Mathematics by Catherine E.

Tutor to accompany Chemistry

by Catherine E. Housecroft and Edwin C. Constable


The aim of the Mathematics Tutor is to summarize some essential mathematical skills needed for chemistry. Before beginning to work through the
Mathematics Tutor, study Appendix 1 in Chemistry; it contains common
mathematical symbols. Ensure that you know what the symbols mean:
these symbols are used in the textbook Chemistry without explanation.
Note also that:

sig. ®g. means signi®cant ®gures;
dec. pl. means decimal places.

Table 1 is a checklist of important formulae dealing with angles in triangles,
areas, surface area and volumes. Their applications are varied and you
should be familiar with how to use the formulae. Identify the keys on your
calculator for ®nding the sine, cosine and tangent of an angle; they are
probably marked
The Mathematics Tutor contains numerous problem sets, the answers to
which can be found at the end of the Mathematics Tutor.

The constant p
p is a mathematical constant, de®ned as the ratio of the circumference to
diameter of a circle. The value of p is 3.141 592 653 59 (no units). Find the
key on your calculator that enters p.
The SI derived unit of plane angle is the radian. It is related to p by the

1 radian ˆ 

180 8
ˆ 57:2968

Thus, 1808 ˆ p radians, and 3608 ˆ 2p radians.

If you need help with
rounding off numbers,
see Section 2

Problem set 1
1. Find the length of the hypotenuse in each of the following right-angled
triangles in which the other two sides are of length (a) 5.0 and 6.25 cm,
and (b) 6 and 8 cm.
2. Evaluate (a) sin 458, (b) cos 808, (c) sin 368 ‡ sin 908, (d) 2 sin 508 giving
each answer to 3 dec. pl.
3. Two angles in a triangle are 508 and 658. What is the third angle?
4. Consider a general triangle with sides a, b and c, and angles A, B and C.
(a) Find a if b ˆ 2 cm, c ˆ 4 cm and A ˆ 478. (b) Find c if a ˆ 6 cm,
b ˆ 4 cm and C ˆ 56:38.
# Pearson Education Limited, 2002


Table 1 Some useful formulae: trigonometry, areas and volumes
x2 ‡ y2 ˆ z2 (Pythagoras's
cos  ˆ
tan  ˆ
sin  ˆ

For a right-angled triangle:

Cosine rule:
a2 ˆ b2 ‡ c2
For any triangle:



2bc cos A


b ˆa ‡c

2ac cos B

c2 ˆ a2 ‡ b2

2ab cos C

Sum of angles:
A ‡ B ‡ C ˆ 1808
Area of a square of side a


Volume of a cube of side a


Area of a rectangle of length a and width b


Volume of a cuboid of length a, width b and height c


Diameter of a circle of radius r


Circumference of a circle of radius r


Area of a circle of radius r


Surface area of a sphere of radius r


Volume of a sphere of radius r

3 pr

5. The notation sin2  means `the square of sin '. Prove for the right-angled
triangle shown in Table 1 that: sin2  ‡ cos2  ˆ 1.
6. Calculate the radius of a circle of circumference 20.2 cm.
7. Calculate (a) the diameter and (b) the area of a circle of radius 8.2 cm,
giving your answer to 1 dec. pl.
8. What is the volume of a sphere of radius 2.25 mm?
9. Con®rm that (a) sin 458 ˆ cos 458 ˆ p; (b) tan 458 ˆ sin 908 ˆ cos 0 ˆ 1;
(c) sin 0 ˆ cos 908 ˆ 0; (d) sin 308 ˆ cos 608 ˆ 12; (e) tan 308 ˆ p
10. Find x if (a) sin x ˆ 0:906, (b) cos x ˆ 0:454 and (c) 2 sin x ˆ 1:9925.
[Hint: you must ®nd sin 1 or cos 1 of the number.]


Signi®cant ®gures
What are signi®cant ®gures?
Experimentally measured values are subject to some degree of uncertainty. If
you weigh a solid and record the mass as 5 g, it indicates that you are less
sure of the exact mass than if the mass is recorded as 5.0 g. Recording 5.00 g
indicates that the mass is known with even more certainty. The value of 5 g
has one signi®cant ®gure (1 sig. ®g.), 5.0 g has 2 sig. ®g., and 5.00 g has 3 sig. ®g.
# Pearson Education Limited, 2002

