
State

Rams

St. Thomas

Tommies

Emory and
Henry
Emory

FDU-Madison

Bluejays

112

Franciscan

Barons

Saint Vincent

Bearcats

Franklin &
Marshall

Diplomats

Salem

Spirits

Franklin

Grizzlies

Salem State

Vikings

Frostburg
State

Bobcats

Salisbury

Sea Gulls

Gallaudet

Bison

Salve Regina

Seahawks

Geneva

Golden
Tornadoes

Sarah Lawrence

Gryphons

George Fox

Bruins

Schreiner

Mountaineers

Gettysburg

Bullets

Scranton

Royals

Gordon

Fighting Scots

Sewanee: The
College of the South

Tigers

Goucher

Gophers

Shenandoah

Hornets

Green
Mountain

Eagles

Simmons

Sharks

Greensboro

Pride

Simpson

Storm

Greenville

Panthers

Skidmore

Thoroughbreds

Grinnell

Pioneers

Smith

Pioneers

Grove City

Wolverines

Southern Maine

Huskies

Guilford

Quakers

Southern Vermont

Mountaineers

Gustavus
Adolphus

Gusties

Southern Virginia

Knights

Gwynedd
Mercy

Griffins

Southwestern

Pirates

113

Hamilton

Continentals

Spalding

Golden Eagles

Hamline

Pipers

Springfield

Pride

Tigers

College of Staten
Island

Dolphins

Hanover

Panthers

Stevens Institute of
Technology

Ducks

Hardin–
Simmons

Cowboys/Cowgir
ls
Stevenson

Mustangs

Hartwick

Hawks

Stockton

Ospreys

Haverford

Fords

Suffolk

Rams

Heidelberg

Student Princes

Sul Ross State

Lobos

Hendrix

Warriors

Susquehanna

Crusaders

Hilbert

Hawks

Swarthmore

Garnet

Hiram

Terriers

Sweet Briar

Vixens

Hobart

Statesmen

Texas Lutheran

Bulldogs

Hollins

None

Thiel

Tomcats

Hood

Blazers

Thomas

Terriers

Hope

Flying Dutchmen Thomas More

Saints

Houghton

Highlanders

Transylvania

Pioneers

Howard Payne Yellow Jackets

Trine

Thunder

Hunter

Hawks

Trinity

Bantums

Huntingdon

Hawks

Trinity

Tigers

Husson

Eagles

Trinity Washington

Tigers

Tufts

Jumbos

Hampden–
Sydney

Illinois

Blueboys/Lady

114

Blues

Illinois
Institute of
Technology

Scarlet Hawks

UC Santa Cruz

Banana Slugs

Illinois
Wesleyan

Titans

UMass-Boston

Beacons

Immaculata

Mighty Macs

UMass-Dartmouth

Corsairs

Iowa
Wesleyan

Tigers

Union

Dutchmen

Ithaca

Bombers

Ursinus

Bears

John Carroll

Blue Streaks

UT-Dallas

Comets

John Jay

Bloodhounds

UT-Tyler

Patriots

Johns Hopkins Blue Jays

Utica

Pioneers

Johnson &
Wales

Wildcats

Valley Forge

Patriots

Johnson State

Badgers

Vassar

Brewers

Juniata

Eagles

Virginia Wesleyan

Marlins

Kalamazoo

Hornets

Wabash

Little Giants

Kean

Cougars

Wartburg

Knights

Keene State

Owls

Washington &
Jefferson

Presidents

Kenyon

Lords/Ladies

Washington and Lee Generals

Keuka

Storm

Washington

Shoremen

Keystone

Giants

Washington
University in St.

