Promoting traditional collection and use of Wild plants
to reduce social and economic disparities
in Central Europe.

BRNO, October 2012

This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF.

specific and has different conditions of development. We can use only a simple general comparison for all countries. Data collection consists of data from official databases.economic analysis. It is better to study them separately. from local authorities. The proportion of older people is increasing and the proportion of the births is decreasing. There are four countries connected with the project Traditional and wild. All selected regions show symptoms of aging. This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. demographic and economic indicators. The most important components of regional development in a municipality are number of population and households. This is a summary and a comparison of individual components with higher territorial administrative units or neighbouring regions. The availability of data can be decisive for the quality and design of the socio . which covers several different types of analysis. There were chosen 7 municipalities. Poland. internet and other databases. local economy. administration and tourism. local or central libraries. The following paper deals with a general evaluation of all individual socio-economic analysis. Moreover. These are Hungary. Slovenia and the Czech Republic. For example the population has decreased by half in the last 50 years in some selected areas in Slovenia. transport accessibility and technical infrastructure and impact on the environment. The analysis is a basic overview of the social. because the provided data were in a different quality and a different scale. Not only young people look for a job outside their homes. There are 11 settlements in the Ormánság District. mortality and migration in each population. Demography The population decrease is a general trend in each of the selected areas. Subsequently areas were selected for the socio-economic analysis in each of these countries. Also the second region is located in Hungary. The selected territory of PP4 is in the Baranya Region. museums. The selected area of PP3 is situated in the Great Hungarian Plain in Hungary and a village of Kunadacs is the chosen place. each of these selected regions is unique. The selected territory of PP7 is in on Banjšice and Trnovo Plateau in Slovenia and this territory includes 14 chosen villages. The selected area of PP6 is situated in regions of Kozjansko and Dravinjsko in Slovenia. Educated people are leaving as well. The target area of PP5 is situated on Kolbuszowa Plateau in Poland and this territory includes 10 villages. sometimes they seek jobs abroad. stakeholders.Socio-economic analysis Socio – economic analysis is a broad concept. There were selected 4 micro-regions and 2 villages in each of these regions. The age structure of population is formed by long-term development of fertility. . The last chosen area of PP8 is situated in the South Moravian Region in the Czech Republic. which affect lives of people in a community or in a region.

2 % of the population identified themselves as belonging to the Roma ethnic group. These differences are not extremely high. We can find some interesting ethnic groups in Poland. Economy The economy of the target areas has been connected to agriculture. The Rzeszowiaks were treated as an ethnic group after the World War II. the western Małopolans. The Lasowiaks are an ethnic group. the Ruthenians and the Wallachia people lived among them. where 71. the Scotsmen. The historical reason is that the current older generation had to work in fields instead of going to school. Two-thirds of the population have only primary school education there. the number of inhabitants belonging to national minorities is insignificant in the target areas. which was formed as a result assimilation of different nations living between valleys of rivers San and Vistula. agriculture and a breeding of livestock. but it is likely the proportion of the Roma population has increased in the Ormánság Region. Reasons of this problem are varied. their proportion of the population is close to 7% there. . Centres of these regions show higher educational attainment. They were quite wealthy thanks to fertile soils.The educational structure of inhabitants is diverse in the individual target regions. On the other side. Compared to the total population. They are the Lasowiaks and the Rzeszowiaks. Interaction among them and assimilation of these nationalities contributed to create a separate community. The presence of minorities is well represented (particularly an ability of lobbying) by the presence of minority in a self-government in settlements. The economy is based on agriculture and a sector of services in the area of Kundanacs. A tobacco production has a history of at least 30 years in This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. They dealt with forestry. when they were children. apiculture. The Mazovians. In the beginning of the 20th century they had their own folk costume. This community was very resourceful and economical. the Germans. The Roma have the largest number in the area. hunting. Nearly one-fifth of the population identified themselves as a member of a minority during census of year 2001. We can find one good reason in the village of Kunadacs in Hungary. The half of inhabitants has vocational or secondary education on Banjšice – Trnovo Plateau. The territory of PP4 is one exception. so the education does not represent the most important obstacle to the development of this area. There are no industrial companies. the Russians. craft and dialect. in Slovenia is bigger share of inhabitants with university education than on Trnovo – Banjšice Plateau. the Turkish. The 2011 census figures are not known yet. The latest survey shows that only 6 have registered out of 130 people to the Lasowiaks group. The highest concentration of the Roma is in Gilvánfa. and producing of charcoal. There are high quality soils in surroundings.

