AND
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
Dr. K.R. Arora
SOIL MECHANICS
AND
FOUNDATIONENGThlliEmNG
[ IN SI UNITS 1
published by :
A. K. Jain
For Standard Publishers Distributors
'170SB , Nai Sarak, DelhillOOO6.
First Edition,
Second Edition,
Third Edition,
Fourth Edition,
1987
1989
1992
1997
K.R, ARORA
Exclusive rights by St,1ndard Publishen; DistribulOn;, Delhi for publication, distribution and eJl:port. All righlS reserved. No
parI of lllis publication in general and diagrams in particulil[ may be reproduced or transrrutted in any fonn or by any
mean~, electronic. mechnnical. photo copying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system. without tbe prior
written permission of the publisher and author.
ISBN, 8180140288
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Fig. No. 32.2
page 839 and Fig. No. 32.7 on pagt: 848 of !.hIs publication have been reproduced wiLh
permission of 81S, from IS: 1893 (Part 1)2002 to ~hich reference IS invited forJrurther details. It is desirable
Oil
thai for more complete details, reference be made only (0 the lalest version of this standard. which is
available from Bureau of Indian Standards, Manak Shawan, New Delhi.
January 4,1981
K.II.AROUA
NOTATIONS
The notations have been explained wherever they appear. The following notations have been more
commonly used.
Pore p~ure parameter
'" Actlvjtyofsoils
A ..
A,,= Arcaofvoids
A"". Angstrom
e,,:
Uniformity Cocfficient
f:c Friction
G '"
g:::
h=
I",
Ip =
K" Cocfficicntofabsolutc
permeability
Ko = Coefficient of eanh pressure al
.."
..
k, =
kp '"
N ..
'" Perocntfincr
.s Normal romponent
n:: Porosity
IS.," Percentage air voids
p .. Forre
w......
Weigh t of water
W,,,, WeighlofsoHds
Wq ", Wotertablcfactor
Wy '" Water Illble factor
IV '" Water content
M= Mass,lotalmass
Mw: M<lSSofwater
M, = Mnssof.$Olids
WI'" IJquidlimit
wp'" Plasticlimit
QII'" Ulli rrulleload
14'6'" Shrinkagelimit
q'" SurcIUIrge
'" IntensityofLood
Y'" Dulkunitwcighl
.. Discharge
Yd'" Dryunitwcight
qc'" Stlllic cone resist.'lnce
Y_ '" Saturated unit weight
q" '" Net fOOling pressure capacity
y' '" Submerged unit weight
qlll: Netsufebcuringcapacity
Y6= Unit weight of solids
qnp '" Nctsafesettlementpressure
Yw  Unit weight ofwuter
qlUl:: Allowable bearing pressure
b", Angle of wall friction
f .. Strain
q,,:: Ultimntebcaringcapacity
ll'" Coefficientofviscosity
'" Unconfined compressive
strength
).l'" Poisson'srutjo
S .. DegreeofSllturation
'" Micron
= Surface area
'" Coefficiemofviscosity
S,,= Stabi lity no.
P'" Displaremcnt
S,,,, Sensitivity
'"' SettlemeOi
$ : Shearstrcngth
PI'" Fi na[ selliemcnt
0 : \OUll sucss
= Settlement
T;; Tangential component
0: Effectivestress
01,0"2003'" Principa.l Stresses
'" Temperature
TI _ Surfacelension
ai, 02, OJ '" Erfective principal stresses
1= TIme
0,. '" PreconSOlidmion pressure
U:: Degreeofconsclidation
Oz,a.. Vertical Stress
;;1bJ.alporeWllfcrpcssure
Or, all '" Horiwntal stress
U= PoreWllterpressure
"t'" Shear stress
ii .. Hydrost<llic exo;::ss pore pressure "tm '" Mobilised shear strength
V;; \bIume,totlll volume, Velocity
.,:. Angle of shearing res.istance
V,,: \bfumcofdrysoil
.'., FJfeaive angle of shearing
V,,= \blumcofair
resislOncc
V w '" Volumeofwmer
~ '" Apparent anglc of shearing
resistance
V,,:: Volumeofvoids
t ... ". roobilised angle of shearing
VI:: VoIumeofsolids
resistance
v:s Velocity
p
...
Bulkdensity
vr .. Cri tical velocity
Pd Drydensily
V, '" Seepage veloci ty
p' .. Submer~ed density
W .. Weight.totalweipht
P,,; Activeprcssureforce
Pp z: Passive pressure force
p= Pressure
p"", Activeprcssure
Pp'" PlL'iSiveprcssure
pit:. Horizontal pressure
Q= force,Load
"' Totlliquantityofwatcr
Q.. '" Allowable load
(w)
/'
CONVERSION FACTORS
(a) MKS to SI Units
F~
To
Multiply by
kgf
gmf
N
N
9.81)( 103
""'"'
9.81
kN
k~flcm2
2
kgJcm
kN/m2
9.81
98.1
N/mm2
9.81 x 10 2
gmflcm 2
N/m2
98.1
2
Ilm
kN/m 2
9.81
kgfiln 3
tN/m)
Vm'
kNlm'
kN/m)
9.81 x 10 3
9 ... ,
gl""Jtcm)
kgflrn
Nl m
Nm
9.81
kgf_seclm2
N_s/m2
9.81
11 .. 9.81 kN
1 kgf/cm2 .. 98.1 kN / m2
1 kgf/cm2 .. 0.0981 N/mrn2
1 gmflcm2 .. 98.1 N/m2
I I/m2 .. 9.81 kN/ml
9.81
kg.m
Equivalence
1 kgf .. 9.81 N
lsmf .. O.00981N
9.81
.. 9.1:U kN/mJ
.. 9.81 N/ m
... 9.81 Nm
.. 9.81 Ns/m2
From
To
Multiply
by
Equivalellcl:
N
N
kgf
0.102
grnf
too"'
kgfJan2
102.0
0 .102
IN O.101kgf
IN _102gmf
kN
kN/m2
N/mm2
2
kgf/an
NIm'
gmf/an
0.102
2
kN/m
vm'
0.102
lIeN .. 0.102/
O.l02x 10 1
10.2
Ie
101
kN/inl
vm'
0.102
1 kN/m 2 .. O.102Vm 2
1 kN/mJ .. 102.0 kgf/m3
1 kN/m3 _ 0.10211m3
kN/ml
grnf/m'
0.102
lkN/m3 _ O.102grnf/an3
N/m
Nm
kgf/m
kgfm
0.102
0.102
Ns/m2.
ktJI;/m2.
0.102
kN/ml
kgf/ml
0.102)(
tal
(vii)
CONTENTS
Chapter'
1.
Page No.
3 12
1.1. Definition of soil, 1; 1.2. Definition of soil mechanics, 2; 1.3. Definition of Soil Engineering ond
Geotechnical Engioecring, 1; 104. Scope of soil Engineering, 2; 1.5. Origin of Soils, 4; 1.6. Fonnution of
Soils, 5; 1.7. Transportation of Soils, 6; 1.8. Major Soil Deposits of India, 7; 1.9. Comparison of Soils with
a:her materials, 8; 1.10. Umltation.s of Soil Engineering 8; 1.11. Thrminology ofdiffeR:n1 types of soils, 9;
1.12. Cohesive and CohesionJess Soils, IU; 1.1:\. Brief History of Soil Engineering, li; Problems, 11.
2.
13  44
21. Introduction, 13; 2.2 Volurnetrjc Relationships. 14; 2.3 WIlter content, 15; 204. Units, 1; 2.5 Volume
Mass Relationship, 16; 26. VoluriJe..Weight Relationships, 17, 2.7.lnterrelalion between Mass and Weight
Units, 18; 2.8. Specific Gravity of Solids, 19; 2.9. ThreePhase Diagram inn Terms of Void ratio, 10; 210.
ThreePhase Oiagrom in Terms of Porosify, 22; 211. Expressions for Mass Density in Terms of WJter
Cantant, 23; 2.12. Expression fa mass density in tenns of water rontent, 24; 2.13. Relationship between
Dry Mass Density and Percentage Air \bids, 25; 2.14. Water Content Determination, 26; 2.15. Specific
Gravity Determinatlon, JO; 2.16. Measurement of Mass Density, 32; 2.11. ~ennination of Void Ratio,
Porosity and Degree of Saturation, 36; illustrative Examples, 37; Problems, 42.
3.
4S  68
3.1. Introduction, 45; 3.2 Mechanical Analysis. 46; 33. Sieve Analysis, 46; 3.4. Stokes' Ulw, 47; 3.5.
Preparation of suspeMion for sedimentation analysis, 49; 3.6. Theory of Sedimentation, 50; 3.7. Pipette
Method, 51; 3.8. Hydrometer Method, 52; 3.9. Relationship Between Percentage Fiocr and Hydrometer
Reading, SS; 3.10. Limitation of Sedimentation Analysis, 57; 3.11. Combined Sieve and ScdimentllIion
Analysis, 57; 3.12 Panicle Size Distribution Curve, 57; 3.13. Uses of Particle Size Distribution Curve, 59:
3.14. Shape of Partideo>, 59; 3.15. Relative Density, 60; 3.16. Determination of Relative Density, 61;
lIIustrative Examples. 62; Problems, 66.
4.
69  K8
4.1. Plaslicity of Soils, 69; 4.2. Consistency limits, 69; 43. Uquid Limit, 70; 4..4. Cone Pcoclromctcr
Method, 73; 4.5. Plastic Limit, 73; 4.6. Shrinkage limit, 74; 4.7. Alternative Method for determination of
shrintage limit, 75; 4.8. Shrinkage Parameters, 76; 4.9. Plasticity, Uquidity and Consistency Indexes, 78:
4.10. Flow Index, 78; 4.11. Toughness Index, 79: 4.12 Mea<>urement of Consistency, 80; 4.13. Sensitivit)
80; 4.14. Thixotropy, 81; 4.15. Activity of Soils, 81; 4.16. Uses or consistency Limits, 82; Illustrative
Examples,83; Problems, 87.
5.
SoD Classification
89 106
S.1. Introduction, 89: 5.2. Pllrtide Size Oassification, 89; 5.3. Thxtural Oassification, 91; SA. AASlrfO
OassHication System, 92; 5.5. Unified soil Oassifiallion System, 72; 5.6. Compari:;on of AASlim and
USC systems, 95: 5_7. Indian Standar.d Oassifiemion System, 98; 5.8. Boundary O[l$ificrltion, 99; 5.9.
Field Identification of Soils, 101; 5.10. General ClJarnderiSlics of Soils or Different Groups. 103;
lII~trBtive Examples, 103; Problems, 105.
6.
107 119
6.1. Introduction, 107; 6.2. Gravitational and Surface (oroes, 107; 6.3. Primary %lcnce Bonds, 108; 6.4.
Hydrogen Bond, 109; 6.5. Seo::todary \1aImoe Bonds, uo; 6.6. BasIc Structural Units of Oay Minerals,
(viii)
111; 6.7. lsomot:phous Substitution, 112; 6.8. Kaolinite Mineral , 112; 6.9. Mo ntmorillonite Mineral , 112;
6.10. Illite Mineral, 113; 6.11. Electrical charges on clay minerals, 113; 6.12.11ase E;(change Capm.i ty, 114;
6.13. Diffuse Double Layer, 114; 6 14. Adsorbed Wl11 er, 116; 6.15. Soil Structurcs.1l6, ProbJem~ , 118.
7.
Capillary Water
120  133
7.1. Types of Soil Water, 120; 7.2. Surface Tension, 120; 7.3. Capillary Rise in Small DiameterTubcs, 121 ;
7.4. Capillary Thnsion, 122; 7.5. Capill3fY Rise in Sroils, 123; 7.6. Soil Suctio n, '12S; 7.7. Capillary
Potential, 125: 7.8. Capillary Thnsion During Drying,.(l(.SoiIs, 126; 7.9. Factors Affecting Soil Suction,
126; 7.10. Measurement of Soil Suction, 127; 7.11:'~~t H.c~e, 128; 7: 12. Fra;t Doil , 129; 7.13.
Penneabllily ~r Soil
8.1. Introduction, 134; 8.2. Hydroulic Hcad, 134; 8 .3. Darcy's Law, 135; 8.4. Validi ty of Darcy's
134162
Low, 136;
8.5. Determination of Coeffi cient of Permeabili ty, 136; 8.6. ConSlant Head Penncabilily Test, 137; 8.7.
VariableHead Permeability Test, 138; 8.8. Seepage Velocity, 140; '8.9. General Expression for Laminar
Flow, 141; 8.10. Laminar Flow through Porous Media, 142: 8.11. Factors affccting Permeability of Soils,
143; 8.12. Coefficient of Absolute Permeability, 145; 8.13. Pumping Out Tests, 146; 8.14. Pumping in
Thsts, 148; 8.15. Coefficient ofpcrmeability by Indirect Methods, 151; 8.16. Caei.llarity Permeability Test,
152; 8.17. Permeability of Stratifi ed Soil Deposits, 154; l11ustralive Examples, 156; Problems, 160.
9.
Seepage Analysis
163  J 88
9.1. Introduction, 183: 9.2. l:lplooe's equation 164; 93. Stream and Potential Functions, 165; 9.4.
Owacteristics of Row Net, 167; 9.5. Graphical Method, 168; 9.6. Electrical Analogy Methcxl, 168; 9.7.
Soil Models, 171; 9.8. Plastic Models, 172; 9.9. Flow Net by Solution of Laplocc's Equation, 172; 9.10
flow Net in Eanh Dams with tI lIorizonml Filler, 173; 9.11. Seepage through Eanh Dam with Sloping
Discharge face, 175; 9.12. Seepage through Eanh Dam with Discharge angle less than 30\ 176: 9.13.
Seepage through Eanh Dam with Discharge angle greater than 30, 177; 9.14. Uses of Flow Net, '178;
9.15. flow Net for Anisolropic Soils, 180: 9.16. Coefficient of Penncability:in an Inclined Direaion, 182;
9.17. flow Net in a NonhomogellOOus Soil Mass, 182; Ill ustra tive Examples. 184; Problems. 185.
189217
10.1. Introduction, 189; 10.2. Erfective Stress Principle, 189; 10.3. Nature of Effective Slrcs.~ 190; 10.4.
Effect of water Table fluctuations on Effcctive Stress, 192; 10.5. Effective Stress in a Soil Ma.,," under
Hydrostatic Conditions, 193; 10.6. Increase in effective Stresses due 10 surcharge, 195; 10.7. Effective
Stresses in Soils saturated by Capillary Action, 195; 10.S. Seepage Pressure, 197; 10.9. Force Equilibrium
in Seepage Problems, 198; 10.10. Effective Stresses under Steady Seepage Conditions, 200; 10.11. Quick
Sand Condition 201; 10.12. Seepage Pressure Approach for Quick Qlndition, 203; to.13. [creel of
Surdlarge on Quick Conditions, 203; 10.14. Failures of Hydrnulic Suucturcs by Piping, 204; 10.15.
Prevention of Piping Failures, 206; 10.16. Design ofGroded Filter, 207; 10.17. Effective Stress in Panially
Saturaled Soils, 209; Illustrative Examples, 210; Problems, US.
218  255
11.1 InlrOOudion, 218; 11.2. SuessSlroi n Paramelers, 218; 11.3. Geostatic Stresses, 219; 11.4. Venical
Stresses Due to Concentrated Loads, 221; 11.S. Horizontal and Shear Snesses Due to Concentrated Loads,
IZ3; 11 .6. Isobar Diagram, 225; 11.7. Vertical StftSS Distribution on 3 Horizontal Plane, 225; 11 .8.
lnfluence Diagram, 226; 11.9. Venical Stress Distribution on a Venical Plane, 227; 11.10. Vertical Stresses
Due lo a Une Lond, 227; 11.11 . Venic:al Stresses Under a Strip Load, 229; 11 .12. Maximum Shenr Strcsses
at a Point Under a Strip Load, 232; 11 .13. Venical Stresses Under a Circular Area, 233; 11 .14 . Vcr1ical
Stress Under Comer of a Rectangulor Area, 234; 11.15. Venical Stress al any Poin t Under a Rectllngulur
Area, 236; 11 .16. Newmark's InfluenceChurts, 237: 11.17. Comparison ofStrc.o;scs Due 10 l..ood<i on areas
of ~fferent Shapes. 239; 11 .18. Vertical ~ Under THangular Load, 240; 11 .19. Ver1ical Stress Under
Trapezoidal Loads, 241; 11.20. Stresses Due to Horizontal Loads, 242~ n .21. Stresses Doc to Inclinu.l
Loads, 242; 11.22. Westergaacd's Sol ution, 243; 11.23. Fenskc:s awls, 244; 11.24. Approxim:llc
M\WxxIs, 245; 11.25. Cootact Pressure Distribution, 147; 11.26. Limitations or Elastic Theories. 248;
D1ustt8tlve Examples, 249; Prcblems., 253.
fix)
256 305
12.1. Introduction, 256: 12.2. IrIIllal. Primary and Secondary Consolidation. 257; 12.3. Spring Analogy for
Pnmary ConsulktLtlon. 257: 12.4. Behnviour of Satumtec.l Soils Under Press ure. 258: 12.5. Consolidntion
'res!. 259: 12.6. Dctenlllll:Ltmn u! VOid Rmio at Various Load Increments. 261: 12.7. COl1solid:uion Test
Result~. 263: 12.!). Ba."lc Dottinitions. 265: 12.9. Terzaghi's Theory of Consolidation. 267: 12. 10. Solution
0 1 fllL~ I C DlffcrelltlHl Equatllm. 271 : 12.1 1. Determination of Coefficient of Consolidation. 277: 12. 12.
Preconsolidatlon Pressure. 280: 12. 13. Causes of Preconsoliti:llion in Soil s.l8 1: 12. 14. Finol Settlement of
;1 Soil DepoSli in the Fn:ld. 28 1: 12.15. Time Sell[emcnt Curve. 283: [2.16. Field Consolidation Curve.
2X4: 12.17. Secondary Co nsnliu.llion. 2115: 12.18. 3D Consolidation Equation in Cartesinn Coordinates.
287: 12.IY. 3D Consolidation Equation in Cylindrical Coordi nates. 289: 12.20. Sand Dmin~. 291: 12.21.
Effect or L:ller.ll Stmin ml C()nsohdlltion. 294: IIlustrmivc Exn!llpl~, 295; Problems. 302.
306356
1]. 1. Im roduClitin. 30h: 13.2. StrC'is Sy~tcm with Prindp.11 Planl!s P:lr.lllel to the Coordinate Axcs, 306:
13.3. Mohr's Circle. 3d7: Il4. Pri nc ipal planes mclinl!d to the coordinate axis. 308; 13.5. Stress system
with Vertical and Horimntu! Plnnl!s not Principal Plnnc.~. 309: 13.6. Import::lIlt Characteristics of Mohr's
Circle. 311 : 11.7. MuhrCou lomb TIleory. 3 12: 13.8. Revised Muhr Coulomb equation. 313: 13.9.
Different Typc~ of tc~ t s nnd Dminnge Condi(ion~. 3 13; 13. 10. Mode o f Application of SheH Force 314:
13 .11. Direct Shear Test. 314: 13. 12. Presentation ()t" Results or D I ~cCI ShearT..::s(' 316: 13. 13. Merits alld
Demerits of DirCl.:"t SheOlr Tc~t. 3 1H: 13. [4. Triaxml Compression Applirmus, 318: [3. 15. Trillx ia! Tests on
Cohc!<.i\lc Soils. 321; IJ.16. Triaxia l 'reSiS on Cohesiunlc:ss Sui Is. 322: 13.17. Merits ::md Demerits of
Tri.lxinl Tcs!. '2': [J. [1I . Cmnput;l1 ion o f various Pnmmeters. 324: 13.19. Presentatio n of Results of
Triaxial Te~ts. 325 I J.20. Elfcct ofCunsolidation Pre.~~urc o n Undraim.'d Strength 328: 13.2\. Relationship
Betwecn Unur.lincd Shear Strength and Effective O\lerburden Pressure. 329:: 13.22. Unconfined
Compression Te:.t. 330: 13.2'. Vanl! Shear Test, 332: 13.24. Pore Pressure Parameters. 333: 13.25.
MohrCoolo mb Fai lure Cntl!nun. 337: 13.26. Mo(lillt.:d F.u[ure en\lelope. 338: 13.27. Stress Path. 339:
13.28. Shear Slro;:ngth o f Partially Satur.Jte(/ Soils, 341; 13.29. H\lo rslev's Strength TIleory. 342: 13.30.
Liquet":lo;,:tion of S:mds. 343: 13.3 1. Shear Characteristics of Co hesionles.' Soils. 144: [3.32. Shear
Charncteristics of Cohesive Sui Is. 345: U.3J. Ch"ire of Test Conditiuns and Shear Pamlllcters. 347
Ill ustrative EX;lll\ple~. 347: Problelll~. 353.
357 375
14. 1. Introduction. 357: 14.2. S1andani Proc1or Te~t. 358: 14.3. Modified Procto r Tesi. 360: 14.4.
Compaction of Sands. 361 : 14.5. Jodhpu r Mini CompaclllfTc~l. 362; 14 .6. Harvard Mini;Jture Compaction
Tc.~t. 362: 14.7. Ahbot Cump;u:llon TC~I. 362: 14.S. Fal1or~ Affccting Compaction. 362; 14.9. EITel'! of
CompaCIIOI1 on PrOJ>CrllO;:~ of Soih. 364: 14.10. Methods of C(Illlpaction Used in Field. 366: 14. 11.
PI'lcement Water Content. 367: 14. 12. Relative COmp;Jl1ion. 368: 14. 13. Compaction Control. 368; 14. 14.
.. ,broll m;n il)n Method. 36?: 14. 15. Te ml Probe Method, 370: [4. 16. Compaction by Pounding. 370: 14.17.
Cnmpa':1I011 by Explosl\e.,. 37 1: 14.1B. Prccomprcssion. 37 1: 14.19. Compaction Piles, 371 : 14.20.
Suitability of Various i\.1t:thod~ uf Compaction. 371: lllustrati ve Exa mples. 372; Problems. 374.
376  390
15. 1. Introduction. 37(, : 15 .2. Medwnical St;lbi!isntion. 376; 15.:1. Cement Stabi lisation. 377: [5.4 Lime
Stabilisation. 3811: 15.5. Bituminous $t;lhilisalion. 31B ; 15.6. Chemical Stabilisatiun. 3H2: 15.7. TIlcrm;1
Stabili~ation. 383: 15.8. Electrical St;lbilisation. 384: 15.9. Stabilisation by grouting. 384: 15. 10
Stabilis;Jtion by C<.'utuxtilc :lnu Fnbrics. 3115: 15.1 1. Reinforced Eolrth. 3M7: Prob lem~. 3S?
391  414
16.1. Int roductiun. 391 : 16.2. Interceptor Ditches. 39 1; 16.3. Single Stage Well Points. 392: 16.4.
Mult"i.$I:Jc Well POIOIS, 393: 16.5. Vacuum Well Points. 393; 16.6. Shallow Well System. 394: 16.7. Deep
Well System. 394: 16.8. Hori zontal Wd ls. 394: 16.9. Electl1}Osmosis. 391: 16. 10. Permanent Drainage
After Con~tnlctil)n. 395: 16.1 1. Design of Dewatering Sy.~ tcm s. 396: 16. 12. Discharge from :I Fully
Penetrating Slu\. 396: 16.1]. Di sc harge from a Partially Penctr.lling Slot, 399: 16. 14. Discharge in a Slot
from Bolh sides. 400 : 16. 15. Well Hydraulics. 4() 1: 16.[6. Tem1.~ Uscd in We ll Hydraulics, 402; 16.17.
Discharge From a Fully P..::netnull1g WeI [. 403: [6. 18. Disc harge From a Paniall y Pc netrnting Well, 404:
16. 19. IllIerf..::rcnce among Wells, 4115: 16.20. Spherical Flow in a We ll. 407: 16.2 1. Discharge Froman
Open Well. 407; 16.22. Advt':rse Eff..:cts of Dramage. 44.19; Ill ustrative Examples. 4O!J; Problems, 412.
(r)
415  439
17.1. Introduction, 415; 17.2. Planning a SubSurface Explor.lIion )rogrnmmes, 416; 17.3. Slagcs in
Subsurface Explorations, 416; 17.4. Reconnaissance, 417; 175. Depth of Exploration, 417; 17.6. Lnternl
Exlent of E"plorlLlion, 419; 17.7. Open Excavation Methods of Explomtion, 420; 17.8. Borings for
Exploration, 420j 17.9. Auger Doring, 420; 17.10. Wnsh Boring, 420; 17.11. Rotary Drilling, 422; 17.12.
Percussion Drilling, 42Z; 17.13. Core Drilling. 422; 17.14. Types of Soil Samples, 423; 17.15. Design
Fealuws AfJa:ting the Sample Disturbance, 423; 17.16. Split Spoon Samplers, 424; 17.17.
Sa"aperBuckel Sampler, 425; 17.18. Shelby Tubes and Thin Walled Samplers, 425; 17.19. PiSlon
Samplers, 426; 17.20. Denison Sampler, 426; 17.21. lIandCarvcd Samples, 426; 17.22. Slandard
Pcnclmtion Test, 427; 17.2.1. Cone Pcnclrarion T~SlS, 429; 17.24. TnsHu Vane Shear Test, 431; 17.25 .
Insitu Tcst Using a Pressure Mctcr, 431; 17.26. Observation of Ground W:Jtcr 111ble 432; 11.27.
Geophysical Mcthods, 433; 17.28. Sdsmic Mcthods, 433; 17.29. Elcctrical Resistivity Methods, 435;
17.30. SubSoillnvcstigmion RcporlS, 437; Problems, 438.
440477
18.1. Introduction, 440; 18.2. l3asis of Analysis, 441; 18.3. Different Factors of S3fety, 441; 18.4. Types of
Slope. Failures, 442; 18.5. Stability oron Infinite Slope of Cohesionlcss Soils, 444; 18.6. Stability An.:lIysis
of nn Infinite Slope of Cohesive Soils, 446; 18.7. W(:dgc Failure, 447; 18.8. Culmann's Method, 448; 18.9.
