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Promoting traditional collection and use of Wild plants
to reduce social and economic disparities
in Central Europe.

BRNO, October 2012

This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF.

For example the population has decreased by half in the last 50 years in some selected areas in Slovenia. sometimes they seek jobs abroad. Data collection consists of data from official databases.Socio-economic analysis Socio – economic analysis is a broad concept. each of these selected regions is unique. Demography The population decrease is a general trend in each of the selected areas. Moreover. Not only young people look for a job outside their homes. Poland. All selected regions show symptoms of aging. This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. stakeholders. local economy. which covers several different types of analysis. The age structure of population is formed by long-term development of fertility. museums. mortality and migration in each population. demographic and economic indicators. This is a summary and a comparison of individual components with higher territorial administrative units or neighbouring regions. Also the second region is located in Hungary.economic analysis. Slovenia and the Czech Republic. There are 11 settlements in the Ormánság District. The selected area of PP3 is situated in the Great Hungarian Plain in Hungary and a village of Kunadacs is the chosen place. There were selected 4 micro-regions and 2 villages in each of these regions. transport accessibility and technical infrastructure and impact on the environment. which affect lives of people in a community or in a region. from local authorities. The selected area of PP6 is situated in regions of Kozjansko and Dravinjsko in Slovenia. administration and tourism. The following paper deals with a general evaluation of all individual socio-economic analysis. The last chosen area of PP8 is situated in the South Moravian Region in the Czech Republic. There were chosen 7 municipalities. The availability of data can be decisive for the quality and design of the socio . The analysis is a basic overview of the social. The selected territory of PP4 is in the Baranya Region. The target area of PP5 is situated on Kolbuszowa Plateau in Poland and this territory includes 10 villages. internet and other databases. We can use only a simple general comparison for all countries. local or central libraries. . Educated people are leaving as well. The most important components of regional development in a municipality are number of population and households. specific and has different conditions of development. because the provided data were in a different quality and a different scale. Subsequently areas were selected for the socio-economic analysis in each of these countries. It is better to study them separately. The proportion of older people is increasing and the proportion of the births is decreasing. The selected territory of PP7 is in on Banjšice and Trnovo Plateau in Slovenia and this territory includes 14 chosen villages. There are four countries connected with the project Traditional and wild. These are Hungary.

The 2011 census figures are not known yet. Nearly one-fifth of the population identified themselves as a member of a minority during census of year 2001. Compared to the total population. Two-thirds of the population have only primary school education there. In the beginning of the 20th century they had their own folk costume. where 71. the Scotsmen. Interaction among them and assimilation of these nationalities contributed to create a separate community. They are the Lasowiaks and the Rzeszowiaks. when they were children. On the other side. They were quite wealthy thanks to fertile soils. We can find some interesting ethnic groups in Poland. which was formed as a result assimilation of different nations living between valleys of rivers San and Vistula. The Lasowiaks are an ethnic group. The Mazovians. The economy is based on agriculture and a sector of services in the area of Kundanacs. The presence of minorities is well represented (particularly an ability of lobbying) by the presence of minority in a self-government in settlements. The historical reason is that the current older generation had to work in fields instead of going to school. These differences are not extremely high. There are no industrial companies. but it is likely the proportion of the Roma population has increased in the Ormánság Region. The highest concentration of the Roma is in Gilvánfa. The latest survey shows that only 6 have registered out of 130 people to the Lasowiaks group. The half of inhabitants has vocational or secondary education on Banjšice – Trnovo Plateau. in Slovenia is bigger share of inhabitants with university education than on Trnovo – Banjšice Plateau. the western Małopolans. the Germans.The educational structure of inhabitants is diverse in the individual target regions. The Roma have the largest number in the area. . The Rzeszowiaks were treated as an ethnic group after the World War II. We can find one good reason in the village of Kunadacs in Hungary. their proportion of the population is close to 7% there. apiculture. so the education does not represent the most important obstacle to the development of this area. the Russians. Reasons of this problem are varied. agriculture and a breeding of livestock. hunting. There are high quality soils in surroundings. A tobacco production has a history of at least 30 years in This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. They dealt with forestry. Centres of these regions show higher educational attainment. The territory of PP4 is one exception. the Turkish. craft and dialect. Economy The economy of the target areas has been connected to agriculture. the Ruthenians and the Wallachia people lived among them.2 % of the population identified themselves as belonging to the Roma ethnic group. and producing of charcoal. This community was very resourceful and economical. the number of inhabitants belonging to national minorities is insignificant in the target areas.

