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INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background of Experiment
Spray drying is a very widely applied, technical method used to dry aqueous or organic

solutions, emulsion and others in industrial chemistry and food industry. Dry milk powder,
detergents and dyes are just a few spray dried products currently available. Spray drying can be
used to preserve food or simply as a quick drying method. It also provides the advantage of
weight and volume reduction. It is the transformation of feed from a fluid state into a dried
particulate form by spraying the feed into a hot drying medium.
The spray drying is the most widely used in industrial process for particle formation and
drying. It is well suited for continuous production of dry solids in powder, granulate or
agglomerate form from a liquid feed. Basically, spray drying is accomplished by atomizing feed
liquid into a drying chamber through a rotating wheel or nozzle, where the small droplets are
subjected to a stream of hot air and converted to powder particles as a result of moisture
evaporation. The resulting rapid evaporation maintains a low droplet temperature so that high
drying air temperatures can be applied without affecting the product.
As the powder is discharged from the drying chamber, it is passed through a powder/air
separator and collected for packaging. Most spray dryers are equipped for primary powder
collection at efficiency of about 99.5 % and most can be supplied with secondary collection
equipment if necessary.

1.2

Objectives of Experiment
To study the process of spray drying which is applied to dry aqueous organic solutions,

emulsion and others.

Experiment 5: Spray Dryer | 4SKKK SECTION 04

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3 Scope of Experiment The experiment was conducted by a group of four people in Separation 2 Laboratory. University Technology Malaysia. All the apparatus setup was provided in the laboratory and the experiment was carried out on the 21th September 2014. This experiment is only as a fundamental reference for further laboratory study. Experiment 5: Spray Dryer | 4SKKK SECTION 04 2 .1.

multiple of spray dryer effects are used to dry the liquid in one stage. maximizing heat transfer and the rate of water vaporization. Usually the solid is collected in a drum or cyclone. the solvent in the droplets evaporate. The spray dryer used some type of atomizer or spray nozzle in order to disperse the liquid into a controlled drop size spray. In spray drying the suspension or solution feed is atomized and the droplet formed comes into contact with hot gas. It takes liquid stream and separates the solute as a solid and the solvent into a vapor. The bottom of the chamber allows the fluidizing powder inside a humid atmosphere to agglomerate to fine the particles with medium particle size. In order to reduce the dusts and increase the flow ability of the powders. The co. the spray dryer can dry the product very quickly compared with other methods of drying.current or counter current flow to the atomizer direction. A spray dryer is a device used in the spray drying method. Generally. which can be advantageous for profit maximization and process simplification. leaving a dry powdered product. the fines generated by the first stage drying can be recycled in continuous flow either at the top chamber or at the bottom of the chamber.0 Theory 2. When the droplets and the heated gas come into contact. Then. The drying of the powder can be finalized on the external vibrating fluidized bed. The solids form moisture quickly leaves the droplets. the range of droplets size is between 20 to 180µm depending on the nozzle. The hot drying gas can be passed as a co. Furthermore.1 Spray dryer Spray drying is widely used in the industry for conversion of a suspension or solution into a dry products. The liquid input stream is sprayed through a nozzle into a hot vapor stream and then vaporized. This method usually used in industrial technique used on large scale for drying and powdering very thermally sensitive materials such as foods and pharmaceuticals.2. The function of the nozzle is to make the droplets as small as possible.current flow enables the particles to have a lower residence time within the system and Experiment 5: Spray Dryer | 4SKKK SECTION 04 3 . The liquid state turn into dried powder in a single step. There are two steps in drying process which are one at the top (as per single effect) and an integrated static bed at the bottom of the chamber.

Usually. stevia. and colorings. Pharmaceutical: antibiotics. Application of spray dryer Food industry: milk powder. the counter. Figure 2.3 Function of spray dryer Experiment 5: Spray Dryer | 4SKKK SECTION 04 4 . and II. additives Industrial: paint pigments. III. eggs. starch derivatives. catalyst supports and microalgae. vitamins.current flow method enables a greater residence time of the particles in the chamber and usually is paired of spray dryer in food and drug production. medical ingredients. cereal. flavorings. starch. 2.1: The spray Dryer 2. tea.the particle separator operates more efficiently. ceramic materials. enzymes. spices.2 I. coffee.

