Mathematics by Catherine E.

Tutor to accompany Chemistry

by Catherine E. Housecroft and Edwin C. Constable


The aim of the Mathematics Tutor is to summarize some essential mathematical skills needed for chemistry. Before beginning to work through the
Mathematics Tutor, study Appendix 1 in Chemistry; it contains common
mathematical symbols. Ensure that you know what the symbols mean:
these symbols are used in the textbook Chemistry without explanation.
Note also that:

sig. ®g. means signi®cant ®gures;
dec. pl. means decimal places.

Table 1 is a checklist of important formulae dealing with angles in triangles,
areas, surface area and volumes. Their applications are varied and you
should be familiar with how to use the formulae. Identify the keys on your
calculator for ®nding the sine, cosine and tangent of an angle; they are
probably marked
The Mathematics Tutor contains numerous problem sets, the answers to
which can be found at the end of the Mathematics Tutor.

The constant p
p is a mathematical constant, de®ned as the ratio of the circumference to
diameter of a circle. The value of p is 3.141 592 653 59 (no units). Find the
key on your calculator that enters p.
The SI derived unit of plane angle is the radian. It is related to p by the

1 radian ˆ 

180 8
ˆ 57:2968

Thus, 1808 ˆ p radians, and 3608 ˆ 2p radians.

If you need help with
rounding off numbers,
see Section 2

Problem set 1
1. Find the length of the hypotenuse in each of the following right-angled
triangles in which the other two sides are of length (a) 5.0 and 6.25 cm,
and (b) 6 and 8 cm.
2. Evaluate (a) sin 458, (b) cos 808, (c) sin 368 ‡ sin 908, (d) 2 sin 508 giving
each answer to 3 dec. pl.
3. Two angles in a triangle are 508 and 658. What is the third angle?
4. Consider a general triangle with sides a, b and c, and angles A, B and C.
(a) Find a if b ˆ 2 cm, c ˆ 4 cm and A ˆ 478. (b) Find c if a ˆ 6 cm,
b ˆ 4 cm and C ˆ 56:38.
# Pearson Education Limited, 2002


Table 1 Some useful formulae: trigonometry, areas and volumes
x2 ‡ y2 ˆ z2 (Pythagoras's
cos  ˆ
tan  ˆ
sin  ˆ

For a right-angled triangle:

Cosine rule:
a2 ˆ b2 ‡ c2
For any triangle:



2bc cos A


b ˆa ‡c

2ac cos B

c2 ˆ a2 ‡ b2

2ab cos C

Sum of angles:
A ‡ B ‡ C ˆ 1808
Area of a square of side a


Volume of a cube of side a


Area of a rectangle of length a and width b


Volume of a cuboid of length a, width b and height c


Diameter of a circle of radius r


Circumference of a circle of radius r


Area of a circle of radius r


Surface area of a sphere of radius r


Volume of a sphere of radius r

3 pr

5. The notation sin2  means `the square of sin '. Prove for the right-angled
triangle shown in Table 1 that: sin2  ‡ cos2  ˆ 1.
6. Calculate the radius of a circle of circumference 20.2 cm.
7. Calculate (a) the diameter and (b) the area of a circle of radius 8.2 cm,
giving your answer to 1 dec. pl.
8. What is the volume of a sphere of radius 2.25 mm?
9. Con®rm that (a) sin 458 ˆ cos 458 ˆ p; (b) tan 458 ˆ sin 908 ˆ cos 0 ˆ 1;
(c) sin 0 ˆ cos 908 ˆ 0; (d) sin 308 ˆ cos 608 ˆ 12; (e) tan 308 ˆ p
10. Find x if (a) sin x ˆ 0:906, (b) cos x ˆ 0:454 and (c) 2 sin x ˆ 1:9925.
[Hint: you must ®nd sin 1 or cos 1 of the number.]


Signi®cant ®gures
What are signi®cant ®gures?
Experimentally measured values are subject to some degree of uncertainty. If
you weigh a solid and record the mass as 5 g, it indicates that you are less
sure of the exact mass than if the mass is recorded as 5.0 g. Recording 5.00 g
indicates that the mass is known with even more certainty. The value of 5 g
has one signi®cant ®gure (1 sig. ®g.), 5.0 g has 2 sig. ®g., and 5.00 g has 3 sig. ®g.
# Pearson Education Limited, 2002