'" .. 0 Analysis, 450; 18.10. FriCtion Circle Method, 4s(); 18.1 L SI.1bility Chans, 453; 18.12. Swedish
Cirde Method, 455: 18.13. Stability of Slope Under Steady Seepage Condition, 460; 18.14. Stability of
Slope Under Sudden During ConstM., ion, 461; 18.15. Stability of Slopes During Construction, 462;
18.16. Bishop's Simplified Method, 46..1; 18.17. Other Mcthods of Analysis, 466; 18.18. Improving
Stability of Slopes, 467; IIlUSlrutive Examples, 467: Problems, 475
478  516
19.1. Introduction, 478; 19.2. Diffcrcnltypcs of uterol Earth Pressure, 478; 193. Earth Pressure at Rest.
480: 19.4. Rankine's Earth Pressure Theory, 481: 19.5. Runkine's Earth Pressure when the Surf:Jce is
Inclined, 485; 19.6. Itnnkinc's Earth Pressure in Cohesive Soils, 491; 19.7. Coulomb's Wedgc Thcory, 494:
19.8. Coulomb's Active Pressure in Cohcsionless Soils, 494: 19.9. Rehbann's Construction for Active
Pn.'SSurc, 497; 19.10. Culmnnn's ConstruClion for Active Pressure, SOl; 19.11. Coulomb's Active Earth
!'ressure for Cohesive Soils, S02; 19.12. Trial Wedge Methoo, 503; 19.13. Coulomb's Passive Earth
Pressure for Cohesionlcss Soil, S()4; 19.14. Passive Pressure By Ihe Friclion Circle Method, 50S; 19.15.
Determination of ShCllr Strength Parameters, 507; Illustrative Examples, 508; Problems, 515.
517  549
550  569
W .1. InlrOOUClion, 517: 20.2. l)'pcs of Retaining Walls, 517; 20.3. Pri~iples of the Design of retaining
Walls, 517; 20.4 . Gravity Rctaining Walls, 520; 20.5. Cantilevcr Rctaining walls, 52J ; 20.6. Counterfo rt
Retaining Walls, 523; ZO.7. Other Modes of Failure of Retaining Walls, 524; 20.8. Drainage from the
Backfill, 525; 20.9. 'Iypcs ofshcel pile Walls, 526; 20.10. Free Cantilever shcct pile, 527; 20.11 . Cantilever
Sheet Pile in Cohesionlcss Soils, 528; 20.12. Cantil~..... cr Sheet Pile Penetrating Clay, 530; 20.13. Anchored
Sheet Pile with Free Earth support, 532; 20.14. Rowe's Moment Reduction Curves, 531; W.15 . Anchored
Shcct Pile with fixed Eartb Support, 535; 20. 16. Design of AnchOl'S, 536; lIIustrntive exa.mples, 53Sj
Problcm,s 547.
21.1 . Introduction, 5S(); 21 .2. Lateral Earth Pressure on Shccting.<:. 551 . 213. Different 'I'ypes of Sheeting
and Bracing Systems, 553; 21.4. OcsiJ!n of Various Components of nracing, 554; 21.5. Types of Coffer
Dams, 556; 21.6. Design of Ccllulm Coffer dams on Rock, 559; 21.7. Design of Cellular Coffer dams on
Soil, 562; II1US1ldtive Example, 564; Problems, 568.
Condlli~
570  586
22.1. Stresses in Soil in the Vicinity of Vertical Shaft, 570; 22.2 Stresses in Soil around Tunnels, 57.1; 22.3.
Construction of Ellnh Tunnels, 572: 22.4. Arching in Soils, 573; 22.5. Types of Unde!grOlmd Conduits,
(xi)
575; 22.6, Ditch conduits. 575; 22.7. Positive Projecting Conduil~. 577; 22.8. Negative Projecting
Conduits, 580: 22.9. Im perfect Ditch Condui!. 582; 22. 10. Tunndcd Conduits. 51:12: 22.11. Loads on
Conduits Due 10 Surface Loads, 583: 22.1 2. COnSlmCI10n of Conduits. 583; Illustrative ElIamp1cs. 584:
Problems. 585.
587 635
23.1. Introducti on. 5~7: 23.2. Basic Definitions, 581: 23.3. GI1IS~ and Net fooling Pressure. SKS: 23.4.
Rankine's Anllly!>is. 5~1: 23.5. HO!!Clllog1cl' and l c r/.!ihi's An3lysis, 591; 23.6. Prandt]'s Anal ys is. 592:
23.7. li: rzag hi's bearing Capacity 1110(1)'. 593: 23.8. Types of ShCltr Fail ures. 596: 23.9 . Ultimate BC3ring
CapllclIY in casc of Local Shear Failure. 597: 23.10. Effect of Wmcr lanle on Beanng Cllp,n:i ty. 600: 23. 11 .
Beming CIIJlllcity of Square and Circulnr Footings, 601 : 23. 12. Mcyemof's BCllring Cap:u:ity Theory. 602:
23. 13. Hansen 's Bcaring ClIpacilY 1l100ry, 60.1: 23.14. VClIic's Be:ui ng Capacity Theory, 605: 23.15. IS
Code Method 606: 23.1(1. Skcmpton 's Analysis for CoheSive Suils, 607; 23.17. IS Code Method for
Cohcloive Soil. 608: 23. 18. Heave of the Buttom of the Cut in Clay. 60N: 23. 19. Foundations on Layered
C lny. 6111: 23.20. Bt,tring Capa,,;ity fru m Standard Penetration lest. 6H1: 23.21. El:centne:tll y Loaded
r,()und:u io ns. 611 : 23.22. SeU lemcnt of FoumJations. 612: 23.23. Loads for Sett lement An:llysis. 613:
23.24. Immediat e Scll!cmcllt ofCohc$iw Soils. 613; 23.25. Immedi:lIC SeUlemeot ofCohesionlcss Soils.
614; 23.26. Consolid.Ltion SClllcmcnt in ClllYS. 6 15: 2.l27. Sel1lement of foundations on CoheslOn lcss
Soils, 616: 23.28. Accuracy of foundation Settlement Prl.diction. 617: 23.29. Artuwablc ScUlcmenl. 617;
23.30. Allowable Soil Pressure for Cohcloionlcss Soils. 618: 23.31. Allowahle Soil Prcs~ ure ror Cohesive
Soils. 621 : 23.32. Presu mptive Bcaring C:1P:1Clly. 621: 23.33 . Plate LO:ld Test. 621; 23.34. Housel's
Method for destgn o f Foundation. 625; lIIusmtuve Ex:unplcs. 625 : Problems. 625.
, ,
..
636  670
24.1. Types of SlmllolV fou ndations. 636: 24.2. Depth u f Footings. 637; 24.3. Foundation Loading, 639;
24.4. Principle of Design of Footings. 640: 24.5. Proport ioning FOO1ings for E<jUlll Settlement. 641 : 24.6.
Dc.~ign of Strip Footings. 64 1: 24.7. Design uf Sprclul Fooling.~. 643: 24.8. Design of Eccentrically loaded
spread fOOling.~. 644: 24.9. Combined Footings. 645: 24. 10. Rcctangular Combined Footings. 645 24.11.
Trapezoidal Foot ing 647: 24. 12. Strap Footings. 648: 24. 13. Principles (If Dc~ign of Mat Found:uions. 649:
24.14. Common Typt.o: of Mat Foundmion. 651: 24.15. Design M cthod~ for M~t Foundmion. 653: 24.16.
Convention:!1 Design of R:lft Found:ltions. 653: 24. 17. Destgn of combinl.'(l footing by Elru;tic Line
MC'lhod. 655: 24. 18. finlle Diflercncc Method for combined Footing.~. 656; 24. 19. Elastic Plate Method.
657: 24.20. Finlll.: Dincrcn.:c Method fur Mats. 65N: 24.21. Cocffkient {If Subgrn<k: Rc;Lction. 659:
Illustra tive Example~. 660; Problems. 669.
t.
671705
25. 1. Introduction. 671 ; 25.2. Necessity uf Pile ruuIl(Jntiun. 671 ; 25.3. Cla~silication of Piles. 672; 25.4.
Pile Driving, 674: 25.5. Conmllction o f Bored Piles, 675: 25.6. Driven Castinsitu Concrete Piles. 676
25.7. Lo,ld CarrYlllg Ca pacity of Piles. 677; 25 .!:\. Stallc Methods for Driven Piles in Sand. 677: 25.9.
Static Method f()r Driven Piles in SllIUr.'lIt:d Clay. 681 : 25.10. Stalic Method tor Bored Piles. 683; 25. 11.
Factor of Safet y. 684: 25.12. Negative Skin Friction. 684 25. 13. Dynamic Fommillc, 685; 25. 14. Wave
Equation A naJ Y~t~. 61:17: 25. 15. Inloitu penetr.'llion tests for Pile capllcity, 688: 25. 16. Pile Load Tcst. 688:
25.17. Other tYJ>cs uf Pile Luad IcSt. 690: 25. 18. Gmup Aclion of Piles. 690 25.19. Pile Groups in Sand
aod gr.'lve1. 691 : 25.20. Pile G roups in day. 692: 25.21 . Seulcment of Pile Groups. 692: 25.22 Sharing of
Loads in It Pil e Group. 694 25.23. Tcn~ioll PiJc ~. 694; 25.24. Laterally Lunded Piles . 696; lIIustrativc
Examples. 697; Problems. 70....
706 721
26.1. Introduction. 7('11',: 26.2. Drilled Piers. 706: 26.3 . Construction of Drilled Piers 708; 26.4. Advnlll~ge.~
and Dis.1dvllntngcs of Drilled Piers. 709: 26.5. Dcsigll o f opcn Cllbson~. 710; 26.6. Construction of open
caissons. 713: 26.7. Pneumali,,; Caissons. 714: 26.8 . Con ~ lru cli() n of PneLimatic Caissons. 715: 26.9.
Advllnt<lges lind DiS:tdv:UltagCS of Pneummic Caiswns. 715: 26.10. Floatmg Caissons. 716: 26.1 1.
Stability of Floating Caissons. 716; 26. 12. Adv!1ntages olld Disadv~ntage.~ o f Floating C:lissons, 717;
lIlusmllive Examples. 717: Problems. no.
722754
27. 1. Introduction, 722; 27.2. Dil"ferent Shapc.\ IlfWells. 72.3 : 27J. Gri p Length. 723: 27.4. Forces ACling
('\'ii)
00 the Well Fououmion. 724: 27.5. Tel7.aghi's Analysis, 725: 27.6. B;mcrjee and Gangopadhyay's
r\nalysis. 728: 27.7. Si lllplilicu Antlly~is lor Heavy Welts, 733: 27.8. IRe method, 734: 27.9. Individual
Components of the welt. 739: 27,10. Sinking of Wells, 742: 27.1 I. Mca~urc,~ for Rectification o f Tilts nnd
Shins, 744: IJl U.,tr,lIl\C Examplc!>. 746: Pmbkms. 754.
755772
28. 1. Introduction. 755: 28.2. 'TYpes of Machine Foundations. 755: 28.3. Bllsic Definitions. 756; 2~.4.
Degrcc of Frc ...'<iOIll ofa Block Foun<mtlo n. 757: 28.5. Gcncrnl COlen a for design of M,lchi ne fou ndations.
758; 2X.6. Free Vibr,ltlon 759; 28.7. Forced Vibmtion. 76 1: 2K8. Vibmllon An:llysis of a Machine
Foundmion. 763: 28.9. IXlermination of Natuml Frequency, 765: 29. 10. DeSIgn Crifen a for Foundiltions
of Reclprocming M<lchine!>. 766: 2S. 11 . Reinforcement and Con~truction Dcrails. 767: 28. 12. Weight of
Found:lt iun. 767: 2tU3. Vibration IsolatlU n and Control. 767; l1lustrJtive EX:llllples. 76H ; Problems. 771.
773 787
29.1 Typc~ of PavemcnT~. 773; 21).2. Bask Requirements of P:lvemCnls . 175: 29.3. Functions of Different
Components of a Pave ment. 774: 29.4. Fm:tors Affecting Pnvement Design, 775: 29.5. California Bcaring
Rutio T~'st. 775: 29.6. Design of Flexihle Pavcmcnts. 777; 2<;.7. GroUI' Index Mcthod. 777 29.8. CBR
MCIJlOd. 17M: 2Y.'J. Culifornla Resiswnce Value Method 778; 29. 10. MeLeod Mo.: thod. 779: 29. I I. Triaxial
T..::st Method. 7HO: 21). 12. Blirmister's Metbud. 780: 29. 13. Coefficient oj 'iubgrade Reaction, 781 : 29. 14.
Westergaard's Analysis . 782: 29. 15. Temperature ~trcsscs in Rigid Pn"emcnh. 784: 29.16. Combined
Stressc.~ In Rigid P:lVclllellts. 785: ltIuSlrative EX;lmplcs. 785: Problems. 786:
788  816
30.1. To determine Ihe watcr cOlltelil of a sample hy ovendrying met hod. 788: ~O.2. To determine tb e water
content of a soil hy pyonomcter method. 789: 30.3. To determ ine the !>pt.'Cilic gravity of M)lids by the
dcnslIY holl!c l11elhO<l. 7M9: 30.4. To determloc t,le !>pccilic gravity of solids by pycnomcter method. 79J :
30.5. To determine th e dry den.~ity of the soil by core cutter method. 792: 30.6. To dt.'tcrmioe the in.situ dry
density by the sand repilicement method. 793; 30.7. To determ ine Ihe dry densi ty of ;1 soil by
water(lisplacclllent method. 795: 3O.S. To determine the particle sil.e dlst ributi(1O of a soil by sieving, 796:
30.9. To dCh!nnmc the p:trt icle size distri but ion by the hydrometer m...1hOO. 797: 30.10. To determine the
hqmd Illllit of II ~()iJ !>pcclll1Cn. MOO; 30. 11 . To delennine the pla~tlc limit of a ~oil specimen. 801 ; 30.12.
To detemline the .\ Imnkngc limit of a spc!Clmen of the rernouldt:d soil, 802: 30. 13. To determine the
pcrm..ahiJity of a !toil spt.'Clmcn by the constant head pcnneamctcr. 804; 30.14. To determinc the
permeahi lity o f II ~()!I specimcn by th..: vanable head pcrmc:l1netcr. X05: 30. 15. To detemline the
conslJlkl;ltroll chal',l!;teri~tic~ of or soil spedmen. 807; 30. 16. To detcnnioe the shear parametcrs of a sandy
soi l by direct ~hcar le~t. X09: 30.17. To dO:lenmne th e unconlined eomprc.~sivc stren gth of a cohesive soi t.
811 : JO. It\. Tu dctcnnmc the compaction Ch;lr:tClcristjc of a soil specime n by Proctor's test. S12: 30. 19. To
detemlinc the Culi forrlra Bcnring Ratio (CBR) of a soil specimen. 813.
817  837
3 1. 1. Introduetkm, 8 17: 3 1.2. Geologic,ll Classification o/' Rocks, 1:117: 3 I .3. 9,lsic Tenninolagy. 818: 3 1.4.
Index Properties of Rocks. H19: 31.5. Uni t weight (ar ma~s density), 819: 31.6. Porosity. H20; 31.7.
Permeability, H20: 3 1.8. Point loud strength. 821: 31.9. Slaking and Durahility. H22: 3 UO. Sanic Velocity,
823; 4 1.1 I. Cli..~silicmian of Rock.~ for Engineering pmperties. 824: 31.12. Strength c1assifiention of Intac t
Rocks, K27: 3 1.13 . LH borlltary tests lilr determination of strength of Rocb, 1:128: 31.14. Stre.~s.strain
curve~. K29: 3 1.15. Modes of Failure of Rocks. 1'131; 31.16. MohrCoulomb Criterion lor Rocks. 832:
31.17. Shear Strength of Rocks. K33: 31. 18. H<rrdness of Rocks, M34: 31. J9. In.situ Slres.~e..~ in Rocks. 834:
31.20. Measurement of insitu ~lrcsses.1:I36: Problems. 837.
\I
iii)
838  863
32.1. Introduction. 838: 32.2. H i~IOI)' of Earthq uakes in India. 838: J2 ..l Seisml\: Zonc~ of India. 840:
32.4. Magnitude of :111 Earthquake. 840: 32.5. Intensity of Earth(IUnkcs. 842: 32.6. EOI."CI of Ground
motion on Smll:ture~. S44; 32.7. Gcnernl Principles of EarthquakeResistant design. 146: 32.8. ~Ii
SeismiC coefficient. 848j 32.9. Dc~ign Seismic forces. 849j 32.10. Site.Spccific Respunse ~pcclrn :H50:
32 , J l. Hazards due to Earthquakes. 851; 32.12. Liquefaction Phenomenon. 852: 32.13. P:lctors t\1!1.'ClIn~
Liqucfnctlon. 854; 32. 14. A s~ss mc nt of Susceptihility ofn Soil 10 Liqucl",\ction. 854: n. ls. Preventio n nl
Liquefoction. S57: Illustrative EXHll1pJes. 858; Problems. 861: Selected References. 863
I.
Appt!ndix
AGloSS~lrY
of Common Terms
864  868
869  876
References
877881
882 883
Index
884 886
PARTI
FUNDAMENTALS OF
SOIL M'ECHANICS
1
Introduction
1.1. DEFINmON m' SOIL
The word 'soil' is derived from the btin wort! so/iI/ill whic.:h. according 10 Webster's dictionary. means
the upper layer of the earth thai may be dug or plowooj spccilically. the loose surface material of the earth
in which plants grow. lhe above definition of soil is used in the field of agronomy where the main concern
is in the use of soil for raising crops. In geology, eanh's crust is assumed to consist of unconsolidated
sediments, called mantle or regolith, overlying rocks. 111C (enn 'soil' is used for the upper layer of mantic
which can support plants. 'Ine matcrj~ll which is called soil by the agronomist or the geologist is known as
lOp soil in geotechnical engineering or soil enginccring. lhe top soil c.onwins a large quantity of organic
matter and is nOt suitable as a construCtiOn material or as a foundation for structures. The top soil is removal
from the earth's surface before the construction of structures.
Ollie (erm 'soil' in. soil engineering is defined as an unconsolidated material. romJXlSCd of solkl particles,
proouccd by the disintegrntion of rocks. The void space between the particles may contain air, water or both.
The solid particles may contain organic matter. The soil particles can be separated by such mechanical means
as agit..1tion in water.
A nalural aggregate of mineral particles bonded by strong and pennancnt cohesive forces is called 'rode'. It
is an indurated material that requires drilling, wedging or blasting for its removal from the earth's surface. Since
the Icons weak and strong have different interpretations, the boundary between soU and rock is rather arbitrary.
In case of a partially disintegrated rock, it is extremely difIicult to locate th~ boundary between soil and rock.
Fig. 1.1 shows a cros.c;.seCliorr through the canh's surface, indicating the nomenclature used in geology,
r.J.S~f ,.
Manll e
Grp uqd
sUrfgce..
(regolith )
S oil
~RO'k
Rock
(a)
Ground surfacrl
Nomandalura in Grlology
and in l Soil Engineering. It may be noted that the material which is called mantle (regolith) in geology is
known:as soil in Soil Engineering.
Soil engineering in :m appUed science dealing with the applic<ltions of principles of soil mechanics to
prtlctical problems. It has n much wider scope than soil mcchlmics, as it deals with all engineering
problems relmed with soils. It includes site in'Jcstigmions, design and construction or foundations,
earthretaining struClurcs and c.:1rth structures.
Gcotechnical engineering is a broader term which includes soil engineering, rock mechanics and geOlogy.
This term is used synonymously with soil cngincering in this text.
1.4. SCOI'E OF SOIL ENGINEERlNG
Soil engineering has vast application in the construction of various civil engineering works. Some of the
important applications arc as undcr :
Lo~d
Load
Column
_Column
Ground level
Ground Level
J/ .
i I.
~ooting
Soit
So i I
(a) Shallow foundation
i\ra 51ratum
(b) Pile foundation
Fis. 1.2.
DiITel'l:ntlypts ofrOLlI\lillions.
INTRODUcnON
Dredge
level
Soil
Earth
pressure'
soil at different levels on its either side. The retaining structure may be a rigid retaining wall or a sheet pile
bulkhead which is relatively flexible (Fig. 13). Soil engineering gives the theories of earth pressure 00
retaining structures.
(J) Stability of SlopesIf soil surface is not horizontal. there is a oomp:ment of weight of the soil which
~ay
Soil
~bilnkm.nt
slope
(a)
Soil
Excavation slopq;
(b)
Fig. 1.4. Slopes in (Q) filling and (b) cutting.
tends to move it downward and thus causes instability of slope. The slopes may be natural or manmade Fig.
1.4 shows slopes in filling and culting. Soil engineering provides the methods for checking the stability of slopes.
(4) Underground StructuresThe design and construction of underground structures, such as tunnels,
sbafts, and oonduits, require evaluation of forces exerted by the soil on these structures. These forces are
discussed in soil engineering. Fig. 1.5 shows a tunnel oonstructed below the ground surface and a oonduit laid
below the ground surfaCe.
.
~
:."
..
.....
.~". ~
'
:

(al lunn/l.l
Sa
se
:.!:.,: ub base
Subgrade
(50i~)
in soil engineering.
Fig. 1.6. Pavement del:tlls.
(6) Eurth DamEarth dams arc huge structures in which soil is used as a construction material (Fig.
1.7). The earth dams arc bu ill for cfc::lling water reservoirs. Since the failure of an earth dam may cause
widespread catastrophe, extreme care is taken in its design and construction. It requires a thorough knowledge
of soil enginccring.
Sh~ l\
(Pervious so il )
Fig. 1.7. Earth Dam.
(7) Miscellaneous
problems related with soil, such as soil heave, soil subsidence, frost heave, shrinkage and swelling. of soils.
INTRODucnON
the equilibrium of forces on the earth and causes large scale earth movemcnts and upheavals. 1l1is process
results in further CX(Xl')'Ure of rocks and Ihe geologiccydc gelS repeated.
If the soil stays at the place of its formation just above the parent rock, it is kllOwn as residual soil or
sedentary soil. When the soil has been deposited at a place away from the place of its origin, it is called a
transported soil. The engineering properties of residual soils vmy considernbly from the top layer to the
bollom layer. Residua! soils Iwve a grndual trnnsition from relalively fine material near the surface to large
frJgments of stones al greater depth. 'nle properties of the bottom layer resemble that of the parent rock in
many respects. The thickness of the rcsidu::li soil fonnation is generally limited to a few metres.
The enginccring properties of transported soils arc entirely different from the properties of the rock at the
place of deposition. Deposits of transported soils are quite thick and are usually uniform. Moot of the soil
deposits with which a geotechnical engineer has to deal arc transported soils.
1.6. FORMATION OF SOILS
As mentioned above, soils are formed by either (A) physical disintcrgration or (0) chemical
decomposition of rocks.
A. IJhysicul DisintcgrntionPhysical disintegmtiOO or mech:mic.ll weathering of rocks occurs due to the
following physical proc'CSScs :
(1) Temperature changesDifferent minerals of:J rock huve different coefficients of thennal cxprlOsion.
Unequal cXlxmsion and contraction of these minerllis occur due 10 temperature changes. When the slresses
induced due to such changes arc repe"lIcd many times, the particles gcl dctached from the rocks and the soils
arc formed.
(2) Wedging action of IceWater in the pores and minute crncks of rocks gets frozen in very cold
climates. As the volume of icc formed is more than that of water, expansion occurs. Rocks get broken into
pieces when large stresses develop in the cracks due to wedging action of the icc formed.
(3) Spreading of roots of phm1sAs the roots of trees and shrubs grow in the cracks and fISSUres of
the rocks, forces act on the rock. The segments of the rock arc forced apart and disintegration of rocks occurs.
(4) AbrasionAs water, wind :Jnd glaciers move over the surface of rock, abrasion :Jnd scouring takes
place. It results in the formation of soil.
In all the processes of physical diSintegration, there is no change in the chemical composition. 1llc soil
formed has the properties of the parent rock. Coarse grained soils, such as grnvel and sand, 3re fonned by the
process of physical disintegration.
B. Chemical DecompositionWhen chemical decomposition or chemical weathering of rocks takes
place, original rock minerals arc transformed into new minerals by chemica] reaction.<>. The soils (onned do
not have the properties of the parenl" rock. The following chemical proc:csses generally OCOJr in nature.
(1) HydrationIn hydmtion, water combines with the rock minerals and results in the formation of a
new chemicnl compound. loe chemical reaction causes a dmnge in volume and decomposition of rock into
small particles.
(2) CarbonationIt is a type of chcmical decomposition in which carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
combines with water to form carbonic xid. Ibe c.lrbonic acid reacts chemically with rocks and causes their
decomposition.
(3) OxidationOxidation occurs when oxygen ions combine with minerals in rocks. Oxidation results in
decomposition of rocks. Oxidmion of rocks is somewhat similar to rusting of steel.
(4) SolutlonSomc of the rock minernls fonn a solution with water when they get dissolved in water.
Chemical reaction t:Jkes place in the solution and the soils are formed.
(5) HydrolysisIt is a chemical process in which water gets dissociated into W and Olr ions. The
hydrogen cal ions replnc:c the metallic ions such as calcium, sodium :Jnd potassium in rock minerals and soils
are formed with a new chemical dccompa:>ition.
Chemical dccomposit.ion of rocks results in form:Jtion of clay minerals. These clay minerals impart plastic
properties to soils. Oayey soils are fonned by chemical decomposition.
ground
,
Eroded
') _ ....
grou nd./"
........ ,
Still walen
Ag. 1.9. Alluvial Deposits.
All type of soils amied and deposited by water are known as alluvial deposits. Deposits made in lakes
are called lacustrine deposits. Sudl deposits are laminated or varved in layers. Marine deposits are formed
when the flowing water carries soils to ocean or sea.
(2) Wind transported SollsSoil particles are transported by winds. The particle size of the soil
depends upon the velocity o[ wind. 'The finer partiCles are amied far away from the place of the [ormation.
