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Lecture 12

Energy, Force, and Work in Electro- and Magneto-Quasistatics

In this lecture you will learn:

Relationship between energy, force, and work in electroquasistatic and


magnetoquasistatic systems

ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Lorentz Electric Force


The force on a charge q in an E-field is:

r
r
F = qE

Example: consider two charges q1 and q2:

q1

n1 2

q2

The force that q1 exerts upon q2 can be obtained by multiplying the E-field that
q1 produces at the location of q2 by the charge q2 :

r
r
F1 2 = q2 E1
= q2

q1
q1 q2
n1 2 =
n1 2
4 o d 2
4 o d 2

The force that q2 exerts upon q1 is just equal and opposite to what q1 exerts
upon q2 (Newtons third law):

r
q1 q2
q1 q2
F2 1 =
n
=
n 21
2 1 2
4 o d
4 o d 2

ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Force Between Charged Plates I


area = A
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Consider two charged plates carrying


charge per unit areas of + and ,
respectively

Need to find the total force on the right


plate exerted by the left plate (which is
also equal an opposite to the force on
the left plate exerted by the right plate)

Step (1): Find the E-field at the location of the right plate produced by the left
plate ASSUMING THE RIGHT PLATE WAS NOT THERE:

Ex (x = d )

no right plate

2 o

Step (2): Multiply the E-field calculated above by the total charge on the right
plate to get the desired force

Fx L R = ( A ) E x ( x = d )

no right plate

A 2
2 o

ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Potential Energy and Force


Ex

The force on a charge q in an E-field is:

Fx = qE x

q
x

The potential energy of a charge in the E-field is:

U = q ( x ) = qE x x
So the force on the charge can also be written as:

Fx =

dU
dx

Electric force is the derivative


of potential energy

This formula is much more general than it appears (see the next few slides ..)

ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Energy, Force, and Work in Electromagnetics


Lets generalize the relationship between energy and force
Suppose one has a CLOSED electromagnetic system with electromagnetic energy U

If the system does some mechanical work F dx


then its electromagnetic energy must decrease by
the same amount:

Electromagnetic system

dU = Fdx
or

F=

dU
dx

Here F is some force that results in the change of some system length
parameter by dx

ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Force Between Charged Plates - II


area = A
Now lets use the energy concepts to
calculate the same force
Total electric energy stored in the
field can be calculated as follows:

U =

r r

o E .E
2

dV

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
0


= o ( A d )
2 o
The force between the plates can move the plates thereby doing work that would
result in a change of the value of d

F=

U
d
2

A
o
A=
2 o
2 o

The negative sign indicates the force is in


the direction of decreasing d i.e. the
force between the plates is attractive

ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Force Between Charged Metal Plates - I


Now consider the force between
the charged metal plates of a
parallel plate capacitor connected
to a voltage source

=0

=V

area = A

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

What is the force between the plates


in terms of the applied voltage V?

d
+

F=

A
1 CV
=
2 o
2 d
2

Answer should be the same as before:

Ex (x ) =

C=

o A
d

1
CV 2
2

U=

U
1 C 2
V
=
d
2 d

V
d

Q = CV

But now when you use the previous formula you will get the
wrong sign:

F=

= o

V
d

What went wrong ?

1 CV 2
=
2 d

The presence of a voltage source means


you dont have a closed system anymore
ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Force Between Charged Metal Plates - II


=0

=V

area = A

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

d
+

Ex (x ) =
Q = CV
C=
U=

o A
d

1
CV 2
2

V
If the system tries to do work by bringing the plates closer or
pushing them further apart, the voltage source ensures that the
charge Q in the capacitor always satisfies the relation: Q=CV

V
d

= o

V
d

The voltage source ensures that Q is always equal to CV by bringing


in or removing charge from the capacitor while the mechanical work is
being performed
This work done by the voltage source in bringing in or removing charges
must also be included in the analysis
ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Energy, Force, and Work in Electromagnetics Voltage Sources


Lets further generalize the relationship between energy and force by including
voltage sources
Suppose one has an electromagnetic system with electromagnetic energy U
that is connected to a FIXED voltage source V
If the system performs mechanical work Fdx then
its electromagnetic energy U must decrease by the
same amount

Electromagnetic system

If the voltage source passes a current I in time dt


then it does work and the system electromagnetic
energy U must also increase by the same amount

So instead of: dU = Fdx

dU = Fdx + I V dt

We write:

But if dQ is the total charge that passed in time dt then: dQ = I dt

dU = Fdx + V dQ

F=

U
Q
+V
x
x

Assuming voltage V is held fixed

ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Energy, Force, and Work in Electromagnetics Voltage Sources


More generally the total differential of
energy U can be written as:

dU =

Electromagnetic system

U
U
dx +
dQ
x Q fixed
Q x fixed

But we had:

dQ

dU = Fdx + VdQ
Therefore, it must be that:

F=

U
x Q fixed

V =

and

U
Q x fixed

But if the thing that is kept fixed is the voltage V then we already have the
result:

Q
U
F =
+V

x V
x

fixed

ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Force Between Charged Metal Plates - III


Electric energy is:

U=

1
CV 2
2

Since the voltage V is held fixed the


force between the plates can be
calculated as:

Q
U
+V
F =

d V
d

=0

=V

area = A

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

d
+

Ex (x ) =

V
d

Q = CV

C=

V
fixed

U=

C
1 C 2
V +V
V
d
2 d

o A
d
1
CV 2
2

= o

1 CV 2
=
2 d

V
d

This time we have got the sign right as well


ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Application: An Electrostatic Actuator


The applied voltage can be used to pull in the
dielectric slab and when the voltage is removed
the slab will come down by gravity
Electric energy is:

U=

1
CV 2
2

Force on the slab is:

U
Q
F =
+V

y V
y

d
+
+
=V +
+
+
+
+
+

Depth of plates = t
Area of plates = Lt
=0
L
y
-

fixed

1 C 2
C
V +V
V
=
2 y
y
1 ( o )t 2
V
=
2
d

Ex =

+ve sign of the force means that the force is in


the direction of increasing y, i.e. the slab will be
pulled in when a voltage is applied

C=

V
d

Q = CV

o (L y )t + yt
d

1
U = CV 2
2

ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Force on a Metal Wire Over a Metal Ground Plane


y

Consider a very long (in the z-direction) metal


wire of radius a over a metal ground plane and
at a distance d/2 from it

radius a
+

Need to find the force per unit length


between the metal wire and the ground plane
when the potential difference between them
is V volts
Electric energy per unit length is:

U=

1
CV 2
2

Force per unit length on the wire is:

Q
U
+V
F =

d V
d
=
=

Q = CV
fixed

1 C 2
C
V
V +V
2 d
d

1 C 2
1
V =
2 d
2

From homework #2

C=

CV 2
2d
d ln

2 o
2d
ln

U=

1
CV 2
2

ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Lorentz Magnetic Force


The force on a charge q moving in a magnetic field is:
B

r
r r
F = qv B

q
r
v

The force per unit length on a wire carrying current I is:

r
r r
F = q v B . {number of charges per unit length}
r

But: I = { q v } . {number of charges per unit length}

r r r
F = I B
r
I

ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Electric Motors

A coil of a current carrying wire in


a magnetic field will experience a
torque as its two ends will
experience forces in opposite
directions

r
F
I
I
L

r
r r
F = I B L

r
F
B

ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Energy, Forces, and Work in Magnetics


y

I
W
H d l o dl
L= o x
=
I
W

Hx = K =

K z

The structure has length in the z-direction


Recall that:

Hx

(L is the total inductance)

K=

I
W

K z

Question: What is the force between the two


metal plates? Is it repulsive or is it attractive?
Try the same procedure: if a system does some
mechanical work Fdx then its electromagnetic
energy must decrease by the same amount:

dU = Fdx

or

F=

dU
dx

Magnetic systems that require current from outside


sources are NOT REALLY CLOSED SYSTEMS

Electromagnetic system

V
I

ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Energy, Forces, and Work in Electromagnetics Current Sources


Suppose one has an electromagnetic system with electromagnetic energy U
that is connected to a FIXED current source I
If the system performs mechanical work Fdx
then its electromagnetic energy U must decrease
by the same amount

Electromagnetic system

If the current source passes current I under a


potential V in time dt then it does work and the
system electromagnetic energy U must also
increase by the same amount

So instead of: dU = Fdx

dU = Fdx + I V dt

We write:

But if the electromagnetic system is an inductor then we know that: V =

dU = Fdx + I d

F=

d
dt

The product Id is the work done by the


current source in changing the flux by d

+I
x
x

Assuming current I is held fixed


ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Energy, Forces, and Work in Electromagnetics Current Sources


More generally the total differential of
energy U can be written as:

dU =

U
U
dx +

x fixed

Electromagnetic system

d
x fixed

But we had:

dU = Fdx + I d
I

Therefore, it must be that:

F=

U
x fixed

and

I=

x fixed

But if the thing that is kept fixed is the current I then we already have the
result:


U
+I
F =

x I fixed
x
ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Force Between Parallel Current Carrying Plates


Force between the plates in a parallel plate
inductor

K z

The structure has length in the z-direction

Hx = K =

Hx

I
W

= LI
L=
U=

K=

o dl

I
W

K z

1 2
LI
2

U
F =
+I

d I fixed
d
F =

1 L 2 1 L 2
I
I =
2 d
2d

The +ve sign indicates that the force


is in the direction of increasing d
Force is repulsive - the plates
repel each other

ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

Force Between a Metal Wire and a Metal Plane


y
Force between a current carrying wire
and a perfect metal plane

radius a

+ I z

The structure has length in the z-direction

= LI
L=
U=

o l
2d
log

2
a
1 2
LI
2


U
F =
+I

d I fixed
d
F =

1 L 2 1
I =
2 d
2

The +ve sign indicates that the force


is in the direction of increasing d

L
I2
2d
d log

Force is repulsive the metal wire


is repelled by the metal plane

ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

10

Application: Magnetic Levitation


The inductance L of the coil
is an increasing function of
the distance d from the metal
block (. because of image
currents)

= LI
L = L(d )

U=

1 2
LI
2

U
F =
+I

d I fixed
d
F =

1 L 2
I
2 d

The +ve sign indicates that the force


is in the direction of increasing d
Force is repulsive the metal coil
is repelled by the metal plane

ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

ECE 303 Fall 2007 Farhan Rana Cornell University

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