Promoting traditional collection and use of Wild plants
to reduce social and economic disparities
in Central Europe.

BRNO, October 2012

This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF.

local economy. The availability of data can be decisive for the quality and design of the socio . from local authorities.economic analysis. The last chosen area of PP8 is situated in the South Moravian Region in the Czech Republic. Data collection consists of data from official databases. It is better to study them separately. internet and other databases. The age structure of population is formed by long-term development of fertility. sometimes they seek jobs abroad. This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. There were selected 4 micro-regions and 2 villages in each of these regions. The selected area of PP3 is situated in the Great Hungarian Plain in Hungary and a village of Kunadacs is the chosen place. transport accessibility and technical infrastructure and impact on the environment. Poland. . demographic and economic indicators. administration and tourism. The selected area of PP6 is situated in regions of Kozjansko and Dravinjsko in Slovenia. The most important components of regional development in a municipality are number of population and households. The target area of PP5 is situated on Kolbuszowa Plateau in Poland and this territory includes 10 villages. This is a summary and a comparison of individual components with higher territorial administrative units or neighbouring regions. There were chosen 7 municipalities. The selected territory of PP4 is in the Baranya Region.Socio-economic analysis Socio – economic analysis is a broad concept. each of these selected regions is unique. Subsequently areas were selected for the socio-economic analysis in each of these countries. museums. which covers several different types of analysis. Educated people are leaving as well. which affect lives of people in a community or in a region. Also the second region is located in Hungary. local or central libraries. We can use only a simple general comparison for all countries. The proportion of older people is increasing and the proportion of the births is decreasing. For example the population has decreased by half in the last 50 years in some selected areas in Slovenia. Not only young people look for a job outside their homes. specific and has different conditions of development. The following paper deals with a general evaluation of all individual socio-economic analysis. These are Hungary. mortality and migration in each population. The analysis is a basic overview of the social. All selected regions show symptoms of aging. because the provided data were in a different quality and a different scale. Slovenia and the Czech Republic. Demography The population decrease is a general trend in each of the selected areas. Moreover. stakeholders. The selected territory of PP7 is in on Banjšice and Trnovo Plateau in Slovenia and this territory includes 14 chosen villages. There are four countries connected with the project Traditional and wild. There are 11 settlements in the Ormánság District.

. There are no industrial companies. The economy is based on agriculture and a sector of services in the area of Kundanacs. The historical reason is that the current older generation had to work in fields instead of going to school. On the other side.The educational structure of inhabitants is diverse in the individual target regions. the Turkish. The half of inhabitants has vocational or secondary education on Banjšice – Trnovo Plateau. the Russians. A tobacco production has a history of at least 30 years in This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. agriculture and a breeding of livestock. where 71. and producing of charcoal. The territory of PP4 is one exception. in Slovenia is bigger share of inhabitants with university education than on Trnovo – Banjšice Plateau. The presence of minorities is well represented (particularly an ability of lobbying) by the presence of minority in a self-government in settlements. Interaction among them and assimilation of these nationalities contributed to create a separate community. The Lasowiaks are an ethnic group. These differences are not extremely high. their proportion of the population is close to 7% there. In the beginning of the 20th century they had their own folk costume. the Scotsmen. craft and dialect. The Roma have the largest number in the area. The Mazovians. Reasons of this problem are varied. but it is likely the proportion of the Roma population has increased in the Ormánság Region. The Rzeszowiaks were treated as an ethnic group after the World War II. the western Małopolans. which was formed as a result assimilation of different nations living between valleys of rivers San and Vistula. We can find one good reason in the village of Kunadacs in Hungary. hunting. Two-thirds of the population have only primary school education there. Economy The economy of the target areas has been connected to agriculture. the Ruthenians and the Wallachia people lived among them. the Germans. Centres of these regions show higher educational attainment. There are high quality soils in surroundings. the number of inhabitants belonging to national minorities is insignificant in the target areas. They dealt with forestry. Nearly one-fifth of the population identified themselves as a member of a minority during census of year 2001. The 2011 census figures are not known yet. so the education does not represent the most important obstacle to the development of this area. when they were children. They are the Lasowiaks and the Rzeszowiaks. Compared to the total population. The latest survey shows that only 6 have registered out of 130 people to the Lasowiaks group.2 % of the population identified themselves as belonging to the Roma ethnic group. apiculture. This community was very resourceful and economical. We can find some interesting ethnic groups in Poland. They were quite wealthy thanks to fertile soils. The highest concentration of the Roma is in Gilvánfa.