A dust storm gives a visual evidence of the soil part icles carried by wind. Soils deposited by wind are known
as aeolian deposits.
Large sand dunes are fanned by winds. Sand dunes occur in arid regions and on the leeward side of sea
with sandy beaches.
Loess is a sill deposit made by wind. These deposits have low density and high compressibility. The
bearing capacity of such soils is very low. The permeability in the vertical dire<.:tioo is large.
(3) GlncierDeposited SoiJs...Glaciers are large masses of ice facmed by the oompadion of snow. As the
glaciers grow and move, they carry with them soils varying in size [rom fine grained to huge boulders. Soils get
mixed with the ice and are transported far away from their original position. Drift is a general term used for the
deposits made by glaciers directly or indirealy. Deposits direct.ly made by melting of glaciers are called till.
Termina l morcl ln e
"
.'
..
Gr ound moraine
Fig. 1.10. Glader Deposited Soils.
.
,.
INTRODUcnON
During their advancement, glociers tr.msport soils. At the lenninus, a melting glacier drops the material in
the fonn of ridges, known as terminal moraine (Fig. ] .10). '1l1e land which was once covered by glaciers and on
which till has been deposited after melting is called ground moraine. lbe soil carried by the melting water
from the front of a glacier is termed outwash.
Glaciofluvial deposits arc fanned by glaciers. The material is moved by glaciers and subsequently
deposited by streams of melling water. These deposits have stratification.
Deposits of glacial till arc generally wellgraded and can be compacted to a high dry density. lbcse have
generally high shearing strength.
(4) Gravitydeposited soil.<;Soils C<'ln be transported through short distances under the action of gravity.
Rock fragments and soil masses collected at the foot of the cliffs or steep slopes had fallen from higher elevation
under the action of the gravitational force . Colluvial soils, such as talus, have been dcposited by the gravity.
Talus consists of irreguJar, coarse particles. It is a good source of broken rock pieces and coarsegrained
soils for many engineering works.
(5) Soils tr"ansporled by combined IIctionSomelimes, two or morc agenrs of transportation aCI jointly
and tr.lnsport the soil. For example, a soil portiele may fall under gravity and may be carried by wind to a
for off place. It might by picked up again by flowing waler and deposited. A glacier may carry it still further.
1.8. MAJOR SOIL DEPOSITS OF INOlA
The soil deposits of India may be classified in the following five major groups :
(1) Alluvial DeposilsA large part of north india is oovered with alluvial deposits. lhe thickness of
alluvium in the IndoGangctic and Drnhmputra flood plains varies from a few mctn:s to more than one
hundred metres. Even in the pcninsul:lr India, ll11uvi'll deposits occur at some places.
The distinct characteristics of alluvial deposits is the existence of alternming layers of sand, silt and clay.
The thickness of each layer depends uiX>n the local terrain and the nature of floods in the rivers causing
deposition. The deposits are generally of low density and are liable to liquefaction in earthquakeprone areas.
(2) Black Cotton SoilsA large part of cenlral India and a portion of South India is oovered with black
cotton soils. These soils are residual deposits fonned from basalt or trap rocks. The soils are quite suitable for
growing collon.
Black cotton soils are clays of high plasticity. 'Ihey contain essentiaUy the clay mineral montmorillonite.
The soils have high shrinkage and sweUing eharncteristics. The shearing strength of the soils is extremely low.
The soils are highly compressible and have very low bearing capacity. It is extremely diffiadt to work with
such soils.
(3) Lateritic SoilsLateritic soils arc formed by decomposition of rock. removal of bases and silica, and
accumulation of iron oxide and aluminium oxide. The presence of iron oxide gives these soils the
characteristic red or pink colour. Thcsc are residual soils, formed from basalt. Lateritic soils exist in the
central. southern and c..1stem India.
The lateritic soils are soft and can be cut with a chisel when wet. However, these harden with lime. A
hard crust of gravel size particles, known as laterite, exists ncor the ground surface. The plasticity of the
lateritic soils decreases with depth as they approach the parent rock. These soils, especially thaie which
contain iron oxide, have relatively high specific gravity.
(4) Desert SoilsA large part of Rajasthan and adjoining states is covered with sand dunes. In this area,
arid conditions exist, with practically lillie mineaU.
Dune sand is uniform in gradation. lhe size of the particles is in the range of fine sand. The sand is
nonplastic and highly pervious. As the sand is gcncnltly in loose condition. it requires dcnsi[ic.1tion 10
increase its strength.
(5) Marine DepositsMarine depooilS arc mainly confined along a narrow belt ncar the coast. In the
southwest coost of India, there are thick layers of sand above deep deposits of soft marine clays.
The marine deposits have very low shearing strength and are highly oomprcssible. They contain a large
amount of organiC mailer. The marine days are soft and highly plastic.
INTRODUCfION
10
(19) LoessIt is a wind blown deposit of siJL II is generally of uniform gradation, with the particle size
between 0.01 to 0.05 mm. It consists of quartz and feldspar particles, cemented with calcium carbonate or
iron oxide. When wet, it becomcs soft and compressible because cementing action is loot. A loess deposit has
a loose structure with numerous roo! holes which produce vertical cleavage. The permeability in the vertical
direction is generally much greater than thaI in the horizontal direction.
(20) MarlIt is a stiff, marine calcareous clay of greenish colour.
(21) Moorumll1c word moorulII is derived from a Tamil word, meaning powdered rock. It consists of
small pieces of disintegrated rock Of shale, with or without boulders.
(22) MuckIt denotes a mixture of fmc soil particles and highly deoomposed organiC matter. It is black
in colour and of extremely soft consistency. It caonot be used for engineering works. The organic matter is in
an advanced stage of decomposition.
(23) PeatIt is an organic soil having fibrous aggregates of macroscopic and microscopic particles. It is
fonned from veget.'ll matter under conditions of excess moisture, such as in swamllS. It is highly compressible
and not suitable for foundations.
(24) SundIt is a coarsegrained soil, having particle size between 0.075 mm to 4.75 mm. The particles
are visible to naked eye. The soil is cobesionless and pervious.
(25) SiltIt is a finegrained soil, with particle size between 0.002 mm and 0.075' mm. The particles are
not visible to naked eyes.
Inorganic silt consists of bulky, equidimensional grains of quartz. It has little or no plasticity, and is
cohesionless.
Organic silt contains an admixture of org<lOic malter. IL is n plastic soil and is cohesive.
(26) TillIt is an unstrntified deposit formed by melting of a glacier. The deposit consists of particles of
different sizes, ranging from boulders to clay. The soil is generally wellgraded. It can be ea<>ily dcnsified by
compaction. Till is also known as boulderclay.
(27) Top soilsTop soils are surface soils that support plants. They contain a large quantity of organic
matter and nrc not suitable for foundations.
(28) TuftIt is a finegrained soil composed of very small particles ejected from volcanoes during its
explosion and deposited by wind or water.
(29) ThndruIt is a mat of peat and shrubby vegetation that oovers clayey subsoil in arctic regions. The
deeper layers are permanently frozen and are called permafrost. lbe surface deposit is the active layer which
alternately freezes and thaws.
(30) Varved claysThese are Sedimentary deposits consisting of alternate thin layers of silt and clay.
The thickness of each layer seldom exceeds 1 cm. These clays are the results of deposition in lakes during
perioos of alternately high and low waters.
[Note. For glossary of technical terms, sec APPENDIX A].
INTRODUCfION
II
111e term cohesivesoil is used for clays and plastic silt, and the term cohcsionlcsssoil, for nonplastic
silts. sands and gravel
According to the author, the history of soil engineering can be divided into three periods, as described
below:
(1) Ancient to Mediey,,1 perlodMan's first contact with soil was when he placed his foot on the earth.
In ancient times, soil was used as a construction material for building huge earth mounds for religious
purposes, burial places and dwellings. Caves were built in soit 10 live in.
ExceUent pavements were construded in Egypt and India much before the OI.ristian era. Some earth
dams have been storing water in India for more than 2000 years. Remnants of various underground waler
structures. such as aqueducts. tunnels and large drains. found in the excavation at the sites of early civilisation
at Mohenjodaro and lIarrappa in the Indian subcontinent indicate the use of soil a.<; foundation and
construction material. Egyptian used caissons for /Jeep foundations j::vcn 2000 D.C. I hmging gClrden at
Babylon (Iraq) was also built during that period. The city of D.1bylon was built on fills above the adjoining
flood plains.
During Roman times, heavy structures, such as bridges, aqueducts, harbours and buildings, were built.
Some of these works are in existence even today. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, tbe construction
activities declined. However, some heavy city walls and forts were built from the strategic considerations.
Cathedrals. casLJes and campaniles (bell towers) were also constructed. lbe famous tower of !lisa. known as
the leaning tower of Pisa, was also built. The tower has leaned on one side because of the diITerentiai
sctllement of its base.
The famous Rialto Bridge was constructed in Venice (Italy) in the seventeenth century. Leonardo da Vinci
constructed a number of structures in France during the same perioo. The famous London Bridge in England
was also built. The mausoleum Thj Mahal at Agra (India) was constructed by the emperor Shah Jehan to
commemorate his favourite wifc Mumtaz Mahal. It is built on masonry cylindrical wclls sunk into the soil at
close intcrvals.
11 is certain that early builders. while constructing such huge structures, encountcred and successfully
tackled many challenging problems. However, no record in available about the methods adopted. No scientific
study seems to have been made. The builders were guided by the knowledge and experience passed down
from generation to generation.
(2) Period of Early DevelopmentsThe eighteenth century caD be considered as the real beginning of
soil engineering when early developments in soil engineering look place. In 1773, a French engineer Coulomb
gave a thcory of earth pressure on retaining walts. 1be theory is used by the gcotechniall engineers even
today (chapter 19). Coulomb also introduced the concept thill the shearing resistance of soil consists of two
components, namely, the cohesion compunent ~md the rric.1ion component (ch.1plcr 13). Culmann gave a
geneI"dl gT'dphical solution for the earth pressure in 1866. Ibmkine. in 1857, published a theory on earth
pressure considering the plastic equilibrium of the earth mass. In 1874, Rehbann gave a graphical method for
computaHon of earth pressure based on Coulomb's theory.
Darcy gave the law of the permeability of soils in 1856. Darcy's law is used for the computation of
seepage through soils (chapters 8 and 9). In the same year, Stokes gave tbe law for the velocity o[ fall of
solid particles through fluids. The law is used [or determining the particle size, as disoJssed in chapter 3.
QMohr gave the rupture theory for soils in 1871. He also gave a graphical method of representation of
slresses, popularly known as Mohr's circle. II is extremely useful for delerminalion of stresses 00 inclined
planes (Chapter 13).
Boussinesq, in 1885, gave the theory of stress distribution in a semiinfmile, homogeneous, isotropic,
elastic medium due to an externally applied load. The theory is used for detennination of stresses in soils due
to loads, as discussed in Chapter 11.
.
In 1908, Marston gave the theory for the load carried by underground conduits (chapter 22).
Atlerberg. in 1911, suggested SOQl~ simple tests for characterizing consistency of cohesive soils. The
12
limits, commonly known as Altcrbcrg's limits, are useful for identification and classification of soils, as
discussed in chaplers 4 and 5.
Swedish Geotechnical Commission of the Siale Railways of Sweden appointed a committee headed by
Prof. Fellcnius in 1913 \0 study the st.'lbility of slopes. The commillee gDvC the Swedish circle method for
checking the stability of slopes, dcsaibcd in ch.'lptcr 18. In 1916, Petterson gllvc the friction circle method for
the stability of slopes.
(3) Modem EraThe modem em of Soil Engineering I;Icgan in 1925. with the publicaliOl) of the book
E,dballmechanic by KJolri TCL,taghi. The contribution made by Tcrzaghi in lhe development of soil engineering
is immense. He is fittingly called the father of soil mechanics. For the first time, he adopted a scientific
approach in the study of soil mechnnics. His theory of consolidation of soils (chapler 12) and the effective
stress principle (chapler 10) gave a new direction.
ProcIor did pioneering work on compaction of soils in 1933. ~ discussed in chapter 14.
Taylor made major contributions on consolidation of soils, shear strength of clays and the stability of slopes.
Casagmnde made significant contributions on classification of soils, seepage through earth masses and
consolidation.
Skempton did pioneering work on the pore pressures, effective stress, bearing capacity and the stability
of slopes.
Meyerhof gave the theories for the bearing capacity of shallow and deep foundatioos.
Hvorslcv did commendable work on subsurface exploration and on shear strength of remouldcd clays.
The above list is far from complete. Many other distinguished geotechnical engineers have made a mark
on the development of soil engineering. Because of space limitation, their mention could not be made in the
above list.
A. Oescripllve
1.1. DefiDC the term 'soil', 'soil mcchaniu;' and soil engineering. What are limillltions of soil engineering?
1.2. Whot is geologic eycle ? Expl;)jn the phenomena of formation and ltaosporUition of soils.
13. What arc the major soil deposits of India? Explain their characteristics.
1.4. Write D bricf history of soil engineering.
n.
MultipleChoice Questions
1. Colluvial soils (talus) are transported by:
(a) Water
(b) Wind
(e) Grovity
(d) Ice
2. Watertronsponed soils are termed:
(a) Aeoline
(b) Alluvial
(e) Colluvial
(d)1i1l
3. Glacierdcpositcd soils are called:
(a) Talus
(b) Loess
(e) Drin
(d) None of above
4. Cohesionlcss soils ate fonned due to:
(a) Oxidation
(b) Hydration
(e) Physical disintegration
Cd) Chemical decomposition
5.. When the prcxluCiS of rock wC<lthcring are nottmnsponed but remain at the place of formation, the soil is called:
(a) Alluvial soil
tb) Thlus
(e) Residual soil
(d)Acoliansoil
6. The follOWing type or soil is nOl glaclerdepositcd.:
(a) Drift
(b) Till
(e) Outwash
(d) T1cnlonitc.
(Am. I (el. 2 (bl. 3 (e), 4 (e), 5 eel. 6 (11)1
2
Basic Definitions and Simple Tests
2.1. INTRODUcnON
A soil mass consists of solid particles which form a jXlrous structure. The voids in the soil mass may be
filled with air. with water or partly
Air
with air and partly wiLh water. In
general.., a soil mass consists of solid
particles, water and air. The three
Wat/i!f
constituents are blended together to
form a complex material (Fig. 2.1.
a). However, for OJnvcnicncc, aU
Solid
the solid particles are segregated and
placed in the lower layer of the
threephase diagram (Fig. 2.1b).
Ukewise, water and air particles are
(a)
(b)
cannot
be
actually
segregated, as shown. A 3phase diagram is :10 llrtince ll.<>ed for easy understanding Dnd convenience in
cairuIalion.
Although the soil is a threephase system, it becomes a twophase system in the following two cases: (1)
It
::f2r~~~~~~~Eli~i;"~:~ T~
~T~~~:Cl~;~::; lV
\10
tI rtr I:::;;~;:
:::::::::  T
tI
Mo"O
Vw
= : = =:
 ~ =
1Ms 1" 1L
1
Vs
v,
      
(o)Soluroled soil
Fig. 22. TwophRse diagrams.
Mw
11"
",
14
r
~,,~.,.:,:,~~c ~ T 11 '=''''''~o:' f
In a 3phase diagram, it is conventional to write volumes 00 the left side and the mass on the right side (Fig.
2.3 0). The t~otal
volume of , gwen soil m"j.in designatal as V.
equal to the sum of ' nvolume
h e of solids (V,~
"e
Air
Mo=O
"" .. ..... T
'4:J
"" T
Air
'No:0
 .
J "" fI 11 ~" 11
1'
(0)
(b)
the volume of water (V...) ilnd the volume of air (V,,). '11m volume of voids (V,.) is equal (0 the sum of the
..
(2.1)
The void ratio is expressed as a decimal, such as 0.4, 0.5, etc. For coarsegrained roils, the void ratio is
gcncr.llly smaller than that for finegrained soils. For some soils, it may have a value even greater than unity.
(2) l'orosity (n)It is defined as the ratio of the volume of voids to the total volume. Thus
... (2.2)
Poror;ity is gcneraUy expressed as percentage. However, in equations. it is used as a ratio. For example,
a porosity ' of 50% will be used as 0.5 in equations. The porosity of a soil cannot exceed 100% as it woukl
mean V~ is greater than V, which is absurd. 10 fact, it will have a much smaller value. Porosity is aJso known
as percentage voids.
Doth porosity and void ralio are mea'iurcs of the denseness (or loosencs..'9 of soils. As the soil becomes
more and more dense, their values dc<'T~sc. The lenn porosity is more oommunly used in other disciplines
such as agricultural enginccring. In soil engineering. lhe term void mHo i"i more popular. It is more
convenient to use void ratio Ihan porosity. When the volume of a soil mass changes., only the numerator (i.e.
V~) in the void ratio changes and the denominator (i.e. V,) remains constant. However, if the lenn porosity is
used, both the numerator and the denominator change and it becomes inconvenient.
An interrelationship can be found between the void ratio and the porosity as under.
V" + V,
ii~V;
!.1+!.!...:!:...!
n
or
<
n _ <I + e
... (0)
... (23)
15
~ _;; _ 1 _ l~n
e .. 1
:n
..
(2.4)
In Eqs. (2.3) and (2.4), the porosity should be expressed as a ratio (and not pcrentagc).
(3) Degree of Saturation (5)The degree of saturation (S) is the ratio of the volume of water to the
volume of voids.
s~
Thus
,.. (2.5)
V"
The degree of 5.1luralion is generally expressed as a percentage. It is equal to zero when the soil is absolutely
dry and 100% when the soil is fully saturated. In expressions, the degree of saturation is used as a decimal.
In some texts, the degree of saturation is expressed as S,.
(4) Percentuge Ai. voids (n,,)It is the ralio of the volume of air to the tolal volume.
Vo
111us
na"
(Q~)Air
.. .(2.6)
as a percentage.
oontent is defined as the ratio of the volume of air to the volume of voids.
Vo
ar 
... (2.7)
v::
n" 
V"
V 
v:Va )( VVv
or
n"  n Q c
... (2.8)
[Note_ In literature, the ratio V" IV is alsoc.111cd air content hy some authors. However. in this lext, this ralio
would be lenned percentage nir voids ..nd nOI air contentJ.
w_~
... (2.9)
M,
The water content is also known as the moisture conlent (m). 11 is expressed as a percentage, but used as
a decimal in computation.
The water content of the finegrained soils, such as silts and clays, is generally more than that of the
coarse grained soils, such as gravels and sands. The water cootent of some of the fmegained soils may be
even more than 100%, which indicates that more than 50% of the total mass is that of water.
The water content of a soil is an important property. The characteristics of a soil, especially a
finegrained soil, change to a marked degree with a variation of its water content.
In geology and some other disciplines, the water content is defined as the ratio of the mass of water to
the total mass. Some of tbe instruments, such as moisture tesler, also give the water content as a ratio of the
total mass. In this text water content (w) will be taken as given by Eq. 2.9, unless mentioned otherwise.
The symbol m' shall be used in this texl for the water content based on the total wet mass. Thus
/II' 
f)(
100
... (2.10)
Note. Certain quantities, as defined above, are expressed as a ratio and certain other quantities, as a
16
percentage. To avoid confusion. it is a<.Ivis<lbJc to express all quantities as a r.atio (or a decimal) in
comput3lions. lbe final result should be expressed ..s a pcrccnt<lgc for the qu:mtitics which ore defined as a
percentage and as decimal for other quantities.
2.4. UNITS
In this lexl, SI wnilS arc used. In Ihis system, mass (M). length (L) and lime (1) arc the basic dimensions.
The mass b: expressed in kilogrnmmc (kg) units. the length in metre (M) units and the time in seronds (sec
or $) units.
The most important derived unit is the force unit. The force is expressed in newton (N). One newton is
2
the force which is required to give an accelcraLion of 1 m/sec to a ma5S of 1 kg. Thus
IN=lkgxlrn/scc2
In addition [0 kg mass and N force, the following multiples and submultiples are also frequently used.
1 milligrnmmc (mg) = 103 gram (gm or g)
1 kilogrnmme (kg)
= tOl
gm
... (2.11)
P V
The bulk mass densily is also known as the wei mass density or simply bulk density or density. It is
expressed in kg/ml, gm/ml or Mg/ml.
Obviously. 1 Mg/m 3 1000 kg/m l
1 gm/ml
(2) Dry Mass DensUyThe dry mass density (p.,) is defined as the mass of solids per unit lotal volume.
Thus
M,
Pd
... (2.12)
As the soil may shrink during drying. the mass density may not be equal to the bulk mass density of the
soil in the dried condition. '(be lotal volume is measured before drying.
M_
P,.  I I
... (2.13)
(4) Submerged Muss liel\.~UyWhen Ihe soil cxisL" beluw water, it is in II submerged condition. Wheo
a volume V of soil is Submerged in water, it displaces an equal volume of water. Thus the net mass of soil
when submerged is reduced (Fig. 2.4 (o)}.
The submerged mass density (p') of the soil is defined as the submerged rna<>s ~ unit of total volume.
Thus
The
submerged
dcnsily
17
a:~br ~"':._=
_:_=_=_ 1_ ~=
_______ ~~~14)
Tr  11 TT 1
1 I
I
::V;:I~C~:yi:nt::~t;:~it~:;b)~IsoJ
FIg. 2.4 (a) shows a sOli m~
submerged under water. The soil solids
which have a volume of V, arc buoyed up
by Ihe walec. The uplhrusl
~ equal 10 Ihe
1
v,
v, G
M,
Vs
11
u:VsJ'w
U _ V,P",
U:Vs'6w
(b)
(o)
Therefore,
Ws
v, G'W
V;p.(Gl)
  v 
... (2.15)
M.
p'
= (M,,' +
= (M., +
=_
M_
,,,,_~_v_P_".
or
Using Eq. 2.13
p' 
r'aI 
p...
...(2.16)
(5) Mass Density of Sollds1be mass density of solids (p,) is equal to the ratio of thc mass of solids
to the volume of solids. Thus
M,
p, 
V,
... (2.17)
18
(2) Dry Unit WdghtThe dry unit weight (Yd) is defined as the weight of solids per unit total volume.
Thus
W,
'fd""Y
... (2.12(a)J
(3) Suturlled Unit WcightThe saturated unit weight (llol1') is the bulk unit weight when the soil is fully
saturated.
lYr ....
Thus
y, 
II
... (2.13(a)J
(4) Submerged Unit WeightWhen Ihe soil exists below water. it is in a submerged condition. A
buoyant Corce acts on the soil solids. According to Archimedes' principle, the buoyant [orce is equal to the
wcighi of water displaced by Ihe solids. The net mass of the solids is reduced. The reduced mass is known
as the submerged mass or the buoyant mass.
lltc submerged unit weight (y') of the soil is defined as the submerged weight per unit of total volume.
Tbus
,
lVslIh
y.y
... (2.14(a)l
Fig. 2.4 (b) shows a soil mass submerged under water. lbc soil solids which have a volume of V, are
buoyed up by the water. The buoyant force (U) is equal to the weight of wuter displaced by the solids.
U  Viy ...
The weight of water in the voids has a zero weight in water, as the weight of water and the buoyant force
just balance c.'lch other. When submerged, all voids can be assumed 10 be filled with water.
lltercforc,
w. ....... w,u
 V,Gy.  V, y.  V,y.(G  1)
V,y.(G  1)
Y V
. .. [2.15(a)J
We can also consider the equilibrium of the entire volume (Y). The lotal downward force, including the
wight of water in the voids, is given by
W..'" .. W, + V" Y...
The tOial upward force, including that on the water in voids, is given by U .. Vy",
Therefore, the Submerged unit weight is given by
W,uh = (W~ + V,.y",). Vy"
... [2.16(a)]
llte submerged unit weight is roughly onehalf of the saturated unit weight.
In literature, the submerged uni! weight is also frequently expressed as 'fsub' For convenience, the
submerged uni! weight wiD be expressed as y' in Ihis tex\.
(S) Unit weight of Soil SolicJs.The unit weight oC solids (Y.) is equal!o the mtio of the weight of solids
to the volume of solids. Thus
W,
't, 
V;
... (2.17(a)J
19
When a force of one newton (N) is applied to a mass of one kilogrammc (kg), the acceleration is 1
mlsec2. The weight of 1 kg mass of material on the surface of earth is 9.81 N hecausc the acceleration due
to gravity (g) is 9.81 mlsec". Thus we can ('{)Overt the mass in kg into weight in N by multiplying it by g. In
otberwards, W = Mg.
Because the unit weight '( is expressed as 1VIV and the mass density (p) as MIV. the two quantities can
be related as
y* Y pg
1000
'(W 
)C
)C
9.81
=:
Sometimes, the mass density is expressed in Mgfm 3 or glml. The corresponding unit weight in kNlm 3 is
equal to 9.81 p. For example, for water Pw is 1 Mg/m3 or 1 glml. The corresponding unit weight is 9.8l
kN/ml.
Likewise. mass density of 1600 kglm l corresponds to a unit weight of 1600 x 9.81 N/ml = 15696 Nlml
'" 15.696 kNlm 3. In the reverse order, a unit weight of 18 kNlml corresponds to a mass density of 1800019.81
l
= 1834.62 kglm .
It will not be OUI of place to give a passing reference to the MKS unils still prelevant in some fields . In
MKS units, the weight is expressed in kilogram me force (kgf). It is equal to the force exerted on a mass of
1 kg due to gravity. As the same force is also equal to 9.81 N, we have
1 kgf= 9.81 N
unit
Ii:
..
(2.18)
Soil Type
Grovel
2..652.68
2..652.68
2..662.70
2..66210
2.68280
Variable, may fall below 2.00
So""
Silty Sands
Sill
InocganicQays
Organic Soils
In addition to thc standard tcrm of specific gravity as defined, thc following two tcnns related with the
specific gravity are also occasionally used.
(1) Muss Specific Gravity (G",~1t is defined as the ratio of lhe mass density of the soil to the ma<iS
density of water.
. .. (2.\9)
Obviously. the value of the mass specific gravity of a soil is much smaller than the value of the specific
gravity of solids.
