Mathematics by Catherine E.

Tutor to accompany Chemistry

by Catherine E. Housecroft and Edwin C. Constable


The aim of the Mathematics Tutor is to summarize some essential mathematical skills needed for chemistry. Before beginning to work through the
Mathematics Tutor, study Appendix 1 in Chemistry; it contains common
mathematical symbols. Ensure that you know what the symbols mean:
these symbols are used in the textbook Chemistry without explanation.
Note also that:

sig. ®g. means signi®cant ®gures;
dec. pl. means decimal places.

Table 1 is a checklist of important formulae dealing with angles in triangles,
areas, surface area and volumes. Their applications are varied and you
should be familiar with how to use the formulae. Identify the keys on your
calculator for ®nding the sine, cosine and tangent of an angle; they are
probably marked
The Mathematics Tutor contains numerous problem sets, the answers to
which can be found at the end of the Mathematics Tutor.

The constant p
p is a mathematical constant, de®ned as the ratio of the circumference to
diameter of a circle. The value of p is 3.141 592 653 59 (no units). Find the
key on your calculator that enters p.
The SI derived unit of plane angle is the radian. It is related to p by the

1 radian ˆ 

180 8
ˆ 57:2968

Thus, 1808 ˆ p radians, and 3608 ˆ 2p radians.

If you need help with
rounding off numbers,
see Section 2

Problem set 1
1. Find the length of the hypotenuse in each of the following right-angled
triangles in which the other two sides are of length (a) 5.0 and 6.25 cm,
and (b) 6 and 8 cm.
2. Evaluate (a) sin 458, (b) cos 808, (c) sin 368 ‡ sin 908, (d) 2 sin 508 giving
each answer to 3 dec. pl.
3. Two angles in a triangle are 508 and 658. What is the third angle?
4. Consider a general triangle with sides a, b and c, and angles A, B and C.
(a) Find a if b ˆ 2 cm, c ˆ 4 cm and A ˆ 478. (b) Find c if a ˆ 6 cm,
b ˆ 4 cm and C ˆ 56:38.
# Pearson Education Limited, 2002


Table 1 Some useful formulae: trigonometry, areas and volumes
x2 ‡ y2 ˆ z2 (Pythagoras's
cos  ˆ
tan  ˆ
sin  ˆ

For a right-angled triangle:

Cosine rule:
a2 ˆ b2 ‡ c2
For any triangle:



2bc cos A


b ˆa ‡c

2ac cos B

c2 ˆ a2 ‡ b2

2ab cos C

Sum of angles:
A ‡ B ‡ C ˆ 1808
Area of a square of side a


Volume of a cube of side a


Area of a rectangle of length a and width b


Volume of a cuboid of length a, width b and height c


Diameter of a circle of radius r


Circumference of a circle of radius r


Area of a circle of radius r


Surface area of a sphere of radius r


Volume of a sphere of radius r

3 pr

5. The notation sin2  means `the square of sin '. Prove for the right-angled
triangle shown in Table 1 that: sin2  ‡ cos2  ˆ 1.
6. Calculate the radius of a circle of circumference 20.2 cm.
7. Calculate (a) the diameter and (b) the area of a circle of radius 8.2 cm,
giving your answer to 1 dec. pl.
8. What is the volume of a sphere of radius 2.25 mm?
9. Con®rm that (a) sin 458 ˆ cos 458 ˆ p; (b) tan 458 ˆ sin 908 ˆ cos 0 ˆ 1;
(c) sin 0 ˆ cos 908 ˆ 0; (d) sin 308 ˆ cos 608 ˆ 12; (e) tan 308 ˆ p
10. Find x if (a) sin x ˆ 0:906, (b) cos x ˆ 0:454 and (c) 2 sin x ˆ 1:9925.
[Hint: you must ®nd sin 1 or cos 1 of the number.]


Signi®cant ®gures
What are signi®cant ®gures?
Experimentally measured values are subject to some degree of uncertainty. If
you weigh a solid and record the mass as 5 g, it indicates that you are less
sure of the exact mass than if the mass is recorded as 5.0 g. Recording 5.00 g
indicates that the mass is known with even more certainty. The value of 5 g
has one signi®cant ®gure (1 sig. ®g.), 5.0 g has 2 sig. ®g., and 5.00 g has 3 sig. ®g.
# Pearson Education Limited, 2002

