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Historia de los negros americanos

Desde frica hasta la aparicin del Reino de algodn


Philip S. Foner

Bibliografa y fuentes
GENERALES BIBLIOGRFICAS GUAS
Hay una serie de guas bibliogrficas generales al estudio de los negros americanos. Uno de los primeros fue Monroe N. trabajo, Una
bibliografa de los negros en frica y Amrica (Nueva York, 1928), pero desde entonces hemos tenido Dorothy B. Porter, una lista
seleccionada de libros de y sobre el negro (Washington, 1936 y reimpreso 1970); Erwin K. Welsch, El negro en los Estados Unidos, Una
Gua de Investigacin (Bloomington, 1965); Erwin A. Salk, una gua de divulgacin de la Historia Negra (Chicago, 1966 y reimpreso
1967). Sin embargo, dos obras recientes son de especial importancia: James M. McPherson, Laurence B. Holanda, James M. Banner,
Jr., Nancy J. Weiss, Michael D. Bell, los negros en Estados Unidos: Ensayos bibliogrficas (Nueva York, 1971) , disponible en las
ediciones de tela y de papel, y Dwight L. Smith, editor, Afro-American History: Una bibliografa, introduccin por Benjamin Quarles (Santa
Barbara, California, 1974), disponible slo en pao. El trabajo de Smith incluye 2.900 resmenes de los artculos que han aparecido en
las ltimas dos dcadas, mientras que el trabajo por McPherson et al. incluye tanto libros como artculos, aunque no los resmenes. Sin
embargo, s incluye obras en el Caribe y Amrica Latina, que no estn cubiertos en la gua de Smith. Ni gua incluye las tesis inditas y
disertaciones.

1. Pasado africana temprana


Introduccin
Las discusiones sobre el tratamiento tradicional de frica en las obras histricas y otras, as como las reas de la historia de frica an
no se ha explorado, se pueden encontrar en la albahaca Davidson, frica en la Historia: Los temas y esquemas (Nueva York, 1969);
Philip D. Curtin, African History (Nueva York, 1964); John D. Fage, "Historia", en Robert Lystad, ed, The African Mundial (Nueva York,
1965).; Jan Vansina, Tradicin Oral (Chicago, 1965); George P. Murdock, frica: su gente y su historia cultural (Nueva York, 1959); y
Donald L. Wiedner, Una historia de Africa al sur del Sahara (Nueva York, 1962). Estos deben ser complementados por los siguientes
artculos: Kenneth Onwuka Dike, "El Estudio Cientfico de la historia de frica," Historia de los Negros Bulletin, 21, marzo de 1968;
Clarence G. Contee, "Problemas Actuales de frica Historiografa," Negro Boletn de Historia, 30, abril de 1967; y Angene Wilson, "Africa
Pasado, Presente y Futuro," Negro Boletn de Historia, 21, 1968, octubre Un excelente estudio de los mitos occidentales relacionados
con frica pre-europeo es Katherine George, "El Occidente civilizado Mira a frica Primitiva: 1400-1800 , Estudio en El etnocentrismo,
"Isis, 49, 1958 Una discusin brillante y conmovedor de las contribuciones WEB DuBois de los estudios africanos y sus efectos sobre su
propio trabajo, es William Leo Hansberry," Influencia WEB DuBois "en Historia de frica," Freedomways, Primeros cuartos, Invierno
1965, WEB DuBois Memorial de Emisin. Una apreciacin de JA Rogers es Burghardt W. Turner, "Joel Augusto Rogers: un historiador
afroamericano," Historia de los Negros Bulletin, 35, febrero 1972.
Por la actitud de los estadounidenses negros hacia frica, vase George Shepperson, "Notas sobre la Influencia americano del negro
en la Aparicin de nacionalidad africana," Diario de la Historia de frica, 1, No. 2, 1960; John A. Davis, ed, frica desde el punto de vista
de Amrica del Negro (Pars, 1958, un nmero especial de la revista Presencia Africana); WEB Du Bois, Negro Folk:. Antes y ahora
(Nueva York, 1939), y Carter G. Woodson, Fondo Africano Contorno (Washington, 1936). Tambin es til John Hope Franklin,
"Descubriendo Negro American History", en Joseph S. Roucek y Thomas Kiernan, eds., El Negro Impacto en la Civilizacin Occidental
(Nueva York, 1970), y especialmente Ernest Kaiser, "La Historia de la Historia de los Negros , "Negro Digest, febrero 1968.
Para historias generales de frica, los mejores trabajos de impresin son Roland Oliver y John D. Fage, Una breve historia de frica
(Baltimore, 1962), aunque es dbil en el primer perodo y colonial; JC DeGraft-Johnson, La Historia de Vanished Negro Civilizaciones
(Londres, 1954); Robert julio, Una Historia de los Pueblos Africanos (Nueva York, 1970); y Harry A. Gailey, Historia de frica desde los
primeros tiempos hasta 1800 (Nueva York, 1970). Robert I. Rotberg, una historia poltica de frica Tropical (Nueva York, 1965), es el
primer intento (hace mucho tiempo) para contar la historia poltica de la mayor parte de frica, y aunque un proyecto demasiado
ambicioso, es lo suficientemente amplio como para proporcionar til informacin en todo. Un breve repaso til es el folleto de Philip
Curtin en la Asociacin Histrica de servicio Serie American Center, Historia de frica.
Encuestas regionales tiles de frica son John D. Fage, Introduccin a la Historia de frica Occidental (Cambridge, Ing., 1962), y Basilio
Davidson et. al., Una historia de frica occidental hasta el siglo XIX (Nueva York, 1966).
frica: Lugar de nacimiento de la Humanidad
Para el desarrollo de los primeros hombres en frica, los estudios tiles son Henriette Alimen, La Prehistoria de frica (Londres, 1958);
LSB Leakey, de Adn Antepasados
(Londres, 1953); y J. Desmond Clark, La Prehistoria de frica Meridional (Harmondworth, Ing.,
1959). Estos pueden complementarse con LSB Leakey, El Progreso y evolucin del hombre en frica (Londres y Nueva York, 1962); M.
Boule y Vallois H., Hombres fsiles, 2d ed., Ingls trans. (Nueva York, 1957); PV Tobias, Olduvai Gorge (Cambridge, Eng, 1967.); . J.
Desmond Clark, ed, Tercer Congreso Pan-Africana de la Prehistoria (Livingstone, Zambia, 1955; Londres, 1957); y S. Tax, ed, "El Origen
del Hombre", Current Anthropology, 6, 1965. Tambin son tiles las secciones sobre "Prehistoria" -. "orgenes prehistricos de la cultura
africana" por J. Desmond Clark y "la prehistoria econmica" por C. Wrigley-en PJM McEwan, ed., frica desde los primeros tiempos
hasta 1800 (Londres, 1968).

Sobre el tema de los descubrimientos africanos en las matemticas, vase Claudia Zaslavksy, "Negro africanos matemticas
tradicionales," El Profesor de Matemticas, abril de 1970, y "Matemticas del pueblo Yoruba y de sus vecinos en el sur de Nigeria," Los
dos aos de universidad Matemticas Diario, Fall 1970, desarroll plenamente en su trabajo importante, Condes de frica (Nueva York,
1974).
Egipto en la Historia de frica
Para el papel de frica en Egipto, la controversia sobre si los egipcios eran negros y negros contribuciones a la historia de Egipto, las
discusiones son sugerentes que se encuentran en Robert O. Collins, ed., Problemas en frica Historia (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1968) , y
Paul Bohannon, frica y los africanos (Garden City, Nueva York, 1964). Ver tambin los estudios ms antiguos: Eduard Henri Naville, "El
Origen de la Civilizacin Egipcia," Informe Anual de la Institucin Smithsonian en 1907, y Alexander Francis Chamberlin, "La
contribucin de los negros a la civilizacin humana," Diario de Desarrollo de Carrera, 2, abril 1911 Por comentarios de Diodoro, vase
Diodoro de Sicilia, Trans. CH Oldfather (Cambridge, Mass., 1935), vol 2. Tambin digno de estudio es Frank M. Snowden, los negros en
la Antigedad (Cambridge, Mass., 1970).
El imperio de Kush
Para Kush, los estudiantes deben consultar AJ Arkell, Una historia de Sudn desde los primeros tiempos hasta 1821 (Londres, 1961);
Basilio Davidson, The Lost Cities of Africa (Boston, 1959), y el pasado de frica (Boston, 1964); y Wyatt MacGaffey, "La Historia de las
migraciones de negros en el norte de Sudn" Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 17, Verano 1961 Para Mero el mejor estudio es
Peter Shinnie, Meroe (Nueva York, 1967).
Axum: Una civilizacin etope
Aunque no existe an en Ingls estudio no completa de Axum, los siguientes son tiles: las dos obras de Basilio Davidson antes citada,
y Basilio Davidson, africana Reinos (Nueva York, 1966), con magnficas ilustraciones fotogrficas, y R. Keating, Nubia Crepsculo
(Nueva York, 1936), tambin magnficamente ilustrado. Para Axum, Nubia y Etiopa lo siguiente debe ser consultado: Sylvia Pankhurst,
Etiopa: Una historia cultural (. Essex, Eng, 1955); Edward Ullendorff, los etopes (Londres, 1960); Elizabeth Munroe, Una historia de
Etiopa (Oxford, Ing, 1962.); y Roland Oliver, ed., La Edad Media de la Historia Africana (Londres, 1967), los captulos 1 y 2 Edward
Wilmot Blyden fue el autor del cristianismo, el islam y la Raza Negra (Londres, 1887). La cita es de su artculo, "Mohammedianism y la
Raza Negra," El registrador cristiano (Filadelfia), 14 de septiembre 1876.

2. reinos africanos medievales y modernos


Los imperios del oeste de Sudn
For the Western Sudan the following books provide good general coverage: Spencer Trimmingham, A History of Islam in West Africa
(London, 1962); Edward W. Bovill, Caravans of the Old Sahara (London, 1933), and a later, more popular edition, published in 1958
under the title The Golden Trade of the Moors of which a new, revised edition is available. For the Saharan slave trade, see GB Fisher
and Humphrey J. Fisher, Slavery and Muslim Society in Africa (London, 1970). A general discussion of the Sudanese Kingdoms is to be
found in Joseph Greenberg, The Negro Kingdoms of the Sudan, Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences , Series II, No. 4,
1949; and Basil Davidson's Lost Cities of Africa (Boston, 1959) and The African Past (Boston, 1964). Studies of specific Negro kingdoms
include John D. Farge's excellent Ghana (Madison, Wis., 1959). Two specialized articles that should be read in conjunction are John D.
Farge, Ancient Ghana: A Review of the Evidence, Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana , 3, No. 2., 1957, and Raymond
Mauny, The Question of Ghana, Africa , 24, No. 3, 1954; reprinted in Martin A. Klein and G. Wesley Johnson, eds, Perspectives on the
African Past (Boston, 1972). The best works on Mali and Songhai are in French: Jean Rouch, Les Songhay (Paris, 1954), and Charles
Monteil, Les Empires du Mali, Bulletin du Comit d'Etudes Historiques et Scientifitjues de l'Afrique Occidentale Franaise , 12, Nos. 3
4, 1929. The following article is available in English: Edward W. Bovill, The Niger and the Songhai Empire, Journal of the African
Society , 25, 1925. An important Arabic source available in English and which should be consulted is Mohammed Ibn Abdallah Ibn
Battuta, Travels in Asia and Africa (13251354) , trans. Hamilton AR Gibb (London, 1960), which contains useful primary material.
Other Black Kingdoms of the Western Sudan
For Mossi, Hausa, and Kanem-Bornu, Robert L. Rothberg, A Political History of Tropical Africa (New York, 1965), contains useful
summaries that should be supplemented with Elliot Percival Skinner, The Mossi and Traditional Sudanese History, Journal of Negro
History , 43, 1958, and Elliott P. Skinner, The Mossi of the Upper Volta (Stanford, Cal., 1964).
Kingdoms of the West African Forest and the Savanna
Robert L. Rothberg, A Political History of Tropical Africa , should be consulted for general discussions of the kingdoms of Benin, Oyo,
Dahomey, Akan, and Ashanti. Useful specialized studies include William Turnbull Buhner, A History of the Akan Peoples of the Golden
Coast (London, 1925); RE Bradbury, The Benin Kingdom and the Edo-speaking Peoples of Southwestern Nigeria (London, 1957);
Joacob Egharevba, A Short History of Benin , 3d ed. (Ibadon, 1960); Samuel Johnson, The History of the Yoruba (Evanston, Ill., 1964);
Melville J. Herskovits, Dahomey , 2 vols. (New York, 1938); Robert S. Rattray, The Ashanti (Oxford, Eng., 1923); and William Tardoff, The
Ashanti Confederacy, Journal of African History , 3, No. 3, 1962.
The following are interesting and useful discussions of Bantu expansion: Roland Oliver, The Problem of the Bantu Expansion, Journal
of African History , 7, No. 3, 1936; Joseph Harold Greenberg, Studies in African Linguistics (New Haven, Conn., 1955); and Malcolm
Guthrie, Bantu Origins: A Tentative New Hypothesis, Journal of African Languages , 2, 1962. A general discussion of the Zimbabwe
culture and the medieval kingdoms of Central Africa is to be found in Eric Stokes and Richard Brown, eds., The Zambesian Past: Studies
in Central African History (New York, 1967). More specialized studies include D. Randall-MacIver, Medieval Rhodesia (London, 1906);
HA Wieschoff, The Zimbabwe-Monomatapa Culture in South-East Africa (Menasha, Wis., 1941); G. Caton-Thompson, Zimbabwe Culture
(Oxford, Eng., 1931); Jan Vansina, The Kingdoms of the Southern Savannah (Madison, Wis., 1965); DP Abraham, The Early Political

History of the Kingdom of Mwene Mutapa (8501589), in Historians in Tropical Africa (Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia, 1962); Rogers
Summers, Zimbabwe, Africa South , 2, Jan.Mar., 1958; and MA Jaspan, Negro Culture in Southern Africa before European Conquest,
Science & Society, Summer 1955. The kingdom of the Kongo is discussed in James Duffy, Portuguese Africa (Cambridge, Mass., 1959).

3. African Society and Culture


There is a considerable body of literature dealing with pre-European African society and culture. Good general accounts are Paul
Bohannon, Africa and Africans (Garden City, NY, 1964); Maurice Delafosse, The Negroes of Africa: History and Culture (Washington, DC,
1931); and George P. Murdock, Africa: Its People and Their Cultural History (New York, 1959). African culture is also discussed in two
issues of the Harvard African Studies, No. 2 (Cambridge, 1917) and No. 3 (Cambridge, 1918). Studies of the African kingdoms of the
Western Sudan and the kingdoms of Mossi, Benin, Oyo, Dahomey, and Ashanti cited above should also be consulted.
Especially worth studying is John N. Paden and Edward W. Soja, eds., The African Experience (Evanston, Ill., 1970), Vol. 1.
Economic and Political Institutions
For economic and political institutions, useful specialized studies include Walter Cline, Mining and Metallurgy in Negro Africa (Menasha,
Wis., 1937); CK Meek, Law and Authority in a Nigerian Tribe (London, 1937); KA Busia, The Position of the Chief in the Modern Political
System of Ashanti (London, 1951); and Stanley Diamond, Dahomey: A Proto-State in West Africa (Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia
University, 1951). Two interesting studies of the class structure of pre-European African society, both by Marxist scholars, are Jean SuretCanale, The Traditional Societies of Tropical Africa, Marxism Today, February 1966, and Samur Amin, The Class Struggle in Africa,
Reprint No. 2, African Research Group, Cambridge, Mass., nd This is a reprint of an article originally published in the Paris-based
magazine Revolution (1, No. 9, 1964), under the anonymous signature of XXX.
Social Organization, Religion, and the Arts
For kinship systems and marriage, the following works are useful: AR Radcliffe-Brown and Daryll Forde, African Systems of Kinship and
Marriage (London, 1950), and Mayer Fortes, Primitive Kinship, Scientific American, June 1959. For religion a useful introduction is
Geoffrey Parrinder, African Traditional Religion (London, 1954). For art the following works will be found useful: Alain Locke, Negro Art:
Past and Present (Washington, DC, 1936); Eliot Elisofon, The Sculpture of Africa (London, 1958); Melville J. Herskovits, The Art of the
Congo, Opportunity, 5, May 1927; James J. Sweeney, African Negro Art (New York, 1926); and Paul Wingert, The Sculpture of Negro
Africa (New York, 1950). These should be supplemented with HD Gunn, Handbook of the African Collections of the Commercial Museum,
Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1959); HK Schneider, The Interpretation of Pakot Visual Art, Man, 52, 1955; Justine Cordwell, Naturalism
and Stylization in Yoruba Art, Magazine of Art, 46, 1953; M. Trowell and KP Wachsmann, Tribal Crafts of Uganda (London, 1953); and
RS Rattray, Religion and Art in Ashanti (Oxford, 1927). The well-known black scholar, the late James A. Porter, has some valuable
insights on African art in his article African Art from Prehistory to the Present, in Joseph S. Roucek and Thomas Kiernan, eds., The
Negro Impact on Western Civilization (New York, 1970). Literature is discussed in two older but still useful studies, George W. Ellis, Negro
Culture in West Africa (New York, 1914), and AO Stafford, The Turk E. Soudan, Journal of Negro History, 2, Apr. 1917, and the more
recent work, Ruth Finnegan, Oral Literature in Africa (Oxford, 1970). For African proverbs, see Melville J. Herskovits, Wisdom from
Africa, The Crisis , Sept. 1929. African music, both in its musicological and sociological aspects, is discussed in AP Merriam, A Prologue
to the Study of the African Arts (Yellow Springs, Ohio, 1962), but one should also consult the opening chapters in Eileen Southern, The
Music of Black Americans (New York, 1971). A useful article is Maude Cuney Hare, Africa in Song, Metronome, 38, Dec. 1922. The
statement by Maurice Delafosse is from The Negroes of Africa (Washington, DC, 1931).
African Cultural Survivals in the New World
For African survivals in American Negro culture, the following works should be consulted: Melville J. Herskovits, The Myth of the Negro
Past (New York, 1941), and his The New World Negro: Selected Papers in Afroamerican Studies , ed. Francis S. Herskovits
(Bloomington, Ind., 1969); James G. Leyburn, The Haitian People (New Haven, Conn., 1941); Lorenzo D. Turner, Africanisms in the
Gullah Dialect (Chicago, 1949); Jean Price-Mars, Africa in the Americas, Tomorrow , 2, Autumn 1954; Romeo B. Garrett, African
Survivals in American Culture, Journal of Negro History , 51, Oct. 1966; Dorothy C. Conley, Origin of the Negro Spirituals, Negro History
Bulletin , May 1962. E. Franklin Frazier's criticism of Herskovits' thesis is found in the opening chapter of The Negro in the United States
(New York, 1949).
For criticism of Herskovits, see MG Smith, The African Heritage in the Caribbean in Vera Rubin, ed., Caribbean Studies: A Symposium
(Seattle, 1960), and an interesting reply by George E. Simpson; Paul Bohannan, Africa and the Africans (New York, 1964), pp. 126128;
Robert A. LeVine, Africa, in Francis LK Hsu, ed., Psychological Anthropology: Approaches to Culture and Personality (Homewood, Ill.,
1961), pp. 4892. Herskovits paper, Ethnophilosophy, appeared in Melford E. Spiro, ed., Context and Meaning in Cultural Anthropology
in Honor of A. Irving Hallowell (New York, 1965).
For conflicting interpretations of the origin of black American folktales, see Richard M. Dorson, American Folklore (Chicago, 1959);
American Negro Folktales (Greenwich, Conn., 1968); Aurelio M. Espinosa, Notes on the Origin and History of the Tar-Baby Story,
Journal of American Folklore , 43, 1930, and William D. Piersen, An African Background for American Negro Folktales? Journal of
American Folklore , 134, Apr.June 1971.

4. Slavery: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern


Ancient and Medieval Slavery
For slavery in Egypt, Babylonia and Palestine, Greece and Rome, two general works are still useful: Sir George MacMunn, Slavery
Through the Ages (London, 1938), and Kathleen Simon, Slavery (London, 1929). Specialized studies include Isaac Mendelsohn, Slavery
in the Ancient Near East; a Comparative Study of Slavery in Babylonia, Assyria, Syria, and Palestine from the Middle of the Third
Millennium to the End of the First Millennium (New York, 1949); Moses I. Finley, The World of Odysseus (New York, 1959); William L.

Westermann, The Slave Systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity (Philadelphia, 1955); and Moses I. Finley, ed., Slavery in Classical
Antiquity: Views and Controversies (Cambridge, Eng., 1960). These should be supplemented by Moses I. Finley, Between Slavery and
Freedom, Comparative Studies in Society and History , 6, Apr. 1946, and Victoria Cuffel, The Classical Greek Concept of Slavery,
Journal of the History of Ideas , 37, JulySept. 1966.
An excellent discussion of slavery in medieval Europe is Melvin Knight, Medieval Slavery, Encyclopedia of Social Sciences , 13: 7780.
A work that thoroughly documents the continuity and persistence of slavery from ancient to modern times is Charles Verlinden,
L'Esclavage dans L'Europe medival. Tome Premier. Pninsule Ibrique; France (Brugge, 1955). For a recent emphasis on the
continuity of slavery, see David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture (New York, 1966), Chapter 2. The absence of
racial prejudice in ancient slavery is discussed in William L. Westermann, The Slave Systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity , Moses I.
Finley's essay, Between Slavery and Freedom; and Victoria Cuffel's article, The Classical Greek Concept of Slavery.
Slavery and Racism
For a general discussion of racism, see Pierre L. Van den Berghe, Race and Racism: A Comparative Perspective (New York, 1967). An
important discussion of racism and Indian slavery in the Americas is Lewis Hanke, Aristotle and the American Indians: A Study of Race
Prejudice in the Modern World (Chicago, 1959). The most comprehensive study of racism and Negro slavery in the New World, although
confined to the English and ignoring manifestations of racism among other Europeans, is Winthrop Jordan, White Over Black: American
Attitudes Toward the Negro, 15501812 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1968). (A later work directed to a popular rather than a scholarly readership, is
Winthrop D. Jordan, The White Man's Burden: Historical Origins of Racism in the United States [New York, 1974].) Jordan, however, fails
to probe the economic forces behind the development of white racism and the relationship of class and economic interests to prejudice
and slavery. Also worth consulting are Marvin Harris, Patterns of Race in the Americas (New York, 1964), and Louis Ruchames, The
Source of Racial Thought in Colonial America, Journal of Negro History, 52, Oct. 1967. For Portuguese racial attitudes one should
consult Charles R. Boxer, Race Relations in the Portuguese Colonial Empire, 14151825 (Oxford, 1963), and James Durry, A Question
of Slavery (Cambridge, Mass., 1967). For the Curse of Ham, see Rev. J. Allen Viney, The Curse of Ham, Colored American Magazine ,
Jan. 1904, and for the Mormon view that Negroes are cursed as descendants of Cain, see The New York Times , Jan. 25, 1970
Dr. King's comment on semantics and racism appears in his speech, Where Do We Go From Here? reprinted in Philip S. Foner, The
Voice of Black America: Major Speeches of Negroes in the United States, 17971971 , New York, 1972, p. 1068.
Slavery and the Slave Trade in Pre-European Africa
Para la esclavitud en pre-europeo de frica, ver RS Rattray, Ashanti (Londres, 1923), y su Ley de Ashanti y Constitucin (Londres,
1929); Melville J. Herskovits, Dahomey: Un africano antiguo reino West (Nueva York, 1938); y el ensayo de A. Norman Klein, "frica
Occidental no libre Trabajo Antes y Despus de la rebelin de la trata de esclavos del Atlntico", en Laura Foner y Eugene D. Genovese,
eds, la esclavitud en el Nuevo Mundo:. Un Lector en Historia Comparada ( Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1969). Dos artculos interesantes pena
de consultora son Walter Rodney, "La esclavitud africana y otras formas de opresin social en la Costa Alta Guinea en el contexto de la
trata de esclavos del Atlntico," Diario de la Historia de frica, 7, 1966, y JD Fage, "La esclavitud y la trata de esclavos en el contexto de
la historia de frica Occidental ", Revista de Historia de frica, 10, 1969 Para el comercio de esclavos de frica Oriental en el siglo XIX,
vase JM Gray," Zanzbar y la Cinta Costera, 1840-1884, "en R . Oliver y G. Mathew, eds, Historia de frica del Este (Oxford, 1963).; y el
trabajo anterior, E. Hutchinson, el comercio de esclavos de frica Oriental (Londres, 1874).