0. ®g. the ®nal answer should be quoted to the same number of decimal places as in the least precise number in the series. 8. pl.334 is quoted to 3 dec. ®g.g.006 is quoted to 1 sig. If a number is quoted to n dec. the scale of relative atomic masses is de®ned so as to give all atomic masses relative to 12 C ˆ 12 (exactly). ®g. ®g. ®g. there are n digits (including zeros) after the decimal point. ®g. Some results are quoted to a given number of decimal places. 0. 0. Trailing zeros are signi®cant in a number that contains a decimal point: . For example: to ®nd Mr for HF. . pl.Signi®cant ®gures 3 Some values are `exact' and in these cases it is not relevant to assign significant ®gures.500 is quoted to 3 sig.g. e. 2002 . Answers to calculations: working with experimental data Many chemical calculations involve manipulating data quoted to di€erent numbers of signi®cant ®gures. 0. ®g. look up the relative atomic masses of H and F: Ar for H ˆ 1:008 Ar for F ˆ 19:00 Therefore: Mr for HF ˆ 1:008 ‡ 19:00 ˆ 20:008 but since Ar for F is quoted to only 2 dec. ®g. the answer should be given as Mr ˆ 20:01 # Pearson Education Limited. e. . 5 is quoted to 1 sig... e. 5:00  10 2 is quoted to 3 sig. The number of signi®cant ®gures in an integer corresponds to the number of digits. .000555 is quoted to 3 sig. The result of the calculation must be quoted according to several rules. and to 4 sig. . Rule 4: Adding and subtracting numbers " Mr and Ar : see Chapter 1 in Chemistry When adding or subtracting a series of numbers. 2000. 68 is quoted to 2 sig. e. Rule 3: Numbers less than 1 ending with zeros Trailing zeros come at the end of a number. pl.002. Rule 2: Numbers less than 1 beginning with zeros Leading zeros come at the beginning of a number. Rule 1: Integers without zeros An integer is a whole number.g.. 0. Ignore leading zeros when working out the number of signi®cant ®gures in a number: .g.. .040 is quoted to 2 sig.

(b) 8. ®g. ®gs. it is often easy to forget about signi®cant ®gures. (d) 5. If the digit to be removed is >5 (or the digits to be removed begin with a digit 5). To how many sig.2. are the following numbers quoted: (a) 665. 6. are the following numbers quoted: (a) 0. 1.99. ®g. round down. we do not follow this rule because we want to show all the steps of the calculation. or to 1.6 cm2 because the least precise number in the data is given to 3 sig.140. Follow these rules when rounding o€ numbers: . round up.02. the perimeter of a square of side 2. e.4 to 2 sig.) Problem set 2 1. ®g. pl. e. (c) 9. (c) 2.1124? 2. (f ) 0.505. (g) 0.100.34. Worked example Find the area of a rectangle of sides 8. ®g. Area ˆ 8:712 …cm†  4:55 …cm† ˆ 39:6396 cm2 but we are only justi®ed in quoting the answer as 39. do not round o€ at each step. ®g.4 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Rule 5: Multiplying and dividing numbers When multiplying and dividing a series of numbers. (b) 0.6396 cm2 to 39.006 and (h) 33? # Pearson Education Limited. Rounding off In the calculation above to ®nd the area of the rectangle. To how many dec. When you use a calculator.46 to 3 sig.42 to 3 sig. Only round o€ the ®nal answer. (e) 0.g.6 cm2 .3 cm could be found by: Perimeter ˆ 2:3 …cm† ‡ 2:3 …cm† ‡ 2:3 …cm† ‡ 2:3 …cm† ˆ 9:2 cm or Perimeter ˆ 4  2:3 …cm† ˆ 9:2 cm The answer of 9. and to simply write down the answer displayed on the calculator. we rounded o€ the answer from 39.75. (d) 0.5 to 2 sig. ®g. (e) 0.3 cm). or to 6. It is not relevant to assign a number of signi®cant ®gures to an integral (whole number) multiplier..g..55 cm. 2002 . the ®nal answer should be quoted to the same number of signi®cant ®gures as in the least precise number in the series.5050. You must stop and think! Are the digits valid? If the calculation involves several steps.2 cm depends only on the number of sig. e. .4587 is rounded up to 6.g. If the digit to be removed is <5 (or the digits to be removed begin with a digit <5).712 cm and 4.4243 is rounded down to 1. in the measured quantity (2. (In some worked examples in Chemistry.

2002 . x4 . 3. § x2 means `the square of x' x3 means `the cube of x' If this method does not work. x 3 . 106 into your calculator. x6:7 . . To enter the number 2  106 . (c) 45 cm.34 nm.67 cm and quote the answer to (a) 3 sig. the key may be marked instead of . for example: .g. Using Table 1. exponential notation is used to express them. ®g.g. ®g. enter the key sequence or . (c) 5.0 g and (d) 2.6 cm. e. consult your calculator manual. What are the dimensions of the container? 3 Exponential notation Expressing large and small numbers in exponential form Scienti®c numbers are often extremely large or extremely small. Do not forget the `1' part of the number.4 cm and 5.00 g. and give the answers in exponential notation: (a) 104 ‡ …2:0  105 †. (b) 0.g. Important! 10x stands for 1  10x .2 g? 4. ®g. a number in the form n  10x .e. 2:4  103 ˆ 2 400 5:6  106 ˆ 5 600 000 7:2  10 4 ˆ 0:000 72 Most scienti®c calculators have a key marked . (c) …4:5  10 3 †2 . 1:52  102 (b) …5:60  105 †  …3:44  10 6 †. (a) 0. express each of the following distances in m: (a) 125 pm. 6. you must enter 1  106 . Which of the following masses are given to 2 sig.1 cm. When entering. Note how the decimal point `moves along' the number. (d) . e. Problem set 3 1.§ To enter the number 2  10 6 . multiplying the number by 102 makes the number one hundred times larger and multiplying by 10 2 makes it one hundred times smaller. Therefore. For example.9 m3 . 3:21  108 9:8  10 3 (e) 4:5  10 5 2.3 in Chapter 1 of Chemistry to help you. # Pearson Education Limited.02 g. Other uses of exponents 1 A number can be raised to any power. and (b) 2 sig. e.g. Use your calculator to carry out the following calculations.Exponential notation 5 3. 5. (b) 5. i. press the key sequence . Calculate the volume of a rectangular box of sides 4. Calculate the area of a square of side 4. Some powers have speci®c meanings. x2 . e. The volume of a cubic container is 6.

