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Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing

Instructors:
A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos, George J. Cokkinides, GIT, Hilton Mills, HP&D
Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.1

NOTICE
This material may not be reproduced without the written consent of the developer.
The developer is neither responsible nor liable for any conclusions and results
obtained through the use of this material.

For further information, contact:


Dr. A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos,
Georgia Power Distinguished Professor
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250,
Telephone: 404 894-2926
Email: sakis.m@gatech.edu or sakis@comcast.net

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.2

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing


Day 1
Grounding System Design Principles
Basic Concepts
Accidental Electrocution Circuit Parameters
Safety Criteria
IEEE Std 80 2000 Edition
IEC-479-1
Lightning and EMC
Integrated 3-D Design Procedures

Grounding System Performance


Ground Potential Rise
Fault Current Distribution
Transferred Voltages
Touch and Step Voltages
Influence on Comm/Control Circuits
Influence on Pipelines
Analysis Methods

IEEE Std 80 Design Procedures


Conductor and Joint Selection
Recommended Design Procedures
Special Points of Danger
Comparison of IEEE Std 80 and IEC-479-1

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.3

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing


Day 2
Soil Characterization
Soil Structures
Measurement Techniques
Soil Samples
Wenner Method
Three Pin Method

Measurement Interpretation
Theory and Limitations

SGM Method
Workshop

System Modeling for Grounding Design


General Principles
Modeling Requirements for GPR
Design Options for GPR Reduction
Modeling Requirements for Shielding Analysis
Workshop

Ground Mat Design for Safety


Touch/Mesh/Step Voltages
Metal to Metal Touch Voltages
Design Options for Touch Voltage Control
Safety Assessment
Workshop

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.4

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing


Day 3
Integrated Grounding System Design
Cost/Benefit Analysis
Integrated Design Evaluation
Transfer Voltages (Pipelines, Buildings, etc.)
Control Cable Shielding and Grounding
Electric Railroad Grounding Design
Wind Farm Grounding
Design Optimization
Workshop

Substation Lightning Shielding


Basic Principles
Shielding Angle
The Rolling Sphere Method
The EGM Method
Risk Assessment
Design Procedures
Workshop

Ground Design for Lightning


Ground Surge Impedance
Lightning Points of Entry
Lightning Overvoltage and Propagation
Transfer Voltages to Control Circuits
Wind Turbine Protection
Mitigation Methods

Integrated 3-D Substation Design


Assessment of Clearances
Bus Design Evaluation
EMF Computations
Ground Impedance Measurements
Fall of Potential method
Theory and Limitations
Factors Affecting Test Accuracy

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.5

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing


Day 4 - Morning
Grounding System Testing and Evaluation
Ground Impedance Measurements
Ground Mat Measurements
Soil Resistivity Measurements
Tower Ground Resistance Measurements
Point to Point Ground Impedance Measurement
Ground Integrity Tests
Touch and Step Voltage Measurements
Transfer Voltage Measurement
Probe Calibration
Measurement Confidence Level
Grounding Audit

Day 4 - Afternoon
Demonstration and Workshop
Grounding Audit
Demonstration of:
Ground Impedance,
Soil Resistivity, and
Tower Ground Measurements

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.6

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing


Grounding System Design Principles
Grounding System Performance
Ground Construction & Design Procedures
Soil Characterization
Soil Resistivity Measurements
System Modeling for Grounding Design
Ground Mat Design for Safety
Integrated Grounding System Design
Substation Lightning Shielding
Ground Design for Lightning
Integrated 3D Substation Design
Ground Impedance Measurements
Ground Impedance Measurements (SGM Method)
Grounding System Audit
Demonstration and Workshop
Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.7

Purpose of Grounding
Lightning and Surge Protection
Stabilize Circuit Potential and Assist in Proper Operation of:
- Communications
- Relaying
- Computers & Sensitive Electronic Equipment

Low Fault Circuit Path Impedance (Protection)


Safety, Safety, Safety
Improve Quality of Power Service

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.8

Terms and Definitions


Body Current
Duration of Electric Shock
Permissible Body Current
Ground Potential Rise
Touch Voltage
Mesh Voltage
Step Voltage
Permissible Touch or Step Voltage
Transfer Voltages
Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.9

Body Current
Perception

About 1 mA

Muscular Contraction (Let Go)

About 10-20 mA

Unconsciousness
Ventricular Fibrillation

About 300 mA
for three seconds

Respiratory Nerve Blockage


Burning

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.10

Body Current
99.8

Perception Current

99

Let-Go Current

Predicted
Curve for
Women

Ventricular Fibrillation

Percentile Rank

80

Permissible Body Current


(Standards)

