Mathematics by Catherine E.

Housecroft
Tutor to accompany Chemistry

by Catherine E. Housecroft and Edwin C. Constable

1

Introduction
The aim of the Mathematics Tutor is to summarize some essential mathematical skills needed for chemistry. Before beginning to work through the
Mathematics Tutor, study Appendix 1 in Chemistry; it contains common
mathematical symbols. Ensure that you know what the symbols mean:
these symbols are used in the textbook Chemistry without explanation.
Note also that:
.
.

sig. ®g. means signi®cant ®gures;
dec. pl. means decimal places.

Table 1 is a checklist of important formulae dealing with angles in triangles,
areas, surface area and volumes. Their applications are varied and you
should be familiar with how to use the formulae. Identify the keys on your
calculator for ®nding the sine, cosine and tangent of an angle; they are
probably marked
,
and
respectively.
The Mathematics Tutor contains numerous problem sets, the answers to
which can be found at the end of the Mathematics Tutor.

The constant p
p is a mathematical constant, de®ned as the ratio of the circumference to
diameter of a circle. The value of p is 3.141 592 653 59 (no units). Find the
key on your calculator that enters p.
The SI derived unit of plane angle is the radian. It is related to p by the
equation: 

1 radian ˆ 

180 8
ˆ 57:2968
p

Thus, 1808 ˆ p radians, and 3608 ˆ 2p radians.
"

If you need help with
rounding off numbers,
see Section 2

Problem set 1
1. Find the length of the hypotenuse in each of the following right-angled
triangles in which the other two sides are of length (a) 5.0 and 6.25 cm,
and (b) 6 and 8 cm.
2. Evaluate (a) sin 458, (b) cos 808, (c) sin 368 ‡ sin 908, (d) 2 sin 508 giving
each answer to 3 dec. pl.
3. Two angles in a triangle are 508 and 658. What is the third angle?
4. Consider a general triangle with sides a, b and c, and angles A, B and C.
(a) Find a if b ˆ 2 cm, c ˆ 4 cm and A ˆ 478. (b) Find c if a ˆ 6 cm,
b ˆ 4 cm and C ˆ 56:38.
# Pearson Education Limited, 2002

2

MATHEMATICS TUTOR
Table 1 Some useful formulae: trigonometry, areas and volumes
Formula
x2 ‡ y2 ˆ z2 (Pythagoras's
theorem)
y
z
x
cos  ˆ
z
y
tan  ˆ
x
sin  ˆ

For a right-angled triangle:

Cosine rule:
a2 ˆ b2 ‡ c2
For any triangle:

2

2

2bc cos A

2

b ˆa ‡c

2ac cos B

c2 ˆ a2 ‡ b2

2ab cos C

Sum of angles:
A ‡ B ‡ C ˆ 1808
Area of a square of side a

a2

Volume of a cube of side a

a3

Area of a rectangle of length a and width b

ab

Volume of a cuboid of length a, width b and height c

abc

Diameter of a circle of radius r

2r

Circumference of a circle of radius r

2pr

Area of a circle of radius r

pr2

Surface area of a sphere of radius r

4pr2

Volume of a sphere of radius r

3
4
3 pr

5. The notation sin2  means `the square of sin '. Prove for the right-angled
triangle shown in Table 1 that: sin2  ‡ cos2  ˆ 1.
6. Calculate the radius of a circle of circumference 20.2 cm.
7. Calculate (a) the diameter and (b) the area of a circle of radius 8.2 cm,
giving your answer to 1 dec. pl.
8. What is the volume of a sphere of radius 2.25 mm?
1
9. Con®rm that (a) sin 458 ˆ cos 458 ˆ p; (b) tan 458 ˆ sin 908 ˆ cos 0 ˆ 1;
2
1
(c) sin 0 ˆ cos 908 ˆ 0; (d) sin 308 ˆ cos 608 ˆ 12; (e) tan 308 ˆ p
3
10. Find x if (a) sin x ˆ 0:906, (b) cos x ˆ 0:454 and (c) 2 sin x ˆ 1:9925.
[Hint: you must ®nd sin 1 or cos 1 of the number.]

2

Signi®cant ®gures
What are signi®cant ®gures?
Experimentally measured values are subject to some degree of uncertainty. If
you weigh a solid and record the mass as 5 g, it indicates that you are less
sure of the exact mass than if the mass is recorded as 5.0 g. Recording 5.00 g
indicates that the mass is known with even more certainty. The value of 5 g
has one signi®cant ®gure (1 sig. ®g.), 5.0 g has 2 sig. ®g., and 5.00 g has 3 sig. ®g.
# Pearson Education Limited, 2002