The number of signi®cant ®gures quoted in the logarithm is determined as follows. . and are usually written as log (sometimes. x n . show that (a) x 2 ˆ 2 and x 1 1 (b) x 2 ˆ p . and the equation can also be expressed in the form: x ˆ loga N In chemistry. ®nd the keys assigned for taking common and natural logarithms. (b) 0:53 ˆ 0:125. it is always true that: For natural logarithms. Consider the number 14. x 4 Logarithms If a number N is written in an exponential form: N ˆ ax then. They are probably marked and respectively.e. . x2 ˆ x p  1 1 x3 means `the cube root of x'. p 3  1. (b) 34 ˆ 81. (d) 82:5  181.161 with 3 decimal places. i. p y  x1=y ˆ x and means `taking the yth root of x'. loge . By substituting in any value of x. two logarithmic bases are commonly encountered: . x 1 n 1 xn 1 ˆp n  x ˆ Problem set 4 Use your calculator to do the following problems. which has 3 signi®cant ®gures. Common logarithms are logarithms to the base 10. . (c) 216 ˆ 6. log10 . . i. 2. x3 ˆ 3 x 1 x 1 means `the reciprocal of x'. i. xy means `raising x to the yth power'.5 should be quoted as 1. Con®rm the following: (a) 0:26 ˆ 6:4  10 5 . and . i. Show that (a) 24 ˆ 16. # Pearson Education Limited.e. 2002 .5. p 1 1 x2 means `the square root of x'. . where e ˆ 2:7183. x 1 ˆ x On your calculator there should be two keys labelled . The value of log 14. x is the logarithm to the base a of the number N. For common logarithms.e. Two results are of general importance: . On your calculator.e.6 MATHEMATICS TUTOR . 1 3. lg). i. it is always true that: log 10n ˆ n ln en ˆ n Table 2 lists some other important relationships involving logarithms. Natural logarithms are logarithms to the base e.e. . (c) …2:40  104 †3 ˆ 1:38  1013 . A natural logarithm is written as ln.

2002 . N is found using the equation: N ˆ ex On your calculator. (b) ln 98. (b) 0. (c) log …1  106 †. Problem set 6 1. (You will see the importance of this exercise when you come to the pH calculations in Chapter 15 of Chemistry. # Pearson Education Limited. (c) ln 0:56. y and z are related by the equation: z ˆ 10 y . This gives x ˆ 0:925. 2. (d) 105:67 . (d) ln 0:622 ˆ 0:475. However.034 followed by the key sequence . ®nd the keys marked obvious. Find the value of y for each of the following values of z: (a) 0.76. Use your calculator to con®rm that (a) log 102 ˆ 2:009. ®nding the number N from the equation: N ˆ ax For a common logarithm.Logarithms 7 Table 2 Some important relationships involving logarithms.e. Evaluate the following: (a) e2:29 . 2. 3. (d) log 10 15 . the reverse process is equally important and involves an exponent. N is found using the equation: N ˆ 10x For a natural logarithm. (b) ln…1:2  108 †. i. x can be found by entering 0. (c) ln 58:0 ˆ 4:060. determine the following: (a) log 104 . consult the calculator manual. (c) 8. (e) log 107:7 .45. If these keys are not Find x in the following equation: 0:034 ˆ log x First rewrite the equation in the exponent form: x ˆ 10 0:034 On your calculator. (b) log …10 5 †. Evaluate the following: (a) log 106 . For common logarithms For natural logarithms log xa ˆ a log x ln xa ˆ a ln x log xy ˆ log x ‡ log y ln xy ˆ ln x ‡ ln y x log ˆ log x y ln x ˆ ln x y ln 1 ˆ x log 1 ˆ x log y log x ln y ln x Problem set 5 1. (c) log 22:3. (d) log …10 4 †.) So far we have been concerned with taking the logarithm of a number. Worked example and . (e) log …2  10 8 † ˆ 7:7. (b) log 3:39 ˆ 0:530. Without using a calculator.33.