Men
40

0.2
0

Perception Currrent, mA (RMS)


Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.11

Body Current
Perception Current (mA rms)

Perception Current
Let-Go Current

100

Ventricular
Fibrillation

Percentile 99.5
10

Permissible Body
Current (Standards)
Percentile 50
Threshold of Perception
1
Percentile 0.5

100

1,000

10,000

100,000

Frequency (Hz)
Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.12

Body Current

Perception Current
Let-Go Current
Ventricular Fibrillation
Permissible Body Current (Standards)

40
99.5%
Dangerous Current

20

50%

0.5%

Let-Go Threshold

200

100

Minimum
Fibrillating
Current (0.5%)

Maximum
Non-Fibrillating
Current (0.5%)

Safe Current
0

pigs

300

Kiselev Dogs
Dogs
Ferris Dogs

60

sheep

80

Fibrillating Current (mA RMS)

Let-Go Current (Milliamperes) - RMS

calves

100

0
5

10

50

100

500

1000

5000

Frequency (Hz)

Effect of Frequency on Let-Go


Current for Men

20

40
60
80
Body Weight (kg)

100

Relationship of Fibrillating Current to


Body Weight for Various Animals
3 second electric shock
Iave = 3.68W + 28.5 (ma)

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.13

Effects of Current on Heart Beat CEI 1984


Auricles
Ventricles
Speed of
Excitation

R
2

1
2

Recovery from
Excitation

5
4
Q
4

S
Vulnerable Period
of the Ventricles

Ventricular Fibrillation
ECG
120

Blood Pressure
80

400ms
40 mm Hg
0

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.14

The Electrocution Parameters

rbody
A1

A2

A1

A2

Veq
req

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.15

50
(30)

Body Impedance
CEI 1984

Resistance to One Hand


(Resistance to Both Hands)

40
(20)
45
(23)

Resistance from one (or both)


hands to various points in percent
of total body impedance ZT

60

50
(25)
75
55
(30)
100

65
(30)

70
(45)

70
(50)

100
(75)

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.16

Body Impedance Dependence on Voltage - CEI-1984


Total Body Impedance ZT
Values for the total body impedance (ZT)
that are not exceeded for a percentage
(percentile rank) of
Touch
Voltage

5% of the
population

50% of the
population

95% of the
population

25
50
75
100
125
220
700
1000
Asymptotic
Value

1750
1450
1250
1200
1125
1000
750
700
650

3250
2625
2200
1875
1625
1350
1100
1050
750

6100
4375
3500
3200
2875
2125
1550
1500
850

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.17

IEEE Std 80, 1986 Edition

200

100

pigs

sheep

300

Kiselev Dogs
Dogs
Ferris Dogs

Fibrillating Current (mA RMS)

calves

Value of Constant k for Effective


RMS Values of Ib:

k = I b ts

Minimum
Fibrillating
Current (0.5%)

k50 = 0.116 (Non-Fibrillating, 0.5%)


k50 = 0.185 (Fibrillating, 0.5%)
k70 = 0.157 (Non-Fibrillating, 0.5%)
Maximum
Non-Fibrillating
Current (0.5%)

k70 = 0.263 (Fibrillating, 0.5%)

0
0

20

40
60
80
Body Weight (kg)

100

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.18

IEC Publication 479-1 - Permissible Body Current


Zones

Physiological Effects

Zone 1

Usually no reaction effects.

Zone 2

Usually no harmful physiological effects.

Zone 3

Usually no organic damage to be expected. Likelihood of muscular contractions and difficulty in breathing,
reversible disturbances of formation and conduction of impulses in the heart, including atrial fibrillation and
transient cardiac arrest, without ventricular fibrillation, increasing with current magnitude and time.

Zone 4

In addition to the effects in zone 3, probability of ventricular fibrillation, increasing up to about 5% (curve c2),
up to about 50% (curve c3), and above 50% (beyond curve c3). Increasing with magnitude and time,
pathophysiological effects such as cardiac arrest and heavy burns may occur.