For example: to ®nd Mr for HF. 5 is quoted to 1 sig. 8. 0. If a number is quoted to n dec. 0.006 is quoted to 1 sig.g. and to 4 sig. Answers to calculations: working with experimental data Many chemical calculations involve manipulating data quoted to di€erent numbers of signi®cant ®gures.002. 68 is quoted to 2 sig. the ®nal answer should be quoted to the same number of decimal places as in the least precise number in the series. pl. e. 0. ®g. 5:00  10 2 is quoted to 3 sig.. . the scale of relative atomic masses is de®ned so as to give all atomic masses relative to 12 C ˆ 12 (exactly). Ignore leading zeros when working out the number of signi®cant ®gures in a number: .g. e. ®g. Rule 1: Integers without zeros An integer is a whole number. Trailing zeros are signi®cant in a number that contains a decimal point: . ®g.334 is quoted to 3 dec. The number of signi®cant ®gures in an integer corresponds to the number of digits. The result of the calculation must be quoted according to several rules.500 is quoted to 3 sig. pl. . 0. Rule 2: Numbers less than 1 beginning with zeros Leading zeros come at the beginning of a number.Signi®cant ®gures 3 Some values are `exact' and in these cases it is not relevant to assign significant ®gures.. Rule 4: Adding and subtracting numbers " Mr and Ar : see Chapter 1 in Chemistry When adding or subtracting a series of numbers. Rule 3: Numbers less than 1 ending with zeros Trailing zeros come at the end of a number...g. pl. 2002 . ®g. look up the relative atomic masses of H and F: Ar for H ˆ 1:008 Ar for F ˆ 19:00 Therefore: Mr for HF ˆ 1:008 ‡ 19:00 ˆ 20:008 but since Ar for F is quoted to only 2 dec. ®g.040 is quoted to 2 sig. e. . e. 0. 2000. .000555 is quoted to 3 sig. there are n digits (including zeros) after the decimal point. the answer should be given as Mr ˆ 20:01 # Pearson Education Limited. Some results are quoted to a given number of decimal places. .g. ®g. ®g. ®g.

or to 6.g.02. are the following numbers quoted: (a) 665. (f ) 0.4587 is rounded up to 6.2. ®g. the perimeter of a square of side 2. e. 2002 .6 cm2 .42 to 3 sig. (c) 9. (d) 0.2 cm depends only on the number of sig. and to simply write down the answer displayed on the calculator. To how many dec. . ®gs.g. (e) 0. (b) 0. (g) 0. in the measured quantity (2.. e.100.5 to 2 sig.5050.) Problem set 2 1. ®g. ®g.6 cm2 because the least precise number in the data is given to 3 sig. You must stop and think! Are the digits valid? If the calculation involves several steps. we rounded o€ the answer from 39. or to 1. do not round o€ at each step. If the digit to be removed is >5 (or the digits to be removed begin with a digit 5). If the digit to be removed is <5 (or the digits to be removed begin with a digit <5). it is often easy to forget about signi®cant ®gures.75.34.. are the following numbers quoted: (a) 0. e. round down.99. Rounding off In the calculation above to ®nd the area of the rectangle. Only round o€ the ®nal answer.1124? 2.4 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Rule 5: Multiplying and dividing numbers When multiplying and dividing a series of numbers. ®g.140.6396 cm2 to 39. (d) 5. (c) 2.505. Area ˆ 8:712 …cm†  4:55 …cm† ˆ 39:6396 cm2 but we are only justi®ed in quoting the answer as 39. To how many sig. we do not follow this rule because we want to show all the steps of the calculation. (e) 0.712 cm and 4.4243 is rounded down to 1. (b) 8.55 cm. round up. It is not relevant to assign a number of signi®cant ®gures to an integral (whole number) multiplier.46 to 3 sig.g. 6. When you use a calculator. pl. Follow these rules when rounding o€ numbers: . ®g.3 cm could be found by: Perimeter ˆ 2:3 …cm† ‡ 2:3 …cm† ‡ 2:3 …cm† ‡ 2:3 …cm† ˆ 9:2 cm or Perimeter ˆ 4  2:3 …cm† ˆ 9:2 cm The answer of 9. (In some worked examples in Chemistry.006 and (h) 33? # Pearson Education Limited.4 to 2 sig. the ®nal answer should be quoted to the same number of signi®cant ®gures as in the least precise number in the series. 1. Worked example Find the area of a rectangle of sides 8. ®g.3 cm).

(d) . Which of the following masses are given to 2 sig. # Pearson Education Limited. (c) 45 cm. you must enter 1  106 .9 m3 . for example: . and (b) 2 sig. § x2 means `the square of x' x3 means `the cube of x' If this method does not work. x6:7 . e. 106 into your calculator. 2:4  103 ˆ 2 400 5:6  106 ˆ 5 600 000 7:2  10 4 ˆ 0:000 72 Most scienti®c calculators have a key marked .4 cm and 5.2 g? 4. 1:52  102 (b) …5:60  105 †  …3:44  10 6 †.g. 5.02 g. ®g. (a) 0. (b) 5. Problem set 3 1. Note how the decimal point `moves along' the number.00 g.34 nm. Do not forget the `1' part of the number. ®g.e. To enter the number 2  106 . Calculate the area of a square of side 4. x 3 . x2 . e. (c) …4:5  10 3 †2 . a number in the form n  10x . Other uses of exponents 1 A number can be raised to any power. multiplying the number by 102 makes the number one hundred times larger and multiplying by 10 2 makes it one hundred times smaller.3 in Chapter 1 of Chemistry to help you. For example. i. e. What are the dimensions of the container? 3 Exponential notation Expressing large and small numbers in exponential form Scienti®c numbers are often extremely large or extremely small. Therefore. The volume of a cubic container is 6. 3. 3:21  108 9:8  10 3 (e) 4:5  10 5 2.1 cm. Calculate the volume of a rectangular box of sides 4. e.0 g and (d) 2. Some powers have speci®c meanings. Important! 10x stands for 1  10x .Exponential notation 5 3. consult your calculator manual.6 cm. enter the key sequence or . x4 . express each of the following distances in m: (a) 125 pm. . (c) 5. (b) 0. the key may be marked instead of .g.g. Use your calculator to carry out the following calculations. 6.67 cm and quote the answer to (a) 3 sig. and give the answers in exponential notation: (a) 104 ‡ …2:0  105 †. When entering. Using Table 1. ®g. exponential notation is used to express them. press the key sequence . 2002 .§ To enter the number 2  10 6 .g.

