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PROTECTION AGAINST FAILURE FROM CYCLIC LOADING

Screening to be carried out if fatigue analysis is needed.


Evaluation to be done on the basis of number of cycles of stress/strain
range at a point in a component.
Fatigue curve form: fatigue curve based on smooth bar test specimens
and fatigue based on test specimen consisting weld details of fabrication
and inspection requirement of this division.
a) Smooth bar specimen curves are used for component with or without
welds. Welded joint curves shall only be used for welded joints.
b)smooth bar fatigue curve applicable up to maximum number of cycles
given on the curves. The welded fatigue curves are acceptable for all
cycles (do not exhibit endurance limit)
c) In case of welded joints curve, transient thermal stress difference is
higher than steady state stress difference for a through thickness at any
time. number of cycles are established for base metal in para 5.5.3 or
5.5.4, for welds 5.5.5.
Smooth bar test specimen based fatigue qualification, does not need any
adjustment for mean stress and strains as it is adjusted for maximum
possible mean stress and strain effect. (as in para 5.5.3 or 5.5.4)
5.5.3 FATIGUE ASSESSMENT-ELASTIC STRESS ANALYSIS AND
EQUIVALENT STRESSES:
5.5.3.1
a) Effective total equivalent stress amplitude is used for fatigue
evaluation. Controlling stress is 1.5 of effective total equivalent stress
range (PL + PB+ Q+ F) calculated for each cycle in loading histogram.
b) (PL + PB+ Q+ F) is the equivalent stress derived from highest value
across thickness of a section, which is produced by specified operating
pressures and other mechanical loads and by general and local thermal
effects and including gross and local structural discontinuities. Load
combination as per table 5.3
5.5.3.2 Assessment Procedure
Step 1. Load history including all significant operating loads and events
that are applied to the component. If exact sequence of loads are not
known then alternative should be to establish most severe fatigue
damage(Df,k), step 6.
Step 2. Determine the individual stress strain cycles using cycle counting
method for a location in a component. M is total number of cyclic stress
range in histogram.
Step 3. Determine Equivalent stress range for kth counted in step 2.
a) Determine stress tensor for kth cycle for start and end time point. (Local
thermal is stresses peak stresses)
b) Determine stress tensor for kth cycle for start and end time point
(only).Local thermal effect is ignored.

Step 4: Determine effective alternative equivalent stress amplitude for kth


cycle from step 3

a) Kf = 1.0 for if local notch or effect of weld is accounted for numerical


model. If not recommended values for fatigue strength reduction factors,
Kf for welds are taken from Table 5.11 and 5.12
b) The fatigue penalty factor, Ke,k ,
Ke,k = 1.0
for Sn,k SPS
Ke,k = 1.0 +(1-n)/n(m-1)(Sn,k /SPS -1)
for
SPS < Sn,k < m SPS
Ke,k = 1/n
for Sn,k > m
SPS

the Salt, k is without local thermal effects.


Sn,k = primary and secondary equivalent stress range
SPS = allowable limit on the primary plus secondary stress range (see
paragraph 5.5.6.)
Step 5. Determine the number of cycles Nk

EFC = modulus of elasticity used to establish the design fatigue curve


ET = modulus of elasticity of the material under evaluation at the average
temperature of the cycle being evaluated
Cus = conversion factor, Cus = 1.0 for units of stress in ksi and for units of
stress in MPa
C1 to C11 = equation constants used to represent the smooth bar fatigue
curves
Step 6. Find fatigue damage for Kth cycle, for repetition of Kth cycle,
nk = actual number of repetition of kth cycle.
Nk = permissible number of cycles for the kth cycle.
Step 7. Repeat 3 to 6 for all stress ranges, M, identified in cycle counting
process in step 2.
Step 8. Compute the accumulated fatigue damage and if below equation
is satisfied the location in component is acceptable for continued
operation.

Step 9. Repeat steps 2 to 8 for each component subject to a fatigue


evaluation