equilibria (Chapter 15 in Chemistry) may require you to solve a quadratic equation. Check the factorization is correct by expanding …x ‡ 3†…2x 2† ˆ 0 back to the original form of 2x2 ‡ 4x 6 ˆ 0. you should apply this equation rather than attempt to factorize the quadratic equation. in calculations dealing with equilibrium constants). Method 2 The general method for solving a quadratic equation is as follows. If: ax2 ‡ bx ‡ c ˆ 0 p b  b2 4ac then: x ˆ 2a In most chemical applications (e.g. Worked example Find the values of x that satisfy the equation: 3x2 4x ‡ 0:5 ˆ 0 By comparing this equation with the general form: # Pearson Education Limited. b and c are constants. A quadratic equation in which the variable is x has the form: ax2 ‡ bx ‡ c ˆ 0 where a.8 MATHEMATICS TUTOR 5 Solving a quadratic equation Problems dealing with. A quadratic equation has two solutions (or roots). The equation: Exercise. …x ‡ 3†…2x 2† ˆ 0 contains two factors: …x ‡ 3† and …2x 2†. 2x ˆ 2 .xˆ 3 or 2x 2ˆ0 . Worked example Find the roots of the equation: 2x2 ‡ 4x 6ˆ0 Rewrite the equation in the form: …x ‡ 3†…2x 2† ˆ 0 This process is called factorizing. and sets the equation up in a form that is readily solved for x. 2002 . the solutions are readily found. The product of the two factors is zero. Method 1 If the equation factorizes. The values of x that satisfy a given quadratic equation may be found by one of two methods. You can therefore ®nd the two solutions of x as follows: x‡3ˆ0 . so either one of the factors must equal zero. for example.xˆ1 These values of x are the roots (or solutions) of the quadratic equation.

y ˆ 0 is called the origin. Linear plots (straight lines) The equation: y ˆ mx ‡ c describes a straight line and shows the way in which the function y depends on x. 4. The point x ˆ 0. and hence ®nd the roots of the equation. c ˆ 0:5 Solutions of x are given by: xˆ b p b2 4ac 2a Therefore: xˆ … 4†  q … 4†2 4…3†…0:5† p 4  10 xˆ 6 x ˆ 1:2 or 0:14 2…3† Problem set 7 1. 2. 2002 . By comparing the equations: y ˆ 5x ‡ 2 and y ˆ mx ‡ c # Pearson Education Limited. it is still essential to understand the fundamentals of graph plotting. What values of x satisfy the equation: 2:2x2 ‡ 1:8x 0:5 ˆ 0? 6 Plotting and interpreting graphs Experimental data are often analysed by plotting a graph. Factorize the equation 3x2 4x ‡ 1 ˆ 0. Although computer-aided graphing packages are readily available. 3. the line intercepts the y axis at a value of y ˆ 2. and c is the intercept on the y axis when x ˆ 0.Plotting and interpreting graphs 9 ax2 ‡ bx ‡ c ˆ 0 we can see that: a ˆ 3. The gradient (or slope) of the line is given by m. Find solutions of x for the equations: (a) x2 ‡ x 2 ˆ 0 and (b) x2 ‡ 3:5x ˆ 0. Figure 1 illustrates the graph corresponding to the equation: y ˆ 5x ‡ 2 When x ˆ 0. the origin can be written in the (x. y) Cartesian coordinate notation as (0. bˆ 4. Find the roots of the equation: 0:3x2 1:2x ‡ 0:1 ˆ 0. 0).

in Figure 2a. The following questions give practice in plotting graphs. From the graph. Fig. y1 † and …x2 . # Pearson Education Limited. 2002 . 1 Straight line graph for the equation y ˆ 5x ‡ 2. . . extend it to reach the value corresponding to x ˆ 0. and in rearranging equations. the equation: y ˆ 3x ‡ 6 has a positive coecient for x and so the gradient of the line is positive. The equation: yˆ 0:67x ‡ 15 has a negative coecient for x and so the gradient of the line is negative. It is usual to refer to these points as having the coordinates …x1 . In order to ®nd the intercept. The term `making y the subject of the equation' means putting the equation in the form of `y ˆ . the gradient of the line can be measured by taking any two points on the straight line. we see that m ˆ 5 and c ˆ 2. let us choose two points x1 and x2 with corresponding values y1 and y2 (see Figure 1). 2 Examples of linear plots with (a) positive and (b) negative gradients. For example.'. y2 †. The sign of the gradient is determined by the sign of the coecient m. The gradient of the line is given by: Gradient (or slope) of the straight line ˆ y2 x2 y1 x1 Figure 2 shows two linear plots. You can spot the sign of the gradient by inspection of the equation for the straight line. i. the line has a positive gradient and in Figure 2b. the line has a negative gradient. you may have to extrapolate the line.e.10 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Fig.