the answer should be given as Mr ˆ 20:01 # Pearson Education Limited. . e.g. ®g.g..Signi®cant ®gures 3 Some values are `exact' and in these cases it is not relevant to assign significant ®gures. ®g. If a number is quoted to n dec. 0. Rule 4: Adding and subtracting numbers " Mr and Ar : see Chapter 1 in Chemistry When adding or subtracting a series of numbers. 0. ®g.. Answers to calculations: working with experimental data Many chemical calculations involve manipulating data quoted to di€erent numbers of signi®cant ®gures. pl. and to 4 sig. The result of the calculation must be quoted according to several rules. 68 is quoted to 2 sig. 0. the scale of relative atomic masses is de®ned so as to give all atomic masses relative to 12 C ˆ 12 (exactly). Some results are quoted to a given number of decimal places. 2000.500 is quoted to 3 sig. 5:00  10 2 is quoted to 3 sig. pl. Trailing zeros are signi®cant in a number that contains a decimal point: .. 0. For example: to ®nd Mr for HF.. The number of signi®cant ®gures in an integer corresponds to the number of digits. Rule 1: Integers without zeros An integer is a whole number. there are n digits (including zeros) after the decimal point. 5 is quoted to 1 sig. e. .006 is quoted to 1 sig. look up the relative atomic masses of H and F: Ar for H ˆ 1:008 Ar for F ˆ 19:00 Therefore: Mr for HF ˆ 1:008 ‡ 19:00 ˆ 20:008 but since Ar for F is quoted to only 2 dec.040 is quoted to 2 sig. pl.334 is quoted to 3 dec. Rule 2: Numbers less than 1 beginning with zeros Leading zeros come at the beginning of a number. 8. Rule 3: Numbers less than 1 ending with zeros Trailing zeros come at the end of a number. . . the ®nal answer should be quoted to the same number of decimal places as in the least precise number in the series. 0. ®g. 2002 . . ®g. ®g. e.g. e.000555 is quoted to 3 sig. ®g. Ignore leading zeros when working out the number of signi®cant ®gures in a number: .002.g. ®g.

.2 cm depends only on the number of sig. (b) 8. (c) 2.g. ®g. ®g. (d) 5. are the following numbers quoted: (a) 665. You must stop and think! Are the digits valid? If the calculation involves several steps. (c) 9. If the digit to be removed is >5 (or the digits to be removed begin with a digit 5). ®gs.505.55 cm. (f ) 0.. in the measured quantity (2. It is not relevant to assign a number of signi®cant ®gures to an integral (whole number) multiplier.4 to 2 sig. we do not follow this rule because we want to show all the steps of the calculation.g. ®g. we rounded o€ the answer from 39.02.34. (e) 0.99.6 cm2 because the least precise number in the data is given to 3 sig. (e) 0. (g) 0. Follow these rules when rounding o€ numbers: . round up.5050. round down. the perimeter of a square of side 2.4 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Rule 5: Multiplying and dividing numbers When multiplying and dividing a series of numbers.4243 is rounded down to 1.100. Area ˆ 8:712 …cm†  4:55 …cm† ˆ 39:6396 cm2 but we are only justi®ed in quoting the answer as 39.712 cm and 4.46 to 3 sig.6 cm2 . (In some worked examples in Chemistry. Rounding off In the calculation above to ®nd the area of the rectangle. (b) 0. ®g. (d) 0. 6. Worked example Find the area of a rectangle of sides 8.140. e. and to simply write down the answer displayed on the calculator. it is often easy to forget about signi®cant ®gures.) Problem set 2 1. do not round o€ at each step. If the digit to be removed is <5 (or the digits to be removed begin with a digit <5). or to 1.1124? 2. ®g.3 cm could be found by: Perimeter ˆ 2:3 …cm† ‡ 2:3 …cm† ‡ 2:3 …cm† ‡ 2:3 …cm† ˆ 9:2 cm or Perimeter ˆ 4  2:3 …cm† ˆ 9:2 cm The answer of 9. e. e.4587 is rounded up to 6. When you use a calculator.5 to 2 sig.42 to 3 sig.3 cm). or to 6. 1.006 and (h) 33? # Pearson Education Limited. the ®nal answer should be quoted to the same number of signi®cant ®gures as in the least precise number in the series. Only round o€ the ®nal answer. ®g.6396 cm2 to 39. To how many sig.g. pl.2. . 2002 .75. To how many dec. are the following numbers quoted: (a) 0.

g. 3. (c) 5. and (b) 2 sig.3 in Chapter 1 of Chemistry to help you.02 g. e. 106 into your calculator. x2 .1 cm. for example: . (b) 0. (d) . and give the answers in exponential notation: (a) 104 ‡ …2:0  105 †. (c) …4:5  10 3 †2 . ®g.g. a number in the form n  10x . When entering. ®g.2 g? 4. multiplying the number by 102 makes the number one hundred times larger and multiplying by 10 2 makes it one hundred times smaller. What are the dimensions of the container? 3 Exponential notation Expressing large and small numbers in exponential form Scienti®c numbers are often extremely large or extremely small. 5.§ To enter the number 2  10 6 . Problem set 3 1. § x2 means `the square of x' x3 means `the cube of x' If this method does not work. exponential notation is used to express them. express each of the following distances in m: (a) 125 pm. . Important! 10x stands for 1  10x .67 cm and quote the answer to (a) 3 sig.g. For example. e. 1:52  102 (b) …5:60  105 †  …3:44  10 6 †. 2:4  103 ˆ 2 400 5:6  106 ˆ 5 600 000 7:2  10 4 ˆ 0:000 72 Most scienti®c calculators have a key marked . (c) 45 cm. Some powers have speci®c meanings.34 nm. x4 . ®g. e. Calculate the volume of a rectangular box of sides 4.00 g. 6. Other uses of exponents 1 A number can be raised to any power. To enter the number 2  106 . x6:7 . enter the key sequence or . 2002 .0 g and (d) 2. Using Table 1. Do not forget the `1' part of the number. Which of the following masses are given to 2 sig. Note how the decimal point `moves along' the number.4 cm and 5.Exponential notation 5 3.6 cm. Therefore. e.g. # Pearson Education Limited. Calculate the area of a square of side 4. the key may be marked instead of . i. (a) 0.e. press the key sequence . Use your calculator to carry out the following calculations. you must enter 1  106 . (b) 5. consult your calculator manual. x 3 . The volume of a cubic container is 6. 3:21  108 9:8  10 3 (e) 4:5  10 5 2.9 m3 .