and . A natural logarithm is written as ln. Common logarithms are logarithms to the base 10. x 1 n 1 xn 1 ˆp n  x ˆ Problem set 4 Use your calculator to do the following problems. . Two results are of general importance: . x 1 ˆ x On your calculator there should be two keys labelled .161 with 3 decimal places. The value of log 14.6 MATHEMATICS TUTOR . . lg). (d) 82:5  181. The number of signi®cant ®gures quoted in the logarithm is determined as follows. x2 ˆ x p  1 1 x3 means `the cube root of x'. . and are usually written as log (sometimes.e. p 1 1 x2 means `the square root of x'. (c) 216 ˆ 6. Consider the number 14. it is always true that: log 10n ˆ n ln en ˆ n Table 2 lists some other important relationships involving logarithms. two logarithmic bases are commonly encountered: .e.e. p 3  1. and the equation can also be expressed in the form: x ˆ loga N In chemistry. i. it is always true that: For natural logarithms. Natural logarithms are logarithms to the base e. loge . i. 2002 .e. show that (a) x 2 ˆ 2 and x 1 1 (b) x 2 ˆ p . x3 ˆ 3 x 1 x 1 means `the reciprocal of x'. xy means `raising x to the yth power'. x 4 Logarithms If a number N is written in an exponential form: N ˆ ax then. . (c) …2:40  104 †3 ˆ 1:38  1013 . For common logarithms. 1 3. . Show that (a) 24 ˆ 16.e. log10 . which has 3 signi®cant ®gures. x is the logarithm to the base a of the number N.5 should be quoted as 1. i. On your calculator.5. . i. By substituting in any value of x. (b) 0:53 ˆ 0:125. Con®rm the following: (a) 0:26 ˆ 6:4  10 5 . # Pearson Education Limited. x n . (b) 34 ˆ 81. 2. i. ®nd the keys assigned for taking common and natural logarithms. They are probably marked and respectively. where e ˆ 2:7183. p y  x1=y ˆ x and means `taking the yth root of x'.

2. Evaluate the following: (a) log 106 . (e) log 107:7 .034 followed by the key sequence . 2002 . (You will see the importance of this exercise when you come to the pH calculations in Chapter 15 of Chemistry. (d) 105:67 . 2. (d) log …10 4 †.45. determine the following: (a) log 104 . (b) log 3:39 ˆ 0:530. (c) ln 0:56. y and z are related by the equation: z ˆ 10 y . (b) log …10 5 †. N is found using the equation: N ˆ 10x For a natural logarithm. (b) ln…1:2  108 †. This gives x ˆ 0:925. For common logarithms For natural logarithms log xa ˆ a log x ln xa ˆ a ln x log xy ˆ log x ‡ log y ln xy ˆ ln x ‡ ln y x log ˆ log x y ln x ˆ ln x y ln 1 ˆ x log 1 ˆ x log y log x ln y ln x Problem set 5 1. consult the calculator manual. ®nd the keys marked obvious. However.) So far we have been concerned with taking the logarithm of a number. Evaluate the following: (a) e2:29 . If these keys are not Find x in the following equation: 0:034 ˆ log x First rewrite the equation in the exponent form: x ˆ 10 0:034 On your calculator. Without using a calculator. # Pearson Education Limited.33. (c) 8. the reverse process is equally important and involves an exponent.76. Find the value of y for each of the following values of z: (a) 0.e. (c) log …1  106 †. x can be found by entering 0. (d) log 10 15 . 3. (d) ln 0:622 ˆ 0:475. N is found using the equation: N ˆ ex On your calculator.Logarithms 7 Table 2 Some important relationships involving logarithms. ®nding the number N from the equation: N ˆ ax For a common logarithm. (c) log 22:3. (b) ln 98. Problem set 6 1. (c) ln 58:0 ˆ 4:060. Use your calculator to con®rm that (a) log 102 ˆ 2:009. (b) 0. (e) log …2  10 8 † ˆ 7:7. Worked example and . i.