e. The result of the calculation must be quoted according to several rules. 0. If a number is quoted to n dec. the ®nal answer should be quoted to the same number of decimal places as in the least precise number in the series. ®g. pl. Rule 3: Numbers less than 1 ending with zeros Trailing zeros come at the end of a number. . ®g. the scale of relative atomic masses is de®ned so as to give all atomic masses relative to 12 C ˆ 12 (exactly). 8. . . 0.Signi®cant ®gures 3 Some values are `exact' and in these cases it is not relevant to assign significant ®gures. Some results are quoted to a given number of decimal places. Rule 4: Adding and subtracting numbers " Mr and Ar : see Chapter 1 in Chemistry When adding or subtracting a series of numbers. 2002 . e. 2000. The number of signi®cant ®gures in an integer corresponds to the number of digits. Rule 1: Integers without zeros An integer is a whole number. 0. there are n digits (including zeros) after the decimal point. . the answer should be given as Mr ˆ 20:01 # Pearson Education Limited. 0. ®g..g. e.. ®g. 68 is quoted to 2 sig.334 is quoted to 3 dec. Trailing zeros are signi®cant in a number that contains a decimal point: .006 is quoted to 1 sig. look up the relative atomic masses of H and F: Ar for H ˆ 1:008 Ar for F ˆ 19:00 Therefore: Mr for HF ˆ 1:008 ‡ 19:00 ˆ 20:008 but since Ar for F is quoted to only 2 dec. 5:00  10 2 is quoted to 3 sig. For example: to ®nd Mr for HF.000555 is quoted to 3 sig. Ignore leading zeros when working out the number of signi®cant ®gures in a number: . 0.500 is quoted to 3 sig.. pl.002. ®g.040 is quoted to 2 sig. ®g. pl. Answers to calculations: working with experimental data Many chemical calculations involve manipulating data quoted to di€erent numbers of signi®cant ®gures. ®g. 5 is quoted to 1 sig. .g. and to 4 sig.g..g. ®g. Rule 2: Numbers less than 1 beginning with zeros Leading zeros come at the beginning of a number. e.

. (f ) 0. When you use a calculator..55 cm. or to 6.46 to 3 sig. we do not follow this rule because we want to show all the steps of the calculation. round down. and to simply write down the answer displayed on the calculator. To how many sig. it is often easy to forget about signi®cant ®gures. Worked example Find the area of a rectangle of sides 8.5050. ®gs. . (d) 5. (In some worked examples in Chemistry.140.4 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Rule 5: Multiplying and dividing numbers When multiplying and dividing a series of numbers. (d) 0. Only round o€ the ®nal answer. (b) 0.5 to 2 sig. the perimeter of a square of side 2. ®g.75.6396 cm2 to 39. (g) 0.) Problem set 2 1. do not round o€ at each step.6 cm2 .02.g. 6.712 cm and 4.4243 is rounded down to 1.1124? 2. ®g.4 to 2 sig. the ®nal answer should be quoted to the same number of signi®cant ®gures as in the least precise number in the series. are the following numbers quoted: (a) 0. If the digit to be removed is <5 (or the digits to be removed begin with a digit <5). You must stop and think! Are the digits valid? If the calculation involves several steps. e.006 and (h) 33? # Pearson Education Limited.2. e.34. ®g.2 cm depends only on the number of sig. we rounded o€ the answer from 39. 1. (e) 0. (c) 9. are the following numbers quoted: (a) 665.3 cm could be found by: Perimeter ˆ 2:3 …cm† ‡ 2:3 …cm† ‡ 2:3 …cm† ‡ 2:3 …cm† ˆ 9:2 cm or Perimeter ˆ 4  2:3 …cm† ˆ 9:2 cm The answer of 9. round up. ®g. Rounding off In the calculation above to ®nd the area of the rectangle.42 to 3 sig. (b) 8.505.100. pl. or to 1. in the measured quantity (2. ®g.3 cm).g. e. (e) 0. 2002 . ®g. (c) 2.99.4587 is rounded up to 6.6 cm2 because the least precise number in the data is given to 3 sig. It is not relevant to assign a number of signi®cant ®gures to an integral (whole number) multiplier.g. Follow these rules when rounding o€ numbers: . Area ˆ 8:712 …cm†  4:55 …cm† ˆ 39:6396 cm2 but we are only justi®ed in quoting the answer as 39. If the digit to be removed is >5 (or the digits to be removed begin with a digit 5). To how many dec.