and are usually written as log (sometimes. 2002 . x 1 n 1 xn 1 ˆp n  x ˆ Problem set 4 Use your calculator to do the following problems. x3 ˆ 3 x 1 x 1 means `the reciprocal of x'.e. and . show that (a) x 2 ˆ 2 and x 1 1 (b) x 2 ˆ p . i. x2 ˆ x p  1 1 x3 means `the cube root of x'. (c) 216 ˆ 6. ®nd the keys assigned for taking common and natural logarithms. . The value of log 14. Common logarithms are logarithms to the base 10. Natural logarithms are logarithms to the base e. 1 3. lg). (d) 82:5  181.6 MATHEMATICS TUTOR .5 should be quoted as 1. x 4 Logarithms If a number N is written in an exponential form: N ˆ ax then. Consider the number 14. (b) 34 ˆ 81. and the equation can also be expressed in the form: x ˆ loga N In chemistry. On your calculator.e.e. i. log10 . xy means `raising x to the yth power'. (c) …2:40  104 †3 ˆ 1:38  1013 . x is the logarithm to the base a of the number N. p y  x1=y ˆ x and means `taking the yth root of x'.e.161 with 3 decimal places. i. i. it is always true that: For natural logarithms. i. . (b) 0:53 ˆ 0:125. where e ˆ 2:7183. it is always true that: log 10n ˆ n ln en ˆ n Table 2 lists some other important relationships involving logarithms. loge . The number of signi®cant ®gures quoted in the logarithm is determined as follows. two logarithmic bases are commonly encountered: . . A natural logarithm is written as ln. Con®rm the following: (a) 0:26 ˆ 6:4  10 5 . # Pearson Education Limited. which has 3 signi®cant ®gures. 2. Show that (a) 24 ˆ 16. Two results are of general importance: .5. p 3  1. . They are probably marked and respectively. p 1 1 x2 means `the square root of x'. x n . For common logarithms. .e. By substituting in any value of x. . x 1 ˆ x On your calculator there should be two keys labelled .

2. (b) 0. (d) log …10 4 †. Evaluate the following: (a) log 106 . i. # Pearson Education Limited. consult the calculator manual. Problem set 6 1. (c) 8. ®nding the number N from the equation: N ˆ ax For a common logarithm. (b) ln 98. If these keys are not Find x in the following equation: 0:034 ˆ log x First rewrite the equation in the exponent form: x ˆ 10 0:034 On your calculator. Use your calculator to con®rm that (a) log 102 ˆ 2:009.034 followed by the key sequence . (You will see the importance of this exercise when you come to the pH calculations in Chapter 15 of Chemistry. (e) log …2  10 8 † ˆ 7:7.e. This gives x ˆ 0:925. (d) ln 0:622 ˆ 0:475. 2002 . 3. Worked example and . (c) ln 0:56. (c) log …1  106 †.76. N is found using the equation: N ˆ 10x For a natural logarithm. However.45. (d) log 10 15 . N is found using the equation: N ˆ ex On your calculator. For common logarithms For natural logarithms log xa ˆ a log x ln xa ˆ a ln x log xy ˆ log x ‡ log y ln xy ˆ ln x ‡ ln y x log ˆ log x y ln x ˆ ln x y ln 1 ˆ x log 1 ˆ x log y log x ln y ln x Problem set 5 1. (e) log 107:7 . Without using a calculator. the reverse process is equally important and involves an exponent.33. ®nd the keys marked obvious. (b) log 3:39 ˆ 0:530. (c) ln 58:0 ˆ 4:060. determine the following: (a) log 104 . (b) log …10 5 †. y and z are related by the equation: z ˆ 10 y . 2. x can be found by entering 0.Logarithms 7 Table 2 Some important relationships involving logarithms. Evaluate the following: (a) e2:29 . (c) log 22:3. (d) 105:67 . Find the value of y for each of the following values of z: (a) 0.) So far we have been concerned with taking the logarithm of a number. (b) ln…1:2  108 †.

