Mathematics by Catherine E.

Tutor to accompany Chemistry

by Catherine E. Housecroft and Edwin C. Constable


The aim of the Mathematics Tutor is to summarize some essential mathematical skills needed for chemistry. Before beginning to work through the
Mathematics Tutor, study Appendix 1 in Chemistry; it contains common
mathematical symbols. Ensure that you know what the symbols mean:
these symbols are used in the textbook Chemistry without explanation.
Note also that:

sig. ®g. means signi®cant ®gures;
dec. pl. means decimal places.

Table 1 is a checklist of important formulae dealing with angles in triangles,
areas, surface area and volumes. Their applications are varied and you
should be familiar with how to use the formulae. Identify the keys on your
calculator for ®nding the sine, cosine and tangent of an angle; they are
probably marked
The Mathematics Tutor contains numerous problem sets, the answers to
which can be found at the end of the Mathematics Tutor.

The constant p
p is a mathematical constant, de®ned as the ratio of the circumference to
diameter of a circle. The value of p is 3.141 592 653 59 (no units). Find the
key on your calculator that enters p.
The SI derived unit of plane angle is the radian. It is related to p by the

1 radian ˆ 

180 8
ˆ 57:2968

Thus, 1808 ˆ p radians, and 3608 ˆ 2p radians.

If you need help with
rounding off numbers,
see Section 2

Problem set 1
1. Find the length of the hypotenuse in each of the following right-angled
triangles in which the other two sides are of length (a) 5.0 and 6.25 cm,
and (b) 6 and 8 cm.
2. Evaluate (a) sin 458, (b) cos 808, (c) sin 368 ‡ sin 908, (d) 2 sin 508 giving
each answer to 3 dec. pl.
3. Two angles in a triangle are 508 and 658. What is the third angle?
4. Consider a general triangle with sides a, b and c, and angles A, B and C.
(a) Find a if b ˆ 2 cm, c ˆ 4 cm and A ˆ 478. (b) Find c if a ˆ 6 cm,
b ˆ 4 cm and C ˆ 56:38.
# Pearson Education Limited, 2002


Table 1 Some useful formulae: trigonometry, areas and volumes
x2 ‡ y2 ˆ z2 (Pythagoras's
cos  ˆ
tan  ˆ
sin  ˆ

For a right-angled triangle:

Cosine rule:
a2 ˆ b2 ‡ c2
For any triangle:



2bc cos A


b ˆa ‡c

2ac cos B

c2 ˆ a2 ‡ b2

2ab cos C

Sum of angles:
A ‡ B ‡ C ˆ 1808
Area of a square of side a


Volume of a cube of side a


Area of a rectangle of length a and width b


Volume of a cuboid of length a, width b and height c


Diameter of a circle of radius r


Circumference of a circle of radius r


Area of a circle of radius r


Surface area of a sphere of radius r


Volume of a sphere of radius r

3 pr

5. The notation sin2  means `the square of sin '. Prove for the right-angled
triangle shown in Table 1 that: sin2  ‡ cos2  ˆ 1.
6. Calculate the radius of a circle of circumference 20.2 cm.
7. Calculate (a) the diameter and (b) the area of a circle of radius 8.2 cm,
giving your answer to 1 dec. pl.
8. What is the volume of a sphere of radius 2.25 mm?
9. Con®rm that (a) sin 458 ˆ cos 458 ˆ p; (b) tan 458 ˆ sin 908 ˆ cos 0 ˆ 1;
(c) sin 0 ˆ cos 908 ˆ 0; (d) sin 308 ˆ cos 608 ˆ 12; (e) tan 308 ˆ p
10. Find x if (a) sin x ˆ 0:906, (b) cos x ˆ 0:454 and (c) 2 sin x ˆ 1:9925.
[Hint: you must ®nd sin 1 or cos 1 of the number.]


Signi®cant ®gures
What are signi®cant ®gures?
Experimentally measured values are subject to some degree of uncertainty. If
you weigh a solid and record the mass as 5 g, it indicates that you are less
sure of the exact mass than if the mass is recorded as 5.0 g. Recording 5.00 g
indicates that the mass is known with even more certainty. The value of 5 g
has one signi®cant ®gure (1 sig. ®g.), 5.0 g has 2 sig. ®g., and 5.00 g has 3 sig. ®g.
# Pearson Education Limited, 2002