The mass specific gravity is also known as the apparent specifte gravity or the bulk specific gravity.
(2) Absolute SpeciOc Gravity (G.,)1be soil solids are Dot perfect solids but contain voids. Some of
these voids are pcnneable through which water can enter, whereas others are impenneable. Since the
permeable voids get filled when the soil is wet, these are in reality a part of void space in the totol mass and
nOi a part of soil solids. If both the pcnncable and impenneabJe voids are excluded from the volume of
solids, the remaining volume is the true or absolute volume of the solids.
The mass density of the absolute solids (Ps).. is used for the detenninalion of the absolute specific gravity
of solids as under. Thus
... (2.20)
The absolute specific gravity is not of much practical use, as it is difficult to differentiate between the
permeable and impcnneable voids. In most cases, the impcnneable parts are taken as the part of solids. In this
text, the tenn specific gravity of soil solids (G) is ~ to denote the specific gravity of soil solids inclusive
of the impermeable voids. In Eq. 2.18, the soil solids therefore mean the solids with their impenneable voids.
.1J
ill
ill.

The relationships developed in the preceding sections are independent of the actual dimensions of the soil
~~OI~:C ~r:~:~~~
. ..L
::;.:~.:";;~
~,:.::: ~~e~":n7:~~ l'W~t>S,I~O
::~:~::.:~ ::: "'tS"So}'W
the volume of solids is I+e
also equal to the height
of solids. Fig. 2.5 (a)
shows the phase diagram
with volume of solids V.
equal to unity. Since the
void ratio is equal to the
ratio of the volume of
1l'
l+e
w
Ms"GP
fa)
Fig. 2.S.
L
~I~
l'Wt"S.
:.=.:.:.::;.::..:.:.. w",t"S.lW
'
"'l"G'W
(b)
21
voids to the volume of solids, the volume of voids in Fig. 2.5 (0) becomes equal to e. The total volume ('\I)
is obviously equal to \1 + e). 1be volume of air is shown bye" and the volume of water, bye....
The volumes are shown on the left side and the mrresponding mass on the right side in Fig. 2.5 (a). 1be
volumetric relationships developed in Sect. 2.2 can be written direaly in tenns of void ratio as under:
Poru;ity,
n ..
~ .. ~
Degree of saturation,
s ..
~_~
V.
e
The volume of water (V...) is shown as Se in Fig. 2.5(0). Obviously, the volume of air (V,,) is equal
to (e  Se) = e(1  S).
Therefore,
.. e
..
~1 + eS)
(1  S)
Various mass densities discussed in Sect. 2.4 can be expressed in terms of the void rotio from Fig. 2.5
(a).
p ..
M~+M...
V .. I:;e ..
(G + Se)p ...
p  l.eFrom Eq. 2.12
From Eq. 2.13,
M,
".(2.21)
Gp...
".(2.22)
PdV~
P,...
M_
y
As the degree of saturation for a saturated soil is l.0 (i.e. 100%), Eq. 2.21 gives
P,...
From Eq. 2.16
or
(G. e)p.
".(2.23)
.,~
(G. ')P.
P .. p  P..... 1..  P.
,
(G  1)
P"~P ...
In case the soil is not fully saturated, the submerged mass density is given by p' .. P  P...
p' .. (G 1+
:e;
".(2.24)
P ... _ p ...
(G Se) p.  (1 e) p.
1 e
,
[(G  1) e(l  S)] P.
p ..
1 + e
Eq. 2.25 reduces to Eq. 2.24 when the soil is fully saturated (S
".(2.25)
= 1.0).
22
(G + Se)l..,
y  1+.
[2.21(a)1
Gy..,
'td"
I:;:;
(G +
ely.
'fJQI~
. .. [2.23 (a)]
(G  I)
'f 
y:;:e Y...
In geotcchnical engineering, unit wcighlS are generally expres...oo in IcN/ml. The unit weight of waler
l
(Y ...) is 9.81 kN/m , which is sometimes taken as 10 kN/ml, for convenience.
It may be mentioned once again that mass density in glm! can be converted into unit weight in kN/ml
by multiplying it by 9.81.
For water, p... .. 1 glm!.
For soils, if p .. 2 glm!.
(0)
(b)
n~_~_vv
Thcremre, the volume of voids in shown as n.
Void ratio,
or
From Eq. 2.12,
n
 ~
P _
% _ M~
p  IG (I  n) + Sn] P.
Pd _
*" _
. .. (2.26)
GP",~ln)
Pd  Gp",(ln)
... (2.27)
23
Ps... _ M~<If
or
. .. (2.28)
or
p'  (G  1)(1  a) p.
. .. (2.29)
It mily be mentioned that Eqs. (2.26) to (2.29) in terms of porosity can also be derived from Eqs. (2.21)
to (2.25) dircaly by substituting e  nl(l n). This is left an exercise for the readers.
Equations In tenns of Weight units
Eqs. 2.26 to 2.29 can be written in terms of unit weights as under.
Eq. 2.26 becomes
y  [G(Ia) + SalY.
.[2.26(a)1
... [2.27(a)1
... [2.28(a)1
y"  Gy.(Ia)
'($'"  [G (1  n) + n] ,(",
y' _ (G  1)(1  n) y.
. .. [2.29(a)J
2.11 . RELATIONSIIH' nETWEEN THE VOID RATIO AND THE WATER CONTENT
kl';
!~I';
1
1
An extremely useful relationship between the void ratio (e) and the water content (w) can be developed
as under.
t
VW
t t  t
Mw~Vwfw

.~
 Mw~S'Yw
l'w
IYw
T~WG
(bl
M M;
w 
V...
SV~
!..
w _ V... P...
V,PS
Therefore,
p.
orpsGp...
SV,
V.. G
ore 
... (2.30)
Z4
e  ""
... (2.31)
Alternatively Eqs. (2.30) and (2.31) can be derived using the 3phasc diagram in terms of the void ratio
[Mg. 2.7 (b).
w _ ~
or
w 
Sep ...
M~
or w  G P...
or e
,.
II may be noted that it is morc convenient to work with 3phasc diagram in (enns of void "'ollio. The
reader is advised to use 3phnse diagram in terms of void ralio as far $ possible.
2.12. EX)'RESSIONS }"OR MASS DENSITY IN TERMS OF WATER CONTENT
The e.'{prcssions for mass density c.1n be written in terms of water content by writing the void mtio in
(G Se) p.
p  I.e
(G "") p.
p  1 ("")IS
If the soil is fully saturated, S ::: 1.0, and Eq. 2.32 becomes
or
(1 + w)Gp ....
P  1 ("")IS
. .. (2.32)
(1 + w)Gp",
Pl"~
... (2.33)
P.../>
(1 + w)Gp",
Pl"P",~
P...
(G  I)p.
Psub~
or
...(2.34)
Eq.2.34 can also be obtnined directly from Eq. 2.24 by substituting e wG.
Gp.
PJ 
or
Gp.
p,  1 (""IS)
t;e
...(2.35)
... (236)
Eq. 2.36 is nn extremely useful equation for determination of the dry density from the bulk density and
vice versa.
For a given water content w, a soil becomes saturated when S = 1.0 in Eq. 2.35. The dry density of the
(Pd)zQt 1 ~P~
... (237)
The reader should carefully nOle tt).e difference between {P)SGI and (PJ),..,. In the first case, the water conlent
of a partially saturated is inqeased so tha: all the voids are filled with water, whereus in the second case, the
water content is kepi oonsLant and the air voids are removed by compaction so tlwt all tbe remaining voids are
saturated with water. lbe Jailer condition is only hypothetical as it is not fcasibfe 10 remove all the air voids.
Equations In terms
or Weight
Units
. ..[2.32(a)1
.. .\2.33(a)1
(G  I)r.
. .. [2.34(a)[
'tlub~
Gr.
. .. [2.35(a)[
'td  1 + (MIlS)
'td~
('td)'<6  1
.[2.36(0)1
~ 't:,
... [2.37(a)1
2.13. RE1ATIONSIIII' BETWEEN OUY MASS DENSITY AND PERCENTAGE AIU VOIDS
In the study o[ compaction of soils (Chapter 14), a relationship between the dry mass density and the
percentage air voids is required. The relationship can be developed from the 3phase diagram shown in
Fig. 2.8 (a).
lb)
Now
v ..
V, + V ... + V"
l~+Yv+~
Bul
V.
vn"
CEq. 2.6)
Therefore
.f
(1  n,,) ..
(1 _ n,,) ..
_ k.
Gp,.,
+ (wM,)/pw
V
26
... (2.38)
When the soil becomes fully saturated at a given water rootent,
(Pd)".  0  1
A little refieaioo win show that
(Pd)/I~
II" 
~P:o
(1  a.)Gy.
. .. [2.38 (a)]
Yd    1.e
Table 2.2 gives a summary of the various relationships. The reader should make these equations as a pan
of his soil engineering vocabulary.
Thble 2.2. Dasic Relationships
S. No.
Eq. No.
1.
2.3
n ... ef(l + e)
2.
2.4
3.
2.8
4.
2.21
S.
2.22
6.
2.23
7.
2.24
8.
230
(0 +Se) pw
p..
9.
2.36
10.
238
Pd~
'I"
Yd~
I+<
,/Id
.~
p...
1 +e
,
e ... wG/S
pol ... p/(l + w)
(0 +e)y...
1 +<
1+..0
(01)'1'"
I+<
e .. wG/S
Yd " y/(l +
(la.IGe_
_
(0+&)1'"
1 +e
1 "
(G+e)pw
1 +e
p,......
pJ
I +e
'Id"
w)
~
I +WG
27
The soil sample is taken in a smaU. noncorridible, ainighl container. The mass of the sample and that of
the container are obtained using an aex:urate weighing balance. According to IS : 2720 (pan 1I}1973, the
mass of the sample should be taken to an accuracy of 0.04 per cent. The quantity of the sample to be taken
for the test depends upon the gradation and the maximum size of the panicles and the degree of wetness of
the soil. The drier the soil. tbe more shall be the quantity of the specimen. Table 2.3 gives the minimum
quantity of soil specimen to be taken for the test.
The soil sample in the container is then dried in an oven at a temperature of 110 ::t SoC for 24 hams.
The temperature range selected is suitable for most of the soils. The temperature lower than 110 ::t 5C may
not cause oomplete evaporation of water and a temperature higher than this temperature may c.'1use the
breaking down of the crystalline structure of the soil panicles and laiS of chemic.'111y bound. st ructural water.
However, ovendrying at 110 ::t 5C does not give reliable resulLS for soils oontaining gypsum or other
minerals having loooely bound waler of hydration. This temperature is aL~ not suitable for soils containing
significant amount of organic matter. for all such soils, a temperature of 60 to 80C is recommended. At
higher tempcraturt; gypsum loses its waler of crystaUine and the organic soils tend to decompose and get
oxidized.
'lhble 2.3. Minimum Quantity of Soil for Water Content Detenninatlon
S. No.
l.
2.
3.
~.
4.
s.
6.
The drying pcriod of 24 hours has been rccommemled for normal soils, as it has been found that this
period is sufficient to cause complete evaporation of water. lbc sample is dried till it attains a constant mass.
The soil may be deemed to be dry when the difference in successive wcighings of the cooled sample docs
nol exceed about 0.1 percent of the original mass. The soils oontaining gypsum and organic matter may
require drying for a period longer Ihan 24 hours.
The water content of the soil sample is caiCUl.1tcd from the following equation.
w ..
where
~_M2MJ)(lOO
M,
M)MI
M 1  mass of container, with lid
M2  mass of container, lid and wet soil
M)  mass of container, lid and dry soil
... (2.39)
0)1973].
As the moisture meter is generally calibrated for 25 gm of soil, the maximum size of particle in the
specimen shall be k!ss than 2 mm. The sample is kept in a suitable container so that its water content is not
affected by ambient cooclitions. lbe torque is applied to one end of the torsion wire by means of a calibrated
drum to balance the loss of weight of the sample as it dries out under infrared lamp. A thermometer is
provided for recording the drying temperature which is kept at 110 :!: SoC. Provision is made to adjust Ihc
input vOltage to the infrared lamp to conlrol the beat for drying of the specimen.
The weighing mechanism, known as a torsion balance, has a built in magnetic damper which reduces
pan vibration<> for quick drying. TIle balance scale (drum) is divided in terms of moisture content (m') based
on wet mass. lbe water mnlent (w), based on the dry mass, can be determined from the value of m' as under.
m'_~_~
~ _ Ms
;w
M, +M",
", _
+ 1
w.L
... [2.40(0)]
1  m'
w 
IOC,n~ m'
)( 100
... [2.4O(b)]
The time required for the test depends upon the type of the soil and the quantity of water present. It takes
about 15 to 30 minutes. Since drying and weighing occur Simultaneously, the method is useful for soils which
quickly rc.absorb moisture after drying.
(3) Pycnomeler melhod. A pycnometer is a glass jar of about I litre capacity and filled with a brass
conic.Ji cap by means of a SCf'C\HYPC cover (Fig. 2.9). The cap has a smaU hole of 6 mm diameter at its
apex. A rubber or fibre washer is placed between the cap and
the jar to prevent leakage. There is a mark on Ibe cap and
also on the jar. The cap is screwed down to the same mark
...Brass top
such thai the volume of the pycnometer used in calculations
remains constant. The pycnometer method for the
 type c.over
determination of water content can be used only if the
specific gravity of solid (G) particles is known.
A sample of we' soil, about 200 to 400 g, is taken in the
pyalOmeter and weighed. Water is then added to the soil in
the pycnometer to make it about hllif full. The mntents are
GlilSS jar
thoroughly mixed using a glass rod to remove the entrapped
air. More and more water is added and stirring process
continued till (he pycnometer is fiUed flush with the hole in
the conical cap. The pycnometer is wiped dry and weighed.
The pycnometer is then completely emptied. It is washed
thoroughly and filled with water, flush with the lOp hole. 1bc
pycnometer is wiped dry and weighed.
Fig. 2.9 PyCllomelcr.
)~~~~~screw
Let
MI
mass of pycnom<aer
Thus
M,
M4  M)  Ms + (G P...) . P...
M4  M) Ms +
 M,  M, ( I 
Mz  eM)  M4 )
or
Now, mass of wet soil
= M2
(M j
~ 1)
 Mi
b)
w 
it )(
M.) ( G~I )
100
_ [(M,
 M (Q.::..!.)
_ I]
(M,M,)
G
I)
x 100
... (2.41)
This method for the detcnnination of the water OJOtCDt is quite suitable for roarsegrained soils from
which (he entrapped air can be easily removed. If a vacuum pump is available, the PYOlometcr can be
connected 10 II for about 10 to 20 minutes to remove the entrapped air. 11lc rubber tUbing of the pump shoukl
be held tightly with the pYOlometcr 10 preveDt leakage.
(Refer to Dlapter 30. Sect. 30.2 for the laboratory experimcot)
(4) Sand Bath Method. Sand balh method is a field method for the determination of water content. The
method is ropid, but not very accurate. A sand bath is a large, open vessel oontaining sand filled to a depth
of 3 em or more.
The soil sample is taken in a troy. The sample is crumbled and placed loosely in the tray. A few pieces
of white paper are also placed on the sample. The tray is weighed and the mass of wet sample i obtained.
The tray is then placed on the sandbath. The sand bath is heated over a stove. Drying takes about .20 to
60 minutes, depending upon the type of soil. During heating, the specimen is tumed with a palette knife.
Overheating of soil should be avoided. The white paper turns brown when overheating occurs. The drying
should be continued till the sample attains a constant mass. When drying is oomplete, the tray is removed
from the sand bath. cooled and weighed. ]be water content is determined using Eq. 239.
(5) Alcohol Method. The soil sample is taken in an evaporating dish. urge lumps of soil, if any. should be
broken and crumbled. The mass of the wet sample is taken. The sample is then mixed with methylated spirit
(alcohol). The quantity of methylated spirit required is about one millilitre for every gram of soil. The
methylated spirit and the soil should be turned several times, with a palette knife, to make the mixture uniform.
The methylated spirit is then ignited. The mixture is stirred with a spatula or a knife when ignition ~
talciog place. After the methylated spirit bas bumt away completely, the dish 'is allowed 10 be cooled, and the
mass of the dry soil obtained. 1bc metbod takes about 10 minutes.
Methylated spirit is extremely volatile. Care shall be taken to prevent fire. 1be method cannot be used if
the soil contains a large proportion of clay, organic maller, gypsum or any other caJcareous materiaL The
method is quite rapid, but not very accurate.
30
(6) Calcium Cllrbide Method. This method of the dctcnninalion of water contenl makes use of the fact
produced.
Cay
+ 2H 20  CzH 2 + Ca (Ollh
The water rooteol of the soil is determined indirectly from the pr<ssure of the acetylene gas formed. 1be
instrument used is known as moisture tester.
TIle wei soil sample is plared in a sealed container containing calcium carbide. lbc samples of sand
require no special prepamtion. 'me soil sample is ground and pulverised. However, cohesive and plastic soils
are tested after addition of steel balls in the pressure vessels. The test requires about 6 g of soil.
The pressure of the acctylene gas produced acts on the diaphragm of the moisture tesler. The quantity
gas is indicated on a pff$Ure gauge. From the calibrntcd scale of the pressure gauge, the water oontent (m') based
on the total mass is determined. The water content (w) b..'tSed on the dry mass is dctennined using Eq. 2.40 (a).
~ calcium carbide is highly susceptible to absorption of moisture. il should not be exposed 10
atmosphere. lbc lid of the container should be finnly fixed.
(7) Radiation Method. Radioactive isotopes are used for the determination of water content of soits. A
device containing a radioactive isotopes material. such as cobalt 60, is pL.'l.cOO in a capsule. It is then lowered
of
 SO,tt
51 pet casing
Stezezl cdsing
A
capsute
Oetector
Fig.2. 1l .
in a steel casing A, placed in a bore hole as shown in Fig. 2.11. The steel casing has a small opening on its
one side through which rays can come out. A detector is placed inside another steel casing B, which also has
an opening facing that in casing A.
Neutrons are emitted by the radioactive material. The hydrogen atoms in water of the soil cause
scattering of neutrons. As these neutrons strike with the hydrogen atoms,they lose energy. The loss of energy
is proportional to 'he quantity of water present in the soil. The detector is calibrated to givc directly the water
content
The mcthod is extremely useful for tbe determination of water cootcnl of a soil in the insitu conditions.
The methcx:l should be very carefully used, as it m3Y lead to radiation problems if proper shielding
precautions are not taken.
2.15. SPECIHC GRAVny DETERMINATION
The specific gravity of solid particles is determined in the laboratory using the following mcthods:
(2) Pycnometer method
(3) Measuring flask mcthod
(1) Density boule method
(4) Ga<> jar mcthod
(5) Shrinkage limit mcthod.
The last method of determining thc specific gravity of solid particles from thc shrinkage limit is
discussed in Sect. 4.6.
31
(I) Density Bottle Method. TIle specific gravity of solid particles can be
determined in a laboratory using a density botlle filled with a stopper having a hole
(Fig. 2.12). The density bottle of 50 ml capacity is generally used [IS : 2720 (Pan
II) 1980].
The density bottle is cleaned and dried at a temperature of 105 to 110C and
cooled. 'The mass of the bottle. including that of stopper. is taken. About 510 g of
oven dry sample of soil is taken in the bottle and weighed. If the sample contains
particles of large size, it shall be ground to pass a 2mm sieve before the test.
Distilled water is then added to cover the sample. The soil is allowed to soak
water for about 2 hOurs. More water is added until the bottle is half full. Air
entrapped in the soil is expelled by applying a V3aJum pressure of about 55 em of
mercury for about one hour in a vacuum dcssicalor. Alternatively. the entrapped air
can be removed by genqe heating. More water is added to the bottle to make it full.
111e slopper is inserted in the bottle and its mass is taken. The temperature is also
recorded.
The bottle is emptied. washed and then refilled with di'itilled water. The bottle Fig. 212 Density bottle.
must be filled to the; same mark as in the previous case. The mass of the botLle filled with water is taken. The
temperature should be the same as before.
Let
MI
.. massofemptybottle
M2  mass of bottle and dry soil
M) _ mass of bottle, soil and water
Thus
M4  M)  MI + aM.
M. ( 1 
h) 
P.
(P...)
M)  M4
M. M2 Ml
8uI
(M,  M,) ( 1 
Therefore
~)
_ M,  M.
M2 Mj
... (2.42)
(M2  M I)  (M)  M 4 )
0
Alternatively,
M,
M. +M4
M)
... [2.42(a))
Eq. 2.42 gives the specific gravity of solids at the temperature at which the test was condUdcd.
SpecifiC gravity of solids is generally reported at 2rC (IS: 272011) or at 4C. The speciHc gravity al
27C and 4"C can be dc!con ined from thc following equations.
G
TI
and
where Gv
G4
... (2.43)
G,)( specificgravityofw3leratlC
... (2.44)
G4
32
G.
(M,  MdG.
(M,  M I )  (M,  M,)
. .. (2.45)
sp. gr.
IC
sp. gr.
I"C
sp. gr.
0.9999
11
12
0.99%
0.9995
21
0.9999
13
0.9994
31
32
33
0.9954
0.9951
0.9947
14
15
16
17
I
19
20
0.9993
0.9991
0.9990
0.9988
0.9986
0.9984
0.9982
0.9980
0.9978
0.9976
0.9973
0.9971
0.9968
0.9965
0.9963
0.9%0
l"C
sp. gf.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
10
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.9999
0.9999
0.9998
0.9997
22
23
24
25
26
27
2J3
29
30
0.9957
3.
0.9944
0.9941
35
36
37
38
0.9937
0.9934
0.9930
0.9926
0.9922
3.
40
Sometimes, other liquids, such as paramo, alcohol and benzene. arc also used.
Density bottle method is suitable for finegrained soils, with more than 90% passing 2 mmIS sieve.
However the method can also be used for medium and coarsegrained soils if they are pulverised such that
the particles pass 2 mmIS sieve.
(See Chapter 30, Sect. 30.3 for the laboratory experiment).
(2) Pycnometer Method. The method is similar to the density boute method. As the capacity of the
pYOlometer is larger, about 200300 g of ovendry soil is required for the test. The method can be used for
all types of soils, bul is more suitable for mediumgrained soils, with morc than 90% passing a 20 mm IS
sieve and for ~rsegrained soils with more Ihan 90% passing a 40 mm IS sieve.
(See Chapter 30, Sect. 30.4 for the laboratory experiment).
(3) Measuring Flask Method. A mea'iuring nask is of 250 ml (or 500 ml) capacity. with a graduation
mark at Ihat leveL It is fitted with an adaptor for connecting it to a vacuum line for removing entrapped air.
The method is similar 10 the density bottle method. About 80100 g of oven dry soil is required in Ihis case.
The method is suitable for finegrained and medium grained1soits.
Rubber bung
(4) Gus Jar Method. In this method. a ga.. jar of about I litre
capacity is used. The jar is fitled with a rubber bung (Fig. 2.13). The
gas jar serves as a pycnometer. The method is similar to the pycnometer
method.
The bulk mass density of a soil sample, as per Eq. 2.11, is themass
per unit volume. Allhough lhe mass of a soil sample can be determined
to a high degree of precision, it is rather difficult to determine the
volume of the sample accurately. The methods discussed below
basically differ in the prOCedure for the measurement of the volume.
Once the bulk mass density has been detennincd. the dry mass density
is found using Eq. 2.36. Thus
, LItre
glass jar
Soil
33
p Mand
V
The volume of the specimen used in various tcsts can be computed from the measured dimensions. as
Ihey have regular shapes, such as a cylinder or a cube. Ilowever, precise measurements arc not possible. If
the sample is made in a container of known dimensions. much more accurate measurements arc possible.
The following methods are genemlly used for the detennination of mass density.
(1) Water Displacement Method
(2) Submerged mass density Method
(3) Core Cutler Method
(4) Smld Replacement Method.
(5) Water Balloon Method
(6) Radi:ltion Method.
The methods are discussed below. 1lIc first two methods arc laboratory methods and the !'CSt, field
methods.
(I) Water Dl~placement Method. The volume of the
specimen js dClcnmned in Ihis method by waler
displacement, As the soil mass disintegrates when it comes
in contact with water, the sample is cooted with paraffin
wax to make it impervious. A Icst specimen is trimmed to
more or less a regular shape and weighed. It is then coated
Valva
with a trun lay.er of .paraffin wax by dipping it. in molten
~
wax. The specimen IS allowed to cool and weighed. 1llc Mtasurrng .
=difference between the two observations is equal 10 the
mass of the paraffin.
'llie waxed specimen is then immersed in a waterdisplacement container shown in Fig. 2.14. Thc volume of
the specimen is equal 10 the volume of WOlter which comes
out of the outflow lube. The actual volume of the soil
Fig. 2.14. WIlICr di~placemcnl cont.,incr.
specimen is less th3I1 the volume of the waxed specimen.
The volume of the wax is determined from the mass of the wax peeled orr from the specimen afler the test
and the mass density of wax.
Now
V _ V, _ (Al,  M)
... (2.46)
p,
V = volume of specimen,
V, = volume of waxed specimen,
M, = mass of waxed specimen,
M = mass of specimen,
Pp = mass density of paraffin (approximately 0.998 gm/ml).
A representative sample of the soil is laken from the middle of specimen for the walcr content detennination.
Once the mass, volume and the water content of the specimen have been determined, the bulk density
and the dry density arc found from Eqs. 2.11 and 2.36, respectively.
where
P..
where M,
Pp
34
P.
Substituting this value V, in Eq. 2.46. we gel Eq. 2.47.
This method is suitable for fincgruincd soils.
(3) Core Cutler Method. It is a field method for determination of mass density. A core cutter consists
of an open, cylindrical barrel, with a hardened, sharp cutting edge (Fig. 2.15). A dolly is placed over the
cutter and it is rammed into the soil. lne dolly is required to prevent burring of the edges of the cutter. 1nc
cutter containing the soil is taken oul of the ground. Any
soil extruding above the edges of the culler is removed. The
mass of the cutter filled with soil is taken. A representative
... (2.41)
r' ~lmm..,.j
I
Cutter __
where M 2 :: mass of culter, with soil,
13 0 rr.m
M I = mass of empty cutter,
V:: intCITh'l1 volume of cutter.
lhe method is quite suitable for son, fine grnined soils.