5. La Internacional trata de esclavos


La expansin de Europa
JH Parry, La Edad de Reconocimiento (Londres, 1963), es un excelente estudio general de la expansin europea entre 1450 y 1650,
una obra anterior del mismo autor, Europa y un mundo ms amplio 1415-1715 (Londres, 1949), cubre una espectro ms amplio. El
papel del prncipe Enrique de Portugal se discute en RH Major, La vida del prncipe Enrique de Portugal, apodado el Navigator
(Londres, 1867).
El comercio de esclavos pronto para Europa y las actividades de los portugueses en el trfico se discuten en John W. Blake, Principios
europeos en frica Occidental, 1454-1478 (Nueva York, 1937). El mismo autor tambin corrigi los europeos en frica Occidental, 14501560 (Londres, 1942). Tambin es importante James Duffy, Portugal en frica (Cambridge, Mass., 1962). La cita sobre la incautacin de
165 esclavos en 1444 es de Charles Raymond Beazley, el prncipe Enrique el Navegante (Londres, 1901), p. 213.
Los africanos en Europa
Para la esclavitud en Portugal y Espaa, ver Gomes Banes de Zurra, La crnica del Descubrimiento y Conquista de Guinea, trans.
Charles Raymond Beazley y Edgar Prestage (Londres, 1896); CR Boxer, relaciones raciales en el Imperio Colonial Portugus 14151825 (Oxford, 1963); y Sir Arthur Helps, La conquista espaola de Amrica (Londres y Nueva York, 1900). No hay ninguna biografa de
Anton Wilhelm Arno, pero su carrera se discute por N. Lochner, "Anton Wilhelm Arno: A Ghana Acadmico en Alemania del siglo XVIII,"
Transacciones de la Sociedad Histrica de Ghana, 3, de 1958, y por Herbert Aptheker, "Anthony William Arno," El Mundo 15 de febrero
de 1969, que tambin describe las obras recientes de Arno publicadas en latn con traduccin al ingls en la Repblica Democrtica
Alemana.
Para impactos africanos en la literatura espaola, vase Alma C. Allen, "Relaciones literarias entre Espaa y frica," Diario de la Historia
Negra, 50, abril de 1965; Velaurex B. Spratlin, "El negro en la literatura espaola," Diario de la Historia de los Negros, 19, enero de
1943; y Margaret Sampson, "frica en Medieval Literatura Espaola: su aparicin en El Caballero Cifar," Negro Boletn de Historia, 32,
diciembre de 1969 Por la influencia general de los moros, un excelente breve discusin es Philip S. Cohen y Francesco Cordasco, "El
Morrish Impacto en Europa Occidental", en Joseph S. Roucek y Thomas Kiernan, eds., El Negro Impacto en la Civilizacin Occidental
(Nueva York, 1970).

Para la accin del Consejo Privado britnico sobre los africanos en Inglaterra en 1596, vase Paul L. Hughes y James F. Larkin, eds,
Tudor Royal proclamaciones, 3. (New Haven, Connecticut, 1969.): 219-221.
Negros y el Nuevo Mundo
La teora de que los africanos descubrieron el Nuevo Mundo antes de Coln se discute ampliamente en Leo Wiener, frica y el
descubrimiento de Amrica, 3 vols. (Filadelfia, 1922). Los artculos que tratan el tema incluyen MDW Jeffreys, "negros precolombinos,"
Scientia, 44, 1953; MDW Jeffreys, "Maz Precolombino en frica," la Naturaleza, 21 de noviembre 1953; y Harold G. Lawrence,
"Exploradores africanos del Nuevo Mundo, La Crisis, 159, junio-julio de 1962, la participacin de los negros en la exploracin del Nuevo
Mundo despus de Coln es discutido por Richard R. Wright," Compaeros negros de la Exploradores espaoles ", con notas de
Raimundo Logan, Phylon, 2, del Cuarto Trimestre de 1941; JF Rippy, "El Negro y pioneros espaoles en el Nuevo Mundo," Diario de la
Historia de los Negros, 6, abril de 1921; James B. Browning, "Compaeros negros de los pioneros espaoles en el Nuevo Mundo,"
Estudios Universitarios de la historia Howard (Washington, 1936); y Raimundo W. Logan, "Estevanico, Negro Descubridor del
Southwest," Phylon, 1, Cuarto Trimestre. 1940 Cabeza de Vaca, La Relacin, es la odisea de los supervivientes de la malograda
expedicin con la que se asoci Estevanico. Una de las traducciones es por Fanny y AF Bandalier (Nueva York, 1905).
La direccin de Thomas L. Jennings, Nueva York lder negro, se public en el Diario Libertad 's, 04 de abril 1828.
La esclavitud indgena en el Nuevo Mundo
Para la esclavitud indgena en la Amrica espaola, vase Silvio Arturo Zavala, nuevos puntos de vista en la colonizacin espaola de
Amrica (Londres, 1943); Harry M. Rosen, ed, Los Conquistadores de Oro (Indianapolis, 1960).; Philip S. Foner, Historia de Cuba y sus
relaciones con los Estados Unidos (Nueva York, 1962), vol. 1; y Lewis Hanke, Bartolom de Las Casas (Filadelfia, 1952). La
contratacin de funcionarios blancos en Inglaterra para las colonias se discute ampliamente en Abbot Emerson Smith, colonos en
Bondage: Blanco Servidumbre y condenar Trabajo en Amrica, 1607-1776 (Chapel Hill, Carolina del Norte, 1947). Por sus excelentes
breves discusiones de la agricultura india aborigen, vea los artculos sobre el este de Amrica del Norte en Jesse D. Jennings, ed.,
Hombre prehistrico en el Nuevo Mundo (Chicago, 1964).
El Comercio de Amrica del Esclavo
La coleccin ms completa de material de origen en relacin con el comercio de esclavos africanos es la monumental obra editada por
Elizabeth Donnan, documentos ilustrativos de la historia de la trata de esclavos a Amrica, 4 vols. (Washington, 1900-1935). Las
introducciones y notas a cada volumen son importantes para la comprensin del desarrollo, la organizacin, y los horrores de la trata de
esclavos. Tres estudios populares de la trata de esclavos africanos se han publicado recientemente: Basil Davidson, Negro Madre: Los
aos de la trata de esclavos africanos (Boston, 1961); Daniel P. Mannix y Malcolm Cowley, Negro Cargas: Una Historia del Comercio de
Esclavos del Atlntico, 1518-1865 (Nueva York, 1962); y James Pope-Hennesey, pecados de los padres: un estudio de los comerciantes
de esclavos del Atlntico, 1441-1807 (Nueva York, 1968). Los dos primeros son de especial importancia para la organizacin de la trata
de esclavos y sus efectos. Obras generales ms antiguos incluyen George F. Dow, ed, los barcos de esclavos y trabajar como esclavos.
(Salem, Massachusetts, 1927.); Edmund B. D'Auvergne, Ganadera Humano (Londres, 1933); y Hugh Archibald Wyndham. El Atlntico y
la esclavitud (Londres, 1935). Un artculo general, sigue siendo til, es Jerome Dowd, "La trata de esclavos africanos," Diario de la
Historia de los Negros, 3, enero 1917 Un estudio til en forma mimeografiada es C. Fyfe, ed., "La trata transatlntica de esclavos de
Occidente frica ", Universidad de Edimburgo, Centro de Estudios Africanos, 1965.
Las declaraciones de testigos por los europeos que participaron en el comercio incluyen J. Barbot, una descripcin de las costas del
norte y sur de Guinea, traducido del francs (Londres, 1746); William Snelgrave, una nueva cuenta de algunas partes de Guinea y la
trata de esclavos (Londres, 1754); y Alexander Falconbridge, Cuenta de algunos trata de esclavos en la costa de frica (Londres, 1788).
Una cuenta por un europeo quien tambin mand varios barcos de esclavos estadounidenses es Theodore Canot, Memorias de un
comerciante de esclavos, ed. Brantz Mayer (Nueva York, 1854); una versin condensada de la obra es Theodore Canot, Aventuras de
un Slaver africano, ed. Malcolm Cowley (Nueva York, 1935). Revistas y correspondencia de los traficantes de esclavos como George
Arthur Plimpton, ed, El Diario de un Slaver africano, 1789-1792. (Worcester, Massachusetts, 1930.); Nicholas Owen, Diario de un tratante
de esclavos, ed. Eveline Christiana Martin (Londres, 1930); TS Ashton, ed, Cartas de un comerciante de frica Occidental, Edward Grace
1767-1770 (Londres, 1950).; John Newton, El Diario de un esclavo del mercado, 1750-1754, ed. Bernard Martin y Mark Spurrell
(Londres, 1962); y Donald D. Cera, ed., "un cirujano de Filadelfia en un slaving Voyage to Africa, 1749-1751," Pennsylvania Revista de
Historia y Biografa, 92, 1968 Los horrores de la "Middle Passage" octubre son grficamente retratado en I. Aguet, historia ilustrada de la
Trata de Esclavos (Londres, 1968). El mito de una cuidadosa selectividad de los esclavos se explot en Donald D. Wax "Preferencias de
esclavos en la Amrica colonial," Diario de la Historia de los Negros, 58, octubre de 1973.
El efecto de la produccin de azcar en el Caribe en el crecimiento del comercio de esclavos se analiza brillantemente en Eric Williams,
Capitalismo y esclavitud (Chapel Hill, Carolina del Norte, 1944). Vase tambin Arthur P. Newton, las naciones europeas en las Indias
Occidentales, 1493-1688 (Londres, 1933). El comercio de esclavos en los daneses y holandeses se discute en Mathew Nolan, "La
Costa de Oro en el final del siglo XVII bajo los daneses y holandeses," Diario de la Sociedad Africana, 4, 1904 Algunas observaciones
interesantes son tambin a encontrarse en Peter C. Emmer, "La historia de la trata de esclavos holands, de una investigacin
bibliogrfica," Revista de Historia Econmica, 33, septiembre 1972 El comercio de esclavos portugus est bien resumido en Herbert
Klein, "La trata de esclavos portugueses de Angola en el siglo XVIII, "Revista de Historia Econmica, 32, septiembre 1971 Obras que se
ocupan de la trata de esclavos britnico incluye GK Davies, La Real Compaa Africana (Londres, 1957), una historia de estudiante de
uno de los de comercio de esclavos ms importante de Europa empresas; y Frederic Zook, La Compaa del Real Aventureros de
Comercio con frica (Lancaster, PA., 1919). Un trabajo anterior es Anonymous, Liverpool y Esclavitud (Liverpool, 1884). Artculos
especializados incluyen Luther P. Jackson, "isabelina Marinos y el Comercio de Esclavos africanos," Diario de la Historia de los Negros,
9, 01 1924; Eric Williams, "La edad de oro del sistema esclavista en Gran Bretaa," Diario de la Historia de los Negros, 25, enero de
1940; Alice M. Kleist, "The African Comercio Ingls bajo los Tudor," Transacciones de la Sociedad Histrica de Ghana, 3, 1957; y Simon
Rottenberg, "El negocio de la trata de esclavos," Atlntico Sur Quarterly, 66, Verano 1967 El impacto de la trata de esclavos en la
economa britnica y su relacin con el ascenso del capitalismo industrial se analiza en profundidad en Eric Williams, Capitalismo y La

esclavitud, y Wilson E. Williams, frica y el auge del capitalismo (Washington, 1938). Para una crtica del trabajo de Eric Williams, vase
La trata transatlntica de esclavos desde frica Occidental, publicado por el Centro de Estudios Africanos de la Universidad de
Edimburgo (Edimburgo, 1965).
El comercio de esclavos en las colonias americanas se discute en dos primeras obras: George C. Mason, "La trata de esclavos africanos
en la poca colonial," American Historical Record, vol. 1, 1872, y WE Burghardt DuBois, la represin de la trata de esclavos de frica a
los Estados Unidos de Amrica, 1638-1870 (Cambridge, Mass., 1896).
Resistencia Esclavo
Resistencia Negro a la trata de esclavos es un tema an en necesidad de exploracin. Se presta cierta atencin a que en Daniel P.
Mannix y Malcolm Cowley, cargas Negro:. Una historia de la trata de esclavos del Atlntico, 1518-1865, pp 104-130, estudios ms
detallados son Lorenzo J. Greene, "Mutiny on the Slave Buques, "Phylon, 5, Cuarto Trimestre, 1944, pp 346-354, que, sin embargo, est
limitada por el hecho de que se trata de levantamientos de esclavos en slo los buques de Nueva Inglaterra.; y Darold D. Cera,
"Resistencia Negro a la trata de esclavos Early American," Diario de la Historia Negra, 51, enero 1966 Las reimpresiones de informes de
motines de esclavos en peridicos de la poca se pueden encontrar en los volmenes 2 y 3 de Documentos de Elizabeth Donnan
ilustrativos de la historia de la trata de esclavos a Amrica.
Consecuencias de la trata de esclavos para frica
Muchos de los argumentos de ambas partes antes expuestos son convenientemente disponible en Laura Foner y Eugene D. Genovese,
eds, la esclavitud en el Nuevo Mundo:. Un Lector en Historia Comparada (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1969). El libro incluye extractos de los
escritos de Tannenbaum, Elkins, Mintz, Genovese, Harris, Davis, Klein, Sio, Jordania, as como otros. Eugene D. Genovese tambin ha
hablado de las sociedades esclavistas en el Caribe y Amrica Latina en la parte 1 de su El mundo de los esclavistas Made (Nueva York,
1969). Tambin consulte con Magnus Morner, "La historia de relaciones raciales en Amrica Latina: algunas consideraciones sobre el
estado de la investigacin," Latin American Research Review, 1, 1966 Un ejemplo reciente de un estudio comparativo de la esclavitud
es Richard R. Beeman, "Trabajo Las fuerzas y relaciones raciales: una visin comparada de la colonizacin de Brasil y Virginia,
"Ciencias Polticas Quarterly, 86, diciembre 1971.
Las Indias Occidentales Britnicas
Los estudios ms completos de la esclavitud y la situacin de los negros en las Antillas francesas son las obras en francs. Un trabajo
reciente en Ingls, aunque muy poco precisa sobre el perodo anterior a 1791, es Shelby McCloy, El Negro, en las Antillas francesas
(Lexington, Ky., 1966). Estudios especiales sobre Saint Domingue incluyen Lothrop Stoddard D., La Revolucin Francesa en San
Domingo (Boston, 1914), y la brillante obra de CLR James, Los jacobinos Negro: Toussaint L'Ouverture y la Revolucin de Santo
Domingo (Londres, 1938). Para el Padre Labat, ver Pre Jean Baptiste Labat, Voyages aux Isles de l'Amrique (Antillas), 1693-1705
(Pars, 1931). Las cartas de Martinica del marqus de Fnelon y Girod-Charitians estn en los Archives Departamentales de la Martinica,
donde llev a cabo la investigacin durante diciembre de 1969 y enero de 1970 Una imagen de la sociedad de esclavos en Santo
Domingo, as como un anlisis comparativo con la esclavitud en Cuba se presenta en Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, Control Social en Slave
Plantation Socieites: Comparacin de St. Domingue y Cuba (Baltimore, 1971).
Danesa y holandesa de las Indias Occidentales
Para la esclavitud en las Islas Vrgenes, el mejor trabajo es Waldemar Westergaard, The Danish West Indies Company Bajo Regla,
1671-1754 (Nueva York, 1917). Para los holandeses y la esclavitud en Surinam, ver Charles R. Boxer, El Imperio holands Seaborn,
1600-1800 (Nueva York, 1965); Arthur Percival Newton, las naciones europeas en las Indias Occidentales, 1493-1608 (Londres, 1933);
Harry Hoetinck, "relaciones raciales en Curazao y Surinam," en Foner y Genovese, la esclavitud en el Nuevo Mundo, y Cornelis C.
Goslinga, los holandeses en el Caribe y en la costa salvaje, 1580-1680 (Assen, Pases Bajos, 1971 ). Indispensable para un anlisis
contemporneo es el capitn JG Stedman, Narrativa, despus de cinco aos de expedicin contra los negros se rebelaron de Surinam,
en Guayana, en la costa salvaje de Amrica del Sur, a partir del ao 1772, a 1777, 2 vols. (Londres, 1813). Para los cimarrones de
Surinam, Thomas Wentworth Higginson ver, viajeros y proscritos. El extracto de la obra de WR Van Hervell se puede encontrar en El
Libertador de 17 de septiembre 1858.

7. esclavitud y las relaciones raciales en el Caribe y Amrica Latina: Cuba, Continental Espaola Latina, y
Brasil
Cuba
Importantes obras en espaol sobre la esclavitud y las relaciones raciales negros en Amrica continental espaola incluyen Gonzalo
Aguirre Beltrn, La Poblacin Negra de Mxico, 1519-1810 (Mxico, 1946); Roberto Rojas Gmez, "La exclavitud en Colombia," Boletin
de Historia e Antiquedades, 14, 1922; y Jaime Jaramillo Uribe, "Esclavos y seores en la sociedad Colombiana de Siglo XVIII," Anuario
Colombiano de Historia y social, de cultura, 1, 1963. estudios especiales en Ingls que tratan el tema son James F. King, "Negro La
esclavitud en el Virreinato de la Nueva Granada "(tesis doctoral, Universidad de California, Berkeley, 1939); el mismo escritor es el autor
de "Historia de los Negros en Amrica Continental Espaola," Diario de la Historia de los Negros, 29, enero de 1944; Ildefonso Pereda
Valds, "los negros en Uruguay" Phylon, 4, tercer trimestre de 1943; Gonzalo Aguirre Beltrn, "Carreras en Decimosptimo Siglo
Mxico," Phylon, 6, Tercer Trimestre de 1945; el mismo escritor es el autor de "La Tradicin de esclavos en Mxico", Hispanic American
Historical Review, 29, agosto de 1944; David Pavy, "El Origen de Colombia negros," Diario de la Historia de los Negros, 52, enero de
1967; Joaqun Roncal, "La Raza Negra en Mxico", Hispanic American Historical Review, 24, agosto de 1944; Edgar F. Amor, "Negro
resistencia al dominio espaol en el Mxico colonial," Diario de la Historia de los Negros, 52, abril de 1967; T. Lynn Smith, "La
composicin racial de la poblacin de Colombia," Revista de Estudios Interamericanos, 8, 1966; David M. Davidson, "Negro Control de
Esclavos y de la Resistencia en el Mxico colonial, 1419-1650," Hispanic American Historical Review, 46, 1966; John Lombardi, la
decadencia y la abolicin de la esclavitud de los negros en Venezuela (Westport, Conn., 1971). La historia de la alianza de Sir Francis

Drake con los cimarrones se encuentra en IW Wright, ed, los documentos relativos a la Voyages Ingls Espaol Principal 1569-1580
(Londres, 1932).; y el plan de Richard Hakluyt para una colonia de cimarrones y Ingls es en EUR Taylor, ed., los escritos originales y
correspondencia de los Dos Richard Hakluvts (Londres, 1935), vol. 1.
Brasil
Aunque algunas regiones importantes de esclavos an no se han estudiado, la literatura en Brasil, gran parte de ella en portugus, es
enorme. Las obras de Gilberto Freyre, afortunadamente, han sido traducidos al Ingls y son bsicos para la comprensin del desarrollo
de la esclavitud y las relaciones raciales, a pesar de la reciente literatura crtica y revisionista. Tres libros y un artculo de Freyre estn
disponibles en Ingls: The Masters y los esclavos: Un estudio en el desarrollo de la civilizacin brasilea (Nueva York, 1956); las
mansiones y las chabolas: The Making of Modern Brasil (Nueva York, 1963) ; Nuevo Mundo en los Trpicos: Cultura del Brasil moderno
(Nueva York, 1963); y "La vida social en Brasil, en la Mitad del Siglo XIX", Hispanic American Historical Review, 5, 1922. dos mayores
obras en portugus que difieren en el enfoque de Freyre son Caio Prado Jr., Formaco economica do Brasil contemporania (Ro de
Janeiro, 1931), una slida historia econmica y social marxista de Brasil; y Joao Dornas Filho, A Excravido no Brasil (Ro de Janeiro,
1939). Los escritos revisionistas de la escuela de So Paulo estn representados por Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Capitalismo e
Escrabidao no Brasil Meridonal (So Paulo, 1962); Octavio Ianni, Como Metamorfoses hacer Escravo (So Paulo, 1962); y Fernando
Henrique Cardoso y Octavio Ianni, Cor ae Mobilidade em Florianpolis (So Paulo, 1964). Obras en Ingls crticos de Freyre y presentar
un panorama totalmente diferente de la esclavitud brasilea incluyen Stanley J. Stein, Vassouras: Un caf brasileo Pas, 1850-1900
(Cambridge, Mass., 1957); Celso Furtado, el crecimiento econmico de Brasil; Una encuesta de Colonial a Modern Times (Berkeley, Cal,
1963.); Vianna Moog, Bandeirantes and Pioneers (New York, 1964); and three books by CR Boxer: The Golden Age of Brazil, 1697
1750: Growing Pains of a Colonial Society (Berkeley, Cal., 1962); Race Relations in the Portuguese Colonial Empire, 14151825
(Oxford, 1963); and Portuguese Society in the Tropics: The Municipal Councils of Goa, Macao, Bahia and Luanda, 15101800 (Oxford,
1965). Also useful for a critical evaluation of the stereotype of the Big House in the writings of Brazilian sociologists and historians is
Arthur Ramos, The Negro in Brazil , trans. Richard Pattee, (Washington, DC, 1951). A standard history of Brazil in English is Jao Pandia
Calogeras, A History of Brazil (Chapel Hill, NC, 1939). A useful study of the Negro in a particular area is Donald Pierson, Negroes in
Brazil: A Study of Race Contact in Bahia (Chicago, 1942). The earliest comparative study is Manoel de Oliveira Lima, The Evolution of
Brazil Compared with that of Spanish and Anglo-Saxon America (Stanford, Cal., 1914). For the view that slavery in Brazil was even more
severe than in the United States, see Carl N. Degler, Slavery in Brazil and the United States: An Essay in Comparative History,
American Historical Review , 75, Apr 1970, and his Neither Black Nor White (New York, 1971). Also useful for a comparison of slavery in
Brazil and the United States are HB Alexander, Brazilian and United States Slavery Compared, Journal of Negro History , 15, 1930;
Mary W. Williams, The Treatment of Negro Slaves in the Brazilian Empire: A Comparison with the USA, ibid. , 15, July 1930. A useful
article is Margaret V. Nelson, The Negro in Brazil as Seen Through the Chronicles of Travelers, ibid. , 30, Apr. 1945. The economics of
sugar production in Brazil is discussed in Kit Sims Taylor, The Economics of Sugar and Slavery in Northeastern Brazil, Agricultural
History , 44, July 1970.
The best account in English on the Republic of Palmares is RK Kent, Palmares: An African State in Brazil, Journal of African History, 6 ,
1965. See also Charles E. Chapman, Palmares, The Negro Numantia, Journal of Negro History , 3, Jan. 1918, and Stanley Warren, Jr.,
Palmares: A Negro State in Colonial Brazil, Negro History Bulletin , 28, Jan. 1965. For Bahia, see Norman Holub, The Brazilian
Sabinada (183738), Journal of Negro History , 54, July 1969.
African influence on Brazilian life is discussed in Jos H. Rodrigues, The Influence of Africa on Brazil and of Brazil on Africa, Journal of
African History , 3, 1962, and in Alan K. Manchester, Racial Democracy in Brazil, South Atlantic Quarterly , 64, Winter 1965. For race
relations in present-day Brazil, see Carl N. Degler, Neither Black Nor White , and Jean-Claude Garcia-Zamor, Social Mobility of Negroes
in Brazil, Journal of Inter-American Studies , Apr. 1970.
Figures on the decline in the slave population in Jamaica, Saint Domingue, and Cuba are presented in Franklin W. Knight, Slavery in
Three Colonies of Three Empires: Jamaica, St. Domingue and Cuba, unpublished paper presented at the Fifty-fourth Anniversary of the
Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, Birmingham, October 1969.