®g. ®g. If a number is quoted to n dec. ®g. ®g. 0. the scale of relative atomic masses is de®ned so as to give all atomic masses relative to 12 C ˆ 12 (exactly). 5:00  10 2 is quoted to 3 sig. 0. 5 is quoted to 1 sig. .006 is quoted to 1 sig.. e. pl. Trailing zeros are signi®cant in a number that contains a decimal point: . Answers to calculations: working with experimental data Many chemical calculations involve manipulating data quoted to di€erent numbers of signi®cant ®gures.. .g.Signi®cant ®gures 3 Some values are `exact' and in these cases it is not relevant to assign significant ®gures. pl. e. 0.002. there are n digits (including zeros) after the decimal point.g.040 is quoted to 2 sig. ®g.334 is quoted to 3 dec. 2000. Some results are quoted to a given number of decimal places.g.. ®g. The result of the calculation must be quoted according to several rules. 0. 8. 0. Ignore leading zeros when working out the number of signi®cant ®gures in a number: .g. . . The number of signi®cant ®gures in an integer corresponds to the number of digits. and to 4 sig.. the ®nal answer should be quoted to the same number of decimal places as in the least precise number in the series. Rule 2: Numbers less than 1 beginning with zeros Leading zeros come at the beginning of a number. pl. e. look up the relative atomic masses of H and F: Ar for H ˆ 1:008 Ar for F ˆ 19:00 Therefore: Mr for HF ˆ 1:008 ‡ 19:00 ˆ 20:008 but since Ar for F is quoted to only 2 dec.000555 is quoted to 3 sig. 2002 . e. ®g. 68 is quoted to 2 sig. ®g. Rule 4: Adding and subtracting numbers " Mr and Ar : see Chapter 1 in Chemistry When adding or subtracting a series of numbers. the answer should be given as Mr ˆ 20:01 # Pearson Education Limited. . Rule 3: Numbers less than 1 ending with zeros Trailing zeros come at the end of a number.500 is quoted to 3 sig. Rule 1: Integers without zeros An integer is a whole number. For example: to ®nd Mr for HF.

6.g.4587 is rounded up to 6.4243 is rounded down to 1. do not round o€ at each step.46 to 3 sig. You must stop and think! Are the digits valid? If the calculation involves several steps.140.55 cm. or to 6. (c) 2..g.5050. are the following numbers quoted: (a) 665. ®g. and to simply write down the answer displayed on the calculator. round up.g. ®g. . it is often easy to forget about signi®cant ®gures. (f ) 0. To how many sig. To how many dec. in the measured quantity (2.712 cm and 4.006 and (h) 33? # Pearson Education Limited. round down. (c) 9.3 cm). (d) 5. Only round o€ the ®nal answer. the perimeter of a square of side 2. 1. If the digit to be removed is <5 (or the digits to be removed begin with a digit <5). ®g. (b) 8.3 cm could be found by: Perimeter ˆ 2:3 …cm† ‡ 2:3 …cm† ‡ 2:3 …cm† ‡ 2:3 …cm† ˆ 9:2 cm or Perimeter ˆ 4  2:3 …cm† ˆ 9:2 cm The answer of 9.2 cm depends only on the number of sig.1124? 2. ®g. ®g. Follow these rules when rounding o€ numbers: .2.4 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Rule 5: Multiplying and dividing numbers When multiplying and dividing a series of numbers.6 cm2 . are the following numbers quoted: (a) 0. (e) 0. we do not follow this rule because we want to show all the steps of the calculation.02. the ®nal answer should be quoted to the same number of signi®cant ®gures as in the least precise number in the series.) Problem set 2 1.5 to 2 sig. Area ˆ 8:712 …cm†  4:55 …cm† ˆ 39:6396 cm2 but we are only justi®ed in quoting the answer as 39. 2002 . e. pl. It is not relevant to assign a number of signi®cant ®gures to an integral (whole number) multiplier. e. When you use a calculator. ®g.4 to 2 sig.100. (b) 0. (g) 0. we rounded o€ the answer from 39.34. Rounding off In the calculation above to ®nd the area of the rectangle.505.6 cm2 because the least precise number in the data is given to 3 sig.42 to 3 sig. (In some worked examples in Chemistry. (e) 0.75. e. or to 1.6396 cm2 to 39.. If the digit to be removed is >5 (or the digits to be removed begin with a digit 5). ®gs.99. (d) 0. Worked example Find the area of a rectangle of sides 8.

g. . (c) …4:5  10 3 †2 . exponential notation is used to express them. (b) 0. e. consult your calculator manual.34 nm. you must enter 1  106 .g. and give the answers in exponential notation: (a) 104 ‡ …2:0  105 †. The volume of a cubic container is 6. (c) 45 cm.Exponential notation 5 3. § x2 means `the square of x' x3 means `the cube of x' If this method does not work. For example.00 g. x 3 . 3. multiplying the number by 102 makes the number one hundred times larger and multiplying by 10 2 makes it one hundred times smaller. (b) 5. x2 . press the key sequence . Some powers have speci®c meanings. Important! 10x stands for 1  10x . When entering. (d) .e. (a) 0. ®g. 2002 . To enter the number 2  106 . express each of the following distances in m: (a) 125 pm. x4 . i.0 g and (d) 2.9 m3 .§ To enter the number 2  10 6 . e. # Pearson Education Limited. ®g. enter the key sequence or .g. Use your calculator to carry out the following calculations. Calculate the area of a square of side 4. 6.6 cm. for example: . e. Which of the following masses are given to 2 sig. Other uses of exponents 1 A number can be raised to any power. x6:7 .g.1 cm. 5.3 in Chapter 1 of Chemistry to help you. Note how the decimal point `moves along' the number. Problem set 3 1. Do not forget the `1' part of the number.2 g? 4. 2:4  103 ˆ 2 400 5:6  106 ˆ 5 600 000 7:2  10 4 ˆ 0:000 72 Most scienti®c calculators have a key marked . and (b) 2 sig.02 g. Therefore. (c) 5. Calculate the volume of a rectangular box of sides 4. the key may be marked instead of . 1:52  102 (b) …5:60  105 †  …3:44  10 6 †.67 cm and quote the answer to (a) 3 sig.4 cm and 5. 3:21  108 9:8  10 3 (e) 4:5  10 5 2. What are the dimensions of the container? 3 Exponential notation Expressing large and small numbers in exponential form Scienti®c numbers are often extremely large or extremely small. Using Table 1. a number in the form n  10x . 106 into your calculator. ®g. e.