and (b) 2 sig. exponential notation is used to express them. 6. 3:21  108 9:8  10 3 (e) 4:5  10 5 2. x4 . 1:52  102 (b) …5:60  105 †  …3:44  10 6 †. What are the dimensions of the container? 3 Exponential notation Expressing large and small numbers in exponential form Scienti®c numbers are often extremely large or extremely small. For example.9 m3 . ®g. x2 . a number in the form n  10x .3 in Chapter 1 of Chemistry to help you. ®g. Using Table 1. Important! 10x stands for 1  10x . e.2 g? 4. 5.Exponential notation 5 3.g. (c) …4:5  10 3 †2 . Some powers have speci®c meanings. express each of the following distances in m: (a) 125 pm. 2002 . (c) 5. and give the answers in exponential notation: (a) 104 ‡ …2:0  105 †. Note how the decimal point `moves along' the number. e.1 cm. (a) 0.g. (b) 0.67 cm and quote the answer to (a) 3 sig.g. To enter the number 2  106 .e. Therefore. the key may be marked instead of . i. enter the key sequence or . Problem set 3 1.g. Use your calculator to carry out the following calculations.4 cm and 5. 106 into your calculator. press the key sequence . e. Calculate the volume of a rectangular box of sides 4. x 3 . Do not forget the `1' part of the number.§ To enter the number 2  10 6 .34 nm.0 g and (d) 2. for example: . x6:7 .02 g. # Pearson Education Limited. The volume of a cubic container is 6. § x2 means `the square of x' x3 means `the cube of x' If this method does not work. (d) . multiplying the number by 102 makes the number one hundred times larger and multiplying by 10 2 makes it one hundred times smaller. ®g. Calculate the area of a square of side 4. 3.00 g. 2:4  103 ˆ 2 400 5:6  106 ˆ 5 600 000 7:2  10 4 ˆ 0:000 72 Most scienti®c calculators have a key marked . Which of the following masses are given to 2 sig. . e. When entering.6 cm. consult your calculator manual. (b) 5. Other uses of exponents 1 A number can be raised to any power. you must enter 1  106 . (c) 45 cm.

i.e. On your calculator. p 3  1. Consider the number 14. show that (a) x 2 ˆ 2 and x 1 1 (b) x 2 ˆ p . x3 ˆ 3 x 1 x 1 means `the reciprocal of x'.6 MATHEMATICS TUTOR . (d) 82:5  181. 2.e. x 1 ˆ x On your calculator there should be two keys labelled . Common logarithms are logarithms to the base 10. ®nd the keys assigned for taking common and natural logarithms.e. x is the logarithm to the base a of the number N. it is always true that: For natural logarithms. i. x 4 Logarithms If a number N is written in an exponential form: N ˆ ax then. Two results are of general importance: .5. Con®rm the following: (a) 0:26 ˆ 6:4  10 5 . By substituting in any value of x.161 with 3 decimal places. it is always true that: log 10n ˆ n ln en ˆ n Table 2 lists some other important relationships involving logarithms. x n . . p 1 1 x2 means `the square root of x'. and are usually written as log (sometimes. A natural logarithm is written as ln. (b) 34 ˆ 81. 2002 . (c) …2:40  104 †3 ˆ 1:38  1013 . . . . two logarithmic bases are commonly encountered: . loge . where e ˆ 2:7183. x 1 n 1 xn 1 ˆp n  x ˆ Problem set 4 Use your calculator to do the following problems. # Pearson Education Limited. and . and the equation can also be expressed in the form: x ˆ loga N In chemistry. x2 ˆ x p  1 1 x3 means `the cube root of x'.5 should be quoted as 1. Natural logarithms are logarithms to the base e. which has 3 signi®cant ®gures. i. 1 3. . lg). log10 . The value of log 14. (b) 0:53 ˆ 0:125. p y  x1=y ˆ x and means `taking the yth root of x'. (c) 216 ˆ 6.e. Show that (a) 24 ˆ 16. . xy means `raising x to the yth power'. The number of signi®cant ®gures quoted in the logarithm is determined as follows. They are probably marked and respectively. i. i.e. For common logarithms.

034 followed by the key sequence . i.Logarithms 7 Table 2 Some important relationships involving logarithms. (b) log 3:39 ˆ 0:530. consult the calculator manual. # Pearson Education Limited.33. (d) 105:67 . (b) 0. determine the following: (a) log 104 . 3. N is found using the equation: N ˆ ex On your calculator.76. (c) log …1  106 †. This gives x ˆ 0:925. the reverse process is equally important and involves an exponent. x can be found by entering 0. Use your calculator to con®rm that (a) log 102 ˆ 2:009. (c) 8. (You will see the importance of this exercise when you come to the pH calculations in Chapter 15 of Chemistry. Problem set 6 1. y and z are related by the equation: z ˆ 10 y .45. For common logarithms For natural logarithms log xa ˆ a log x ln xa ˆ a ln x log xy ˆ log x ‡ log y ln xy ˆ ln x ‡ ln y x log ˆ log x y ln x ˆ ln x y ln 1 ˆ x log 1 ˆ x log y log x ln y ln x Problem set 5 1. (d) ln 0:622 ˆ 0:475. Evaluate the following: (a) e2:29 .) So far we have been concerned with taking the logarithm of a number. ®nding the number N from the equation: N ˆ ax For a common logarithm. (b) log …10 5 †. If these keys are not Find x in the following equation: 0:034 ˆ log x First rewrite the equation in the exponent form: x ˆ 10 0:034 On your calculator. Worked example and . Evaluate the following: (a) log 106 .e. 2. ®nd the keys marked obvious. (d) log …10 4 †. 2002 . (c) log 22:3. Without using a calculator. Find the value of y for each of the following values of z: (a) 0. (b) ln 98. N is found using the equation: N ˆ 10x For a natural logarithm. (c) ln 58:0 ˆ 4:060. (e) log …2  10 8 † ˆ 7:7. (e) log 107:7 . (d) log 10 15 . (c) ln 0:56. 2. (b) ln…1:2  108 †. However.