8. Slaves and Free Blacks in the Southern Colonies


The neglect of black Americans in most studies of colonial history is analyzed by Darold D. Wax, The Negro in Early America, The
Social Studies , 60, Mar. 1969, and Gerald W. Mullin, Rethinking American Negro Slavery from the Vantage Point of the Colonial Era,
Louisiana Studies , 12, Summer 1973.
Virginia
Por la presencia de los negros en lo que se convertira en Carolina del Sur en 1526, ver Woodbury Lowery. Los asentamientos
espaoles dentro de los lmites actuales de los Estados Unidos, 1513-1561 (Nueva York, 1901). Libros cannicos que se ocupan de la
servidumbre Negro antes de la esclavitud en Virginia incluyen a James Curtis Ballagh, Una historia de la esclavitud en Virginia
(Baltimore, 1902); Ulrich B. Phillips, American Negro Esclavitud (Nueva York, 1918); El negro en Virginia (Administracin WPA en
Virginia, Nueva York, 1940); Frank Craven, las colonias del sur en el siglo XVII, 1607-1689 (Baton Rouge, Luisiana, 1952.); y Richard B.
Morris, Gobierno y Trabajo en Amrica Colonial (Nueva York, 1958). Para las estimaciones de la poblacin negro en Virginia, ver LC
Gray, historia de la agricultura en los Estados del Sur, 2 vols. (Nueva York, 1941). Una discusin detallada de los temas involucrados en
el bautismo de los esclavos es Denzil T. Clifton ", el anglicanismo y Negro La esclavitud en la Amrica colonial", Revista Histrica,
Protestante Episcopal Church, marzo 1970.
El duro trato de los funcionarios blancos en Virginia se discute en Edmund S. Morgan, "el primer boom americano: Virginia 1618-1630,"
William y Marv Quarterly, 28, abril de 1971, y TH Breen, "Una fuerza laboral cambiante y Raza Relaciones en Virginia 1660-1710 ",
Revista de Historia Social, 7, Otoo 1973.
Un til resumen de la literatura sobre el tema de la aparicin de la servidumbre negra a la esclavitud es Winthrop D. Jordan, "Las

tensiones modernos y los orgenes de la esclavitud americana," Journal of Southern History, 18,
febrero de 1962 La posicin de Oscar y
Mara Handlin, que el lote del siervo Negro apenas difera de la del fiador de blanco antes de la esclavitud, se presenta en "Orgenes del
Sistema Laboral Sur," William and Mary Quarterly, 3d Series, 8, de 1950, que est disponible sin fuentes de referencia en Oscar Handlin,
raza y nacionalidad en American Life (Boston, 1948). Este punto de vista es efectiva y convincente desafiado por Carl N. Degler, "La
esclavitud y el Gnesis de Carrera Americana Prejuicio," Estudios Comparados en Historia y Sociedad, 2, octubre 1959, que se
reimprimi en totalidad en Melvin Drimmer, ed., Negro Historia: Un replanteamiento (Nueva York, 1968), y que se resumen en Out Carl
Degler de nuestro pasado: Las fuerzas que formaron Modern America (Nueva York, 1959). Una ms reciente, bien documentado,
desafo a la tesis de Handlin es Paul C. Palmer, "Siervo en Slave: La evolucin de la condicin jurdica de la Negro Obrero en Virginia
colonial," South Atlantic Quarterly, 65, verano de 1966; vase tambin Adele Hast, "La situacin jurdica de los negros en Virginia, 17051765", Revista de Historia de los Negros, 54, julio de 1969 Por la aparicin de la ley afirmando que el bautismo no alter el estado del
esclavo, ver Warren S. Billings, "Los casos de Fernando e Isabel Clave: Una nota sobre el Estatuto de los negros en el Siglo diecisiete
Virginia," William and Mary Quarterly, 30, julio de 1973 Los cdigos de esclavos de Virginia colonial se discuten en detalle en Thad W .
Tate, The Negro in Eighteenth-Century Williamsburg (Williamsburg, Va., 1965). Terratenientes negros en Virginia se discuten en James
H. Brewer, "Negro Dueos en Decimosptimo Siglo Virginia," William and Mary Quarterly, 12, 3d Series, octubre de 1955 Legislacin
contra la manumisin de los esclavos se discute en John H. Russell, El Negro libre en Virginia, 1619-1865 (Baltimore, 1913). La
privacin del derecho de los negros libres de votar se discute en Emory G. Evans, "A Question of Color: Documentos relativos al negro y
al Franchise in Eighteenth-Century Virginia," La Revista de Virginia de Historia y Biografa, 68, abril 1970 .
The controversy over whether slavery caused or preceded racial prejudice can be followed in the articles by the Handlins and Degler
cited above, as well as in Carl N. Degler, Slavery and the Genesis of American Race Prejudice, Comparative Studies in Society and
History , 2, 1959. Winthrop D. Jordan takes a position somewhat midway between the two in his article also cited above, which, however,
he altered in another article, The Influence of the West Indies on the Origins of New England Slavery, William and Mary Quarterly , 18,
Apr. 1961, and in his book White Over Black . Also useful for the viewpoint that racial prejudice preceded enslavement is Milton Cantor,
The image of the Negro in Colonial Literature, New England Quarterly , Dec. 1963. For the decision of Lord Mansfield in the Somersett
case, see Jerome Nadelhaft, The Somersett Case and Slavery: Myth, Reality, and Repercussions, Journal of Negro History , 51, July
1966.
Maryland
There are two studies that deal in some detail with the Negro in colonial Maryland, both fairly dated: Jeffrey R. Brackett, The Negro in
Maryland: A Study of the Institution of Slavery (Baltimore, 1889), and James M. Wright, The Free Negro in Maryland, 16341860 (New
York, 1921). The first chapter of Wright's study is of value for the colonial period. The most recent studies are Jonathan L. Alpert, The
Origin of Slavery in the United Statesthe Maryland Percedent, American Journal of Legal History , July 1970, and Raphael Cassimere,
Jr., The Origins and Early Development of Slavery in Maryland, 1633 to 1715 (Ph.D. thesis, Lehigh University, 1971). For statistics on
the growth of the slave population, one should consult Evarts B. Greene and Virginia D. Harrington, American Population Before the
Federal Census of 1790 (New York, 1932). Legislation dealing with slaves is published in Maryland Archives , especially Volumes 1,13,
and 22, although the dates are sometimes in error. For the career of Jupiter, see C. Ashley Ellefson, Free Jupiter and the Rest of the
World: The Problems of a Free Negro in Colonial Maryland, Maryland Historical Magazine , 66, Spring 1971.
The Carolinas
The best brief discussion of the founding and early history of Carolina is Wesley Frank Craven, The Southern Colonies in the
Seventeenth Century, 16071689 , Vol. 1 of A History of the South (Baton Rouge, La., 1949). A useful monograph dealing with the Negro
in colonial South Carolina is Frank J. Kleinberg, An Appraisal of the Negro in Colonial South Carolina: A Study in Americanization
(Washington, DC, 1941). This study is based mainly on materials of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. A summary of slavery
in South Carolina, though somewhat incorrect in details, is Edward McCrady, Slavery in the Province of South Carolina, 16701770,
American Historical Association Report , 1885. More valuable are M. Eugene Somans, Colonial South Carolina, 1663 (Chapel Hill, NC,
1969), and John Donald Duncan, Servitude and Slavery in Colonial South Carolina 16701776 (Ph.D. dissertation, Emory University,
1972). White servitude and Indian slavery in colonial South Carolina are also discussed in Warren B. Smith, White Servitude in Colonial
South Carolina (Columbia, SC, 1961), and Almon Wheeler Lauber, Indian Slavery in Colonial Times Within the Present Limits of the
United States (New York, 1913). Most of the slave codes and laws dealing with Negroes are in Thomas Cooper and David J. McCord,
Statutes at Large of South Carolina (Columbia, SC, 18361875),Vols. 17, and summaries are in BR Carroll, ed., Historical Collection of
South Carolina , 4 vols. (New York, 1904). Also useful is Howell M. Henry, The Police Control of the Slave in South Carolina (Emory, Va.,
1914). For a good example of the savagery of the slave code of 1696, see William D. McCloughlin and Winthrop D. Jordan, Baptists
Face the Barbarities of Slavery in 1710, Journal of Southern History , 29, Nov. 1963. Alexander Hewett's comment on rice production is
in his An Historical Account of the Rise and Progress of the Colonies of South Carolina and Georgia , 2 vols, (London, 1779). Most of the
work is devoted in Carolina. Population statistics for colonial South Carolina are in EB Greene and Virginia D. Harrington, American
Population Before the Federal Census of 1790 (New York, 1932). Efforts to regulate the ratio of white to black population by imposing
duties on the importation of slaves are discussed in Elizabeth Donnan, The Slave Trade into South Carolina before the Revolution,
American Historical Review , 33, July 1928.
The emergence of the legal status of the slave as a chattel from custom is discussed in an excellent article by M. Eugene Sirmans, The
Legal Status of the Slave in South Carolina, 16701740, Journal of Southern History , 28, Nov. 1962. The author effectively demolishes
the thesis advanced by Oscar and Mary F. Handlin (Origins of the Southern Labor System, William and Mary Quarterly , 7, Apr. 1950)
that South Carolina could not have borrowed its slavery customs from Barbados or any other island colony.
The discussion of contacts in South Carolina between blacks and Indians and the contribution of Africans to rice production in the colony
is based on Peter H. Wood, Slavery in Early South Carolina: The Herskovits Thesis Reconsidered, unpublished paper delivered at
Meeting of the Organization of American Historians, Apr. 1972, which is fully developed, along with many other aspects of black life and
culture in colonial South Carolina, in the same author's Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 through the Stono
Rebellion (New York, 1974).

The main sources for slavery in North Carolina during the colonial period, a subject that is still in need of study, are John Spencer
Bassett, Slavery and Servitude in the Colony of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1896); Rosser Howard Taylor, Slaveholding in North
Carolina: An Economic View, The James Sprunt Historical Publications , University of North Carolina, 18, 1926; Hugh Talmage Lefler
and Albert Ray Newsome, North Carolina: The History of a Southern State (Chapel Hill, NC, 1954; rev. ed., 1963); Guion G. Johnson,
Ante-Bellum North Carolina (Chapel Hill, NC, 1937); and James A. Padgett, The Status of Slaves in Colonial North Carolina, Journal of
Negro History , 14, July 1929. A study of slavery in one of the largest counties of eastern North Carolina is James K. Turner, Slavery in
Edgecombe County, Historical Papers of the Trinity College Historical Society, Series 12 (Durham, NC, 1916). The slave codes are
discussed, though rather generally, in Ernest Clark, Jr., Aspects of the North Carolina Slave Code, 17151860, North Carolina Historical
Review , 39, Spring 1962. Some discussion of treatment of slaves in the courts may be found in Paul M. McCain, The County Court in
North Carolina before 1750, Historical Papers of the Trinity College Historical Society , Series 31 (Durham, NC, 1954). For the tax on free
persons, see Marvin L. Michael Kay, The Payment of Provincial and Local Taxes in North Carolina, 17481771, William and Mary
Quarterly , 3rd Series, 26, Apr. 1969. I am indebted to Dr. Kay for information from the tax receipts about the number of slaves held by
householders in New Hanover and Pasquotank counties. For the petitions to end the discriminatory tax against free persons of color,
signed by whites, including slave-holders, see Legislative Papers, 94-R-R2, 1763, 1771, North Carolina Archives.
Georgia
The best study of the founding of Georgia and its early development is Trevor Richard Reese, Colonial Georgia. A Study in British
Imperial Policy (Athens, Ga., 1963). A brief account of the reasons for settling Georgia, and the prohibition and introduction of slaves, is in
E. Merton Coulter, A Short History of Georgia (Chapel Hill, NC, 1933). Another study is HB Fant, The Labor Policy of the Trustees for
Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America, Georgia Historical Quarterly , 16, 1932. The relationship between Parliament and the
Trustees is discussed in Richard S. Dunn, The Trustees of Georgia and the House of Commons, William and Mary Quarterly , 11, 1954.
The most detailed record of slavery in Colonial Georgia is Allen D. Candler, ed., The Colonial Records of the State of Georgia (Atlanta,
19041915). Volume 21 contains the correspondence of the Trustees; Vol. 24 contains the Whitfield-Bolzius Correspondence; Vol. 18
contains the slave code of 1755 and the acts relating to freedom for slaves and the importation of free persons of color. For a discussion
of the slave code, see also Ralph B. Flanders, Plantation Slavery in Georgia (Chapel Hill, NC, 1933), and Rubye Mae Jones, The Negro
in Colonial Georgia, 17351805 (MA thesis, Atlanta University, 1938). The debate over the ban on Negroes is summarized in Darold D.
Wax, Georgia and the Negro Before the American Revolution, Georgia Historical Quarterly , 41, Mar. 1967. The use of slave labor on
Georgia plantations is discussed in Willard Range, The Agricultural Revolution in Royal Georgia, 17521775, Agricultural History , 21,
1947. Statistics on the Negro population of Georgia are in US Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States. Colonial
Times to 1957 (Washington, DC, 1960).
There is still a need for an overall study of the Negro in colonial Georgia. But some scholars still do not regard this as a subject worthy of
study. In a paper read at the annual meeting of the Georgia Historical Society in Savannah, 15 February 1969 (Published in the Georgia
Historical Quarterly , June 1969), Kenneth Coleman, professor of History, University of Georgia, discusses Colonial Georgia: Needs and
Opportunities. Professor Coleman describes in the paper what has been written and what the author thinks needs to be written about
Colonial Georgia. In this discussion there is not a single mention of the Negro.
The Southern Colonies: An Overview
Reverend Peter Fontaine's observation may be found in Ann Maury, ed., Memoirs of a Hugenot Family. Translated and Compiled from
the Original Autobiography of the Reverend James Fontaine (New York, 1753), pp. 348353. Leonard Price Stavisky's unpublished
study, The Negro Artisan in the South Atlantic States, 18001860: A Study of Status and Economic Opportunity with Special Reference to
Charleston (Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1958), contains some discussion of the colonial period. Carl Bridenbaugh pays
attention to the Negro craftsman in his work, The Colonial Craftsman (New York, 1950). The situation in Charleston is discussed in an
earlier work, Ulrich B. Phillips, The Slave Labor Problem in the Charleston District, Political Science Quarterly, 22 , Sept. 1907, and in
the more recent Richard Walsh, Charleston's Sons of Liberty: A Study of the Artisans 17631789 . For Timothy Ford's observation in
1785, see Joseph W. Barnwell, Diary of Timothy Ford, 17851786, South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine , 13, July
1912. A very useful work on the use of slave mechanics in various colonies is Richard B. Morris, Government and Labor in Early America
(New York, 1964). Still useful are the early sections of WEB DuBois, The Negro Artisan (Atlanta, 1902). The use of slave labor in the
Virginia and Maryland ironworks and the system of rewarding slaves for overwork is discussed in Ronald L. Lewis, Conciliation and
Motivation: Slavery on Chesapeake Iron Plantations Before the American Revolution, unpublished paper delivered at the 1973 sessions
of the Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History. An interesting discussion of the use of slave labor in a particular
colonial industry is Joseph A. Goldenberg, Black Labor in Colonial Shipyards, unpublished paper delivered at the 1973 sessions of the
Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History. Peter Biret's advertisement appeared in the South Carolina Gazette , Nov. 20,
1736. The petition of the white shipwrights to the South Carolina Assembly, the report of the committee, and the action of the Assembly,
may be found in James Harold Easterby, ed., The Journal of the Commons House of Assembly (Columbia, SC, 19511962), 4: 541550.
The work of the SPG is discussed in Arthur Lyon Cross, The Anglican Episcopate and the American Colonies (New York, 1902); Edgar
Legare Pennington, Thomas Bray's Associates and their Work Among the Negroes , (Worchester, Mass., 1939); Henry Paget Thompson,
Into All Lands: The History of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 17011950 (London, 1951); and Frank J.
Klingberg, An Appraisal of the Negro in Colonial South Carolina, A Study in Americanization (Washington, DC, 1941). A summary may be
found in Denzil T. Clifton, Anglicanism and Negro Slavery in Colonial America, Historical Magazine, Protestant Episcopal Church ,
March 1970.
For a picture of Charleston society, see Leila Sellers, Charleston Business on the Eve of the American Revolution (Chapel Hill, 1933). J.
Hector St. John Crevecoeur's comment on Charleston society may be found in his Letters from an American Farmer (New York, 1782). On
slave marriage, see Morris Taeplar, The Sociology of Colonial Virginia (New York, 1968). For the episode of Blackman David, see
Jordan, White Over Black , pp. 209210, and Leland J. Bellot, Evangelical Defense of Slavery in Britain's Old Colonial Empire, Journal
of Southern History , 37, Feb. 1971.