1 3. . two logarithmic bases are commonly encountered: . show that (a) x 2 ˆ 2 and x 1 1 (b) x 2 ˆ p .5. x 1 ˆ x On your calculator there should be two keys labelled . p 3  1. # Pearson Education Limited. p y  x1=y ˆ x and means `taking the yth root of x'. . i. 2. log10 . (c) 216 ˆ 6. (c) …2:40  104 †3 ˆ 1:38  1013 . where e ˆ 2:7183. i. . lg). They are probably marked and respectively. i. Two results are of general importance: .e.e. By substituting in any value of x. xy means `raising x to the yth power'. x 4 Logarithms If a number N is written in an exponential form: N ˆ ax then. i. A natural logarithm is written as ln. On your calculator. Common logarithms are logarithms to the base 10. x is the logarithm to the base a of the number N. The number of signi®cant ®gures quoted in the logarithm is determined as follows. . it is always true that: For natural logarithms.161 with 3 decimal places. x n . Con®rm the following: (a) 0:26 ˆ 6:4  10 5 . p 1 1 x2 means `the square root of x'. (b) 0:53 ˆ 0:125.e.6 MATHEMATICS TUTOR . x3 ˆ 3 x 1 x 1 means `the reciprocal of x'. For common logarithms. i.e.e. it is always true that: log 10n ˆ n ln en ˆ n Table 2 lists some other important relationships involving logarithms. Consider the number 14. x 1 n 1 xn 1 ˆp n  x ˆ Problem set 4 Use your calculator to do the following problems. loge . Natural logarithms are logarithms to the base e. and . (d) 82:5  181. (b) 34 ˆ 81. x2 ˆ x p  1 1 x3 means `the cube root of x'.5 should be quoted as 1. . which has 3 signi®cant ®gures. The value of log 14. 2002 . and are usually written as log (sometimes. and the equation can also be expressed in the form: x ˆ loga N In chemistry. Show that (a) 24 ˆ 16. ®nd the keys assigned for taking common and natural logarithms. .

(You will see the importance of this exercise when you come to the pH calculations in Chapter 15 of Chemistry. (c) 8. (c) log 22:3. y and z are related by the equation: z ˆ 10 y . (b) ln 98. Problem set 6 1. Worked example and . the reverse process is equally important and involves an exponent. # Pearson Education Limited. 2002 . Evaluate the following: (a) log 106 . 3. consult the calculator manual. x can be found by entering 0. (b) log …10 5 †.034 followed by the key sequence . (d) ln 0:622 ˆ 0:475. (d) log …10 4 †. N is found using the equation: N ˆ ex On your calculator. (c) ln 0:56. Use your calculator to con®rm that (a) log 102 ˆ 2:009. Without using a calculator. (e) log 107:7 . N is found using the equation: N ˆ 10x For a natural logarithm. (b) log 3:39 ˆ 0:530. (b) 0. This gives x ˆ 0:925. (c) ln 58:0 ˆ 4:060. (b) ln…1:2  108 †. 2. 2.) So far we have been concerned with taking the logarithm of a number. (e) log …2  10 8 † ˆ 7:7. ®nding the number N from the equation: N ˆ ax For a common logarithm. (d) 105:67 . determine the following: (a) log 104 . However. i. Evaluate the following: (a) e2:29 . For common logarithms For natural logarithms log xa ˆ a log x ln xa ˆ a ln x log xy ˆ log x ‡ log y ln xy ˆ ln x ‡ ln y x log ˆ log x y ln x ˆ ln x y ln 1 ˆ x log 1 ˆ x log y log x ln y ln x Problem set 5 1. Find the value of y for each of the following values of z: (a) 0.45.e. If these keys are not Find x in the following equation: 0:034 ˆ log x First rewrite the equation in the exponent form: x ˆ 10 0:034 On your calculator.76. (d) log 10 15 . (c) log …1  106 †.Logarithms 7 Table 2 Some important relationships involving logarithms. ®nd the keys marked obvious.33.