chemical/ physical properties of heat. and the higher the outlet temperature. 2. cm3 P1 = Pressure after applying pressure on the standard density P2 = Pressure after taking Vc into account IV.I. the larger will be the size of powder recovery equipment and conveying ducts. The parameters of spray dryer Inlet temperature: The higher the temperature inlet. A device used to produce dried foods Produce a good quality final product with low water activity and reduce the weight. Volume of particulate powder obtained: V P =V R [ ( )] P1 −1 P2 Where: Vp = Volume of particulate powder. cm3 VR = Standard volume.4 I. the powder. The outlet temperature also controls the final moisture content of III. the faster is the moisture evaporation but the powder is subjected to higher temperatures. II. resulting in easy storage and transportation.sensitive products. Outlet temperature: This governs the sizing of powder recovery equipment. which may distort the II. Overall thermal efficiency: ηoverall = [ ] T Ai−T ×100 T Ai −T ∞ Ao Experiment 5: Spray Dryer | 4SKKK SECTION 04 5 .

ii. dry creamer and instant soups also can be spray. 2.formulated products Microencapsulation. the compound once it has been dissolved in water for easier absorption. Other than that. Pharmaceuticals: Some pharmaceuticals occur in crystal form. making them difficult to use. allowing the iii. butter and dry creamer are common items made using the spray drying technique. Atomization of a liquid feed into fine droplets. solid solutions Improved bioavailability.5 Principle of spray dryer There are three fundamental steps involved in spray drying: i.7 Advantages of spray drying technology i. improved product stability Products with unusual or difficult characteristics Sticky or hygroscopic products Difficult to isolate products Rapid drying for temperature sensitive materials. instant coffee. vii. such as milk. so they are currently unused because of bioavailability. the spray dryer dry ii. Food products: The quick process of spray drying keeps flavor loss to a minimum. iii. Mixing of these spray droplets with a heated gas stream. Typical application in pre. liquid to evaporate and leave dried solids.dried and previously Experiment 5: Spray Dryer | 4SKKK SECTION 04 6 . cheese.Where: TAi = The inlet air temperature TAo = The outlet air temperature T∞ = The ambient temperature 2. 2. Dairy products. vi. It do not easily dissolve in water and are absorbed slowly. So.6 Benefits of spray dryer i. Dried powder is separate from gas steam and collected. iv. v. ii.

the milk emulsion is concentrated and after that the concentrated emulsion becomes ready for spray drying. 6. because of the process extends the product’s shelf iii. Finally. 4. Milk droplets shrink in size as water is evaporated from its surface. The droplets fall into the spray chamber in a concurrent flow with a hot air. in fabrics and clothing. The dyes are allowed to dissolve in liquids that can then dye iv. which located at the top of the spray chamber. 3.spray. The cyclone chamber on the holder is installed The nozzle housing is installed The sample (liquid) is prepared the power supply and the main switch in a panel spray drier is switched on Set the temperature (inlet) The blower and the heater is switched on Outlet temperature increased until 100°C The feed pump is switched on Experiment 5: Spray Dryer | 4SKKK SECTION 04 7 . Industrial products: Spray dryers give an advantage in many commercial and industrial industries. 5. The concentrated emulsion is atomized into droplets by a centrifuged atomizer or high pressure spray nozzle. the moisture in the emulsion droplets is removed by hot air. 7. Spray drying keeps the retail price of such foods low. clothes and fabrics. life. The production of milk powder using spray drying technique: Milk powder production is an example of spray drying. and spraydried pigments appear in many wall paints. During the process of milk powder production. For example. 2. 8. after cooling stages. Spray dryers reduce the size of particles found in dyes to allow more consistent and convenient dispersion into paints.0 Methodology 3.1 General Set-up Procedures 1. the droplets lost most of their moisture and become particles with a solid crust formed at their surfaces 3.dried foods often serve as baby foods.

754 8.2 General Shut-down Procedures 1. 4.3. 2. The feed pump and the blower The heater is switched off and temperature outlet is decreased in range 35-40°C The main switch in a panel spray drier and the power supply The sample is taken out while the cyclone chamber and housing nozzle is removed 4.941 99.321 Test 2 Test 3 Average 6.941 84.2: Experiment result of inlet and outlet temperature Operation state Before experiment During experiment After experiment Inlet temperature (⁰C) 199 200 199 Outlet Temperature (⁰C) 100 93 89 Experiment 5: Spray Dryer | 4SKKK SECTION 04 8 . 3.0 RESULT Table 4.1: Experiment result of particulate powder’s density Data Test 1 Volume of particles 12.754 6. Vp (cm3) Density of 54.645 99.⍴ (kg/m3) Table 4.734 particulate powder.426 powder.

0 DISCUSSION Figure 5.Thermal efficiency (ŋoverall) = 61.1 Process Flow Diagram for Entire Spray Drying System Experiment 5: Spray Dryer | 4SKKK SECTION 04 9 .14% 5.

