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T1-14-6A

03-55432863

013-3153413

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTERS

COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

TURBOMACHINERY

THE DIFFERENTIAL APPROACH TO FLOW ANALYSIS

POTENTIAL FLOW

FLOW PAST IMMERSED BODIES

CO1

[PO1, LO1] {C3}

CO2

[PO3, LO3,SS1] {C4}

CO3

[PO3, LO3,SS1] {C4}

equations which describe fluid motion

physical domain

models and deduce appropriate results for

the physical domain

Contd

CO4

[PO10, LO7,SS5]

{P4,A3}

selection of physical problem and solutions

scheme

CHAPTER CONTENTS

Review of thermodynamics principles

One dimensional compressible flows

Stagnation properties

Speed of sound & Mach No.

One dimensional isentropic flows

Variation of fluid velocity with change of area

Isentropic flows through nozzles

- converging nozzles

- converging diverging nozzles

WHAT IS?

Flows involve significant density variations: compressible

flow

Deals with high velocity of fluid motions

Involve thermodynamics properties fundamentals

Considers the effect of kinetic energy which cannot be

neglected

Potential energy may still negligible

ASSUMPTIONS

Analyzing in one dimensional sense

Ideal gas

Constant specific heat

External Flows

Internal Flows

Pressure (P), denstiy () and temperature (T) are related

into:

kg/m3

(1)

Pressure

Kelvin

Static Enthalpy

(2)

Internal

energy

(3)

Differentiate,

(4)

independent properties

m3/kg

where

Therefore,

(5)

(6)

Constant

volume

(7)

Differentiate ,

(8)

Specific heat of constant pressure:

(9)

Combine (9) into (8)

Constant

pressure

(10)

(11)

Assume constant temperature:

(12)

Specific heat ratio:

(13)

Therefore,

Stagnation Process:

Define as the process when the fluid is stagnated or brought

to stop which is V = 0

stagnation properties (stagnation temperature, stagnation

pressure, stagnation density, etc.).

kinetics & potential energies (1st Law of Thermodynamics)

At high speed flows the potential energy may neglected

however the kinetics energy must be considered

Combination of enthalpy and KE is called stagnation

enthalpy (or total enthalpy)

Static enthalpy

KE

(kJ/kg)

Stagnation

enthalpy

(1)

state, and isentropic stagnation

state of a fluid on an h-s diagram.

a duct (no shaft work, heat

transfer) Q = 0

Therefore the steady flow

equations becomes:

Stagnation enthalpy:

Not applicable if turbine

and compressor is exist.

the stagnation enthalpy is constant

Stagnation enthalpy:

The enthalpy of a fluid

when adiabatically or

isentropically brought

to rest or V = 0.

of a fluid is converted to enthalpy, which results in an

increase in the fluid temperature and pressure.

(2)

Combine (2) into (1)

(3)

Stagnation

Temperature

Static

Temperature

Dynamic Temperature

Stagnation (or total) temperature T0 : It represents the

temperature an ideal gas attains when it is brought to rest adiabatically.

Dynamic temperature: V2/2cp : corresponds to the

temperature rise during such a process.

The pressure of fluid attains when brought to rest

isentropically called as stagnation pressure

Stagnation

Pressure

Dynamic Pressure

Static

Pressure

during such a process.

For Ideal Gas, based on isentropic process the stagnation

process:

IMPORTANT:

-Stagnation enthalpy and stagnation temperature will never be change as long as

no heat and work transfer across the system boundaries

- However stagnation pressure may change

Stagnation pressure may change

P0 Change

change due to friction, pressure

losses which is irreversible

The process is considered as

non-isentropic process

state, and isentropic stagnation

state of a fluid on an h-s diagram.

Air at 320K is flowing in a duct at a

velocity (a) 1 , (b) 10, and (c) 100 m/s.

= 1.005 kJ/kgK

Solutions:

Assumptions: The stagnation process is isentropic

Analysis: The air that strikes the probe will be brought to a

complete stop thus undergo stagnation process. Thermometer

sense this stagnated air which is stagnation temperature, T0

(a) = 320.0 K

(b) = 320.1K

(c) = 325 K

Calculate the stagnation temperature and pressure for

(a) Helium at 0.25 MPa, 500C and 240 m/s

= 5.1926 kJ/kgK

k = 1.667

= 1.865 kJ/kgK

k = 1.329

Solutions:

Assumptions: The stagnation process is isentropic and Steam

and Helium are ideal gas

Speed of sound is pressure wave which travel through a

medium

For an ideal gas, the speed of sound:

Temperature

1.4

Mach No:

287 J/kgK

Sonic

Subsonic

Supersonic

Area and Mach No relation.