xˆ 3 or 2x 2ˆ0 .8 MATHEMATICS TUTOR 5 Solving a quadratic equation Problems dealing with. Method 2 The general method for solving a quadratic equation is as follows. A quadratic equation has two solutions (or roots). Method 1 If the equation factorizes. you should apply this equation rather than attempt to factorize the quadratic equation. The values of x that satisfy a given quadratic equation may be found by one of two methods. and sets the equation up in a form that is readily solved for x. 2002 . …x ‡ 3†…2x 2† ˆ 0 contains two factors: …x ‡ 3† and …2x 2†. If: ax2 ‡ bx ‡ c ˆ 0 p b  b2 4ac then: x ˆ 2a In most chemical applications (e. Worked example Find the roots of the equation: 2x2 ‡ 4x 6ˆ0 Rewrite the equation in the form: …x ‡ 3†…2x 2† ˆ 0 This process is called factorizing. The equation: Exercise. the solutions are readily found. so either one of the factors must equal zero. You can therefore ®nd the two solutions of x as follows: x‡3ˆ0 . equilibria (Chapter 15 in Chemistry) may require you to solve a quadratic equation. in calculations dealing with equilibrium constants). b and c are constants. for example. Check the factorization is correct by expanding …x ‡ 3†…2x 2† ˆ 0 back to the original form of 2x2 ‡ 4x 6 ˆ 0.g. The product of the two factors is zero. Worked example Find the values of x that satisfy the equation: 3x2 4x ‡ 0:5 ˆ 0 By comparing this equation with the general form: # Pearson Education Limited. A quadratic equation in which the variable is x has the form: ax2 ‡ bx ‡ c ˆ 0 where a.xˆ1 These values of x are the roots (or solutions) of the quadratic equation. 2x ˆ 2 .

4. The point x ˆ 0. bˆ 4. Factorize the equation 3x2 4x ‡ 1 ˆ 0. What values of x satisfy the equation: 2:2x2 ‡ 1:8x 0:5 ˆ 0? 6 Plotting and interpreting graphs Experimental data are often analysed by plotting a graph. The gradient (or slope) of the line is given by m. c ˆ 0:5 Solutions of x are given by: xˆ b p b2 4ac 2a Therefore: xˆ … 4†  q … 4†2 4…3†…0:5† p 4  10 xˆ 6 x ˆ 1:2 or 0:14 2…3† Problem set 7 1. it is still essential to understand the fundamentals of graph plotting. 0). Figure 1 illustrates the graph corresponding to the equation: y ˆ 5x ‡ 2 When x ˆ 0. Find the roots of the equation: 0:3x2 1:2x ‡ 0:1 ˆ 0. 3. Linear plots (straight lines) The equation: y ˆ mx ‡ c describes a straight line and shows the way in which the function y depends on x. the origin can be written in the (x. Find solutions of x for the equations: (a) x2 ‡ x 2 ˆ 0 and (b) x2 ‡ 3:5x ˆ 0. and c is the intercept on the y axis when x ˆ 0. 2002 . 2. y) Cartesian coordinate notation as (0. and hence ®nd the roots of the equation. By comparing the equations: y ˆ 5x ‡ 2 and y ˆ mx ‡ c # Pearson Education Limited. y ˆ 0 is called the origin. Although computer-aided graphing packages are readily available. the line intercepts the y axis at a value of y ˆ 2.Plotting and interpreting graphs 9 ax2 ‡ bx ‡ c ˆ 0 we can see that: a ˆ 3.

From the graph. You can spot the sign of the gradient by inspection of the equation for the straight line. It is usual to refer to these points as having the coordinates …x1 . # Pearson Education Limited. the equation: y ˆ 3x ‡ 6 has a positive coecient for x and so the gradient of the line is positive. we see that m ˆ 5 and c ˆ 2.e. y2 †. In order to ®nd the intercept. i. The following questions give practice in plotting graphs. the line has a positive gradient and in Figure 2b.'. the line has a negative gradient. . The gradient of the line is given by: Gradient (or slope) of the straight line ˆ y2 x2 y1 x1 Figure 2 shows two linear plots. y1 † and …x2 . 1 Straight line graph for the equation y ˆ 5x ‡ 2. Fig. For example. The sign of the gradient is determined by the sign of the coecient m. 2002 . in Figure 2a. The equation: yˆ 0:67x ‡ 15 has a negative coecient for x and so the gradient of the line is negative. the gradient of the line can be measured by taking any two points on the straight line. let us choose two points x1 and x2 with corresponding values y1 and y2 (see Figure 1). 2 Examples of linear plots with (a) positive and (b) negative gradients.10 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Fig. . The term `making y the subject of the equation' means putting the equation in the form of `y ˆ . and in rearranging equations. extend it to reach the value corresponding to x ˆ 0. you may have to extrapolate the line.

