Mathematics by Catherine E.

Tutor to accompany Chemistry

by Catherine E. Housecroft and Edwin C. Constable


The aim of the Mathematics Tutor is to summarize some essential mathematical skills needed for chemistry. Before beginning to work through the
Mathematics Tutor, study Appendix 1 in Chemistry; it contains common
mathematical symbols. Ensure that you know what the symbols mean:
these symbols are used in the textbook Chemistry without explanation.
Note also that:

sig. ®g. means signi®cant ®gures;
dec. pl. means decimal places.

Table 1 is a checklist of important formulae dealing with angles in triangles,
areas, surface area and volumes. Their applications are varied and you
should be familiar with how to use the formulae. Identify the keys on your
calculator for ®nding the sine, cosine and tangent of an angle; they are
probably marked
The Mathematics Tutor contains numerous problem sets, the answers to
which can be found at the end of the Mathematics Tutor.

The constant p
p is a mathematical constant, de®ned as the ratio of the circumference to
diameter of a circle. The value of p is 3.141 592 653 59 (no units). Find the
key on your calculator that enters p.
The SI derived unit of plane angle is the radian. It is related to p by the

1 radian ˆ 

180 8
ˆ 57:2968

Thus, 1808 ˆ p radians, and 3608 ˆ 2p radians.

If you need help with
rounding off numbers,
see Section 2

Problem set 1
1. Find the length of the hypotenuse in each of the following right-angled
triangles in which the other two sides are of length (a) 5.0 and 6.25 cm,
and (b) 6 and 8 cm.
2. Evaluate (a) sin 458, (b) cos 808, (c) sin 368 ‡ sin 908, (d) 2 sin 508 giving
each answer to 3 dec. pl.
3. Two angles in a triangle are 508 and 658. What is the third angle?
4. Consider a general triangle with sides a, b and c, and angles A, B and C.
(a) Find a if b ˆ 2 cm, c ˆ 4 cm and A ˆ 478. (b) Find c if a ˆ 6 cm,
b ˆ 4 cm and C ˆ 56:38.
# Pearson Education Limited, 2002


Table 1 Some useful formulae: trigonometry, areas and volumes
x2 ‡ y2 ˆ z2 (Pythagoras's
cos  ˆ
tan  ˆ
sin  ˆ

For a right-angled triangle:

Cosine rule:
a2 ˆ b2 ‡ c2
For any triangle:



2bc cos A


b ˆa ‡c

2ac cos B

c2 ˆ a2 ‡ b2

2ab cos C

Sum of angles:
A ‡ B ‡ C ˆ 1808
Area of a square of side a


Volume of a cube of side a


Area of a rectangle of length a and width b


Volume of a cuboid of length a, width b and height c


Diameter of a circle of radius r


Circumference of a circle of radius r


Area of a circle of radius r


Surface area of a sphere of radius r


Volume of a sphere of radius r

3 pr

5. The notation sin2  means `the square of sin '. Prove for the right-angled
triangle shown in Table 1 that: sin2  ‡ cos2  ˆ 1.
6. Calculate the radius of a circle of circumference 20.2 cm.
7. Calculate (a) the diameter and (b) the area of a circle of radius 8.2 cm,
giving your answer to 1 dec. pl.
8. What is the volume of a sphere of radius 2.25 mm?
9. Con®rm that (a) sin 458 ˆ cos 458 ˆ p; (b) tan 458 ˆ sin 908 ˆ cos 0 ˆ 1;
(c) sin 0 ˆ cos 908 ˆ 0; (d) sin 308 ˆ cos 608 ˆ 12; (e) tan 308 ˆ p
10. Find x if (a) sin x ˆ 0:906, (b) cos x ˆ 0:454 and (c) 2 sin x ˆ 1:9925.
[Hint: you must ®nd sin 1 or cos 1 of the number.]


Signi®cant ®gures
What are signi®cant ®gures?
Experimentally measured values are subject to some degree of uncertainty. If
you weigh a solid and record the mass as 5 g, it indicates that you are less
sure of the exact mass than if the mass is recorded as 5.0 g. Recording 5.00 g
indicates that the mass is known with even more certainty. The value of 5 g
has one signi®cant ®gure (1 sig. ®g.), 5.0 g has 2 sig. ®g., and 5.00 g has 3 sig. ®g.
# Pearson Education Limited, 2002