which is above the Slovenian average (53. Agricultural farms are too small to be able to provide sufficient income only from agriculture.7% of all unemployed people. mainly of poultry and pigs. Animal breeding. which derived from raw materials and energy resources present on the Plateau. Industrial production is not important. the tobacco growing is less popular among farmers. People have developed a wide range of complementary activities for own use or for sale. who would be ready to create some new job opportunities in the region of PP5. but recently there has been an increase of numbers of workers from other EU countries and Southeast Europe. who have only primary or no education because they have more difficulties to find a job. The main problems represent those. Unemployed women represent 55. economic and production structure. mainly livestock breeding and forestry. but is has been connected to agricultural production for example through the production of pesticides in the area of PP4. that women have difficulties in finding employment. This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. particularly farm tourism. market oriented offer on farm and the possibility of obtaining grants from the Rural Development Programme.e. It is reflected. There are two significant reasons for development of complementary activities on farms: awareness of farmers that there is a need to develop an interesting. The region has a long tradition of markets and fairs. The agricultural areas constitute over half of all the land in use (53%). mostly for self-supply. which is reflected in a large number of small parcels. paprika and green pepper growing has increased considerably. Instead. . the productivity of agriculture farms is lower than it would be in the case of concentration of land possession. These complementary activities represent an element for economic growth on farms.7%). Big fragmentation of property is an unfavourable structural feature. The key employers are still large companies. people are working on farms and as employees in companies). Agriculture is very important in the area of PP6.the village. In the past. is also typical. The consequences of fragmentation of property are also reflected in the social. Today. There is partially disrupted the system of education for requirement of a labour market. Because of these reasons. so the region is dominated by “mixed” farms (i. which give a safe job for a lot of farmers. mainly due to the decreasing of purchase prices. most land owners made their living by the tobacco production. In the last ten years there has been a proliferation of complementary activities in rural areas. The companies employ mostly local workers in the area. majority of the population survived in agriculture in the target area of PP7. but most of these industrial and agricultural enterprises are closed or collapsed due to the transformation to the market economy. Currently the unemployment is caused by lack of investors. In the past. People cultivate vegetable and fruit. A number of traditional agricultural enterprises went bankrupt even before the transformation there. There are some kinds of farm animals in around one half of households. cultivated by individual farms.

Collection and use of plants and herbs The village of Kunadacs does not have any traditional local product. and tobacco. which are concentrated out of the micro-region in towns Tišnov. cycling. On the other side. small-flowered willowherb This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. natural landscapes. The Velké Opatovice microregion and the Nedvědice microregion are in a better situation. hiking. These include paprika and green pepper. A collection and use of wild plants had a long tradition in the territory of PP4. paper). Selected regions are really problematic as concerns the relations to the national average. The situation here was improved to the level of Horňácko in the last time. the most part of these traditions have been forgotten. The economy of the Nedvědice microregion is based on industries (electronic. It includes a pure nature of protected areas. glassworks. cross country skiing in winter. diverse fauna and flora. Three years ago. These are cycling. trekking and horse riding in summer. the assistance which could be provided especially to these microregions could be the most efficient. It is questionable in the case of the borderland micro-regions. The economy of the Vranov nad Dyjí microregion includes undeveloped industry (only some SMEs). common herbs are collected: stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). educational trails. agritourism. Kuřim. Today. It included an associated processing. In the region. that the natural conditions would be suitable for this. . Inner periphery (Nedvědice and Velké Opatovice microregions) are less problematic. shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). food. The economy of the Malá Haná microregion is based on agro-industrial character (good soils). but a lot of people make their living by growing plants which – after processed elsewhere – are marketed by multinational companies. Some tourist tracks give possibilities to all year round activities. A volume of the herbal industry shows. spite of it. Tourist potential In the most cases. The economy of the Horňácko microregion is based on industry (production of geo-textile). the Vranov micro-region showed the highest unemployment and also the highest sensitivity to the critical development. that it does not play too big role in the regional economy. the existing knowledge is passive and disappears from the public awareness slowly. some historical monuments. production of refractory goods.The unemployment rate in areas PP8 is generally higher than the national average shows. utilization and therapeutic methods. Brno. the tourist potential is based on friendly environmental conditions in the selected areas. because the mentioned microregions apparently dispose with inner sources which could ensure the continuation of activities also after finishing the support from outside. minimum working opportunity is provided for locals. yarrow (Achillea millefolium).