xˆ 3 or 2x 2ˆ0 .xˆ1 These values of x are the roots (or solutions) of the quadratic equation.g.8 MATHEMATICS TUTOR 5 Solving a quadratic equation Problems dealing with. you should apply this equation rather than attempt to factorize the quadratic equation. for example. and sets the equation up in a form that is readily solved for x. The equation: Exercise. equilibria (Chapter 15 in Chemistry) may require you to solve a quadratic equation. in calculations dealing with equilibrium constants). Method 1 If the equation factorizes. Worked example Find the roots of the equation: 2x2 ‡ 4x 6ˆ0 Rewrite the equation in the form: …x ‡ 3†…2x 2† ˆ 0 This process is called factorizing. A quadratic equation in which the variable is x has the form: ax2 ‡ bx ‡ c ˆ 0 where a. Check the factorization is correct by expanding …x ‡ 3†…2x 2† ˆ 0 back to the original form of 2x2 ‡ 4x 6 ˆ 0. You can therefore ®nd the two solutions of x as follows: x‡3ˆ0 . 2002 . A quadratic equation has two solutions (or roots). so either one of the factors must equal zero. If: ax2 ‡ bx ‡ c ˆ 0 p b  b2 4ac then: x ˆ 2a In most chemical applications (e. Worked example Find the values of x that satisfy the equation: 3x2 4x ‡ 0:5 ˆ 0 By comparing this equation with the general form: # Pearson Education Limited. the solutions are readily found. b and c are constants. The product of the two factors is zero. …x ‡ 3†…2x 2† ˆ 0 contains two factors: …x ‡ 3† and …2x 2†. Method 2 The general method for solving a quadratic equation is as follows. The values of x that satisfy a given quadratic equation may be found by one of two methods. 2x ˆ 2 .

Although computer-aided graphing packages are readily available. Find the roots of the equation: 0:3x2 1:2x ‡ 0:1 ˆ 0. and hence ®nd the roots of the equation. y) Cartesian coordinate notation as (0. 4.Plotting and interpreting graphs 9 ax2 ‡ bx ‡ c ˆ 0 we can see that: a ˆ 3. The gradient (or slope) of the line is given by m. What values of x satisfy the equation: 2:2x2 ‡ 1:8x 0:5 ˆ 0? 6 Plotting and interpreting graphs Experimental data are often analysed by plotting a graph. Figure 1 illustrates the graph corresponding to the equation: y ˆ 5x ‡ 2 When x ˆ 0. Factorize the equation 3x2 4x ‡ 1 ˆ 0. the origin can be written in the (x. and c is the intercept on the y axis when x ˆ 0. y ˆ 0 is called the origin. Find solutions of x for the equations: (a) x2 ‡ x 2 ˆ 0 and (b) x2 ‡ 3:5x ˆ 0. 2. By comparing the equations: y ˆ 5x ‡ 2 and y ˆ mx ‡ c # Pearson Education Limited. c ˆ 0:5 Solutions of x are given by: xˆ b p b2 4ac 2a Therefore: xˆ … 4†  q … 4†2 4…3†…0:5† p 4  10 xˆ 6 x ˆ 1:2 or 0:14 2…3† Problem set 7 1. it is still essential to understand the fundamentals of graph plotting. bˆ 4. The point x ˆ 0. the line intercepts the y axis at a value of y ˆ 2. 2002 . Linear plots (straight lines) The equation: y ˆ mx ‡ c describes a straight line and shows the way in which the function y depends on x. 0). 3.

2002 . The gradient of the line is given by: Gradient (or slope) of the straight line ˆ y2 x2 y1 x1 Figure 2 shows two linear plots. For example.10 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Fig. Fig. we see that m ˆ 5 and c ˆ 2. in Figure 2a. # Pearson Education Limited. the line has a negative gradient. let us choose two points x1 and x2 with corresponding values y1 and y2 (see Figure 1). You can spot the sign of the gradient by inspection of the equation for the straight line. In order to ®nd the intercept. you may have to extrapolate the line. the gradient of the line can be measured by taking any two points on the straight line. extend it to reach the value corresponding to x ˆ 0. 1 Straight line graph for the equation y ˆ 5x ‡ 2.'. The term `making y the subject of the equation' means putting the equation in the form of `y ˆ .e. y2 †. . From the graph. It is usual to refer to these points as having the coordinates …x1 . the line has a positive gradient and in Figure 2b. y1 † and …x2 . The equation: yˆ 0:67x ‡ 15 has a negative coecient for x and so the gradient of the line is negative. The following questions give practice in plotting graphs. The sign of the gradient is determined by the sign of the coecient m. and in rearranging equations. 2 Examples of linear plots with (a) positive and (b) negative gradients. i. the equation: y ˆ 3x ‡ 6 has a positive coecient for x and so the gradient of the line is positive. .