7 27.) In Figure 3. to ®nd the gradient of the curve at the point where x ˆ 3.1 3.1 14.00 43.3 39. (b) What is the intercept of the line and what is the physical meaning of the value? (c) Comment on the need to use all of the data given. T/K V/m 3 273 298 310 320 330 0. and calculating the gradient of this line.0227 0.00 8.50 7. 6 …b† …1:2  10 4 †x ˆ …5:4  10 3 †2 y : 0:02 Non-linear plots Exercise. mark the point on the curve where x ˆ 3. the gradient has di€erent values at di€erent points on the graph. From Figure 3. The tangent is a straight line.00 4. Now draw a tangent to the curve exactly at this point. Any plot that is not a straight line is non-linear. At a constant pressure of 1:00  105 Pa. and its gradient can be found as in Figure 1. the gradient is constant at all points on the line. x 0 y 1.20 27.00 6.0258 0. Rearrange the following equations making y the subject.0266 0. the volume V (in m3 ) of 1 mole of a gas varies with temperature T (in K) according to the equation: V ˆ …8:314  10 5 †T (a) Use the following data to con®rm the above relationship.00 y 2. the gradient at point A is: Gradient ˆ y2 x2 y1 4:2 2:0 ˆ 0:04 ˆ 55 6 x1 # Pearson Education Limited. For a linear plot. 2002 . this is point A in Figure 3. The equations of non-linear plots take many di€erent forms. and determine the equation of the line. For a non-linear plot.5 2.11 Plotting and interpreting graphs Problem set 8 y 1 ˆ 3x.1 3.0248 0. and numerous examples are given in the accompanying textbook Chemistry.9 52.10 13. Figure 3 shows an example of a non-linear plot. (a) Make y the subject of the following equation: x 0 2.50 21. The gradient at a given point on the curve is found by drawing a tangent to the curve at that point. measure the gradient of the curve at two more points and hence show that the gradient increases as x increases. (You will apply this method in Chapter 14 of Chemistry when you study rates of reaction.2 5. Plot a graph of x against y using the following data.0274 4. rather than a smaller data set. In Figure 3. and show that each corresponds to a linear relationship between y and x. 2:1 (b) By plotting a graph. …a† y ‡ 1:3 ˆ 3x ‡ 2:2.9 9. show that the following data points are consistent with the rearranged equation: 1.

7 Differentiation: an introduction First order derivatives: The equation: dy dx y ˆ mx ‡ c describes a straight line. the rate of change of y with respect to x is equal to the gradient. 2002 . and shows the way in which the function y depends on x. here. In each graph. and its gradient is determined. m. 4 The shape of a graph depends on the relationship between the variables. correspondingly. a tangent is drawn to the curve at the point. Mathematical functions have many di€erent forms and. In this case. Three examples are shown in Figure 4. To ®nd the gradient of the curve at point A. # Pearson Education Limited. the rate of change of y with respect to x Fig. 3 A graph of the function: y ˆ x3 ‡ 5. of the line and is a constant value at every point on the line.12 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Fig. the shapes of graphs of these functions are di€erent. the variables are x and y.

Moreover. we di€erentiate the function y with respect to x in dy order to obtain . consider the point at x ˆ 10 in each graph in Figure 4. dx x yˆ Worked example 3 Find dy ˆ 6x2 ‡ 5 dx 4 x2   dy 2 ˆ ˆ4 dx x3 8 x3 dy if y ˆ ln 2x. c 0 xn nxn 1 ˆx xn ex e y nx n dy . dx Derivatives have particular forms and some important ones are listed in Table 3. the rate of change of y with respect to x depends on the relationship between x and y. and is denoted by . The rate of change of y with respect to x is given by the di€erential dy coecient of y with respect to x. (a) y ˆ 3x ‡ 6 (b) y ˆ 4x2 ‡ 8x 9 (c) y ˆ 2x 1 3 (e) y ˆ sin 2x ‡ cos 2x (f) y ˆ (d) y ˆ 4x x # Pearson Education Limited. dx 1 …n ‡ 1† ˆ n xn ‡ 1 ex ax ae ax dy dx ln x 1 x sin x cos x cos x sin x sin ax a cos ax cos ax a sin ax varies for di€erent values of x. Their applications are illustrated in the following examples. e. Di€erentiate the following functions with respect to x. for a given value of x. Worked example 1 Di€erentiate the function y ˆ 2x3 ‡ 5x ‡ 7 with respect to x.13 Differentiation: an introduction Table 3 Selected standard derivatives y dy dx constant. dx y ˆ ln 2x . and therefore: dy 1 ˆ dx x Problem set 9 1. This is commonly dx known as a derivative.g. 2002 7 . From Table 1: y ˆ ln 2 ‡ ln x ln 2 is a constant. y ˆ 2x3 ‡ 5x ‡ 7 Worked example 2 Find dy 4 if y ˆ 2 .