Bears

115

Louis
King's

Monarchs

Waynesburg

Yellow Jackets

Knox

Prairie Fire

Webster

Gorloks

La Roche

Redhawks

Wellesley

Blue

La Verne

Leopards

Wells

Express

LaGrange

Panthers

Wentworth Institute
of Technology

Leopards

Lake Forest

Foresters

Wesley

Wolverines

Lakeland

Muskies

Wesleyan

Wolves

Lancaster
Bible

Chargers

Wesleyan

Cardinals

Lasers

Western Connecticut
State
Colonials

Lawrence

Vikings

Western New
England

Lebanon
Valley

Flying Dutchmen Westfield State

Owls

Lehman

Lightning

Westminster

Blue Jays

Lesley

Lynx

Westminster

Titans

LeTourneau

Yellow Jackets

Wheaton

Thunder

Lewis & Clark Pioneers

Wheaton

Lyons

Linfield

Wildcats

Wheelock

Wildcats

Loras

Duhawks

Whitman

Missionaries

Louisiana

Wildcats

Whittier

Poets

Lasell

116

Golden Bears

Luther

Norse

Whitworth

Pirates

Lycoming

Warriors

Widener

Pride

Lynchburg

Hornets

Wilkes

Colonels

Lyndon State

Hornets

Willamette

Bearcats

Macalester

Scots

William Paterson

Pioneers

MacMurray

Highlanders

William Peace

Pacers

MaineFarmington

Beavers

William Smith

Herons

Maine
Maritime
Academy

Mariners

Williams

Ephs

MainePresque Isle

Owls

Wilmington

Quakers

Manchester

Spartans

Wilson

Phoenix

Manhattanville Valiants

Wisconsin–Eau
Claire

Blugolds

Maranatha
Baptist

Crusaders

Wisconsin–La Crosse Eagles

Marian

Sabres

Wisconsin Lutheran

Warriors

Marietta

Pioneers

Wisconsin–Oshkosh

Titans

Martin Luther Knights

Wisconsin–
Platteville

Pioneers

Fighting
Mary Baldwin Squirrels

Wisconsin–River
Falls

Falcons

Mary Hardin–
Baylor

Wisconsin–Stevens
Point

Pointers

Crusaders

117

Mary
Washington

Eagles

Wisconsin–Stout

Blue Devils

Marymount

Saints

Wisconsin–Superior

Yellow Jackets

Maryville

Scots

Wisconsin–
Whitewater

Warhawks

Marywood

Pacers

Wittenberg

Tigers

Massachusetts
College of
Liberal Arts
Trailblazers

Wooster

Fighting Scots

Massachusetts
Maritime
Academy
Buccaneers

Worcester
Polytechnic Institute Engineers

McDaniel

Green Terror

Worcester State

Lancers

McMurry

War Hawks

Yeshiva

Maccabees

Medaille

Mavericks

York

Spartans

118

NAIA
School

Nickname

School

Nickname

AIB College of
Business

Eagles

Mayville State

Comets

Alice Lloyd

Eagles

McPherson

Bulldogs

Allen

Yellow Jackets

Menlo

Oaks

Antelope Valley

Pioneers

Michigan–Dearborn Wolverines

Aquinas

Saints

MidAmerica
Nazarene

Arizona Christian

Firestorm

Middle Georgia State Knights

Asbury

Eagles

Midland

Warriors

Ashford

Saints

Midway

Eagles

AuburnMontgomery

Warhawks

Mid–America
Christian

Evangels

Ave Maria

Gyrenes

Milligan

Buffaloes

Avila

Eagles

Missouri Baptist

Spartans

Bacone

Warriors

Missouri Valley

Vikings

Baker

Wildcats

Mobile

Rams

Blazers

Montana State –
Northern

Lights

Bellevue

Bruins

Montana Tech of the
University of
Montana
Orediggers

Benedictine

Ravens

Montana–Western

Belhaven

119

Pioneers

Bulldogs

BenedictineSpringfield

Bulldogs

Montreat

Cavaliers

Bethany

Terrible Swedes

Morningside

Mustangs

Bethel (TN)

Wildcats

Morris

Hornets

Bethel (IN)

Pilots

Mount Marty

Lancers

Bethel (KS)