6 …b† …1:2  10 4 †x ˆ …5:4  10 3 †2 y : 0:02 Non-linear plots Exercise.) In Figure 3. In Figure 3. Figure 3 shows an example of a non-linear plot. the volume V (in m3 ) of 1 mole of a gas varies with temperature T (in K) according to the equation: V ˆ …8:314  10 5 †T (a) Use the following data to con®rm the above relationship. show that the following data points are consistent with the rearranged equation: 1. For a linear plot. Now draw a tangent to the curve exactly at this point. (b) What is the intercept of the line and what is the physical meaning of the value? (c) Comment on the need to use all of the data given.2 5. and its gradient can be found as in Figure 1. the gradient at point A is: Gradient ˆ y2 x2 y1 4:2 2:0 ˆ 0:04 ˆ 55 6 x1 # Pearson Education Limited. and show that each corresponds to a linear relationship between y and x.50 21.0266 0. Plot a graph of x against y using the following data.7 27.11 Plotting and interpreting graphs Problem set 8 y 1 ˆ 3x.50 7.0227 0. (a) Make y the subject of the following equation: x 0 2. mark the point on the curve where x ˆ 3.00 43. Rearrange the following equations making y the subject. rather than a smaller data set.9 52.0258 0. For a non-linear plot. x 0 y 1.0274 4. this is point A in Figure 3.9 9. the gradient has di€erent values at di€erent points on the graph.00 y 2. and determine the equation of the line. the gradient is constant at all points on the line. to ®nd the gradient of the curve at the point where x ˆ 3.10 13. From Figure 3. The equations of non-linear plots take many di€erent forms. T/K V/m 3 273 298 310 320 330 0. and numerous examples are given in the accompanying textbook Chemistry.1 3.00 8. and calculating the gradient of this line.0248 0.00 6. 2002 .1 3.3 39. Any plot that is not a straight line is non-linear. At a constant pressure of 1:00  105 Pa. The gradient at a given point on the curve is found by drawing a tangent to the curve at that point.5 2.00 4.1 14. (You will apply this method in Chapter 14 of Chemistry when you study rates of reaction.20 27. 2:1 (b) By plotting a graph. …a† y ‡ 1:3 ˆ 3x ‡ 2:2. The tangent is a straight line. measure the gradient of the curve at two more points and hence show that the gradient increases as x increases.

the rate of change of y with respect to x Fig. and its gradient is determined. the rate of change of y with respect to x is equal to the gradient. # Pearson Education Limited. the shapes of graphs of these functions are di€erent. the variables are x and y. correspondingly. Mathematical functions have many di€erent forms and. 4 The shape of a graph depends on the relationship between the variables. 7 Differentiation: an introduction First order derivatives: The equation: dy dx y ˆ mx ‡ c describes a straight line. of the line and is a constant value at every point on the line. In each graph. In this case. a tangent is drawn to the curve at the point. Three examples are shown in Figure 4.12 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Fig. here. and shows the way in which the function y depends on x. To ®nd the gradient of the curve at point A. 2002 . m. 3 A graph of the function: y ˆ x3 ‡ 5.

Worked example 1 Di€erentiate the function y ˆ 2x3 ‡ 5x ‡ 7 with respect to x. and therefore: dy 1 ˆ dx x Problem set 9 1. dx y ˆ ln 2x . From Table 1: y ˆ ln 2 ‡ ln x ln 2 is a constant. consider the point at x ˆ 10 in each graph in Figure 4. Di€erentiate the following functions with respect to x. The rate of change of y with respect to x is given by the di€erential dy coecient of y with respect to x. and is denoted by . 2002 7 . dx x yˆ Worked example 3 Find dy ˆ 6x2 ‡ 5 dx 4 x2   dy 2 ˆ ˆ4 dx x3 8 x3 dy if y ˆ ln 2x. dx 1 …n ‡ 1† ˆ n xn ‡ 1 ex ax ae ax dy dx ln x 1 x sin x cos x cos x sin x sin ax a cos ax cos ax a sin ax varies for di€erent values of x. Their applications are illustrated in the following examples.13 Differentiation: an introduction Table 3 Selected standard derivatives y dy dx constant. dx Derivatives have particular forms and some important ones are listed in Table 3. e. Moreover. y ˆ 2x3 ‡ 5x ‡ 7 Worked example 2 Find dy 4 if y ˆ 2 . we di€erentiate the function y with respect to x in dy order to obtain . the rate of change of y with respect to x depends on the relationship between x and y. (a) y ˆ 3x ‡ 6 (b) y ˆ 4x2 ‡ 8x 9 (c) y ˆ 2x 1 3 (e) y ˆ sin 2x ‡ cos 2x (f) y ˆ (d) y ˆ 4x x # Pearson Education Limited.g. This is commonly dx known as a derivative. c 0 xn nxn 1 ˆx xn ex e y nx n dy . for a given value of x.