equilibria (Chapter 15 in Chemistry) may require you to solve a quadratic equation. so either one of the factors must equal zero. the solutions are readily found. …x ‡ 3†…2x 2† ˆ 0 contains two factors: …x ‡ 3† and …2x 2†. Worked example Find the roots of the equation: 2x2 ‡ 4x 6ˆ0 Rewrite the equation in the form: …x ‡ 3†…2x 2† ˆ 0 This process is called factorizing. 2002 . The values of x that satisfy a given quadratic equation may be found by one of two methods.xˆ1 These values of x are the roots (or solutions) of the quadratic equation. The product of the two factors is zero. A quadratic equation in which the variable is x has the form: ax2 ‡ bx ‡ c ˆ 0 where a. If: ax2 ‡ bx ‡ c ˆ 0 p b  b2 4ac then: x ˆ 2a In most chemical applications (e. for example. Worked example Find the values of x that satisfy the equation: 3x2 4x ‡ 0:5 ˆ 0 By comparing this equation with the general form: # Pearson Education Limited. A quadratic equation has two solutions (or roots). You can therefore ®nd the two solutions of x as follows: x‡3ˆ0 . Check the factorization is correct by expanding …x ‡ 3†…2x 2† ˆ 0 back to the original form of 2x2 ‡ 4x 6 ˆ 0. b and c are constants. and sets the equation up in a form that is readily solved for x. 2x ˆ 2 . Method 2 The general method for solving a quadratic equation is as follows.8 MATHEMATICS TUTOR 5 Solving a quadratic equation Problems dealing with. The equation: Exercise. you should apply this equation rather than attempt to factorize the quadratic equation.g. Method 1 If the equation factorizes. in calculations dealing with equilibrium constants).xˆ 3 or 2x 2ˆ0 .

Figure 1 illustrates the graph corresponding to the equation: y ˆ 5x ‡ 2 When x ˆ 0. Factorize the equation 3x2 4x ‡ 1 ˆ 0. y) Cartesian coordinate notation as (0. and c is the intercept on the y axis when x ˆ 0. 4. What values of x satisfy the equation: 2:2x2 ‡ 1:8x 0:5 ˆ 0? 6 Plotting and interpreting graphs Experimental data are often analysed by plotting a graph. Although computer-aided graphing packages are readily available. bˆ 4. 0). 2002 . y ˆ 0 is called the origin. the origin can be written in the (x. Find the roots of the equation: 0:3x2 1:2x ‡ 0:1 ˆ 0. Find solutions of x for the equations: (a) x2 ‡ x 2 ˆ 0 and (b) x2 ‡ 3:5x ˆ 0. By comparing the equations: y ˆ 5x ‡ 2 and y ˆ mx ‡ c # Pearson Education Limited. the line intercepts the y axis at a value of y ˆ 2. The gradient (or slope) of the line is given by m. and hence ®nd the roots of the equation. 2. it is still essential to understand the fundamentals of graph plotting.Plotting and interpreting graphs 9 ax2 ‡ bx ‡ c ˆ 0 we can see that: a ˆ 3. The point x ˆ 0. Linear plots (straight lines) The equation: y ˆ mx ‡ c describes a straight line and shows the way in which the function y depends on x. c ˆ 0:5 Solutions of x are given by: xˆ b p b2 4ac 2a Therefore: xˆ … 4†  q … 4†2 4…3†…0:5† p 4  10 xˆ 6 x ˆ 1:2 or 0:14 2…3† Problem set 7 1. 3.

The gradient of the line is given by: Gradient (or slope) of the straight line ˆ y2 x2 y1 x1 Figure 2 shows two linear plots. i. 1 Straight line graph for the equation y ˆ 5x ‡ 2. the line has a positive gradient and in Figure 2b. the line has a negative gradient. in Figure 2a.10 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Fig. y1 † and …x2 . we see that m ˆ 5 and c ˆ 2. # Pearson Education Limited. The equation: yˆ 0:67x ‡ 15 has a negative coecient for x and so the gradient of the line is negative. let us choose two points x1 and x2 with corresponding values y1 and y2 (see Figure 1). 2002 . the gradient of the line can be measured by taking any two points on the straight line. It is usual to refer to these points as having the coordinates …x1 . Fig. For example. The sign of the gradient is determined by the sign of the coecient m. . The term `making y the subject of the equation' means putting the equation in the form of `y ˆ . y2 †.e. The following questions give practice in plotting graphs. and in rearranging equations. the equation: y ˆ 3x ‡ 6 has a positive coecient for x and so the gradient of the line is positive. From the graph. 2 Examples of linear plots with (a) positive and (b) negative gradients. In order to ®nd the intercept. . you may have to extrapolate the line. extend it to reach the value corresponding to x ˆ 0. You can spot the sign of the gradient by inspection of the equation for the straight line.'.