Threshers

Mount Mercy

Mustangs

Biola

Eagles

Mount Vernon
Nazarene

Cougars

Blue Mountain

Toppers

Nebraska Wesleyan Prairie Wolves

Bluefield

Rams

Northern New
Mexico

Brenau

Golden Tigers

Northwest Christian Beacons

Brescia

Bearcats

Northwest

Eagles

Brewton–Parker

Barons

Northwestern

Red Raiders

Briar Cliff

Chargers

Northwestern Ohio

Racers

British Columbia

Thunderbirds

Northwood –Florida Seahawks

Bryan

Lions

Oklahoma Baptist

Bison

California
Maritime Academy Keelhaulers

Oklahoma City

Stars

Cal State San
Marcos

Oklahoma Wesleyan Eagles

Cougars

Eagles

Calumet College of
St. Joseph
Crimson Wave

Olivet Nazarene

Tigers

Campbellsville

Oregon Institute of
Technology

Owls

Tigers

120

Cardinal Stritch

Wolves

Ottawa

Carlow

Celtics

Our Lady of the Lake Saints

Carroll

Fighting Saints

Pacific Union

Pioneers

Central Baptist

Mustangs

Park

Pirates

Central Christian
College of Kansas

Tigers

Paul Quinn

Tigers

Central Methodist Eagles

Peru State

Bobcats

Cincinnati
Christian

Eagles

Philander Smith

Panthers

Clarke

Crusaders

Pikeville

Bears

Coastal Georgia

Mariners

Point Park

Pioneers

College of Idaho

Coyotes

Point

Skyhawks

College of the
Ozarks

Bobcats

Presentation

Saints

Columbia (MO)

Cougars

Purdue Calumet

Peregrines

Columbia (SC)

Fighting Koalas

Purdue North
Central

Panthers

Concordia–Irvine

Eagles

Reinhardt

Eagles

Concordia–
Michigan

Cardinals

Rio Grande

Red Storm

Concordia–
Nebraska

Bulldogs

Robert Morris

Eagles

Concordia–
Portland

Cavaliers

Rochester

Warriors

Corban

Warriors

Rocky Mountain

Battlin' Bears

121

Braves

Cornerstone

Roosevelt

Lakers

Culver–Stockton

Wildcats

Saint Ambrose

Fighting
Bees/Queen
Bees

Cumberland

Bulldogs

St. Andrews

Knights

College of the
Cumberlands

Patriots

St. Catharine

Patriots

Dakota State

Trojans

St. Francis (IL)

Fighting Saints

Dakota Wesleyan

Tigers

Saint Francis (IN)

Cougars

Dalton State

Roadrunners

St. Gregory's

Cavaliers

Davenport

Panthers

St. Louis College of
Pharmacy

Eutectics

Dickinson State

Blue Hawks

Saint Mary (KS)

Spires

Dillard

Blue Devils

Saint Mary (NE)

Flames

Doane

Tigers

St. Thomas

Bobcats

Dordt

Defenders

St. Thomas (TX)