Derivation

what is ? significance ?

(1)

(2)

Step 3: In steady flow; W, Q, KE and PE assume as 0

or

(3)

(4)

Step 5: In isentropic flows, Tds = 0; Therefore,

since

(5)

(6)

Step 7: Combine (6) into (2)

(7)

Step 8: Since,

(8)

(9)

Step 10: Eqn. 9 can be arrange into

(10)

Finally

(11)

This equation governs the subsonic and supersonic flows for both diffusers and

nozzles

Conclusion:

(Subsonic)

(Supersonic)

(Sonic)

To accelerate fluid, converging nozzles is needed if the flow

is subsonic and diverging nozzles if the flow is supersonic

In converging nozzles highest velocity is sonic

In Converging-diverging nozzles is needed to accelerate

fluid to supersonic

In Summary:

1. For Converging nozzle:

2. Flow properties in nozzles and diffusers

-Diffuser function: to reduce the velocity

throat become the critical properties.

ISENTROPIC FLOW THROUGH converging NOZZLES

Mass flow rate through a nozzle

a nozzle with inlet stagnation properties.

The effect of back pressure Pb on the

mass flow rate and the exit pressure Pe

of a converging nozzle.

Relation between flow area A throughout nozzle and throat area A*

Ma* is the local velocity

nondimensionalized with respect

to the sonic velocity at the throat.

Ma is the local velocity

nondimensionalized with respect

to the local sonic velocity.

Table A-13

IMPORTANT:

-In order to achieve supersonic Mach. No; converging-diverging nozzle is needed

with correct back pressure Pb

-Converging nozzle only gives Mach No. = 1

-Diverging nozzle alone will not attains the supersonic velocity.

At Converging nozzle: A decrease; P decrease; T decrease; decrease; V increase;

Ma increase

At Throat: critical-pressure value occurs (Ma = 1)

At Diverging nozzle: A increase; P decrease; T decrease; decrease; V increase;

Ma increase

Tutorial 1

Air enters a converging diverging nozzle at 800 kPa with

specific heat ratio of k = 1.4. Determine the pressure at the

throat area.

Tutorial 2

Solve the exit velocity for the nozzle shown:

Assume isentropic flow

T1 = 350K P1 = 1 MPa

P2 = 100kPa

Mat = 1

k = 1.4

Tutorial 3

Quiescent carbon dioxide at a given inlet temperature of 400K

and pressure of 1.2MPa is accelerated at Mach No. 0.6.

Tutorial 4

Helium enters a converging diverging nozzle at temperature of

800K , velocity of 100 m/s and pressure 0.7MPa.

Assume k = 1.667 and Cp = 5.1926 kJ/kgK

Tutorial 1

Determine the air speed of a scramjet engine at Mach No. 7

with air temperature of -200C

R = 0.287 kJ/kgK

k =1.4

Normal shock waves: The shock waves that occur in a plane

normal to the direction of flow. The flow process through the

shock wave is highly irreversible.

is supersonic

Conservation of mass

Area is same because NS

occurs within thin line

Conservation of energy

Conservation of momentum

Increase of entropy

Fanno line:

Combining the conservation of mass

and energy relations into a single

equation and plotting it on an h-s

diagram yield a curve. It is the locus

of states that have the same value

of stagnation enthalpy and mass

flux.

Rayleigh line:

Combining the conservation of mass

and momentum equations into a

single equation and plotting it on the

h-s diagram yield a curve.

The relations between various properties before and after the shock for an ideal gas

with constant specific heats

downstream

upstream

When the space shuttle travels at supersonic speeds through the atmosphere, it

produces a complicated shock pattern consisting of inclined shock waves called

oblique shocks.

Some portions of an oblique shock are curved, while other portions are straight.

Turbomachines: Pumps and turbines in which energy is supplied or extracted by a

rotating shaft.

The words turbomachine and turbomachinery are often used in the literature to

refer to all types of pumps and turbines regardless of whether they utilize a rotating

shaft or not.

OBJECTIVES:

they work

Apply dimensional analysis to design new pumps or turbines that are

geometrically similar to existing pumps or turbines

Perform basic vector analysis of the flow into and out of pumps and

turbines

Use specific speed for preliminary design and selection of pumps

and turbines

Pumps:

-Energy absorbing devices

-energy is supplied

-transfer energy to the fluid

-the increase in fluid energy is

felt as increase in pressure of

the fluid.