It cannot be used for stoney, graven), soils. The method is
practicable only at the places where the surface of the soil
is exposed and the cutter con be easily driven.
Fig. 2.15. Core.Culler with dolly.
(See Chapter 30, Sect. 30.5 for the experiment).
I
i
(4) Sand Replacement Method. Fig. 2.16 shows a sandpouring cylinder, which has a pouring cone at
its base. TIle cylinder shown is placed with its base at the ground level. There is a shutter between the
cylinder and the rone. The cylinder is firsl calibrated to delennine the mass density of sand. For good results,
the $and used should be uniform, dry and clean, passing a 600 micron sieve and rctuined on a 300 micron
sieve.
(0) Callbrntlon of appurotusThe cylinder is filled with sand and weighed. A calibrating oontainer is
then placed below the pouring cylinder and the shutler is opened. The sand fills the calibrating container and
the cone. The shutter is closed, and the mass of the cylinder is again laken. lbe ma5S of Ihe sand in the
container and the cone is equal to the dirl'crencc or the two observations.
The pouring cylinder is again filled 10 the initial mass. The sand is allowed 10 run 001 of the cylinder,
equal to the volume of the calibrating cootaincr and the shutler is closed. The cylinder is then placed over a
pt.!in surface and the shutler is opened. 'Ihe sand runs Oul of the cylinder and fills the cone. The shutler is
closed when no further :novement of sand takcs place. 1nc t.)'linder is removed and the sand filling the rone
is collected and weighed (Mi).
"he mass density of the sand is dctennincd as under:
P. ..
All  M2 M)
V
t
... (2.49)
M3
M3
Volume of hole
where M I =
.. M I
M.  M2
p,
...(2.50)
mass
The bulk mao;s density of the insitu soil is determined from the
mass of soil excavated and the volume of the hole.
Fig. 2.16. Sand Replacement method.
The method is widely used for soils of various particle sizes, from finegrained to coa~grained. For
accurate results, the height of sand column in the cylinder is kept approximately the same as that in the
calibration test. The depth of the hole should also be equal to the depth of
calibrating container.
(See Chapter 30, Sect. 30.6 for the experiment).
5. Rubber Balloon Method. The volume of the hole in this method is
determined using a rubber balloon' or by filling water in the hole after
covering it with a pl...1Stic sheet. The rubber balloon method is explained
below.
The apparatus consists of a density plate and a graduated cylinder,
made of lucite, encloocd in an airtight aluminium case (Fig. 2.17). 11te
cylinder is partly filled with water. There is an opening in the bottom of
the case, which is sealed by a rubber balloon. The balloon can be pulled
up into the cylinder or may be pushed down through the bottom. A pump
is attached to the cylinder for this purpose. When the pressure is applied,
balloon comes out the aluminium case through the hole in the density
piate. When a vacuum is applied, the balloon is pulled up into the cylinder.
For determination of the volume of the hole. the density plate is
placed on the levelled ground. The cylinder is then placed over the plate.
The pressure is applied to the balloon. The balloon deflates against the
surface of the soil. The .volume of water in the cylinder is ooserved.
The cylinder is removed from the base plate. 1be soil is taken out
Hand pump
W<"lltr
Otn:;lly
ba,lloon
pial!!:
~~..!r~~'='=rlG::.~"d
Holf. in
ground
from the hole through the opening in the base plate. All loose material is removed. llle soil removed is
collected and weighed. The cylinder is <lg:lin pl:K:oo over thc opening in thc plate and pressure is applied to
the balloon till it fills the holc. lhe volumc of Wolter in the cylinder is observed. '[be volume of thc hole is
fou:1.d from the initial and finnl observntion of wmer volume.
The method is general and is suit:Jble for t:1I types of soils. However, it is not so accurate, as it is difficult
to fit thc balloon eXrlctly in an irregular hole.
rs : 2720 (Part XXXIV)1972 describes the method in detail.
(6) Radiation Method. The bulk mass density of insitu soil can be determined ~ing the radiation
method. The meter consists of twO probes, one containing a radio isotope source and the othcr a gamma my
detcctor. 1lle meter is placed on thc surface which had been carefully cleaned and levelled. The probe extends
to a maximum depth of 200 mm to 300 mm into the ground. and, therefore, gives an average mass density
for that depth. The detector record<; the amount of radiation which passes through the soil from lhc probe
attached to the meter when inserted into thc ground. The denser the soil, the greater is the absorption of
gamma rays, and the lc.sscr will be the gamma mys energy at the detector. The method is known as the direct
transmission me/hod
'l1lere is another method, known as the back scalier method. Both the sourcc and the detector are
contained in one probe. The detector records radiations which had been reflected by the soil. The bulk mass
density of the soil is determined from the rndiation roum over a fixed lime period. The mass density obtained
is for the top 40 to 50 mm. '[be method is simpler thrln the direct transmission method, but it requires a
greater source strength.
Radiation methods for determination of the m:lss density of soils are quick and oonvenient and are
gaining popularity. However, precautions must be taken again~ thc mdiatioo ila7.ard.
vom
The void ratio of a soil s.1mp!e is a measure of its den'lcncss. It is one of the important parameters of
soils. Engineering properties of soils depend upon void mtio 10 a large extent. The void mHo is determined in
the labordtory indirectly from the dry mass density. From I3q. 2.22.
e _ Gp. _ 1
.. . (2.51)
p,
The methods for determin:ltion of the spccilic gravity of solids G and the dry density Pd have been
discussed in the preceding sections.
For a saturated soil. the void ratio is determined using Eq. 2.31, e .. ~. This method is a very
convenient and accurate method. as the water content of a soil can be determined quite easily and acaJrnlcly.
The specific gravity of soil (G) can also be determined in the laboratory.
Once the void mlio hns been detennined. other volumetric relationships such as porosity and degree of
saturation can be determined using Eqs. 2.3 and 2.30, respectively.
Percentage air voids are determined indirectly, using Eq. 2.38,
(ln.)Gp.
Pd"~
n" .. I  :;'" (1 +
~)
... (2.52)
r.
... (2.53)
37
Thble 2.5. lypical Values or Void Ratio lind Dry Denl;ily lind Dry Unll'i: Weights
S.No.
Soil type
Gravel
Slale oj soil
"""",,
Void
Ratio
PorosilY
0.60
0.30
'"
2.
Coarse sand.
"''''''',
"""",,
3.
Medium sand
Unifonn, fine
"""",,
4.
",'
Coorse silt
S.
Fine silt
"',"'"
"""",,
"'''''',
Softest
O.
Lean Clay
Softest
IIDrdCSI
7.
fm clay
Sortesl
2.20
Ilnrd(.'$l
OAO
0.85
0.4
1.0
0.45
1.00
0.4
1.20
IIDrcicsl
(kglm
OAO
''''"
23
42
2.
40
29
50
31
SO
29
55
29
69
29
0.75
035
Densest
Dry defLSity
('!o)
(kNlm
10
2000
1S00
1900
'"
1400
1900
14
I.
1300
1800
13
I.
13
I.
13
I.
10
1300
1900
1300
1900
1000
2000
IS
I.
'"
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
1II1J.~lruti't'e EXlIIIlpie 2 .1. 71u: mass of a clwnk of moist soil is 20 kg, and its volume is 0.011 ml. After
drying in an oven, the mass reduces 10 16.5 kg. Determine the water content, the density of moist soil, tile
dry density. void rario, porosity and the degree of saluration. Take G = 2.70.
Solulion. Mass or water. AI... = 20.0  16.50 = 3.50 kg
F'rom Eq. 2.9, water content,
F'rom Eq. 2.11, the wet mass
dt~nsity
or
w ..
;6~5~
.. 0.2121 (21.21%)
p ..
O.~ 1
.. 1818.18 kg/Oil
Pd ..
~.~~l
.. 1500.0 kg/OIl
Gp
l+e ..
""
p,
e .. 2.701;~OOO _ I .. 0.80
n ..
..
S ..
O.212~.;'
..
~::
.. 0.444(44.44%)
2.70 .. 0.7158 (71.58%)
IIIustratl't'e Example 2.2. A ~Qil specimen has a water content of }O% and a wet unit weighl of 20
kN/nl If the specific gravity oj solids is 2.70, determine the dry unit weight, void ratio, and the degree of
samra/;OIL Take 't ... = 10 /eN/m .
Solution. From Eq. 236 (a),
From Eq. 2.22 (a),
From Eq. 230,
'td 
 1
. .. 18.18 kN/m.l
01
S 
7
or e _ 0.49
38
Illustrative Example 2.3. A sample of dry soil 'Weighs 68 gm. Find the volum~ of voids if t.he tOla
volume of the sample is 40 ml and the specific gravity of Solids is 2.65. Also determine the void ratio.
Solution. From Eq. 2.12,
Pd ..
*" . ~ .
M,
1.70 gm/ml
68
Volume of solids,
V~ .. Gp", .. ~ .. 2S.66ml
Volume of voids,
e~~::':O.s6
Illustrative E1UIrnple 2.4. A moist soil sample weighs 3.52 N. After drying in an oven, its weight is
redl~ced to 2.9 N. The specific gravity o/solids and the mass specific gravity are, respectively, 2.65 and 1.85.
Determine the water content, void ralio, porosity and the degree of saLUration. Take "t ... = 10 leN/mJ,
Solution.
= 3.522.90 = 0.62 N
Weight of water
~~
w ..
Yd ..
.. 0.2138 (21.38%)
e .. 0.74
From
Eq. 23,
n ..
S.
7 _0.21~7:
.. 1
~'~74
.. 0.4253 (42.53%)
2.65 _ 0.7656(76.56%)
illustrative Example 2.5. A soil has a porosity of 40%, the SpecIfIC gravity of solids of 2.65 and a WQter
content of 12%. Determine the mass of water reqllired to be added to 100 m) o/tltis .foil for /ull saturation.
Solution. Let us take unit volume of solids, i.e. V, .. 1.0 ml.
From Eq. 2.9,
Mass of solids.,
mass of water,
Volume of water
13~
.. 0.318m l
e .. l:n"
1.00~~.40"
V~ .. e V, .. 0.667
l(
0.667
1.0 .. 0.667013
Therefore,
volume of air,
.. 0.667 _ 0318 .. 0.349ml
Volume of additiOllal water for full saturation = 0.349 ml
Total volume of soi~
V .. V, + Vv .. 1.0 + 0.667 .. 1.667 01 3
Volume of water required for 100 013 of soil ..
39
What would be the bulk uni, weight of the same soil at the same void ratio hut at a degree of saturation
of 80% ? Ta/ce y", = 10 leN/mJ.
or G ..
2.67
Yd'" IG
= 0.80,
.. 15.99 kN/m
y ... (G 1++S:h w
(2.67 +
~.~ ~.~;,67)
)C
10 .. 19.20 kN/mJ
lIIustrallve EXllmple 2.7. A sample of clay was coated wl'tll paraffin wax and its mass, including the
mass of wax, was found to be 697.5 gm. The sample was immersed in water and the volume of the water
displaced was found to be 355 1111. The mass of the sample wit/JO/d wax was 690.0 gill, and the water content
of the representative specimen was 18%.
Determine the bllik densil){ dry density, void ratio and the degree of saturation. The specific gravity of .
the solids WQS 2.70 and that of tite wax was 0.89.
.
Solution.
Mass of wax ... 697,5  690,0 ... 7.5 gm
O.~~O 1.0
VOlume of wax
...
Volume of soil
Bulk density
...
~:!7
... 1
1+ e ...
... 8.43 ml
.. 1.99 gm/ml
!'~18
27~,:9t.O ...
1.60
Of
e ... 0.60
illustrative Example 2.8. (a) During a lesl for water content determination on a soil sample by
pycnometer, the following observations were recorded
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
= 1000 gm
2000 gm
= 1480 gm
2.67
(M,M1)
(M3 _ M4 ) '
(aI)
a 
1)( 100
 [ (20001000
_ 1480) x (2.671.0)
~  1
1x 100 
20'
._%
40
Pol 
1 + e ..
Now
5 ,.,
t!;;.
+20~02.8
.. 1.70gm/ ml
or
t! ..
0.57
IIhl!drnCive Exumple 2.9. The mass of an empty gas jQl' was 0.498 kg. Wilen completely filled with water,
its mass was 1.528 kg. An ovendried sample of soil of IIIOSS 0.198 kg was placed in the jar and water was
added to fif/the jar and irs mass was found to be 1.653 kg. Determine the specific gravity of panicles.
M2  M[
G .. (M M )
(M)
or
(~:~~~
G  0.198
)
4
1.528)  2.71
IIIustruUve Exumple 2.10. In a compaction test on a soil, the 1II1ISS of wei soil when compacted in the
mould was 1.855 kg. The water content of the soil was 16%. If the VQ11III/c of the /IIould was 0.945 litres,
determine the dry density, void ratio, degree of samra/ion and percentage air voids. Take G '" 2.68.
Solution.
Bulk density
p '"
Pd ..
1+ e 
S ..
p, 
0.94~~510::J
 1962.96kg/ m)
/~~~6
2.~69;.~~
 1692.21 kg/ m
.. 1.584
or e .. 0.584
"'~  o. I ~;si68 _
0 .7342 _ 73.42%
(ln.)Gp.
1 + wG
or
n.  0.0978 (9.78%)
Illustrative Exumple 2 .U . A compacted cylindrical specimen, 50 111m dia and 100 111111 length, is to be
prepared from ovendry soil. If the specimen is required to have a waler contenl of 15% and the percentage
air voids of 20%, calClilate the //lass of the soil and water required for the preparation of tlte sample. Take
G = 2.69.
Solution. Let M, be the mass of solids in kg.
Mass of water,
V .. ~ .. _ _M_,_ _ .. ~ m)
#
G P...
2.69)( 1000
2690
Volume of water,
1.'... _
.. wM# _ 0.15 M#
Volume of SOUds.
O'I~'
_ 0.15 )( 10) M, m)
2~
41
Pd"
Unit weight
~:~
.. 1.636 glml
= 16.05 kN
1
= 1.605
In embankment,
W...1
"
kN
Wnter to be added
Weight of dry soil in embnnkment/m
1
Volume of soil rcquired/m of embankment _
\86.~~
_1.131 m l
Illustrative Example 2.13. There are two borrow areas A and B which have soils with void ratios of 0.80
and 0.70, respectively. The inplace water content is 20%, and 15%, respect;IIC[Y. The fill at the end of
constmction will have a total voillme of 10,000 /II), bulk density of 2 Mg/mJ and a placement water content
of 22%. Determine the volllllle of the soil required to be excavated from both arcas. G = 2.65.
If the cost of excavmion of soil and trlUl.Sportation is Rs. 200/ per 100 nI for area A and Rs. 220/. per
100 mJ for area A, which of the borrow area is more economical?
2~6: ~. ~OO
p" ==
In embankment.
Pd  1 +2 .
.. 1.639 glml
0 22
=:
( .. 16.08 kN/m)
= 16.08 kN
..
!=:~
1.114 m
Pd ..
Borrow area B.
2.~.~ 1.0
W, .. dry weight/m 1
..
15.29 kN
..
.. 1.052 m1
42
PROBLEMS
A. NumeriCllI
:U. (D) Deline the [elTI1S void ralio, specific gravit), of particles, degree of saturation and dry densit)'.
(b) Develop a relationship between the void rolio, water cootem, specific gravity of particles and the degree of
saturation.
Z.Z. (0) Describe ovcn.(lrying method for the delenninmion of waler oooten! of a soil sample in a laboratory.
l
(b) A sample of wei soil has a volume of 0.0192 m and a mass of 32 kg. When the sample is dried oul in an
oven, its mass reduces to 28.S kg. Determine (I) Bulle. density. (il) Wllter rontcnl, (;il) Dry density, (iv)
2.3. (a) A $lmple of saturated soil hOlS a water content of 2."S percent and a bulk unil weight 020 kN/m , Determine
the dry unit weight, void ratio and the specific gravity of solids.
(b) What would be the bulk unit weighL of the soil in en) if it is compacted LO the same void ratio but hos I)
degree of saLUration of 90% ?
(Ans. 16 kNIm\ 0.667, 2.667 19.60 kNlmll
2.4. A sample of soil has a volume of 65 ml and weighs 0.96 N. After oomplete drying, its weight reduces 10 0.78.'i
N. If the specific gravity of solid particles is 2.65, determine the degree of saturation.
[Ans.51%J
2.5. A saturated soil sample has 0. water content of 40%. If the specific gravity of solids is 2.67, dctennine lhe void
ratio, saturated denSity, and submerged density.
[An!i. 1.07 i 1807 kg/m l i 807 kg/mll
2.6. (a) Define the terms void ratio, dry density, submerged density and mass specific gravity.
(b) Derive on expression for bulk density in tenTIS of its water content, void ralio, specific gravity of solids and
density ofwatet.
l
2.7. A partially saturated sample of a soil has a density of 1950 kg/m and a water content of 21%. If the specific
gravity of solids is 2.65, ClIlculate the degree of saturation and void ratio.
If the sample subsequently gets saturoted, determine its saturated density.
(Ans. 86%; 0.645 ; 2003 kglmlJ
2.S. A sample of soil has a volume of 1 litre and lL wcight of 17.5 N. The specific gruvity of the solids is 2.68. If
the dry unit weight of the soil is 14.8 leN/ml, determine (a) water content, (b) void ratio, (e) porosity, (d)
saturated unit weight, (e) submerged density and (j) degree of saturation.
[Ans. 18.2% : 0.811 : 44.8% ; 19.28 kN/ml, 9.28 kN/ml and 60.2%1
2.9. A fully saturated day sample has a mass of 130 gm and hos a volume of 64 anl . The sample mass is 105 gm
nfler oven drying. Assuming thaI the volume docs not change during drying, dC1ennine the following; (,)
specific gravity of soil solids. (il) void ratio, (iii) porosity, (iv) dry density.
[Ans. 269 ; 0.64 i 39% and 1.641 gm/cn?]
2.10. Prove thnt the water content (w) of a p3nially saturated soil can be expressed as
\I' 
1  (011010)
(0",/5) _ 1
where Gm "" mass specific gravity, G "" specific gravity of solids and S '" degree of salUralion.
2,11 (a) Prove that the degree of saturation of 8 panially saturtlled soil ClIn be expressed os
S _ ::'';
~(l+W)t
43
If the mass of pycnometer when filled with water only was 1475 gm, dClermine the specifie gravity of solids.
(b) Also determine the water content and void ratio of samples no. 2 and 3, and the degree of saturation of
sample no. 2.
IAns. 2.70; 6.3%, 0.40; 11.70: 0.32 and 41.85%1
2.13. An undisturbed specimen of clay was tested in a laboratory and the following results were obtaine<!.
Wet mass
Oven dry mass
Specific gravity of solids
'" 210 gm
'" 175 gm
'" 2.70
What was the totuJ volume of the original undiswrtx:d spccimcn ns..c;uming that the specimen was 50% !Illturatcd ?
(Ans. 134.8 ml]
2.14. A soil deposit to be used for construction of an eanh embankment has an average dry density of 1.62 gmJmI . If
the compacted embankment is to havc an average dry densi ty of 1.72 gmlmI, determine the volume of soil to
be ex:cavated for 1000 m) of embankment. The water content of the soil in the bonow pit is 10%.
lAos. 1.06] x 10) mll
2.15. Determine the specific gravity of solids from the following observations:
(i) Mass of dry sample
'" 0.395 kg
(ij) Mass of pycnometer full of water
'"' 1.755 kg
(iii) Mass of pycnometer containing soil and full of watet ::::I 2.005 kg.
IAns.2.72J
2.16. A sample of clay having a mass of 675 gm was coaled with paramn wax:. 1be combined mass of the clay and
the wax was found to be 682 gm. The volume was found by immersion in water as 345 mt. The sample was
then broken open and the water content and the specific gravity of solids were found 10 be 15% and 2.70,
respeaively. calculate the bulk density of soil, its void ratio, and degree of saturation. Thke specific gravity of
wax: as 0.89.
{Ans. 2.002 gmlml, 0.551 and 735%J
2.17. In order to determine the bulk density of a soil insi tu, 4.7 kg of soil was e."~tractcd from a hole al the surface of
the soil. The hole required 3.65 kg of loose dry s:lnd for its filling. If il takcs 6.75 kg of the SlIme sand to fin
a calibrating can of 4.5 lilre capacity, dl!termine the bulk density of the soil.
[An.... 1932 kglm)l
2.18. A litre capadty cullcr of mass I kg WIlS pu.<;hed into an emban~cnt under construction and the mass of the
culler with soil was found to be 2.865 kg. If the sample had wnter content of 11 %, determine the void ratio of
the soil in embankment. G:: 2.67.
rAm. 0.59J
2.23. Describe a method for dctermination of the specificgravity of solids of fine.grained soils.
2.24. How would you determi ne the bulk: density of a soil specimen in a laboratory ?
2.2S. Discuss various methods for the determination of bulk density of a soil in field.
2.26. Slllte whether the following statements are true or false
(a) The water content of a soil can be more than 100%.
(b) The porosity of a soil can be more than 100%
(e) The specific gravity of particles of coarsegrained is seldom greater than 2.70.
(d) Thc submerged density is about onchalf of the SlltUrnted density.
(e) For dcterminmion of water coment of all types of soils, the oven temperature Is 1000
:t
5C.
44
(i) c = J
:1/
(;,) 11 =  ' 
1,
(iii)PJ=~
(il')
P'
(G,:)t,
(Ans. (;1)]
(n The void rml0 of u snlunucd soil can ~ determined from its wmer COntent.
(il) The dry density is 1thc bu lk density of soil in dried condition.
(iii ) 100% .5>iltumtioo linc lind zero percent air void lines are identicaL
IAns.(ii)
C. MultipleChoice Questions
1. TIle waler Lon lenl of ;\ highly organic soil i~ dctcrmmed in tin o~'e n III II temperature of:
(ti) lOSoC
(b) 800C
Ce) 60 0 e
(dJ 27C
2. Pycnometer method I'M water conte nt dclCmlin:llion i~ more suitan le for:
((I)
Clny
(b)
Ie) Sand
Loess
(If) Silt
3. The gas formed by lhe rem,lion 01' calcium carbide with water is:
(a) Carboy dhlXldc
(b) Sulphur dioxide
(e) Ethane
(dJ Acetylene
4. The rmin of the volume til' voids to the total volume of soil is:
(a) Voids r.ltlO
(b) Degree of saturlllion
(e) Ai r content
(I) Porosity
5. Dry density of soil is equal to the:
(lI) Mass of solids to Ihe volume of solids.
(h) Mass of solids to th e tot al vo lume of soil.
Ie) Density of soi l in the dried condition.
(tI) No ne of the above.
6. The most accurate method for th e determination of water content in the laboratory is:
(/) Sand hm h method.
(b) Ovendryi ng melhod.
Ie) Pycnometer method.
(d) Calcium carbide method.
7. A soil ha~ a bulk. density of 1.80 g}cm"J a~ a ~llter content of 5%. If the void r:llio remai ns constant then the
~:)lk2.:n;:':fr
8.
water
L'On!cnt
o f 10%
~~; ~S8
glcm3
(0)1.00
9. A soil sample has a specific gravity of 2.60 and a void rat,io of 0 .78. The water contenl required to fu lly saturale
the soil at that vuid nltio will be
ta) 20%
....{b")30%
(el40%
(tl) 60%
[_I .~~~1~ ~~~~~~~~L~a~
3
Particle Size Analysis
3.1. INTRODUC!lON
(u) Engineering Propertleslhc main engineering properties of soils are penncabilily, comprcs.<;ibility.
and shear strength. Pcnncability indicates the facility with which water can flow through soils. It is requiroo
for estimation of seepage discharge through earth m~. Compressibility is related with the deformations
produced in soils when they are subjected to compressive loads. Compression chanlClCrislics arc required for
computation of the settlements of Structures founded on soils. ShC..lf strength of a soil is ils ability to resist
Shc.1r stresses. l11c shear strength determines the stability of slopes. bearing capacity of soils and the earth
pressure on retaining structures. Engineering properties of soils are discussed in latter Ch..1pICrs.
(b) Index PropertiesThe tests required [or determination of engineering properties arc generally
elaborate and timeconsuming. Sometimes, the gcotechnical engineer is interested to h'lve some rough
assessment of the enginccring properties without conducting elaborate testS. This is possible if index
properties are determined. The properties of soils which are not of primary interest to the geotechnical
engineer but which are indicative of the engineering properties are caned index properties. Simple tests which
are required to determine the index properties are known as classification tests. The soils arc cJ:tSSified and
identified based on the index properties. as discussed in Chapter 5. The main index properties of coarsegrained soils ace panicle size and the relative density. which are described in this chapter. for fincgrained
soils, the main index propcnics are Ancrberg's limits and the consistency (chapter 4).
The index properties arc sometimes divided into two categories. (I) Properties of individual particles. and
(2) Properties of the soil mass. also known as aggregate properties. The properties of individual particles can
be dctennined from a remouldcd. disturbed sample. These depend upon the individu.,l grains and are
independent of the manner of soil formation. 1llc soil aggregate properties depend upon the mode of soil
fonnmion, soil history and soil structure. lbese properties should be determined from undisturbed samples or
preferably from insitu tests. lbe most important properties of the individual particles of coarse grained soils
arc the particle size distribution and grain shape. The aggregate property of the coarsegrained soils of great
prnctical importance is its relative density.
lbe index properties give some infonnation about the engineering properties. It is IaciUy assumed that
soils with like index properties have identical engineering properties. However, the correlation between index
properties and engineering properties is not perfe,,;. A liberal factor of safety should be provided if the design
is b.ascd only on index properties. Ocsign of large. imponant struau[CS should be done only aRer
ddenninalion of engineering properties.