9 9. The gradient at a given point on the curve is found by drawing a tangent to the curve at that point. Rearrange the following equations making y the subject. Plot a graph of x against y using the following data. T/K V/m 3 273 298 310 320 330 0.0258 0. Figure 3 shows an example of a non-linear plot.1 3.0248 0. (b) What is the intercept of the line and what is the physical meaning of the value? (c) Comment on the need to use all of the data given. 6 …b† …1:2  10 4 †x ˆ …5:4  10 3 †2 y : 0:02 Non-linear plots Exercise. Any plot that is not a straight line is non-linear. show that the following data points are consistent with the rearranged equation: 1. 2:1 (b) By plotting a graph. x 0 y 1. The tangent is a straight line. the gradient at point A is: Gradient ˆ y2 x2 y1 4:2 2:0 ˆ 0:04 ˆ 55 6 x1 # Pearson Education Limited. this is point A in Figure 3. rather than a smaller data set. and show that each corresponds to a linear relationship between y and x.0266 0.7 27. and its gradient can be found as in Figure 1.5 2. and determine the equation of the line. 2002 .11 Plotting and interpreting graphs Problem set 8 y 1 ˆ 3x.0227 0. At a constant pressure of 1:00  105 Pa. …a† y ‡ 1:3 ˆ 3x ‡ 2:2. For a non-linear plot. mark the point on the curve where x ˆ 3.0274 4.2 5. the gradient is constant at all points on the line.1 14. For a linear plot.00 y 2.00 8. the volume V (in m3 ) of 1 mole of a gas varies with temperature T (in K) according to the equation: V ˆ …8:314  10 5 †T (a) Use the following data to con®rm the above relationship. and numerous examples are given in the accompanying textbook Chemistry. measure the gradient of the curve at two more points and hence show that the gradient increases as x increases.10 13.00 43.50 7.00 6. In Figure 3.3 39.) In Figure 3. the gradient has di€erent values at di€erent points on the graph.9 52.50 21.00 4. From Figure 3. to ®nd the gradient of the curve at the point where x ˆ 3. (You will apply this method in Chapter 14 of Chemistry when you study rates of reaction. (a) Make y the subject of the following equation: x 0 2.20 27. The equations of non-linear plots take many di€erent forms.1 3. Now draw a tangent to the curve exactly at this point. and calculating the gradient of this line.

and its gradient is determined. In each graph. the rate of change of y with respect to x Fig. Three examples are shown in Figure 4. a tangent is drawn to the curve at the point. In this case. 4 The shape of a graph depends on the relationship between the variables. the shapes of graphs of these functions are di€erent. of the line and is a constant value at every point on the line. the variables are x and y. and shows the way in which the function y depends on x. m. Mathematical functions have many di€erent forms and. 3 A graph of the function: y ˆ x3 ‡ 5. # Pearson Education Limited. 2002 . To ®nd the gradient of the curve at point A. correspondingly. the rate of change of y with respect to x is equal to the gradient.12 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Fig. 7 Differentiation: an introduction First order derivatives: The equation: dy dx y ˆ mx ‡ c describes a straight line. here.

dx 1 …n ‡ 1† ˆ n xn ‡ 1 ex ax ae ax dy dx ln x 1 x sin x cos x cos x sin x sin ax a cos ax cos ax a sin ax varies for di€erent values of x. consider the point at x ˆ 10 in each graph in Figure 4. Di€erentiate the following functions with respect to x.g. Their applications are illustrated in the following examples. dx x yˆ Worked example 3 Find dy ˆ 6x2 ‡ 5 dx 4 x2   dy 2 ˆ ˆ4 dx x3 8 x3 dy if y ˆ ln 2x. for a given value of x. dx Derivatives have particular forms and some important ones are listed in Table 3. This is commonly dx known as a derivative. y ˆ 2x3 ‡ 5x ‡ 7 Worked example 2 Find dy 4 if y ˆ 2 . e. From Table 1: y ˆ ln 2 ‡ ln x ln 2 is a constant. The rate of change of y with respect to x is given by the di€erential dy coecient of y with respect to x. 2002 7 . Worked example 1 Di€erentiate the function y ˆ 2x3 ‡ 5x ‡ 7 with respect to x. (a) y ˆ 3x ‡ 6 (b) y ˆ 4x2 ‡ 8x 9 (c) y ˆ 2x 1 3 (e) y ˆ sin 2x ‡ cos 2x (f) y ˆ (d) y ˆ 4x x # Pearson Education Limited. Moreover. we di€erentiate the function y with respect to x in dy order to obtain . dx y ˆ ln 2x . and therefore: dy 1 ˆ dx x Problem set 9 1. c 0 xn nxn 1 ˆx xn ex e y nx n dy . the rate of change of y with respect to x depends on the relationship between x and y.13 Differentiation: an introduction Table 3 Selected standard derivatives y dy dx constant. and is denoted by .