economic and production structure. In the last ten years there has been a proliferation of complementary activities in rural areas. Instead. mostly for self-supply. Currently the unemployment is caused by lack of investors.7%). who have only primary or no education because they have more difficulties to find a job. so the region is dominated by “mixed” farms (i. In the past.7% of all unemployed people. Industrial production is not important. which give a safe job for a lot of farmers. In the past. Big fragmentation of property is an unfavourable structural feature. The consequences of fragmentation of property are also reflected in the social. who would be ready to create some new job opportunities in the region of PP5. cultivated by individual farms. the tobacco growing is less popular among farmers. The companies employ mostly local workers in the area. The key employers are still large companies. The region has a long tradition of markets and fairs. Agriculture is very important in the area of PP6. The agricultural areas constitute over half of all the land in use (53%). Because of these reasons. majority of the population survived in agriculture in the target area of PP7. mainly due to the decreasing of purchase prices. There is partially disrupted the system of education for requirement of a labour market.e. which is reflected in a large number of small parcels. It is reflected. This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. which is above the Slovenian average (53. paprika and green pepper growing has increased considerably. The main problems represent those. Agricultural farms are too small to be able to provide sufficient income only from agriculture.the village. but is has been connected to agricultural production for example through the production of pesticides in the area of PP4. There are some kinds of farm animals in around one half of households. most land owners made their living by the tobacco production. Animal breeding. These complementary activities represent an element for economic growth on farms. Today. but recently there has been an increase of numbers of workers from other EU countries and Southeast Europe. People have developed a wide range of complementary activities for own use or for sale. market oriented offer on farm and the possibility of obtaining grants from the Rural Development Programme. A number of traditional agricultural enterprises went bankrupt even before the transformation there. People cultivate vegetable and fruit. that women have difficulties in finding employment. but most of these industrial and agricultural enterprises are closed or collapsed due to the transformation to the market economy. There are two significant reasons for development of complementary activities on farms: awareness of farmers that there is a need to develop an interesting. mainly livestock breeding and forestry. mainly of poultry and pigs. Unemployed women represent 55. the productivity of agriculture farms is lower than it would be in the case of concentration of land possession. which derived from raw materials and energy resources present on the Plateau. particularly farm tourism. . people are working on farms and as employees in companies). is also typical.

but a lot of people make their living by growing plants which – after processed elsewhere – are marketed by multinational companies. some historical monuments. and tobacco. the Vranov micro-region showed the highest unemployment and also the highest sensitivity to the critical development. small-flowered willowherb This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. because the mentioned microregions apparently dispose with inner sources which could ensure the continuation of activities also after finishing the support from outside. natural landscapes.The unemployment rate in areas PP8 is generally higher than the national average shows. It is questionable in the case of the borderland micro-regions. the existing knowledge is passive and disappears from the public awareness slowly. which are concentrated out of the micro-region in towns Tišnov. hiking. that the natural conditions would be suitable for this. spite of it. The economy of the Horňácko microregion is based on industry (production of geo-textile). that it does not play too big role in the regional economy. A collection and use of wild plants had a long tradition in the territory of PP4. These are cycling. The economy of the Vranov nad Dyjí microregion includes undeveloped industry (only some SMEs). utilization and therapeutic methods. Today. Kuřim. paper). glassworks. It includes a pure nature of protected areas. Selected regions are really problematic as concerns the relations to the national average. trekking and horse riding in summer. Inner periphery (Nedvědice and Velké Opatovice microregions) are less problematic. The economy of the Malá Haná microregion is based on agro-industrial character (good soils). shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). These include paprika and green pepper. production of refractory goods. Three years ago. On the other side. . The situation here was improved to the level of Horňácko in the last time. the tourist potential is based on friendly environmental conditions in the selected areas. Some tourist tracks give possibilities to all year round activities. yarrow (Achillea millefolium). Brno. In the region. Tourist potential In the most cases. cycling. The economy of the Nedvědice microregion is based on industries (electronic. the most part of these traditions have been forgotten. The Velké Opatovice microregion and the Nedvědice microregion are in a better situation. It included an associated processing. minimum working opportunity is provided for locals. the assistance which could be provided especially to these microregions could be the most efficient. educational trails. Collection and use of plants and herbs The village of Kunadacs does not have any traditional local product. common herbs are collected: stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). food. diverse fauna and flora. agritourism. A volume of the herbal industry shows. cross country skiing in winter.