000555 is quoted to 3 sig. Rule 1: Integers without zeros An integer is a whole number. 0. . 2002 . .g. 0. pl. there are n digits (including zeros) after the decimal point.. 0. Ignore leading zeros when working out the number of signi®cant ®gures in a number: . Rule 2: Numbers less than 1 beginning with zeros Leading zeros come at the beginning of a number. For example: to ®nd Mr for HF. Rule 4: Adding and subtracting numbers " Mr and Ar : see Chapter 1 in Chemistry When adding or subtracting a series of numbers. ®g. ®g. ®g. e. . pl. Rule 3: Numbers less than 1 ending with zeros Trailing zeros come at the end of a number.334 is quoted to 3 dec.500 is quoted to 3 sig. 8. ®g.006 is quoted to 1 sig.g. . If a number is quoted to n dec.. 0. .g. The result of the calculation must be quoted according to several rules. and to 4 sig. 5 is quoted to 1 sig. e.g. ®g. pl. ®g. look up the relative atomic masses of H and F: Ar for H ˆ 1:008 Ar for F ˆ 19:00 Therefore: Mr for HF ˆ 1:008 ‡ 19:00 ˆ 20:008 but since Ar for F is quoted to only 2 dec. The number of signi®cant ®gures in an integer corresponds to the number of digits.. Answers to calculations: working with experimental data Many chemical calculations involve manipulating data quoted to di€erent numbers of signi®cant ®gures. 5:00  10 2 is quoted to 3 sig..002.Signi®cant ®gures 3 Some values are `exact' and in these cases it is not relevant to assign significant ®gures.040 is quoted to 2 sig. 0. Trailing zeros are signi®cant in a number that contains a decimal point: . 68 is quoted to 2 sig. ®g. 2000. e. Some results are quoted to a given number of decimal places. ®g. the scale of relative atomic masses is de®ned so as to give all atomic masses relative to 12 C ˆ 12 (exactly). the answer should be given as Mr ˆ 20:01 # Pearson Education Limited. the ®nal answer should be quoted to the same number of decimal places as in the least precise number in the series. e.

®g.6 cm2 because the least precise number in the data is given to 3 sig.55 cm.5 to 2 sig.g. (c) 9. pl. (f ) 0. round down.46 to 3 sig. e. Rounding off In the calculation above to ®nd the area of the rectangle. (b) 8.3 cm could be found by: Perimeter ˆ 2:3 …cm† ‡ 2:3 …cm† ‡ 2:3 …cm† ‡ 2:3 …cm† ˆ 9:2 cm or Perimeter ˆ 4  2:3 …cm† ˆ 9:2 cm The answer of 9. we rounded o€ the answer from 39. do not round o€ at each step.006 and (h) 33? # Pearson Education Limited. the perimeter of a square of side 2. or to 1. You must stop and think! Are the digits valid? If the calculation involves several steps. Only round o€ the ®nal answer.g.. If the digit to be removed is >5 (or the digits to be removed begin with a digit 5).505. (d) 0. (c) 2. It is not relevant to assign a number of signi®cant ®gures to an integral (whole number) multiplier. 1. ®gs.4 to 2 sig. 6. are the following numbers quoted: (a) 0.2 cm depends only on the number of sig. (d) 5. 2002 . or to 6. are the following numbers quoted: (a) 665.4 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Rule 5: Multiplying and dividing numbers When multiplying and dividing a series of numbers.4587 is rounded up to 6. round up.42 to 3 sig. If the digit to be removed is <5 (or the digits to be removed begin with a digit <5).) Problem set 2 1. it is often easy to forget about signi®cant ®gures.4243 is rounded down to 1.g. (b) 0. e.34.75. ®g. To how many dec.100. (g) 0. ®g. in the measured quantity (2. To how many sig.140. Follow these rules when rounding o€ numbers: .2. ®g. (In some worked examples in Chemistry.6 cm2 . . ®g.712 cm and 4. e.5050.. the ®nal answer should be quoted to the same number of signi®cant ®gures as in the least precise number in the series. we do not follow this rule because we want to show all the steps of the calculation.3 cm). When you use a calculator. (e) 0. (e) 0. and to simply write down the answer displayed on the calculator. Area ˆ 8:712 …cm†  4:55 …cm† ˆ 39:6396 cm2 but we are only justi®ed in quoting the answer as 39.1124? 2.99.6396 cm2 to 39. Worked example Find the area of a rectangle of sides 8. ®g.02.

(a) 0. Other uses of exponents 1 A number can be raised to any power.4 cm and 5. the key may be marked instead of .§ To enter the number 2  10 6 . exponential notation is used to express them. Note how the decimal point `moves along' the number. a number in the form n  10x .e. 3:21  108 9:8  10 3 (e) 4:5  10 5 2. When entering. Problem set 3 1. and give the answers in exponential notation: (a) 104 ‡ …2:0  105 †. Therefore. 106 into your calculator. and (b) 2 sig. e. To enter the number 2  106 .6 cm.3 in Chapter 1 of Chemistry to help you. (d) . i. consult your calculator manual. 5.Exponential notation 5 3. e. # Pearson Education Limited. Using Table 1.0 g and (d) 2. Use your calculator to carry out the following calculations. express each of the following distances in m: (a) 125 pm. 2002 . 1:52  102 (b) …5:60  105 †  …3:44  10 6 †. Do not forget the `1' part of the number. What are the dimensions of the container? 3 Exponential notation Expressing large and small numbers in exponential form Scienti®c numbers are often extremely large or extremely small. Some powers have speci®c meanings.1 cm. x4 . press the key sequence .67 cm and quote the answer to (a) 3 sig. for example: .2 g? 4.00 g. Important! 10x stands for 1  10x .02 g. (b) 5. . e. ®g. 6. (c) 5. x 3 .34 nm. (c) …4:5  10 3 †2 . Which of the following masses are given to 2 sig.g. 2:4  103 ˆ 2 400 5:6  106 ˆ 5 600 000 7:2  10 4 ˆ 0:000 72 Most scienti®c calculators have a key marked . you must enter 1  106 . 3. (c) 45 cm. § x2 means `the square of x' x3 means `the cube of x' If this method does not work. x6:7 . (b) 0. ®g. For example.g.9 m3 . e. enter the key sequence or . The volume of a cubic container is 6. Calculate the area of a square of side 4. multiplying the number by 102 makes the number one hundred times larger and multiplying by 10 2 makes it one hundred times smaller. x2 .g. ®g.g. Calculate the volume of a rectangular box of sides 4.