9. Slaves and Free Blacks in the Northern Colonies

The only general history of Negro slavery in the Northern colonies is Edgar J. McManus, Black Bondage in the North (Syracuse, NY,
1973). Although a useful work, it is too small a treatment of the subject, and it is arranged by subjects and not by individual colonies, so
the student will also want to study the works that deal with particular areas.
Pennsylvania and Delaware
The standard history of the Negro in Pennsylvania is Edward R. Turner, The Negro in Pennsylvania, Slavery-Servitude-Freedom. 1639
1861 (Washington, DC, 1911). He is also the author of Slavery in Colonial Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and
Biography , 36, 1912. Turner's masterful studies have been supplemented by Darold Duane Wax, The Negro Slave Trade in Colonial
Pennsylvania (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 1962). Several of the chapters have already appeared in print: Negro
Imports into Pennsylvania, 17201766, Pennsylvania History , 32, July 1965; The Demand for Slave Labor in Colonial Pennsylvania,
ibid. , 34, Oct. 1967; and Quaker Merchants and the Slave Trade in Colonial Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and
Biography , 86, 1962. An interesting discussion of the limited need for slave labor in Pennsylvania is Alan Tully, Patterns of Slaveholding
in Colonial Pennsylvania: Chester and Lancaster Counties 17291758, Journal of Social History , Spring 1973. The use of Negro slaves
in Philadelphia and the growth of the institution in that city is examined in detail in the important study, Gary B. Nash, Slaves and
Slaveowners in Colonial Philadelphia, William and Mary Quarterly , 3d Series, 30, Apr. 1973. The employment of slaves in the iron
industry is discussed in Joseph E. Walker, Negro Labor in the Charcoal Iron Industry of Southeastern Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania
Magazine of History and Biography , 93, Oct. 1969. Negro slave craftsmen are discussed in Leonard P. Stavisky, Negro Craftsmen in
Early America, America Historical Review , 54, 1949, and Carl Bridenbaugh, The Colonial Craftsman (New York, 1950). White servitude
is analyzed in Chessman A. Herrick, White Servitude in Pennsylvania: Indentured and Redemption Labor in Colony and Commonwealth
(Philadelphia, 1926). The Quaker attitude toward slavery is discussed at length in Thomas E. Drake, Quakers and Slavery in America
(New Haven, Conn., 1950), and more briefly in Herbert Aptheker, The Quakers and Negro Slavery, Journal of Negro History , 25, 1940.
For Pastor Acrelius' comment on the mildness of slavery in Pennsylvania, see Israel Acrelius, A History of New Sweden; o. The
Settlements on the River Delaware (Philadelphia, 1874), For Oberholtzer's discussion of the legal status of slaves and free blacks, see
Ellis P. Oberholtzer, Philadelphia: A History of the City and its People, A Record of 225 Years (Philadelphia, 1912), Vol. 1.
For the banning of slavery and the importation of slaves in New Sweden, see Israel Acrelius, History of New Sweden (Philadelphia,
1874); John Franklin Jameson, William Usselinx (New York, 1887); and Joseph J. Mackley, Some Account of William Usselinx,
Historical Society of Delaware Papers , 3, 1881. Charles Shorter, Slavery in Delaware (MA thesis, Howard University, 1934), devotes
several sections to the colonial period.
Nueva York
Although it does not deal with the everyday life of the slave and contains little about the free Negro, the best study of the Negro in colonial
New York is Edgar J. McManus, A History of Negro Slavery in New York (Syracuse, NY, 1966). Earlier, though inadequate, works are
Edwin V. Morgan, Slavery in New York (Washington, DC, 1891), and Ansel J. Northrup, Slavery in New York (Albany, 1900). Still worth
consulting is Samuel McKee, Labor in Colonial New York, 16641776 (New York, 1935). Specialized studies include William R. Riddell,
The Slave in Early New York, Journal of Negro History , 13, Jan. 1928; Leo H. Hirsch, Jr., The Negro in New York, 17831865, ibid .,
15, 1931; AG Lindsay, The Negro in New York Prior to 1861, ibid ., 6, 1917; Henry McCloskey, Slavery on Long Island, Brooklyn
Common Council Manual , 1864; Aaron H. Payne, The Negro in New York Prior to 1860, Howard Review , 1, 1923; Frank J. Klingberg,
The SPG Program for Negroes in Colonial New York, Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church , 8, 1939. The slave
statutes of colonial New York are discussed in Julius Goebel and T. Naughton, Law Enforcement in Colonial New York (New York, 1944),
and Edward Olsen, The Slave Code in Colonial New York, Journal of Negro History , 29, Apr. 1944. Olsen also has a study entitled
Social Aspects of Slave Life in New York, Journal of Negro History , 26, Jan. 1941. A readable summary of slavery in New York may be
found in the first two chapters of Roi Ottley and William J. Weatherby, eds., The Negro in New York: An Informal Social History (New York,
1967). The book is edited from manuscripts in the Schomburg Collection of Negro Literature and History, which were originally prepared
by the Federal Writers Project.
Nueva Jersey
The establishment of slavery in New Jersey is discussed in Richard McCormick, New Jersey from Colony to State, 16091789 (Princeton,
NJ, 1964). The development of slavery in the colony is described in Henry S. Cooley, A Study of Slavery in New Jersey (Baltimore, 1896);
James C. Connolly, Slavery in Colonial New Jersey and the Causes Cooperating Against its Extension, Proceedings of the New Jersey
Historical Society , 3d Series, 10; AO Keasby, Slavery in New Jersey, ibid ., 5; Hubert F. Schmidt, Slavery and Attitudes on Slavery in
Hunterdon, NJ . (Flemington, NJ, 1941). For statistics on the growth of the slave population, see Simeon F. Moss, The Persistence of
Slavery and Involuntary Servitude in a Free States, 16851866, Journal of Negro History , 35. The history of slavery in the late colonial
period is well summarized in Atalanta Brown Lipscomb, The Status of the Negro in New Jersey during the Period 17631804 (MA
thesis, Columbia University, 1942).
The use of slaves in the ironworks and as craftsmen is discussed in Charles S. Boyer, Early Forges and Furnaces in New Jersey
(Philadelphia, 1931), and Leonard Stavisky, The Origins of Negro Craftsmanship in Colonial America, Journal of Negro History , 32.
Comments on the mild nature of slavery in New Jersey will be found in EP Chase, trans., Our Revolutionary Forefathers: The Letters of
Franois Marquis de Barb-Marbois, 17791785 (New York, 1929), and Peter Kalm, Travels in North America (New York, 1932). For the
petition to the Queen asking repeal of the Regulating Act of 1704, see New Jersey Archives , 1st Series, 3: 473. For the legal status of the
Negro in New Jersey, see Marian T. Wright, New Jersey Laws and the Negro, Journal of Negro History , 28, Apr. 1943. She is also the
author of Education of Negroes in New Jersey (New York, 1941), and Negro Suffrage in New Jersey, 17761785, Journal of Negro
History , 33, 1948.
The only study of the free Negro in New Jersey is Laura Foner, The Free Negro in New Jersey (unpublished seminar paper, Graduate
History Department, Rutgers University, 1966). The mixed racial community of Gouldtown is discussed in William Steward and
Theophilus G. Steward, Gouldtown, A Very Remarkable Settlement of Ancient Date (Philadelphia, 1913). The career of John Chavis is
discussed in Sherman W. Savage, The Influence of John Chavis and Lunsford Lane on the History of North Carolina. Journal of Negro

History , 25. See also the sketch of Chavis in the Dictionary of American Biography .
The New England Colonies
The position of the Negro in New England during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries has been studied by only one historian:
Lorenzo J. Greene, whose The Negro in Colonial New England, 16201776 was published in 1942. It is still the only comprehensive
treatment of the subject. A more critical view of the position of the slave in New England, especially in Massachusetts, and still the best
study of slavery in that colony, is George H. Moore, Notes on Slavery in Massachusetts (New York, 1866). The slave trade in New
England is discussed in WEB DuBois, The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States (New York, 1896); Lorenzo M.
Greene, Slaveholding New England and its Awakening, Journal of Negro History , 13, Oct. 1928. Still worth consulting is William B.
Weeden, The Early African Slave Trade in New England, Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society , New Series, 5, 1889. A
good summary of the legal status of the Negro in Massachusetts, but otherwise rather uncritical in its approach to slavery and the free
Negro, is Robert C. Towmbly and Robert M. Moore, Black Puritan: The Negro in Seventeenth Century Massachusetts, William and
Mary Quarterly Review , Apr. 1967. Slavery in Massachusetts is also the subject of an unpublished doctoral dissertation, Lawrence W.
Towner, A Good Master Well Served: A Social History of Servitude in Massachusetts, 16201750 (Northwestern University, 1954), and
an unpublished 1955 MA thesis at Columbia University, Marilyn Anne Lavin, The Negroes of the Old Colony. Indian slavery in New
England is duscussed in Alden T. Vaughan, New England Frontier: Puritans and Indians, 16201675 (Boston, 1965). Relations between
Indians and Negroes are discussed in Carter G. Woodson, The Relation of Negroes and Indians in Massachusetts, Journal of Negro
History , 5, 1920, and Kenneth W. Porter, Relations between Negroes and Indians within the Present Limits of the United States, ibid .,
17, 1932.
For the other New England colonies, see William Johnston, Slavery in Rhode Island, 17551776 (Providence, 1894); Edward Channing,
The Narragnnsett Planters (Baltimore, 1886); Charles A. Battle, Negroes in the Island of Rhode Island (Newport, 1932); William D.
Johnston, Slavery in Rhode Island, 17551776, Rhode Island Historical Society Publications , New Series II, July 1894; JP Parker,
Slavery in Rhode Island (MA thesis, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, 1954); Bernard C. Steiner, A History of Slavery in Connecticut
(Baltimore, 1893); Louise G. Griswold, Slavery in Connecticut (MA thesis, Columbia University, 1950); and Robert A. Warner, New
Haven Negroes: A Social History (New Haven, Conn., 1940). Also useful for Connecticut slavery are two autobiographies by former
Connecticut slaves: Venture Smith, Narrative of the Life and Adventure of Venture Smith, an african; but Resident above Sixty Years in
the United States of America, Related by Himself (Hartford, Conn., 1798), and John Mars, Life of John Mars, A Slave Born and Sold in
Connecticut, Written by Himself (Hartford, Conn., 1864). For separation of families in New Hampshire, see Charles E. Clark, The Eastern
Frontier The Settlement of Northern New England, 16101763 (New York, 1970), p. 350. For the petition of Massachusetts blacks to
the legislature in 1774, see Herbert Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States (New York, 1951). For
the laws relating to slaves and free Negroes in the militia, see The Negro in Military Service of the United States: A Compilation of
Records, State Papers, Historical Extracts, etc. Relating to his Military Service and Status from the date of his introduction in British North
America, Chapter 1, National Archives, Microfilm Copy. For the rules of the Society of Negroes organized by Cotton Mather, see Thomas
James Holmes, Cotton Mather: A Bibliography of His Works (Cambridge, Mass., 1940), Vol. 3.
The description of the parade and dinner following the election of the African Governor in Connecticut appears in Orville H. Platt, Negro
Governors of Connecticut, New Haven Historical Magazine , 6, 1900.
The Northern Colonies: An Overview
The most detailed treatment of the refusal of British colonists to distinguish Negroes from mulattoes is Winthrop D. Jordan, American
Chicaroscuro: The Status and Definition of Mulattoes in the British Colonies, William and Mary Quarterly , 3d Series, 19, Apr. 1962, and
the discussion in his White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 15501812 , For Orlando Patterson's description of the
racial system categories in America, Latin America, and the West Indies, see his article, Toward a future that has no pastreflections on
the fate of Blacks in the Americas, The Public Interest , Spring 1972.

10. Slave Resistance in Colonial America


Fugitive Slaves
Nearly every monograph dealing with slavery in a specific colony contains some information on fugitive slaves. However, for a general
discussion of the runaway slave in colonial America, see EE Preston, Jr., Genesis of the Underground Railroad, Journal of Negro
History , 18, Jan. 1933. Descriptions of advertisements for runaways in the colonial newspapers are Eighteenth Century Slaves as
Advertised by their Masters, Journal of Negro History , 1, Apr. 1916; Lorenzo J. Greene, The New England Negro as Seen in
Advertisements for Runaway Slaves, ibid ., 29, 1944; and Darold D. Wax, The Image of the Negro in the Maryland Gazette, 174574,
Journalism Quarterly , Spring 1969. For the assistance of the colonial governments in recapturing runaways, see Arthur P. Scott, Criminal
Law in Colonial Virginia (Chicago, 1930); Jeffrey R. Brackett, The Negro in Maryland (Baltimore, 1889); Lorenzo M. Greene, The Negro in
Colonial New England, 16201776 (New York, 1942); and Edgar J. McManus, A History of Negro Slavery in New York (Syracuse, 1966).
For the estimate of runaway slaves in Massachusetts, see Lawrence W. Towner, A Fondness for Freedom: Servant Protest in Puritan
Society, William and Mary Quarterly , 3d Series, 19, Apr. 1962. Gerald W. Mullin's estimate of runaway slaves in Virginia newspaper
advertisements is in his Flight and Rebellion: Slave Resistance in Eighteenth Century Virginia (New York, 1972), p. 40.
The following are important for the role of Florida under Spain and Indian-Negro relations: Verner W. Crane, The Southern Frontier,
16701732 (Durham, NC, 1928); John Lee Williams, The Territory of Florida (Gainsville, Fla., 1962); Kenneth Wiggins Porter, Negroes
on the Southern Frontier, Journal of Negro History , 33, Jan. 1948; Laurence Foster, Negro-Indian Relationships in the Southeast
(Philadelphia, 1935); and Lois Katz Brown, Negro-Indian Relations in the Southern United States, 15261890 (MA thesis, University of
Toledo, 1968). For Mose, see IA Wright, Dispatches of Spanish Officials on the Free Negro Settlements of Garcia Ereal de Santa Teresa
de Mose, Journal of Negro History , 9, Apr. 1924; Eugene P. Southall, Negroes in Florida Prior to the Civil War, ibid ., 19, Jan. 1934;
and Leedell W. Neyland, The Free Negro in Florida, Negro History Bulletin , 29, Nov. 1965. The Maroon colonies are discussed in
Herbert Aptheker, To Be Free: Studies in American Negro Slavery (New York, 1948). For Williams' statement of 1735, see Virginia

Magazine of History and Biography 9 (1902): 226.


For the controversy among historians on black-Indian relations, see Laurence Foster, Negro-Indian Relations in the Southeast
(Philadelphia, 1935); Kenneth W. Porter, The Negro on the American Frontier (New York, 1971); Gary B. Nash, African-Indian Contact,
in Red, White and Black: The Peoples of Early America (New York, 1974), pp. 29097; Lerone Bennett, Jr., The Road Not Taken;
Colonies Turn Fateful Fork by Systematically Dividing the Races, Ebony , 25, Aug. 1970; William S. Willis, Divide and Rule: Red, White
and Black in the Southeast, Journal of Negro History , 48, July, 1963, and William GM Loughlin, Red Indians, Black Slavery and White
Racism: America's Slaveholding Indians, American Quarterly , XXVI, Oct. 1974.
Other Forms of Resistance
Every study of slavery in colonial America has information on slave thefts, arson, and use of poison by slaves, and reports of murders of
owners and overseers by bondsmen. See also the studies of advertisements by Greene and Wax cited above. An important source for
slave resistance, although most of the evidence relates to the post-Revolutionary period, is Helen C. Catterall, ed., Judicial Cases
Concerning American Slavery and the Negro , Vols. 14 (Washington, DC, 19261937). The evidence in this work is summarized in
Marion J. Russell, American Slave Discontent in Records of the High Courts, Journal of Negro History , 31, 1946. The statistics of blacks
executed in North Carolina, 17511770, are from the Records of the Contingency Fund. I am indebted to Dr. Michael Kay for calling my
attention to this source. For the description of the cruel execution of the slave in South Carolina, see Hector Saint John de Crvecoeur,
Letters from an American Farmer (New York, 1912), p. 173.
Conspiracies and Revolts
The pioneer study of slave conspiracies and revolt in America is Joshua Coffin, An Account of Some of the Principal Slave Insurrections,
and Others, which have occurred, or been attempted, in the United States and elsewhere, with various remarks (New York, 1860). (The
study was originally published in 1833 as an appendix to Amos A. Phelps, Letters on Slavery.) This should be supplemented with the
same author's A Sketch of the Historv of Newburv, Newburypon, and West Newburv from 16361845 (Boston, 1845). The indispensable
modern source for slave conspiracies and revolts in colonial America is Herbert Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts (New York,
1943). Briefer accounts may be found in Harvey Wish, American Slave Insurrections before 1861, Journal of Negro History , 22, July
1937, and in Winthrop D. Jordan, White Over Black , Chapter 3, Anxious Oppressors. A statistical analysis of slave revolts, some of it
covering the colonial period, is Marion D. de B. Kilson, Towards Freedom: An Analysis of Slave Revolts in the United States, Phylon, 25
, Spring 1964.
The letter from Charleston, Sept. 28, 1739, was first published in the National Anti-Slavery Standard , Sept. 10, 1846. The other account of
the Stono revolt quoted is Edwin C. Holland, ed., A Refutation of the Calumnies Circulated Against the Southern and Western States,
Respecting the Institution and Existence of Slavery Among Them (Charleston, NC, 1822), pp. 7071. See also An Account of the Negro
Insurrection in South Carolina, in Allen D. Chandler, ed., The Colonial Records of the State of Georgia, 17321782 , 26 vols. (Atlanta,
19041916), Vol. 22, Part 2. RH Taylor's article Slave Conspiracies in North Carolina, North Carolina Historical Review 5, 1928,
contains very little on the colonial period.
The best study of the New York slave revolt of 1712 is Kenneth Scott, The Slave Insurrection in New York in 1712, New York Historical
Society Quarterly , 44, 1961. For the panic in New York in 1741, see Richard B. Morris, Government and Labor in Early America (New
York, 1946); T. Wood Clarke, The Negro Plot of 1741, New York History , 25, 1944; Walter F. Prince, New York 'Negro Plot' of 1741,
New Haven (Conn.) Sunday Chronicle , June 28Aug. 23, 1902, copy in New York Public Library; Ference M. Szasz, The New York
Slave Revolt of 1741; A Re-Examination, New York History , 48, 1966; and Thomas J. Davis, The New York Slave Conspiracy of 1741
as Black Protest, Journal of Negro History , 56, Jan. 1971. The best contemporary source is Daniel Horsmanden, A Journal of the
Proceedings in the Detection of the Conspiracy Formed by Some White People, in Conjunction with Negro and Other Slaves for Burning
the City of New York in America and Murdering the Inhabitants (New York, 1744). Extracts from this work appear in Malcolm Ross, All
Manners of Men, Negro Digest , June 1940. The entire work was reprinted in 1969.
The New Jersey slave plot of 1734 is discussed rather confusingly by Lester W. Perrin, The Slave Plot of 1734, manuscript copy in
Rutgers University Library.

11. Antislavery in Colonial America


There are unfortunately no good, scholarly biographies of the great Quaker protesters Lay, Woolman, and Benezet. The following,
however, contain useful information: Robert Vaux, Memoirs of the Lives of Benjamin Lay and Ralph Sandiford (Philadelphia, 1815); C.
Brightwen Rowntree, Benjamin Lay, Journal of the Friends' Historical Society , 33, 1936; Janet Whitney, John Woolman, American
Quaker (Boston, 1942). These should be supplemented by The Journal and Major Essays of John Woolman , ed. Philips P. Moulton (New
York, 1971); George Brooks, Friend Anthony Benezet (Philadelphia, 1937); Leonard C. Lashley, Anthony Benezet and his Anti-Slavery
Activities (Ph.D. dissertation, Fordham University, 1939); Jean S. Straub, Anthony Benezet: Teacher and Abolitionist of the Eighteenth
Century, Quaker History , Jan. 1970.; and Robert A. Brunn, Anthony Benezet and the Rights of the Negro, Pennsylvania Magazine of
History and Biography , 96, Jan. 1972. An interesting recent discussion of Quaker antislavery with special emphasis on John Woolman
may be found in Part 3 of David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture (Ithaca, NY, 1966). John Quasmine's letter to
Moses Brown, 6 June 1776, is in the Moses Brown Papers, 2, No. 461, Rhode Island Historical Society.

12. Antislavery in Revolutionary America


Impact of the Enlightenment
An important discussion of the Enlightenment as a source of antislavery thought is in David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in
Western Culture (Ithaca, NY, 1966). Also worth consulting is Edward D. Seeber, Anti-Slavery Opinion in France During the Second Half of
the Eighteenth Century (Baltimore, 1937). Montesquieu's writings on slavery may be found in Complete Works of Montesquieu ,
translated from the French (London, 1777). For John Locke's views, see The Works of John Locke (London, 1714), Vol. 1, and for those of

Adam Smith one should consult his Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations and The Theory of Moral Sentiments , to
which is added A Dissertation on the Origin of Languages (London, 1767). Useful discussions can be found in Elie Halvy, The Growth of
Philosophical Radicalism , trans. Mary Morris (Boston, 1955), and JB Bury, The Idea of Progress: an Inquiry into its Origin and Growth
(New York, 1955). The contradictory nature of Montesquieu's influence on the slavery controversy is discussed in FTH Fletcher,
Montesquieu's Influence on Anti-Slavery Opinion in England, Journal of Negro History , 18, Oct. 1933.
For discussions of natural rights and the Negro, the following are useful: Mary S. Locke, Anti-Slavery in America (Boston, 1901); William
F. Poole, Anti-Slavery Before the Year 1800 (Cincinnati, 1873); George H. Moore, Notes on the History of Slavery in Massachusetts (New
York, 1866); Benjamin Quarles, The Negro in The American Revolution (Chapel Hill, NC, 1961); James F. Jameson, The American
Revolution Considered as a Social Movement (Princeton, NJ, 1940); Michael Kraus, Slavery Reform in the Eighteenth Century: An
Aspect of Trans-Atlantic Intellectual Cooperation, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography , 60, 1936; and Bernard Bailyn, The
Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (Cambridge, Mass., 1967).
Negro Petitions; Benjamin Rush; the Slave Trade
Negro petitions are presented in Herbert Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States (New York,
1951); Moore, op. cit.; and Negro Petitions for Freedom, Massachusetts Historical Society Collections , 5th Series, 3, 1877.
Benjamin Rush's views on slavery can be studied in The Autobiography of Benjamin Rush , ed. George W. Corner (Princeton, NJ, 1948);
LH Butterfield, ed., Letters of Benjamin Rush (Princeton, NJ, 1951); and David J. D'Elia, Dr. Benjamin Rush and the Negro, Journal of
the History of Ideas , 30, JulySept. 1969.
Thomas Paine's essays on slavery and the slave trade are published in Philip S. Foner, The Complete Writings of Thomas Paine (New
York, 1945), Vol. 2. For actions against the slave trade the best source is still WEB DuBois, The Suppression of the Slave Trade to the
United States of America, 16381870 (Cambridge, Mass., 1896; reprinted, New York, 1970). Also worth consulting is Peter Duignan and
Clarence Clendenen, The United States and the African Slave Trade, 16191862 (Stanford, Cal., 1963).
For advertisements indicating that runaway slaves were heading for England after learning of Lord Mansfield's decision in the Somersett
case, see Gerald W. Mullin, Flight and Rebellion: Slave Resistance in Eighteenth-Century Virginia (New York, 1972).
The First Abolitionist Society
For the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, see Edward R. Turner, The First Abolition Society in the United
States, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography , 26, 1912. For Benjamin Franklin and the school for Negro children in
Philadelphia, see Richard I. Schelling, Benjamin Franklin and the Dr. Bray Associates, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and
Biography , 13, Jan. 1939, and for Franklin's views on slavery see Verner W. Crane, Benjamin Franklin on Slavery and American
Liberties, ibid ., 62, Jan. 1938, William E. Juhnke, Benjamin Franklin's View of the Negro and Slavery, Pennsylvania History , 41, Oct.
1974.
The use of Negroes in the colonial militia during wartime is discussed in Benjamin Quarles, The Colonial Militia and Negro Manpower,
Mississippi Valley Historical Review , 45, Mar. 1959. See also advertisements for fugitive slaves who fought in the colonial wars and had
served as privateers in Journal of Negro History , 1, Apr. 1916. The participation of Negroes in the battles of Lexington and Concord and
Bunker Hill is discussed in Benjamin Quarles, The Negro in the American Revolution (Chapel Hill, NC, 1961); Herbert Aptheker, The
Negro in the American Revolution (New York, 1940); Frank W. Coburn, The Battle of April 19, 1775 (Lexington, Mass., 1912); and David
E. Phillips, Negroes in the American Revolution, Journal of American History , 5, 1911. John R. Alden's A History of the American
Revolution (New York, 1969) has been called by Professor Jack P. Green the best one-volume history of the Revolution written thus far.
But it has no room in its lengthy discussion of the battles of Lexington and Concord and Bunker Hill for Negro participation. On Trumbull's
painting of the Battle of Bunker Hill, see EH Silver, Painter of the Revolution, American Heritage , 9, 1958. The question of whether Peter
Salem fired the shot that killed Major Pitcairn is a disputed one, but most authorities accept it as accurate.
Lord Dunmore's Black Regiment
The best treatment of Lord Dunmore's proclamation to the slaves and its consequences is the chapter Lord Dunmore's Ethiopian
Regiment in Benjamin Quarles, The Negro in the American Revolution . Another study which can be consulted is Francis L. Berkeley, Jr.,
Dunmore's Proclamation of Emancipation (Charlottesville, Va., 1941). For the effects of the proclamation and Dunmore's black regiment
on Maryland and Virginia planters, see Merrill Jensen, The American People and the American Revolution, Journal of American History
, 57, June 1970, and Tad W. Tate, The Coming of the Revolution in Virginia: Britain's Challenge to Virginia's Ruling Class, 17631776,
William and Mary Quarterly , 3d Series, 19, June 1962. For George Washington's changing position on recruiting Negroes in the
Continental Army, the best account is Walter H. Mazyck, George Washington and the Negro (Washington, DC, 1932).
The most complete collection of materials relating to the Negro in colonial wars, in the Battle of Lexington and Concord and the Battle of
Bunker Hill, and also dealing with Lord Dunmore's proclamation and its effects, is The Negro in the Military Services of the United States:
A Compilation of Official Records, State Papers, Historical Records, etc., Chapters 1 and 2, National Archives, Washington, DC
Declaracin de la Independencia
The antislavery activity of Reverend Samuel Hopkins and Moses Brown is discussed in W. Patten, Reminiscences of the Late Reverend
Samuel Hopkins (Boston, 1843); Mack Thompson, Moses Brown, Reluctant Reformer (Chapel Hill, NC, 1962); James F. Reilly, Moses
Brown and the Rhode Island Anti-Slavery Movement (MA thesis, Brown Univeristy, 1939); Arline Ruth Kiven, The Nature and Course of
the Anti-Slavery Movement in Rhode Island, 16371861 (MA thesis, Brown University, 1965); and Norman S. Fiering, The Anti-Slavery
Activities of Samuel Hopkins, DD (17211803) (MA thesis, Columbia University, 1953). For Hopkins' Dialogue , see Samuel Hopkins, A
Dialogue Concerning the Slavery of the Africans (Norwich, Conn., 1776), which also includes Hopkins' letter to the Continental Congress
accompanying his Dialogue . The Dialogue also appears in Samuel Hopkins, Timely Articles on Slavery (Boston, 1854).