The gradient at a given point on the curve is found by drawing a tangent to the curve at that point. 2:1 (b) By plotting a graph. T/K V/m 3 273 298 310 320 330 0. to ®nd the gradient of the curve at the point where x ˆ 3. measure the gradient of the curve at two more points and hence show that the gradient increases as x increases. and its gradient can be found as in Figure 1.11 Plotting and interpreting graphs Problem set 8 y 1 ˆ 3x. Now draw a tangent to the curve exactly at this point. mark the point on the curve where x ˆ 3. and calculating the gradient of this line.9 9. this is point A in Figure 3.1 14. Any plot that is not a straight line is non-linear.0258 0. The tangent is a straight line. …a† y ‡ 1:3 ˆ 3x ‡ 2:2. In Figure 3.00 y 2. 2002 .00 4. 6 …b† …1:2  10 4 †x ˆ …5:4  10 3 †2 y : 0:02 Non-linear plots Exercise.10 13. At a constant pressure of 1:00  105 Pa. and show that each corresponds to a linear relationship between y and x.0248 0. the volume V (in m3 ) of 1 mole of a gas varies with temperature T (in K) according to the equation: V ˆ …8:314  10 5 †T (a) Use the following data to con®rm the above relationship.00 43. the gradient is constant at all points on the line.1 3.50 21.2 5.7 27.3 39. Figure 3 shows an example of a non-linear plot. For a non-linear plot. and numerous examples are given in the accompanying textbook Chemistry. Plot a graph of x against y using the following data. For a linear plot.00 8.0266 0.9 52. (b) What is the intercept of the line and what is the physical meaning of the value? (c) Comment on the need to use all of the data given. x 0 y 1.50 7.5 2. the gradient has di€erent values at di€erent points on the graph. From Figure 3. The equations of non-linear plots take many di€erent forms.) In Figure 3. and determine the equation of the line. show that the following data points are consistent with the rearranged equation: 1.0274 4. the gradient at point A is: Gradient ˆ y2 x2 y1 4:2 2:0 ˆ 0:04 ˆ 55 6 x1 # Pearson Education Limited.20 27. Rearrange the following equations making y the subject.0227 0.1 3. (a) Make y the subject of the following equation: x 0 2.00 6. rather than a smaller data set. (You will apply this method in Chapter 14 of Chemistry when you study rates of reaction.

Mathematical functions have many di€erent forms and. In this case. 7 Differentiation: an introduction First order derivatives: The equation: dy dx y ˆ mx ‡ c describes a straight line. # Pearson Education Limited. 2002 . In each graph. m. correspondingly. 3 A graph of the function: y ˆ x3 ‡ 5. the rate of change of y with respect to x Fig. the variables are x and y. of the line and is a constant value at every point on the line. a tangent is drawn to the curve at the point. Three examples are shown in Figure 4. To ®nd the gradient of the curve at point A. here. the shapes of graphs of these functions are di€erent. the rate of change of y with respect to x is equal to the gradient. 4 The shape of a graph depends on the relationship between the variables. and its gradient is determined.12 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Fig. and shows the way in which the function y depends on x.

Moreover. dx y ˆ ln 2x . and therefore: dy 1 ˆ dx x Problem set 9 1.13 Differentiation: an introduction Table 3 Selected standard derivatives y dy dx constant. y ˆ 2x3 ‡ 5x ‡ 7 Worked example 2 Find dy 4 if y ˆ 2 . dx x yˆ Worked example 3 Find dy ˆ 6x2 ‡ 5 dx 4 x2   dy 2 ˆ ˆ4 dx x3 8 x3 dy if y ˆ ln 2x. This is commonly dx known as a derivative. consider the point at x ˆ 10 in each graph in Figure 4. dx Derivatives have particular forms and some important ones are listed in Table 3. (a) y ˆ 3x ‡ 6 (b) y ˆ 4x2 ‡ 8x 9 (c) y ˆ 2x 1 3 (e) y ˆ sin 2x ‡ cos 2x (f) y ˆ (d) y ˆ 4x x # Pearson Education Limited. and is denoted by . Worked example 1 Di€erentiate the function y ˆ 2x3 ‡ 5x ‡ 7 with respect to x. e. Di€erentiate the following functions with respect to x.g. we di€erentiate the function y with respect to x in dy order to obtain . dx 1 …n ‡ 1† ˆ n xn ‡ 1 ex ax ae ax dy dx ln x 1 x sin x cos x cos x sin x sin ax a cos ax cos ax a sin ax varies for di€erent values of x. 2002 7 . the rate of change of y with respect to x depends on the relationship between x and y. c 0 xn nxn 1 ˆx xn ex e y nx n dy . Their applications are illustrated in the following examples. for a given value of x. From Table 1: y ˆ ln 2 ‡ ln x ln 2 is a constant. The rate of change of y with respect to x is given by the di€erential dy coecient of y with respect to x.