(d) 82:5  181. On your calculator.5. i. x3 ˆ 3 x 1 x 1 means `the reciprocal of x'. p y  x1=y ˆ x and means `taking the yth root of x'. x is the logarithm to the base a of the number N. 1 3.161 with 3 decimal places. xy means `raising x to the yth power'. log10 . lg). i. . They are probably marked and respectively. two logarithmic bases are commonly encountered: . # Pearson Education Limited. x n . . A natural logarithm is written as ln. where e ˆ 2:7183.5 should be quoted as 1. loge . and the equation can also be expressed in the form: x ˆ loga N In chemistry. Two results are of general importance: . . x 4 Logarithms If a number N is written in an exponential form: N ˆ ax then. Common logarithms are logarithms to the base 10. The value of log 14. Show that (a) 24 ˆ 16. . Con®rm the following: (a) 0:26 ˆ 6:4  10 5 . i. x2 ˆ x p  1 1 x3 means `the cube root of x'. 2. which has 3 signi®cant ®gures. it is always true that: log 10n ˆ n ln en ˆ n Table 2 lists some other important relationships involving logarithms. Natural logarithms are logarithms to the base e. By substituting in any value of x. x 1 n 1 xn 1 ˆp n  x ˆ Problem set 4 Use your calculator to do the following problems. For common logarithms. and .e. it is always true that: For natural logarithms. (c) 216 ˆ 6. (c) …2:40  104 †3 ˆ 1:38  1013 . The number of signi®cant ®gures quoted in the logarithm is determined as follows. . .6 MATHEMATICS TUTOR . p 3  1.e. i. (b) 0:53 ˆ 0:125. ®nd the keys assigned for taking common and natural logarithms.e.e. x 1 ˆ x On your calculator there should be two keys labelled .e. Consider the number 14. (b) 34 ˆ 81. show that (a) x 2 ˆ 2 and x 1 1 (b) x 2 ˆ p . p 1 1 x2 means `the square root of x'. i. and are usually written as log (sometimes. 2002 .

Logarithms 7 Table 2 Some important relationships involving logarithms. Worked example and . # Pearson Education Limited. (e) log …2  10 8 † ˆ 7:7. (c) log …1  106 †. Use your calculator to con®rm that (a) log 102 ˆ 2:009. consult the calculator manual. (b) ln 98. x can be found by entering 0. (d) log …10 4 †. (c) ln 0:56. (b) log …10 5 †. y and z are related by the equation: z ˆ 10 y . (c) 8. (e) log 107:7 . ®nding the number N from the equation: N ˆ ax For a common logarithm. (b) log 3:39 ˆ 0:530.45. This gives x ˆ 0:925.) So far we have been concerned with taking the logarithm of a number. N is found using the equation: N ˆ 10x For a natural logarithm. (c) ln 58:0 ˆ 4:060. However. N is found using the equation: N ˆ ex On your calculator. Evaluate the following: (a) log 106 . 3. Evaluate the following: (a) e2:29 . Find the value of y for each of the following values of z: (a) 0. (d) 105:67 . Without using a calculator. ®nd the keys marked obvious. (b) ln…1:2  108 †. 2. (You will see the importance of this exercise when you come to the pH calculations in Chapter 15 of Chemistry. the reverse process is equally important and involves an exponent.034 followed by the key sequence . (d) log 10 15 . (d) ln 0:622 ˆ 0:475.76. (c) log 22:3. 2. determine the following: (a) log 104 . If these keys are not Find x in the following equation: 0:034 ˆ log x First rewrite the equation in the exponent form: x ˆ 10 0:034 On your calculator. For common logarithms For natural logarithms log xa ˆ a log x ln xa ˆ a ln x log xy ˆ log x ‡ log y ln xy ˆ ln x ‡ ln y x log ˆ log x y ln x ˆ ln x y ln 1 ˆ x log 1 ˆ x log y log x ln y ln x Problem set 5 1.e.33. i. Problem set 6 1. (b) 0. 2002 .