Thomas Jefferson's views on slavery have been fully analyzed in many studies. The most recent, and one of the most penetrating, is
William Cohen, Thomas Jefferson and the Problem of Slavery, Journal of American History , 56, Dec. 1969. Valuable discussions may
also be found in Matthew T. Mellon, Early American Views on Negro Slavery: From the Letters and Papers of the Founders of the
Republic (Boston, 1934); the chapter on Jefferson in Winthrop D. Jordan, White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550
1812 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1968); and Robert McCooley, Slavery and Jeffersonian Virginia (Urbana, Ill., 1964). For a defense of Jefferson for
not having manumitted his slaves, see Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Times (Boston, 19481962), especially Vol. 3. For J. Franklin
Jameson's query, see his The American Revolution Considered as a Social Movement (Princeton, NJ,, 1926).
The inscription on John Jack's gravestone is published in George Tolman, John Jack, the Slave, and Daniel Bliss, the Tory (Concord,
Mass., 1902), p. 4.

14. Black Soldiers and Sailors in the War for Independence


Blacks and the Continental Army
The jingle on the complexion of the American army is in John Herbert Nelson, The Negro Character in American Literature, Bulletin of
the University of Kansas: Humanistic Studies , 4, No. 1 (Lawrence, 1926), p. 18. A good description of the desperate plight of the
Continental Army in the early years of the war may be found in Willard M. Wallace, Appeal to Arms: A Military History of the American
Revolution (New York, 1951), Chapters 4 and 7. For the steps leading up to the formation of the Rhode Island black battalion, including
the correspondence of generals Varnum and Washington and Governor Cooke, the act of the legislature and the protest of the dissenters,
see The Negro in the Military Service of the United States, 16391887, pp. 116125, 284286; for the repeal of the act of February
1778, see p. 138. Much of this material is summarized in Lorenzo J. Greene, Some Observations on the Black Regiment of Rhode Island
in the American Revolution, Journal of Negro History , 37, Apr. 1952. For the battles in which the black battalion engaged and the praise
of the battalion by Lieutenant Colonel Volney, see The Negro in the Military Service of the United States, 16391887, pp. 192, 219,
286289; Greene, op. cit.; and Paul Barnett, The Black Continentals, Negro History Bulletin , 33, Jan. 1970. The discussion of
enlistments in Connecticut, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, and Maryland is based on The Negro in the Military Service of
the United States, 16391887, pp. 130142, 174, 187189, 194196, 290192, 295; and Benjamin Quarles, The Negro in the American
Revolution (Chapel Hill, NC, 1961), pp. 5257. For the black legion of Saint Domingue in the battle of Savannah, see TG Steward, How
the Black St. Domingo Legion Saved the Patriot Army in the Siege of Savannah, 1779, Occasional Papers, No. 5 , the American Negro
Academy, Washington, DC, 1899.
For the situation in Virginia, see The Negro in the Military Service of the United States, 16391887, pp. 160, 179, 293294; and Quarles,
op. cit. , pp. 5758. For the black Indians, see Harold Preece, Black Indians, Negro History Week, 1959 (New York, 1959), p. 8. For the
action of the Virginia Assembly freeing slaves of masters who went back on their promises, see Virginia Historical Magazine , 11: 308,
and for the letter of Lafayette to Jefferson, see ibid. , 5: 377. The letter of Colonel Woodling to his superiors is in Belknap-Tucker Letters,
Massachusetts Historical Society Collections , 5th Series, 3 (Boston, 1877), p. 406.
The South and Arming of Blacks
The discussion of Colonel John Laurens' plan to arm the slaves of South Carolina and Georgia, the Congressional recommendation to
these states to do so, and the reaction of both state governments, including the correspondence of Laurens, Hamilton, Washington,
Rutledge, Greene, and others, is based on material in The Negro in the Military Service of the United States, 16391887, pp. 153159,
170, 181185, 201203; Pete Maslowski, National Policy Toward the Use of Black Troops in the Revolution, South Carolina Historical
Magazine , 77, Jan. 1972; David Duncan Wallace, The Life of Henry Laurens (New York, 1915), pp. 448452; Quarles, op. cit. , pp. 60
67. For Sumter's Law, see Richard B. Morris, The American Revolution Reconsidered (New York, 1968), p. 76.
For the British use of slaves and their reluctance to arm them, see Quarles, op. cit. , pp. 111157. The correspondence of Lord Dunmore
with General Henry Clinton and Lord Germain in which he outlined his plan to arm ten thousand blacks is in The Negro in the Military
Service of the United States, 16391887, pp. 206214, 220. The comment of J. Hammond Trumbull on the difficulty of determining the
number of blacks who enlisted in Conneticut battalions is in ibid. , p. 291. The figure on the number of free Negro soldiers in
Massachusetts is based on FB Heitman, Historical Register of Officers of the Continental Army (Washington, DC, 1914). For the story of
Moses Sash, see Sidney Kaplan, A Negro Veteran in Shays' Rebellion, Journal of Negro History , 33, Apr. 1948.
Black Sailors
The best discussion of black sailors during the war both for the Patriots and the British is in Quarles, op. cit. , pp. 8493, 152156. A brief
discussion is in Herbert Aptheker, Negroes Who Served in Our First Navy, Opportunity , Apr. 1940. For use by Americans of blacks who
were captured from British naval vessels, see also The Negro in the Military Service of the United States, 16391887, 144145, 161
163. For James Forten's service on the privateer and his experiences on the prison ship, see Ray Allen Billington, James Forten:
Forgotten Abolitionist, Negro History Bulletin , 13, Nov. 1949.
Freedom for Wartime Service
The story of Deborah Gannett is related in Julia Ward Stickley, The Records of Deborah Sampson Gannett, Woman Soldier of the
Revolution, Prologue, 4 , Winter 1972.
The Antibiastes broadsheet was entitled Observations on the Slaves and Indentured Servants, inlisted in the Army, and the Navy of the
United States (Philadelphia, 1777). For Washington's grant of freedom to William Lee, see William C. Nell, The Colored Patriots of the
American Revolution , Boston, 1855. The full text of the Virginia law granting a pension to George McCoy appears in New National Era
, 12 June 1873.
For the story of Ned Griffin, see Herbert Aptheker, Edward Griffin, Revolutionary Soldier, Negro History Bulletin , 13, Nov. 1949. The
efforts of the Southern planters to obtain compensation for the slaves taken by the British and the refusal of Jay to press their claims is

discussed in Samuel F. Bemis, Jay's Treaty (New Haven, Conn., 1962), and in Richard B. Morris, The Peacemakers: The Great Powers
and American Independence (New York, 1965). For the complaint of Virginians in 1781, see Petition from Henrico County, 1784, Virginia
Legislative Papers, Virginia State Library, Richmond. The story of the Nova Scotia blacks and their settlement in Sierra Leone is
summarized in Quarles, op. cit. , pp. 177181. A more detailed account is Adams G. Archibald, Story of the Deportation of Negroes from
Nova Scotia to Sierra Leone, Nova Scotia Historical Society, Collections , 7, 18891891. See also Earl Leslie Griggs, Thomas Clarkson,
the Friend of the Slaves (London, 1936), pp. 6668, and Mary Beth Norton, The Fate of Some Black Loyalists of the American
Revolution, Journal of Negro History , 58, Oct. 1973.

15. Abolition of Slavery and the Slave Trade in the North


New England
The statement of Virginia slave-owners on liberty and property is dated Nov. 10, 1785, Virginia Legislative Papers.
On the abolition of slavery in Vermont and New Hampshire, see John H. Watson, In Re Vermont Constitution of 1777 , Proceedings of
the Vermont Historical Society , 19191920; Isaac W. Hammond, Slavery in New Hampshire, Magazine of American History , 21. 1889.
The text of the petition of slaves in Connecticut is in Herbert Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United
States (New York, 1950), 1012; For the abolition of slavery and the slave trade in Connecticut, see Bernard C. Steiner, History of
Slavery in Connecticut, Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science , 11, 1893; Jeffrey R. Brackett, The Status of
the Slave, 17751789, in J. Franklin Jameson, ed., Essays in the Constitutional History of the United States (Boston, 1889), pp. 296297;
Revolutionary War Archives , 17631789, 37: 231, 252; Connecticut Colonial Official Papers, 16311780 , collected by Gov. Jonathan
Trumbull, 13:186288; Jonathan Edwards, The Injustice and Impolicy of the Slave Trade and of the Slavery of the Africans (Newburyport,
Mass., 1834); and Theodore Dwight, An Oration Spoken Before the Connecticut Society for the Promotion of Freedom and the Relief of
Persons Held in Bondage (1794).
The discussion of gradual emancipation in Rhode Island is based on the following sources: Petitions to the Rhode Island General
Assembly, 1783, 20: 102, Rhode Island Archives, Providence; Moses Brown to Samuel Hopkins, Mar. 3, 1784; Samuel Hopkins to Moses
Brown, Apr. 29, 1787, Moses Brown Papers, vol. 4, folder 72, and vol. 5, folders 6, 11; Rhode Island Historical Society; Mack Thompson,
Moses Brown, Reluctant Reformer (Chapel Hill, NC, 1962), pp. 7784; Arthur Zilversmit, The First Emancipation: The Abolition of Slavery
in the North (Chicago, 1967), pp. 116118.
The text of the petition of Massachusetts blacks is in Aptheker, op. cit. , pp. 910; for the names of the signers, see George H. Moore,
Notes on the History of Slavery in Massachusetts (New York, 1886), p. 181. For the letter of the legislature to Congress, see Zilversmit, op.
cit. , p. 111. The traditional view that slavery was abolished in Massachusetts by court decision is set forth in Arthur Zilversmit, Quock
Walker, Mumbet and the Abolition of Slavery in Massachusetts, William and Mary Quarterly , 25, Oct. 1968. The challenge to this
interpretation is presented in Elaine MacEacheren, Emancipation of Slavery in Massachusetts: A reexamination, 17701790, Journal of
Negro History , 55, Oct. 1970. For the details of the litigation in the six cases involving Quock Walker, see Moore, op. cil. , pp. 211219;
John D. Cushing, The Cushing Court and the Abolition of Slavery in Massachusetts: More Notes on the Quock Walker Case, American
Journal of Legal History '. Apr. 1961; Robert M. Spector, The Quock Walker Cases (17811783)Slavery, its Abolition and the Negro
Citizenship in Early Massachusetts, Journal of Negro History , 53, Jan. 1968; Zilversmit, The First Emancipation , pp. 112115. For the
life of Paul Cuffe, see HN Sherwood, Paul Cuffe, Journal of Negro History , 8, Apr. 1923. The petition of the seven blacks of Dartmouth is
in Aptheker, op. cit. , pp. 1416, and that of Paul and John Cuffe to the selectmen of Dartmouth is in William C. Nell, Colored Patriots of
the Revolution (Boston, 1855). The tribute of Peter Williams, Jr., to the Cuffe brothers is in Philip S. Foner, ed., The Voice of Black
America: Major Speeches of Negroes in the United States, 17971971 (New York, 1972), pp. 2833.
The campaign to end the slave trade in Rhode Island may be traced in the correspondence between Moses Brown and Samuel Hopkins
in the Moses Brown Papers, Rhode Island Historical Society, especially the letters of Brown to Hopkins, May 14, 1784,. and Hopkins to
Brown, Nov. 17, 1784, and Aug. 13, 1787. Some of the letters are also in Edward A. Park, The Works of Samuel Hopkins (Boston, 1852),
especially 1: 121123, 158, and in Mack Thompson, op. cit. , 190195. The following also may be consulted: Arline Ruth Kiven, The
Nature and Course of the Anti-Slavery Movement in Rhode Island, 16371861 (MA thesis, Brown University, 1965), and James Francis
Reilly, Moses Brown and the Rhode Island Antislavery Movement (MA thesis, Brown University, 1941). The essays of Crito were
published in the Providence Gazette of Oct. 16, 23, 1787, and the petition of the New England Friends' Yearly Meeting to the General
Assembly in the same paper on Nov. 10, 1787. The text of the law abolishing the slave trade is in Rhode Island Records , 10: 282.
The petition of the New England Yearly Meeting to the Massachusetts legislature is in Moses Brown to the Mass. Committee on Memorial
of Friends, Nov. 1, 1787, Moses Brown Papers. For the text of the petition of Massachusetts blacks to the legislature against kidnapping
and the slave trade, see Aptheker, op. cil. , pp. 2021. The petition of Reverend Belknap is discussed in Moore, op. cit. , p. 226, and in
Lorenzo M. Greene, Prince Hall: Massachusetts Leader in Crisis, Freedomways , Summer 1961. Reverend Belknap's comment on the
loophole in the Massachusetts act of Mar. 26, 1788 abolishing the the slave trade is in Massachusetts Historical Society Collections , 1st
Series, 4: 205.
The text of the act of 1788 abolishing the slave trade in Connecticut is in Records of the States of Connecticut (Hartford, 18941895). 6:
472473. For the act of 1792, see ibid. , 7: 379.
Pennsylvania
The best summary of gradual emancipation in Pennsylvania is Zilversmit, The First Emancipation . An earlier account, which differs in
some details from Zilversmit's, is Edward R. Turner, The Abolition of Slavery in Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and
Biography , 26, 1912. The career of George Bryan is discussed in Burton A. Konsile, George Bryan and the Constitution of Pennsylvania,
17311791 , (Philadelphia, 1922). For a discussion of the split among the Germans on abolition, see Owen S. Ireland, Germans Against
Abolition: A Minority's View of Slavery in Revolutionary Pennsylvania, Journal of Interdisciplinary History , 3, Spring 1973. For the text of
the Executive Council's messages to the Assembly, see Samuel Hazard, ed., Pennsylvania Archives (Philadelphia, 18521856), Vol. 7.

The text of the gradual emancipation act of 1780 is in Pennsylvania Statutes at Large , 10: 67. The battle to modify the act of 1780 is
discussed in Robert L. Brunhouse, The Counter-Revolution in Pennsylvania, 177690 (Harrisburg, Pa., 1942), pp. 98108. The letter of
Cato to the Freeman's Journal is quoted in part in Zilversmit, op. cit. , p. 136, but the entire letter is reprinted in Philip S. Foner, A Plea
Against Reenslavement, Pennsylvania History , 29, Apr. 1972. The text of the petition to the General Assembly in 1788 calling for the end
of the slave trade in Pennsylvania and other changes in the act of 1780 is in Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography , 15, 1891,
and the text of the act of 1788 is in JT Mitchell and Henry Flanders, eds., The Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania from 1682 to 1801
(Harrisburg, Pa., 18961915), 13: 54. For the role of the Pennsylvania courts in freeing slaves, see Stanley I. Kutler, Pennsylvania
Courts, the Abolition Act, and Negro Rights, Pennsylvania History , 30, 1963.
Nueva York
The best general discussions of abolition in New York may be found in Zilversmit, The First Emancipation , Chapters 6 and 7; Edgar
McManus, A History of Negro Slavery in New York (Syracuse, NY, 1966). Chapters 8 and 9; and Edgar McManus, Antislavery Legislation
in New York, Journal of Negro History , 46, 1961. Zilversmit and McManus do not agree on the question of whether slavery was still
profitable in New York in the 1780s; the former insists that it was, and the latter argues that the rapid increase in the supply of free labor
made slavery uneconomic. Zilversmit's evidence is convincing. For the New York State Constitution of 1778, see JS Murphy, Interesting
Documents (Containing the Constitution of New York State with its Amendments) (New York, 1819). The report of the Manumission
Society in 1786 is in Minutes, New York Manumission Society, 1: 2123, New York Historical Society. The constitution of the Society is
also in the Minutes. For the history of the Society, see Thomas Robert Mosely, A History of the New York Manumission Society, 1785
1849 (Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 1963).
Jupiter Hammon's Address to the Negroes of the State of New York , 1787, is in Carter G. Woodson, ed., The Mind of the Negro As
Reflected in Letters Written During the Crisis, 18001860 (Washington, DC, 1926). See also Stanley Austin Ransom, Jr., America's First
Negro Poet: The Complete Works of Jupiter Hammon of Long Island (New York, 1970). William Hamilton's statements are in his letter to
John Jay, Mar. 8, 1796, John Jay Papers, Columbia University Library. For evidence that white workers supported abolition, see Alfred F.
Young, The Democratic-Republicans of New York: The Origins 17631797 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1967). The comment on slave
advertisements is in the Forlorn Hope of Apr. 19, 1800.
Nueva Jersey
The long process involved in achieving gradual emancipation in New Jersey is traced in the following sources: Henry Scofield Cooley, A
Study of Slavery in New Jersey, Johns Hopkins Studies in Historical and Political Science (Baltimore, 1922); Simeon Moss, The
Persistence of Slavery and Involuntary Servitude in a Free State (16851866), Journal of Negro History , 35, 1950; Zilversmit, The First
Emancipation , pp. 142136, 173174, 184193, 220221. For the New Jersey legislature's request for revision of the Articles of
Confederation, see Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774 1789 (Washington, DC, 19031937), 11: 637640. On the work of
David Cooper, see Notices of David Cooper, Friends' Review , 15: 18621863. The manuscript copies of the correspondence between
Samuel Allinson and William Livingston are in the Rutgers University Library. Joseph Bloomfield's optimistic statement of 1794 is in his
letter to Samuel Coates, June 30, 1794, Bloomfield Mss ., New Jersey Historical Society, Newark, NJ The liberation of his slaves by
Joseph Bloomfield is discussed in Atalanta Brown Lipscomb, The Status of the Negro in New Jersey during the Period 1763 to 1804
(MA thesis, Columbia University, 1942), p. 86. The report of the New Jersey Abolition Society of 1798 is in Minutes of the Society, Mss . in
the Quaker Collection, Haverford College, Pennsylvania. The full text of the 1804 petition of the Abolition Society to the New Jersey
legislature is published in the Trenton (NJ) True American , Feb. 6, 1804. The statistics of slaves in New Jersey from 1790 to 1860 may be
found in The Negro in New Jersey, Report of a Survey by the Interracial Committee, Dec. 1932 , p. 77. The text of the laws of 1784, 1786,
1787 may be found in Laws of the State of New Jersey, December 1703November 1799 , compiled by William Patterson (Newark, NJ,
1800), and the text of the Act of 1804 is in Laws of the State of New Jersey , Compiled and Published under the Authority of the
Legislature, by Joseph Bloomfield (Trenton, NJ, 18001811). For the abolition of the slave trade in New Jersey and New York, see WEB
DuBois, The Suppression of the African Slave-Trade to the United States of America, 16381870 (New York, 1970), pp. 239240.
For the ruling of the Chief Justice of New Jersey in 1846, see New Jersey Reports (Jersey City, 1886), 30: 372373. The census statistics
on the decline of slavery in the middle states are in JD DeBow, Statistical View of the United States and a Compendium of the Seventh
Census (Washington, DC, 1864), p. 82.
Slavery Banned in the Northwest
For James Madison's interpretation of the reasons for the ban on slavery in the Ordinance of 1787, see his letter to Robert Walsh, Nov.
27, 1819, in Gaillard Hunt, ed., The Writings of James Madison (New York, 19001910), 9: 910. Staughton Lynd's analysis is
presented in his article, The Compromise of 1787, Political Science Quarterly' , 81, 1966, and reprinted in his book, Class Conflict,
Slavery, and the United States Constitution (Indianapolis, 1967). For the Negro population in 1790, see US Bureau of Census, Negro
Population of the United States, 17901915 (Washington, DC, 1915), p. 51.
The Ordinance of 1787 and the attempt to eliminate the ban against slavery are discussed in Bernice E. Finney, The Prohibition of
Slavery in the Old Northwest, 17841830 (MA thesis, Howard University, 1939); Jacob P. Dunn, ed., Slavery Petitions and Papers,
Indiana Historical Society Publications , 2, 1895; Jacob P. Dunn, A Redemption from Slavery (Boston and New York, 1888); N. Dwight
Harris, The History of Negro Servitude in Illinois and of the Slavery Agitation in that State, 17191864 , (Chicago, 1904), and FS Philbrick,
ed., The Laws of the Indiana Territory, 18011809, Illinois State Historical Library Collections , 21, Law Series. 2: 1930. The text of the
laws in the Indiana Territory establishing Negro servitude may be found in Emma Lou Thornbrough, The Negro in Indiana: A Study of a
Minority, Indiana Historical Collections 37, (1957): 89.
For John S. Rock's statement, see Philip S. Foner, ed., The Voice of Black America (New York, 1972), p. 206. John Jay's comment is in his
letter to Granville Sharp (1788), in Henry P. Jackson, ed., The Correspondence and the Public Papers of John Jay (New York, 1890
1893), 3: 342. For the celebrations of free blacks in the Southern cities over the abolition of slavery in New York, see Freedom''s Journal ,
13, 20 July 1827.

William W. Freehling's position is set forth in his article The Founding Fathers and Slavery, American Historical Review , 77, Feb. 1972.

