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Simulation: Enhancement and Depletion Type

MOSFET
Post-laboratory Report; Submitted: 14 January 2015

Dean Karlo D. Bardeloza

Antonio Angelo O. Rabe

Electronics, Computer, and Communications Engineering


Ateneo de Manila University
Philippines
dk_bardeloza@yahoo.com.ph

Electronics, Computer, and Communications Engineering


Ateneo de Manila University
Philippines
antonioangelorabe@yahoo.com

AbstractThe experiment aims to study the characteristics of a


metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). Also,
the differences of the enhancement and depletion type MOSFETs
are observed. The entire experiment will consist of simulating the
two types of MOSFET and comparing them to the theoretical
parameters and its corresponding characteristic curve. The
different regions of operation (cutoff, ohmic/triode, saturation) will
also be observed. Results show that
Index TermsMOSFET, enhancement, depletion, n-channel,
--channel, doping, cutoff, ohmic, saturation

I. INTRODUCTION

II. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND


The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
or MOSFET is a type of FET in which the input to the gate
terminal is insulated. This is different from the junction field
effect transistor or JFET in the previous experiments in which
the MOSFET has an insulated Metal Oxide electrode in the
gate. It is insulated from the semiconductor channel by a
thin layer of silicon dioxide or glass. There are two types of
MOSFETs, which are the enhancement type and the depletion
type [1].
A. Enhancement Type MOSFET
The enhancement type MOSFET relies on the gate to
source voltage VGS for it to be switched ON. Similar to the
JFET, there are n-channel and p-channel enhancement type
MOSFETs. The diagram for these two types of MOSFETs is
shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the enhancement type MOSFET [1].

The enhancement type MOSFET has three terminals,


which consist of the gate, drain, and source. The dotted line
the schematic diagram of the MOSFET shows the standard
state of the enhancement type MOSFET being normally
open. The arrow in the diagram is used to represent if the
MOSFET is n-channel or p-channel. The parameters being
considered in this type of MOSFET is V GS, drain current ID,
and drain to source voltage VDS [1].
The channel of an enhancement type MOSFET is nonconductive because it is usually only slightly doped or even
undoped. This MOSFET is normally off, in which the
transistor is off when the gate to source voltage V GS is equal to
zero (cut-off). Simply put, the MOSFET is on for a positive
value of VGS, granted that it is greater than the threshold
voltage VT and the drain current ID flows. For ID to flow VGS
must be greater than VT; subsequently, as VGS increases, it
reduces the resistance of the semiconductor channel, causing
ID to also increase. The term enhancement represents the
fact that this configuration enhances the channel of the
MOSFET. The characteristic curve of the n-channel
enhancement type MOSFET is shown in Fig. 2.

i D =K P [2(V SG +V TP )V SDV SD ] ( p )
where K is a constant called the conduction parameter. In
the case where the MOSFET is in saturation, I D is calculated as
follows:

i D =K N (V GSV TN ) ( n ) (7)
i D =K P ( V SG +V TP ) ( p )
B. Depletion Type MOSFET
The depletion type MOSFET on the other hand has a
normal status of being normally on, in which applying a
voltage bias to the gate turns the MOSFET off. There are also
n-channel and p-channel depletion MOSFETS, and are shown
in Fig. 3.
Fig. 2. Characteristic curve of the n-channel enhancement type MOSFET [1]

The characteristic curve shows that when the gate to


source voltage VGS is positive, the enhancement type MOSFET
is turned on. For VGS = 0 or negative, the MOSFET is in cutoff.
Moreover, whether the MOSFET is in ohmic (linear or triode)
mode or saturated mode depends on the drain to source voltage
VDS, and the drain current ID increases with increasing VGS.
The conditions for what region the MOSFET is operating
differ for the n-channel and p-channel types. The MOSFET is
in cutoff if the following holds:

V GS V TN ( n ) ,V SG V TP ( p ) (1)
where VSG is the source to gate voltage (-VGS), and VTN and VTP
are threshold voltages for n-channel and p-channel MOSFETS
respectively. On the other hand, the MOSFET is either in the
ohmic/triode or saturation mode for the following conditions:

V GS >V TN ( n ) , V SG >V TP ( p ) (2)


To determine whether the MOSFET is in saturation or
triode mode, VDS must be compared to VDS(SAT) for n-channel
type, and source to drain voltage V SD must be compared to
VSD(SAT). These parameters are calculated as follows:

Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of the depletion type MOSFET [1].

Depletion type MOSFETS have the same terminals as


enhancement types. Instead of a dotted line, the schematic
diagram of the depletion type MOSFET shows a solid line,
which means the MOSFET is normally closed, in which it is
initially on [1].
Unlike the enhancement type, the depletion type MOSFET
has a doped channel, meaning there is a conducting path
between the drain and source terminals with low resistance.
Applying a voltage bias to the gate decreases the current I D,
and subsequently the MOSFET is turned off when VGS is
increased. The characteristic curve of the n-channel depletion
type MOSFET is shown in Fig. 4.

V DS (SAT )=V GS V TN ( n ) , V SD (SAT )=V SG +V TP ( p ) (3)


The conditions for the MOSFET to be in the triode region
are as follows:

V DS <V DS (SAT ) ( n ) , V SD <V SD ( SAT ) ( p ) ( 4)


Meanwhile, the conditions for the MOSFET to be in
saturation mode are as follows:

V DS V DS (SAT ) ( n ) ,V SD V SD ( SAT ) ( p ) (5)


For the drain current ID, it is equal to zero when the
MOSFET is in cutoff. If the MOSFET is in the triode region, I D
is calculated as follows:

i D =K N [2(V GSV TN )V DSV DS2 ] ( n ) (6)

Fig. 4. Characteristic curve of the n-channel depletion type MOSFET [1]

In the case of depletion type MOSFETS, it is similar to the


enhancement type, but depletion types have a negative
threshold voltage VT. In this case, VGS must be below VT for the
MOSFET to be in its normal state (currently on). In the case
where VGS exceeds VT, the bias in the gate causes the MOSFET
to turn off. The equations for determining the state of the
depletion type MOSFET is the same with that of the
enhancement type.
III. METHODOLOGY
A. Materials
This experiment will be simulated on Multisim. The
components needed in this experiment consist of the following:
a (****) enhancement type MOSFET, a (****) depletion type
MOSFET, voltage sources for biasing, a digital multimeter or
(DMM), and wires for constructing connections.
B. Procedure
Using Multisim, the two types of MOSFETs are simulated
with different voltage values for biasing. The diagram for the
enhancement type MOSFET simulation is shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Schematic diagram of the enhancement type MOSFET simulation.

Similarly, the diagram for the depletion type MOSFET


simulation is shown in Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Schematic diagram of the depletion type MOSFET simulation.

The different parameters (VGS, VDS, ID) will be compared


to their corresponding characteristic curve. The other
parameters will be taken from the data sheet of the MOSFETs.
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

V. CONCLUSION

REFERENCES
[1] MOSFET and Metal Oxide Semiconductor Tutorial.
(2013, September 3). Retrieved January 12, 2015, from
http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/transistor/tran_6.html

[2]
[3]
[4]