Promoting traditional collection and use of Wild plants
to reduce social and economic disparities
in Central Europe.

BRNO, October 2012

This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF.

stakeholders. Educated people are leaving as well. There were selected 4 micro-regions and 2 villages in each of these regions. The age structure of population is formed by long-term development of fertility. Subsequently areas were selected for the socio-economic analysis in each of these countries. Poland. which affect lives of people in a community or in a region. museums. each of these selected regions is unique. This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. The proportion of older people is increasing and the proportion of the births is decreasing. administration and tourism. local or central libraries. transport accessibility and technical infrastructure and impact on the environment. The target area of PP5 is situated on Kolbuszowa Plateau in Poland and this territory includes 10 villages. specific and has different conditions of development. The following paper deals with a general evaluation of all individual socio-economic analysis. There are four countries connected with the project Traditional and wild. The selected area of PP6 is situated in regions of Kozjansko and Dravinjsko in Slovenia. The last chosen area of PP8 is situated in the South Moravian Region in the Czech Republic. Not only young people look for a job outside their homes. Also the second region is located in Hungary. These are Hungary. Moreover. The selected territory of PP7 is in on Banjšice and Trnovo Plateau in Slovenia and this territory includes 14 chosen villages.economic analysis. The selected territory of PP4 is in the Baranya Region. Demography The population decrease is a general trend in each of the selected areas. The availability of data can be decisive for the quality and design of the socio . . This is a summary and a comparison of individual components with higher territorial administrative units or neighbouring regions. For example the population has decreased by half in the last 50 years in some selected areas in Slovenia. Slovenia and the Czech Republic. There are 11 settlements in the Ormánság District. which covers several different types of analysis. because the provided data were in a different quality and a different scale. internet and other databases. The analysis is a basic overview of the social. It is better to study them separately.Socio-economic analysis Socio – economic analysis is a broad concept. demographic and economic indicators. Data collection consists of data from official databases. from local authorities. We can use only a simple general comparison for all countries. There were chosen 7 municipalities. local economy. mortality and migration in each population. sometimes they seek jobs abroad. All selected regions show symptoms of aging. The most important components of regional development in a municipality are number of population and households. The selected area of PP3 is situated in the Great Hungarian Plain in Hungary and a village of Kunadacs is the chosen place.

The historical reason is that the current older generation had to work in fields instead of going to school. This community was very resourceful and economical. their proportion of the population is close to 7% there. craft and dialect. the western Małopolans. The economy is based on agriculture and a sector of services in the area of Kundanacs. Two-thirds of the population have only primary school education there. The Rzeszowiaks were treated as an ethnic group after the World War II. so the education does not represent the most important obstacle to the development of this area. Economy The economy of the target areas has been connected to agriculture. There are high quality soils in surroundings. Compared to the total population. The half of inhabitants has vocational or secondary education on Banjšice – Trnovo Plateau. We can find some interesting ethnic groups in Poland. The latest survey shows that only 6 have registered out of 130 people to the Lasowiaks group. when they were children. Centres of these regions show higher educational attainment. We can find one good reason in the village of Kunadacs in Hungary. Nearly one-fifth of the population identified themselves as a member of a minority during census of year 2001. the Ruthenians and the Wallachia people lived among them. which was formed as a result assimilation of different nations living between valleys of rivers San and Vistula. The Roma have the largest number in the area. hunting. the number of inhabitants belonging to national minorities is insignificant in the target areas. These differences are not extremely high. Interaction among them and assimilation of these nationalities contributed to create a separate community. The highest concentration of the Roma is in Gilvánfa. Reasons of this problem are varied. On the other side. . The territory of PP4 is one exception. They were quite wealthy thanks to fertile soils. They are the Lasowiaks and the Rzeszowiaks. the Russians. but it is likely the proportion of the Roma population has increased in the Ormánság Region. the Scotsmen. They dealt with forestry. in Slovenia is bigger share of inhabitants with university education than on Trnovo – Banjšice Plateau. the Turkish. agriculture and a breeding of livestock. The Mazovians. and producing of charcoal. The Lasowiaks are an ethnic group.2 % of the population identified themselves as belonging to the Roma ethnic group. There are no industrial companies. In the beginning of the 20th century they had their own folk costume. The presence of minorities is well represented (particularly an ability of lobbying) by the presence of minority in a self-government in settlements.The educational structure of inhabitants is diverse in the individual target regions. where 71. apiculture. the Germans. The 2011 census figures are not known yet. A tobacco production has a history of at least 30 years in This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF.

