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# singh (mms3363) HW7-a li (55140)

## This print-out should have 11 questions.

Multiple-choice questions may continue on
the next column or page find all choices
001 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points

For the case of Fig(a), the field in the filament is E. The circuit satisfies the loop equation: = E L and the electron current is
i.
Now consider the circuit of Fig(b). Define

## E1 to be the electric field through the top

bulb, E2L
be the electric field in the lower-left

## bulb, and E2R

to be the electric field in the
lower-right bulb.
Choose the answer that identifies the correct statements from the following list.

(Ia) E1 = E2L

(IIa) E2L
> E2R

(IIIa) E2L
+ E2R
= E1

(IIIb) E2L
+ E2R
> E1

## 1. Ib, IIa, IIIb

2. Ib, IIb, IIIa correct
3. Ib, IIa, IIIa
4. Ia, IIa, IIIb
5. Ia, IIb, IIIb
6. Ia, IIa, IIIa
7. Ia, IIb, IIIa
8. Ib, IIb, IIIb
From a microscopic point of view, the important quantities in a circuit analysis are the
fields and the electron currents. This problem
concerns the circuits shown in figures (a) and
(b). The bulbs in both circuits are identical
and have a filament length L, while the batteries are also identical with emf, . Assume
the potential difference along the connecting
wires in both circuits is negligible.

Explanation:
From Fig(b), the loop equations imply that

= E1 L and = E2L
L + E2R
L. This

## implies that E2L + E2R = E1 and E1 > E2L

.
So Ib and IIIa are correct.
In the steady state, the currents through
the two lower bulbs must be the same. In turn
the corresponding driving fields through the

## two bulbs are also the same, i.e. E2L

= E2R
.
So IIb is correct.

## From the node rule, we obtain

002 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
Denote the current through the top branch be
i1 and the current through the bottom branch
to be i2 .
Choose the answer that identifies the correct statements from the following list.
(Ia) i1 = i
(Ib) i1 < i

ibattery = i1 + i2 = i +

i
3
= i
2
2

## So, the correct answer is IIIa.

(IIa) i2 = i
i
(IIb) i2 =
2
3
i
2
= 2i

(IIIa) ibattery =
(IIIb) ibattery

## 003 (part 1 of 5) 10.0 points

The following questions correspond to the figure shown, consisting of two flashlight batteries and two Nichrome wires of different
lengths and different thicknesses as shown
(corresponding roughly to your own thick and
thin Nichrome wires).

+

## 5. Ib, IIb, IIIa

6. Ia, IIb, IIIb
7. Ia, IIa, IIIb
8. Ia, IIb, IIIa correct
Explanation:
The loop equations from Fig(a) and Fig(b)
imply that = E L = E1 L. Hence, the
corresponding currents should be the same
which implies that i1 = i. Ia is the correct
From part 1, the loop equations imply =

2E2 L, so E2 =
. Compared to the top
2L
branch case the field is reduced by half, so the
corresponding current should also be reduced
i
and hence IIb is the correct
by half. i2 =
2
choice.

The thin wire is 55 cm long, and its diameter is 0.25 mm. The thick wire is 12 cm long,
and its diameter is 0.35 mm.
The emf of each flashlight battery is 1.4 V.
Determine the steady-state electric field inside each Nichrome wire. Remember that in
the steady state you must satisfy both the
current node rule and energy conservation.
These two principles give you two equations
for the two unknown fields.
Find the electric field in the thin wire first.
Explanation:
Apply the loop rule. Call the thin wire 1
and the thick wire 2.
2 emf E1 L1 E2 L2 = 0
Apply the node rule.

## singh (mms3363) HW7-a li (55140)

i1 = i2
nA1 uE1 = nA2 uE2
A1 E 1 = A2 E 2
A2
E1 =
E2
A1
(0.35 mm)2
E2
=
(0.25 mm)2
= 1.96E2

t1 =

L1
v1

0.55 m
0.000412287 m/s
= 1334.02 s

For wire 2,

## Substitute into the loop equation.

2 emf 1.96E2 L1 E2 L2 = 0
2 emf E2 (1.96L1 + L2 ) = 0
2 emf
1.96L1 + L2
2(1.4 V)
=
(1.96)(0.55 m) + (0.12 m)
= 2.33723 V/m

E2 =

v2 = uE2


5 m/s
= 9 10
(2.33723 V/m)
V/m
= 0.000210351 m/s
L2
t2 =
v2
0.12 m
=
0.000210351 m/s
= 570.476 s

## So, E1 = 1.96 E2 = 4.58097 V/m .

004 (part 2 of 5) 10.0 points
Find the electric field in the thick wire.

t = t1 + t2
= 1334.02 s + 570.476 s
= 1904.5 s .

Explanation:
See Explanation 1.
005 (part 3 of 5) 10.0 points
How long does it take an electron to drift
through both Nichrome wires if electron mobility in Nichrome is 9 105 (m/s)(N/C).
Explanation:
v = uE, so calculate drift speed and t
for each wire separately since v is different for
each wire.