…x ‡ 3†…2x 2† ˆ 0 contains two factors: …x ‡ 3† and …2x 2†. The values of x that satisfy a given quadratic equation may be found by one of two methods. the solutions are readily found. Worked example Find the roots of the equation: 2x2 ‡ 4x 6ˆ0 Rewrite the equation in the form: …x ‡ 3†…2x 2† ˆ 0 This process is called factorizing. in calculations dealing with equilibrium constants). for example.g.xˆ1 These values of x are the roots (or solutions) of the quadratic equation. Method 2 The general method for solving a quadratic equation is as follows. A quadratic equation in which the variable is x has the form: ax2 ‡ bx ‡ c ˆ 0 where a. If: ax2 ‡ bx ‡ c ˆ 0 p b  b2 4ac then: x ˆ 2a In most chemical applications (e. Method 1 If the equation factorizes. and sets the equation up in a form that is readily solved for x.8 MATHEMATICS TUTOR 5 Solving a quadratic equation Problems dealing with.xˆ 3 or 2x 2ˆ0 . A quadratic equation has two solutions (or roots). equilibria (Chapter 15 in Chemistry) may require you to solve a quadratic equation. You can therefore ®nd the two solutions of x as follows: x‡3ˆ0 . 2002 . Check the factorization is correct by expanding …x ‡ 3†…2x 2† ˆ 0 back to the original form of 2x2 ‡ 4x 6 ˆ 0. The product of the two factors is zero. The equation: Exercise. 2x ˆ 2 . b and c are constants. you should apply this equation rather than attempt to factorize the quadratic equation. so either one of the factors must equal zero. Worked example Find the values of x that satisfy the equation: 3x2 4x ‡ 0:5 ˆ 0 By comparing this equation with the general form: # Pearson Education Limited.

c ˆ 0:5 Solutions of x are given by: xˆ b p b2 4ac 2a Therefore: xˆ … 4†  q … 4†2 4…3†…0:5† p 4  10 xˆ 6 x ˆ 1:2 or 0:14 2…3† Problem set 7 1. Find solutions of x for the equations: (a) x2 ‡ x 2 ˆ 0 and (b) x2 ‡ 3:5x ˆ 0. y) Cartesian coordinate notation as (0. the origin can be written in the (x. it is still essential to understand the fundamentals of graph plotting. the line intercepts the y axis at a value of y ˆ 2. 2. y ˆ 0 is called the origin. By comparing the equations: y ˆ 5x ‡ 2 and y ˆ mx ‡ c # Pearson Education Limited. bˆ 4. and hence ®nd the roots of the equation. Figure 1 illustrates the graph corresponding to the equation: y ˆ 5x ‡ 2 When x ˆ 0. 3. Find the roots of the equation: 0:3x2 1:2x ‡ 0:1 ˆ 0. Although computer-aided graphing packages are readily available. The point x ˆ 0. Factorize the equation 3x2 4x ‡ 1 ˆ 0. The gradient (or slope) of the line is given by m. What values of x satisfy the equation: 2:2x2 ‡ 1:8x 0:5 ˆ 0? 6 Plotting and interpreting graphs Experimental data are often analysed by plotting a graph. and c is the intercept on the y axis when x ˆ 0. 4. Linear plots (straight lines) The equation: y ˆ mx ‡ c describes a straight line and shows the way in which the function y depends on x.Plotting and interpreting graphs 9 ax2 ‡ bx ‡ c ˆ 0 we can see that: a ˆ 3. 0). 2002 .

You can spot the sign of the gradient by inspection of the equation for the straight line. The gradient of the line is given by: Gradient (or slope) of the straight line ˆ y2 x2 y1 x1 Figure 2 shows two linear plots.e. # Pearson Education Limited. . It is usual to refer to these points as having the coordinates …x1 . y1 † and …x2 . and in rearranging equations. you may have to extrapolate the line. The sign of the gradient is determined by the sign of the coecient m.'. In order to ®nd the intercept. The following questions give practice in plotting graphs. let us choose two points x1 and x2 with corresponding values y1 and y2 (see Figure 1). we see that m ˆ 5 and c ˆ 2. the line has a negative gradient. The equation: yˆ 0:67x ‡ 15 has a negative coecient for x and so the gradient of the line is negative. y2 †. the equation: y ˆ 3x ‡ 6 has a positive coecient for x and so the gradient of the line is positive. From the graph. 2002 . 2 Examples of linear plots with (a) positive and (b) negative gradients. the gradient of the line can be measured by taking any two points on the straight line. The term `making y the subject of the equation' means putting the equation in the form of `y ˆ .10 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Fig. Fig. 1 Straight line graph for the equation y ˆ 5x ‡ 2. For example. extend it to reach the value corresponding to x ˆ 0. the line has a positive gradient and in Figure 2b. in Figure 2a. i. .

