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A&P STUDY GUIDE

ROOT WORDS

A root is the core of a word. Think of it as an


actual root; when you add affixes to a root
word, it grows into something larger and more
meaningful.

FOR EXAMPLE:
Electr(o) is the root word for electricity.
Add the suffix -cardiogram (record of the
heart) to that word and it becomes:
Electrocardiogram
An electrocardiogram (ECG) interprets
the hearts electrical activity to diagnose
possible cardiac issues.

Got it? Great.


Lets begin.

Aden/o
gland

Adenoids are glands located in the roof of the


mouth that produce antibodies.

Arthr/o
joint

Arthritis patients account for over 44 million


outpatient visits to U.S. hospitals each year.

Bi/o
life

Biohazards are biological substances that


pose a threat to living things.

Carcin/o
cancer

A carcinogen is an agent, such as tobacco,


that may cause cancer.

Cardi/o
heart

Cardiology is the medical field that deals with


the diagnosis and treatment of heart anomalies.

Encephal/o
brain

Encephalitis is a potentially serious inflammation


of the brain caused by a viral infection.

Cyst/o
urinary bladder

A cystoscopy allows doctors to look at the


inner lining of the urinary bladder.

Cyt/o
cell

Cytoplasm is the gel-like substance that resides


outside the nucleus of a cell.

Derm(at)/o
skin

A dermatologist is a doctor who specializes in


treating skin conditions.

Erythr/o
red

An erythrocyte is a red blood cell.

Gastr/o
stomach/digestion

Gastroenteritis is the medical term for a


stomach flu.

Gynec/o
woman/female

A gynecologist specializes in treating conditions


of the female reproductive system.

Hem(at)/o
blood

Hemophilia is a rare disorder in which blood


does not clot properly.

Hepat/o
liver

Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver.

Lapar/o
abdomen

A laparoscope is a tiny camera that allows


doctors to view the abdominal or pelvic cavity.

Leuk/o
white

The bone marrow of a person afflicted with


leukemia produces abnormal white blood cells.

Nephr/o
kidney

Nephrons are the units within the kidneys that


produce urine in the process of removing waste
from blood.

Neur/o
nerve

Neurology is the study of disorders of the


nervous system.

Opthalm/o
eye

An ophthalmic migraine is a visual aura that


precedes a migraine.

Oste/o
bone

Osteoporosis, or weakened bones, affects over


52 million Americans.

Path/o
disease

Pathology is the study of diseases.

Rhin/o
nose

Rhinitis, or inflammation of the mucous membrane


within the nose, is one of the most common
symptoms that accompany the common cold.

Sarc/o
flesh

A sarcoma is a tumor that arises from certain


tissues, such as bone, muscle, or deep-skin tissues.

Thromb/o
clot

Deep-vein thrombosis is a clot that usually forms


within the veins of the lower limbs.

Nephrolithiasis is:
a. a mass in the liver
b. a kidney stone
c. an infection of the urinary bladder
d. colon cancer

answer: b

A hematoma is:
a. inflammation of the head
b. a punctured lung
c. a lump on one or both kidneys
d. a collection of blood outside the
blood vessels

answer: d

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