Está en la página 1de 27

TOWARDS RESILIENCE: COMMUNITY

DRIVEN DRR & CCA FINANCING


LESSONS FROM LOCAL DISASTER RISK REDUCTION FUND (LDRRF) INTERVENTION

Abdul Qayyum Mohammad


National Project Director (Additional Secretary ), CDMP II, MoDMR, Bangladesh
6th AMCDRR, Bangkok, Thailand
23 June 2014
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

RISK PROFILE
First rank climate change vulnerable nations.
Fifth rank in the world risk index 2012

DROUGHT - Affecting 8.3 million Ha of


land.
FLASH FLOOD Unpredictable, recurring,
uncertain.
FLOOD - Inundates more areas, increases
river erosion, breaches embankments,
damage infrastructures.
SALINITY INTRUSION - Spreading from 1.5
to 2.5 Mha (2007).
CYCLONE - Remain to be the deadliest
and most destructive hazard. It is
recurring, with lingering aftermath,
complex recovery.

Number
of people
exposed
yearly

45 Million
20 Million

28Million

AND CLIMATE CHANGE HAZARDS, EARTHQUAKES,


FIRE BREAKOUT, INFRASTRUCTURE COLLAPSE ETC.
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)

Bangladesh incurred an average annual loss equal to 1.8% of GDP due to natural
disasters in the past two decades (source Sixth Five-Year Plan)

Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

RISK REDUCTION IN BANGLADESH


The country has dramatically reduced impacts of
extreme events in rapid onset disasters such as cyclone
and floods.
CYCLONE

Climate change increased the vulnerability and put the


country more complex situation in disaster and its
adverse impact already been evidenced.
FLOOD

Sharing knowledge, experiences of disaster risk


reduction, and the regional cooperation are crucial for
building resilience communities and nations
DROUGHT

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)


Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

DRR GOAL: RESILIENT COMMUNITIES


FLOURISHING
ENVIRONMENT
Robust ecosystem and
safe built environment

Mitigated
and adapted
hazards

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)


Ministry
of Disaster
Management
& Relief,
Government of2004
Bangladesh
*Modified
from
Satendra
& Sharma,

Reduced
vulnerability

VIBRANT AND
JUST SOCIETY
Social well being and
good governanve

RESILIENT
COMMUNITIES
Continue growing,
able to withstand
shocks

Enhanced
capacities

PROSPEROUS
ECONOMY
Robust productivity
and well distributed
dividends

CDMP IN LOCAL RESILIENCE BUILDING


A TWO-PHASED PROGRAMME TO SUPPORT GOVERNMENT VISION
A comprehensive Approach: all hazard, all risk, all phases, all sectors
A platform for different actors for bridging the gaps
A convergence of supports from Development Partners
OVERALL OBJECTIVES
To strengthen the capacity of the disaster management system to reduce
unacceptable risk and improve response and recovery management at all levels.

KEY ELEMENTS OF A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH


Getting the right balance of prevention, preparedness, response and
recovery Formal and Traditional hazard and risk analysis
Moving from generic to specific risk interventions
Mainstreaming risk reduction across hazards and sectors
Empowering stakeholders partners and communities
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

OUTCOME AREAS
DELIVERY
MECHANISMS

Professionalising
DM System

Rural Risk
Reduction

MODMR
DDM
PARTNER
DEPTS / MINS

DMCs

Community level
Climate Change
Adaptation

Urban Risk
Reduction

LOC. ADMINS

MSU
UNDP

UNIVERSITIES
TRG INSTS.

Mainstreaming
DRR and CCA

Preparedness
and Response

NGOS
CIVIL SOCIETY

PRIVATE SECTORS

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)


Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

COMMUNITY BASED DM
Bangladesh has over 20 years
experience of Community
Based Disaster Risk
Reduction (CBDRR), the
Community Risk Assessment
(CRA) and Risk Reduction
Action Planning (RRAP).
In addition voluntarism in
rural and urban settings have
gained momentum during
this time.
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

Risk
assessment

Risk Reduction
Interventions

CRA
FTRA
RRAP

Preparedness
and
mitigation
Response
Recovery/reh
abilitation

BANGLADESHS EXPERIENCES
Key Dimensions of Planning and Financing
Community Resilience
Identification and assessment of DRR and
CCA at local level
Prioritizing and costing the activities for
DRR and CCA
Prioritized and costed DRR & CCA options at
different levels
Financing local level DRR and CCA initiatives

Bangladesh Experiences

Ensure accountability of the financing at


local level

Regular training to DMCs,


DMC and PIC meeting and
monitoring

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)


Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

CRA
RRAP
CCTF, CRTF
LDRRF

RISK ASSESSMENT
Community Risk Assessment (CRA) and Fast
Track Risk Assessment (FTRA) are participatory
process primarily for the rural areas to:
Assess hazards, vulnerabilities, risks, ability to
cope
Prepare coping strategies and
Prepare a risk reduction action plan (RRAP)
for implementation by the local authority and
other actors.
So far 714 CRA and 307 Fast Track Risk Assessment (FTRA) have been
conducted in 339 most vulnerable Unions of 107 Upazilas and 40 Districts.
In addition to that, 10 more URAs completed in collaboration with INGOs in
Dhaka North & South City Corporation and FTRA done in 11 more
CC/municipalities in 8 Districts
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

MAJOR STEPS OF CRA


Scoping the Community
Transact walk, wealth ranking census, resource mapping,
focus group discussions, key informants interviews, etc.
Collect, analyze and validate secondary information with
the community
Identification of Hazards, Vulnerable Sectors, Elements and
Locations
Divide participants into stakeholder groups to identify the
hazards they face in their communities and associated
vulnerable sectors/elements/locations.
Risk Analysis and Evaluation
Analyze and evaluate risk statements to ensure an accurate
picture of each hazard and its respective risks, and rank them
according to the impact stakeholders perceive them to have
on the various community elements.
Specific Risk Reduction Options and Action Planning
Determine the most effective and appropriate risk reduction
options for the elimination, reduction and/or management of
risk.
Consensus on Options
Jointly review with primary and secondary stakeholders the
compiled output of coping strategies recommended by
primary stakeholder groups and agree on options for risk
reduction action.

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)


Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

Key steps in CRA


In the following situation a CRA will take a
minimum of 7 days:
1 Union; 3 ward (old)
4 stakeholder groups (e.g. landless, farmers,
women, disabled, adolescents, etc.)
a skilled facilitator team
a venue that allows for concurrent sessions
After a CRA, communities
develop a detailed risk reduction
strategy, which they will
implement through local
community institutions or local
government bodies.

The end product is a consensual community


risk assessment and set of risk reduction
actions

KEY DIMENSIONS OF THE CRA & LDRRF


Selection of disaster prone districts through a rigorous and consultative process.
Work with District, Upazila/municipalities and Union authorities and I/NGOs to
identify Upazila/municipalities, Union/wards and vulnerable communities
Pursue CRA once community is identifies.
Participatory Risk Reduction Action Plans developed based on CRA, which are
community led, inclusive, address the most vulnerable and risk sensitive.
Proposals are developed by the community & LGIs.
The proposals are verified based on the priority, the effectiveness of risk
reduction and costing.
Technical and approval committee for proper screening of proposals.
Budgeting, shared resources, time line and informing communities.
Implementation, regular monitoring and quality assurance and review.
Documentation of the process and results and communicate those.
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

MATRIX USED FOR DISTRICT SELECTION

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)


Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

SELECTED
40 DISTRICTS

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)


Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

PROJECT IDENTIFICATION PROCESS

LDRRF Target: 40 Districts


CDMP I identified 16 & CDMP II
added 24 districts based on
vulnerability
Projects for LDRRF support must
have linkage of CRA/RRAP
Projects under BDT 2.5 million
are implemented by UDMC
Projects between BDT 2.5-5
million are implemented by
UzDMC
Projects above BDT 5 million are
implemented by short-listed
NGOs through RFP process
Projects under urban risk
reduction are implemented by
CC/municipalities

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)


Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

Identifying
vulnerable
Upazilas

Identifying
most
vulnerable
Unions

Contracts
Signed

Technical
Review and
Approval

Implementati
on cycle
begins

CRA, CRA
revisit or
FTRA

Project
Proposal
Development
(Site Engineers, PIO,
Endorsed by UNO)

KEY MOTIVATING FACTORS


DM Act 2012 provision of national and district level DM Fund
Wide range of social safety net programme potential area to
integrate with DRR & CCA
Donor community
Coordination at all levels with I/NGOs, academic institutions,
local authorities and communities
Communities living with disasters
Local authorities and communities willing to take leadership
role.
The comprehensive approaches on DRR and CCA integrate the
local resource , knowledge and address the local need
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

RISK REDUCTION INTERVENTIONS


Preparedness and mitigation (Structural)
Disaster Resilient Habitats
Embankment cum road construction/reconstruction
Shelter for animals and livestock
Plinth raising house, school etc.
Protection wall shelter, embankment etc.
Canal/re-excavation
Provide saline free drinking water (Deep
/Tube well,Rain Water Harvester,