People from the Czech Republic have very positive attitude to collection of wild plants and they would like to know more new information about it.). wild chicory (Cichorium intybus) horsetail (Equisetum arvense). woodruff (Galium odoratum). There is one local product in the South Moravian Region. willow (Salix spp. red beet (Beta vulgaris var.). mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris). horsetail (Equisetum arvense).). cultivating and storing of herbs was exclusively the domain of women there. Vulgaris). . potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). parsley (Petroselinum hortense). The most popular recipes for homemade products are honey of dandelions.). goldenrod Herb (Solidago gigantea. oak (Quercus sp. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale ). juniper (Juniperus communis). Goat (Galega officinalis). black mint. Lady's Mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris). fern (Dryopteris filix-mas). rose hips (Rosa canina).). marshmallow / marshmallow (Althaea officinalis). chamomile (Matricaria recutita). fruits and fungus in the region. The herbs are collected by volunteers on the meadows of Horňácko. This tea (which is not mass-produced) is necessary to drink cold.). The used herbs are primrose. hawthorn (Crataegus sp. onions (Allium cepa). elderberry (Sambucus nigra). Traditional use of herbs. celandine (Chelidonium majus).). celandine (Ranunculus sp. goldenrod (Solidago sp. peppermint. linden (Tilia sp. fir (Abies sp. anise (Pimpinella anisum). It is an herbal tea. wormwood (Artemisia absinthium). daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare). ). This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. valerian (Valeriana officinalis). stuffing and spinach of nettle and rosehip tea. barberry (Berberis vulgaris). centaury (Centaurium erythraea). John's wort (Hypericum perforatum).). garlic (Allium sativum).). goose-grass (Galium aparine). ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata). horse radish (Armoracia rusticana). coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara). calendula (Calendula officinalis). lovage (Levisticum officinale). linden and blackberry. rose (Rosa sp. pine tree. pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo). blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus). fruit and fungus on the Plateau of Banjšice and Trnovo includes a paucity of literature about use of herbs. hawthorn (Crategus monogyna). dewberry (Rubus caesius). The collecting. eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis). house-leek (Sempervivum tectorum). in the Horňácko microregion. blackberry (Rubus fruticosus). lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis). oregano. syrup of plantain or of elderflower. cabbage (Brassica oleracea). great plantain (Plantago major). walnut leaf (Yuglans regia). oat (Avena sativa). cumin (Cuminum cyminum). canadensis). sage (Salvia officinalis). nettle (Urtica dioica). calamus (Acorus calamus). elderberry (Sambucus nigra). agneweed (Eupatorium cannabinum). nuts. St. mallow (Malva sylvestris). lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). flax (Linum usitatissimum). The list of the medicinal plants used in popular tradition include arnica (Arnica montana). larch (Larix sp. linden (Tilia spp.(Epilobium parviflorum). common mallow (Malva neglecta).

Then these groups are able to organize various regional events. there is a strengthened regional identity among people. We found a difference in a motivation of people to collect wild plants. It leads to the establishment of local communities. This project is implemented through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programmeco-financedbythe ERDF. social equality or fairness in access to opportunities. services. industries. which contribute to the visibility of the region. freedom. education and housing). health.g. which may give negative prospects for the future (e. The existing research shows. share of population with higher education (compared to the core of the settlement system). housing. The educational structure is lower than the national averages in all the cases. Important conditions for a building of a social cohesion are needed: material conditions (employment. income. positive interactions and networks. schools may need to be closed). The statistical data are hardly comparable. Frequency of public transport in countries under comparison is the best in Czechia. . energy production from alternative sources etc. club activities). and entertainment facilities for the young is the asked pre-supposition. Development of industries is similar. social order. tolerance. To obtain financial resources for creating new jobs. active social relations (including traditions.g. Czech agriculture is based on large farms whereas small farms prevail in Slovenia and Poland. Based on attendance of these events financial support (for example in form of voluntary admission or buying local products) begins to generate in the region. Tourism is considered to be the most prospective branch on the periphery as a rule. but the collection of wild medicinal plants is a daily practice in other areas. where the traditions are preserved. e. forestry. There are following criteria recommended to identify of peripheries: distance from regional centres. but also other branches should be developed: agriculture. safety. The population aging is most expressive in Czechia and the unemployment rate as well. To make the younger generations stay and live in the villages should be one of the most important aims.Conclusions The population of the target areas is ageing. The indicator of education seems to be the best for defining peripheral areas. social inclusion or integration into the mainstream institutions. Some regions do not play any role in this project. that in the regions. Vranov micro-region with the worst values of social indicators together with Nedvědice micro-region with the best ones show the lowest social inclusion whereas Horňácko is the best. Periphery is a natural consequence of the concept core – periphery. Agritourism is better developed in Slovenia. It follows from the Czech cases that the perception of the plant collection does not depend on the level of peripherality and social exclusion but more on the social cohesion.

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