14 MATHEMATICS TUTOR 2. the gradient changes from a positive to negative value. substitution of a given value of x dx allows you to ®nd the gradient of the line or curve at this particular point. At a maximum. the Fig. find dy : dx y ˆ 2 ln x At the point where x ˆ 20: dy 2 ˆ dx x Gradient ˆ dy 2 ˆ ˆ 0:1 dx 20 Problem set 10 dy when 1. (a) y ˆ ex (b) y ˆ 3ex (c) y ˆ e2x bx ax bx (d) y ˆ 4e (e) y ˆ e ‡ e (f ) y ˆ e ax Using dy to ®nd a gradient dx dy . First. Di€erentiate the function y ˆ 2x2 ‡ 4x. Find the derivatives with respect to x of the following functions where a and b are constants. 5 A plot of y ˆ sin x is called a `sine wave'. x dy for the function y ˆ 2 cos x 3 sin x. Having found the general form of Worked example Find the gradient of the curve: y ˆ 2 ln x at the point x ˆ 20. ®nd the gradient at the point x ˆ 0:5. it is an example of a graph that possesses turning points. Turning points: d2 y dx 2 Graphs such as that in Figure 5 possess turning points. At a minimum. (a) Find the general form of dx (b) Evaluate this di€erential for x ˆ 908. 2002 . # Pearson Education Limited. Does the graph of y ˆ 2 ln x have a positive or negative gradient at the point x ˆ 2:5? 2 4. For the graph of y ˆ . 5. What is the slope of the curve y ˆ x4 at the point x ˆ 2? 3. and ®nd the value of dx x ˆ 3. 2.

Check these de®nitions by looking at Figure 5 which shows two maxima and one minimum. 2 . Information about turning points for a function that varies with x can be obtained d2 y by taking the second derivative. the gradient dy ˆ 0.e. First.e. dx Worked example Find the values of x that correspond to turning points in the graph of equation: y ˆ 2x3 ‡ x2 ‡ 2 and identify each turning point as a maximum or minimum. dx 1 d2 y . when: 6x2 ‡ 2x ˆ 0 The solutions of this quadratic equation are found by factorization: 6x2 ‡ 2x ˆ 0 2x…3x ‡ 1† ˆ 0 x…3x ‡ 1† ˆ 0 . ˆ 12x ‡ 2 ˆ 2 dx2 d2 y and this corresponds to a minimum because 2 > 0. dx # Pearson Education Limited. of the function. Once you have found dx dy d2 y .Differentiation: an introduction 15 gradient changes from a negative to positive value. i. ˆ 12x ‡ 2 ˆ 2 When x ˆ 3 dx2 d2 y and this corresponds to a maximum because 2 < 0. xˆ0 or 3x ‡ 1 ˆ 0 xˆ 1 3 Now substitute these values for x into the equations for the turning points: d2 y When x ˆ 0. dx dx For a turning point at a maximum: d2 y <0 dx2 For a turning point at a minimum: d2 y >0 dx2 Exactly at the maximum or minimum point (look at Figure 5). 2002 . ®nd the general forms of dy d2 y and 2 : dx dx y ˆ 2x3 ‡ x2 ‡ 2 dy ˆ 6x2 ‡ 2x dx d2 y ˆ 12x ‡ 2 dx2 The turning points occur when dy ˆ0 dx i. of the graph is zero. di€erentiate again to ®nd 2 .

a plot of y ˆ cos x has one turning point. enclosed by) the x axis (i. Problem set 11 dy d2 y and 2 for the functions (a) y ˆ sin x.e. dividing the shaded region into an in®nite number of vertical strips drawn parallel to the y axis.16 MATHEMATICS TUTOR dy d2 y and 2 . 6 The area under a curve for y ˆ f …x† between speci®ed limits x ˆ a and x ˆ b (the shaded area) is given by the de®nite …b integral f …x† dx. then dx dx as f 00 …x†. a # Pearson Education Limited. when y ˆ 0) and between certain values of x. Find 3. Show that. the area of the shaded section between the limits of x ˆ a and x ˆ b could be calculated by: . between speci®ed limits. (b) ®nd (a) ®nd and (c) determine the turning points of this dx dx2 function. For the function: y ˆ x3 ‡ 2x2 ‡ 5 dy d2 y . dx dx 2. If y is a funcdx dx 2 dy d y can be written as f 0 …x†. 1. A plot of a representative function is shown in Figure 6. 4. . (b) 2 and (c) information about the turning points of the dx dx graph of this function. Suppose you need to determine the area under the curve bounded by (i.e. For the function: y ˆ 3x3 3x dy d2 y ®nd (a) . In Figure 6. . 2002 . The notation f …x† simply stands for y is a function of x. Is this a maximum or a minimum? 8 Integration: an introduction A de®nite integral as an area under a curve Consider a curve with the general equation y ˆ f …x†.e. Fig. i. and 2 is written tion of x denoted by f …x†. ®nding the area of each strip. and summing the areas together. Another type of notation is sometimes used for y. (b) y ˆ cos x and (c) ln x. between the limits of x ˆ 908 and x ˆ 2708.