3.2. MECHANICAL ANALYSIS
The mechanic.1i analysis. also known as par/icle size annfysis, is a method of scp.1ralion of soils into
different fr.lctions b.1SCd on the panicle size. It expresses quantitatively the proportion". by mass. of various
sizes of particles present in :l soil. It is shown grtlphically on (I p<lrticle size distribution curve.
The mechanical analysis is done in two stagcs : (1) Sieve Analysis. (2) Sedimentation Analysis. 1nc first
analysis is meant for coarsegrained soils (particle Si7.c greater Ulan 75 micron) which can easily pass through
a set of sievcs. 'Ine second analysis is used for finegrained soils (size smaller than 75 microns).
Sedimentation analysis is also known IS wet lJJJQlysis. As a soil mass may contain the pm1iC\cs of both types
of soils, a combined analysis comprising both sieve analysis and sedimentation analysis may be required for
such soils.
Particle size smaller than 0.2 micron cannot be determined by the sedimentation method. These can be
determined by an electron microscope or by Xray diffraction techniques. However, such analysis is of lillie
practical importance in soil engineering.
3.3. SIEVE ANALYSIS
lbe soil is sieved through a sct of sieves. Sieves are generally made of spun brass and phosphor bronz
(or stainless steel) sieve clolh. According to IS : 14981970. the sieves are designated by the size of square
3
opening, in mm or microns (1 micron 106 m 10 mm). Sieves of various sizes ranging from 80 mm to
75 microns arc available. '(he diameter of the sieve is generally between 1510 20 em.
As mentioned before, the sieve analysis is done for coarsegrained soils. 1nc coarsegrained soils can be
further subdivided into gravel fmction (sizc > 4.75 mm) and sand fraction (751' < size < 4.75 mm), where
Greek leiter I' is used to represent microo. A set of coarse sieves, consisting of the sieves of size 80 mm, 40
mm, 20 mm, 10 mm and 4.75 mm, is required for the gravel fmction. 'Ille second set of sieves, ronsisting of
the sieves of size 2 mm, I mm, 600 ",. 415 1',212 ",. ISO I' and 75 "', is used for sieving minus 4.75 mm
fraction. However. all the sieves may not be required for a particular soil. The selection of the required
number of sieves is done to obtain a good particle size distribution curve. The sieves are stacked one over the
other, with decreasing size from the top to the bottom. Thus the sieve of the largest opening is kept at the
top. A lid or co..er is placed at the top of the largest sieve. A receiver, known as pan, which has no opening,
is placed at the bottom of the smallest sieve.
(a) Dry Sieve AnalysisThe soil sample is taken in suitable quantity. as given in Table 3.1, The larger
the particle size, the greater is the quantity of soil required.
The soil should be ovendry. It should not contain any lump. If necessary, it should be pulverized. If the
soil contains organic matter, it can be taken airdry inste..'1d of oven dry.
The sample is sieved through a 4.75 mm [S sieve. loe portion retained on the sieve is the gravel fraction
or plus 4.75 mm material. The gravel fraction is sieved through the set of
coarse sieves manually or using a mechanical shaker. Hand sieving is
nonnally done. The weight of soil retained on each sieve is obtained.
20mm
The minus 4.75 mm fraction is sieved through the set of fine sieves.
'Omm
The sample is placed in the top sieve and the set of sieves is kept on a
mechanical shaker (Fig. 3.1) and the machine is started. Nonnally, 10
GOOr
minutes of shaking is sufficient for most soils. The mass of soil retained
(. 25,..
on each sieve and on pan is obtained to the nearest 0.1 gm. The mass of
the retained soil is checked against the original mass.
212 rDry sieve analysis is suitable for c:ohesionlcss soils, with little or no
fines. If the sand is sieved in wet conditions. the surface tension may
150rcause a slight increase in the size of the particles and the particles smaller
7S ~
than the aperture size may be retained on the sieve and. the results would
be crroneol.1';.
Pan
Thble 3.1. Quantity of Soil for Sieve Anulysls
Maximum Size
Quall/ily (kg)
SOmm
ZOmrn
60
6.5
0.5
4.75 mm
lSi ...
,ha'"
47
(b) Wet Sieve AnulysisIr the soil contains a substuntial quantity (say. more than 5%) of fine particles,
a wet sieve analysis is required. All lumps arc broken into individual purticlcs. A representative soil sample
in the required quantity is taken, using a rimer. and dried in an oven. Tbe dried sample is taken in a tray and
soaked with water. If denocculalion is required. sodium hex.:,metaphosphate, at the mte of 2 g per litre of
water, is added. lbc sample is stirred and left for a soaking period of at leas( one hour. '!be slurry is then
sieved through a 4.75 mm IS sieve, and washed with a jet of water. 1lle material retained on the sieve is the
gravel fraction. It is dried in an oven, and sieved through SCI of ~ sieves.
'llie material passing through 4.75 mm !iieve is sieved through a 75 1.1. sieve. The material is washed until
tile wash water becomes clear. 'Ibe material retained on the 75 1.1. sieve is collected and dried in an oven. It
is then sieved through the sel of fine sieves of the size 2 mm, 1 mm, 600 1.1., 425 1.1., 212 ~ 150 lA, and 75 IA.
The material retained on each sieve is oollCCled and weighed. The material that would have been retained on
pan is equal to the tOlal mass of soil minus the sum of the masses of material retained on all sieves.
and
PI 
P1"
~
)( 100
and
100
P2 
o/J )(
100, etc.
Pa ..
o/J )(
100
The cumulative percentage (q of material retained on any sieve is equal to the sum of the percentage of
soil retained on the sieve and that retained on aU sieves coarser than that sieve. Therefore,
C1
PI
C2 .. PI + P2
C,  PI + P2 + ... + P1
The percentage fmcr (N) than any sieve size is obtained by subtracting the cumulative percentage
retained on the sieve from 100%>.
N2 .. lOOCz , etc.
lbus,
N t  lOOC\;
N, _ 100C,
and
It may be noted that the dimension of the soil particle that controls whether a particle shall pass through
3 sieve opening is the intermediate dimension (width) of the particle.For eltample, a particle with dimensions
3 mm )( 2 mm )( I mm shall pass through a sieve of size 2 mm if il is assumed that the particle is aligned
such that the largest dimension is oormal to the plane of sieve opening and is at right angles to the side of
the square.
(See Chapter 30, Sect. 30.8 for the laboratory eltperiment)
3.4. STOKES' LAW
Soil particles finer than 75 1.1. size cannot be sieved. The particle size distribution of such soils is
detennined by sedimentation analysis. The analysis is based on Stokes' law, which gives the terminal velocily
of a small sphere settling in a fluid of infinite elttenl. When a small sphere sculcs in a Ouid, its velocity firs!
increases under the aaion of gravity, but the drag force oomes into action, and retards the velocity. After an
initial adjustment period, steady conditions are attained and the velocity beoomes oonstant. The velocity
48
attained is known as terminal velocity. The expression for leonina! velocity can be obtained from the
equilibrium of the particle.
The drag force, F D experienced by a sphere of radius r when it falls through a fluid of viscosity" is
given by
... (a)
where v is the velocity.
The other two forces acting on the sphere arc the weight (W) of the sphere and the buoyant force (U).
.?
W .4/3
y, 4/3
.?
(p,g)
... (b)
'?(P.g)
... (e)
and
U. 4/3 .? y.' 4/3
From equilibrium of [orces in vertical direction.
W .. U + PD
4/3lt?y... 4/31try ... + 6 llTlrv
4/31t,3 gp, .. 4/31t,}gp ... + 61tTJTV
2
V
,>
":;:J(p,p",)g
, .l...
gd'(GI)p.
. .. (3.1)
18
~
where D is the diameter of the sphere, G is the specific gravity of the material of sphere, and g is the
;)cceieration due to gravity.
If a spherical particle falls Ihrough a height Ht! centimeters in t minutes,
v .. He an/sec
60,
.. .(3.2)
gd'(GI)P.
60t  18 ~
DV
. .. (3.3)
0.3'l xlie
g(GI)p.
x,
... [3.4(a)J
D_M{if;.,
where M is a facto" equal to
... [3.4(b)J
[g (~'=r) P.]"
in which 11 is the viscosity in poise (dyne sec/em1 g _ 981 em/sc2, and p.., is in gm/ml. D is in
cenlimeters.
Table 3.2 gives the values of the rocfficienl of viscosity 'l for water at different temperatures.
The values of the factor M can be computed and Ulbulated for different temperatures. For example, for G
= 2.67 and T:: 20C, and taking p.., z:: 1.0 gm/ml, and 11 .. 10.09 X 103 poise. g .. 981 cro/see2,
M = [0.3 x 10.09 x IOJ]'h = 136
981 x 1.67 x 1.0
.
JOJ
An approximate expression for diameter D of the panicle can be obtained from Eq. 3.1.'
,.c
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
49
"
17.94
17.32
16.74
16.19
15.68
15.19
14.73
14.29
13.87
13.48
,C
,.C
"
13.10
12.74
12.39
12.06
11.75
11.45
11.16
10.88
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
'"
21
22
23
24
25
26
1:1
28
29
10.60
1034
or water TJ
,.C
10.09
,.
9.84
9.61
9.38
9.16
8.95
8.75
855
8.36
8.18
31
32
33
3.
35
36
37
38
39
"
"
8.00
7.83
7.67
7.51
7.36
7.21
7.06
6.92
6.79
6."
l...
18
rr
or
v 9020
where v is the velocity in em/sec and D is the d iameter in em .
If v is expressed in mm/sec and D in mm,
v _ 902d
... [3.5(a)]
... [3.5(b)]
... [3.5(c)]
v _ 90.2 d
Table 3.3 gives the lime required for the scUlcmenl of ~rticles of different sizes through a height of
100 mm.
Thble 3.3. nme of Settlemenl for 100 mm lIeight
S.No.
Diameter (mm)
Time
1.
2.
3.
0.075
0.02
19.72 sec
..
5.
0.006
0.002
0.001
4.62 min
51.36 mm
7.70 hr
JO.81 hr
About 50 g of ovendried soil is weighed accurately and transferred to an evaporating dish. Th have
proper dispersion of soil, about 100 ml of a dispersion solution is added to the evaporating dish to covcr the
soil. IS ; 2nDPart IV recommends the use of dispersion solution obtained after adding 33g of sodium
hex am etaphosphate and 7g of sodium carbonate to distilled water to make one litre of solution. After the
dispersing solution has been added 10 soil, the mixlure is wanned gently for about 10 minutes. The contents
of the evaporating dish are then transfcrred to the cup of a mochanical stirrer. Distilled water is added to
make the cup about threefourth full. TIle suspension is stirred for about 15 minutes. However, the stirring
period is more for clayey soils.
The suspei'!Sion is then washed through a 75 \.l sieve, using jets of distilled water. The portion of the
suspension which has passed through the sieve is used for sedimentation analysis. 'The specimen is washed
into a 1000 ml jar and enough watcr is added to make 1000 ml of suspension.
If the soil cont~ins organic mallcr and calcium compounds, il should be pretreated before adding the
dispersing agent. This is done is two stnges.
(1) 1bc soil is taken in a beaker and first treated with a 20 volume hydrogen peroxide solution to remove
the organic matter, at tbe rate of about 100 ml of hydrogen peroxldc for 100 gm of soil. The mixture is
so
wanned to a temperature nor. exceeding 60C. Hydrogen peroxide causes oxidation of organic maHer and gas
is Ubernled. When no more gas comes out. the mixture is boiled to decompose the remaining hydrogen
peroxide. The mixture is then cooled.
(2) Calcium compounds in the soil arc removed by adding 0.2 N hydrochloric acid at the rate of 100 ml
for every 100 g of soil. When the reaction is oomplete, the mixture is filtered. The filtrate is washed with
distilled water until it is free from the acid. The damp soil on the filler is placed in a evaporating dish and
dried in an oven to constant mass.
Level A A
T
h
Level B B
level C C
.1.
00
2.
10
Jb
~~
13
14
15
~.
0 0
Levctl 00
+
h
Levilli E E
1.
V3 = 3 V1
V2 = 2 V,
(.)
00
10.J3.
S'g~g 6:9~~:5
(b)
column, middle column and the right column in Fig., 3.2 (a). At the beginning of the sedimentation, the
concentration of particles is the same at all levels.
After some time, the particles take the position as shown in Fig. 3.2 (b). The particles of the smallest size
have settled to a depth h, those of the intermediate size and the largcst size to 2h and 3h, respectively. At
lever BB, only the particles of the smallest size exist, and the concenlratjon of these particles is the same
as at the beginning, viz. 2 particles. At level CC, the concentration of the particles of the smallest and
intermediate sizes is the same as at beginning. Likewise, at level DD, the particles of all the three sizes
exist with the same concentration.
If mD is the mass of parCdes per ml of.suspcnsion at depth fie after time t, and m, is the mass of partida.
per ml of suspension at the beginning of sedimentation. the percentage finer than the size D is given by
N. !!'!.Q x 100
m.
... (3.6)
51
Safety bulb
Stop cock
Scale
Sliding carriage
per
... (3.7)
52
where "'n'
= mass of solids/ml as
\000
1.005
,
=0
= '5
Stem
 B
B
.l."t1
TA
1
B
H,
H+~
Bulb
TlH
TA
(0)
(0)
sedimentation, the specific gravity of suspension is uniform at all depths. When the sedimentation takes place,
thee larger particles settle more deept:r than the smaller oncs. This results in nonuniform specific gravity of
Ihe suspension at different depths. The.lower layers of the suspension have specific gravity greater than thai
of the upper layers.
Casagrande has shown that the hydrometer measures the specific gravity of suspension at a point
indicat~d by the centre of the immersed volume. If the volume of the stcm is neglected. the centre of the
immersed volume of the hydrometer is the same as the centre of the bulb. Thus, the hydrometer gives the
specific gravity of the suspension at the centre of the bulb.
"
To determine the depth al which the specific gravity is measured, calibration of the hydrometer is done.
The volume of the hydrometer, V", is fimt determined by immeming it in a graduated cylinder partly filled
with water and noting down the volume due to the rise in water level The volume of the hydrometer can also
be determined indirectly from its mass. The volume of hydrometer in ml is approximately equal 10 the mass
of hydrometer in grdms, assuming that the specifK: gravity of hydrometer is unity.
The depth of any layer AA from the free surface 80 is lhe effective depth at which the specific gravity
is mca')ured by the hydrometer ((Fig. 3.4 (b)]. As soon as the hydrometer is inserted in the jar, the layer of
suspension whieh was at level A A rises to the level A' A', and that at level B B rise to the level B'  B'.
TIle effective depth He is given by
Ile 
(II +~)  ~ + ~
... (a)
H = depth from the free surface B'  B' to the lowest mark on the stem,
h = height of bulb,
V" = volume of hydrometer,
A "" crosssectional area of jar.
In Eq. (a), it has been assumed that the rise in suspension level from A A to A' A' at the centre of the
bulb is cqu.11 to half the total rise due to the volume of the hydrometer.
where
Thus
lie .. H +
i(
h 
~)
... (3.8)
lbe markings on the hydrometer stem give the specific gravity of the suspension at the centre of the
bulb. The hydrometer readings are recorded after subtracting unity from the value of tlle specific gravity and
multiplying the remaining
1 BO
digit by 1000. Thus, a
specific gravity of 1.015 is
represented by a hydrometer
'SO
reading
of (1.015  1.000) x
1000
15.
The
graduations on the right side
1I. 0
R,.
~
k
:~
~
120
W
'00_1,,5..,:,:',,0:''''5:2'''0 '''25'''::;30
Hydrome.hr re.ading (R h ) fiB 3.5. Calibration Chart.
accurate scale is used to determine the height h and the depth H to various graduations. Fig. 3.5 shows a
typical calibration charI.
As the sedimentation progresses, the specific gravity of the suspension decreases and the hydrometer goes
deeper and deeper, and the effective depth increases. The hydrometer reading
of course, decreases (Fig. 3.6).
R".
Exactly 1000 ml of suspension is prepared as explained in Sect. 3.5. After stirring, the suspension is
washed into a 1000 ml'jar and willer is added 10 il to bring the level to 100(} ml mark. 1bc suspension is
54
t: 12
(b)
t4
>3>t:z>t,
t = 13
(el
the
... (3.10)
n.R,.C
.. .(3.11)
The composite correction is found directly from the readings taken in a comparison cylinder, which has.
distilled waler and the dispersing agenl in the same concentrntion. and has the same temperature. As the
hydrometer has been calibrated at 27C to indicate a specific gravity of 1.(X)J, the difference between the
reading taken at the top of meniscus and 1.(X)J is in magnitude equal 10 the composite oorrcct,ion. The
negative of the hydrometer reading in the comparison cylinder is equal LO the composite oorrection. The
composile correction can be positive or negative. For example. if the hydrometer reading is +2 (i.e. 1.002),
the correction is 2, and if the reading is 3 (Le. 0.997), the rorrection is +3.
The composite correction is found before the start of the test and at every 30 minute interval.
or
p,'.
+ massofwater!volumeofsuspension.
. .. (a)
The mass of water per unit volume of suspension can be detennined from the volume of water per unit
volume of suspension. as explained below.
Mass of solids/volume of suspension
M,
v
M,
V(G P.)
_l_~
[I 
V(Gp.)
M,
Pi  V +
P ...
or
V(~'P.) 1P.
[
M,
I  V(G P...)
M,
+y
(1
1P...
I)
(GI)
M,
p;.p..,+yc;
... (3.12)
If MD is tbe mass of solids in volume V at that depth after time t, Eq. 3.12 gives the density of
suspcru;ioo at that depth as
MD
po. P... + V
(GI)
a
... (3,13)
,.
From Eq. 3.6, the percentage liner N than any size is given by
N !!!Q)( 100
Ills
N ' m,
"'0  """"iOO
where /liD" MolV and III, . AI/ V
lbereforc, Eq. 3.13 becomes
p_p~,+~~(G~l)
... (3.14)
PPw" ~; (G~l)
N .
(~)
G I
As Ills AI/ V,
It
(p  Pw) x 100
... (3.15)
Ills
be
written as
N _
(~) . ~
It
J...
x 100
... (3.16)
N .
(~) . ~
x 100
... (3.17(Q)J
G 1
G 1
1000
1000
N.. (G~ t) . k
m,
M,
100
... (3.17(b)J
"
(6) TIle sedimentation method is not applicable for particles smaller than O.2~ because Brownian
movement takes place and the particles do not setUe as per Stokes' law.
(7) The sedimentalion method cannot be used for chalky soils, because of the removal of the calcium
carbonate of chalky soils in the pretre.1tement by hydrochloric acid.
Despite above limitations,the sedimentation analysis is used for detennination of the particle size" of
finegrained soils. '[be particle sizes of such soils is not of much practical significance and, therefore. even
approximate analysis is good enough. The index properties of such soils are plac;.ticity characteristics and not
the panicle size. The main use of the sedimentation analysis is to detennine the clay content (particles less
than 2 f.1 size) in a soil mass.
3.11. COMBINED SIEVE AND SEDIMENTATION ANALYSIS
It the soil mass consists of particles of both coarsegrained and fioegrained soils. a combined analysis is
done. The slurry of the soil is made as mentioned in the wet sieve analysis (Sect. 33). 1be slurry is sieved
through a 4.75 mm IS sieve. The material retained on the sieve is ovendried and a coarsesieve analysis is
done.
The material retained on a 75 fA. IS sieve is also ovendried and the sieve is analysis is done using the set
of fine sieves.
The suspension passing the 75 fA. sieve is mixed with a deflocaJlating agent, if oot already done. The
hydrometer test is performed on the suspension, as explained in Sect. 3.B.
The percentage finer than any size can be calculated on the basis of the original mass of soil taken for
the combined analysis.
3.12. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION CURVE
The particle size distribulion rurve, also known as a gradation curve, represents the distribulion of
particles of different sizes in the soil mass. The percentage finer N Ihan a given size is ploUed as ordinate (on
natural scale) and Ihe panicle size ac;. abscissa (on log scale). In Fig. 3.7 (0), the particle size decreases from
~100~
~ 80
~ 60
40
20
&01.0
0.1
0.01
  Par ticle
0.001
0.0001
size (mm)
(a)
~1DO~
E 80
1l>60
~ 40
~
&
20
0 .001
0
0.01
0.10
Particle
(b)
1.0
size (mm)
16.0
.18
leO 10 right, whereas in Fig. 3.7 (b), the particle size increases from left \0 right. Both the methods are
prclevant. The reader should carefully observe the horizontal scale of the particle size distribution curve. In
this lexl, tbe particle size distribution is shown as in Fig. 3.7 (b), i.e., the particle sizc i~ from left to
,
righI, which is also the usual convention.
The semilog plol for the particle size distribution, as shown in Fig. 3.7, has lhe following advantages
over nalural plots.
(1) The soils of equal uniformity exhibit the same shape, irrespective of the adual particle si1.c.
(2) A<; the range of the particle sizes is very large, for better representation. a log scale is required.
Grading of SoilsThe distribution of particles of differcOi sizes in a soil mass is called grading. The
grading of soils can be determined from the particle size distribution curves. Fig. 3.8 shows the patlicle size
distribution curves of different soils.
100
9<J
~Fio,
70
rained
"so,0..,.
Am
50
I~
7lJ
uop grad
./
/0,
jcCXJrsegrOined
;f1fo
.o.61'mm
y. L
.I
I I
'" I
30
ill I
VI
II
"'c:.!~1l9~
60
~O
UO
~O.oo'mm
__
f""" A,
_______
0.01
01
1.0
1M
Porlicle size
0 (mm)_
Fig. 3.8. Grading 05 Soils.
A curve with a hump, such as curve A, represents the soil in which some of the intermediate size
particles are missing. Such a soils is called gapgraded or skipgraded
A flat SoJrve, such as curve B. represents a soil which contains tbe particles of different sizes in good
proportion. Such a soil is called a wellvgraded (or uniformly graded) soil.
A steep curve, like C, indicates a soil oontaining the particles of almost the same size. Such soils are
known as unIform soils.
The particle size distribution curve also reveals whether a soil is coarse..grained or finegrained. ro
general, a curve situated higher up and to the left (curve D) indicates a relatively finegrained soil, whereas
a curve situated 10 lhe right (rurve E) indicates a coarsegrained soil.
The uniformity of a soil is expressed qualilatively by a term known as uniformity coefficient., Cu. given
by
Dro
C" 
... (3.18)
1>;;:
where D6fJ = particle size such that 60% of the soil is finer than this size, and
DIO = particle size such that 10% of the soil is finer than this size.
D IO size is also known as the effective size. In Fig. 3.8, Dw and DIO (or the soil B are, respectively. 0.08
m.m and 0.004 mm. Therefore, Cu 0.0810.004 20
The larger the numerical value of Cu. Ihe'more is Ihe range of particles. Soils wilh a value of C u less
,.
tban 2 are uniform soils. Sands with a value of C" of 6 or . more, are wcllgraded. Gravels with a value of
CIl of 4 or more are weUgraded.
The general shape of the particle size distribution curve is described by another coefficient lrnown as the
coefficient of curvature (Cc) or the coefficient of gradation (Cg ).
(D",l'
Cc D(IJ x DIO
... (3.19)
o.:~~~~
1.95
60
particles arc highly compressible. These soils deform easily under SIHtic lo.'K1s, like dry leaves or loose papers in
a b~kcl subjected to a pressure. However, such soils arc relatively morc stable when subjected to vibrations.
The shape of tbe coarsegrained soils can be described in terms of sphericity, flatness or angularity.
Sphericity (S) of the particle is defined as
S. D,IL
wbere D.. is equivalent diameter of tbe particle assuming It to be a sphere, given by D..  (6V/a)Vl, where V
is the volume of the particle and L is the length of the particle.
The particles with a high value of sphericity (more roundness) are easy [0 manipulate in construction and
their tendency to fracture is low.
Flatness (/') and elongation (E) are defined as
as
FBIT
and
ELI8
where L. Band T are. respectively. length. widlh and thickness.
The higher the value of the flatness or the elongation. the morc is the tendency of the soil to fracture.
loe angularity (R) of a particle is defined as
R.. average radius of comers and edges
radius of maximum inscribed circle
Depending upon angUlarity. the panicles are qualitative ly divided into 5 shapes (Fig. 3.9).
00000
AnguLar
Subangular
Subrounded
Rounded
Will[ rounded
p~rtidC5
The angularity of particles has great influence on the behavior of marsegrained soils. The particles with
a high value of angularity lend to resist the displacement, but have more tendency for fracturing. On the o ther
hand, the particles with low angularity (more roundness) do not crush easily under loads. but have low
resistance to displacements as they have a tendency to roll. In general. the angular particles have good
engineering properties, such as shear strength.
liS
... (3.20)
where emu = maximum void ratio of the soil in the loosest condition.
emin = minimum void ratio of the soil in the densest condition.
e = void ratio in the naturaL state.
The relative density of 3 soil gives a more clear idea of the denseness than does the void ratio. 1Wo types
of sands having the same void ratio may have entirely different state of denseness and engineering properties.
However, if the two sands have the same relative density. they usually behave in identical manner.
. 11lC relative density of a soil indicates how it woukl behave under loads. If the deposit is dense, it can
take heavy loads with very little settlements. Depending upon the relative density, the soils are generally
divided into 5 categories (Thble 3.3).
61
Dellselless
Dense
85
Dr(%)
[0
100
(e)
( b)
(a)
Fig. 3.10
e.Gpw_1
Pd
Representing the dry density in the loosest, densest and natural oon<litions as Pm;"" PDl/lX and Pd , Eq. 3.20
becomes
GP __ ) _ (GP __ )
I
I
( Pm,n
Pd
D, (GP__ ) _ (GP _ _ )
Pm;n
Pmruc
PlIlin
where
Mmln
V",
v;:
... (3.22)
in the mould.
62
The maximum dry density is detennined either by the dry method or the weI method. In the dry method,
the mould is filled with thoroughly mixed ovendry soil. A surcharge load is placed on the soil surface, and
the mould is fixed to a vibrntor deck. The specimen is vibrated for 8 minutes. 'Ibe mass and volume of the
soil in the compacted state are found. The m3:ltlmum dry density is given by
Pmu
M.~
v;:
0/ a
sieve analysis
0/ a
IS Sieve
Mnssofsoil
75
retained (gm)
Draw the partick size distribution cun.oe and hence determine the uniformity coefficient and lhe
coeffICient 0/ curvature.