2 5. the volume V (in m3 ) of 1 mole of a gas varies with temperature T (in K) according to the equation: V ˆ …8:314  10 5 †T (a) Use the following data to con®rm the above relationship. Rearrange the following equations making y the subject. rather than a smaller data set.9 9.10 13.0266 0. mark the point on the curve where x ˆ 3. this is point A in Figure 3.20 27.50 7. and determine the equation of the line.0258 0. In Figure 3.0227 0. T/K V/m 3 273 298 310 320 330 0. At a constant pressure of 1:00  105 Pa.00 6. From Figure 3. The tangent is a straight line. The gradient at a given point on the curve is found by drawing a tangent to the curve at that point. the gradient is constant at all points on the line. For a linear plot.1 3. (a) Make y the subject of the following equation: x 0 2. Any plot that is not a straight line is non-linear. and calculating the gradient of this line. the gradient at point A is: Gradient ˆ y2 x2 y1 4:2 2:0 ˆ 0:04 ˆ 55 6 x1 # Pearson Education Limited. x 0 y 1. Now draw a tangent to the curve exactly at this point.00 43. the gradient has di€erent values at di€erent points on the graph. (You will apply this method in Chapter 14 of Chemistry when you study rates of reaction.00 8. show that the following data points are consistent with the rearranged equation: 1. measure the gradient of the curve at two more points and hence show that the gradient increases as x increases.9 52.5 2. (b) What is the intercept of the line and what is the physical meaning of the value? (c) Comment on the need to use all of the data given.00 y 2. …a† y ‡ 1:3 ˆ 3x ‡ 2:2. and numerous examples are given in the accompanying textbook Chemistry. Plot a graph of x against y using the following data. to ®nd the gradient of the curve at the point where x ˆ 3. 2002 . and show that each corresponds to a linear relationship between y and x.7 27.11 Plotting and interpreting graphs Problem set 8 y 1 ˆ 3x.0248 0. 2:1 (b) By plotting a graph. 6 …b† …1:2  10 4 †x ˆ …5:4  10 3 †2 y : 0:02 Non-linear plots Exercise.0274 4. The equations of non-linear plots take many di€erent forms.) In Figure 3. and its gradient can be found as in Figure 1.00 4. For a non-linear plot.1 14.1 3. Figure 3 shows an example of a non-linear plot.3 39.50 21.

To ®nd the gradient of the curve at point A. the rate of change of y with respect to x Fig. 2002 . here. Mathematical functions have many di€erent forms and. the shapes of graphs of these functions are di€erent. Three examples are shown in Figure 4. correspondingly. 3 A graph of the function: y ˆ x3 ‡ 5. of the line and is a constant value at every point on the line. In this case. the variables are x and y. a tangent is drawn to the curve at the point. 4 The shape of a graph depends on the relationship between the variables. and shows the way in which the function y depends on x. m. and its gradient is determined. In each graph. the rate of change of y with respect to x is equal to the gradient. 7 Differentiation: an introduction First order derivatives: The equation: dy dx y ˆ mx ‡ c describes a straight line. # Pearson Education Limited.12 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Fig.

dx 1 …n ‡ 1† ˆ n xn ‡ 1 ex ax ae ax dy dx ln x 1 x sin x cos x cos x sin x sin ax a cos ax cos ax a sin ax varies for di€erent values of x. dx Derivatives have particular forms and some important ones are listed in Table 3. Worked example 1 Di€erentiate the function y ˆ 2x3 ‡ 5x ‡ 7 with respect to x. From Table 1: y ˆ ln 2 ‡ ln x ln 2 is a constant. (a) y ˆ 3x ‡ 6 (b) y ˆ 4x2 ‡ 8x 9 (c) y ˆ 2x 1 3 (e) y ˆ sin 2x ‡ cos 2x (f) y ˆ (d) y ˆ 4x x # Pearson Education Limited. Moreover. and is denoted by . and therefore: dy 1 ˆ dx x Problem set 9 1. dx x yˆ Worked example 3 Find dy ˆ 6x2 ‡ 5 dx 4 x2   dy 2 ˆ ˆ4 dx x3 8 x3 dy if y ˆ ln 2x. y ˆ 2x3 ‡ 5x ‡ 7 Worked example 2 Find dy 4 if y ˆ 2 .13 Differentiation: an introduction Table 3 Selected standard derivatives y dy dx constant. e. for a given value of x. 2002 7 . dx y ˆ ln 2x . we di€erentiate the function y with respect to x in dy order to obtain . The rate of change of y with respect to x is given by the di€erential dy coecient of y with respect to x. c 0 xn nxn 1 ˆx xn ex e y nx n dy . Di€erentiate the following functions with respect to x. consider the point at x ˆ 10 in each graph in Figure 4. Their applications are illustrated in the following examples. This is commonly dx known as a derivative.g. the rate of change of y with respect to x depends on the relationship between x and y.