5 m/s
v1 = 9 10
(4.58097 V/m)
V/m
= 0.000412287 m/s

## 006 (part 4 of 5) 10.0 points

On the other hand, about how long did it take
to establish the steady state when the circuit
was first assembled?
1. 2.23333 109 s correct
2. 0.00223333 s
3. 2233.33 s
4. 2.23333 106 s
5. 2.23333 s
Explanation:
The minimum time required to reach steady
state is given by the speed of light. Using
L = L1 + L2 = 0.67 m

## singh (mms3363) HW7-a li (55140)

Explanation:
The potential difference is given by the loop
equation

L
c=
t
L
t =
c
0.67 m
=
3 108 m/s

## (VC VF ) (VC VD ) (VD VE ) = 0

which may be rewritten as
(VC VD ) = (VC VF ) (VD VE )
(VC VD ) = 5 V 4.5 V

= 2.23333 109 s .
Notice that this is much smaller than the
time interval for a mobile electron to travel
around the circuit.
007 (part 5 of 5) 10.0 points
There are about 7 1028 mobile electrons per
cubic meter in Nichrome. How many electrons
cross the junction between the two wires every
second?

(VC VD ) = 0.5 V
009 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
If the element between C and D is a battery,
is the (+) end of the battery at C or at D?
1. D
2. There is no positive end.
3. C correct

Explanation:
The electron current is

Explanation:
The positive end of the battery is at C,
since point C is at a higher potential.

i1 = nA1 uE1
(0.00025 m)2
= (7 1028 m3 )
 4

m/s
(4.58097 V/m)
9 105
V/m
= 1.41667 1018 electrons/s .

010

10.0 points

## In the circuit below, a mechanical battery

keeps a steady-state current flowing in a wire
that has a rather low electron mobility.

## 008 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points

In the diagram below, suppose that VC VF
= 5 V, and that VD VE = 4.5 V. What is
the potential difference VC VD ?
Bb

Cb
Loop
1

Db
Loop
2

## 1 The electric field inside the wire varies in

magnitude, depending upon location.

## singh (mms3363) HW7-a li (55140)

2 At location 3 inside the wire the electric
field points to the right.
3 The electric field is zero at all locations
inside the metal wire.
4 At location 3, the electric field points to the
left.
5 The magnitude of the electric field inside
the wire is the same at all locations.
6 Mobile electrons inside the wire push each
other through the wire.
7 The electric field is parallel to the wire at
every location within the wire.
8 The nonzero electric field inside the wire is
created by excess charges on the surface of
the wire and by the mechanical battery.

corresponding to the correct statements, with
the numbers separated by commas
Explanation:
Lets examine each of these claims individually:

1 is incorrect. Since the circuit is in a steadystate, current is the same everywhere in the
circuit. From I = |q|nAuE, since current is
constant and the wire is of uniform dimensions and composition, E must also be the
same throughout the wire.
2 is correct. E points from positive to negative by inspection, E must point to the
right at 3.
3 is incorrect. This would be true if the wire
were in static equilibrium, but since current
is flowing, it is not. The circuit is in a
steady-state, which should not be confused
with static equilibrium.
4 is incorrect. Electric fields point from positive to negative charges by inspection,
E must point to the right at 3.
5 is correct. Since the circuit is in a steadystate, I is constant. From I = |q|nAuE, E
must be the same everywhere since n, A,
and u are the same throughout the circuit.

6 is incorrect. Excess surface charge generates the electric field that drives the flow
of electrons. The net electric force on an
electron due to charges inside the wire is
zero.
7 is correct. Since current flows parallel to the
wire at every location and the direction of
current flow is determined by the direction
of the electric field, E must be parallel to
the wire at every location.
8 is correct. The battery is the source of
excess charge, and drives the transient process whereby a surface charge gradient is
built on the wire surface that ensures uniformity of the electric field throughout the
circuit.

## 011 10.0 points

A circuit constructed from two batteries and
two wires, as shown in the Figure below.
Each battery has an emf of 1.3 V. Each
wire is 42 cm long and has a diameter of
0.0007 m. The wires are made of a metal
that has 7 1028 electron/m3 mobile electrons per cubic meter; the electron mobility is 5 105 (m/s)/(V/m). A steady current runs through the circuit. The locations
marked by x and labeled by a letter are in
the interior of the wire.

## How many electrons per second enter the

positive end of the battery 2?
Explanation:
let : E1 = E2 = E = 1.3 V ,

## singh (mms3363) HW7-a li (55140)

L1 = L2 = L = 42 cm = 0.42 m ,
n = 7 1028 electron/m3 ,
d = 0.0007 m , and
u = 5 105 (m/s)/(V/m) .
The electrons per second enter the positive
end of the battery 2 is i = n A u E, where
(E1 + E2 )
E
E=
= , where L is the length of
2L
L
each wire. So

n (d/2)2 u E
i=
L
n d2 u E
=
4L
= (7 1028 electron/m3 )(0.0007 m)2
(5 105 (m/s)/(V/m))(1.3 V)
4(0.42 m)
18
= 4.17 10 electrons/s .