E x p l o rat i o n o f fa r m e rs ’ a n d p o l i cy

m a ke rs ’ p e rc ep t i o n s o f cl i m at e ch a n ge
in Sidama, Ethiopia!
PhD$conference$in$Interna/onal$Development$
$
Ruhr6University$Bochum$

Seyoum Hameso
University of East London
s. h a m e s o @ u e l . a c. u k
hameso@gmail.com

Paper&outline& !  Introduc-on' !  Background:'Ethiopia.'Sidama' !  Methodology' !  Findings'and'discussion' !  Percep-ons'of'climate'change'by'farmers' !  Percep-ons'of'climate'change'by'policy'makers' !  Conclusions'' Percep-ons'of'climate'change' 25/09/2015' .

$ vulnerability$and$adapta/on'to'climate'change.'2011'and'completed'in'July' 2015.' !  Why$study$climate$change$and$smallholder$farmers?$ Percep-ons'of'climate'change' 25/09/2015' .Introduction& !  The$PhD$study$ !  PhD'study'started'in'Feb.' !  Study'into'smallholder'farmers'percep/ons.' !  This'paper'reports'on'farmers’'and'policy'makers’' percep-ons'of'climate'change.

' Percep-ons'of'climate'change' 25/09/2015' .'' !  Ethiopia''and'Sidama’s'smallholder'farmers' !  Yet'farmers’'understanding'and'responses'to' climate'change'have'neither'been'seriously' acknowledged'nor'empirically'studied.Introduction&…&rationale& !  Climate'change''is'urgent'and'complex.'' !  Complicates'exis-ng'challenges'of'poverty' reduc-on'and'the'realiza-on'of'MDGs.'especially' in'the'case'of'Sidama.

' cereals.Ethiopia&and&Sidama& Loca/on$of$Sidama$in$Ethiopia$ Percep-ons'of'climate'change' Ethiopia:$$ •  Total'popula-on' 94'million' •  Agriculture' 42T45%'of'GDP.' livestock'' 25/09/2015' .' vegetables.'largely' rainfed' •  Main'products:' coffee.'25%' popula-on.'95%' smallholder' farmers' Sidama:$ •  Total'popula-on' of'over'3.'km' •  Agriculture'is' dominant.'Enset.'' •  80%'employment.'' •  Coffee'35%'export' earnings.'' •  90%''foreign' exchange' earnings.'maize.6'mn'' •  Density'of'506' people'per'sq.

Coffee' Enset/Weese' Dr'Meera'Tiwari'and'Seyoum'Hameso' Roadside'coffee'plants'near'highland' .

Methodology& !  Compara-ve' case'study' research'design'' !  Explore'climate' change'in'three' agroecological' zones'–' highlands.$$ Percep-ons'of'climate'change' 25/09/2015' .$ midlands$and$ lowlands.

' !  'A'modified'form'of'sustainable$livelihoods$framework$is' deployed'as'analy-cal'tool'to'inves-gate'vulnerability' context.'focus' group'discussion'with'30'farmers.'and'ins-tu-ons.Methodology&…& !  Used'both'qualita-ve'and'quan-ta-ve'research'methods' for'data'collec-on'and'analysis.' !  Undertook'fieldwork'research'from'January'2012'T'May' 2012.'semiTstructured' interviews'with'15'farmers'and'17'policy'makers.'livelihood'assets.' !  Data'collec-on'involved'a'survey'with'120'farmers.'' Percep-ons'of'climate'change' 25/09/2015' .

Sustainable&livelihood&framework& Percep-ons'of'climate'change' 25/09/2015' .

'' erra$c&rainfall.&& change&in&wind&direc$on."God’s" wrath.& &emergence&of&parasites/insects& emergence&of&diseases&(malaria)& Causes$ [Source:'Survey'data.'March'2012]' Percep-ons'of'climate'change' '' Destruc$on&of&indigenous& trees&and&expansion&of& eucalyptus&trees."weakened" indigenous"prac5ces"and" values" 25/09/2015' ' .&& disappearance&of&plant&(crop&and& tree)&species.&& growing&new&crops&such&as&maize& and&coffee&in&new&areas.Findings&and&discussion& Percep-ons'of'climate'change'by'farmers' Overall'perception'of'climate'change! Risks/Indicators' Higher'temperature.

.

'What' we'know'to'happen'in'the'past'and'what'is'happening'now'are' different.'Then'they'prepare'for'farming'ac-vi-es.'such'as' revolu-onary'change'in'poli-cs.'With' full'knowledge'of'the'events.'…'there'is'climate'change'[at'different'levels].'an'unexpected'event'emerged.'It'has'unexpectedly'engulfed'people'without'their' knowledge'…’'' Focus'Group'Discussion'par-cipant'from'highland' Percep-ons'of'climate'change' 25/09/2015' .'the'weather'is'changing'and'we'don’t'know' why'it'is'so.'people'knew'what'to'expect.'however.'They'knew' what'happens'during'the'autumn….'people'organise'their'life'and' prepare'for'work…'' In'recent'-mes.'While' changes'in'the'past'were'imposed'on'people.Quote& ‘We'entered'a'new'era…'While'the'habitual'calendar'of'months' remains'the'same.'People'knew'what'happens' in'those'months.'In'the'past.'now'there'is'a'change'in' climate.

&decline&in& water&availability.&rising&temperature.&CO2&emissions&and&global& warming' ' Percep-ons'of'climate'change' 25/09/2015' .&and&emergence&of&disease& Causes:'deforesta$on.Findings&and&discussion&…& Percep-ons'of'climate'change'by'policy'makers' Indicators/risks:'erra$c&rainfall.

'…'Most'vulnerable' countries'are'vic-ms'especially'African'countries'and' developing'countries.Quote& ‘Our'district'is'a'vic-m'of'the'problem'of'climate'change' (…)'This'district'is'known'to'produce'coffee.' Problems'associated'with'global'climate'change'affect' our'district'(…)'The'source'of'global&warming&is'manT made'pollu-on'…'[which]'results'from'gases'released'by' factories'of'wealthy'countries.’'' Par-cipant'from'midland'district' Percep-ons'of'climate'change' 25/09/2015' .'The'only' way'produc-on'and'produc-vity'of'coffee'can'be' increased'is'by'having'stable'weather'condi-ons.

Conclusions& !  Results'showed'that'the'majority'of'farmers'perceived'' changing'clima-c'condi-ons.' !  Varied'percep-ons'about'causes'of'climate'change' !  What$can$be$done$to$bridge$the$gap$in$percep/ons?$ Percep-ons'of'climate'change' 25/09/2015' .

I&thank&you& Percep-ons'of'climate'change' 25/09/2015' .

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