In the past. which give a safe job for a lot of farmers. cultivated by individual farms. The key employers are still large companies. Today. is also typical. but most of these industrial and agricultural enterprises are closed or collapsed due to the transformation to the market economy. Industrial production is not important. In the past. mainly due to the decreasing of purchase prices. People have developed a wide range of complementary activities for own use or for sale. paprika and green pepper growing has increased considerably. economic and production structure. There is partially disrupted the system of education for requirement of a labour market. the tobacco growing is less popular among farmers. Animal breeding. but is has been connected to agricultural production for example through the production of pesticides in the area of PP4.7%). Big fragmentation of property is an unfavourable structural feature. This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. The consequences of fragmentation of property are also reflected in the social. In the last ten years there has been a proliferation of complementary activities in rural areas. Unemployed women represent 55. The companies employ mostly local workers in the area. A number of traditional agricultural enterprises went bankrupt even before the transformation there. The main problems represent those. particularly farm tourism. majority of the population survived in agriculture in the target area of PP7. mainly of poultry and pigs. who would be ready to create some new job opportunities in the region of PP5.the village. people are working on farms and as employees in companies). Agriculture is very important in the area of PP6. Instead. . It is reflected. but recently there has been an increase of numbers of workers from other EU countries and Southeast Europe. which is above the Slovenian average (53. so the region is dominated by “mixed” farms (i. The agricultural areas constitute over half of all the land in use (53%). that women have difficulties in finding employment. mainly livestock breeding and forestry. People cultivate vegetable and fruit. There are some kinds of farm animals in around one half of households. Because of these reasons. which is reflected in a large number of small parcels. who have only primary or no education because they have more difficulties to find a job.7% of all unemployed people.e. mostly for self-supply. most land owners made their living by the tobacco production. The region has a long tradition of markets and fairs. There are two significant reasons for development of complementary activities on farms: awareness of farmers that there is a need to develop an interesting. Currently the unemployment is caused by lack of investors. which derived from raw materials and energy resources present on the Plateau. Agricultural farms are too small to be able to provide sufficient income only from agriculture. market oriented offer on farm and the possibility of obtaining grants from the Rural Development Programme. the productivity of agriculture farms is lower than it would be in the case of concentration of land possession. These complementary activities represent an element for economic growth on farms.

The unemployment rate in areas PP8 is generally higher than the national average shows. because the mentioned microregions apparently dispose with inner sources which could ensure the continuation of activities also after finishing the support from outside. cross country skiing in winter. educational trails. A volume of the herbal industry shows. the assistance which could be provided especially to these microregions could be the most efficient. Inner periphery (Nedvědice and Velké Opatovice microregions) are less problematic. The economy of the Malá Haná microregion is based on agro-industrial character (good soils). the most part of these traditions have been forgotten. common herbs are collected: stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). The Velké Opatovice microregion and the Nedvědice microregion are in a better situation. cycling. agritourism. It includes a pure nature of protected areas. Three years ago. natural landscapes. These include paprika and green pepper. Kuřim. shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). Collection and use of plants and herbs The village of Kunadacs does not have any traditional local product. the Vranov micro-region showed the highest unemployment and also the highest sensitivity to the critical development. The economy of the Vranov nad Dyjí microregion includes undeveloped industry (only some SMEs). Brno. hiking. Some tourist tracks give possibilities to all year round activities. glassworks. The economy of the Nedvědice microregion is based on industries (electronic. It is questionable in the case of the borderland micro-regions. small-flowered willowherb This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. The situation here was improved to the level of Horňácko in the last time. These are cycling. The economy of the Horňácko microregion is based on industry (production of geo-textile). that the natural conditions would be suitable for this. production of refractory goods. Today. paper). yarrow (Achillea millefolium). Tourist potential In the most cases. It included an associated processing. utilization and therapeutic methods. some historical monuments. the existing knowledge is passive and disappears from the public awareness slowly. diverse fauna and flora. and tobacco. Selected regions are really problematic as concerns the relations to the national average. minimum working opportunity is provided for locals. A collection and use of wild plants had a long tradition in the territory of PP4. that it does not play too big role in the regional economy. . but a lot of people make their living by growing plants which – after processed elsewhere – are marketed by multinational companies. In the region. which are concentrated out of the micro-region in towns Tišnov. food. the tourist potential is based on friendly environmental conditions in the selected areas. spite of it. On the other side. trekking and horse riding in summer.