c. If: dy ˆ f 0 …x† dx then. so there are standard integrals. 2002 … f 0 …x† dx …ln x† ‡ c …n x n ˆ 1) dy ˆ 4. by separating the x and y terms (i. evaluate an inde®nite integral.17 Integration: an introduction These three steps can be achieved mathematically in one step by ®nding the de®nite integral of f …x† with respect to…x between the integration limits x ˆ a and x ˆ b. i. in each case is f 0 …x† f 0 …x† dx cos x sin x cos ax sin ax # Pearson Education Limited.e. and integrating. c. f 0 …x† a (a constant) … 1 ˆx 1 x 1 ˆx n xn ax ‡ c 2 x x ‡c 2 xn xn ‡ 1 ‡c n‡1 (except for n ˆ ex ex ‡ c eax eax ‡c a f 0 …x† dx. what is the relationship between x and y?' Just as there dx are standard derivatives (see Table 3). The constant. the integration constant. Inde®nite integrals A second use of integration is to answer the question: `if we have an dy expression for . The notation for this is b a f …x† dx. rearranging the equation as we did earlier in the Mathematics Tutor). Those listed in Table 4 are inde®nite integrals because there are no limits speci®ed for the integration. dx 1† 1 …n ‡c 1 1†xn …sin x† ‡ c …cos x† ‡ c sin ax ‡c a cos ax ‡c a 1 ‡c . The reason for this is clear if we consider the following three functions: y ˆ 4x ‡ 3 y ˆ 4x ‡ 10 y ˆ 4x ‡ 22 Di€erentiating each of these equations gives the same answer: … Table 4 Selected standard inde®nite integrals. must be introduced. we have: … … dy ˆ … yˆ f 0 …x† dx f 0 …x† dx If we integrate without limits. Examples of ®nding areas under curves are given in the discussion of entropy in Chapter 16 of Chemistry.e. then an integration constant.

Evaluate the integral y ˆ dx. given that y ˆ 2 when Integrating between limits: de®nite integrals Now let us look again at the question of integrating between limits. For example. That is. the complete function is: y ˆ 4x ‡ 3 In Chapter 14 of Chemistry. Notation is important. given values of x and y at a particular point. However. integration constants come into calculations involving rate equations. 2002 . and is best illustrated with an example.cˆ3 Therefore. Problem set 12 1. If the curve for this equation passes through the point x ˆ 0. 3 sin x† dx. y ˆ 2.18 MATHEMATICS TUTOR … Suppose now that you are evaluating the integral 4 dx. Worked example Find the area under the curve y ˆ 3x2 between the limits of x ˆ 4 and x ˆ 1. c can be evaluated. you know the derivative of a function is 4 and you want to ®nd the function. The area under the curve is found by integrating the equation y ˆ 3x2 between the limits of x ˆ 4 and x ˆ 1: … …4 Area ˆ y dy ˆ 3x2 dx The notation x ˆ 1. we can write: … y ˆ 4 dx ˆ 4x ‡ c With the information we have. and the application of integration to ®nding the area under a curve. Evaluate the integral y ˆ …2 cos x x ˆ 0. From Table 4. 2 x … 3. if we know that y ˆ 7 when x ˆ 1. The integrated form of an equation is: y ˆ 3x2 ‡ 6x ‡ c. given that y ˆ 0:5 when x ˆ 1. what is c? … 1 2. … y dy ˆ …4 1 …4 1 1 speci®es that the upper limit is x ˆ 4 and the lower limit is 3x2 dx  4 ˆ x3 ‡ c 1 # Pearson Education Limited. then we can write: y ˆ 4x ‡ c 7ˆ4‡c . c could be any value and we cannot unambiguously ®nd the function.

cancel and so there is no need to evaluate c. but it only reaches zero when x is in®nity (x ˆ 1). and the upper and lower limits must be shown. we have summarized some important mathematical skills required for ®rst year university chemistry. Problem set 13 1. Figure 7 shows a plot of e x against x. the function e x decreases. (b) ex dx. The concepts of vectors and partial di€erentials are introduced as required in the main textbook Chemistry. 2 2. 7 A graph of the function y ˆ e x. … 2:3 1 4 (c) x 1 dx. e0 ˆ 1. It is usual only to show that the curve tends towards a value of x ˆ 1. Find the area bounded by the x axis and the part of the curve y ˆ 3x3 ‡ 6x2 5 that lies between … 1the limits x ˆ 5 and … 6 x ˆ 0. 1:2 9 Functions that tend to in®nity Exponential decay is an important concept for reaction kinetics and this is discussed in Chapter 14 of Chemistry. The general integral is written within square brackets. As x increases. Further practice is provided in the following books: # Pearson Education Limited.  4 Area ˆ x3 ‡ c 1 ˆ ‰43 ‡ cŠ ‰13 ‡ cŠ ˆ 63 square units Notice that the integration constants. 2002 .Summary and further reading 19 Again. For x ˆ 0. notation is important. Exponential decay follows the dependence: yˆe x and is an example of a function that tends to in®nity. This notation stands for the di€erence between the integrals when x ˆ 4 and x ˆ 1. and so the curve has a ®nite starting point. c. Evaluate the de®nite integrals (a) …x ‡ 1† dx. Fig. 10 Summary and further reading In the Mathematics Tutor.