Celts

Eastern Oregon

Mountaineers

Saint Xavier

Cougars

Edward Waters

Tigers

San Diego Christian Hawks

Eagles

Savannah College of
Art & Design
Bees

Embry–Riddle
AeronauticalPrescott

Eagles

Savannah College of
Art & Design–
Atlanta
Bees

Evangel

Crusaders

Embry–Riddle
AeronauticalDaytona Beach

Golden Eagles

University of
Science and Arts of

122

Drover

Oklahoma
Evergreen State

Geoducks

Shawnee State

Bears

Faulkner

Eagles

Siena Heights

Saints

Fisher

Falcons

Simpson

Red Hawks

Fisk

Bulldogs

Soka of America

Lions

Florida Memorial

Lions

South CarolinaBeaufort

Sand Sharks

Freed–Hardeman

Lions

Southeastern

Fire

Friends

Falcons

Southern Oregon

Raiders

Georgetown

Tigers

Southern

Black Knights

Grizzlies

University of the
Southwest

Mustangs

Maple Leafs

Southwestern
Assemblies of God

Lions

Grace

Lancers

Southwestern
Christian

Eagles

Graceland

Yellow Jackets

Southwestern

Moundbuilders

Grand View

Vikings

Spring Arbor

Cougars

Great Falls

Argonauts

Stephens

Stars

Hannibal–
LaGrange

Trojans

Sterling

Warriors

Harris–Stowe
State

Hornets

SUNY Delhi

Broncos

Haskell Indian
Nations

Indians

Tabor

Tabor

Georgia Gwinnett
Goshen

123

Hastings

Broncos

Talladega

Tornadoes

Holy Cross

Saints

Taylor

Trojans

Hope International Royals

Tennessee
Wesleyan

Bulldogs

Houston–Victoria

Jaguars

Texas A&M Texarkana

Eagles

Huntington

Foresters

Texas College

Steers

Huston–Tillotson

Rams

Texas Wesleyan

Rams

Indiana Institute of
Technology
Warriors

Thomas

Night Hawks

Indiana Wesleyan Wildcats

Tougaloo

Bulldogs

Indiana East

Red Wolves

Trinity Christian

Trolls

Indiana Kokomo

Cougars

Trinity International Trojans

Indiana
Northwest

Redhawks

Trinity Lutheran

Eagles

Indiana South
Bend

Titans

Truett–McConnell

Bears

Indiana Southeast Grenadiers

UC Merced

Golden Bobcats

Jamestown

Jimmies

Union

Bulldogs

Jarvis Christian

Bulldogs

UT-Brownsville

Scorpions

John Brown

Golden Eagles

Valley City State

Vikings

Johnson & Wales –
Denver

Wildcats

Vanguard

Lions

Johnson & Wales –
North Miami

Wildcats

Victoria

Vikes

124

Judson

Eagles

Viterbo

V-Hawks

Kansas Wesleyan

Coyotes

Voorhees

Tigers

Kentucky Christian Knights

Waldorf

Warriors

La Sierra

Golden Eagles

Walla Walla

Wolves

Langston

Lions

Warner Pacific

Knights

Lawrence
Technological

Blue Devils

Warner

Royals

Lewis–Clark State Warriors

Washington
Adventist

Shock

Life

Eagles

Wayland Baptist

Pioneers

Red Lions

Webber
International

Warriors

Lindenwood –
Belleville

Lynx

West Virginia
Institute of
Technology

Golden Bears

Lindsey Wilson

Blue Raiders

Westminster

Griffins

Louisiana StateAlexandria

Generals

Westmont

Warriors

Louisiana StateShreveport

Pilots

Wilberforce

Bulldogs

Lourdes

Gray Wolves

Wiley

Wildcats

Loyola New
Orleans

Wolfpack

William Carey

Crusaders

Lyon

Scots

William Jessup

Warriors

Madonna

Crusaders

William Penn

Statesmen

Lincoln Christian

125

Marian

Knights

William Woods

Owls

Martin Methodist

Red Hawks

Williams Baptist

Eagles

Marygrove

Mustangs

Winnipeg

Wesmen

Marymount

Mariners

Xavier University of
Louisiana

Gold Rush/Gold
Nuggets

The Master's

Mustangs

York

Panthers

126

JUCO
School

School

Abraham
Baldwin
Agricultural

Lared
Denmark Technical o CC

Quinsigamond
CC

Alabama
Southern CC

Des Moines Area CC Lawson State CC

Rainy River CC

Albany
Technical

Dodge City CC

Lee

Ranger

Lehigh Carbon CC