Turbines:

-Energy producing devices

-extract energy from fluid

-transfer that energy to

mechanical output

-The fluid at outlet suffers an

energy loss in the form of a

loss of pressure.

energy to a fluid, resulting in an

increase in fluid pressure, not

necessarily an increase of fluid

speed across the pump.

extract energy from a fluid,

resulting in a decrease of fluid

pressure, not necessarily a

decrease of fluid speed across

the turbine.

mass flow out = mass flow in

For incompressible flow,

Dout = Din, Vout = Vin, but Pout > Pin.

When used with gases, pumps are called fans, blowers, or compressors, depending

on the relative values of pressure rise and volume flow rate.

Fan: relatively low pressure rise and high flow rate. Examples include ceiling fans,

house fans, and propellers.

Blower: relatively moderate to high pressure rise and moderate to high flow rate.

Examples include centrifugal blowers and squirrel cage blowers in automobile

ventilation systems, furnaces, and leaf blowers.

Compressor: designed to deliver a very high pressure rise, typically at low to

moderate flow rates. Examples include air compressors that run pneumatic tools and

inflate tires at automobile service stations, and refrigerant compressors used in heat

pumps, refrigerators, and air conditioners.

Fluid machines may also be broadly classified as either positive-displacement

machines or dynamic machines, based on the manner in which energy transfer

occurs.

In positive-displacement machines: Fluid is directed into a closed volume. Energy

transfer to the fluid is accomplished by movement of the boundary of the closed

volume, causing the volume to expand or contract, thereby sucking fluid in or

squeezing fluid out, respectively.

Dynamic machines: There is no closed volume; instead, rotating blades supply or

extract energy to or from the fluid.

For pumps, these rotating blades are called impeller blades, while for turbines, the

rotating blades are called runner blades or buckets.

Examples of dynamic pumps include enclosed pumps and ducted pumps and

open pumps.

Examples of dynamic turbines include enclosed turbines, such as the

hydroturbine that extracts energy from water in a hydroelectric dam, and open

turbines such as the wind turbine that extracts energy from the wind.

-The mass flow rate of fluid through the pump is an obvious primary pump performance

parameter.

-For incompressible flow, it is more common to use volume flow rate rather than mass

flow rate.

-In the turbomachinery industry, volume flow rate is called capacity and is simply mass

flow rate divided by fluid density,

defined as the change in Bernoulli head between the inlet and outlet of the pump:

For the case in which a liquid is being pumped,

the Bernoulli head at the inlet is equivalent to

the energy grade line at the inlet.

change in Bernoulli head from inlet to outlet;

for a liquid, this is equivalent to the change in

the energy grade line, H = EGLout - EGLin,

relative to some arbitrary datum plane; bhp is

the brake horsepower, the external power

supplied to the pump.

1. Pump performance VS Piping Requirement

Free delivery: Max volume flow rate when its net head is zero, H = 0

Shutoff head: The net head when the volume flow rate is zero which achieved when the outlet port

is blocked off. H is large but V is zero; the pumps efficiency is zero

Best Efficiency Point (BEP): Max efficiency & notated by an asterisk (H*, bhp*, etc.).

Pump Performance Curves (or characteristic curves): Curves of H, pump, and bhp as functions of

volume flow rate.

Operating point or duty point of the system: In a typical application, Hrequired and Havailable match at

one unique value of flow ratethis is the operating point or duty point of the system.

For steady conditions, a pump can operate only along its performance curve.

2. Impeller Dia. VS Piping Requirement

several choices of impeller diameter for a single

pump casing.

(1) reduce manufacturing costs

(2) increase capacity by simple impeller replacement

(3) to standardize installation mountings

(4) reuse of equipment for a different application

3. Cavitations & Net Positive Suction Head

Local pressure fall below the vapor

pressure of the liquid, Pv.

When P < Pv, vapor-filled bubbles

called cavitation bubbles appear.

Net positive suction head (NPSH):

The difference between the pumps

inlet stagnation pressure head and

the vapor pressure head.

NPSH and the required NPSH intersect

represents the maximum flow rate that

can be delivered by the pump without

the occurrence of cavitation.

necessary to avoid cavitation in the pump.

4. Pumps Configuration

-However individual pump must be bypassed if the volume flow rate is running larger

than the design free delivery flow rate

4. Pumps Configuration

-However individual pump must be bypassed if the system is running larger than the

-Involve rotating blades called impeller blades or rotor blades, which impart momentum

to the fluid.

-Sometimes called rotodynamic pumps or simply rotary pumps.

-Rotary pumps are classified by the manner in which flow exits the pump:

(a) centrifugal flow, (b) mixed flow and (c) axial flow

Centrifugal-flow Pump:

Fluid enters axially (in the same direction as the axis of the rotating shaft) in the

center of the pump, but is discharged radially (or tangentially) along the outer

radius of the pump casing. Centrifugal pumps are also called radial-flow pumps.