From the figure above. Air is heated by heating element before it enters the chamber. It is the simplest technique used by commercial industry to convert the fluid material into solid or semi-solid particles where the product is heat sensitive or heat resistant. Then. The main driving force is the temperature difference between the surrounding air and the temperature of particle or known as the wet bulb temperature of the inlet air. In spray drying process. the spray dryer uses hot air to evaporate water from the product.Figure 5. The function of nozzle is to make droplets as small as possible to maximize heat and mass transfer and rate of Experiment 5: Spray Dryer | 4SKKK SECTION 04 10 . The hot air used is air or inert gas (nitrogen gas). the spray dryer pump a liquid stream into drying chamber and separate the solute as solid and the solvent into a vapour. the liquid input stream is sprayed through a nozzle or atomizer by a hot vapour stream and vaporized. The hot air used is air or inert gas (nitrogen gas). After that. the bulk liquid will be converted into droplets or mist though a nozzle.2 Process Block Diagram for Entire Spray Drying System Spray drying process is one of the drying techniques used for production of food powders.

the heat loss is negligible. the overall thermal efficiency (ηoverall) can be approximated to the relation: Experiment 5: Spray Dryer | 4SKKK SECTION 04 11 . However. due to the fluctuate of the value given by the meter. the spray dryers are equipped with the filters (bag filters) in order to remove the finest powder. When the hot air and the droplet contact with each other. the average density of the milk particulate powder is 84. For industrial based drying process. the choice of atomizer depends on the nature and the configuration of feed a well as desired product characteristic. Meanwhile. Chemical scrubber is used to remove the remaining powder or volatile pollutants. According to Singh and Dixit (2014). nozzle size varies from ranges of 20µm to 180µm. while only dried particulate is taken into account. that is. The large difference is mainly due to the errors occurring during the experiment. micropycnometry is not exactly calibrated at zero. filaments are usually formed. Therefore the mass of the particulate is affected.734kg/m3. The solid particles are precipitated at the bottom part of the bottle. the major difficulty in spray drying milk solutions is encountered in attempting the formation of droplets during the spray drying operation. Drying is finished when the particle temperature is equal to the air temperature. the performance of spray drying is calculated which is measured in terms of thermal efficiency by using temperature measured during the experiment. Formation of these filaments also results in a considerable loss of milk during drying because of plastering of the walls of the spray dryer and incomplete drying of the product. and this causes the water cannot evaporate from the solution effectively. Research need to be done in order to find a more suitable temperature for this experiment. it is different with the standard density value of milk which is 1035 kg/m3. These are caused by premature drying of liquid filaments formed near the spray nozzle before they can be broken up into droplets. The dried powder product will be separated by using a cyclone where dense particles are recovered at the drying chamber base. In common. On the other hand. Using the.water vaporization. it will evaporate the moisture content of droplet and changes it into powder form. the product collected into the small sample cell for measuring density is not including the wet product. From the result obtained. Instead. However. If the drying process is assumed to be adiabatic. Other than that. the input temperature set may not the most suitable for the separation process to happen.

The effect of drying air flow rate on powder solubility depends on its effect Experiment 5: Spray Dryer | 4SKKK SECTION 04 12 . there is a greater temperature gradient between the atomized feed and drying air and it results the greatest driving force for water evaporation. the particle remains more shrunk and smaller. respectively and T is the ambient air temperature. Nijdam (2006) were obtained the similar results in the production of milk powder at 120°C and 200°C. the recovery percentage can be increased.14%. Secondly. This is related to the water concentration gradient between the product and the surrounding air. when the drying temperature is lower. If temperature is low. the skin remains moist and supple for longer. By increasing the inlet temperature. At higher inlet air temperatures. However. the passage of spray through the drying zone and the concentration of product in the region of the dryer walls and finally extent the semi-dried droplets and thus re-enter the hot areas around the air disperser. When the drying temperature is sufficiently high and the moisture is evaporated very quickly and the skin becomes dry and hard. There are some modifications that can be made on the existing system to increase the recovery percentage of product. T  T Ao    100%  overall   Ai  T Ai  T  where TAi and TAo are the inlet and outlet air temperatures. The increase of inlet temperatures has given the higher process yield and it was due to the greater efficiency of heat and mass transfer processes occurring when higher inlet air temperatures were used. the hollow particle cannot deflate when vapor condenses within the vacuole as the particle moves into cooler regions of the dryer. so that the hollow particle can deflate and shrivel as it cools. The use of higher inlet air temperature leads to the production of larger particles and causes the higher swelling. A lower drying air flow rate causes an increase in the product halting time in drying chamber and enforces the circulatory effects. the rate of air flow must be at a maximum in all cases. The thermal efficiency found in the experiment is 61. The higher drying temperature is lower the moisture content and increase its hygroscopicity. As a result. The movement of air is decided the rate and degree of droplet evaporation by inducing. which is great for the less moist powder.