8 MATHEMATICS TUTOR 5 Solving a quadratic equation Problems dealing with. Worked example Find the roots of the equation: 2x2 ‡ 4x 6ˆ0 Rewrite the equation in the form: …x ‡ 3†…2x 2† ˆ 0 This process is called factorizing. for example. you should apply this equation rather than attempt to factorize the quadratic equation. Method 1 If the equation factorizes. Check the factorization is correct by expanding …x ‡ 3†…2x 2† ˆ 0 back to the original form of 2x2 ‡ 4x 6 ˆ 0. If: ax2 ‡ bx ‡ c ˆ 0 p b  b2 4ac then: x ˆ 2a In most chemical applications (e. A quadratic equation in which the variable is x has the form: ax2 ‡ bx ‡ c ˆ 0 where a. Worked example Find the values of x that satisfy the equation: 3x2 4x ‡ 0:5 ˆ 0 By comparing this equation with the general form: # Pearson Education Limited. The values of x that satisfy a given quadratic equation may be found by one of two methods. 2002 .xˆ 3 or 2x 2ˆ0 .g. the solutions are readily found. You can therefore ®nd the two solutions of x as follows: x‡3ˆ0 . 2x ˆ 2 . A quadratic equation has two solutions (or roots). …x ‡ 3†…2x 2† ˆ 0 contains two factors: …x ‡ 3† and …2x 2†. and sets the equation up in a form that is readily solved for x. The product of the two factors is zero. The equation: Exercise.xˆ1 These values of x are the roots (or solutions) of the quadratic equation. in calculations dealing with equilibrium constants). Method 2 The general method for solving a quadratic equation is as follows. so either one of the factors must equal zero. equilibria (Chapter 15 in Chemistry) may require you to solve a quadratic equation. b and c are constants.

Find solutions of x for the equations: (a) x2 ‡ x 2 ˆ 0 and (b) x2 ‡ 3:5x ˆ 0. Linear plots (straight lines) The equation: y ˆ mx ‡ c describes a straight line and shows the way in which the function y depends on x. y ˆ 0 is called the origin.Plotting and interpreting graphs 9 ax2 ‡ bx ‡ c ˆ 0 we can see that: a ˆ 3. c ˆ 0:5 Solutions of x are given by: xˆ b p b2 4ac 2a Therefore: xˆ … 4†  q … 4†2 4…3†…0:5† p 4  10 xˆ 6 x ˆ 1:2 or 0:14 2…3† Problem set 7 1. 0). and hence ®nd the roots of the equation. the line intercepts the y axis at a value of y ˆ 2. Factorize the equation 3x2 4x ‡ 1 ˆ 0. 2002 . 3. y) Cartesian coordinate notation as (0. 2. the origin can be written in the (x. What values of x satisfy the equation: 2:2x2 ‡ 1:8x 0:5 ˆ 0? 6 Plotting and interpreting graphs Experimental data are often analysed by plotting a graph. By comparing the equations: y ˆ 5x ‡ 2 and y ˆ mx ‡ c # Pearson Education Limited. and c is the intercept on the y axis when x ˆ 0. Figure 1 illustrates the graph corresponding to the equation: y ˆ 5x ‡ 2 When x ˆ 0. The point x ˆ 0. bˆ 4. 4. Find the roots of the equation: 0:3x2 1:2x ‡ 0:1 ˆ 0. it is still essential to understand the fundamentals of graph plotting. The gradient (or slope) of the line is given by m. Although computer-aided graphing packages are readily available.

2002 . From the graph. let us choose two points x1 and x2 with corresponding values y1 and y2 (see Figure 1). It is usual to refer to these points as having the coordinates …x1 . The term `making y the subject of the equation' means putting the equation in the form of `y ˆ . The following questions give practice in plotting graphs. You can spot the sign of the gradient by inspection of the equation for the straight line.10 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Fig. The equation: yˆ 0:67x ‡ 15 has a negative coecient for x and so the gradient of the line is negative. the line has a negative gradient. . 2 Examples of linear plots with (a) positive and (b) negative gradients. Fig. The gradient of the line is given by: Gradient (or slope) of the straight line ˆ y2 x2 y1 x1 Figure 2 shows two linear plots. y1 † and …x2 . For example. the gradient of the line can be measured by taking any two points on the straight line. in Figure 2a. the equation: y ˆ 3x ‡ 6 has a positive coecient for x and so the gradient of the line is positive. and in rearranging equations. In order to ®nd the intercept. 1 Straight line graph for the equation y ˆ 5x ‡ 2. the line has a positive gradient and in Figure 2b. y2 †. we see that m ˆ 5 and c ˆ 2. # Pearson Education Limited. you may have to extrapolate the line.'. The sign of the gradient is determined by the sign of the coecient m. i. . extend it to reach the value corresponding to x ˆ 0.e.