Raritan Valley
CC

Allegany of
Maryland

School

Allen County
CC
Dyersburg State CC Lenoir CC

Redlands CC

Alpena CC

East Central

Lewis & Clark CC

Rend Lake

Alvin CC

East Central CC

Lincoln

Richard Bland

Ancilla

East Georgia State

Lincoln of New England

Richard J. Daley

Andrew

East Mississippi CC Lincoln Land CC

Richland

Angelina

Eastern Arizona

Lincoln Trail

Ridgewater

Anne
Arundel CC

Eastern Florida
State

Little Big Horn

Riverland CC

AnokaRamsey CC

Eastern Oklahoma
State

Little Priest Tribal

Roane State CC

Eastern Wyoming

Lorain County CC

Rochester
Community
and Technical

Eastfield

Louisburg

Rock Valley

Arizona
Western
Arkansas

Dutchess CC

School

127

Baptist
ASA

Edison CC

Louisiana State University
Eunice
Rockingham CC

ASA Miami

El Paso CC

Luna CC

Rockland CC

Lurleen B. Wallace CC

Rose State

Luzerne County CC

Rowan at
Burlington
County

Atlanta
Metropolitan Elgin CC
Atlantic Cape
CC
Ellsworth CC
Baltimore
City CC

Enterprise State CC MacCormac

Rowan at
Gloucester
County

Barton CC

Erie CC

Macomb CC

Roxbury CC

Madison

Salt Lake CC

Malcolm X

San Jacinto Central

Baton Rouge
CC
Essex County
Benjamin
Franklin
Institute of
Technology

Estrella Mountain
CC

Bergen CC

Fashion Institute of
Technology
Manor

San Jacinto North

Bishop State
CC

Faulkner State CC

Marion Military Institute

San Jacinto South

Bismarck
State

Finger Lakes CC

Marshalltown CC

Sandhills CC

Massasoit CC

Santa Fe

FlorenceBlack Hawk - Darlington
East
Technical

128

Black Hawk - Florida
Moline
Southwestern State MassBay CC
Blinn

Florida State at
Jacksonville

MCC-Blue River

Schenectady
County CC

Borough of
Manhattan
CC

Fond du Lac Tribal
& CC

MCC-Longview

Schoolcraft

Bossier
Parish CC

Fort Scott CC

MCC-Maple Woods

Scott CC

Bristol CC

Frank Phillips

McCook CC

Scottsdale CC

Bronx CC

Frederick CC

MCC-Penn Valley

Seminole State

McHenry County

Seminole State
of Florida

Brookdale
CC

Frontier CC

Brookhaven

FultonMontgomery CC

McLennan CC

Seward County
CC

Broward

Gadsden State CC

Mercer County CC

Shawnee CC

Brown
Mackie

Galveston

Mercyhurst North East

Shelton State
CC

Brunswick
CC

Garden City CC

Meridian CC

Sheridan

Bryant &
Stratton - VA Garrett

Mesa CC

Sinclair CC

Bucks
County CC

GateWay CC - AZ

Mesabi Range

Snead State CC

Bunker Hill
CC

Gateway CC - CT

Miami Dade

Snow

Genesee CC

Mid Michigan CC

Butler CC -

Sauk Valley CC

129

South Florida

KS

State

Butler
County CC -
PA

Middlesex County

South Georgia
State

Midland

South Georgia
Technical

Caldwell CC
& Technical
Institute

Georgia Military

Calhoun CC

Georgia
Northwestern
Technical

Mid-South CC

South
Mountain CC

Camden
County

Gillette

Miles CC

South Plains

Cape Fear CC Glen Oaks CC

South
Milwaukee Area Technical Suburban

Carl Albert
State

Glendale CC

Mineral Area

Southeast CC

Carl
Sandburg

Globe Institute of
Technology

Minnesota State
Community & Technical

Southeastern
CC

Gogebic CC

Minnesota West
Community & Technical

Southeastern
CC-Whiteville

Mississippi Delta CC

Southeastern
Illinois

Grand Rapids CC

Mississippi Gulf Coast CC

Southern
Crescent
Technical

Grayson

Missouri State University
- West Plains

Southern Union
State CC

Casper
Catawba
Valley CC

Cayuga CC
CC of
Allegheny
CountyAllegheny

Georgia Highlands

Gordon State

130

CC of
Allegheny
CountyBoyce
CC of
Allegheny
CountyNorth
CC of
Allegheny
CountySouth
CCBC
Catonsville
CCBC
Dundalk
CCBC Essex
Cecil
Cedar Valley