(b) 211. Doggett and B. (b) 5. (f) 4.20 MATHEMATICS TUTOR G. (a) 4. (a) 2:1  105 . or x ˆ x ˆ 3:9. or x ˆ 1:0 # Pearson Education Limited. y ˆ log z. Scott (1995) Beginning Mathematics in Chemistry. (a) 1:25  10 10 m. (b) 5 cm y2 x 2 z 2 sin2  ‡ cos2  ˆ 2 ‡ 2 ˆ 2 ˆ 1 z z z 3. 3. 2002 3:5 .T. Harlow.0 cm. because each length is given to 2 sig. 8. (b) 4. Oxford.7 Problem set 6 1.87.943 3. (b) 18. (c) 6. or x ˆ 2. (g) 1.35. (d) 4:68  105 Problem set 7 1. 4. ®g. (d) (a) 21. (d) 4 2.48. 7. (e) 7.174. 4. Sutcli€e (1995) Mathematics for Chemistry. (c) 85:08 Problem set 2 1.4 cm. (b) 0. (e) 2:2  102 2. 3. (b) 63:08. (b) 10 cm (a) 0. (c) 3. (a) 0.) 1. (b) x ˆ 0. 10. (c) 1.K.60. 3. (d) 4:74  10 7 . (a) 9.9 m Problem set 3 1. (c) 1.8 cm2 . (h) 2 (c). (b) 0. (b) 2. (c) 2:0  10 5 . (b) 1. (d) 1. (b) 3.35.707.532 658 (a) 3 cm. (a) 6. (b) 22 cm2 78 cm3 (to 2 sig.7 mm3 (a) 65:08. (b) 3:4  10 10 m. (a) 2.2 cm 47. (c) 0.93. x ˆ 1. 2. 5. 6.58. ®g. (d) 1. 6. 5. 2. (c) 0.588. or x ˆ 13 (a) x ˆ 1. 4.45 m Problem set 5 2.58. (d) 2. Oxford University Press. 2. Answers to problem sets Problem set 1 1. or x ˆ 0:085 x ˆ 0:22. (e) 3. (d) 15. Longman. S. (a) 8. (c) 0. (e) 4 (a) 3.2 cm 2 (a) 16. (c) 3.

(b) 18x. (a) 3x2 ‡ 4x. ˆ 16 dx dx dy dy ˆ 4x3 . other turndx dx ing points are outside the limits of x ˆ 908 and x ˆ 2708 1. the volume occupied by the gas is 0 m3 . this can be seen from equation. physical signi®cance is that at 0 K. dy dy ˆ 4x ‡ 4. y ˆ 1:5 1 # Pearson Education Limited. (a) 9x2 3.21 Answers to problem sets Problem set 8 1. (c) ˆ . dx dx dx x dx dx d2 y 1 ˆ dx2 x2 1 2. (b) 6x ‡ 4. (c) 2. (e) 2 cos 2x 2 sin 2x. (b) 8x ‡ 8. turning point at 1808 (minimum). (e) aeax ‡ bebx . (b) y ˆ 0:082x Problem set 9 1. (a) Problem set 12 1. (d) 12x 4 . (c) experimental data may contain erroneous points or points of low precision. (b) 2 (a) dx Problem set 11 dy d2 y dy d2 y dy 1 ˆ cos x. (c) turning points at x ˆ 0 (minimum) and 4 (maximum) xˆ 3 dy d2 y 4. y ˆ 4:0x 7:12 3. 5. 2 ˆ cos x. (d) 4bebx . (a) 3. y ˆ 6:3x ‡ 2:1 2. (f ) ae ax 1 x2 Problem set 10 1. (b) c ˆ 0. (c) 2e2x . 2. gradient ˆ 8 dx x2 dy ˆ 2 sin x 3 cos x. y ˆ 2 sin x ‡ 3 cos x 2. at x ˆ 2:5. 2 ˆ cos x. gradient is positive dx x dy 2 ˆ . ˆ sin x. (c) turning points at x ˆ p (minimum) and 3 1 x ˆ p (maximum) 3 3. 4. (f ) 2. (a) ex . (a) y ˆ 18x ‡ 11:9. 2 ˆ sin x. ˆ 32 dx dx dy 2 ˆ . when x ˆ 2. when x ˆ 3. c ˆ 2 1 x 3. (b) ˆ sin x. 3. (b) 3ex . and any calculation should not be biased towards these points 4. 2002 .

694 square units 8 2. (c) 0. (a) .22 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Problem set 13 1.65 3 # Pearson Education Limited. 2002 . (b) 349.

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