rather than a smaller data set. Figure 3 shows an example of a non-linear plot. (a) Make y the subject of the following equation: x 0 2.11 Plotting and interpreting graphs Problem set 8 y 1 ˆ 3x.1 3. For a linear plot.00 8. the gradient at point A is: Gradient ˆ y2 x2 y1 4:2 2:0 ˆ 0:04 ˆ 55 6 x1 # Pearson Education Limited.00 43.9 52.) In Figure 3.0227 0.20 27.0258 0. and show that each corresponds to a linear relationship between y and x. show that the following data points are consistent with the rearranged equation: 1. (b) What is the intercept of the line and what is the physical meaning of the value? (c) Comment on the need to use all of the data given.00 y 2. to ®nd the gradient of the curve at the point where x ˆ 3.1 14. mark the point on the curve where x ˆ 3. and its gradient can be found as in Figure 1. Now draw a tangent to the curve exactly at this point.0248 0. In Figure 3. and calculating the gradient of this line.1 3. 2:1 (b) By plotting a graph. Rearrange the following equations making y the subject.7 27.3 39.0266 0.00 4. (You will apply this method in Chapter 14 of Chemistry when you study rates of reaction. 2002 . From Figure 3. the gradient is constant at all points on the line. x 0 y 1. 6 …b† …1:2  10 4 †x ˆ …5:4  10 3 †2 y : 0:02 Non-linear plots Exercise. the gradient has di€erent values at di€erent points on the graph.0274 4. The equations of non-linear plots take many di€erent forms. this is point A in Figure 3. …a† y ‡ 1:3 ˆ 3x ‡ 2:2. The gradient at a given point on the curve is found by drawing a tangent to the curve at that point.10 13. Any plot that is not a straight line is non-linear.00 6. the volume V (in m3 ) of 1 mole of a gas varies with temperature T (in K) according to the equation: V ˆ …8:314  10 5 †T (a) Use the following data to con®rm the above relationship.2 5. For a non-linear plot. The tangent is a straight line. and determine the equation of the line. T/K V/m 3 273 298 310 320 330 0. At a constant pressure of 1:00  105 Pa.50 21.50 7. Plot a graph of x against y using the following data.9 9. and numerous examples are given in the accompanying textbook Chemistry. measure the gradient of the curve at two more points and hence show that the gradient increases as x increases.5 2.

7 Differentiation: an introduction First order derivatives: The equation: dy dx y ˆ mx ‡ c describes a straight line. and its gradient is determined. To ®nd the gradient of the curve at point A. the shapes of graphs of these functions are di€erent. In each graph. a tangent is drawn to the curve at the point. m. # Pearson Education Limited.12 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Fig. the rate of change of y with respect to x is equal to the gradient. the variables are x and y. Three examples are shown in Figure 4. the rate of change of y with respect to x Fig. of the line and is a constant value at every point on the line. here. 3 A graph of the function: y ˆ x3 ‡ 5. and shows the way in which the function y depends on x. Mathematical functions have many di€erent forms and. In this case. correspondingly. 2002 . 4 The shape of a graph depends on the relationship between the variables.

and is denoted by . 2002 7 . and therefore: dy 1 ˆ dx x Problem set 9 1. From Table 1: y ˆ ln 2 ‡ ln x ln 2 is a constant. (a) y ˆ 3x ‡ 6 (b) y ˆ 4x2 ‡ 8x 9 (c) y ˆ 2x 1 3 (e) y ˆ sin 2x ‡ cos 2x (f) y ˆ (d) y ˆ 4x x # Pearson Education Limited. This is commonly dx known as a derivative.g. y ˆ 2x3 ‡ 5x ‡ 7 Worked example 2 Find dy 4 if y ˆ 2 . Worked example 1 Di€erentiate the function y ˆ 2x3 ‡ 5x ‡ 7 with respect to x. Moreover. c 0 xn nxn 1 ˆx xn ex e y nx n dy . The rate of change of y with respect to x is given by the di€erential dy coecient of y with respect to x. dx x yˆ Worked example 3 Find dy ˆ 6x2 ‡ 5 dx 4 x2   dy 2 ˆ ˆ4 dx x3 8 x3 dy if y ˆ ln 2x. Their applications are illustrated in the following examples. dx Derivatives have particular forms and some important ones are listed in Table 3.13 Differentiation: an introduction Table 3 Selected standard derivatives y dy dx constant. dx 1 …n ‡ 1† ˆ n xn ‡ 1 ex ax ae ax dy dx ln x 1 x sin x cos x cos x sin x sin ax a cos ax cos ax a sin ax varies for di€erent values of x. for a given value of x. dx y ˆ ln 2x . Di€erentiate the following functions with respect to x. we di€erentiate the function y with respect to x in dy order to obtain . e. consider the point at x ˆ 10 in each graph in Figure 4. the rate of change of y with respect to x depends on the relationship between x and y.