(a) Find the general form of dx (b) Evaluate this di€erential for x ˆ 908. For the graph of y ˆ . First. What is the slope of the curve y ˆ x4 at the point x ˆ 2? 3. and ®nd the value of dx x ˆ 3. # Pearson Education Limited. Does the graph of y ˆ 2 ln x have a positive or negative gradient at the point x ˆ 2:5? 2 4. substitution of a given value of x dx allows you to ®nd the gradient of the line or curve at this particular point. 5. Find the derivatives with respect to x of the following functions where a and b are constants.14 MATHEMATICS TUTOR 2. Turning points: d2 y dx 2 Graphs such as that in Figure 5 possess turning points. 2002 . 5 A plot of y ˆ sin x is called a `sine wave'. the Fig. Having found the general form of Worked example Find the gradient of the curve: y ˆ 2 ln x at the point x ˆ 20. find dy : dx y ˆ 2 ln x At the point where x ˆ 20: dy 2 ˆ dx x Gradient ˆ dy 2 ˆ ˆ 0:1 dx 20 Problem set 10 dy when 1. At a minimum. (a) y ˆ ex (b) y ˆ 3ex (c) y ˆ e2x bx ax bx (d) y ˆ 4e (e) y ˆ e ‡ e (f ) y ˆ e ax Using dy to ®nd a gradient dx dy . Di€erentiate the function y ˆ 2x2 ‡ 4x. At a maximum. the gradient changes from a positive to negative value. 2. ®nd the gradient at the point x ˆ 0:5. x dy for the function y ˆ 2 cos x 3 sin x. it is an example of a graph that possesses turning points.

Check these de®nitions by looking at Figure 5 which shows two maxima and one minimum. ˆ 12x ‡ 2 ˆ 2 dx2 d2 y and this corresponds to a minimum because 2 > 0. of the function. 2002 . dx dx For a turning point at a maximum: d2 y <0 dx2 For a turning point at a minimum: d2 y >0 dx2 Exactly at the maximum or minimum point (look at Figure 5). Information about turning points for a function that varies with x can be obtained d2 y by taking the second derivative. ˆ 12x ‡ 2 ˆ 2 When x ˆ 3 dx2 d2 y and this corresponds to a maximum because 2 < 0. i.e.Differentiation: an introduction 15 gradient changes from a negative to positive value. dx Worked example Find the values of x that correspond to turning points in the graph of equation: y ˆ 2x3 ‡ x2 ‡ 2 and identify each turning point as a maximum or minimum. the gradient dy ˆ 0.e. di€erentiate again to ®nd 2 . dx 1 d2 y . Once you have found dx dy d2 y . ®nd the general forms of dy d2 y and 2 : dx dx y ˆ 2x3 ‡ x2 ‡ 2 dy ˆ 6x2 ‡ 2x dx d2 y ˆ 12x ‡ 2 dx2 The turning points occur when dy ˆ0 dx i. 2 . dx # Pearson Education Limited. when: 6x2 ‡ 2x ˆ 0 The solutions of this quadratic equation are found by factorization: 6x2 ‡ 2x ˆ 0 2x…3x ‡ 1† ˆ 0 x…3x ‡ 1† ˆ 0 . xˆ0 or 3x ‡ 1 ˆ 0 xˆ 1 3 Now substitute these values for x into the equations for the turning points: d2 y When x ˆ 0. of the graph is zero. First.

1. Find 3. then dx dx as f 00 …x†. Is this a maximum or a minimum? 8 Integration: an introduction A de®nite integral as an area under a curve Consider a curve with the general equation y ˆ f …x†. between the limits of x ˆ 908 and x ˆ 2708. the area of the shaded section between the limits of x ˆ a and x ˆ b could be calculated by: . and 2 is written tion of x denoted by f …x†. .e. Another type of notation is sometimes used for y. For the function: y ˆ 3x3 3x dy d2 y ®nd (a) . 6 The area under a curve for y ˆ f …x† between speci®ed limits x ˆ a and x ˆ b (the shaded area) is given by the de®nite …b integral f …x† dx. ®nding the area of each strip. For the function: y ˆ x3 ‡ 2x2 ‡ 5 dy d2 y .16 MATHEMATICS TUTOR dy d2 y and 2 . A plot of a representative function is shown in Figure 6. Show that. Fig. and summing the areas together. (b) 2 and (c) information about the turning points of the dx dx graph of this function. between speci®ed limits. 2002 . i. Suppose you need to determine the area under the curve bounded by (i. enclosed by) the x axis (i. a plot of y ˆ cos x has one turning point.e. a # Pearson Education Limited. If y is a funcdx dx 2 dy d y can be written as f 0 …x†. . Problem set 11 dy d2 y and 2 for the functions (a) y ˆ sin x. (b) ®nd (a) ®nd and (c) determine the turning points of this dx dx2 function. The notation f …x† simply stands for y is a function of x. dividing the shaded region into an in®nite number of vertical strips drawn parallel to the y axis. dx dx 2.e. In Figure 6. when y ˆ 0) and between certain values of x. 4. (b) y ˆ cos x and (c) ln x.