Guilford Technical
CC

Gulf Coast State

Hagerstown CC

Harcum
Harford CC
Harper

Moberly Area CC

Southern
UniversityShreveport

Mohawk Valley CC

Southwest
Mississippi CC

Monroe

Southwest
Tennessee CC

Monroe CC

Southwest
Wisconsin
Technical

Montgomery

Southwestern
Christian

Montgomery County CC

Southwestern
CC

Harrisburg Area CC Moraine Valley CC

Southwestern
Illinois

Harry S Truman

Morton

Southwestern
Oregon CC

Central
Alabama CC

Heartland CC

Motlow State CC

Spartanburg
Methodist

Central
Arizona

Henry Ford

Mott CC

Spoon River

Central
Carolina CC

Herkimer County
CC

Mountain View

Springfield
Technical CC

131

Central CCColumbus

Hesston

St. Charles CC

Muscatine CC

St. Clair County
CC

Muskegon CC

St. Cloud
Technical & CC

Central
Georgia
Technical

Hibbing CC

Central
Lakes Brainerd

Highland CC -
Illinois

Central
Virginia CC

Highland CC -
Kansas

Nassau CC

St. Johns River
State

Central
Wyoming

Highline

Navarro

St. Louis CC

Century

Hill

Neosho County CC

St. Petersburg

Hillsborough CC

New Mexico Junior

State of Florida,
ManateeSarasota

Hinds CC

New Mexico Military
Institute

State Fair CC

New River CC

Suffolk County
CC

Niagara County CC

Sullivan County
CC

North Arkansas

SUNY
Adirondack

Hostos CC

North Central Missouri

SUNY Broome
CC

Howard

North Central Texas

Surry CC

ChandlerGilbert CC
Chattahooch
ee Technical
Chattahooch
ee Valley CC

Hocking

Chattanooga
State CC
Holmes CC
Chesapeake
Chipola
Cincinnati
State
Technical &

Murray State

Holyoke CC

132

CC
Howard CC

North Country CC

Sussex County
CC

Clackamas
CC

Hudson Valley CC

North Dakota State of
Science

Tallahassee CC

Clarendon

Hutchinson CC

North Idaho

Temple

North Iowa Area CC

Thaddeus
Stevens of
Technology

North Lake

Thomas Nelson
CC

North Platte CC

Three Rivers
CC - MO

Northampton CC

Tohono
O'odham CC

Northeast CC

Tompkins
Cortland CC

Northeast Mississippi CC

Trinidad State
Junior

Coastal Bend Iowa Lakes CC

Northeast Texas CC

Trinity Valley
CC

Cochise

Iowa Western CC

Northeastern Junior

Triton

Itasca CC

Northeastern Oklahoma
A&M

Tyler Junior

Itawamba CC

Northern Essex CC

Ulster County
CC

Jackson

Northern Oklahoma -Enid Union County

Cisco

Clark State
CC
Cleveland
State CC
Clinton CC
Clinton
Junior

Illinois Central
Illinois Valley CC
Independence CC
Indian Hills CC

Cloud County
CC
Indian River State
Coahoma CC

Coffeyville
CC
Colby CC
of Central

Iowa Central CC

133

Florida
Northern Oklahoma Tonkawa

United Tribes
Technical

Jacksonville

Northern Virginia CC

University of
Connecticut at
Avery Point

of Southern
Idaho

Jamestown CC

Northland Community &
Technical

USC Lancaster

of Southern
Maryland

Jamestown CCCattaraugus

Northwest

USC
Salkehatchie

of Southern
Nevada

Jefferson

Northwest Florida State

USC Sumter

Northwest Kansas
Technical

Utah State
University
Eastern

Northwest Mississippi CC

Valley Forge
Military

of DuPage
of Lake
County

of The
Albemarle

Jackson State CC

Jefferson CC

Collin County
CC
Jefferson Davis CC
Colorado
Northwester
n CC

John A. Logan

Oakland CC

VanceGranville CC

Columbia
State CC

John Wood CC

Oakton CC

Vermilion CC

ColumbiaGreene CC

Johnson

Ocean County

Vernon

Odessa

Vincennes
University

Olive-Harvey

Volunteer State
CC

Columbus
State CC

Johnson County CC

CC of Beaver
County
Johnston CC

134

CC of
Philadelphia

Olney Central

Wabash Valley

CC of Rhode
Island

Jones County Junior Onondaga CC

Wake Technical
CC

Connors
State

Kalamazoo Valley
CC

Orange County CC

Wallace CCDothan

Otero Junior

Wallace CCSelma

CopiahLincoln CC

Kankakee CC

Corning CC

Kansas City Kansas
CC
Owens CC

Wallace State
CC-Hanceville

Cottey

Kaskaskia

Oxford of Emory
University

County of
Morris

Kellogg CC

Palm Beach State

Waubonsee CC

Walters State
CC

Cowley
County CC

Kennedy-King

Panola

Wayne County
CC District

Crowder

Kilgore

Paradise Valley CC

Weatherford

Paris Junior

Wentworth
Military
Academy

Cuyahoga CC Kirkwood CC

Parkland

West Georgia
Technical

Dakota at
Bottineau

Pasco-Hernando State

Westchester CC

Kishwaukee

Passaic County CC

Western
Nebraska CC

Labette CC

Patrick Henry CC

Cumberland
County

Dakota
County
Technical
Danville

Joliet Junior

Kingsborough CC

Kirtland CC

135

Western

Area CC

Nevada

Danville CC

Pearl River CC

Western
Oklahoma State

Darton State LaGuardia CC

Pennsylvania Highlands
CC

Western
Technical

Davidson
County CC

Pensacola State

Western Texas

Phoenix

Western
Wyoming CC

Lackawanna

Lake Land

Dawson CC

Lake Michigan

Daytona
State

Lake Region State -
ND
Pima CC

Westmoreland
County CC

Dean

Lake Superior

Pitt CC

Wharton
County Junior

Delaware
County CC

Lakeland CC

Polk State

Wilbur Wright

Delaware
Technical
CC-Owens

Lake-Sumter State

Potomac State of WVU

Williamson
Free School of
Mechanical
Trades

Delaware
Technical
CC-Stanton

Lamar CC

Prairie State

Williston State

Delaware
Technical
CC-Terry

Lamar State - Port
Arthur

Pratt CC

Wytheville CC

Delgado CC

Lansing CC

Prince George's CC

Yavapai

Delta

Laramie County CC Queensborough CC

136