16. A Constitution for the New NationWith Slavery


Limits of the Southern Antislavery Impulse
The argument that there was a strong antislavery movement in the South in the post-Revolutionary years is set forth in Stephen B. Weeks,
Southern Quakers and Slavery (Baltimore, 1896); Mary Stoughton Locke, Anti-Slavery in America from the Introduction of African Slaves
to the Prohibition of the Slave Trade, 16191808 (Boston, 1901); Alice Dana Adams, The Neglected Period of Anti-Slavery in America,
18081831 (Boston, 1908); William M. Boyd, Southerners in the Anti-Slavery Movement, 18001830, Phylon , 9, Second Quarter, 1948.
The best critical analysis of this thesis is Gordon Eslie Finnie, The Anti-Slavery Movement, 17871836; Its Rise and Decline in the South
and its Contribution to Abolitionism in the West (Ph.D. thesis, Ohio State University, 1968). See also the same author's article, The AntiSlavery Movement in the Upper South Before 1840, Journal of Southern History , 35, Aug. 1969.
Madison's dependence on slavery for subsistence is set forth in Gaillard Hunt, ed., The Writings of James Madison (New York, 1901), 2:
154; and for Patrick Henry's statement, see Moses Coit Tyler, Patrick Henry (Ithaca, NY 1962), p. 389. For John Leland's observation, see
LF Greene, ed. The Writings of the Late Elder John Leland (New York, 1845), p. 97.
Discussions of prosperity in the South after the Revolution may be found in Merrill Jensen, The New Nation: A History of the United States
During the Confederation 17811789 (New York, 1958), pp. 234237; Lewis C. Gray, History of Agriculture in the Southern United States
(Washington, DC, 1933), 1: 462481; and Melvin Drimmer, Was Slavery Dying Before the Cotton Gin? in Melvin Drimmer, ed., Black
History: A Reappraisal (New York, 1968), pp. 96115. WEB DuBois' discussion of the revival of the slave trade after the peace is in his
The Suppression of the African Slave-Trade to the United States of America, 16381870 (Cambridge, Mass., 1896; reprint edition, New
York, 1970), pp. 5052.
The Slavery Issue at the Constitutional Convention
For Samuel Hopkins' appeal to the delegates at Philadelphia to abolish slavery, see Samuel Hopkins to Moses Brown, Aug. 13, 1787,
Moses Brown Papers, 6: 11, Rhode Island Historical Society, and Edward A. Parks, ed., The Works of Samuel Hopkins (Boston, 1852), 2:
613624. For views of public figures on the opportunity missed by the founding fathers to end slavery, see William Goddell, Slavery and
Anti-Slavery (New York, 1855), pp. 130135. For Luther Martin's comment on the absence of the words slaves and slavery in the
Constitution, see Secret Proceedings and Debates of the Conventionincluding The Genuine Information Laid Before the Legislature
of Maryland by Luther Martin (Washington, DC, 1909), p. 44. For a discussion of the compromising of the principle of equality by the
failure to act against slavery, see Winifred Reinhard Balliner, Equal Protection of the Laws: A Comparative Study of its Background and
Early Development, 17501850 (Ph.D. dissertation, Duke Univeristy, 1960), pp. 305308.
Gerry's opposition to the Constitution may be found in Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 64 (1932): 144, and Luther
Martin's attack on the concessions to the owners of slaves is in Secret Proceedings, op. cit ., pp. 4446. See also Paul S. Clarkson and R.
Samuel Jett, Luther Martin of Maryland (Baltimore, 1970), pp. 12728, 136138. For Mason's attack on the slave trade and slavery at the
contention, see Elliot, Debates , 1: 496 and 5: 458. For his opposition to the Constitution because it did not sufficiently protect the slave
owner, see Jonathan Elliot, The Debates in the Several on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution (Philadelphia, 1859), 3: 452453,
and Robert A. Rutland, ed., The Papers of George Mason , 1: 3252. For Patrick Henry's opposition to the Constitution on the same issue,
see Elliot, Debates in the Several State Conventions , 3: 445456, 587596, 622625, and for Rawlins Lowndes' statement, see ibid ., 4:
298. The position of the Pennsylvania Quakers is in John Bach McMaster and Frederick Stone, eds., Pennsylvania and the Federal
Constitution, 17871789 (Lancaster, 1888), pp. 588592. Samuel Hopkins' position is in his letter to Moses Brown, Oct. 22, 1787, Moses
Brown Papers, 6, Folder 15, Moses Brown Papers, and for the comment of Levi Hart, see E. Park, Samuel Hopkins , pp. 158159. The
summary of the position of the New Hampshire ratifying convention is in Joseph B. Walker, A History of the New Hampshire Convention
for the Investigation, Discussion, and Decision of the Federal Constitution (Boston, 1888), 8: 44. James Schouler's comment is in his
History of the United States (New York, 1894), 1: 63, and the stand of the Rhode Island ratifying convention on the slave trade is in
DuBois, op. cit ., 68. Tench Coxe's position is in Harold Hutcheson, Tench Coxe: A Study in American Economic Decelopment (Baltimore,
1938), pp. 10, 13. For the extract from Othello's antislavery tract, see Carter G. Woodson, ed., Negro Orators and their Orations
(Washington DC, 1925), pp. 1425. The comment of 1860 on the first ten amendments is in Horace Greeley and FF Cleveland, compilers,
A Political TextBook for 1860 (New York, 1860), p. 53.
Was Slavery Central to the Constitution?
A copy of the Lexington, Kentucky, printing of David Rice's antislavery speech is in the Library Company of Philadelphia. A Philadelphia
reprint appeared the same year. For discussion of the 1792 and 1799 Kentucky constitutional conventions, see Asa Earl Martin, The AntiSlavery Movement in Kentucky Prior to 1850 (Louisville, 1918), pp. 1317, 2433, 98146. John Breckenridge's statement is quoted in
ibid ., p. 26. The Delaware antislavery societies are discussed in Charles Shorter Slavery in Delaware (MA thesis, Howard University
1934), pp. 438443, and Monte A. Calvert, The Abolition Society of Delaware, Delaware History , Oct. 1963. A copy of St. George
Tucker's Dissertation is in the Library Company of Philadelphia. For the attempt to apply the Northwest Ordinance to Tennessee, see
Annals of Congress , 4th Cong., 1st Sess., pp. 1306, 1307. Elihu Embree's statement is quoted in Chase C. Mooney, Slavery in
Tennessee (Bloomington, Indiana, 1957), p. 65. For the antislavery agitation in the churches of Kentucky, see Gordon Ealey Finnie, The
Antislavery Movement in the South, 17871836: Its Rise and Decline and its Contribution to Abolitionism in the West (Ph.D. dissertation,
Duke University, 1962), pp. 214216, 260284. For evidence that plantation slavery had advanced to the back country of South Carolina
by 1794, see D. Huger Bacet, The South Carolina Up Country at the End of the Eighteenth Century, American Historical Review , 28,
July 1923. For the statement of the South Carolina back country, see John Loften, Enslavement of the Southern Mind: 17751825,
Journal of Negro History , 43, Apr. 1958, and for that of the Presbyterian Synod, see Finnie, op. cit ., p. 157. For the statements of
Georgians, see William Sumner Jenkins, Pro-Slavery Thought in the Old South (Chapel Hill, NC, 1935), p. 54; Annals of Congress , 1st
Cong., 2nd Sess., p. 1200; and Finnie, op. cit ., pp. 176178. Thomas Rodney's comment is in his Notes on Slavery, nd, CA Rodney
Papers, Historical Society of Delaware, Wilmington. The report of French emissaries from Saint Domingue may be found in the Boston

Independent Chronicle , Nov. 7, 1793, and the reply of Frenchmen is in the Baltimore Daily Intelligencer , Dec. 4, 1793. For Jefferson's
letter to Governor Drayton, see HA Washington, ed., The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (Washington, DC, 18531854), 4: 9798.

18. Black Revolution in the West Indies


The tax revolt in Peru led by blacks is discussed in Leon G. Campbell, Black Power in Colonial Peru: The 1779 Tax Rebellion of
Lambayeque, Phylon , 33, 1972.
The Three-Caste Slave Society of Saint Domingue
Studies in English of the structure of society in Saint Domingue on the eve of the French Revolution are T. Lothrop Stoddard, The French
Revolution in San Domingo (Boston, 1914), Chapters 35, and CLR James, Black Jacobins (New York, 1963), Chapters 13. Stoddard's
work, however, should be used with caution; James refers to Stoddard's industrious and ingenious vendetta against the Negro race,
pursued with the aid of extracts from the correspondence of irresponsible private persons and by ignoring whatever does not fit his
thesis. The position of the free people of color is explored in Laura Foner, The Free People of Color in Louisiana and St. Domingue: A
Comparative Portrait of Two Three-Caste Slave Societies, Journal of Social History , 3, Summer 1970. There is a vast literature in French
on Saint Domingue and the black revolution of the 1790s. See especially for the island before the Revolution, Pierre de Vassire, SaintDomingue, la socit et la vie Croles sous l'ancien rgime (Paris, 1909); Auguste Lebeau, De la condition des gens de couleur libres
souls l'ancien rgime (Paris, 1903); Gabriel Debien, Gens de couleur libres et colons de St. Domingue devant la constituante, Revue
d'histoire de l'Amrique franaise , 4, 1950; Emile Nau, Rclamations par les affranchis des droits civils et politiques (Port au Prince,
1840).
The letter from the governor on the militia in 1761 is in Vassire, op. cit ., pp. 115117, and the instructions from Paris of 1766 are in
Debien, op. cit ., p. 214; the reasons for the order barring free people of color from entering France are in Lebeau, op. cit ., p. 76. For the
emphasis on the need to maintain the color line to sustain slave subordination, see Laura Foner, op. cit ., p. 426 n .
Impact of the French Revolution
For the issue of slavery and slave trade in the French Revolution, see Oscar Hardy, The Negro Question in the French Revolution
(Menasha, Wis., 1919). For the influence of America on antislavery opinion in France, see Edward Seeber, Antislavery Opinions in
France during the Second Half of the 18th Century (Baltimore, 1937), pp. 117120, and for general discussions of the influence of
America on the French Revolution, see Bernard Fy, The Revolutionary Spirit in France and America , trans. Ramon Guthrie (New York,
1927); Durand Echeverria, Mirage in the West: A History of the French Image of American Society to 1815 (Princeton, NJ, 1957); and
Joyce Appleby, America as a Model for the Radical French Reformers of 1789, William and Mary Quarterly , 28, Apr. 1971. A biography
of one of the leading Friends of the Blacks is Ruth F. Necheles, The Abb Gregoire: 17871831. The Odyssey of an Egalitarian (Westport,
Conn., 1971), especially pp. 53191.
The National Assembly and the Free People of Color
The petition of the friends of the Blacks is in Socit des Amis des Noirs de Paris, Adresse d l'Assemble Nationale, Pour l'Abolition de la
Traite des Noirs (Paris, 1790). A good discussion of the successful campaign of the alliance of colonial deputies, the shipping, merchant
interests, and the commercial cities against the efforts of the Friends of the Blacks to end the slave trade, is Valerie Quime, Decisions on
Slavery, the Slave-Trade and Civil Rights for Negroes in the Early French Revolution, Journal of Negro History , 55, Apr. 1970. See also
Hardy, op. cit ., pp. 1423. For Jaurs' statement, see Jean Jaurs, Histoire Socialiste de la Rvolution Franaise (Paris, 1922), p. 73.
Uprising of the Slaves
For the uprising of the slaves and free people of color in Saint Domingue, see Stoddard, op. cit ., Chapters 1112; James, op. cit.; and
Stoddard, op. cit . An early in-interesting anonymous account published in Philadelphia in 1894 is The Life and Military Achievement of
Tousant Loverture, Late General in Chief of the Armies of St. Domingo . There is a copy in the Library Company of Philadelphia.
France Abolishes Slavery
For the abolition of slavery by the National Convention in 1794 and Danton's speech, see Anna Cooper, L'Attitude de la France l'gard
de esclavage pendant la revolution (Paris, 1915), pp. 360367. For General Maitland's comment on recognizing an independent Negro
government, see Ludwell Lee Montague, Haiti and the US, 17141938 (Durham, NC, 1940), p. 367. Fortescue's conclusion is in Hon. Sir
John William Fortescue, A History of the British Army (London and New York, 18991930), 4, Part 1: 565.
Toussaint and Napoleon
For American assistance to Toussaint in his campaign against Rigaud, see Rayford W. Logan, The Diplomatic Relations of the United
States with Haiti, 17761891 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1941), pp. 61110, and Letters of Toussaint Louverture and of Edward Stevens, 1789
1800, American Historical Review , 16, Oct. 1910. For the report by an American on Toussaint's achievements, see An American to a
Gentlemen in Providence, Rhode Island, Apr. 4, 1800, in Consular Dispatches, Cap Haitien, 4, National Archives, and for the massacres
of blacks by Leclerc's army reported by a Yankee shipmaster, see Boston Gazette , Aug. 5, 1802. The charge that Leclerc committed acts
of genocide is by Thomas Oliver Ott in his The Haitian Revolution, 17891804 (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Tennessee, 1970), p.
237.
Ott's study is published under the same title (Knoxville, 1973).
The evaluation of Toussaint's rule by CLR James is in his A History of Pan-African Revolution (Washington, DC, 1969), pp. 1112, which
also includes (pp. 1819) Toussaint's letter warning France against attempts to restore slavery. The charge that Toussaint restored
slavery during his rule is made by C. Vann Woodward in Clio with Soul, Journal of American History , June 1969, pp. 1920. The tribute

to Toussaint by the editor of the New York (state) Mechanic is reprinted in The People's Advocate (Concord, New Hampshire), Aug. 5,
1842 which also carried the poetic tribute by Whittier. For the effort to denigrate Toussaint in comparison with Christophe, see Hubert
Cole, Christophe, King of Haiti (New York, 1968), and the review of the book by Selden Rodman, New York Times Book Review , Jan. 14,
1968, p. 10. Aim Csaire's evaluation is in his Toussaint Louverture: La Rvolution Franaise et le.Problme Colonial (Paris, 1961), pp.
307310.
The Republic of Haiti
The prophecy by William Wells Brown is in his St. Domingo: Its Revolutions and its Patriots (Boston, 1855).

19. The Impact of Black Revolution, I


Federalists and Republicans on Saint Domingue
For Governor Charles Pickney's letter to the Colonial Assembly of St. Domingo, see San Domingo File, South Carolina Archives. For
Gent's comment on the far-reaching effects in the United States of the insurrection in the West Indies, see Frederick Jackson Turner, ed.,
Correspondence of the French Ministers to the United States, 17911797, Annual Report, American Historical Association 2 (1903):
245264. Nathaniel Russell's letter to Ralph Izard is in Ulrich B. Phillips, The South Carolina Federalists, II, American Historical Review
, July 1909, p. 735. Ralph Izard's comment on the prospect of an alliance with France against Great Britain is in his letter to Mathias
Hutchinson, Nov. 26, 1794, Ralph Izard Papers, South Carolina Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC The toasts of the
New York Tammany Society are in Society of Tammany or Columbian Order, Committee of Amusement, Minutes, Oct. 24, 1791, to Feb.
23, 1795, Manuscript Records, New York Public Library, Manuscript Division. For the toast of the General Society of Mechanics and
Tradesmen of the City of New York, see American Daily Advertiser , July 10, 1795.
For the use of Saint Domingue in the political rivalry between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans, see Donald H. Stewart, The
Opposition Press of the Federalist Period (Albany, NY, 1969), pp. 90, 180, 206, 319320, 326, 338, 344347, 352, 375, 473, 510, 550,
577, 776; Eugene P. Link, Democratic-Republican Societies, 17901800 (New York, 1942), pp. 6263, 9697, 152153, 154155, 173
174, 184185; Winthrop D. Jordan, White Over Black , pp. 386391; Annals of Congress , 5th Cong., 2nd Sess., pp. 1229, 1308;
Washington Gazette , June 7, 1797, and Charleston City Gazette , Oct. 3, 1800. For the opposition of Southern Federalists and
Republicans to Jay's Treaty, see William Renwick Riddell, Jay's Treaty and the Negro, Journal of Negro History , 13, Apr. 1928. For the
connection between Saint Domingue and the Alien and Sedition Acts, see John C. Miller, Crisis in Freedom: The Alien and Sedition Acts
(Boston, 1952), pp. 144145, 149150, 189, and James Morton Smith, Freedom's Fetters: The Alien and Sedition Laws and American
Civil Liberties (Ithaca, NY, 1956), pp. 159187.
The action by state legislatures and Congress for French refugees from Saint Domingue is discussed in Frances Sergeant Childs, French
Refugee Life in the United States, 17901800 (Baltimore, 1940). For the Federalist justification for dealing with Toussaint, see Thomas
Pickney to Dward Rutledge, Philadelphia, Feb. 3, 1798, Dreer Collection, Rutledge Papers, Historical Society of Pennsylvania. President
Adams' proposal to increase the armed forces is in James D. Richardson, ed., Messages and Papers of the Presidents (New York, 1897
1914), 1: 226227, and the undelivered draft of the message is in the Adams Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society. Robert Goodloe
Harper's plea for federal troops to put down insurrections is in his Observations of the Dispute between the United States and France
(Philadelphia, 1798). For evidence of increase in Federalist support in the South in 17971798, see Lisle A. Rose, Prologue to
Democracy: The Federalists in the South, 17981800 (Lexington, Ky., 1968), pp. 160165. John Simon's letter to Oliver Wolcott, Jr., is in
the Adams Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society.
Black Insolence
On the action of slaves in New York raising a liberty pole, see Newburgh (NY) Mirror , Oct. 15, 1798; Stewart, op. cit ., p. 346; for the
conduct of blacks in Philadelphia, see Edward Channing, A History of the United States (New York, 19051925), 4: 134, and for the
threatened invasion of Philadelphia by black crewmen, see Naval Documents Related to the Quasi-War Between the United States and
France (Washington, DC, 1935), 1: 149. Prince Hall's address is published in Philip S. Foner, ed., The Voice of Black America (New York,
1972), pp. 1315. The comment on the insolence of blacks, John Randolph's report of a conversation he overheard, and the report of
runaway blacks are in WP Palmer and S. McCrae, eds., Calendar of Virginia State Papers (Richmond, 18751893), 6: 453, 470, 475
476. For the memorial of the fugitive blacks from North Carolina, the statement of William Smith, and the rejection of the petition, see
Annals of Congress , 4th Cong.. 2nd Sess., pp. 20152018, and for the 1800 petition of free blacks of Philadelphia to Congress, see ibid
., 6th Cong., 1st Sess., pp. 229245. For St. George Tucker's comment on the influence of Saint Domingue on American slaves, see
Palmer and McRae, op. cit ., 6: 649651.
Slave Conspiracies and Revolts
The letter from a slave found on the streets of Yorktown, Virginia, is published in Herbert Aptheker, A Documentary History of the United
States , pp. 2829, and for the slave uprising said to be planned by Garwen, see Palmer and McRae, op. cit ., 6: 428430. The account of
the conspiracy in Warwick County, Virginia, is in ibid ., 7: 453, and Herbert Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts , pp. 214215. The
report from Charleston in 1793 is also published in Mary Truedley, The United States and Santo Domingo, 18791866. Journal of Race
Development 7 (July 1916): 125. For the slave conspiracy of 1797 in Charleston, see Harvey Wish, American Slave Insurrections Before
1861, Journal of Negro History , 22, 1937, and Lisle A. Rose in William and Mary Quarterly , 26, Jan. 1969. John Randolph's statement
may be found in Annals of Congress , 6th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 242.
The Gabriel Insurrection
The best account of Gabriel's conspiracy is Gerald W. Mullin, Flight and Rebellion: Slave Resistance in Eighteenth-Century Virginia (New
York, 1972), pp. 140160. Another excellent account is William J. Kimball, The Gabriel Insurrection of 1800, Negro History Bulletin , 34,
Nov. 1971. An earlier account that is still interesting is Thomas W. Higginson, Gabriel's Defeat, Atlantic Monthly , 10, 1862. Aptheker's
discussion is in his American Negro Slave Revolts , pp. 219229. A novel based on the conspiracy is Arna Bontemps, Black Thunder

(Boston, 1968). Kirkland's letter to McPherson, Sept. 28, 1800, is in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. James Monroe's letter to
Jefferson, Sept. 5, 1800, is in SM Hamilton, ed., Writings of James Monroe (New York, 18981903), 3: 201. The slave conspiracies in
North Carolina in 1800 is mentioned in RH Taylor, Slave Conspiracies in North Carolina, North Carolina Historical Review , 5, Jan.
1928, and Wish, op. cit ., p. 315. For the panic in South Carolina in 1802 following report of a planned landing of blacks by a French
squadron, see Howard A. Ohiline, Georgetown, South Carolina: Racial Anxieties and Militant Behavior, 1802, South Carolina Historical
Magazine , 73, My 1972.
Defense of Black Revolution
The letter of Henry W. De Saussure to Oliver Wolcott, Jr., Charleston, Dec. 28, 1801, is in the Oliver Wolcott Papers, Connecticut Historical
Society, and Thomas Dwight's observation is in his letter to Hannah Dwight, Boston, Jan. 21, 1802, Dwight-Howard Papers,
Massachusetts Historical Society. JP Martin's defense of the blacks of Saint Domingue is in American Museum , 12 (1791): 299300;
David Rice's is in his Slavery Inconsistent with Justice and Good Policy (Philadelphia, 1792), p. 9; Theodore Dwight's is in his An Oration
Spoken before the Connecticut Society for the Promotion of Freedom and the Relief of Persons Unlawfully Holden in Bondage,
Convened in Hartford on the 8th Day of May, AD, 1794 , pp. 20, 23.
The Lesson of Saint Domingue
Thomas Paine's warning is in his letter to William Short, Nov. 1791, in Philip S. Foner, ed., Complete Writings of Thomas Paine (New
York, 1945), 2: 1321. An Account of a Plot by the Negroes of Goree is in American Museum 2 (1792): 304307. The poetic warning is
entitled Lines on the Devastation of St. Domingo, and is in ibid . 12 (Appendix I, 1792): 1314. The verse from the Rural Magazine is
reprinted in Jordan, op. cit ., p. 379. For the stand of the American Convention of Abolition Societies, see Minutes , 1793, p. 23; 1795, pp.
2425, George Thatcher's warning is in Annals of Congress , 5th Cong., 2nd Sess., pp. 13061313. Genet's evaluation of Jefferson's fear
of Saint Domingue is in Turner, op. cit ., p. 53. For Jefferson's insistence that the way to prevent another Saint Domingue is through
remedial measures, see his letter to St. George Tucker, Aug. 28, 1797, in Paul L. Ford, ed., The Writings of Thomas Jefferson
(Washington, 19031904), 8: 335.
Response of Slave-Owners
For the action in Burke County, North Carolina, see Edward W. Phifer, Slavery in Microcosm, Burke County, North Carolina, in Allen
Weinstein and Frank Otto Gatell, ed., American Negro Slavery: A Modern Reader (New York, 1968), p. 85. For South Carolina's law of
1800 and Charleston's ordinance of 1806, see George B. Eckhard, ed., A Digest of the Ordinances of the City Council of Charleston from
the Year 1783 to October 1844, to Which are annexed the Acts of the Legislature which Relate Exclusively to the City of Charleston
(Charleston, 1844), pp. 376378. For measures adopted in North Carolina, see Taylor, op. cit ., p. 21, and Aptheker, American Negro
Slave Revolts , pp. 7476.