Axial-flow Pump:

Fluid enters and leaves axially, typically along the outer portion of the pump

because of blockage by the shaft, motor, hub, etc.

Mixed-flow Pump:

Intermediate between centrifugal and axial, with the flow entering axially, not

necessarily in the center, but leaving at some angle between radially and

axially.

r1 and r2 as the radial locations of the impeller blade inlet and outlet

b1 and b2 are the axial blade widths at the impeller blade inlet and outlet

-V1, n and V2, n are defined as average normal (radial) components of velocity at radii r1 and r2.

-Absolute velocity vectors of the fluid are shown as bold arrows. It is assumed that the

flow is everywhere tangent to the blade surface when viewed from a reference frame

rotating with the blade, as indicated by the relative velocity vectors.

X1

V1, t

X2

X1

V1, t

X2

Euler turbomachine equation:

Shaft Torque:

Net Head:

Shutoff Head:

-producing lift by changing the momentum of the fluid as they rotate.

-lift force on the blade is caused by pressure differences between the top and

bottom surfaces of the blade, and the change in flow direction leads to downwash

(a column of descending air) through the rotor plane.

-From a time-averaged perspective, there is a pressure jump across the rotor

plane that induces a downward airflow.

decrease with flow rate.

-Efficiency drops rapidly at higher volume flow rates

beyond the BEP.

-The net head curve also decreases continuously with

flow rate

-If head requirements not important, propeller fans is operated beyond BEP to achieve higher

volume flow rates.

-Since bhp decreases at high values of flow rate, there is not a power penalty when the fan is

run at high flow rates. For this reason it is tempting to install a slightly undersized fan and push

it beyond its best efficiency point.

-At the other extreme, if operated below its maximum efficiency point, the flow may be noisy

and unstable, which indicates that the fan may be oversized.

-It is usually best to run a propeller fan at, or slightly above, its maximum efficiency point.

(b) A second rotor rotates opposite direction

called a counter-rotating axial-flow fan

(c) A set of stator blades can be added either

upstream or downstream of the rotating

impeller.

106

scaling two geometrically similar

pumps. If all the dimensionless

pump parameters of pump A are

equivalent to those of pump B, the

two pumps are dynamically similar.

pump parameters, the performance curves

of all pumps in a family of geometrically

similar pumps collapse onto one set of

nondimensional pump performance curves.

Values at the best efficiency point are

indicated by asterisks.

tested to predict the performance

of a full-scale prototype pump,

the measured efficiency of the

model is typically somewhat

lower than that of the prototype.

Empirical correction equations

such as Eq. 1434 have been

developed to account for the

improvement of pump efficiency

with pump size.

108

operation of a pump at its optimum conditions

(best efficiency point) and is useful for

preliminary pump selection and/or design.

109

conventional U.S., and conventional

European definitions of pump specific

speed. Numerical values are given to four

significant digits. The conversions for

NSp,US assume standard earth gravity.

pump specific speed for the three

main types of dynamic pump. The

horizontal scales show

nondimensional pump specific speed

(NSp), pump specific speed in

customary U.S. Units (NSp, US), and

pump specific speed in customary

European units (NSp, Eur).

Affinity Laws

Equations 1438 apply to both pumps and

turbines.

States A and B can be any two homologous

states between any two geometrically

similar turbomachines, or even between two

homologous states of the same machine.

Examples include changing rotational

speed or pumping a different fluid with the

same pump.

111

TURBINES

The rotating part of a hydroturbine is called the runner.

When the working fluid is water, the turbomachines are called hydraulic turbines or

hydroturbines.

When the working fluid is air, and energy is extracted from the wind, the machine is

called a wind turbine.

Most people use the word windmill to describe any wind turbine, whether used to

grind grain, pump water, or generate electricity.

The turbomachines that convert energy from the steam into mechanical energy of a

rotating shaft are called steam turbines.

Turbines that employ a compressible gas as the working fluid is gas turbine.

112

Positive-Displacement Turbines

of as a positive-displacement pump running

backwardas fluid pushes into a closed volume,

it turns a shaft or displaces a reciprocating rod.

The closed volume of fluid is then pushed out as

more fluid enters the device.

There is a net head loss through the positivedisplacement turbine; energy is extracted from

the flowing fluid and is turned into mechanical

energy.

However, positive-displacement turbines are

generally not used for power production, but

rather for flow rate or flow volume measurement.