it is an example of a graph that possesses turning points. (a) Find the general form of dx (b) Evaluate this di€erential for x ˆ 908. What is the slope of the curve y ˆ x4 at the point x ˆ 2? 3. x dy for the function y ˆ 2 cos x 3 sin x. Di€erentiate the function y ˆ 2x2 ‡ 4x. # Pearson Education Limited. For the graph of y ˆ . At a minimum. substitution of a given value of x dx allows you to ®nd the gradient of the line or curve at this particular point. Having found the general form of Worked example Find the gradient of the curve: y ˆ 2 ln x at the point x ˆ 20. 5. (a) y ˆ ex (b) y ˆ 3ex (c) y ˆ e2x bx ax bx (d) y ˆ 4e (e) y ˆ e ‡ e (f ) y ˆ e ax Using dy to ®nd a gradient dx dy . Find the derivatives with respect to x of the following functions where a and b are constants. 2.14 MATHEMATICS TUTOR 2. Turning points: d2 y dx 2 Graphs such as that in Figure 5 possess turning points. First. At a maximum. the gradient changes from a positive to negative value. 5 A plot of y ˆ sin x is called a `sine wave'. Does the graph of y ˆ 2 ln x have a positive or negative gradient at the point x ˆ 2:5? 2 4. find dy : dx y ˆ 2 ln x At the point where x ˆ 20: dy 2 ˆ dx x Gradient ˆ dy 2 ˆ ˆ 0:1 dx 20 Problem set 10 dy when 1. the Fig. ®nd the gradient at the point x ˆ 0:5. and ®nd the value of dx x ˆ 3. 2002 .

when: 6x2 ‡ 2x ˆ 0 The solutions of this quadratic equation are found by factorization: 6x2 ‡ 2x ˆ 0 2x…3x ‡ 1† ˆ 0 x…3x ‡ 1† ˆ 0 . ®nd the general forms of dy d2 y and 2 : dx dx y ˆ 2x3 ‡ x2 ‡ 2 dy ˆ 6x2 ‡ 2x dx d2 y ˆ 12x ‡ 2 dx2 The turning points occur when dy ˆ0 dx i. 2002 . xˆ0 or 3x ‡ 1 ˆ 0 xˆ 1 3 Now substitute these values for x into the equations for the turning points: d2 y When x ˆ 0. 2 . Check these de®nitions by looking at Figure 5 which shows two maxima and one minimum. dx dx For a turning point at a maximum: d2 y <0 dx2 For a turning point at a minimum: d2 y >0 dx2 Exactly at the maximum or minimum point (look at Figure 5). di€erentiate again to ®nd 2 . of the graph is zero. dx 1 d2 y . ˆ 12x ‡ 2 ˆ 2 dx2 d2 y and this corresponds to a minimum because 2 > 0. Information about turning points for a function that varies with x can be obtained d2 y by taking the second derivative.e. First. dx Worked example Find the values of x that correspond to turning points in the graph of equation: y ˆ 2x3 ‡ x2 ‡ 2 and identify each turning point as a maximum or minimum.e. of the function.Differentiation: an introduction 15 gradient changes from a negative to positive value. ˆ 12x ‡ 2 ˆ 2 When x ˆ 3 dx2 d2 y and this corresponds to a maximum because 2 < 0. dx # Pearson Education Limited. Once you have found dx dy d2 y . the gradient dy ˆ 0. i.

6 The area under a curve for y ˆ f …x† between speci®ed limits x ˆ a and x ˆ b (the shaded area) is given by the de®nite …b integral f …x† dx. 2002 . Problem set 11 dy d2 y and 2 for the functions (a) y ˆ sin x. between the limits of x ˆ 908 and x ˆ 2708. If y is a funcdx dx 2 dy d y can be written as f 0 …x†. The notation f …x† simply stands for y is a function of x.e. i. Fig. . Show that. Is this a maximum or a minimum? 8 Integration: an introduction A de®nite integral as an area under a curve Consider a curve with the general equation y ˆ f …x†. 4. (b) 2 and (c) information about the turning points of the dx dx graph of this function. between speci®ed limits. Another type of notation is sometimes used for y. then dx dx as f 00 …x†. . when y ˆ 0) and between certain values of x.e.16 MATHEMATICS TUTOR dy d2 y and 2 .e. (b) y ˆ cos x and (c) ln x. For the function: y ˆ 3x3 3x dy d2 y ®nd (a) . For the function: y ˆ x3 ‡ 2x2 ‡ 5 dy d2 y . 1. a # Pearson Education Limited. In Figure 6. the area of the shaded section between the limits of x ˆ a and x ˆ b could be calculated by: . and summing the areas together. (b) ®nd (a) ®nd and (c) determine the turning points of this dx dx2 function. a plot of y ˆ cos x has one turning point. dx dx 2. enclosed by) the x axis (i. ®nding the area of each strip. A plot of a representative function is shown in Figure 6. dividing the shaded region into an in®nite number of vertical strips drawn parallel to the y axis. Suppose you need to determine the area under the curve bounded by (i. and 2 is written tion of x denoted by f …x†. Find 3.