In the past. Big fragmentation of property is an unfavourable structural feature. particularly farm tourism. These complementary activities represent an element for economic growth on farms. who have only primary or no education because they have more difficulties to find a job. The main problems represent those. which give a safe job for a lot of farmers. Currently the unemployment is caused by lack of investors. There are some kinds of farm animals in around one half of households. majority of the population survived in agriculture in the target area of PP7. The agricultural areas constitute over half of all the land in use (53%). In the past. that women have difficulties in finding employment. Because of these reasons. the productivity of agriculture farms is lower than it would be in the case of concentration of land possession. mainly of poultry and pigs. Unemployed women represent 55. cultivated by individual farms. who would be ready to create some new job opportunities in the region of PP5. Agriculture is very important in the area of PP6. so the region is dominated by “mixed” farms (i. mainly livestock breeding and forestry.e. There are two significant reasons for development of complementary activities on farms: awareness of farmers that there is a need to develop an interesting. mainly due to the decreasing of purchase prices. which is above the Slovenian average (53. market oriented offer on farm and the possibility of obtaining grants from the Rural Development Programme. people are working on farms and as employees in companies). which is reflected in a large number of small parcels. paprika and green pepper growing has increased considerably. but is has been connected to agricultural production for example through the production of pesticides in the area of PP4.7%). is also typical. which derived from raw materials and energy resources present on the Plateau. the tobacco growing is less popular among farmers. The consequences of fragmentation of property are also reflected in the social.7% of all unemployed people.the village. The companies employ mostly local workers in the area. People have developed a wide range of complementary activities for own use or for sale. A number of traditional agricultural enterprises went bankrupt even before the transformation there. Animal breeding. Industrial production is not important. There is partially disrupted the system of education for requirement of a labour market. The region has a long tradition of markets and fairs. but recently there has been an increase of numbers of workers from other EU countries and Southeast Europe. most land owners made their living by the tobacco production. mostly for self-supply. Instead. but most of these industrial and agricultural enterprises are closed or collapsed due to the transformation to the market economy. The key employers are still large companies. Today. Agricultural farms are too small to be able to provide sufficient income only from agriculture. . economic and production structure. People cultivate vegetable and fruit. It is reflected. In the last ten years there has been a proliferation of complementary activities in rural areas. This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF.

A volume of the herbal industry shows. diverse fauna and flora. . It included an associated processing. the existing knowledge is passive and disappears from the public awareness slowly. Selected regions are really problematic as concerns the relations to the national average. Kuřim. The economy of the Vranov nad Dyjí microregion includes undeveloped industry (only some SMEs). Some tourist tracks give possibilities to all year round activities. some historical monuments. the most part of these traditions have been forgotten. Brno. the assistance which could be provided especially to these microregions could be the most efficient. that the natural conditions would be suitable for this. hiking. cycling. Three years ago. food. shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). These are cycling. It includes a pure nature of protected areas. Inner periphery (Nedvědice and Velké Opatovice microregions) are less problematic. In the region. The economy of the Horňácko microregion is based on industry (production of geo-textile). natural landscapes. because the mentioned microregions apparently dispose with inner sources which could ensure the continuation of activities also after finishing the support from outside. but a lot of people make their living by growing plants which – after processed elsewhere – are marketed by multinational companies. educational trails. The economy of the Malá Haná microregion is based on agro-industrial character (good soils). paper).The unemployment rate in areas PP8 is generally higher than the national average shows. glassworks. production of refractory goods. the tourist potential is based on friendly environmental conditions in the selected areas. A collection and use of wild plants had a long tradition in the territory of PP4. Today. The economy of the Nedvědice microregion is based on industries (electronic. trekking and horse riding in summer. spite of it. and tobacco. It is questionable in the case of the borderland micro-regions. small-flowered willowherb This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. the Vranov micro-region showed the highest unemployment and also the highest sensitivity to the critical development. which are concentrated out of the micro-region in towns Tišnov. The situation here was improved to the level of Horňácko in the last time. The Velké Opatovice microregion and the Nedvědice microregion are in a better situation. Collection and use of plants and herbs The village of Kunadacs does not have any traditional local product. These include paprika and green pepper. Tourist potential In the most cases. that it does not play too big role in the regional economy. common herbs are collected: stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). agritourism. utilization and therapeutic methods. cross country skiing in winter. yarrow (Achillea millefolium). On the other side. minimum working opportunity is provided for locals.