it is an example of a graph that possesses turning points. 5 A plot of y ˆ sin x is called a `sine wave'. First. # Pearson Education Limited. the gradient changes from a positive to negative value. For the graph of y ˆ . Having found the general form of Worked example Find the gradient of the curve: y ˆ 2 ln x at the point x ˆ 20. ®nd the gradient at the point x ˆ 0:5. (a) y ˆ ex (b) y ˆ 3ex (c) y ˆ e2x bx ax bx (d) y ˆ 4e (e) y ˆ e ‡ e (f ) y ˆ e ax Using dy to ®nd a gradient dx dy .14 MATHEMATICS TUTOR 2. (a) Find the general form of dx (b) Evaluate this di€erential for x ˆ 908. At a maximum. find dy : dx y ˆ 2 ln x At the point where x ˆ 20: dy 2 ˆ dx x Gradient ˆ dy 2 ˆ ˆ 0:1 dx 20 Problem set 10 dy when 1. and ®nd the value of dx x ˆ 3. x dy for the function y ˆ 2 cos x 3 sin x. What is the slope of the curve y ˆ x4 at the point x ˆ 2? 3. substitution of a given value of x dx allows you to ®nd the gradient of the line or curve at this particular point. Turning points: d2 y dx 2 Graphs such as that in Figure 5 possess turning points. Does the graph of y ˆ 2 ln x have a positive or negative gradient at the point x ˆ 2:5? 2 4. Find the derivatives with respect to x of the following functions where a and b are constants. the Fig. Di€erentiate the function y ˆ 2x2 ‡ 4x. At a minimum. 2. 2002 . 5.

xˆ0 or 3x ‡ 1 ˆ 0 xˆ 1 3 Now substitute these values for x into the equations for the turning points: d2 y When x ˆ 0.Differentiation: an introduction 15 gradient changes from a negative to positive value. di€erentiate again to ®nd 2 . of the function.e. when: 6x2 ‡ 2x ˆ 0 The solutions of this quadratic equation are found by factorization: 6x2 ‡ 2x ˆ 0 2x…3x ‡ 1† ˆ 0 x…3x ‡ 1† ˆ 0 . 2002 .e. First. dx Worked example Find the values of x that correspond to turning points in the graph of equation: y ˆ 2x3 ‡ x2 ‡ 2 and identify each turning point as a maximum or minimum. Once you have found dx dy d2 y . dx 1 d2 y . of the graph is zero. Check these de®nitions by looking at Figure 5 which shows two maxima and one minimum. the gradient dy ˆ 0. Information about turning points for a function that varies with x can be obtained d2 y by taking the second derivative. dx # Pearson Education Limited. ˆ 12x ‡ 2 ˆ 2 dx2 d2 y and this corresponds to a minimum because 2 > 0. ˆ 12x ‡ 2 ˆ 2 When x ˆ 3 dx2 d2 y and this corresponds to a maximum because 2 < 0. i. ®nd the general forms of dy d2 y and 2 : dx dx y ˆ 2x3 ‡ x2 ‡ 2 dy ˆ 6x2 ‡ 2x dx d2 y ˆ 12x ‡ 2 dx2 The turning points occur when dy ˆ0 dx i. 2 . dx dx For a turning point at a maximum: d2 y <0 dx2 For a turning point at a minimum: d2 y >0 dx2 Exactly at the maximum or minimum point (look at Figure 5).

1. For the function: y ˆ x3 ‡ 2x2 ‡ 5 dy d2 y . In Figure 6. . and summing the areas together. (b) y ˆ cos x and (c) ln x. . Is this a maximum or a minimum? 8 Integration: an introduction A de®nite integral as an area under a curve Consider a curve with the general equation y ˆ f …x†. Show that. enclosed by) the x axis (i. (b) 2 and (c) information about the turning points of the dx dx graph of this function. i. Fig. a plot of y ˆ cos x has one turning point. between the limits of x ˆ 908 and x ˆ 2708. dx dx 2. the area of the shaded section between the limits of x ˆ a and x ˆ b could be calculated by: . Suppose you need to determine the area under the curve bounded by (i. ®nding the area of each strip.e.e. then dx dx as f 00 …x†. Find 3. Another type of notation is sometimes used for y. when y ˆ 0) and between certain values of x. a # Pearson Education Limited. 6 The area under a curve for y ˆ f …x† between speci®ed limits x ˆ a and x ˆ b (the shaded area) is given by the de®nite …b integral f …x† dx. For the function: y ˆ 3x3 3x dy d2 y ®nd (a) . dividing the shaded region into an in®nite number of vertical strips drawn parallel to the y axis. 4. A plot of a representative function is shown in Figure 6.e. 2002 . Problem set 11 dy d2 y and 2 for the functions (a) y ˆ sin x. (b) ®nd (a) ®nd and (c) determine the turning points of this dx dx2 function.16 MATHEMATICS TUTOR dy d2 y and 2 . and 2 is written tion of x denoted by f …x†. between speci®ed limits. The notation f …x† simply stands for y is a function of x. If y is a funcdx dx 2 dy d y can be written as f 0 …x†.