c. c. The reason for this is clear if we consider the following three functions: y ˆ 4x ‡ 3 y ˆ 4x ‡ 10 y ˆ 4x ‡ 22 Di€erentiating each of these equations gives the same answer: … Table 4 Selected standard inde®nite integrals. rearranging the equation as we did earlier in the Mathematics Tutor). The notation for this is b a f …x† dx.e. 2002 … f 0 …x† dx …ln x† ‡ c …n x n ˆ 1) dy ˆ 4. Examples of ®nding areas under curves are given in the discussion of entropy in Chapter 16 of Chemistry. by separating the x and y terms (i. evaluate an inde®nite integral. we have: … … dy ˆ … yˆ f 0 …x† dx f 0 …x† dx If we integrate without limits. then an integration constant. Those listed in Table 4 are inde®nite integrals because there are no limits speci®ed for the integration. must be introduced. If: dy ˆ f 0 …x† dx then. dx 1† 1 …n ‡c 1 1†xn …sin x† ‡ c …cos x† ‡ c sin ax ‡c a cos ax ‡c a 1 ‡c . Inde®nite integrals A second use of integration is to answer the question: `if we have an dy expression for . in each case is f 0 …x† f 0 …x† dx cos x sin x cos ax sin ax # Pearson Education Limited. the integration constant. and integrating.17 Integration: an introduction These three steps can be achieved mathematically in one step by ®nding the de®nite integral of f …x† with respect to…x between the integration limits x ˆ a and x ˆ b. what is the relationship between x and y?' Just as there dx are standard derivatives (see Table 3). f 0 …x† a (a constant) … 1 ˆx 1 x 1 ˆx n xn ax ‡ c 2 x x ‡c 2 xn xn ‡ 1 ‡c n‡1 (except for n ˆ ex ex ‡ c eax eax ‡c a f 0 …x† dx. i. so there are standard integrals. The constant.e.

Notation is important.cˆ3 Therefore. we can write: … y ˆ 4 dx ˆ 4x ‡ c With the information we have. the complete function is: y ˆ 4x ‡ 3 In Chapter 14 of Chemistry. If the curve for this equation passes through the point x ˆ 0. 3 sin x† dx. c can be evaluated. given values of x and y at a particular point. c could be any value and we cannot unambiguously ®nd the function. 2002 . given that y ˆ 0:5 when x ˆ 1. Problem set 12 1. you know the derivative of a function is 4 and you want to ®nd the function.18 MATHEMATICS TUTOR … Suppose now that you are evaluating the integral 4 dx. what is c? … 1 2. 2 x … 3. However. given that y ˆ 2 when Integrating between limits: de®nite integrals Now let us look again at the question of integrating between limits. y ˆ 2. … y dy ˆ …4 1 …4 1 1 speci®es that the upper limit is x ˆ 4 and the lower limit is 3x2 dx  4 ˆ x3 ‡ c 1 # Pearson Education Limited. Worked example Find the area under the curve y ˆ 3x2 between the limits of x ˆ 4 and x ˆ 1. That is. Evaluate the integral y ˆ …2 cos x x ˆ 0. The area under the curve is found by integrating the equation y ˆ 3x2 between the limits of x ˆ 4 and x ˆ 1: … …4 Area ˆ y dy ˆ 3x2 dx The notation x ˆ 1. and the application of integration to ®nding the area under a curve. if we know that y ˆ 7 when x ˆ 1. Evaluate the integral y ˆ dx. From Table 4. For example. and is best illustrated with an example. then we can write: y ˆ 4x ‡ c 7ˆ4‡c . The integrated form of an equation is: y ˆ 3x2 ‡ 6x ‡ c. integration constants come into calculations involving rate equations.

2002 . Further practice is provided in the following books: # Pearson Education Limited. 2 2. notation is important. Exponential decay follows the dependence: yˆe x and is an example of a function that tends to in®nity. 7 A graph of the function y ˆ e x. but it only reaches zero when x is in®nity (x ˆ 1). Figure 7 shows a plot of e x against x. 1:2 9 Functions that tend to in®nity Exponential decay is an important concept for reaction kinetics and this is discussed in Chapter 14 of Chemistry. the function e x decreases. … 2:3 1 4 (c) x 1 dx. and the upper and lower limits must be shown. It is usual only to show that the curve tends towards a value of x ˆ 1. c. e0 ˆ 1. For x ˆ 0. Evaluate the de®nite integrals (a) …x ‡ 1† dx.  4 Area ˆ x3 ‡ c 1 ˆ ‰43 ‡ cŠ ‰13 ‡ cŠ ˆ 63 square units Notice that the integration constants. The concepts of vectors and partial di€erentials are introduced as required in the main textbook Chemistry. we have summarized some important mathematical skills required for ®rst year university chemistry. and so the curve has a ®nite starting point. Find the area bounded by the x axis and the part of the curve y ˆ 3x3 ‡ 6x2 5 that lies between … 1the limits x ˆ 5 and … 6 x ˆ 0. As x increases.Summary and further reading 19 Again. (b) ex dx. Fig. cancel and so there is no need to evaluate c. This notation stands for the di€erence between the integrals when x ˆ 4 and x ˆ 1. 10 Summary and further reading In the Mathematics Tutor. Problem set 13 1. The general integral is written within square brackets.