6.734 kg/m3 and overall thermal efficiency for the spray dryer was 61. 1998).on powder moisture content and density of powder. The rising of air flow rate was led to the increased of powder moisture content and decrease in powder solubility (Papadakis. The density measured was 84. Experiment 5: Spray Dryer | 4SKKK SECTION 04 13 . The measured density of milk is different with the standard value which is 1035 kg/m 3.0 CONCLUSION The objective of this experiment had been achieved as the milk which was fed in liquid had been evaporated into dry particulates through the spray dryer. This may due to some errors occurred during the experiment. The spray drying system needs to be modified in order to have better efficiency in recovering products. Density variation can arise from temperature changes and migrating pollution. the smaller droplets were produced and more moisture was evaporated resulting from an increased contact surface. at higher atomizer speed. Lastly.14%. By using COMSOL multi physics we can able to get the exact solution which is used for both temperature and concentration changes.

pharmainfo. Modeling and simulation of milk emulsion drying in spray dryers. 19(4). Laura Passos. No. Vol. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering. 467. 2012. M. 2009. The Influence of Spray Dryer operation variables on Milk Powder Quality. 1. 272284.September. Cloria R. Mujumdar. Viviane S. Wildhagen and Arun. 5. Spray Dryer:A Review.net/reviews/spray-drying-review. Experiment 5: Spray Dryer | 4SKKK SECTION 04 14 . Passos. Drying 2004. A.1306. Dr. 2. 22. 1297. V. 389-396.S. 3. Mukesh Gohel. Birchall. Journal of Environment Science. International Food Research Journal.REFERENCES 1.Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium (IDS 2004).November 2012. M. 22-25 August 2004.L. vol. Spray Drying as an Appropriate Technology for the Food and Pharmaceutical Industries. 2. Vol. 4. S. Phisut. Computer Science and Engineering & Technology. June 2005. http://www. N. retrieved on 27 September 2014.476. Spray drying technique of fruit juice powder: some factors influencing the properties of products. 3.S Birchal. Felix Engman. No.

P. after taking Vc into account Experiment 5: Spray Dryer | 4SKKK SECTION 04 15 . 2014.6.html. 4(1). J. APPENDIX Table Appendix 1: Experimental result of calculation of particulate density Data for calculation of particulate powder’s density Total weight (g) 5.430 Weight of sample (g) 0. 2014. 1-8. VR (cm3) 6. E.732 16. https://www.402 5.537 8. 126. 8. Characterization of industrial dried whey emulsion at different stages of spray drying. 190-197. retrieved on 27 September 2014.675 Standard volume.Donz. Spray Drying. 7. Vol.princeton. 2005.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Spray_drying. Boiron.L Courthaudon.903 P1 = Pressure. Journal of Food Engineering.28 3 Volume of sample cell. A review on spray drying: Emerging technology in Food Industry. Vc (cm ) 11. Charles Onwulata.493 16.105 Weight of beaker (g) 4.67 Total drying time (min) 24 min 40 s Table Appendix 2: Experimental result of pressure Data P1 P2 Where: Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 16. Samatha Singh.062 7. after applying pressure on the standard density P2 = Pressure. International Journal of Applied Engineering and Technology. Deepa Dixit.

Sample calculation (A) Calculation of volume of particulate powder.14 Experiment 5: Spray Dryer | 4SKKK SECTION 04 16 .675 ( g ) 1000 kg 12. V p=6.493 −1 5.537 ) ] V p=12.321 kg /m (C) Calculation of thermal efficiency (ŋoverall) ( ŋoverall = T Ai−T Ao ×100 T Ai−T ∞ ) ×100 ( 200−93 200−25 ) ŋoverall = ŋoverall =61.426 (B) Calculation of particulate powder’s density (kg/m 3) density . ρ= 0.426( cm3 ) m3 3 ρ=54.28 [( 16. Vp (cm3) V p=V R [( ) ] P1 −1 P2 for test 1. ρ= mass of particulate powder ( g) 1000 kg 3 3 volume of particulate powder (cm ) m for test 1.

Experiment 5: Spray Dryer | 4SKKK SECTION 04 17 .