Solution. The calQJlatioos for percentage finer N than different sizes are shown (fable 3.1).
Tuble E3.1
IS
S;""
M~,
retained
Percenlage
retailled
~xlOO
(1)
(2)
20mm
10
4.75
20
1.0
0.6
425
2121'
150
3S 10"
40
75.
Pan
1: _ 9OO.0gm
80
ISO
ISO
140
115
55
3S
25
7S
(3)
3.89
4.44
&89
16.67
16.67
15.56
12.78
6.11
3.89
278
&32
Cumu/QJive
perr:nuage
mained
Pereenlage
Finer(N)
= 100  (4)
(4)
(5)
3.89
833
96.11
91.67
82.78
17.22
33.89
5056
66.12
78.90
BS.01
88.90
91.68
100.00
66.11
49.44
33.88
21.10
14.99
11.10
&32
63
"Xl
~~~~~~~~
/1
7O~++__L;'+______~~
r
60


1:1
3 ~~+_~/~I_+~~
~
~~~~+++~
~       II+L++1
J1
gk,,~________~~~,L'O~~~.O~.'~"~mm~L~~o~:~~:fu~IO~60~~,~"~m~m~,O~.O~,"~.O~
Fig. E3.1
C _
~i2l!
Porticle
e....
D60
D
10
0.115 .. 13.48
(D,,)2
Doo
(mm)     _
1.55
..
D 10
_ ~ _ 1.58
1.55 X 0.115
Illustrative Example 3.2. The following observations we~ IiJJren during a pipette analysis for the
determination of particle size distribution of a soil sample.
(a) Depth below the water surface at which the sample was taJcen = 100 mm
(b) Capacity of pipette = 10 ml
(c) Mass of sample when dried = 03 gm
Cd) Tune of talcing sample = 7 minutes after tM start.
(e) \illume of soil suspension in the sedimentation tube = 500 mi.
if) Dry mass of soil used in making suspension = 25 gm.
Determine the e'"IOrdinate of the point on the particle size distribution curve corresponding to above
ooservlUWns.
2.70 and
TJ 10.09 miIlipoise.
p ... = 1 gmlml
Take G
D ..
Yg(G  I)p.
D ..
YO.30981x x10.09
x 103 x 10 .. 000161 em
(2.701) x 7
.
N_
0.30 TJ H,
x 100 ..
x I
~%:
x 10060%
The coordinates of the point on the particiesize distribution curve are (0.0161 mm. 60%).
U1ustratlve Example 3.3. A dry sample of mass 50 gm is mixed with distilled water 10 p~pare a
64
suspension of 1000 ml for hydrometer analysis. The reading of the hydrometer taken after 5 minutes was 25
and the depth of die centre of the bulb below the water surface when the hydrometer was in the jar was 150
"VII. The vollmll! of me hydrometer was 62 1111 and lhe area of crosssection of the jar was 55 cm 2. Assuming
G :: 2.68 and'l1 = 9.81 miflipoise, determine lhe coordinates of the point corresponding IfJ above observation.
Solullon. 1be depth between levels B' B' and A' A' in Fig. 3.4, is given to be 150 mm. The effective
deplh between B  B and A  A is given by.
11,, 15.0.!f+
D_
~ 15.0~
~2S5
.. 14.43600
YO.3)(
g(G1)r
11 11"
.. YO.3981x 9.81(2.681.0)
x 10'3 x 14.436 .. 00023
5
.
x
N  (G
~ 1)
2.68)
.. ( 1.68
x (
k )(1~
1000
.so
x
.. 0023
an
rnm
) x 100
25
or N 79.76
1000 )( 100
The coordinates of the point on the particlesize distribution curve are (0.023 mm, 79.76%).
lIIustrative Example 3.4. A soil has a dry del1sity 0/1.816 gm/ml in the MturaJ corulition. When 410
gm 0/ the soil was poUTed il1 a vessel in a very loose stale, its volume was 290 mi. The same soil when
vibrated and compacted was found to have a volwlle of 215 mI. Determine the relative density.
Solution. From Eq. 3.22,
Pmin"
M
V.
..
410
Pnwc _
M~
~!~
m ;"
..
ill
1.907 gm/ml
or
100
Pm;\X  Pmin
.. 1.007 (1.8161.414)
100
1.816
1.907 1414 )(
~_~Q.
Illustrative Example 3.5. A test lor the relative density 0/ soil il1 place was performed by digging a
small hole in ule soil. The volume of ule hole was 400 ml and ule moist weight O/Ihe excovated soil was 9
N. A/ter oven drying, the weight was 7.8 N. 0/ the dried soil, 4 N was poured into a vessel in a very loose
state, and its volume was found to be 270 mi. The same weight 0/ soil when vibrated and tamped had a
volume of 200 mI. Determine the relative density.
Solution.
w..
9.07~:O&J
Yd~"
(ld)min"
~~
.. 0.1538
O.0195N/ml .. 19.5kN/m3
.,
(yJIlWI 
'Iberefore,
PrMII ..
D, _
::0;
1~0;
Pmin"
P." ltix,
Pm~ ( P.P"'o )
Pd
Pma:. Pmln
MI840 (MIIOCJOMI1370)
.. MIlOOO
MI840 MI1370 x 100
.. 0.6981 x 100 .. 69.81%.
filuslratlYe: Example 3.7. In order to find the relaJive density of a sand, a mould of volume 1000 ml was
used When the sand was dynamically compacted in the mould, its mass was 2.10 kg, whereas when the sand
was poured in loosely, its mass was 1.635 kg. If the insitu density of the soil was 1.50 Mglm J calculate the
relative density. G = 2.70. Assume thot the sand is saturated.
SolutJon.
(Pmin)......
As Pd" 1.50 Mg/m
1.6J~~ 103
150 glml,
.. 2.1 glm!
.. 1.635 g/ml
Now
or ernln .. 0545
likewise
or
1.635 ..
2.70 + .~)
x 1.0
or emu: ..
..
11.~~ ~ g~5
x 100 .. n.47%
1.677
66
PROBLEMS
A. Numerical
3.1. One kg of soil was sieved through a sel of 8 sieves. with the size 4.75 rom, 2.0 mm, 600 Il, 425 It. 300..... 212f.t,
ISOlA and 75j.l. The mass of soil retained on these sieves was found to be 50, 78, 90, 150, 160, 132, 148 and
179 gm, respectively. Determine the percentage finer than the corresponding sizes.
(AIlS. 995, 87.S , 78.2, 63.2, 47.2, 34.0, 19.2 and 1.]]
3.2. Prove Ihal the particle diameter and the terminal velocity of panicle are related as
v_9020d
where
I'
= velocity in an/sec,
D :, diameter in em
Oearly stale the various assumptions made.
33. Determine the maximum void rmio for II sand compa;ed of grains of spherical shapes.
(1I1nt Consider a cubical box of size al, where d is the diameter of sphere. The nunDer of pm in the box is 81
IAns. 0.911
3.4. The minimum and the maximum dry density of a sand were found to be 1.50 and 1.70 gmlml. CalculDte the dry
density corresponding \0 relative densities of 50% and 75%.
fAns. 1.594 gmt1; 1.645 gmIm1]
3
3.5. An undisturbed sample of fine sand has II dry unit weight of 18 kN/m . At the maximum density. the void ratio
is 035, and that at the minimum defL~ity, 0.90. ()ctermine the relative density of the undisturbed soil. G = 2.65.
[Ans. 77.82%]
3.6. A coarsegrained soil is oompocted to a wet density of 2Mglm3 lit II WilIer coolenl of 15%. Determine the
relative density of the wmpoctcd sand. given emu _ 0.85 and em;n _ 0.40 and G _ 2.67.
fAns. 70%]
3 .7. How long would it take for 11 particle of soil 0.002 an in diameter 10 settle from the surface to the bottom of
2
the pond 15 m deep? Tllke G '" 2.60 and TJ '" 1.0 x 10S gmf_seclcm _
[Ans. 11.72 hours]
3.8 A sample of soil of moss 40 gm is dispersed in 1000 mI of water. How long after the commencement of
scdimentntion should the hydrometer reading be IIIken in order to estimate the percentage of particles less than
0.002 mm effective dillJ1)Cter ? 1be centre of the bulb is at an effective depth of 20 em below the surface of
water. Thke G ;; 2.70, TJ '" 0.01 poise.
tAns. 14.99 hoursJ
3_9_ In a sedimentation test, 25 gm of soil was dispersed in 1000 mI of water (TJ '" 0.01 poise). Doe hour after the
commencement of sedimentation, 25 ml of the suspension Wll') IIIken by means of a pipette from a depth of 10
em. The mass of solid pDrticles oblllined on drying was 0.09 g. Determine
(a) 1be largest size of the particle remai ning in suspension al a depth of 10 an after one hour of the beginni ng
of sedimentation.
(b) The percenlllge or particles finer than Ihis size in the original suspension.
(e) Tbe lime interval from tile commencement, after which the largest particle remaining in suspension al 10 an
depth is onehalf of this size.
(Hint. Volume of suspension;; 1009.3 ml)
[Ans. 0.0055 rnntj 14.53%; 4 bours]
3.10 The results of a sedimcnllltion test of a SIlmple P.!lSSing
distribution. Use approxima te formula v = 9100 0 2.
ObservaviOfl
TIme
75~
Depth
Mass of soil in
25 ml sample
all depth
10 em
10 em
5em
2Sgm
No.
23.
4.
5.
Z<ro
6O=nds
5 minutes
10 minutes
5 houffi
San
15 gm
lOgm
5 gm
0.5 gm
{Ans. Percentage finer than 0.075 mm, 0.0428 mm, 0 .0191 mm 0.0095 mm and 0.0017 nun,
respectively, 100%,60%, 40%, 20% and 2%J.
3.11 In a lesl 10 grn of finegrained soil of specific gravity 2.70 was dispersed 10 make 500 mI of suspension. A
67
sample of volume JO mI was taken by means 0( a pipette 9t a depth of 100 mm, 50 minutes after the
comrnenrement of sedimentation. The sample was dried in an oven. If the dry "taSS of the soil was 0.03 gm.
calculate the larga;t size of the particle remaining in the suspension at a depth of 100 mm and the percentage
of particles liner than this size in the original soil. 11 " 0.01 poise.
IAns. 0.006 mm; 15%)
3.12. Ouring a scdirnentalion test for grain size analysis. the corncted hydrometer reading in a 1000 ml uniform soil
suspension al the cornmenoemem of sedimentation is 1.028. After 30 minutes, the corrected hydrometer reading
is 1.012, and the COCTesponding effective depth is 105 em. Determine (I) the IOtal mass of solids dispersed in
1000 mI of suspension, (;1) lbe portide size mrresponding 10 the 30 minute reading. and (iii) the percentage
fiDef than this size. TIIke G " 2.67 and 11 ,,0.01 poise.
. (Aos. 44.77 gm; 0.00796 mm; 42.86%)
3.13. A dry soil sample is 49 8m in mass. It is composed of the following:
Particle size (mm)
Mass (8m)
0.05
0.02
20
0.01
18
O.OOt
The sample is mixed with enough water 10 make a uniform suspension of 1000 ml. Detennine
(I) The largest particle size at a depth of JO em after 5 minutes of the commenocment of sedimentation and the
specifie gravity of the suspension al that time III thut depth.
(i/) The time required for 1111 the pDrliclcs to scllie belcr.v 10 an depth. Thke G .. 2.70 lind 11 '" 9.81 millipoise.
[Ans.
mm; 1.014; 1.06 )( 105 seconds}
om
3.14, An airdry soil sample weighing 2S kg was sieved in a laboratory. The results are given below.
15 Sieve (mm)
Mass rela;IIed
(.g)
0.08
Draw the grain size distribution curve and delenniile the coefficient of curvalure and the uniformity coefficient.
IAns. 1.15; 259J
3.15. A 1000 rnI suspension containing 30 gm of dry soil ~ prepared for a hydrometer analysis. If the temperalUfe
is the same as that at which it was allibrated, what whouJd be the hydrometer reading al the instant of
commencement of sedimenl.8tion ? Take G " 2.70.
IAns. 1.019)
How would you determine the perrentlge finer than different sieve sizes in the laboratory ?
What are the main index properties of a COIlISCgrained soil? How are these determined?
Differentiate between the dry sieve analysis and the wet sieve analysis. Why the wet sieve anlllysis is required?
Stnte Stokes' low. What is its use in the scdimenllliion mcthOO of analysis? Whlll are its limitations?
Compare the pipette method imd the hydrometer meiOOd. Why the hydrometer method is more popular?
State the various corrections required for a hydrometer reading. How these corrections ore determined?
What is particle size distribution curve? What is its use in soil engineering?
3.24. What is relative density? How is it determined? What is ilS imJX)tlllnoc for a ooarsegrnined soil?
3.25. What do you understllnd by allibrotion of a hydrometer? How is it done?
3.26. State whether the following statements are true or false.
3.20.
3,Z1.
3.22:.
3.23.
(a) The sill size pAnicles can be seen by unaided (nllked) eye.
(b) The sieve annlysis gives tbe largest dimension of the soil particle.
(c) The wei sieve analysis gives slightly larger size than that by the dry sieve analysis.
(d) The reading:; on a hydrometer inaease in upward directioo.
(e) The sedimentation analysis is useful for al\ soil panicles smaller than 75", size.
(j) The rock Hour even of clay size panides is non plastic.
(g) A gapgraded soil is also allied 8 uniform soil.
(h) A wellgraded soil contains particles of one size.
[...... nu.(c)'(J)]
.,
or the above,
~izc
of particles is
(b) (ellS
(Ans. l. (b). 2. (d). 3. (e) . 4. (e). 5. (b). 6. (b). 7. (b). 8. (e). 9. (b)J
4
Plasticity Characteristics of Soils
4.l. PlASTICITY OF SOILS
The plasticity of a soil is its ability to undergo deformation without cractking or fracturing. A plastic soil
can be moulded into various shapes when it is weI. Plasticity is an impol1ant index property of Hoegrained
mass.
The presence of adsorbed water is necessary to impart plasticity characteristics to a soil. 1be soil does
not become plastic when it is mixed with a nonpolarizing liquid, such a<; kerosene or paraffin oil. These
liquids do not have electromagnetic properties to react with clay mincrals.
The soil becomes plastic only when it has clay" minerals. If the soils contains only nonclay minerals,
such as quartz, it would not become plastic whatever may be the fmcness of soil. Whcn such soils are ground
to very fine size, these cannot be rolled into threads. Rode. flour, which contains very fine particles of
nonclay particles. does not become plastic.
This chapter deals with plasticiiy characteristics and consistency of fine.grained soils.
70
some particular water contenl. the soil becomes plastic (Fig. 4.1). l11e water content at which the soil chang~
from the liquid state to the plastic Slale is known as liquid limit (ll, w,), In other words, the liquid limit ~
the water content at which the soil ceases 10 be liquid.
The soil in the plastic stale can be moulded into various shapes. As the water content is reduced, tht
plasticity of the soil decreascs. Ultimately, the soil passes from the pla<>lic state to tbe semi~so1id state whet
it stops behaving as a plastic. It crocks when moulded. The water content at which the soil become!
semisolid is known as the plastic limit (PL, wp ). In other words tbe plastic limit is the water content at wbicll
the soil just fails to behave plastically.
The numerical difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit is known as plasticity inde"
(PI,I, ).
lbus
PI  U  PL
'The soil remains plastic when lhe water content is between the liquid limit and the plastic limit. Th(
plasticity index is an imponant index property of finegrained soils.
When the water content is reduced below the plastic limit, the soil attains a semisolid state. The SOL
cracks when moulded. In the semisolid stale, the volume of the soil decreases with a deaea<ie in wata
content till a stage is reached when further reduction of the water content does not cause any reduction in the!
volume of the soil. The soil is
said to have reached a solid
state: (In solids, 00 appreciable
change in volume is observed
with a change in water
cootent). The water content at
which the soil changes from
the semisolid state to the solid
.5
t~,'~
".
is
faU
along the symmetrical axis of the rup. preferably in one stroke. using a standard grooving tool. IS :
272.GPart V recommends two types of grooving tools : (1) Casagrande lOOt. (2) ASfM toot. The
Casagrande tool C\JIS a groove of width 2 mm al the bouom, II mm at the top and 8 mm deep. The ASTM
1001 cuts a groove of width 2 mm at the bottom, 13.6 mm 31 Ihe lop and 10 mm deep (Fig. 4.3). The
Casagrande 1001 is recommended for normal fine.grained soils. whereas the ASTM 1001 is recommended for
sandy, fioc grained soils, in which the Casagrande 1001 tends to tear the soil in the groove.
After the soil pal has been cut by a proper grooving 1001. the handle is turned at a rate of 2 revolutioos
per second until the two parts of the soil sample come into contact al the bottom of the groove along a
distance of 12 mm. The groove should close by a now of the soil, and not by slippage between the soil and
the cup. When the groove closes by a flow, it indicates the failure of slopes formed on the two sides of the
groove.
CAKE BEFORE
TEST
AFTER
TEST
72
'{be soil in the cup is again mixed, and the tcst is repealed until two COflSeOJtivc tests give the same
number of blows. About 15 gm of soil near the closed groove is taken for water content determination.
The soil in the cup is tr.msfemxllo the dish containing the soil p8Sleatld mixed thoroughly after adding more
water. The soil sample is again taken in the cup of the Uquid limit device and the lest is repeated. The liquid limit
:~U:i~~~u~~~~ya~:~:
35,.__._,.".rn
30
10
25
~
/i}.rJ
01
blows
(N) _ _
shearing stresses induced in 25 blows. 'P.le shear strength of the soil at liquid limit is about 2.7 .kN/m2.
OnepoInt Method
The above procedure for detennining the liquid limit requires the test 10 be repealC<! at least 45 times
at different water content and plotting the results. The procedure is inconvenient and timeconsuming. It is
possible to obtain an approximate value of the liquid limit by conducting only one lest. provided the number
of blows is in the limited mnge. The method is based on the premise that the Dow curve is a straight line.
The liquid limit is given by
... [4.1(0)]
= water content of the soil when the groove closes in N blows.
n = an index, as given below.
According 10 IS : 272DV, for soils with liqUid limit less than 50%, the value of n is equal to 0.092 and
for soils with liquid limit greater than 50%, the value of n c 0.12. The acocpted range for N is 15 to 35 for
soils with liquid limit less than 50% and 20 to 30 for soils with liquid limit more than 50%.
Alternalively,
... [4.I(b)]
1.3215 _ 0.23 iogloN
Eq. 4.1 (a) can be written a<;
where
wN
W, 
...(4.2)
The value of the factor is approximately 0.98 for N = 20 and 1.02 for N
(See Chapter 30, Sect. 30.10 for the laboratory experiment)
= 30.
"
...(4.3)
Fig.
where y (in mm) is the penetration when the water content is wy and
w, = liquid limit.
Eq. 4.3 is applicable provided the depth of penetration y is betweeo 20 to 30 mm. IT the penetration is oot in
this range, the soil in the cup is taken out, and the water content adjusled 10 get the required penetration.
A chart can also be drawn for direct determination for the liquid limit from the observed value of y and
The shear strength of soil at liquid limit, as determined by tbis method, is about 1.76 kN/m2 which occurs
when the penetration is 25 mm.
The cone penetrometer method has several advaotages over the casagrande method.
(1) It is easier to perform.
(2) The method is applicable to a wide range of soils.
(3) The results are reliable. and do nol depend upon the judgment of the operator.
w,..
74
p'T~ii:rr;~~~~~'~""""
1%}tiII11'~ll'
Stage 1
(e)
Stoge II r
Stage II
(c)
(b)
the oondition when the soil sample bas been ovendried. The total volume V] in Fig. 4.7 (c) is the same as the
lotal volume V1 in Fig. 4.7 (b). The throe figures indicate, respectively, stage I, II and m.
Let M~ be the mass of solids.
Mass of water in stage I
 Ml M,
loss of mass of water from stage I to stage II  (VI p ...
Mass of water in stage n
 (MJ  M,)  (VI  Vi) p...
From definition,
shrinkage limit '" water content in stage II
(MI  M,)  (VI  V,)P.
w,
M,
... (4.5)
Vv
or
75
(V,  V:z)
w.  wI  ~ P...
..(4.6)
(V,  V,)P.
w.M
where V. is the volume of solids.
. .(4.7)
76
W, 
V, V,] p...
[Ii; Gp ... (V,)
.. _ [V'P. _
,
M,
l]
... (4.8)
..
.
M,
Now, from the defimtlon of the dry mass densIty, Pd"
v;
Therefore,
w, ..
(~  ~ )
... (4.9)
Eq. 4.8 can be used for the delennination of the shrinkage limit, as explained below.
A smooth, roundedge(! pal of wet soil is made in a shrinkage dish. It is then dried in an oven and cooled
in a dcssicalor. Any dust on the sample is brushed off. The dry mass Ms of the sample is delennined.
The volume Vz of the dry soil pal is obtained by placing it in a glass cup and delcnnining the
displacement of mercury, as discussed in Sea. 4.6.
rr.om
Shrlnkage Urnit
L MethodThe specific gravity of solids (G) can be delennined using Eq. 4.8 if the Shrinkage limit has
already been determined.
(V'P,.l~,)
... [4.10(.)J
G ..,
Sometimes, Eq. 4.9 is written in tenns of mass specific gravity (G".) in dried slale. Thking Girl" p/p""
G 
lI(G.\ _..,
...
[4.10(b)]
n.
MethodThe observations made in the shrinkage limit test, as desaibcd in Section 4.6. can be used
to determine the approximate value of G. The volume of solids (V~) is stage III (Fig. 4.7(c)]
V, _
.!!:....
Gp.
...(0)
Also, the volume of solid can be detennined from the volume VI in Fig. 4.7(a) (stage I) as
V~
 VI  volume of water
V _ VI _ (M}  M,)
,
From Eqs. (.) and (b),
... (b)
_ (MIM,)
Po
Gp.
~
or
.!!:.... _ VI
G _
M,
VIP ... (M1  M,)
.. .(4.11)
1be methods for determination of Vh MI and M, t.sve already been discussed in Sect. 4.6.
4.8. SBRlNKAGE PARAME:I'ERS
(~p)
The following parameters related with shrinlcage limit are frequently used in soil engineering.
(1) Shrinkage IndexThe shrinkage index (I~) is the numerical difference between the plastic limit
and the sbrinkage limit (w,).
I,  wp  w~
... (4.1:l)
(2) ShrInkage RalioThe shrikage ratio (SR) is dermed as the ratio of a given volume change,
expressed as a percentage of dry volume, to tbe corresponding change in water cootent.
17
... (4.13)
where VI
. .. (4.14)
WIw.
Another expression for shrinkage ratio (SR) can be found from Eq. 4.13, by expressing the water rontent
(V, V,)P.
WIW2"~
SR_~
Therefore,
VdP",
SR ..
. .. (4.15)
.. G.
Thus the shrikage rntio is equal to the mass gravity of the soil in dry state (Gift).
From &po 4.9 and 4.15, tbe shrinkage limit.
w_("_.!.)
S.R.
.[4.15(0)J
(3) Volumetric ShrinkageThe volumetric shrinkage (VS). or volumetric change, is defined as tbe
change in volume expressed as a percentage of the dry volume when the water mnlen! is reduced from a
given value of the shrinkage limit. Thll'>
\IS..
V,V,) )(
(v;
100
... (4.16)
Therefore.
... (4.17)
(4) Linear ShrinkageUnear shrinkage (IS) is defined as the change in kngth divided by the initiaJ
length when the water content is reduced to the shrinkage limit. It is expressed as a percentage. and reported
to the nearest whole number.
Thus
LS ..
... (4.18)
Iml13llength
The linear shrinkage can be detennined in a laboratory (IS : 2720Part XX). A soil sample about ISO gm
in mass and passing through a 425" sieve is taken in a dish. It is mixed with distilled water 10 fonn a smooth
paste at 8 water content greater than the liquid limit. 1be sample is placed in a brass mould, 140 mm long
and with a semicircular sealon of 25 mm diameter.
The sample is allowed to dry slowly first in air and tben in an oven. The sample is oooled ana its fmal
length measured. The. linear shrinkage is calculated using the following equal:ion.
LS _ [1 _
1)( 100
... (4.19)
In Eq. 4.19, it has been assumed that the length of the spedmen in ovendried state is the same as that
at the shrinkage limit.
78
1be linear shrinkage may also be obtained from the volwnetric shrinkage (VS) as under.
[S 
f1
... (4.20)
x (LS)
... (4.21)
W,
When eilher WI or
wI'
I... wI'
canDOl be dctennined. the soil is
... (4.22)
noo~plastic
Lban the liquid limit, the plasticity index is reported as zero (and not negative).
II wbere w
T )(
100
... (4.23)
Datuml condition.
The liquidity iodex or a soil indicates the nearness of its water content to its liquid limit. When the soil
is at its liquid limit, its liquidity index is 100% and it behaves as a liquid. When lhe soil is at the plastic limit.
its liquidity index is zero. Negative values of the liquidity index indicate a water content smaller than the
plastic limit. The soil is then in a hard (dessicated) state.
The liquidity index is also known as WaterPlasticity ratio.
(3) Consistency lndexConsislency index (Ie. Cf) is defined as
Ie  W//:W )( 100
... (4.24)
I, 
log:' W~Nl)
.[4.25(a)J
W 
I,log,oOO + C
..[4.25(b)J
70
60
so
... [4.25(c)]
~~
ratio
;If(2)::: "i ~
I
109!.0INzIN1)
:r~:iljj~~~ ::t:;~~~~
possesses
shear
Strength as rompared to soil
(l}with a flatter slope. In order
to decrea<>e the waler rootent by
the same amount, the soil with a
steeper slope takes a smaller
number of blows, and, therefore,
has lower shear strength.
and
15
~,~2~ __ 
 __ 
 
r     ____
lower
I
I
t
10
:",
10
Number 01
100
blo'WS ( N )
!.