Inde®nite integrals A second use of integration is to answer the question: `if we have an dy expression for . If: dy ˆ f 0 …x† dx then. and integrating. The constant. evaluate an inde®nite integral. The reason for this is clear if we consider the following three functions: y ˆ 4x ‡ 3 y ˆ 4x ‡ 10 y ˆ 4x ‡ 22 Di€erentiating each of these equations gives the same answer: … Table 4 Selected standard inde®nite integrals.e. we have: … … dy ˆ … yˆ f 0 …x† dx f 0 …x† dx If we integrate without limits.17 Integration: an introduction These three steps can be achieved mathematically in one step by ®nding the de®nite integral of f …x† with respect to…x between the integration limits x ˆ a and x ˆ b. what is the relationship between x and y?' Just as there dx are standard derivatives (see Table 3). so there are standard integrals. c. The notation for this is b a f …x† dx. Those listed in Table 4 are inde®nite integrals because there are no limits speci®ed for the integration. c. the integration constant. then an integration constant. i. in each case is f 0 …x† f 0 …x† dx cos x sin x cos ax sin ax # Pearson Education Limited. must be introduced. rearranging the equation as we did earlier in the Mathematics Tutor). f 0 …x† a (a constant) … 1 ˆx 1 x 1 ˆx n xn ax ‡ c 2 x x ‡c 2 xn xn ‡ 1 ‡c n‡1 (except for n ˆ ex ex ‡ c eax eax ‡c a f 0 …x† dx.e. Examples of ®nding areas under curves are given in the discussion of entropy in Chapter 16 of Chemistry. dx 1† 1 …n ‡c 1 1†xn …sin x† ‡ c …cos x† ‡ c sin ax ‡c a cos ax ‡c a 1 ‡c . 2002 … f 0 …x† dx …ln x† ‡ c …n x n ˆ 1) dy ˆ 4. by separating the x and y terms (i.

given values of x and y at a particular point. The area under the curve is found by integrating the equation y ˆ 3x2 between the limits of x ˆ 4 and x ˆ 1: … …4 Area ˆ y dy ˆ 3x2 dx The notation x ˆ 1. we can write: … y ˆ 4 dx ˆ 4x ‡ c With the information we have. you know the derivative of a function is 4 and you want to ®nd the function. the complete function is: y ˆ 4x ‡ 3 In Chapter 14 of Chemistry. y ˆ 2. integration constants come into calculations involving rate equations. 2002 . Problem set 12 1. what is c? … 1 2. Evaluate the integral y ˆ …2 cos x x ˆ 0.cˆ3 Therefore. … y dy ˆ …4 1 …4 1 1 speci®es that the upper limit is x ˆ 4 and the lower limit is 3x2 dx  4 ˆ x3 ‡ c 1 # Pearson Education Limited. 2 x … 3. given that y ˆ 0:5 when x ˆ 1.18 MATHEMATICS TUTOR … Suppose now that you are evaluating the integral 4 dx. Evaluate the integral y ˆ dx. For example. The integrated form of an equation is: y ˆ 3x2 ‡ 6x ‡ c. If the curve for this equation passes through the point x ˆ 0. and is best illustrated with an example. if we know that y ˆ 7 when x ˆ 1. That is. However. c could be any value and we cannot unambiguously ®nd the function. given that y ˆ 2 when Integrating between limits: de®nite integrals Now let us look again at the question of integrating between limits. and the application of integration to ®nding the area under a curve. 3 sin x† dx. From Table 4. Worked example Find the area under the curve y ˆ 3x2 between the limits of x ˆ 4 and x ˆ 1. c can be evaluated. then we can write: y ˆ 4x ‡ c 7ˆ4‡c . Notation is important.

As x increases. c. Fig. but it only reaches zero when x is in®nity (x ˆ 1). This notation stands for the di€erence between the integrals when x ˆ 4 and x ˆ 1. Evaluate the de®nite integrals (a) …x ‡ 1† dx. e0 ˆ 1. 1:2 9 Functions that tend to in®nity Exponential decay is an important concept for reaction kinetics and this is discussed in Chapter 14 of Chemistry. The general integral is written within square brackets.Summary and further reading 19 Again. we have summarized some important mathematical skills required for ®rst year university chemistry. and the upper and lower limits must be shown. the function e x decreases. 2002 . 2 2. Figure 7 shows a plot of e x against x. Find the area bounded by the x axis and the part of the curve y ˆ 3x3 ‡ 6x2 5 that lies between … 1the limits x ˆ 5 and … 6 x ˆ 0. … 2:3 1 4 (c) x 1 dx. and so the curve has a ®nite starting point. It is usual only to show that the curve tends towards a value of x ˆ 1. For x ˆ 0. 10 Summary and further reading In the Mathematics Tutor. cancel and so there is no need to evaluate c. Exponential decay follows the dependence: yˆe x and is an example of a function that tends to in®nity. Problem set 13 1. 7 A graph of the function y ˆ e x. notation is important. Further practice is provided in the following books: # Pearson Education Limited. The concepts of vectors and partial di€erentials are introduced as required in the main textbook Chemistry. (b) ex dx.  4 Area ˆ x3 ‡ c 1 ˆ ‰43 ‡ cŠ ‰13 ‡ cŠ ˆ 63 square units Notice that the integration constants.