Turning points: d2 y dx 2 Graphs such as that in Figure 5 possess turning points. ®nd the gradient at the point x ˆ 0:5. 5. First. Find the derivatives with respect to x of the following functions where a and b are constants. 2. For the graph of y ˆ . At a minimum. the gradient changes from a positive to negative value. Di€erentiate the function y ˆ 2x2 ‡ 4x. 5 A plot of y ˆ sin x is called a `sine wave'. (a) y ˆ ex (b) y ˆ 3ex (c) y ˆ e2x bx ax bx (d) y ˆ 4e (e) y ˆ e ‡ e (f ) y ˆ e ax Using dy to ®nd a gradient dx dy .14 MATHEMATICS TUTOR 2. # Pearson Education Limited. Having found the general form of Worked example Find the gradient of the curve: y ˆ 2 ln x at the point x ˆ 20. the Fig. and ®nd the value of dx x ˆ 3. (a) Find the general form of dx (b) Evaluate this di€erential for x ˆ 908. What is the slope of the curve y ˆ x4 at the point x ˆ 2? 3. it is an example of a graph that possesses turning points. 2002 . substitution of a given value of x dx allows you to ®nd the gradient of the line or curve at this particular point. find dy : dx y ˆ 2 ln x At the point where x ˆ 20: dy 2 ˆ dx x Gradient ˆ dy 2 ˆ ˆ 0:1 dx 20 Problem set 10 dy when 1. Does the graph of y ˆ 2 ln x have a positive or negative gradient at the point x ˆ 2:5? 2 4. x dy for the function y ˆ 2 cos x 3 sin x. At a maximum.

Differentiation: an introduction 15 gradient changes from a negative to positive value.e. dx Worked example Find the values of x that correspond to turning points in the graph of equation: y ˆ 2x3 ‡ x2 ‡ 2 and identify each turning point as a maximum or minimum. ˆ 12x ‡ 2 ˆ 2 When x ˆ 3 dx2 d2 y and this corresponds to a maximum because 2 < 0. xˆ0 or 3x ‡ 1 ˆ 0 xˆ 1 3 Now substitute these values for x into the equations for the turning points: d2 y When x ˆ 0. ®nd the general forms of dy d2 y and 2 : dx dx y ˆ 2x3 ‡ x2 ‡ 2 dy ˆ 6x2 ‡ 2x dx d2 y ˆ 12x ‡ 2 dx2 The turning points occur when dy ˆ0 dx i. di€erentiate again to ®nd 2 . ˆ 12x ‡ 2 ˆ 2 dx2 d2 y and this corresponds to a minimum because 2 > 0. 2 . when: 6x2 ‡ 2x ˆ 0 The solutions of this quadratic equation are found by factorization: 6x2 ‡ 2x ˆ 0 2x…3x ‡ 1† ˆ 0 x…3x ‡ 1† ˆ 0 .e. of the graph is zero. i. Once you have found dx dy d2 y . dx 1 d2 y . dx dx For a turning point at a maximum: d2 y <0 dx2 For a turning point at a minimum: d2 y >0 dx2 Exactly at the maximum or minimum point (look at Figure 5). dx # Pearson Education Limited. of the function. Information about turning points for a function that varies with x can be obtained d2 y by taking the second derivative. Check these de®nitions by looking at Figure 5 which shows two maxima and one minimum. the gradient dy ˆ 0. 2002 . First.

If y is a funcdx dx 2 dy d y can be written as f 0 …x†. Another type of notation is sometimes used for y. A plot of a representative function is shown in Figure 6. (b) ®nd (a) ®nd and (c) determine the turning points of this dx dx2 function.e. Fig. Is this a maximum or a minimum? 8 Integration: an introduction A de®nite integral as an area under a curve Consider a curve with the general equation y ˆ f …x†. Show that. ®nding the area of each strip. (b) y ˆ cos x and (c) ln x. the area of the shaded section between the limits of x ˆ a and x ˆ b could be calculated by: . between speci®ed limits. dividing the shaded region into an in®nite number of vertical strips drawn parallel to the y axis. For the function: y ˆ x3 ‡ 2x2 ‡ 5 dy d2 y . i. (b) 2 and (c) information about the turning points of the dx dx graph of this function. then dx dx as f 00 …x†. and 2 is written tion of x denoted by f …x†. 6 The area under a curve for y ˆ f …x† between speci®ed limits x ˆ a and x ˆ b (the shaded area) is given by the de®nite …b integral f …x† dx. dx dx 2. In Figure 6. Find 3. a plot of y ˆ cos x has one turning point. . a # Pearson Education Limited. Suppose you need to determine the area under the curve bounded by (i. enclosed by) the x axis (i. when y ˆ 0) and between certain values of x.e. between the limits of x ˆ 908 and x ˆ 2708. . 2002 .16 MATHEMATICS TUTOR dy d2 y and 2 .e. 1. 4. Problem set 11 dy d2 y and 2 for the functions (a) y ˆ sin x. The notation f …x† simply stands for y is a function of x. and summing the areas together. For the function: y ˆ 3x3 3x dy d2 y ®nd (a) .