113

Dynamic Turbines

Dynamic turbines are used both as flow measuring devices and as power generators.

Hydroturbines utilize the large elevation change across a dam to generate electricity, and

wind turbines generate electricity from blades rotated by the wind. There are two basic

types of dynamic turbineimpulse and reaction.

Impulse turbines require a higher head, but can operate with a smaller volume flow rate.

Reaction turbines can operate with much less head, but require a higher volume flow

rate.

114

Impulse Turbines

In an impulse turbine, the fluid is sent

through a nozzle so that most of its

available mechanical energy is converted

into kinetic energy.

The high-speed jet then impinges on

bucket-shaped vanes that transfer energy

to the turbine shaft.

The modern and most efficient type of

impulse turbine is Pelton turbine and the

rotating wheel is now called a Pelton

wheel.

115

116

Reaction Turbines

The other main type of energy-producing

hydroturbine is the reaction turbine, which

consists of fixed guide vanes called stay vanes,

adjustable guide vanes called wicket gates, and

rotating blades called runner blades.

Flow enters tangentially at high pressure, is

turned toward the runner by the stay vanes as it

moves along the spiral casing or volute, and

then passes through the wicket gates with a

large tangential velocity component.

A reaction turbine differs significantly

from an impulse turbine; instead of

using water jets, a volute is filled with

swirling water that drives the runner.

For hydroturbine applications, the axis

is typically vertical. Top and side views

are shown, including the fixed stay

vanes and adjustable wicket gates.

117

Reaction Turbines

There are two main types of reaction turbineFrancis and Kaplan.

The Francis turbine is somewhat similar in geometry to a centrifugal or mixed-flow

pump, but with the flow in the opposite direction.

We classify reaction turbines according to the angle that the flow enters the runner. If

the flow enters the runner radially, the turbine is called a Francis radial-flow turbine.

If the flow enters the runner at some angle between radial and axial, the turbine is

called a Francis mixed-flow turbine. The latter design is more common.

Some hydroturbine engineers use the term Francis turbine only when

there is a band on the runner. Francis turbines are most suited for heads that lie

between the high heads of Pelton wheel turbines and the low heads of Kaplan turbines.

A typical large Francis turbine may have 16 or more runner blades and can achieve a

turbine efficiency of 90 to 95 percent.

If the runner has no band, and flow enters the runner partially turned, it is called a

propeller mixed-flow turbine or simply a mixed-flow turbine. Finally, if the flow is turned

completely axially before entering the runner, the turbine is called an axial-flow turbine.

118

Kaplan turbines are called double regulated because the flow rate is controlled in two

waysby turning the wicket gates and by adjusting the pitch on the runner blades.

Propeller turbines are nearly identical to Kaplan turbines except that the blades are

fixed (pitch is not adjustable), and the flow rate is regulated only by the wicket gates

(single regulated).

Compared to the Pelton and Francis turbines, Kaplan turbines and propeller turbines

are most suited for low head, high volume flow rate conditions.

Their efficiencies rival those of Francis turbines and may be as high as 94 percent.

vectors and geometry for the

outer radius of the runner of a

Francis turbine. Absolute velocity

vectors are bold.

and geometry for the inner radius of

the runner of a Francis turbine.

Absolute velocity vectors are bold.

120

that utilizes a Francis turbine to generate electricity;

drawing not to scale. The Pitot probes are shown for

illustrative purposes only.

The net head of a turbine is defined as the difference

between the energy grade line just upstream of the turbine

and the energy grade line at the exit of the draft tube.

121

always be less than unity.

The efficiency of a turbine is

the reciprocal of the

efficiency of a pump.

(visible) portion of several of the parallel electric

generators driven by hydraulic turbines at Hoover

Dam.

122

dimensional analysis of a turbine.

The characteristic turbine diameter

D is typically either the runner

diameter Drunner or the discharge

diameter Ddischarge.

123

generally find that the actual increase in

efficiency from model to prototype is only

about two-thirds of the increase given by

this equation.

scaling two geometrically similar

turbines. If all the dimensionless

turbine parameters of turbine A are

equivalent to those of turbine B, the

two turbines are dynamically similar.

124

A pumpturbine is used by

some power plants for energy

storage: (a) water is pumped

by the pumpturbine during

periods of low demand for

power, and (b) electricity is

generated by the pump

turbine during periods of high

demand for power.

125

Maximum efficiency as a function of turbine specific speed for the three main

types of dynamic turbine. Horizontal scales show nondimensional turbine specific

speed (NSt) and turbine specific speed in customary U.S. units (NSt, US). Sketches

of the blade types are also provided on the plot for reference.

126

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