(c) 0. 4. (b) 22 cm2 78 cm3 (to 2 sig.4 cm. (b) 0.588. 8.7 mm3 (a) 65:08. (c) 0. (f) 4. (d) 1. Oxford University Press. Harlow. 10. (d) 4:74  10 7 .35. (b) 5. or x ˆ 13 (a) x ˆ 1. (d) 2. y ˆ log z. 6. (a) 2. (b) 18. (c) 2:0  10 5 . 3. S. Scott (1995) Beginning Mathematics in Chemistry.707. (a) 1:25  10 10 m.9 m Problem set 3 1. 4. or x ˆ 0:085 x ˆ 0:22. 3. (d) 4 2. 2002 3:5 .174. (b) 3:4  10 10 m. (a) 4. 2. (a) 9. Longman. ®g. (a) 2:1  105 .8 cm2 . (b) 63:08. or x ˆ 2. (e) 7. 4.T.58.) 1. 2. (c) 6. or x ˆ x ˆ 3:9.K.7 Problem set 6 1. (b) 1.87. 7. (e) 4 (a) 3. (d) 15. (d) 4:68  105 Problem set 7 1.20 MATHEMATICS TUTOR G. (b) 2. 2. (h) 2 (c). Doggett and B.48. x ˆ 1.35. (b) 5 cm y2 x 2 z 2 sin2  ‡ cos2  ˆ 2 ‡ 2 ˆ 2 ˆ 1 z z z 3. (b) x ˆ 0. (g) 1. Answers to problem sets Problem set 1 1. Oxford.60. (a) 8. (b) 4.58. 3.943 3. (c) 3.532 658 (a) 3 cm. (b) 3. because each length is given to 2 sig. (b) 10 cm (a) 0. (e) 3. ®g.2 cm 2 (a) 16. or x ˆ 1:0 # Pearson Education Limited. (d) (a) 21. (c) 3.2 cm 47. (d) 1. (e) 2:2  102 2. (b) 211. 6. (c) 1.0 cm. (b) 0. (c) 85:08 Problem set 2 1. (c) 1. Sutcli€e (1995) Mathematics for Chemistry. 5.45 m Problem set 5 2. (c) 0. (a) 6. (a) 0. 5.93.

(e) aeax ‡ bebx . 2002 . dx dx dx x dx dx d2 y 1 ˆ dx2 x2 1 2.21 Answers to problem sets Problem set 8 1. physical signi®cance is that at 0 K. 2 ˆ sin x. 2 ˆ cos x. (b) 2 (a) dx Problem set 11 dy d2 y dy d2 y dy 1 ˆ cos x. 2. (c) 2e2x . (f ) 2. (a) Problem set 12 1. gradient ˆ 8 dx x2 dy ˆ 2 sin x 3 cos x. ˆ sin x. (a) 3. the volume occupied by the gas is 0 m3 . other turndx dx ing points are outside the limits of x ˆ 908 and x ˆ 2708 1. gradient is positive dx x dy 2 ˆ . ˆ 16 dx dx dy dy ˆ 4x3 . (b) ˆ sin x. (a) 3x2 ‡ 4x. ˆ 32 dx dx dy 2 ˆ . 5. (c) ˆ . (b) c ˆ 0. turning point at 1808 (minimum). (e) 2 cos 2x 2 sin 2x. (a) 9x2 3. 2 ˆ cos x. (c) 2. (b) 18x. (c) turning points at x ˆ 0 (minimum) and 4 (maximum) xˆ 3 dy d2 y 4. dy dy ˆ 4x ‡ 4. (b) 6x ‡ 4. (a) y ˆ 18x ‡ 11:9. (d) 4bebx . y ˆ 1:5 1 # Pearson Education Limited. 4. (c) turning points at x ˆ p (minimum) and 3 1 x ˆ p (maximum) 3 3. this can be seen from equation. when x ˆ 2. (d) 12x 4 . (f ) ae ax 1 x2 Problem set 10 1. (a) ex . (b) y ˆ 0:082x Problem set 9 1. (b) 3ex . when x ˆ 3. (c) experimental data may contain erroneous points or points of low precision. 3. y ˆ 6:3x ‡ 2:1 2. and any calculation should not be biased towards these points 4. at x ˆ 2:5. (b) 8x ‡ 8. y ˆ 2 sin x ‡ 3 cos x 2. y ˆ 4:0x 7:12 3. c ˆ 2 1 x 3.

(b) 349. (a) . 2002 . 694 square units 8 2. (c) 0.22 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Problem set 13 1.65 3 # Pearson Education Limited.

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