. anise (Pimpinella anisum). potatoes (Solanum tuberosum).). There is one local product in the South Moravian Region. flax (Linum usitatissimum). lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata). celandine (Chelidonium majus). hawthorn (Crataegus sp. This tea (which is not mass-produced) is necessary to drink cold. oak (Quercus sp. chamomile (Matricaria recutita). mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris). coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara). marshmallow / marshmallow (Althaea officinalis). syrup of plantain or of elderflower. parsley (Petroselinum hortense).(Epilobium parviflorum). black mint. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum). linden (Tilia spp. nettle (Urtica dioica). Goat (Galega officinalis). fruits and fungus in the region. The collecting. great plantain (Plantago major). The herbs are collected by volunteers on the meadows of Horňácko. The used herbs are primrose. blackberry (Rubus fruticosus). walnut leaf (Yuglans regia). blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus). cultivating and storing of herbs was exclusively the domain of women there. canadensis). goldenrod (Solidago sp. Traditional use of herbs. peppermint.). fern (Dryopteris filix-mas). eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis). calamus (Acorus calamus). wormwood (Artemisia absinthium). horsetail (Equisetum arvense). in the Horňácko microregion. daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare). centaury (Centaurium erythraea). hawthorn (Crategus monogyna).). wild chicory (Cichorium intybus) horsetail (Equisetum arvense). oat (Avena sativa). elderberry (Sambucus nigra). stuffing and spinach of nettle and rosehip tea.). St.). agneweed (Eupatorium cannabinum). lovage (Levisticum officinale). goose-grass (Galium aparine). Vulgaris). nuts. red beet (Beta vulgaris var. The most popular recipes for homemade products are honey of dandelions. garlic (Allium sativum). elderberry (Sambucus nigra). rose hips (Rosa canina). oregano. lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis). common mallow (Malva neglecta). mallow (Malva sylvestris). fruit and fungus on the Plateau of Banjšice and Trnovo includes a paucity of literature about use of herbs. dewberry (Rubus caesius).). linden (Tilia sp. onions (Allium cepa). The list of the medicinal plants used in popular tradition include arnica (Arnica montana). woodruff (Galium odoratum). barberry (Berberis vulgaris). willow (Salix spp. rose (Rosa sp. juniper (Juniperus communis). cabbage (Brassica oleracea). ). cumin (Cuminum cyminum). horse radish (Armoracia rusticana).). house-leek (Sempervivum tectorum). People from the Czech Republic have very positive attitude to collection of wild plants and they would like to know more new information about it. celandine (Ranunculus sp. pine tree. Lady's Mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris).). It is an herbal tea. linden and blackberry. valerian (Valeriana officinalis). This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. calendula (Calendula officinalis). dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). sage (Salvia officinalis). goldenrod Herb (Solidago gigantea. larch (Larix sp. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale ). pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo). fir (Abies sp.).

but the collection of wild medicinal plants is a daily practice in other areas. positive interactions and networks. Some regions do not play any role in this project. where the traditions are preserved. social equality or fairness in access to opportunities. Then these groups are able to organize various regional events. club activities). The population aging is most expressive in Czechia and the unemployment rate as well. education and housing). freedom. which may give negative prospects for the future (e. Development of industries is similar. e. To make the younger generations stay and live in the villages should be one of the most important aims. Agritourism is better developed in Slovenia. industries. which contribute to the visibility of the region. housing. Important conditions for a building of a social cohesion are needed: material conditions (employment. Tourism is considered to be the most prospective branch on the periphery as a rule. and entertainment facilities for the young is the asked pre-supposition. This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. schools may need to be closed). there is a strengthened regional identity among people. We found a difference in a motivation of people to collect wild plants. active social relations (including traditions. share of population with higher education (compared to the core of the settlement system). tolerance. It leads to the establishment of local communities. that in the regions. but also other branches should be developed: agriculture. social inclusion or integration into the mainstream institutions. To obtain financial resources for creating new jobs. The existing research shows. Czech agriculture is based on large farms whereas small farms prevail in Slovenia and Poland. Periphery is a natural consequence of the concept core – periphery. social order. energy production from alternative sources etc. income. services. The indicator of education seems to be the best for defining peripheral areas. . It follows from the Czech cases that the perception of the plant collection does not depend on the level of peripherality and social exclusion but more on the social cohesion. safety.Conclusions The population of the target areas is ageing. The statistical data are hardly comparable. Based on attendance of these events financial support (for example in form of voluntary admission or buying local products) begins to generate in the region.g. Frequency of public transport in countries under comparison is the best in Czechia. health. There are following criteria recommended to identify of peripheries: distance from regional centres. Vranov micro-region with the worst values of social indicators together with Nedvědice micro-region with the best ones show the lowest social inclusion whereas Horňácko is the best. forestry. The educational structure is lower than the national averages in all the cases.g.