Pond Sand filter, Pond excavation, reexcavation, Reverse osmosis


Brick Flat Soiling (BFS)
Herringbone road (HBR) to reach shelter
Provide rescue boat
Cyclone Shelter re-construction
Afforestation
Improvement of drainage system
Reverse Osmosis Plant

Preparedness and mitigation (Non-structural)


Awareness raising community level
Capacity strengthening -local level
Strengthening community medias - Radios

Non Farm livelihood support


Development of contingency, DM Plan

More than 3 million people in 42 districts, 107 Upazilas, 5 municipalities and 339
Unions are more resilient due to 2,522 (2484 in rural, 38 in urban) structural and nonstructural local risk reduction interventions financed by LDRRF.
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

PICTORIAL VIEW OF INTERVENTIONS

DRH at Gopalgonj

Construction of U-Drain

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)


Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

Construction of drainage

PICTORIAL VIEW OF INTERVENTIONS

DRH Honble Minister, MoDMR

DRH Gopalgonj

DRH Gazipara

DRH Gopalgonj

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)


Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

PICTORIAL VIEW OF INTERVENTIONS

Rain water harvest

Solar powered PSF Water option

DRH Bainpara

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)


Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

DRH Bainpara

Pond excavation Water option

PICTORIAL VIEW OF INTERVENTIONS

Re-excavation of canal

Cyclone shelter repairing

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)


Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

Embankment cum road

Land raised for flood victims

PICTORIAL VIEW OF INTERVENTIONS

Water supply through pipeline

Killah and tree plantation

Water dispenser

Secondary embankment cum road

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)


Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

PICTORIAL VIEW OF INTERVENTIONS

Embankment cum road

Reverse Osmosis Plant Water option

Vegetation at Killah

Hygienic Toilet

Brick Flat Soiling (BFS)

Homestead gardening at DRH

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)


Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

RISK REDUCTION INTERVENTIONS


Community Based Response
49,365 rural community

volunteers provides service in


CPP programme
Over 26,000 urban community
volunteers developed.
The urban volunteers proved
their crucial value in search
and rescue operations during
the Rana Plaza disaster in April
2013. 2,438 people were
rescued alive from the
collapsed building.
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

59 landslide volunteers are


operating in Coxs Bazar and
Teknaf areas.
Initiative has been taken to
pilot flood volunteers in the
most vulnerable districts
Sirajgonaj and Gaibandah
under Bangladesh Ansar.
Developed and scale up flood
volunteer

Union Disaster Management Committees that are


engaged in LDRRF schemes are much more vibrant
Because.
a normal time dilemma
leads to reduced vigilance
Committees need to be engaged in
practical risk reduction activities in
normal time to remain alert
Committees engaged in
implementation of schemes under
LDRRF are more than twice as
functional as committees that are not
But committees need training in
design and implementation of risk
reduction schemes
and they need institutionalized
access to financial resources
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

DMC Functionality Profile


LDRRF
Non-LDRRF

Post-disaster response

Disaster response

DM aw areness

Management/administration

Risk reduction

Early w arning

RR scheme implementation

KEY LESSONS
The CRA process found instrumental to ensure the participation of
community people, identify the local risk and address the risk from
disaster and climate change.
The local community are aware of the current and future risk to be
intensified from the climate change.
Risk reduction and adaptation practice and need to be address
together for minimizing the risk and to build resilience communities
and nations.
The process advocate to build the DM fund at local and national
level which is indicated in the DM Act.
Need sharing of result and learning to the national , regional and
international level to institutionalize the LDRRF for DRR and CCA in
together.
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

WAY
FORWARD
Sustainable strategy need to be developed for local financing
through contributory fund arrangement;

Establish linkage between local DRM/ CCA initiatives and


development initiatives through mainstreaming;

Design and implement comprehensive DRM/ CCA activities in


selected disaster hot spot districts to showcasing the result;

Continue monitor the on-going activities and ensure quality and


timely completions;

Support government to institutionalize LDRRF;


Enhance coordination mechanism to scale up the good practices
to the regional level

Documentation, archiving and knowledge dissemination to the


wider audience and institutions .
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

For more information contact:


LDRRF Secretariat
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)
Disaster Management & Relief Bhaban (6th Floor)
92-93 Mohakhali C/A, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh, Tel: (+88 02) 989 0937, 882 1255

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)


Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief, Government of Bangladesh

Website: www.cdmp.org.bd

Photo: Otin Dewan/CDMP

Thank you