Di€erentiate the function y ˆ 2x2 ‡ 4x. find dy : dx y ˆ 2 ln x At the point where x ˆ 20: dy 2 ˆ dx x Gradient ˆ dy 2 ˆ ˆ 0:1 dx 20 Problem set 10 dy when 1. # Pearson Education Limited. (a) y ˆ ex (b) y ˆ 3ex (c) y ˆ e2x bx ax bx (d) y ˆ 4e (e) y ˆ e ‡ e (f ) y ˆ e ax Using dy to ®nd a gradient dx dy . ®nd the gradient at the point x ˆ 0:5. the Fig. Does the graph of y ˆ 2 ln x have a positive or negative gradient at the point x ˆ 2:5? 2 4. it is an example of a graph that possesses turning points. x dy for the function y ˆ 2 cos x 3 sin x. and ®nd the value of dx x ˆ 3. Turning points: d2 y dx 2 Graphs such as that in Figure 5 possess turning points.14 MATHEMATICS TUTOR 2. 5. 2. substitution of a given value of x dx allows you to ®nd the gradient of the line or curve at this particular point. the gradient changes from a positive to negative value. (a) Find the general form of dx (b) Evaluate this di€erential for x ˆ 908. 2002 . Find the derivatives with respect to x of the following functions where a and b are constants. Having found the general form of Worked example Find the gradient of the curve: y ˆ 2 ln x at the point x ˆ 20. At a maximum. For the graph of y ˆ . 5 A plot of y ˆ sin x is called a `sine wave'. First. At a minimum. What is the slope of the curve y ˆ x4 at the point x ˆ 2? 3.

2002 . dx # Pearson Education Limited. xˆ0 or 3x ‡ 1 ˆ 0 xˆ 1 3 Now substitute these values for x into the equations for the turning points: d2 y When x ˆ 0.e. dx Worked example Find the values of x that correspond to turning points in the graph of equation: y ˆ 2x3 ‡ x2 ‡ 2 and identify each turning point as a maximum or minimum. dx dx For a turning point at a maximum: d2 y <0 dx2 For a turning point at a minimum: d2 y >0 dx2 Exactly at the maximum or minimum point (look at Figure 5). ˆ 12x ‡ 2 ˆ 2 When x ˆ 3 dx2 d2 y and this corresponds to a maximum because 2 < 0. i.e. First.Differentiation: an introduction 15 gradient changes from a negative to positive value. Information about turning points for a function that varies with x can be obtained d2 y by taking the second derivative. di€erentiate again to ®nd 2 . Once you have found dx dy d2 y . ®nd the general forms of dy d2 y and 2 : dx dx y ˆ 2x3 ‡ x2 ‡ 2 dy ˆ 6x2 ‡ 2x dx d2 y ˆ 12x ‡ 2 dx2 The turning points occur when dy ˆ0 dx i. when: 6x2 ‡ 2x ˆ 0 The solutions of this quadratic equation are found by factorization: 6x2 ‡ 2x ˆ 0 2x…3x ‡ 1† ˆ 0 x…3x ‡ 1† ˆ 0 . of the function. Check these de®nitions by looking at Figure 5 which shows two maxima and one minimum. the gradient dy ˆ 0. dx 1 d2 y . 2 . of the graph is zero. ˆ 12x ‡ 2 ˆ 2 dx2 d2 y and this corresponds to a minimum because 2 > 0.

Suppose you need to determine the area under the curve bounded by (i. (b) y ˆ cos x and (c) ln x. For the function: y ˆ x3 ‡ 2x2 ‡ 5 dy d2 y . Find 3. i. . the area of the shaded section between the limits of x ˆ a and x ˆ b could be calculated by: . 2002 .e. . and 2 is written tion of x denoted by f …x†. Fig. a # Pearson Education Limited. ®nding the area of each strip. (b) ®nd (a) ®nd and (c) determine the turning points of this dx dx2 function. dividing the shaded region into an in®nite number of vertical strips drawn parallel to the y axis. 6 The area under a curve for y ˆ f …x† between speci®ed limits x ˆ a and x ˆ b (the shaded area) is given by the de®nite …b integral f …x† dx. (b) 2 and (c) information about the turning points of the dx dx graph of this function. 1. when y ˆ 0) and between certain values of x. Is this a maximum or a minimum? 8 Integration: an introduction A de®nite integral as an area under a curve Consider a curve with the general equation y ˆ f …x†. In Figure 6. If y is a funcdx dx 2 dy d y can be written as f 0 …x†. a plot of y ˆ cos x has one turning point. dx dx 2. and summing the areas together. For the function: y ˆ 3x3 3x dy d2 y ®nd (a) .e.16 MATHEMATICS TUTOR dy d2 y and 2 . enclosed by) the x axis (i. Another type of notation is sometimes used for y. Show that. A plot of a representative function is shown in Figure 6. Problem set 11 dy d2 y and 2 for the functions (a) y ˆ sin x. 4. The notation f …x† simply stands for y is a function of x. then dx dx as f 00 …x†.e. between speci®ed limits. between the limits of x ˆ 908 and x ˆ 2708.