20. The Impact of Black Revolution, II


Quarantining the South
For David Ramsey's plea, see his Observations on the Impolicy of Recommencing the Importation of Slaves, Respectfully Submitted to
the Legislature of South Carolina, By a Citizen of South Calolina (sic) (Charleston, 1791), pp. 37, 1011. For laws restricting importation
of blacks from the West Indies, see WEB DuBois, Suppression of the African Slave Trade (New York, 1896), pp. 7072, and Herbert
Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts (New York, 1943), pp. 7375. For the appeal to Congress from Wilmington, North Carolina, and
the action taken by Congress, see Annals of Congress , 7th Cong., 2nd Sess., pp. 385386, 424, 459467, and Du Bois, op. cit ., pp. 84
85. The issue of fugitive slaves around Wilmington is discussed in Herbert Aptheker, Slave Guerrilla Warfare, in To Be Free: Studies in
American Negro History (New York, 1948), p. 75.
The correspondence of Postmaster Gideon Granger to Senator Jackson and the postal law of 1802 can be found in American State
Papers, Post Office Department , p. 27; Annals of Congress , 7th Cong., 1st Sess., Mar. 11, 1802, pp. 199, 208, and Appendix, pp. 1371
1372. The appeal of Ward and Simpson for a presidential pardon, dated Apr. 18, 1806, is in the Jefferson Papers, Library of Congress.
For the role of a black post rider in Gabriel's Rebellion, see Gerald W. Mullin, Flight and Rebellion: Slave Resistance in EighteenthCentury Virginia (New York, 1972), pp. 143144.
For the Virginia Assembly's efforts to get rid of dangerous slaves and the correspondence of Monroe and Jefferson on the issue, see
Archibald Alexander, History of Colonization on the Western Coast of Africa (Philadelphia, 1846), pp. 7381; SA Hamilton, ed., Writings of
James Monroe (New York, 18991903), 3: 292295, and HA Washington, ed., The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (Washington, 1853
1854), 4: 419422. For the negotiations to ship Virginia blacks to Sierra Leone, see Monroe to Jefferson, Apr. 25, 1802, and Jefferson to
Monroe, June 3, 1802, Thomas Jefferson Papers, Library of Congress; Jefferson to Rufus King, July 13, 1802, in Charles R. King, ed.,
The Life and Correspondence of Rufus King (New York, 18941900), 4: 171175. See ibid ., p. 310, for discussions of using parts of
Louisiana for the Virginia blacks.
The Louisiana Purchase and the Slavery Issue in the Louisiana Purchase
The Albany Journals editorial is reprinted in the Springfield (Mass.) Republican , July 2, 1901 under the heading, Why Not Toussaint
L'Ouverture?
For Henry Adams' evaluation of the significance of the French defeat in Saint Domingue for the Louisiana Purchase, see his, History of
the United States of America During the Administration of Thomas Jefferson (New York, 1889), 1, 37798.
For Adrienne Koch's comment, see her Power, Morals, and the Founding Fathers (Ithaca, NY, 1961), p. 48, and for the opposition to the
Louisiana Purchase, see Edmund Quincy, Life of Josiah Quincy of Massachusetts (Boston, 1869), pp. 312314; ES Brown, The
Constitutional History of the Louisiana Purchase, 18031812 (Berkeley, Cal., 1920), pp. 4048; and Jerry W. Knudson, Newspaper

Reactions to the Louisiana Purchase, Missouri Historical Review , Jan. 1969. For the debates and votes on the Breckenridge Bill, see
Annals of Congress , 8th Cong., 1st Sess., pp. 240242; Everett Somerville Brown, ed., William Plumer, Memorandum of Proceedings in
the United States Senate, 18031807 (New York, 1923), pp. 115122; ES Brown, The Senate Debate on the Breckenridge Bill for the
Government of Louisiana, 1804, American Historical Review , 22, Jan. 1917. The last is a collection of documents that reprints the
debates as recorded in the private journal of Senator William Plumer of New Hampshire. Thomas Paine's position is set forth in his
Address to the Inhabitants of Louisiana, in Philip S. Foner, ed., Complete Writings of Thomas Paine (New York, 1945), 2: 963968, and
his letter to Jefferson, Jan. 25, 1805, ibid ., 14561464. For a brief discussion of York, William Clark's slave, see Donald Zochert, 'This
nation never saw a black man before,' American Heritage , 22, Feb. 1971.
Decline of Abolitionism
For the attacks on the antislavery societies by Southern legislatures, see Samuel Shepard, ed., The Statutes at Large of Virginia, from
October Session 1793 to December Session 1806, Inclusive (Richmond, 18351836), 1: 363365; Palmer and McRae, op. cit ., 9: 178;
Maryland Gazette , Dec. 12, 1791. For the resolution of the 1801 abolitionist convention condemning Gabriel's rebellion, see Minutes of
the Proceedings of a Convention of Delegates from the Abolition Societies (Philadelphia, 1801), pp. 3839.
The decline of the antislavery societies under the impact of Saint Domingue may be traced in Minutes , American Convention for
Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and Improving the Condition of the African Race (Philadelphia, 1806); Mary S. Locke, Antislavery in
America (Boston, 1901), pp. 108109; James Francis Reilly, Moses Brown and the Rhode Island Anti-Slavery Movement (MA thesis,
Brown University, 1941), pp. 4850; Norman B. Wilkinson, Papers of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery,
Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography , 68, July 1944; Edward Needles, An Historical Memoir of the Pennsylvania Society for
the Promotion of the Abolition of Slavery (Philadelphia, 1848), pp. 5456; Thomas R. Mosely, A History of the New York Manumission
Society (Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 1963), pp. 311314. For the anonymous abolitionist who defended Gabriel's
insurrection, see Humanitas (pseudonym), Reflections on Slavery; With Recent Evidence of its Inhumanity (Philadelphia, 1803). Peter
Early's statement appears in Annals of Congress , 9th Cong., 2nd Sess., p. 238.
The United States and the Black Republic
For the breaking off of trade between the United States and Haiti, see Henry Adams, op. cit ., 3: 138142; Logan, op. cit ., pp. 151187;
and Donald L. Robinson, Slavery in the Structure of American Politics, 7765 1820 (New York, 1971), pp. 370371.
Abolition of the African Slave Trade
For the abolition of the slave trade in England, see Thomas Clarkson, History of the Abolition of the Slave Trade (London, 1828); Jean
Tripp, The Liverpool Movement for the Abolition of the English Slave Trade, Journal of Negro History , 13, July 1928; ECP Lascelles,
Granville Sharp and the Freedom of Slaves in England (London, 1928). For the influence of Saint Domingue on the abolition of the slave
trade in England, see Alan M. Rees, Pitt and the Achievement of Abolition, Journal of Negro History , 39, July 1954. Wilberforce's
refutation of the idea of Negro inferiority is discussed in William Baker, William Wilberforce on the Idea of Negro Inferiority, Journal of the
History of Ideas , 31, 1970. DuBois' estimate of importance of Saint Domingue on the abolition of the slave trade in the United States is in
Suppression of the African Slave Trade , p. 94. The best account of the factors behind the reopening of the slave trade in South Carolina
in 1803 is Patrick S. Brady, The Slave Trade and Sectionalism in South Carolina, 17871808, Journal of Southern History , 38, Nov.
1972. See also, however, John H. Wolfe, Jeffersonian Democracy in South Carolina (Chapel Hill, NC, 1940), pp. 188192. For David
Baird's warning in Congress, see Annals of Congress , 8th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 996.
Jefferson's message to Congress on the closing of the slave trade is in Annals of Congress , 9th Cong., 2nd Sess., p. 14. The best
discussion of the committee activities and the debates in Congress is in Robinson, op. cit ., pp. 324338. See also DuBois, op. cit ., pp.
94108. For the text of the speech by the Reverend Peter Williams, Jr., see Philip S. Foner, The Voice of Black America (New York, 1972),
pp. 1925. The speech of Jedidiah Morse is in his A Discourse Delivered at the African Meeting-House in Boston, July 14, 1808, in
Grateful Celebration of the Abolition of the African Slavetrade (Boston, 1808).
There is a considerable body of literature dealing with the black Seminoles and the Seminole wars. The present discussion is based on
the following sources: Edward C. McReynolds, The Seminoles (Norman, Okla., 1957); James Hugo Johnston, Documentary Evidence of
the Relations of Negroes and Indians, Journal of Negro History , 14, Jan. 1929; Wyatt F. Jeltz, The Relations of Negroes and Chochtaw
and Chicksaw Indians, ibid ., 33, Jan. 1948; Kenneth W. Porter, Negroes on the Southern Frontier, ibid.,; Kenneth W. Porter, Negroes
and the East Florida Annexation Plot, 18111813, ibid ., 30, Jan. 1945; Kenneth W. Porter, Negroes and the Seminole War, 1817
1818, ibid ., 36, July 1951; Kenneth W. Porter, The Seminole in Mexico, 18501861, Hispanic American Historical Review, 21, Feb.
1951; Kenneth W. Porter, Negroes and the Seminole War, 18351842, Journal of Southern History , 30, Nov. 1964; Kenneth W. Porter,
Florida Slaves and Free Negroes in the Seminole War, 18351842, Journal of Negro History , 28 (Oct. 1943); Lois Katz Brown, Negro
Indian Relations in the Southern States, 15261890 (MA thesis, University of Toledo, 1968); J. Leitch Wright, Jr., A Note on the First
Seminole War as Seen by the Indians, Negroes and Their British Advisers, Journal of Southern History , 34, Nov. 1968; Frank Laumer,
Massacre (Gainesville, Fla., 1968). A tribute to the Seminoles is a pictorial history by Irvin W. Peithman entitled The Unconquered
Seminoles (St. Petersburg, Fla., 1969).
The article in the Albany (NY) Argus is reprinted in National Trades Union , Mar. 26, 1836.

21. Free Blacks, 17901820


Growth of the Free Black Population
Population statistics of free blacks between 1790 and 1820 may be found in US Bureau of the Census, Population of the United States in
I860 , pp. 592604; Wilbur Zalinsky, The Population Geography of the Free Negro in ante-Bellum America, Population Studies , 3, Mar.
1950. The best discussion of the growth of the free black population in the upper South in the post-Revolutionary years is Ira Berlin,
Slaves Who Were Free: The Free Negro in the Upper South, 17761861 (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1970), Chapter 1.

Routes to Freedom
The statement of the Virginia Assembly in freeing the two slaves who had informed on Gabriel is quoted in Berlin, op. cit ., p. 132. The
comment of the Maryland abolitionist on freedom suits is in John S. Tyson, Life of Elisha Tyson, the Philanthropist (Baltimore, 1825), p.
15, and that of the Delaware abolitionists is in the Report of the Delaware Abolition Society to the American Convention, Dec. 11, 1802,
and quoted in Berlin, op. cit ., p. 23.
The best study of self-purchase is Herbert Aptheker, They Bought Their Way to Freedom, Opportunity , Apr. 1940, and reprinted in his To
Be Free: Studies in American Negro History (New York, 1948), pp. 3140. Cases involving self-purchase may be found in Helen T.
Caterall, ed., Judicial Cases Concerning American Slavery and the Negro (Washington, DC, 1929), 2: 275, 479. Illustrations of blacks
who bought themselves and relatives and freedom out of slavery may be found in Constance McG. Green, The Secret City: A History of
Race Relations in the Nation's Capital (Princeton, NJ, 1967), p. 16; Lorenzo J. Greene, Self-Purchase by Negroes in Cole County,
Missouri, Midwest Journal , 2, Winter, 1948; Luther P. Jackson, Manumission in Certain Virginia Cities, Journal of Negro History , 15,
1937; Benjamin Quarles, Black Abolitionists (New York, 1969), pp. 5860, Samuel Eliot Matisqn, Manumission by Purchase, Journal of
Negro History , 33, Jan. 1948. On the limited number of self-purchases in Virginia, see James Hugo Johnston, Race Relations in Virginia
and Miscegenation in the South (Amherst, Mass., 1970), pp. 8,44. For Negroes who owned slaves and the importance of benevolent
reasons for the practice, see Calvin D. Wilson, Negroes Who Owned Slaves, Popular Science Monthly , 82, Nov. 1912, and John Hope
Franklin, The Free Negro in the Economic Life of Ante-Bellum North Carolina North Carolina Historical Review , 19, Oct. 1942.
The advertisements dealing with fugitive slaves may be found in the Virginia Gazette (Richmond), Apr. 15, 1795; Norfolk (Virginia) Herald
, Jan. 16, Feb. 5, 14, Mar. 2, 9, 12, 19, May 16, Aug. 1, 1799.
Danger of Reenslavement
For the incidence of kidnapping in Virginia, see Berlin, op. cit ., pp. 172185, and for the operation of kidnapping rings in Delaware, see
John Gary Dean, The Free Negro in Delaware: A Demographic and Economic Study, 17901860 (MA thesis, University of Delaware,
1970), pp. 3840. The difficulty of convicting kidnappers is outlined in the Minutes of the Delaware Abolition Society, Nov. 11, 1803,
Historical Society of Delaware. The report of the Charleston grand jury is in John Lofton, Insurrection in South Carolina: The Turbulent
World of Denmark Vesey (Yellow Springs, Ohio, 1964), p. 87. For debt peonage and other infringements on the freedom of free blacks in
Delaware, see Richard B. Morris, The Course of Peonage in a Slave State, Political Science Quarterly , 65, June 1950.
For the practice of kidnapping in Illinois, see Alexander Davidson and Bernard Stuve, A Complete History of Illinois from 1673 to 1876
(Springfield, Ill., 1877), pp. 319320.
Resisting Reenslavement
For the case of John Read, see West Chester (Pa.) Village Record , Dec. 20, 1820, May 16, Aug. 9, 15, 21, 1821 (copies in Chester
County Historical Society, West Chester, Pennsylvania); What Right Had a Fugitive Slave of Self-Defense Against His Master?
Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography , 13, 1889; William R. Leslie, The Pennsylvania Fugitive Slave Act of 1826, Journal of
Southern History , 18, Nov. 1952.
Free Blacks in the South
There are a number of specialized studies of free blacks in the South that, though extending beyond 1820, include material on the period
here under discussion. Among them are Berlin, op. cit.; Charles S. Sydnor, The Free Negro in Mississippi before the Civil War, American
Historical Review , 32, July 1927; E. Horace Fritchett, The Traditions of the Free Negro in Charleston, South Carolina, Journal of Negro
History , 25, Apr. 1940; John Hope Franklin, The Free Negro in North Carolina , 17901860 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1943); Jeffrey R. Brackett,
The Negro in Maryland (Baltimore, 1889); John H. Russell, The Free Negro in Virginia, 16191865 (Baltimore, 1903); Ralph B. Flanders,
The Free Negro in Ante-Bellum Georgia, North Carolina Historical Review , 9, Feb. 1943; Annie LW Stahl, The Free Negro in AnteBellum Louisiana, Louisiana Historical Quarterly , 25, Apr., 1942; Henry S. Robinson, Some Aspects of the Free Negro Population of
Washington, DC, 18001862, Maryland Historical Magazine , Spring 1969; Luther P. .Jackson, Free Negro Labor and Property Holding
in Virginia, 18301860 (New York, 1942); John Hope Franklin, The Free Negro in the Economic Life of Ante-Bellum North Carolina,
North Carolina Historical Review , 19, Oct. 1942. The articles by Sydnor, Fritchett, and Franklin are also reprinted in John H. Bracey, Jr.,
August Meier, and Elliott Rudwick, eds., Free Blacks in America, 18001860 (Belmont, Cal., 1971).
For restrictions and attacks on the rights of free Negroes in the South after 1790, see Berlin, op. cit ., pp. 170190; Syndor, op. cit ., p. 17;
Johnson, Race Relations , p. 43; Russell, op. cit ., p. 63. For restrictions on suffrage, see Bracket, op. cit ., pp. 186187; JS Bassett,
Suffrage in the State of North Carolina, American Historical Association Report , 1895; John Gary Dean, The Free Negro in Delaware,
op. cit ., p. 11; Roger W. Shugg, Negro Voting in the Ante-Bellum South, Journal of Negro History , 21. For restrictions on meetings in
Baltimore and the keeping of dogs by free blacks in the same city, see Brackett, op. cit ., pp. 199, 216, and for restrictions on freedom of
movement, see Sydnor, op. cit ., p. 7. For the petition of free persons of color to the South Carolina Senate in 1791, see Herbert Aptheker,
Petition of South Carolina Negroes, Journal of Negro History , 31, Jan. 1946, and reprinted in the same author's Documentary History of
the Negro People in the United States , pp. 2628. For the declaration of the Supreme Court of Louisiana, see Helen T. Caterall, ed.,
Judicial Cases Concerning American Slavery and the Negro (Washington, DC, 1936), 3: 571. For legislation by Congress and
ordinances adopted by the city government of Washington relating to the free Negro, see Robinson, op. cit ., and Worthington G. Snethen,
The Black Code of the District of Columbia (New York, 1848).
The discussion of segregation of blacks in the South during this period is based on the following sources: C. Vann Woodward, The
Strange Career of Jim Crow , 1st ed. (New York, 1955), pp. 1314; 2d ed. (New York, 1957), p. xvii; Richard C. Wade, Slavery in the
Cities, The South, 18201860 (New York, 1964), pp. 266268; Roger A. Fischer, Racial Segregation in Ante-Bellum New Orleans,
American Historical Review , 74, Feb. 1969; Frederic Bancroft, Slave Trading in the Old South (Baltimore, 1937), p. 219.
The discussion of the economic status of free blacks in the South is based on Berlin, op. cit ., pp. 200232; Wade, op. cit ., p. 325; Lofton,

op. cit ., pp. 8586; Leonard P. Stavisky, The Negro Artisan in the South Atlantic States: 18001860: A Study of Status and Economic
Opportunities with Special Reference to Charleston (Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1951), pp. 219233. For the petition from
Richmond free blacks for a new cemetery, see Petition, Dec. 10, 1810, Virginia State Library, and for reprisal law and McPherson's
comment, see Christopher McPherson, A Short History of the Life of Christopher McPherson (Lynchburg, 1855), p. 6.
Free Blacks in the North
For the 1788 law of Massachusetts barring Negroes, see Theron Metcalf, ed., General Laws of Massachusetts , Mar. 26, 1788, Chapter
54, Sect. 6, p. 322, 32426. The investigation of 18211822 is in Theodore Lyman, Jr., Free Negroes and Mulattoes , Massachusetts
House of Representatives Report, Jan. 16, 1822; John Daniels, In Freedom's Birthplace; A Study of the Boston Negroes (Boston and New
York, 1941), pp. 2829. For the laws of New Jersey, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois excluding Negroes, see James H. Wright, New Jersey
Laws and the Negro, Journal of Negro History , 65; Carter G. Woodson, The Negroes of Cincinnati Prior to the Civil War, Journal of
Negro History , 1, Jan. 1916; Journal of the Convention of the State of Illinois , pp. 31, 9296, 255, 453455; Emile Kettleborough,
Constitution Making in Indiana , 1: 361 363, 414, 421; Charles B. Galbreath, History of Ohio (New York, 1925), 1: 167202; Helen T.
Catterall, Judicial Cases Concerning American Slavery and the Negro (Washington, DC, 1937), 5: 3. For the Black Laws of Illinois, see
Samuel H. Treat, Bennett Scales, Robert Blacknell, The Statutes of Illinois (Chicago, 1858), 2: 821830.
The discussion of the campaign to restrict the rights of free blacks in Pennsylvania is based on the following sources: Edward R. Turner,
The Negro in Pennsylvania: Slavery-Servitude-Freedom, 16391861 (Washington, DC, 1911), pp. 122, 136, 148, 152153; Charles M.
Snyder, The Jacksonian Heritage in Pennsylvania Politics, 18331848 (Harrisburg, Pa., 1958), p. 105; Elias P. Oberholtzer, Philadelphia:
A History of the City and its People, A Record of 225 Years (Philadelphia, 1912), 2: 286288; Stanley I, Kutler, Pennsylvania Courts, The
Abolition Act, and Negro Rights, Pennsylvania History , 30, 1963; James Forten, A Series of Letters by a Man of Color (Philadelphia,
1813); Appeal of Forty Thousand Citizens threatened with disfranchisement, to the People of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1838).
The discussion of Negro suffrage in the North outside of Pennsylvania is based on the following sources: Emil Olbrich, The Development
of Sentiment in Negro Suffrage to 1860 (Madison, Wis., 1912); George H. Moore, Notes on the History of Slavery in Massachusetts (New
York, 1866), pp. 187190; Journal of the Proceedings of the Convention of Delegates, Convened at Hartford, August 26, 1818, for the
Purpose of Forming a Constitution of Civil Government for the People of Connecticut (Hartford, Conn., 1901), pp. 46, 90; IH Barlett, From
Slave to Citizen, The Story of the Negro in Rhode Island (Providence, 1954), pp. 2022; Marion Thompson Wright, Negro Suffrage in
New Jersey, 17761785, Journal of Negro History , 33, 1948; Dixon Ryan Fox, The Negro in Old New York, Political Science Quarterly
, 33, June 1917; Thomas EV Smith, Political Parties and their Places of Meeting in New York City (New York, 1893), p. 10; Herman D.
Bloch, The New York Negro's Battle for Political Rights, 17771865, International Review of Social History , 10, 1964; Laws of the State
of New York (Albany, 1813), 2: 9495, 253254; AB Street, The Council of Revision of the State of New York, its Historyand its Vetoes
(Albany, 1859), pp. 266269; 362364; A Report of the Debates and Proceedings of the Convention of the State of New York (Albany,
1823); Mary Joyce Adams, The History of Suffrage in Michigan, Publications of the Michigan Political Science Association , 3, Mar.
1898; Ohio House of Representatives, Report of the Committee on the Colored Population of Ohio , reprinted in Journal , Feb. 1, 1832.
The discussion of the economic status of black workers in the North is based on the following sources: Whittington Bernard Johnson,
Negro Laboring Classes in Early America, 17501820 (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Georgia, 1970), Chapter 6; Amett Lindsay, The
Economic Condition of the Negroes of New York Prior to 1861, Journal of Negro History , 6, Apr. 1921; Charles H. Wesley, Negro Labor
in the United States, 18501925 (New York, 1927), Chapter 2; WEB DuBois, The Philadelphia Negro (Philadelphia, 1899), Chapter 1;
Julian Rammelkamp, The Providence Negro Community, 18201842, Rhode Island History . 7, Jan. 1948; Donald Martin Jacobs, A
History of the Boston Negro from the Revolution to the Civil War (Ph.D. dissertation Boston University, 1968), pp. 8182. For the
valedictorian address at the New York African School, see Charles C. Andrews, The History of the New York African Free Schools
(New York, 1830), p. 132. An interesting account of the rise of a black pauper and transient labor class in a specific Northern community
is Carl D. Oblinger, Alms for Oblivion: The Making of a Black Underclass in Southeastern Pennsylvania, 17801860, in John E. Bodnar,
ed., The Ethnic Experience in Pennsylvania (Lewisburg, Pa. 1973).