e. The notation for this is b a f …x† dx. evaluate an inde®nite integral. f 0 …x† a (a constant) … 1 ˆx 1 x 1 ˆx n xn ax ‡ c 2 x x ‡c 2 xn xn ‡ 1 ‡c n‡1 (except for n ˆ ex ex ‡ c eax eax ‡c a f 0 …x† dx. 2002 … f 0 …x† dx …ln x† ‡ c …n x n ˆ 1) dy ˆ 4.17 Integration: an introduction These three steps can be achieved mathematically in one step by ®nding the de®nite integral of f …x† with respect to…x between the integration limits x ˆ a and x ˆ b. and integrating. what is the relationship between x and y?' Just as there dx are standard derivatives (see Table 3). the integration constant. must be introduced. i. rearranging the equation as we did earlier in the Mathematics Tutor). we have: … … dy ˆ … yˆ f 0 …x† dx f 0 …x† dx If we integrate without limits. in each case is f 0 …x† f 0 …x† dx cos x sin x cos ax sin ax # Pearson Education Limited.e. Examples of ®nding areas under curves are given in the discussion of entropy in Chapter 16 of Chemistry. then an integration constant. Inde®nite integrals A second use of integration is to answer the question: `if we have an dy expression for . by separating the x and y terms (i. so there are standard integrals. The constant. The reason for this is clear if we consider the following three functions: y ˆ 4x ‡ 3 y ˆ 4x ‡ 10 y ˆ 4x ‡ 22 Di€erentiating each of these equations gives the same answer: … Table 4 Selected standard inde®nite integrals. If: dy ˆ f 0 …x† dx then. Those listed in Table 4 are inde®nite integrals because there are no limits speci®ed for the integration. c. c. dx 1† 1 …n ‡c 1 1†xn …sin x† ‡ c …cos x† ‡ c sin ax ‡c a cos ax ‡c a 1 ‡c .

and the application of integration to ®nding the area under a curve. … y dy ˆ …4 1 …4 1 1 speci®es that the upper limit is x ˆ 4 and the lower limit is 3x2 dx  4 ˆ x3 ‡ c 1 # Pearson Education Limited. and is best illustrated with an example. c could be any value and we cannot unambiguously ®nd the function.cˆ3 Therefore. given that y ˆ 0:5 when x ˆ 1. then we can write: y ˆ 4x ‡ c 7ˆ4‡c . From Table 4. 3 sin x† dx. The integrated form of an equation is: y ˆ 3x2 ‡ 6x ‡ c. Evaluate the integral y ˆ dx. you know the derivative of a function is 4 and you want to ®nd the function. For example. what is c? … 1 2. c can be evaluated. Notation is important. if we know that y ˆ 7 when x ˆ 1. given values of x and y at a particular point. we can write: … y ˆ 4 dx ˆ 4x ‡ c With the information we have. integration constants come into calculations involving rate equations. However. Evaluate the integral y ˆ …2 cos x x ˆ 0. 2002 . given that y ˆ 2 when Integrating between limits: de®nite integrals Now let us look again at the question of integrating between limits. Worked example Find the area under the curve y ˆ 3x2 between the limits of x ˆ 4 and x ˆ 1. Problem set 12 1. If the curve for this equation passes through the point x ˆ 0. the complete function is: y ˆ 4x ‡ 3 In Chapter 14 of Chemistry. That is. y ˆ 2.18 MATHEMATICS TUTOR … Suppose now that you are evaluating the integral 4 dx. 2 x … 3. The area under the curve is found by integrating the equation y ˆ 3x2 between the limits of x ˆ 4 and x ˆ 1: … …4 Area ˆ y dy ˆ 3x2 dx The notation x ˆ 1.

Summary and further reading 19 Again. and the upper and lower limits must be shown. As x increases. 1:2 9 Functions that tend to in®nity Exponential decay is an important concept for reaction kinetics and this is discussed in Chapter 14 of Chemistry. but it only reaches zero when x is in®nity (x ˆ 1). 2 2. The concepts of vectors and partial di€erentials are introduced as required in the main textbook Chemistry. 10 Summary and further reading In the Mathematics Tutor. Fig. Problem set 13 1. c.  4 Area ˆ x3 ‡ c 1 ˆ ‰43 ‡ cŠ ‰13 ‡ cŠ ˆ 63 square units Notice that the integration constants. Figure 7 shows a plot of e x against x. Find the area bounded by the x axis and the part of the curve y ˆ 3x3 ‡ 6x2 5 that lies between … 1the limits x ˆ 5 and … 6 x ˆ 0. It is usual only to show that the curve tends towards a value of x ˆ 1. we have summarized some important mathematical skills required for ®rst year university chemistry. notation is important. … 2:3 1 4 (c) x 1 dx. Exponential decay follows the dependence: yˆe x and is an example of a function that tends to in®nity. 7 A graph of the function y ˆ e x. and so the curve has a ®nite starting point. For x ˆ 0. Evaluate the de®nite integrals (a) …x ‡ 1† dx. 2002 . e0 ˆ 1. cancel and so there is no need to evaluate c. This notation stands for the di€erence between the integrals when x ˆ 4 and x ˆ 1. the function e x decreases. (b) ex dx. Further practice is provided in the following books: # Pearson Education Limited. The general integral is written within square brackets.