Those listed in Table 4 are inde®nite integrals because there are no limits speci®ed for the integration. the integration constant. rearranging the equation as we did earlier in the Mathematics Tutor). so there are standard integrals.17 Integration: an introduction These three steps can be achieved mathematically in one step by ®nding the de®nite integral of f …x† with respect to…x between the integration limits x ˆ a and x ˆ b. f 0 …x† a (a constant) … 1 ˆx 1 x 1 ˆx n xn ax ‡ c 2 x x ‡c 2 xn xn ‡ 1 ‡c n‡1 (except for n ˆ ex ex ‡ c eax eax ‡c a f 0 …x† dx. The constant. c. The reason for this is clear if we consider the following three functions: y ˆ 4x ‡ 3 y ˆ 4x ‡ 10 y ˆ 4x ‡ 22 Di€erentiating each of these equations gives the same answer: … Table 4 Selected standard inde®nite integrals.e. c. then an integration constant. and integrating. If: dy ˆ f 0 …x† dx then. must be introduced. by separating the x and y terms (i. Inde®nite integrals A second use of integration is to answer the question: `if we have an dy expression for .e. dx 1† 1 …n ‡c 1 1†xn …sin x† ‡ c …cos x† ‡ c sin ax ‡c a cos ax ‡c a 1 ‡c . we have: … … dy ˆ … yˆ f 0 …x† dx f 0 …x† dx If we integrate without limits. in each case is f 0 …x† f 0 …x† dx cos x sin x cos ax sin ax # Pearson Education Limited. Examples of ®nding areas under curves are given in the discussion of entropy in Chapter 16 of Chemistry. what is the relationship between x and y?' Just as there dx are standard derivatives (see Table 3). The notation for this is b a f …x† dx. evaluate an inde®nite integral. 2002 … f 0 …x† dx …ln x† ‡ c …n x n ˆ 1) dy ˆ 4. i.

cˆ3 Therefore. Evaluate the integral y ˆ dx. we can write: … y ˆ 4 dx ˆ 4x ‡ c With the information we have. Evaluate the integral y ˆ …2 cos x x ˆ 0. From Table 4. Notation is important. If the curve for this equation passes through the point x ˆ 0. then we can write: y ˆ 4x ‡ c 7ˆ4‡c . That is. y ˆ 2. 2 x … 3. what is c? … 1 2. given values of x and y at a particular point. integration constants come into calculations involving rate equations. and is best illustrated with an example. The integrated form of an equation is: y ˆ 3x2 ‡ 6x ‡ c. given that y ˆ 2 when Integrating between limits: de®nite integrals Now let us look again at the question of integrating between limits. given that y ˆ 0:5 when x ˆ 1. 3 sin x† dx. the complete function is: y ˆ 4x ‡ 3 In Chapter 14 of Chemistry. … y dy ˆ …4 1 …4 1 1 speci®es that the upper limit is x ˆ 4 and the lower limit is 3x2 dx  4 ˆ x3 ‡ c 1 # Pearson Education Limited. you know the derivative of a function is 4 and you want to ®nd the function. Worked example Find the area under the curve y ˆ 3x2 between the limits of x ˆ 4 and x ˆ 1. For example.18 MATHEMATICS TUTOR … Suppose now that you are evaluating the integral 4 dx. c can be evaluated. if we know that y ˆ 7 when x ˆ 1. Problem set 12 1. 2002 . c could be any value and we cannot unambiguously ®nd the function. and the application of integration to ®nding the area under a curve. However. The area under the curve is found by integrating the equation y ˆ 3x2 between the limits of x ˆ 4 and x ˆ 1: … …4 Area ˆ y dy ˆ 3x2 dx The notation x ˆ 1.

Further practice is provided in the following books: # Pearson Education Limited. Figure 7 shows a plot of e x against x.  4 Area ˆ x3 ‡ c 1 ˆ ‰43 ‡ cŠ ‰13 ‡ cŠ ˆ 63 square units Notice that the integration constants. but it only reaches zero when x is in®nity (x ˆ 1). and the upper and lower limits must be shown. Problem set 13 1. The general integral is written within square brackets. 2002 . … 2:3 1 4 (c) x 1 dx. It is usual only to show that the curve tends towards a value of x ˆ 1. we have summarized some important mathematical skills required for ®rst year university chemistry. the function e x decreases. e0 ˆ 1. (b) ex dx. The concepts of vectors and partial di€erentials are introduced as required in the main textbook Chemistry. 10 Summary and further reading In the Mathematics Tutor.Summary and further reading 19 Again. This notation stands for the di€erence between the integrals when x ˆ 4 and x ˆ 1. 2 2. Evaluate the de®nite integrals (a) …x ‡ 1† dx. Fig. c. cancel and so there is no need to evaluate c. 1:2 9 Functions that tend to in®nity Exponential decay is an important concept for reaction kinetics and this is discussed in Chapter 14 of Chemistry. Exponential decay follows the dependence: yˆe x and is an example of a function that tends to in®nity. As x increases. For x ˆ 0. and so the curve has a ®nite starting point. 7 A graph of the function y ˆ e x. Find the area bounded by the x axis and the part of the curve y ˆ 3x3 ‡ 6x2 5 that lies between … 1the limits x ˆ 5 and … 6 x ˆ 0. notation is important.