23. The Free Black Vanguard, 17901820


Frederick Douglass' comment is in his letter to the editor of The Hub, Mar. 3, 1884, clipping in Frederick Douglass Papers, Library of
Congress.
Jpiter Hammon
Jupiter Hammon's life and poems are discussed in Oscar Wegelin, Jupiter Hammon, American Negro Poet (New York, 1915). His poems
are also included in William Robinson, ed., Early Black American Poets (Dubuque, Iowa, 1970).
Phillis Wheatley
The discussion of Phyllis Wheatley is based on the following sources: Julian D. Mason, Jr., ed., The Poems of Phillis Wheatley (Chapel
Hill, NC, 1966); Benjamin Brawley, Early American Writers (Chapel Hill, NC, 1935), pp. 2174; Edward D. Seeber, Phillis Wheatley,
Journal of Negro History , 24, July 1939; Philip St. Laurent, Phillis Wheatley, Tuesday , Sept. 1967; Carl Bridenbaugh, The Earliest
Published Poem of Phillis Wheatley, New England Quarterly , Dec. 1967; Winthrop .D. Jordan, White Over Black , pp. 284286; Shirley
Graham, The Story of Phillis Wheatley (New York, 1949); Vernon Loggins, The Negro Author (New York, 1945), pp. 929. These should
be supplemented with Early Negro Writing, 17601837 , selected and edited by Dorothy Porter (Boston, 1971). For an interesting though
rather strained effort to depict Phillis Wheatley as a more militant poet than she has usually been made out to be, see R. Lynn Matson,
Phillis WheatleySoul Sister? Phylon , 33, No. 3, 1972.
Benjamin Banneker
The first comprehensive biography of Benjamin Banneker was published in 1972: The Life of Benjamin Banneker by Silvio A. Bedini. Es
desde hace mucho tiempo. Previous works are mainly sketches such as Martha Ellicott Tyson, Sketches of the Life of Benjamin

Banneker, from Notes Taken in 1836 (Baltimore, 1854); John HB Lagroe, Memoir of Benjamin Banneker (Baltimore, 1854); Will W. Allen,
Benjamin Banneker, Afro-American Astronomer (Washington, DC, 1915); Henry E. Baker, Benjamin Banneker, Journal of Negro History
, 3, 1919; William B. Settle, The Real Benjamin Banneker, Negro History Bulletin , 16, Jan.Apr. 1953. The Banneker-Jefferson
correspondence has been frequently published, and may be found most conveniently in Aptheker, Documentary History , pp. 2225. For
the Federalist attack on Jefferson in this matter, see William L. Smith, The Pretensions of Thomas Jefferson to the Presidency Examined
(np, 1796), pp. 8, 10. David Rittenhouse's praise of Banneker is in his letter to James Pemberton, Philadelphia, Aug. 6, 1791, the
original of which is in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. A detailed account of Banneker's role in the laying out of the nation's capital
is Silvio A. Bedini, Benjamin Banneker and the Survey of the District of Columbia, 1791, Columbia Historical Society Records , 1969
1970.
Dr. James Derham
The best study of black medical practitioners in early America is Herbert M. Morais, The History of the Negro in Medicine (Washington,
D:C., 1967); chapters 2 & 3. A sketch of James Derham is also in Kelly Miller, The Historic Background of the Negro Physician, Journal
of Negro History , 1, Apr. 1916. For Derham's relations with Rush, see Betty L. Plummer, Benjamin Rush and the Negro (MA thesis,
Howard University, 1969). For Caesar's cure, see Morais, op. cit ., pp. 207208.
Black Artists and Musicians
The black artist in early America is discussed in Alain L. Locke, The Negro in Art: A Pictorial Record of the Negro Artist and the Negro
Theme in Art (Washington, DC, 1940), and in Edward Strickland, Our 'Forgotten' Negro Artists, Masses & Mainstream , Sept. 1954. For
Joshua Johnston, see Katherine Scarborough, An Early Negro Portrait Artist: Joshua Johnston, Negro History Bulletin , 31, Feb. 1968.
The comment on Stephen Fortune is by Bishop Henry McNeal Turner, and may be found in Philip S. Foner, ed., The Voice of Black
America (New York, 1972), p. 563. For black musicians in early America, see Eileen Southern, The Music of Black Americans: A History
(New York, 1971), pp. 105112.
Black Teachers
Negro teachers are discussed in Carter G. Woodson, The Education of the Negro Prior to 1861 (New York, 1915), pp. 120140;
Southern, op. cit ., pp. 8081; CW Bimie, The Education of the Negro in Charleston, South Carolina before the .Civil War, Journal of
Negro History , 12, Jan. 1927; W. Sherman Savage, The Influence of John Chavis and Lunsford Lane on the History of North Carolina
ibid ., 25, Jan. 1940.
Black Actors
The African Grove Theater is discussed in Loften Mitchell, Black Drama: The Story of the American Negro in the Theater (New York,
1967), pp. 2426; in Herbert Marshall and Mildred Stock, Ira Aldridge: The Negro Tragedian (New York, 1958), pp. 2847; and in George
CC Odell, Annals of the New York Stage, 18211835 (New York, 1928).
Black Preachers
For the many black preachers in this period, see Carter G. Woodson, The History of the Negro Church (Washington, DC,). Richard Allen's
early life may be traced in Rt. Rev. Richard Allen, The Life Experience and Gospel Labor of the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen (New York, 1960),
pp. 125; Charles Wesley, Richard Allen, Apostle of Freedom (Washington, DC, 1935), which also has important biographical information
about Absalom Jones and other black religious figures in early America. For Absalom Jones, see Absalom Jones, Narrative of the Life of
Rev. Absalom Jones (np, nd); William Douglas, Annals of the First African Church in the United States (Philadelphia, 1862), pp. 118123.
Daniel Coker's early life is set forth in Journal of Daniel Coker, A Descendant of Africa (Baltimore, 1820). For Lemuel Haynes, see
Timothy Mather Cooley, Sketches of the Life and Character of the Rev. Lemuel Haynes (New York, 1837); W, H. Morse, Lemuel Haynes,
Journal of Negro History , 4, 1919; William Yates, ed., Rights of Colored Men. A Book of Facts (Philadelphia, 1838), pp. 4045. There is
no biography of Prince Saunders, but there is a brief sketch in the Dictionary of American Biography .
Black Businessmen
For Negro businessmen in early America, see Abram L. Harris The Negro as Capitalist (Philadelphia, 1936), pp. 615; JH Harmon, Jr.,
The Negro as a Local Business Man, Journal of Negro History , 14, Apr. 1929; Edmund Berkeley, Jr., Prophet Without Honor:
Christopher McPherson, Free Person of Color, Virginia Magazine of History and Biography , 67, Apr. 1969. For the comment of the New
Yorkers on the black barber, see Henry Bradshaw Fearon, Sketches of America: A Narrative of a Journey of Five Thousand Miles
Through the Eastern and Western States of America (London, 1818), pp. 5859, and Isaac Candler, A Summary of America (London,
1824), p. 284. A brief sketch of Samuel Fraunces is John W. Davis, Samuel Fraunces: Revolutionary Patriot and Citizen-Extraordinary,
Negro History Bulletin , 30, Nov. 1967.
There is no biography of Pierre Toussaint, but the following are useful: HFS Lee, Memoir of Pierre Toussaint, Born a Slave in Santo
Domingo (Boston, 1854); Henry Binsse, Pierre Toussaint, A Catholic Uncle Tom, US Catholic Historical Society Records & Studies , 13,
1918; and Leo R. Ryan, Pierre Toussaint, 'God's Image Carved in Ebony,' ibid., 25 , 1935. The latter is mainly a summary of the
contents of the Papers of Pierre Toussaint, which are deposited in the manuscript division of the New York Public Library. Paul Cuffe is
discussed in the first chapter of Sheldon H. Harris, Paul Cuffe: Black America and the African Return (New York, 1972); HW Sherwood,
Paul Cuffe, Journal of Negro History , 8, Apr. 1923; and Peter Williams, A Discourse on the Death of Paul Cuffe, reprinted in Foner, ed.,
The Voice of Black America . The life of James Forten is presented in Ray Allen Billington, James Forten: Forgotten Abolitionist, Negro
History Bulletin , 13, Nov. 1949; Robert Purvis, Remarks on the Life and Character of James Forten (Philadelphia, 1842); and William C.
Nell, Patriots of the American Revolution (Boston, 1855), pp. 166175.
There is a survey of the emergence of the black elite in Boston, in Adelaide Cromwell Hill, The Negro Upper Class in BostonIts
Development and Present Social Structure (Ph.D. dissertation, Radcliffe College, 1962). But there is no study of the more important black

elite of Philadelphia. Some discussion of the families that made up this elite may be traced in Richard Bardolph, The Negro Vanguard
(New York, 1959.)
The Black Vanguard and the Black Masses
The discussion of Christopher McPherson is based on his A Short History of the Life of Christopher McPherson , and Berkeley, Jr., op. cit
., James Forten's appeal to the Pennsylvania legislature in 1813 is in his Letters from a Man of Colour, on a Late Bill before the Senate of
Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1813), extracts from which are to be found in Aptheker, ed., Documentary History , pp. 5965. Paul
Preston's view on the yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia may be found in Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 13,
(1912): 287. For Benjamin Rush's letters on the role of blacks in the yellow fever epidemic, see LH Butterfield, ed., Letters of Benjamin
Rush (Princeton, 1951), 1: 638658. Richard Allen and Absalom Jones's pamphlet is A Narrative of the Proceedings of the Black People
During the Late Awful Calamity in Philadelphia in the Year 1793 (Philadelphia, 1795).
Black Antislavery Spokesmen
The Allen and Jones pamphlet contains An Address to those who Keep Slaves and Approve the practice, To the People of Colour, and
A Short Address to the Friends of Him Who hath No Helper. Othello's antislavery tract Negro Slavery may be found in Carter G.
Woodson, ed., Negro Orators and Their Orations (Washington, DC, 1925), pp. 1425. For the text of Cyrus Bustill's address to
Philadelphia slaves, see Melvin H. Buxbaum, ed., Cyrus Bustill Addresses the Blacks of Philadelphia, William and Mary Quarterly , 29,
Jan. 1972.

24. The Emergence of Separate Black Institutions


Black Benevolent (Mutual Aid) Societies
For the organization of benevolent societies among whites, see Philip S. Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States (New
York, 1947), 1: 2627. The birth and early growth of the Free African Society of Philadelphia may be traced in Minutes of the Free African
Society, reprinted in William Douglass, Annals of the First African Church in the United Stales of America, now styled the African
Methodist Episcopal Chruch of St. Thomas (Philadelphia, 1862). For benevolent societies in other cities, see Berlin, op. cit ., pp. 431435;
Aptheker, Documentary History , p. 38; Lofton, op. cit ., pp. 8485; The Condition of the Coloured Population of the City of Baltimore,
Baltimore Literary and Religious Magazine 4 (1838): 174175; and Daniel Perlman, Organizations of the Free Negro in New York City,
18001860, Journal of Negro History , 56, July 1971. The beginnings of black insurance companies are discussed in Carter G.
Woodson, Insurance Business Among Negroes, Journal of Negro History , 14, Apr. 1929, and James B. Browning, The Beginnings of
Insurance Enterprise Among Negroes, ibid ., 22, Oct. 1937.
Black Masons
The literature on Black Masonry is extensive, but the following are especially worth consulting: William Upton, Negro Masonry
(Cambridge, Mass., 1902); George W. Crawford, Prince Hall and His Followers: Being a Monograph on the Legitimacy of Negro Masonry
(New York, 1914; reprinted New York, 1969); and William Alan Maraskin, Black Masons: The Role of Fraternal Orders in the Creation of
a Middle-Class Black Community (Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1970). A facsimile of the charter of African Lodge
No. 459 is published in In Black America (Prudential Publishers, Los Angeles, 1969), p. 9.
Black Churches
Racist practices in the white churches are discussed in Joseph W. Nichols, The Negro's Church (New York, 1933), pp. 2122; Henry J.
Cadbury, Negro Membership in the Society of Friends, Journal of Negro History , 21, Apr. 1936; Carter G. Woodson, The History of the
Negro Church (Washington, DC, 1921), pp. 9799; WEB DuBois, The Negro Church: A Social Study (Atlanta, 1903), pp. 111115; Walter
H. Brooks, Evolution of the Negro Baptist Church, Journal of Negro History, 7 , Jan. 1922; Charles H. Wesley, Richard Allen, Apostle of
Freedom (Washington, DC, 1935), pp. 125135; The Negro Pew, Being An Inquiry Concerning the Propriety of Distinction in the House of
God, on Account of Color (Boston, 1837), pp. 8487. Richard Allen's comment on reading sermons is in his The Life Experience and
Gospel Labors of the Right Reverend Richard Allen (New York, 1960), pp. 2930. The first Negro congregation in the nation is discussed
in Walter Brooks, Priority of the Silver Bluff Church, Journal of Negro History , 7, Apr. 1922, and John N. Davis, George Liele and
Andrew Bryan, Pioneer Baptist Preachers, ibid ., 3, Jan. 1918. For the Williamsburg African Church, see Luther P. Jackson, Religious
Development of the Negro Church in Virginia, from 1760 to 1860, Journal of Negro History , 16, Apr. 1931, and Berlin, op. cit ., pp. 130
135.
The story of St. Thomas' Church is traced in Douglass, Annals . For Benjamin Rush's role in the building of the African Church, see LH
Butterfield, ed., Letters of Benjamin Rush (Princeton, 1951), pp. 599, 624, 636, 638, 717. The story of Mother Bethel and the fight for
control is dramatically set forth by Allen himself in his Life Experience and Gospel Labors , pp. 2560, and in RR Wright, Encyclopedia of
African Methodism (Philadelphia, 1922), pp. 300334, and in Carol Ann George, Richard Allen and the Independent Black Church
Movement, 17871831 (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Syracuse University, 1970).
Dr. Rush's letter to his son. was published as a leaflet, Philadelphia, Oct. 19, 180. For the black Methodists of Baltimore, Wilmington, and
New York, see Daniel A. Payne, A History of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (Nashville, Tenn., 1891), pp. 518; Elmer T. Clark et
al., eds., The Journal and Letters of Francis Asbury (London & Nashville, 1958), 2: 6570; and David H. Bradley, History of the African
Methodist Episcopal Church Zion (Nashville, Tenn., 1956), pp. 5054. The formation of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in 1816
and the election of Bishop Richard Allen are discussed in Charles H. Wesley, Richard Allen, Apostle of Freedom (Washington, DC,
1935), pp. 130165.
The formation of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church is discussed in Woodson, op. cit., pp. 7880. For black Presbyterian and
Baptist churches, see Andrew E. Murray, Presbyterians & the NegroA History (Philadelphia, 1966), and Walter H. Brooks, The
Evolution of the Negro Baptist Church, Journal of Negro History , 7, Jan. 1922. Fear of slave insurrections as a factor limiting the growth

of independent African churches in the South is discussed in Berlin, op. cit ., pp. 395398, and W. Harrison Daniel, Virginia Baptists and
the Negro in the Antebellum Era, Journal of Negro History , 56, Jan. 1971.
Black Schools
Education for blacks and the establishment of African Schools is discussed in Carter G. Woodson, The Education of the Negro Prior to
1861 (Washington, DC, 1919), pp. 255307; Marion T. Wright, The Education of Negroes in New Jersey (New York, 1941), pp. 1933; A
Brief Sketch of the Schools for Black People and their Descendants Estsablished by the Religious Society of Friends in 1770
(Philadelphia, 1967), pp. 317; A Short History of the African Union Meeting and School-House Erected in Providence in the Years 1819,
'20, '21, with Rules for the Future Government (Providence, 1821), pp. 37; Charles C. Andrews, The History of the New-York African
Free-Schools (New York, 1830; reprinted New York, 1969); Thomas Robert Mosley, A History of the New York Manumission Society,
17851849 (Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 1963), Chapter 4; William O. Bourne, History of the Public School Society of the
City of New York (New York, 1869), pp. 366367; Constitution of the Education Society for the People of Color in New England with an
Address of the Executive Committee to the Public (Boston, 1817); Arthur O. White, Blacks and Education in Antebellum Massachusetts:
Strategies for Social Mobility (Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1969).
Elisha Dick's warning against African schools is in William P. Palmer, ed., Calendar of Virginia State Papers (Richmond, 18751893), 9:
178. For white hostility to African Schools in the South, see Berlin, op. cit ., pp. 141145. The opposition to Sunday Schools is set forth in
Levi Coffin, Reminiscences of Levi Coffin (Cincinnati, 1876), pp. 6971, and Genius of Universal Emancipation , Sept. 1821. The story
of James McPherson's school venture is related in Edmund Berkeley, Jr., Prophet Without Honor, Christopher McPherson, Free Person
of Color, Virginia Magazine of History and Biography , 52, June 1967.
For the Pennsylvania Augustine Society for the Education of People of Colour, see Prince Saunders, An Address Delivered at Bethel
Church, Philadelphia, on the 30th of September 1818 before the Pennsylvania Augustine Society for the Education of People of Colour
(Philadelphia, 1818). Arthur Donaldson's Philadelphia school for black children is described in his The Juvenile Magazine No. 3 .
(Philadelphia, 1813). Copy in Boston Public Library, Rare Book Room. The poem by MAB in the last number of the Juvenile Magazine
(Aug. 1813) is also reprinted in William Gribbin, Advice from a Black Philadelphia Poetess of 1813, Phylon , 34, No. 1, 1973.
Blacks and Public Schools
For the beginnings of public schools for blacks in Philadelphia, see Harry Charles Silcox, A Comparative Study in School
Desegregation: The Boston and Philadelphia Experience 18001881 (Ph.D. dissertation, Temple University, 1972). The battle for public
schools for blacks in Boston is discussed in White, op. cit .; Lorenzo Greene, Prince Hall: Massachusetts Leader in Crisis, Freedomways
, 1, Fall 1961; and Aptheker, Documentary History , pp. 1920.

25. Emigrate or Stay and Fight for Equality: The Initial Debate
Two recent works which deal to some extent with the black emigration movement of the 17901820 period are Edwin S. Redkey, Black
Exodus: Black Nationalist and Back-to-Africa Movements, 18901910 (New Haven, Conn., and London, 1969), and Theodore Draper,
The Rediscovery of Black Nationalism (New York, 1970). Draper's book has come under sharp attack, especially by black scholars, for
what is viewed as its lack of understanding of the appeal of black nationalism among black Americans. See especially the review by Earl
Ofari in The Black Scholar , Oct. 1970, and the exchange between Draper and Ofari in ibid ., June 1971. A critical review of Redkey's
book and an estimate of the black emigration tradition is the review article by Melvin Drimmer in Journal of American Studies (published
by Cambridge University Press for the British Association for American Studies), Feb. 1971.
For Samuel Hopkins' suggestion to Phillis Wheatley that she return to Africa as a missionary, and her rejection of the suggestion, see
Kenneth Silverman, Four New Letters by Phillis Wheatley, Early American Literature , 8, Winter, 1974.
The correspondence between the Union Society of Africans in Newport and the Free African Society of Philadelphia is published in
William Douglass, Annals of the First African Church in the United States of America, now styled the African Methodist Episcopal Church
of St. Thomas (Philadelphia, 1862), pp. 2529.
Role of Paul Cuffe
The most recent and most authoritative study of Paul Cuffe's role in relation to Africa is Sheldon H. Harris, Paul Cuffe: Black America and
the Africa Return (New York, 1972). The work includes letters to and by Cuffe and the journal of his voyage to Sierra Leone. Other studies
of Cuffe are Henry N. Sherwood, Paul Cuffe, Journal of Negro History , 8, Apr. 1923, and the same author's Paul Cuffe and his
Contribution to the American Colonization Society, Proceedings of the Mississippi Valley Historical Association for the Years 191213 ,
6. For plans to deport free Negroes prior to the formation of the American Colonization Society, see Walter L. Fleming, Historic Attempts
to Solve the Race Problem in America Through Deportation, Journal of Negro History , 4, Jan. 1910; Henry N. Sherwood, Early Negro
Deportation Projects, Mississippi Valley Historical Review , 2, Mar. 1916; Brainerd Dyer, The Persistence of the Idea of Negro
Colonization, Pacific Historical Review , 12, Mar. 1943. For the full details of one such early plan, see Ferdinando Fairfax, Plan for
Liberating the Negroes in the United States, American Museum , 8, Dec. 1790.
Birth of the American Colonization Society
There is a considerable body of literature dealing with the American Colonization Society. The most recent study is Peter J. Staudenraus,
The American Colonization Movement, 18161865 (New York, 1961). However, Professor Staudenraus tends to overemphasize the
sincere benevolence of many members of the ACS and pays insufficient attention to the significance of proslavery support and the
Society's role in increasing racial prejudice. An older but still useful work is EA Fox, The American Colonization Society (Baltimore, 1917).
George M. Frederickson's viewpoint is set forth in The Black Image in the White Mind (New York, 1971). For the comment of the editor of
the New York Courier on the Society's founding meeting, and the Sambo piece, see issues of Jan. 1, 13, 1817.

Reaction of Free Blacks to the Colonization Society


Reverend Finley's report of his meeting with Philadelphia black leaders appears in Isaac Van Arsdale Brown, Biography of Robert Finley
(Philadelphia, 1819), pp. 99102, and is repeated in the 1857 edition, pp. 121124. James Forten's letter to Paul Cuffe, Jan. 25, 1817, is
published in full in Sheldon H. Harris, op. cit ., pp. 243245, and in part in William Loren Katz's introduction to William Lloyd Garrison's
Thoughts on African Colonization (New York, 1968), p. ix. The proceedings of the Richmond meeting and the Philadelphia meeting of
Jan. 1817 are in ibid ., Part 2, pp. 911, 6263, and in Aptheker's Documentary History , pp. 7072, which also publishes Abraham
Camp's letter to Elias B. Caldwell. Finley's Dialogue on the African Colonization is reprinted in EV Brown, Memoirs of the Rev. Robert
Finley, DD , (New Brunswick, NJ, 1819). Lott Cary's return to Africa is discussed in Miles Mark Fisher, Lott Cary, the Colonizing
Missionary, Journal of Negro History , 7, Oct. 1922.

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History of Black Americans -- : From Africa to the Emergence of the Cotton Kingdom
MLA
" Bibliography and Sources ." History of Black Americans : From Africa to the Emergence of the Cotton Kingdom . Westport, CT: Greenwood Press,
1975. The African American Experience . Greenwood Publishing Group. 25 Oct 2014. <http://testaae.greenwood.com/doc.aspx?
fileID=GR7529&chapterID=GR7529-2404&path=books/greenwood>

Manual de Estilo de Chicago


" Bibliography and Sources ." In History of Black Americans : From Africa to the Emergence of the Cotton Kingdom, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press,
1975. The African American Experience . Greenwood Publishing Group. http://testaae.greenwood.com/doc.aspx?fileID=GR7529&chapterID=GR75292404&path=books/greenwood. (accessed October 25, 2014).
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