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1. What is system?
System is is a set of components that function and interact in some regular and
theoretically predictable manner, can be isolated for the purposes of observation and
study. There are 3 important things in system. They are :




2. What is living system/biosystem?

Living system or biosystem is an open self-organizing living things that
interact with their environment, maintained by flows of information, energy and
3. Explain how we can distinguish the characteristics of biosystem!
We can distinguish the characteristics of biosystem by identifying the
elements, interconnection and the function. For example we will distinguish the
characteristics of ecosystem. In ecosystem elements there are abiotic components and
biotic components. Abiotic components likes sunlight, precipitation, temperature and
nutrients. And for the biotic components likes bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. In
the ecosystem there are :

Elements : There are input and output and also flows. The input is the
solar energy and the output is heat from transfer energy process. The
flows in ecosystem can be found in many kind of cycles likes carbon
sycle, nitrogen cycle etc.

Interconnection : interconnection in ecosystem is pointed out by the

trophic cascade hypothesis.


: Ecosystem functions are the biological, geochemical and

physical processes and components that take place or occur within an


4. Why is solar energy being called as the ultimate input for ecosystem, as well as
biosystem as a whole?
As we know energy is needed by living things in ecosystem. And solar energy
is the importants elements in ecosystem. The solar energy become the main sources in
ecosystem. The sunlight will be used by plants for photosynthesis. The organism will
eat the plants as producers. That organism called primary consumers and than the
primary consumers will be eaten by the another organism, that organism called
secondary consumers. In this process there will be a transfer of energy that living
things used for their life.

1. Lets say that we livein an ecosystem called Bandung City.
a. What will happen if all decomposers in Bandung are dead?
Decomposers is a biotic component. Decomposers are usually called
heterotrophic decomposers. Decomposers are living things that decompose








Decomposers has an important role in the ecosystem. Animals or plants that

die will be decomposed

and is returned to the soil to become nutrient

elements / inorganic substances that are essential for plant growth. In addition,
the activity of decomposers can also produce carbon dioxide gas which is very
useful for the process of photosynthesis. So if all decomposers in Bandung are
dead there will be an imbalance of ecosystems. There is no CO2 that used by
the plant as the main material for photosynthesis. So the plants can not
produce oxygen for the another living things. Also there is no inorganic
subtances that will changed into th organic substances for the living things
life. Because of that decomposer is very important in the ecosystem.

b. What will happen if all trees in Bandung are cut down?

Cutting down the trees in Bandung without calculation will also cause
inbalance ecosystem likes there are no decomposers. Cutting down the tree in
Bandung can be eliminate most of the producers in an ecosystem. The another
effect cutting down the tres will changes the hydrological cycle. When rain falls
on open ground, the water will go straight into the soil with high fertility. In the
absence of trees that hold rainwater to seep into the ground will cause the flow of
water on the soil surface becomes large. The existence of a large and rapid flow
will erode the surface of arable land. Loss of soil fertility will reduce earthworm
populations that contribute to help fertilize the soil. Lack of water infiltration in
the soil will cause drought in the dry season. With the cutting of trees, causing
more trees receives sunlight and temperature will rise. Cutting te tress also cause
the natural disesters such as floods. So we have to keep the balance of ecosystems
in the area of Bandung in order to avoid the unwanted

2. Look at the diagram and explain why called system. Describe which are the
elements, interconnection and function within the system.
Because there are a set of components that function and interact in some
regular and theoretically predictable manner, and also there are 3 important things in
system. They are :




The diagram is a system because in the diagram

Elements :
Sunlight (input)
Biomass (input)
CO2 (input)
Fosil energy (input)
Mineral recycle (flows)
Fosil cycle (flows)
Fuel (output)
Heat (output)
New Bioproducts (output)
Power (output)

Factories and agricultural residues through a cycle and the results will
be used by the manufacturer to bring out a product.

Fossil energy through a fossil cycle to produce a product that is used
by living things.