x ˆ 1.58. 8. (d) 4 2. (c) 3. 4. (d) 1. (c) 6.9 m Problem set 3 1. 3.2 cm 2 (a) 16. (g) 1. (c) 1. Answers to problem sets Problem set 1 1. (b) x ˆ 0. (a) 0. (b) 5 cm y2 x 2 z 2 sin2  ‡ cos2  ˆ 2 ‡ 2 ˆ 2 ˆ 1 z z z 3.8 cm2 . 2. 10. ®g.943 3. 4. Scott (1995) Beginning Mathematics in Chemistry. (c) 1.7 mm3 (a) 65:08. Oxford University Press. 2002 3:5 . (b) 4. or x ˆ 2. (e) 3. Oxford.45 m Problem set 5 2. (c) 3. 2.93. 7.707. or x ˆ 1:0 # Pearson Education Limited.4 cm. (a) 2:1  105 .2 cm 47. because each length is given to 2 sig. (d) 2. (a) 1:25  10 10 m. (c) 0. (e) 2:2  102 2. Sutcli€e (1995) Mathematics for Chemistry. (d) 1. (d) 4:74  10 7 . (e) 7.T.35.60. (b) 3. (b) 18.87.532 658 (a) 3 cm. Longman.0 cm. (d) 15. (b) 2. Doggett and B. (d) (a) 21. 4.20 MATHEMATICS TUTOR G. (b) 0.) 1. (c) 0. (f) 4. (d) 4:68  105 Problem set 7 1.174. (a) 2. (h) 2 (c). (b) 211. 2. or x ˆ 0:085 x ˆ 0: 6. (e) 4 (a) 3. Harlow. (c) 0. or x ˆ 13 (a) x ˆ 1. (b) 5. (a) 4. (a) 6. 3. (b) 0. 5. (b) 22 cm2 78 cm3 (to 2 sig. ®g. or x ˆ x ˆ 3:9. S. (b) 1. (b) 3:4  10 10 m. (c) 85:08 Problem set 2 1.K. (c) 2:0  10 5 . 6. 3.588. (a) 8. (b) 10 cm (a) 0. (a) 9. 5. (b) 63:08.7 Problem set 6 1. y ˆ log z.

(b) 6x ‡ 4. ˆ 32 dx dx dy 2 ˆ . 3. (b) 18x. (c) ˆ . (f ) ae ax 1 x2 Problem set 10 1. (b) y ˆ 0:082x Problem set 9 1. c ˆ 2 1 x 3. (c) experimental data may contain erroneous points or points of low precision. gradient ˆ 8 dx x2 dy ˆ 2 sin x 3 cos x. 5.21 Answers to problem sets Problem set 8 1. (c) 2. 2 ˆ cos x. (c) turning points at x ˆ 0 (minimum) and 4 (maximum) xˆ 3 dy d2 y 4. when x ˆ 3. gradient is positive dx x dy 2 ˆ . the volume occupied by the gas is 0 m3 . (d) 4bebx . (e) aeax ‡ bebx . when x ˆ 2. physical signi®cance is that at 0 K. at x ˆ 2:5. 2002 . y ˆ 2 sin x ‡ 3 cos x 2. other turndx dx ing points are outside the limits of x ˆ 908 and x ˆ 2708 1. (a) 3. (b) 8x ‡ 8. (e) 2 cos 2x 2 sin 2x. dx dx dx x dx dx d2 y 1 ˆ dx2 x2 1 2. y ˆ 1:5 1 # Pearson Education Limited. dy dy ˆ 4x ‡ 4. (c) 2e2x . (a) 3x2 ‡ 4x. (b) ˆ sin x. 4. y ˆ 6:3x ‡ 2:1 2. (a) y ˆ 18x ‡ 11:9. and any calculation should not be biased towards these points 4. (b) c ˆ 0. (a) Problem set 12 1. (a) 9x2 3. this can be seen from equation. (b) 2 (a) dx Problem set 11 dy d2 y dy d2 y dy 1 ˆ cos x. 2. y ˆ 4:0x 7:12 3. (b) 3ex . (d) 12x 4 . (a) ex . turning point at 1808 (minimum). ˆ 16 dx dx dy dy ˆ 4x3 . 2 ˆ sin x. (c) turning points at x ˆ p (minimum) and 3 1 x ˆ p (maximum) 3 3. 2 ˆ cos x. (f ) 2. ˆ sin x.

694 square units 8 2.65 3 # Pearson Education Limited. (c) 0. (a) .22 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Problem set 13 1. (b) 349. 2002 .

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