house-leek (Sempervivum tectorum). Lady's Mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris). hawthorn (Crataegus sp.). nettle (Urtica dioica). . coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara). daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare). celandine (Ranunculus sp. ). oregano. parsley (Petroselinum hortense). lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis).). calendula (Calendula officinalis). common mallow (Malva neglecta). celandine (Chelidonium majus). marshmallow / marshmallow (Althaea officinalis). wormwood (Artemisia absinthium). linden (Tilia sp. The herbs are collected by volunteers on the meadows of Horňácko. eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis). black mint. It is an herbal tea. walnut leaf (Yuglans regia). canadensis). fern (Dryopteris filix-mas). Traditional use of herbs.). goldenrod Herb (Solidago gigantea. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale ). People from the Czech Republic have very positive attitude to collection of wild plants and they would like to know more new information about it. valerian (Valeriana officinalis). pine tree.(Epilobium parviflorum). rose (Rosa sp. flax (Linum usitatissimum). elderberry (Sambucus nigra). centaury (Centaurium erythraea). fir (Abies sp. pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo). The list of the medicinal plants used in popular tradition include arnica (Arnica montana). Goat (Galega officinalis). mallow (Malva sylvestris). cultivating and storing of herbs was exclusively the domain of women there. goose-grass (Galium aparine). in the Horňácko microregion. calamus (Acorus calamus). cabbage (Brassica oleracea). garlic (Allium sativum). This tea (which is not mass-produced) is necessary to drink cold. dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). elderberry (Sambucus nigra). wild chicory (Cichorium intybus) horsetail (Equisetum arvense).). Vulgaris). peppermint. onions (Allium cepa). blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus). The used herbs are primrose. The collecting.). fruits and fungus in the region. There is one local product in the South Moravian Region. The most popular recipes for homemade products are honey of dandelions. cumin (Cuminum cyminum). agneweed (Eupatorium cannabinum). woodruff (Galium odoratum).). horse radish (Armoracia rusticana). linden and blackberry. oak (Quercus sp. St. This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata). dewberry (Rubus caesius). great plantain (Plantago major). potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris). linden (Tilia spp.). barberry (Berberis vulgaris). oat (Avena sativa). sage (Salvia officinalis). lovage (Levisticum officinale). willow (Salix spp. horsetail (Equisetum arvense). nuts. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum).). syrup of plantain or of elderflower. fruit and fungus on the Plateau of Banjšice and Trnovo includes a paucity of literature about use of herbs. anise (Pimpinella anisum). goldenrod (Solidago sp. red beet (Beta vulgaris var. blackberry (Rubus fruticosus). larch (Larix sp. juniper (Juniperus communis). chamomile (Matricaria recutita).). hawthorn (Crategus monogyna). stuffing and spinach of nettle and rosehip tea. rose hips (Rosa canina).

e. share of population with higher education (compared to the core of the settlement system). Some regions do not play any role in this project. Based on attendance of these events financial support (for example in form of voluntary admission or buying local products) begins to generate in the region. There are following criteria recommended to identify of peripheries: distance from regional centres. industries. which may give negative prospects for the future (e. education and housing). that in the regions.Conclusions The population of the target areas is ageing. income. The statistical data are hardly comparable. which contribute to the visibility of the region. but also other branches should be developed: agriculture. To obtain financial resources for creating new jobs. social inclusion or integration into the mainstream institutions. health. social order. services.g. tolerance. Vranov micro-region with the worst values of social indicators together with Nedvědice micro-region with the best ones show the lowest social inclusion whereas Horňácko is the best. Then these groups are able to organize various regional events. schools may need to be closed). To make the younger generations stay and live in the villages should be one of the most important aims. Important conditions for a building of a social cohesion are needed: material conditions (employment. The existing research shows. The educational structure is lower than the national averages in all the cases. forestry. The indicator of education seems to be the best for defining peripheral areas. Periphery is a natural consequence of the concept core – periphery. but the collection of wild medicinal plants is a daily practice in other areas. Development of industries is similar. social equality or fairness in access to opportunities. safety. It leads to the establishment of local communities. Frequency of public transport in countries under comparison is the best in Czechia. and entertainment facilities for the young is the asked pre-supposition. It follows from the Czech cases that the perception of the plant collection does not depend on the level of peripherality and social exclusion but more on the social cohesion. . This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. there is a strengthened regional identity among people. active social relations (including traditions. Czech agriculture is based on large farms whereas small farms prevail in Slovenia and Poland. freedom. club activities). positive interactions and networks.g. The population aging is most expressive in Czechia and the unemployment rate as well. We found a difference in a motivation of people to collect wild plants. housing. where the traditions are preserved. Tourism is considered to be the most prospective branch on the periphery as a rule. Agritourism is better developed in Slovenia. energy production from alternative sources etc.