linden (Tilia sp. common mallow (Malva neglecta). elderberry (Sambucus nigra). cumin (Cuminum cyminum). lovage (Levisticum officinale). eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis). red beet (Beta vulgaris var. chamomile (Matricaria recutita).). great plantain (Plantago major). valerian (Valeriana officinalis). hawthorn (Crategus monogyna). stuffing and spinach of nettle and rosehip tea. blackberry (Rubus fruticosus). agneweed (Eupatorium cannabinum). The herbs are collected by volunteers on the meadows of Horňácko. mallow (Malva sylvestris). horsetail (Equisetum arvense). Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale ). fruits and fungus in the region. It is an herbal tea. goldenrod (Solidago sp. lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis). oregano. The used herbs are primrose. in the Horňácko microregion. linden (Tilia spp. daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare). mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris). onions (Allium cepa). house-leek (Sempervivum tectorum). syrup of plantain or of elderflower.). hawthorn (Crataegus sp. parsley (Petroselinum hortense). This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus). pine tree. canadensis). ). marshmallow / marshmallow (Althaea officinalis). The collecting. larch (Larix sp. woodruff (Galium odoratum). juniper (Juniperus communis).). fruit and fungus on the Plateau of Banjšice and Trnovo includes a paucity of literature about use of herbs. linden and blackberry. coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara). People from the Czech Republic have very positive attitude to collection of wild plants and they would like to know more new information about it. dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). flax (Linum usitatissimum). The most popular recipes for homemade products are honey of dandelions. goose-grass (Galium aparine). peppermint. willow (Salix spp. cultivating and storing of herbs was exclusively the domain of women there.(Epilobium parviflorum). rose hips (Rosa canina). elderberry (Sambucus nigra). horse radish (Armoracia rusticana). Traditional use of herbs. fern (Dryopteris filix-mas). This tea (which is not mass-produced) is necessary to drink cold.). centaury (Centaurium erythraea). nuts.). oat (Avena sativa). oak (Quercus sp. Vulgaris). pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo). celandine (Chelidonium majus). St. goldenrod Herb (Solidago gigantea. anise (Pimpinella anisum). celandine (Ranunculus sp. The list of the medicinal plants used in popular tradition include arnica (Arnica montana). calamus (Acorus calamus).). dewberry (Rubus caesius). rose (Rosa sp. lemon balm (Melissa officinalis).). potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). John's wort (Hypericum perforatum). ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata).). sage (Salvia officinalis). barberry (Berberis vulgaris). black mint. wild chicory (Cichorium intybus) horsetail (Equisetum arvense). garlic (Allium sativum). Goat (Galega officinalis).). calendula (Calendula officinalis). cabbage (Brassica oleracea). walnut leaf (Yuglans regia). nettle (Urtica dioica). There is one local product in the South Moravian Region. . Lady's Mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris). fir (Abies sp. wormwood (Artemisia absinthium).

Development of industries is similar. services. freedom. club activities). e. There are following criteria recommended to identify of peripheries: distance from regional centres. which contribute to the visibility of the region. Some regions do not play any role in this project. social equality or fairness in access to opportunities. social order.g. but also other branches should be developed: agriculture. To obtain financial resources for creating new jobs. This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. where the traditions are preserved. It follows from the Czech cases that the perception of the plant collection does not depend on the level of peripherality and social exclusion but more on the social cohesion. active social relations (including traditions. positive interactions and networks. Tourism is considered to be the most prospective branch on the periphery as a rule. safety. education and housing). The educational structure is lower than the national averages in all the cases. The statistical data are hardly comparable. Based on attendance of these events financial support (for example in form of voluntary admission or buying local products) begins to generate in the region. The population aging is most expressive in Czechia and the unemployment rate as well. Czech agriculture is based on large farms whereas small farms prevail in Slovenia and Poland. Periphery is a natural consequence of the concept core – periphery. forestry. Then these groups are able to organize various regional events. industries. The existing research shows. housing. that in the regions. Frequency of public transport in countries under comparison is the best in Czechia. Important conditions for a building of a social cohesion are needed: material conditions (employment. The indicator of education seems to be the best for defining peripheral areas. which may give negative prospects for the future (e. tolerance. Agritourism is better developed in Slovenia. social inclusion or integration into the mainstream institutions. income.Conclusions The population of the target areas is ageing.g. and entertainment facilities for the young is the asked pre-supposition. schools may need to be closed). health. Vranov micro-region with the worst values of social indicators together with Nedvědice micro-region with the best ones show the lowest social inclusion whereas Horňácko is the best. . there is a strengthened regional identity among people. share of population with higher education (compared to the core of the settlement system). We found a difference in a motivation of people to collect wild plants. It leads to the establishment of local communities. To make the younger generations stay and live in the villages should be one of the most important aims. energy production from alternative sources etc. but the collection of wild medicinal plants is a daily practice in other areas.

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