Time Current Zones of Effects of AC Currents (15 Hz to 100 Hz) on Persons


10000

Duration of Current Flow t (ms)

5000

c1

c2 c3

2000
1000
500

200
100
50
20
10
0.1 0.2

0.1

10 20

50 100 200

500 1k

2k

5k

10k

Body Current Is (ma)

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.19

IEC Publication 479-1 - Permissible Body Current


Time Current Zones of Effects of AC Currents (15 Hz to 100 Hz) on Persons
10000

Duration of Current Flow t (ms)

5000

c1

c 2 c3

2000
1000
500

200
100
50
20
10
0.1 0.2

0.1

10 20

50 100 200

500 1k

2k

5k

10k

Body Current Is (ma)


Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.20

IEC - Publication 479-1


Effects of Current Passing Through the Human Body

Threshold of Perception: 0.5 mA


Threshold of Let-Go Currents: 10 mA
Threshold of Ventricular Fibrillation:
500 mA @ 0.1 seconds
40 mA @ 3 seconds

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.21

Comparison of Standards
Non-Fibrillating Body Current as a Function of Shock Duration

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.22

Comparison of Standards
Non-Fibrillating Body Current as a Function of Shock Duration

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.23

Foot to Soil Resistance


IEEE Std80 Approximate Equations
Human foot is modeled as a plate in contact with the earth surface
The resistance of a circular plate to remote earth is:

R=

4b

Where b is the disk radius. For arbitrary shaped objects, b is


approximated as:

b=

b 0.08 meters

where A is the area of the foot in contact with the


earth. For adults with large feet:
Thus, the resistance of each foot in
contact with the earth is:

Two feet in parallel (touch voltage case):


Two feet in series (step voltage case):
In Case of Resistive Top Material:

R=

(4) (0.08)

req =

= 3 Ohms

(3 ) (3 )
= 1.5
3 + 3

Req = 3 + 3 = 6
req = 1.5 cs s
req = 6.0 cs s

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

for touch voltage


for step voltage
1.24

Reduction Factor
Comparison of IEEE Std 80 and Computer Model

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.25

Human Body Resistance as a Function of Voltage


IEC Total Body Impedance
Values for the total body impedance (ZT)
that are not exceeded for a percentage
(percentile rank) of
Touch
Voltage

5% of the
population

50% of the
population

95% of the
population

25
50
75
100
125
220
700
1000
Asymptotic
Value

1750
1450
1250
1200
1125
1000
750
700
650

3250
2625
2200
1875
1625
1350
1100
1050
750

6100
4375
3500
3200
2875
2125
1550
1500
850

IEEE Std 80
ZT = 1000 ohms
Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.26

Safety Assessment - IEEE Std 80


Basic Idea: Compare Actual Maximum Body Current to Permissible
Conversion of Permissible Body Current to Permissible Touch Voltage

ibody < i perm


veq < V perm = (rbody + req )i perm

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.27

Permissible Touch and Step Voltages


IEEE Std 80 - 2000 Edition

a
Vtouch
= I a reqT

a
Vtouch

a
touch

0.116

(1000 + 1.5 )

0.116
=
(1000 + 1.5cs s )
t

a
Vstep
= I a reqS

a
Vstep
=

a
step

0.116
(1000 + 6 )
t

0.116
(1000 + 6cs s )
=
t

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.28

Permissible Touch and Step Voltages


IEC, Publication 479-1

a
step

= ib,c 2 (t )( R (ib,c 2 (t )) + req ,S )

a
touch

= ib,c 2 (t )( R (ib,c 2 (t )) + req ,T )

S
b

T
b

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.29

The History of IEEE Std 80

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.30

The History of IEEE Std 80

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.31

Comparison of IEEE & IEC Standards


IEEE Std 80, IEC 479-1
Each Standard Defines Permissible Body Current. The Permissible Body Current Can Be
Converted to Permissible Voltage (Touch or Step)
Safety Assessment
The Objective of the Design Process is to Guarantee that the Body Current in a Person in
the Vicinity of the System, Touching Any Grounded Structure will not Exceed the
Permissible Value (Safety Assessment)
Differences Between IEEE std 80 and IEC 479-1
IEEE Std 80
Body
Resistance

1000 ohms

Thevenin Equivalent
Resistance

1.5css for touch voltage


6.0css for step voltage

Thevenin Equivalent
Source

Simplified Equations
(Km, Ki, L, Ie for Touch Voltage)
(Ks, Ki, L, Ie for Step Voltage)
or use of computer models
0.116A / t for 50 kg person
0.157 A / t for 70 kg person

Permissible
Body Current

IEC 479-1
Voltage Dependent and
Path Dependent
(Figures 4 & 5)
no guidance

no guidance

S-curves (Figure 6)

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.32

Ground Potential Rise Earth Current


Definition: The potential of grounded structures with respect to remote earth
during fault conditions.
Computation of GPR:
Rg
Iearth
D
a

GPR = Rg I earth D = Rg aI fault D

is the grounding system resistance


is the earth current, and
is the decrement factor
is the current division ratio

Current Division Ratio:

I earth
a=
I fault

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.33

Touch Voltage - Mesh Voltage - Step Voltage

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.34

Touch Voltage - Mesh Voltage - Step Voltage


1

10
Y

Grid Spacing: 1000.0 ft


Model A

C
1

GROUND_N
MAIN-GND

J
Scale (feet)
0'

15'

30'

Advanced Grounding Concepts / WinIGS

45'

10

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.35

Touch Voltage
2

9
Y

Grid Spacing: 100.0 ft


Model A

Equi-Touch Voltage Plot with respect to MAIN-GND (GROUND_N)


Vperm = 301.6 V, Vmax(+) = 408.8 V, Margin: -26.22%
91.12 V
122.9 V
154.7 V
186.4 V
218.2 V
250.0 V
281.7 V
313.5 V
345.3 V
377.0 V

GROUND_N
MAIN-GND

L
Scale (feet)
0'

20'

40'

Advanced Grounding Concepts / WinIGS

60'

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.36

Earth Voltage
1

9
Y

Grid Spacing: 100.0 ft


Model A

Equi-Earth Voltage Plot


Vperm = 300.0 V, Vmax(+) = 1.699 kV, Margin: -82.34%

1.328 kV
1.365 kV
1.402 kV
1.439 kV
1.477 kV
1.514 kV
1.551 kV
1.588 kV
1.625 kV
1.662 kV

F
GROUND_N
MAIN-GND

L
Scale (feet)
0'

20'

40'

Advanced Grounding Concepts / WinIGS

60'

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.37

Step Voltage
1

10
Y

Grid Spacing: 100.0 ft


Model A

Equi-Step Voltage Plot


Vperm = 510.4 V, Vmax(+) = 310.7 V, Margin: 64.29%

28.31 V
56.54 V
84.78 V
113.0 V
141.3 V
169.5 V
197.7 V
226.0 V
254.2 V
282.4 V

GROUND_N
MAIN-GND

L
Scale (feet)
0'

20'

40'

Advanced Grounding Concepts / WinIGS

60'

10

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.38

Transfer Voltages
Fault

Broken
Ground

GPR

Touch
Voltage

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.39

Transfer Voltages
Metallic Pipe near Power Line

Distribution Line

Metallic Pipe

Sacrificial Electrodes
Sacrificial
Electrodes

Pipe Grounding

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.40

Special Applications
Metal to Metal Touch Voltage
Electric Railways
Secondary Distribution Systems
Gas Insulated Substations
Power System Influence on Other Circuits

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.41

Metal to Metal Touch Voltages


Example: Isolated Fences
Touch V
200

ETOUCH 70

150
130V
100
ETOUCH 50
0.5

2
3 4 5
Time (s)

65V
10

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.42

Metal to Metal Touch Voltages


Example: GIS Substation
B

30'

Fault

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.43

Possible Touch Voltages


near an Electric Train
1m

2.1m

175'
1m

k1
Trac
k2
Trac

Touch Voltage
to Train
(Person Standing
2.1 m away from rail
and touching train.)

Touch Voltage
to Bridge.
(Person Standing
1 m away from bridge
and touching bridge.)

Touch Voltage
to Catenary Pole
(Person Standing
1 m away from pole
and touching pole.)

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.44

Electric Train Power System

about 2 miles
Counterpoise

Rail A

Rail A

Rail B

Rail B

Counterpoise

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.45

Normal Operation Stray Voltages and Currents


~
I sky

Sky Wire

HA
LA
HB

LB
LC

HC
Neutral

~
I fault

Neutral

~
I neutral

Ground Rod
Counterpoise

~
I counterpoise

Ground Rod

Ground Rod

Ground Mat

~
I earth

Secondary
Distribution Systems

Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.46

Special Issues on Gas Insulated Substations


1. High Fault Currents in a Limited Space
2. Low Footprint High Ground Resistance B
3. Voltage Drop Along Tubes

30'

Fault
Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.47

Power System Influence on Communication Circuits

During a Fault the Induced Voltage on the Communication Line


will Approximately Be:
4,603 Volts per mile per 10 kAs of Fault Current
Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.48

Computer Programs
Substation Grounding Workstation
(SOMIP, SMECC, SGSYS, TGRND)
Distribution Grounding Analysis (DGAP)
Integrated Grounding System Design (WinIGS)
CYME
Safe Engineering
Many Others-Based on IEEE Std 80
Integrated Grounding System Design and Testing Grounding System Design Principles
Copyright 1994-2014, A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos

1.49