(b) 4. 2. (a) 0. (b) 0. because each length is given to 2 sig. (b) 10 cm (a) 0. (b) 63:08.93. 2. (c) 1.2 cm 47.58.87. 3. S. 10.45 m Problem set 5 2. 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (b) 211. ®g. (a) 2:1  105 . 2002 3:5 .60. (e) 4 (a) 3.58. Sutcli€e (1995) Mathematics for Chemistry. 3.) 1. (a) 6. (c) 2:0  10 5 .2 cm 2 (a) 16.0 cm. (b) 3:4  10 10 m. Oxford. 6. 5. (c) 3. (b) x ˆ 0. (a) 9.48. x ˆ 1. or x ˆ 0:085 x ˆ 0:22. (d) 2.943 3.20 MATHEMATICS TUTOR G. or x ˆ 1:0 # Pearson Education Limited. (a) 2. 8. (g) 1. ®g. (d) 1. (b) 5 cm y2 x 2 z 2 sin2  ‡ cos2  ˆ 2 ‡ 2 ˆ 2 ˆ 1 z z z 3. (f) 4. (d) 4 2. Longman. (b) 2. (e) 7. Scott (1995) Beginning Mathematics in Chemistry.7 Problem set 6 1. (d) 15. or x ˆ 13 (a) x ˆ 1. (b) 22 cm2 78 cm3 (to 2 sig. (d) 1.K.707. (d) 4:68  105 Problem set 7 1. (c) 0. 4. or x ˆ x ˆ 3:9. or x ˆ 2. (c) 85:08 Problem set 2 1.8 cm2 . (c) 3. (b) 1. Answers to problem sets Problem set 1 1. Doggett and B.35. (a) 8. (c) 0. (b) 0. (e) 2:2  102 2. 4. 4. (c) 1. (h) 2 (c).174.7 mm3 (a) 65:08. 2.T. 7. (c) 6. (c) 0. Harlow.9 m Problem set 3 1.588.4 cm. 6. (b) 18. (e) 3. (d) 4:74  10 7 . y ˆ log z. Oxford University Press. (a) 1:25  10 10 m. (b) 3.35. (d) (a) 21.532 658 (a) 3 cm. 5.

ˆ sin x. (f ) ae ax 1 x2 Problem set 10 1. (b) c ˆ 0. (a) 3x2 ‡ 4x. 2 ˆ cos x. y ˆ 6:3x ‡ 2:1 2. physical signi®cance is that at 0 K. and any calculation should not be biased towards these points 4. (b) 18x. (e) aeax ‡ bebx . (a) ex . y ˆ 2 sin x ‡ 3 cos x 2. (c) experimental data may contain erroneous points or points of low precision. (c) turning points at x ˆ p (minimum) and 3 1 x ˆ p (maximum) 3 3.21 Answers to problem sets Problem set 8 1. 4. (a) 3. at x ˆ 2:5. 2002 . y ˆ 1:5 1 # Pearson Education Limited. dy dy ˆ 4x ‡ 4. ˆ 16 dx dx dy dy ˆ 4x3 . 2. 2 ˆ cos x. ˆ 32 dx dx dy 2 ˆ . (d) 4bebx . when x ˆ 3. (e) 2 cos 2x 2 sin 2x. 2 ˆ sin x. (b) y ˆ 0:082x Problem set 9 1. (a) y ˆ 18x ‡ 11:9. c ˆ 2 1 x 3. y ˆ 4:0x 7:12 3. (b) 6x ‡ 4. (b) 3ex . (a) Problem set 12 1. (b) 8x ‡ 8. when x ˆ 2. other turndx dx ing points are outside the limits of x ˆ 908 and x ˆ 2708 1. (c) turning points at x ˆ 0 (minimum) and 4 (maximum) xˆ 3 dy d2 y 4. (a) 9x2 3. (c) ˆ . the volume occupied by the gas is 0 m3 . gradient is positive dx x dy 2 ˆ . (b) 2 (a) dx Problem set 11 dy d2 y dy d2 y dy 1 ˆ cos x. (c) 2. 5. this can be seen from equation. turning point at 1808 (minimum). (b) ˆ sin x. dx dx dx x dx dx d2 y 1 ˆ dx2 x2 1 2. gradient ˆ 8 dx x2 dy ˆ 2 sin x 3 cos x. (d) 12x 4 . (c) 2e2x . 3. (f ) 2.

(b) 349.22 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Problem set 13 1. 694 square units 8 2. 2002 . (a) . (c) 0.65 3 # Pearson Education Limited.

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