(a) 0. because each length is given to 2 sig. 8. Sutcli€e (1995) Mathematics for Chemistry. ®g. (f) 4. (c) 1. 2002 3:5 . 5. (b) 4. (b) 0. or x ˆ 1:0 # Pearson Education Limited.48. (c) 0. 7. (c) 6. (d) 4 2. (b) 211. (b) x ˆ 0. 3. (c) 3. 4. 2.35. 3. (c) 0. (b) 1.) 1. (d) (a) 21. (e) 7.35.9 m Problem set 3 1. 6. (c) 3. S. or x ˆ 2. (d) 15. 3. Answers to problem sets Problem set 1 1. 4.707. Doggett and B. (d) 4:74  10 7 . (b) 63:08. (b) 3:4  10 10 m. (b) 3.4 cm. or x ˆ 0:085 x ˆ 0:22. Harlow.7 Problem set 6 1.60. 5.2 cm 47. Scott (1995) Beginning Mathematics in Chemistry. 4. (a) 1:25  10 10 m.K.T.532 658 (a) 3 cm. Oxford. (b) 22 cm2 78 cm3 (to 2 sig.58. (e) 2:2  102 2. (c) 85:08 Problem set 2 1.943 3.7 mm3 (a) 65:08.174. (b) 5.58. (b) 5 cm y2 x 2 z 2 sin2  ‡ cos2  ˆ 2 ‡ 2 ˆ 2 ˆ 1 z z z 3. 2. (c) 2:0  10 5 . (a) 4.588. (b) 2. (d) 4:68  105 Problem set 7 1. (a) 9. Oxford University Press. (e) 3.20 MATHEMATICS TUTOR G.45 m Problem set 5 2.87.93. ®g. (e) 4 (a) 3.0 cm. Longman. (h) 2 (c). (a) 6. (d) 1. 10. (g) 1. (b) 0. or x ˆ 13 (a) x ˆ 1. (c) 0.8 cm2 . (d) 1. 6. (b) 18. (d) 2. (a) 2. y ˆ log z. (a) 8. (b) 10 cm (a) 0. (c) 1. or x ˆ x ˆ 3:9. x ˆ 1. (a) 2:1  105 .2 cm 2 (a) 16. 2.

y ˆ 4:0x 7:12 3. (a) Problem set 12 1. y ˆ 1:5 1 # Pearson Education Limited. 4. when x ˆ 3. the volume occupied by the gas is 0 m3 . 2002 . (d) 4bebx . (c) experimental data may contain erroneous points or points of low precision. at x ˆ 2:5. (c) 2. 2. (b) 8x ‡ 8. ˆ sin x. gradient is positive dx x dy 2 ˆ . (b) 2 (a) dx Problem set 11 dy d2 y dy d2 y dy 1 ˆ cos x. (b) c ˆ 0. y ˆ 6:3x ‡ 2:1 2. gradient ˆ 8 dx x2 dy ˆ 2 sin x 3 cos x. other turndx dx ing points are outside the limits of x ˆ 908 and x ˆ 2708 1. ˆ 32 dx dx dy 2 ˆ . (f ) ae ax 1 x2 Problem set 10 1. 5. (b) 3ex . (a) 3x2 ‡ 4x. ˆ 16 dx dx dy dy ˆ 4x3 . (b) ˆ sin x. (e) aeax ‡ bebx . 2 ˆ sin x. and any calculation should not be biased towards these points 4. y ˆ 2 sin x ‡ 3 cos x 2.21 Answers to problem sets Problem set 8 1. (c) ˆ . (a) y ˆ 18x ‡ 11:9. (a) ex . (b) 6x ‡ 4. dy dy ˆ 4x ‡ 4. turning point at 1808 (minimum). c ˆ 2 1 x 3. dx dx dx x dx dx d2 y 1 ˆ dx2 x2 1 2. (b) y ˆ 0:082x Problem set 9 1. (b) 18x. (f ) 2. 2 ˆ cos x. when x ˆ 2. (e) 2 cos 2x 2 sin 2x. (a) 3. (c) 2e2x . this can be seen from equation. (a) 9x2 3. 2 ˆ cos x. (c) turning points at x ˆ 0 (minimum) and 4 (maximum) xˆ 3 dy d2 y 4. physical signi®cance is that at 0 K. (d) 12x 4 . (c) turning points at x ˆ p (minimum) and 3 1 x ˆ p (maximum) 3 3. 3.

(c) 0. (b) 349. (a) . 2002 . 694 square units 8 2.65 3 # Pearson Education Limited.22 MATHEMATICS TUTOR Problem set 13 1.

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