17 Integration: an introduction These three steps can be achieved mathematically in one step by ®nding the de®nite integral of f …x† with respect to…x between the integration limits x ˆ a and x ˆ b. and integrating. so there are standard integrals. rearranging the equation as we did earlier in the Mathematics Tutor). f 0 …x† a (a constant) … 1 ˆx 1 x 1 ˆx n xn ax ‡ c 2 x x ‡c 2 xn xn ‡ 1 ‡c n‡1 (except for n ˆ ex ex ‡ c eax eax ‡c a f 0 …x† dx. must be introduced. in each case is f 0 …x† f 0 …x† dx cos x sin x cos ax sin ax # Pearson Education Limited. then an integration constant. by separating the x and y terms (i. the integration constant. evaluate an inde®nite integral.e. c. If: dy ˆ f 0 …x† dx then. The reason for this is clear if we consider the following three functions: y ˆ 4x ‡ 3 y ˆ 4x ‡ 10 y ˆ 4x ‡ 22 Di€erentiating each of these equations gives the same answer: … Table 4 Selected standard inde®nite integrals. Inde®nite integrals A second use of integration is to answer the question: `if we have an dy expression for . The notation for this is b a f …x† dx. i. Those listed in Table 4 are inde®nite integrals because there are no limits speci®ed for the integration. Examples of ®nding areas under curves are given in the discussion of entropy in Chapter 16 of Chemistry. c.e. what is the relationship between x and y?' Just as there dx are standard derivatives (see Table 3). we have: … … dy ˆ … yˆ f 0 …x† dx f 0 …x† dx If we integrate without limits. 2002 … f 0 …x† dx …ln x† ‡ c …n x n ˆ 1) dy ˆ 4. The constant. dx 1† 1 …n ‡c 1 1†xn …sin x† ‡ c …cos x† ‡ c sin ax ‡c a cos ax ‡c a 1 ‡c .

given that y ˆ 0:5 when x ˆ 1. we can write: … y ˆ 4 dx ˆ 4x ‡ c With the information we have. what is c? … 1 2. The integrated form of an equation is: y ˆ 3x2 ‡ 6x ‡ c. then we can write: y ˆ 4x ‡ c 7ˆ4‡c . Problem set 12 1. That is. the complete function is: y ˆ 4x ‡ 3 In Chapter 14 of Chemistry. If the curve for this equation passes through the point x ˆ 0. Evaluate the integral y ˆ dx. y ˆ 2. 2 x … 3. Evaluate the integral y ˆ …2 cos x x ˆ 0.cˆ3 Therefore. given that y ˆ 2 when Integrating between limits: de®nite integrals Now let us look again at the question of integrating between limits.18 MATHEMATICS TUTOR … Suppose now that you are evaluating the integral 4 dx. and is best illustrated with an example. … y dy ˆ …4 1 …4 1 1 speci®es that the upper limit is x ˆ 4 and the lower limit is 3x2 dx  4 ˆ x3 ‡ c 1 # Pearson Education Limited. 2002 . The area under the curve is found by integrating the equation y ˆ 3x2 between the limits of x ˆ 4 and x ˆ 1: … …4 Area ˆ y dy ˆ 3x2 dx The notation x ˆ 1. Worked example Find the area under the curve y ˆ 3x2 between the limits of x ˆ 4 and x ˆ 1. c could be any value and we cannot unambiguously ®nd the function. However. For example. 3 sin x† dx. given values of x and y at a particular point. Notation is important. c can be evaluated. you know the derivative of a function is 4 and you want to ®nd the function. and the application of integration to ®nding the area under a curve. if we know that y ˆ 7 when x ˆ 1. From Table 4. integration constants come into calculations involving rate equations.

and so the curve has a ®nite starting point. It is usual only to show that the curve tends towards a value of x ˆ 1. Evaluate the de®nite integrals (a) …x ‡ 1† dx. Exponential decay follows the dependence: yˆe x and is an example of a function that tends to in®nity. Find the area bounded by the x axis and the part of the curve y ˆ 3x3 ‡ 6x2 5 that lies between … 1the limits x ˆ 5 and … 6 x ˆ 0.  4 Area ˆ x3 ‡ c 1 ˆ ‰43 ‡ cŠ ‰13 ‡ cŠ ˆ 63 square units Notice that the integration constants. 7 A graph of the function y ˆ e x. This notation stands for the di€erence between the integrals when x ˆ 4 and x ˆ 1. Fig. 1:2 9 Functions that tend to in®nity Exponential decay is an important concept for reaction kinetics and this is discussed in Chapter 14 of Chemistry. … 2:3 1 4 (c) x 1 dx. 2002 . cancel and so there is no need to evaluate c. The general integral is written within square brackets. Problem set 13 1. Further practice is provided in the following books: # Pearson Education Limited. The concepts of vectors and partial di€erentials are introduced as required in the main textbook Chemistry. Figure 7 shows a plot of e x against x. but it only reaches zero when x is in®nity (x ˆ 1). For x ˆ 0.Summary and further reading 19 Again. 2 2. e0 ˆ 1. notation is important. and the upper and lower limits must be shown. the function e x decreases. c. (b) ex dx. we have summarized some important mathematical skills required for ®rst year university chemistry. 10 Summary and further reading In the Mathematics Tutor. As x increases.

T. (d) 15. (d) 4 2. (c) 3.174. (c) 3. (b) 0. (e) 3. Answers to problem sets Problem set 1 1. (g) 1. (b) 63:08. 10. (e) 7. (c) 0. (d) 2. (c) 0. (a) 4.45 m Problem set 5 2.58. (e) 4 (a) 3. (a) 1:25  10 10 m. 5. (a) 6.58. Sutcli€e (1995) Mathematics for Chemistry. 5. (b) 211. (c) 6.9 m Problem set 3 1. Doggett and B. 4. Oxford. ®g. 6. (b) 5 cm y2 x 2 z 2 sin2  ‡ cos2  ˆ 2 ‡ 2 ˆ 2 ˆ 1 z z z 3. (d) 4:68  105 Problem set 7 1. 4.707. (b) 10 cm (a) 0. (a) 8. 2002 3:5 .2 cm 47.35. 8. ®g. 7. (c) 0. (h) 2 (c). 3. (c) 1. or x ˆ 13 (a) x ˆ 1. (b) 2. 3. (b) 3. or x ˆ 2. x ˆ 1. or x ˆ 1:0 # Pearson Education Limited.943 3.4 cm.48.7 Problem set 6 1.588. Harlow. (c) 1. 2. 2.K. (b) 5. 3. (c) 2:0  10 5 . (b) 0.60. S. (d) (a) 21. (b) 3:4  10 10 m. (d) 1. or x ˆ 0:085 x ˆ 0:22. 6.0 cm. (a) 0. Longman.8 cm2 . (b) x ˆ 0. 4. (f) 4. (e) 2:2  102 2. or x ˆ x ˆ 3:9. (b) 22 cm2 78 cm3 (to 2 sig. Oxford University Press. (a) 9.93. (a) 2:1  105 . Scott (1995) Beginning Mathematics in Chemistry. (b) 18.35.) 1. y ˆ log z.87. (d) 4:74  10 7 . (d) 1.7 mm3 (a) 65:08.20 MATHEMATICS TUTOR G. because each length is given to 2 sig. (b) 1.532 658 (a) 3 cm.2 cm 2 (a) 16. (c) 85:08 Problem set 2 1. (b) 4. 2. (a) 2.

physical signi®cance is that at 0 K. gradient ˆ 8 dx x2 dy ˆ 2 sin x 3 cos x. 2. dy dy ˆ 4x ‡ 4.21 Answers to problem sets Problem set 8 1. (f ) ae ax 1 x2 Problem set 10 1. turning point at 1808 (minimum). when x ˆ 2. dx dx dx x dx dx d2 y 1 ˆ dx2 x2 1 2. (b) 18x. (c) 2. ˆ 32 dx dx dy 2 ˆ . this can be seen from equation. (c) turning points at x ˆ 0 (minimum) and 4 (maximum) xˆ 3 dy d2 y 4. and any calculation should not be biased towards these points 4. (b) 6x ‡ 4. (b) c ˆ 0. (b) y ˆ 0:082x Problem set 9 1. (a) 9x2 3. y ˆ 6:3x ‡ 2:1 2. (a) y ˆ 18x ‡ 11:9. y ˆ 1:5 1 # Pearson Education Limited. (e) 2 cos 2x 2 sin 2x. (e) aeax ‡ bebx . 2002 . (c) experimental data may contain erroneous points or points of low precision. at x ˆ 2:5. (a) 3. y ˆ 4:0x 7:12 3. other turndx dx ing points are outside the limits of x ˆ 908 and x ˆ 2708 1. c ˆ 2 1 x 3. (b) 2 (a) dx Problem set 11 dy d2 y dy d2 y dy 1 ˆ cos x. (d) 4bebx . when x ˆ 3. (a) 3x2 ‡ 4x. (c) 2e2x . 2 ˆ cos x. (a) ex . ˆ sin x. y ˆ 2 sin x ‡ 3 cos x 2. the volume occupied by the gas is 0 m3 . (c) turning points at x ˆ p (minimum) and 3 1 x ˆ p (maximum) 3 3. (f ) 2. 4. 5. (d) 12x 4 . (a) Problem set 12 1. (b) 8x ‡ 8. (c) ˆ . 3. gradient is positive dx x dy 2 ˆ . ˆ 16 dx dx dy dy ˆ 4x3 . 2 ˆ sin x. (b) ˆ sin x. 2 ˆ cos x. (b) 3ex .

2002 .65 3 # Pearson Education Limited. (a) . (c) 0.22 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Problem set 13 1. 694 square units 8 2. (b) 349.

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