...
I, _
(4.26)
I,
Toughness index of a soil is a measure of the shearing Stralgth of the soil at the plastic limit. This can
be proved as under:
Let us assume that the flow curve is a straight Une between the Uquid limit and the plastic limit. As the
shearing resistance of the soil is direcUy proportional to .the number of blows in Casagrande's devi~
k SI _ NI
... (a)
aDd
k S, _ H,
... (b)
Thus
where HI ::: number of blows at the liquid limit when the shear strenglb is SI
Np ::: number of blows at th~ plastic limit when the shear strellgth is Sp
k::: constan.l.
80
W,
and Nt .. 1.0,
1
I, .. 10;1 0
WI  I, JaglO N,
ZN;I) .. :~:~,
W, ..
... (e)
.. 
1,1oglO(N,INp )
W, 
..
IF'
Ip  If log (S,I2.7)
or
or
.. (4.27)
Consistency of a soil. a<l defined earlier, is its resistance to defonnation. OmsislOOCY is conventionaUy
described as very soft, soft, medium. stitT, very stiff and hard. These lenns are relative and may have different
interpretation to different geotechnical engineers. For quantitative measurement of consistency, it is related to
the shear Slrength or compressive strength.
~
The llllcoofined compressive strength (qJ of a soil is equal to the failure load per unit area when a
standard, cylindrical specimen is tested in an unconfined compression testing machine (chapter 13). As the
unoonfined compressive strength is twice the shear strength (s), it can be obtained from the vane shear test
,L<;o.
Table 4.1 gives the uoconfined compressive strength of soils of different oonsislency.
Consistency
Consistency
i_
Unconfined
compressive
(%)
strength~q,J
CharQcteristics
o/soil
(kN/m
Yay soCt
Soft
025
< 2S ltN/m
2.
~50
~50
3.
Medium (Firm)
5075
50100
1.
4 ..
5.
6.
Stiff
Vel)'
stiff
"Old
75100
100200
> 100
200400
> 100
>400
"'I
1"=""
"'I ao.
ao.
'81
4.13. SENSmVITY
A cohesive soil in its natural state of occurrence has a certain structure (see chapter 6). When the
structure is disturbed, the soil becomes remoulded. and its engirieering properties dlange considerably.
Sensitivity (S,) of a soil indicates its weakening due to remoulding. It is defined as the ratio of the undisturbed
strength to the remoulded strength at the same water content.
S (q,,).
. .. (4.28)
,
(q.),
where (q,,).. = unconfined compressive strength of undisturbed clay
(q..). unconfined compressive strength of remoulded clay.
Depending upon sensitivity, the soils can be classified into six types, as given in Table 4.2.
or Soils
based on SensitIvity
S.No.
Sellsitivity
Soil Type
1.
2.
3.
< 1.00
1.02.0
2.04.00
4.08.00
8.016.0
> 16.0
Insensitive
Little sensitive
Moderately sensitive
Sen.'!itive
EXIra sensitive
4.
5.
6.
Quick
For most days, sensitivity lies between 2 and 4. Clays considered sensitive have S, values between 4 and
8. In C$e of sensitive clays, remoulding causes a large reduction in strength. Quick clays are unstable. These
tum into slurry when remoulded.
High sensitivity in clays is due to a weUdeveloped flocculent structure which is disturbed when the soil
is remoulded. High sensitivity may also be due to leaching of soft glacial clays deposited in salt water and
subsequenUy uplifted.
Extrasensitive day, such as clays of Mexico city, are generally derived from the decomposition of
volcanic ash.
4.13. mIXOTROPY
The word Thixotropy is derived from two words : tl!ixis meaning touch, and tropo. meaning to change.
Therefore, thixotropy means any dlange that occurs by touch.
The loss of strength of a soil due to remoulding is partly due to change in the soil structure and partly
due to disturbance caused to water thplecules in the adsorbed layer. Some of lhese changes are reversible. If
a remoulded soil is allowed to staM, 'filhout loss of water, it may regain some of its lost strength. In soil
engineering, this gain in strength of ute soil with passage of time after it has been remoulded is called
thixotropy. It is mainly due 10 a gradual itprientation of molecules of water in the adsorbed water layer and
due to reestablisbment of chemical equilibfi!.im.
driV~~~!ro~~~.~ 1!s~l=tQ;::~~rt:':is~~~~enc!=~n~i:~t~~~mi~:ica~::noc:wp~:!
sbear strength will be regained after the pile hm been driven and left in place for some time.
sjze). Thus
... (4.29)
wbere lp = plasticity index, F = clay fraction.
The clay fraction F is percentage finer than 211 size.
The amount of water is a soil mass depends upon .the type of clay mineral present. Activity is a measure
82
of the waterholding capacity of cl.'1yey soils. The changes in the volume of a clayey soil during swelling or
shrinkage depend upon the activity.
A number of samples of a particular soil arc taken and their plasticity index and clay fraction determined.
If a plot is obtained between the clay fradion (as abscissa) and the plastit.ity index (as ordinate). it is
observed that all the points for a particular soil lie on a straight line (Fig. 4.10).
eo
I
~
60
1.0
(1)
"
n:
(Z) II\lte
20
(3)
Mon\omorillonitl;?;
40
Clay fra c t'lon (m i nus 2 r)
Fig. 4.10. ActiYity of Soils.
The slope of the line gives the activity of soil. The steeper the slope, the greater is the activity. TIle lines
with different slopes are obtained for different soils.
The soils containing the clay mineral montmorillonite have very high activity (A > 4). The soil containing
the mineral kaolinite are least active (A < 1). whereas the soils oontaining the mineral illite arc moderately
active (A = 1 to 2). Depending upon activity, the soils are classified into three types (Table 4.3).
Tobie 4.3 Clas.<;ification of Soils Based on Activity
S.
No.
1.
2.
3.
Activity
A < 0.75
A::: 0 .75 to 1.25
A> 1.25
Soil type
Inactive
Normal
Active
Activity gives information about the type and effect of clay mineral in a soil. The following two points
are worth noting:
(1) For a soil of specific origin, the activity is constant. 1be plasticity index increases as .the amount of
clay fraction increases.
(2) Highly active minerals, such as montmorillonite,. can produce a large increase in the plasticity index
even when present in small quantity.
4.15. USES OF CONSISTENCY LIMITS
The consistency limits are detemlined fo r remoulded soils. However the Shrinkage limit can also be
obtained for the undisturbed sample. Since the actual behavior of a soil depends upon its natural structure, the
consistency limits do not give complete information about the insitu soils. lbey give at best a rough estimate
about the behaviour of insitu soils.
.
Although it is not possible 10 interprete the consistency limits and other plasticity characteristics in
fundamental terms, yet these parameters are of great practical use as index properties of [inegrained soils.
The engineering propenies of such soils can be empirically related to these index properties as under.
(1) It has been found that both the liquid and plastic limits depend upon the type and amount of clay in
84
N2
Ii;"
w .. 10.
100
_~x 100
From E. 4.23,
I,
Ie .. W1ZW
Ip
..
0.2~~g.15 x
X
100 .. 50%
100
42
~~I~m~~~~~__4r__~____4__+_U
__3___ '~O~~20~~3~O~W~50~W
~~m~Water cOli/em (w)%
51.5
53.2
55.2
58.1
595
NO of blows
WI _
58%.
30
I"
'E
26
2s mm
   
!:?22
~ 20
~ 18
~ 16
u"
"~~<51'5~1'~~'5"'~55~'5~6''~~5;S~o59'6""O
Water
cont1!llt_
Fig. E4.3.
85
U1ustrative Example 4.4. A sample of clay has the liquid limit and the shrinlwge limit of, respectively,
60% and 25%. If the sample has a volume of 10 ml at the liquid limit, and a volume of 6.40 ml at the
shrinXcge limit, determine the specific gravity of solids.
Solution. Let Ms be the mass of solids, in gm.
lbcrefore, mass of waler 81 the liquid limit = 0.6 Ms
and mass of water at Ihe shrinkage limil = 0.25 M,
Mass of waler losl belween the liquid lirnil
= (0.6  0.25) Ms = 0.35 M,
and the shrinkage limit
RC<luaion in volume
= 0.35 M, ml
BUI aClual reduction in volume
10.0  6.40 3.60 ml
M. = 10.29 gm
Therefore, 0.35 Ms = 3.60 or
Thus, the mass of water at the shrinkage limit
(V2P..l~')W' 
nlustralive Example 4.5. In an experiment for the dctenninalion of the shrinlclige limit, the following
observations were taJcen.
(0) Volume of saturated soil
= 9.75 ml
(b) Mass of saturated soil
= 16.5 gm
(c) W>lwne of dry soil after shrinlwge
= 5.40 ml
(d) Mass of dry soil afrer shrulkage
= 10.9 gm
Compute the shrinlwge limit and the specific gravity of solids.
Solution. Given values arc VI = 9.75 ml,
and
W, ..
Therefore,
G..
M,:::: 10.9
gm.
5.6,O.~.35 .0.1147(11.47%)
M,
V, p.  (M, M.)
9.75 x 1.0
'~~'6.5
10.9)' 2.63
Illustrative Example 4.6. A soil has liquid limit and plastic limiJ of 47% and 33%, respectively. If the
volumetric shrinkages at the liquid limi, and plastic limit are 44% and 29%, detLrmine the shrinkage limiL
Solution. From Eq. 4.16,
At liquid limit,
VS \IS ..
VI
~_
VI  V"
v;;x
V1 Vd
v; )(
100
100 .. 44
86
or
Vd .. 0.694 VI
At plastic limit,
vs
... (a)
VpVdxlOO_29
V,
~ .. O.29+1.01.29
.. .(b)
Vp .. 1.29 Vd
Volume
Water
conlent 
...
Fig. E4.6
W,W,
0.47  w,
033 
W,
0:306  o:wt
w, _ 0.06 (6.0%)
Illustrative Example 4.7. The following index properties were determined for two soils A and B.
Index property
Liquid limit
Plastic limit
Wateroonlcnt
Sp. gr. of solids
Degree of saturation
65
25
35
2.70
35
20
25
100%
2.65
100%
Which of he two soils (i) contains more clay particles, (ii) has a greater bulk density. (iii has a grtXlter
dry density. (iv) has a greater void ratio ?
87
Solution.
S. No.
Plasticity index
PI ..
2.
w/wp
Void ratio
e  wG
3.
Dry density
SOIL E
3520 = 15%
2~.;4~0
Q.l!!!
P4" 1 +e
4.
saIL A
652.'1 = 40%
Bulk density
p .. pd(l +w)
.. l.388g/ml
As lhe plasticiLY index: of soil A is more Ih.m thm of soi l B, [I has more clay particles.
I'ROBLEMS
A, Numericul
4.1. The consistency limits of a soil sample are:
Liquid limit
'" 52%
Plastic limit
'" 32%
Shrinkage limit
'" 17%
If the specimen of this soil shrinks from a volume of 10 cm} at liquid limit to 6.01 an} at the shrinkage limit,
calculate the specific gravity of solids.
[Ans. 2.8OJ
4.2. A cone penetcmion test was carried out o n a sample of soil with the fol lowing results:
Mois/ureCOIllelll (%)
16.1
50
17.6
52.1
19.3
54.1
213
22.6
57.0
58.2
IA ns.6O%]
43. In a shri nlulge limit test, a dish with volume of 10.5 ml was filled with saturated Clay. The mass of the S!lCuraled
clay wa<> 18.75 gm. Thc clay was dried gradually first in atmosphere and then in an oven. '[he
clay was 12.15 gm and its oIolume 5.95 ml. Determine the shrinkage limit.
ma.~
of the dry
[Ans. 16.9%]
4.4. A sample o f day has a void mlio of 0.70 in the undisturbed state and of 0 .50 in a rcmoulded Slate. If the
specific gravity o f solids is 2.65, determine the shrinkage limit in each case.
[Ans. 26.4%, 18.9%J
4.5. A fully saturated clay has a willer content of 40% and a mass specific gravity of 1.85. After ovendrying, the
mass speci fic gravity reduces to 1.75. Determine the specific gravity of solids and the shrinkage limit.
88
4.13. What arc uses of (.:nnsislcncy lirnits'! Wh.ll nrc their limitations '!
4.14. Differcntime belwt,.'Cn:
(a) Liquidity index and cunsistency index.
(b) Flow index and toughness index.
(el Plasticity and consistency.
(d) Activily and sensitivil),.
4.15. State whether the following S(alernCnl~ nre true of false.
(a) All the consistency limils Me determined fur the soil in distu rbed condition.
(b) The liq uidity index cannot be more th:rn 100%.
(e) The consistency index C:lll be neg'lIive.
(d) Plastic limit is the water content of soil which represents the boundary between the plastic state and the
semiS(llid slate
(e) Al shrinkage limit, the soil is fully saturated.
(fJ The activity of a day minenll is a con~tanl.
(g) The soils with son consist!!ncy hav<! high strength.
(II) The soils with a dispersed structure hav!! a high sensitivity.
tAns. True, (el. (il), (e), (f)]
C. MultipleChoice Questions
1. At shrinknge limit, the soil is
(u) Dry
(b) Partially ~aturiltcd
(c) Satur;\ted
(d) None of ahove
2. The shrinkage index is equal to
(al Liquid limit minus plastic li mit.
(b) Liquid limit minus shrinkage limit.
(e) Plastit limit minus shrinkage limit.
(d) None of ilbovc.
3. Toughness index of a soil is the nltio of
tIl) Plasticity index to the !low index.
(b) Liquidity index to the now index.
(e) Co nsistency index 10 the now inUex.
(d) Shrinkage index to the !low index.
4. A stiffelay has a consistency inde x of
(a) 5075
(b) 75 100
(el Greater than 100
(d) Less than 50
5. The plasticity index of a highly plastic soil is about
(al 1020
(b) 2040
(el Grater th~ln 40
(d) Less than 10
6. The activity of the mineral mon tmorillonite is
(n) Less than 0.75
(h) Between 0.75 and 1.25
(e) Bctwcl:n 1.25 and 4
(d) Greater than 4
7. A soil sample has LL = 45%, PL'" 25% and SL "" 15%.
For a natural water conten1 of 30%, th e consistency index will be
(/1)75%
(bl50%
(c) 40%
(ll) 25%
H. For the soil wilh LL = 45%. PL :0 25% and ~h '" 15%, Ihe plasticity inu<:lx is
(/I) 50%
(b) 20%
(c) 60%
(if) 40%
IG
5
Soil Classification
Ih,
5.1. INTRODUCTION
(1)1
(b)1
Soil classification is the arrangement of soils into different groups such thai the soils in a panicular group
have similar behaviour. It i.. a sort of labelling of soils with different labels. M there is a wide variety of soils
covering earth, it is desirable 10 systematize or classify the soils into broad groups of similar behaviour. It is
more convenient to study the behaviour of groups than Ibm of individual soils. Cla<;sification of various
commodities and species is also oommon in many other disciplines. For example, a chemist classifies the
chemicals into various groups, and a zoologiSt classifies the specic~ into a number of groups. likeWise. a
geotechnical engineer classifies the soils into various groups.
For a soil classification system to be useful to the geotechnical engineers, it should have lbe following
basic requirements:
(I) It should have a limited number of groups.
(2) It shouk! be based on the engineering properties which are most relevanl for the purpose for which
the classification has been made.
(3) It should be simple and should use the tenns which are easily un<icrstood.
Most of the classification systems developed satisfy the above requirements.
A geotechnical engineer is interested to know the suitability or otherwise of a soil as a foundauon or a
construction material. For complete knowledge. all the engineering properties are determined afier oonducling
a large number of tests. However. an approximate assessment of the engineering properties can be obtained
from the index properties afier conducting only classification tests, as diSOJssed in chaplers 3 and 4. A soil is
classified according to index properties, such as panicle size and plasticity characteristics.
If the classification of a soil has been done acrording to some standard classification system, its
properties and behaviour can be estimated based on the experience gained from similar soils elsewhere. A
classification system thus provides a common language between engineers dealing with soils. II is useful in
exchange of infonnatioo and experience between the geotOChnical engincen;. For example, if a soil has been
c1assifJed as SW according 10 Unified Soil QassifJC3tion system, tbe geotechnical engineer anywhere in the
world would know Ibal the soil is well graded sand, is quite pervious. has low compressibility and high shear
strength. All Ibis information is exchanged only in two letlers SW.
It may be mentioned that soil classification is no substitute for exact analysis based on engineering
properties. For fmal design of large slruclures, the rogineering properties should be determined by conducting
clabomlc tests on undisturbed samples.
[Note. The soil classification system can be likened to classification of human beings into 12 zodiac signs
done by an astrologer. Although general behaviour of a human being under a particular zodiac sign can be
estimated from his zodiac sign, for oomplete prediction, his delailed horoscope. is required].
90
that the first classification of soils was based on Ihe panicle size. It is a general practice to classify Ihe soils
into four brood groups. namely, grnve~ sand, silt sizc and clay size. While classifying the fine grained soils
on the ba<>is of particle size, it is a good prllctice to write Sill size and clay size and not just silt and Clay. In
general usage, the terms silt and clay arc used to denote Ihe soils that exhibit plasticity and cohesion over a
wide range of water content. The soi l with claysi7.c particles may not exhibit the properties associated with
clays. For example, rocId1our has the particles of the size of the clay particles bul docs not possess plasticity.
H is classified as claysize and not just clay in the particle size classification systems.
Any system of classification based only OD particle size may be misleading for finegrained soils. The
behaviour of such soils depends on the plasticity characteristics and not on the particle size. However,
classification based on panicle siz.e is of immense value in the case of coarsegraincd soils, since the
behaviour of such soils depends mainly on the particle size.
Some of the classifi~tion system based on particle size alone are discussed below.
(1) MlT SystemMIT system of cL1SSification of soils was developed by Prof. G. Gilboy at
Mass.'lChuseltcs Institute of Technology in USA. In this system, the soil is divided into four groups (Fig. 5.1 a).
(I) Gravel. particle size greater than 2 mm.
(it) Sand, particle size between 0.06 mm 10 2.0 mm.
(iii) Silt size, particle size between 0.002 mm to 0.06 mm.
(iv) Clay size, panicle size smaller than 0.002 mm (2~).
Boundaries between different types of soils corres!X>nd to limits when im!X>rtant changes occur in the soil
properties. 'The particles less than 2~ size arc generally colloidal fraction and behave as Clay. The soils with
panicle size smaller than 2~ are classified as cL'ly size.
The naked eye can see the the plIrticle size of about 0.06 mm and larger. The soils with particle size
smaller than 0.06 mm but larger than 21! are classified as siltsize. Important changes in the behaviour of soil
occur if particle size is larger than 0.06 mm when it behaves as cohesionlcss soiL
The boundary between gravcl and sand is abritrnrily kept as 2 mm. This is about the me of lead in the pencil.
The soils in sand and Sillsizcrangc are further subdivided into three categories: coarse (C). medium (M)
and fine (F), as shown in the figure. It may be nOled that MIT system uses only two integcffi 2 and 6. and is
ea<>y to remember.
(2) international Classlficalion SystemThe International Classification System was proposed for
general use at Ihe Intemational Soils Congress held as Washington in 1927. This cla<iSifiCalion system was
Clay
(size)
Sill (size)
0.002
(2_)
C
0.02
0.006
S",,'
I
02
0.06
C
0 .
F:: Fine
(0)
a,y
Ultra
any
c
0.2
j.4
0.6
MIT System
Sill
j.4
0.006
C:: Coarse
g,,,,d
Mo
c
2_
C
0.02
0.05
0.1
Sm,'
Fine
Gravel
2.0 mm
legend
M:: Medium
Medium
0.25
0.2
0.5
Gravel
VC
1.0
2.0mm
VC:: Verycoarse
SOIL CLASSIFICATION
91
known as the Swedish classification system before it was adopted as InlermltionaJ system. However, the
system was not adopted by the United States.
In tbis system [Fig. 5.1 (b)1, in addition to sand, sill, and clay, a tenn mo has been used for soil particles
in the size range between sand and sill.
(3) U.s. Bureau of Soils ClassificationThis is one of the earliest classification systems developed in
1895 by U.S. Bureau of Soils (Fig. 5.1 (e)J. In this system, the soils below the size 0.005 mm are classified
as clay size in contrast to 0.002 mm size in other systems. 1be soils between 0.005 mm and 0.05 mm size
'a rt; classified as silt size. Sandy soils between the size 0.05 mm and 1.0 mm are subdivided into four
categories as very fmc, fine, medium and coarse sands. Fine gravels are in tbe size range of 1.0 to 2.0 mm.
5.3. TEXTURAL ClASSIFICATION
Texture means visual appearance of the surface of a material such as fabric or cloth. The visual
appearance of a soil is called its texture. The texture depends upon the panicle size, shape of particles and
gradation of particles. The textural classificaCton incorporates only the particle size, as il is dimwIt to
incorporate the other two parameters.
In fad, all the classification systems b~d on the particle size, as discussed in Sect. 5.2, are textural
classification systems. However, in soil engineering, the term textural classification is used rather in a
restricted sense. The triangular classification system suggested by U.S. Bureau of Public Roads in oommonly
known as the textural classification system (Fig. 5.2). lbe term texture is used to express tbe percentage of
the three constituents of soils, namely, 5.1nd, sill and clay.
0100
~>CIQY
,
\
60~
\~
\ p
)0Cloy
Silt
"
//
I
Silty
toom
1000t".*""""""";"";;____,~"60;;,)"'0,:,"0Silt ('/. )
(Size O.OOS to 0.05 mm)
fiB . .5.2. Textural cill85iftcalion System.
"'90,,;;)">00
9'
According to the textural classification system, the percentages of sand (size 0.05 to 2.0 mm), silt (size
0.005 to 0.05 mm) and clay (size less than 0.005 mm) are plotted along the three sides of an equilateral
triangle. The equilateral triangle is divided into to zones, e.1ch zone indicates a type of soil. 1lle soil can be
classified by determining the zone in which it lics. A key is given that indicates the directions in which the
lines are to be drawn to locate the point. For example if a soil contains 30% sand and 20% silt and 50% clay,
it is shown by point (P) in the figure. The point falls in the zone labelled Clay. Therefore, the soil is classified
as clay.
'Ille textural classification system is useful for classifying soils consisting of different constituents. 'Ille
system assumes that the soil does not contain panicles larger than 2.0 mm size. However, if the soil contains
a certain percentage of soil particles larger than 2.0 mm, a correction is required in which the sum of the
percentages of sand, silt and clay is increased to 100%. For example, if a soil contains 20% particles of size
lager than 2 mm size, the actual sum of the percentages of sand, sill and clay particles is 80%. Let these be
respcaively 12, 24 and 44%. The corrected percentages would be obtained by multiplying with a factor of
l00/SO. Therefore, the corrected percentages are 15,30 and 55%. 1he textural c1assificatioo of the soil would
be done based on these corrected percentages.
In this system, the term loam is used to describe a mixture of sand, silt and clay panicles in various
proportions. The term loam originmed in agricultural engineering where the suitability of a soil is judged for
crops. The term is not used in soil
engineering. In order to eliminate the
term loam, the Mississipi River
(USA)
propC6td
a
Commission
modified triangular diagram (Fig. 5.3).
'The term loam is replaced by soil
engineering tenns such as silty Clay.
The principal oomponent of a soil is
taken as a noun and the less prominent
KEY
component as an adjective. For
example, silty clay contains mainly
particles of a clay, but some silt
particles are also present. It must be
noted that the primary soil type with
respect to behaviour is not necessarily
the soil type that constitutes the largest
part of the sample. For example, the
general character of a mixed soil is
determined by clay fraction ii it
exceeds 30%0Right Triangle Chart. Since the 1000;;;:~~''''':'';;'=c;;;;:';;;""
sum of the percenta'ges of sand, sill and
SILT
clay size particles is 100%, there is no
need to plot all the three percentage.
The percentage of sand particles can be
Fig. S.J. Modified Triangular Di~ram.
found by deduction from 100% the sum of percentages of sill and clay particles. It is possible t9 determine
the textural classification by locating the point of intersed.OO of lines representing silt and clay. as shown in
right.triangle chart (Fig. 5.4).
The righttriangle chart is more convenient than the conventional lriangular chart as it involves only
orthogonal arrangement of grid lines.
5.4. AASHTO CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Official (AASlITO) Oassification system is
SOtL CLASSIFICATION
93
00.
... (5.1)
a<i
wbole number.
liquid limit (%) expressed a<i a whole number,
lp :::: plasticity index (%). expressed as a whole number.
WI ::::
While calculating' Gl from the above equation, jf any term in the parentheses becomes negative. it is
dropped, and not given a negative value. The maximum values of (F35) and (F15) are taken as 40 and that
of (wI 40) and (Ip  10) as 20.
The group index is rounded off 10 the nearest whole number. If the computed value is negative, the group
index is reported as zero. The group index is appended 10 the soil type delennined Crom Table 5.1 . For
example A6 (15) indicates the soil type A6. having a group index of 15. The smaller the value oC the group
index, the better is the soil in that category. A group index of zero indicates 8 good subgrade. whereas a group
index of 20 or greater shows a very poor subgrade. The group index must be mentioned even when it is zero
to indicate that the soil bas been claMified as per AASlnu system.
1!
Group
CltUSi{icarion
SiltclayMaJeria/s
Granular materials
Getleral
Classificalion
~;:i...Al~
(0.075 mm)
A7
AZ
A3
All>
Al4] A2S[
A.26j
A5
A4
A<S
A.?7
~
A76
Percent Passing
(I) 2.00 mm (No. 10)
(ii,) 0.075
rnm
(No. 200)
50 '""
3{) rna>
15"",
I
'0.,.,
Simin
25 rna>
10 max
~="";:";'
(b) ~~~
(,) Liquid limit
6 max
N.P.
Stooe Fragmenrs
Gravel and sand
Fine Sand
10 max
41 min
10 max
40 max
41 min
40 mal[
11 min
10 max
11 min
41 min
40 max
10 max
11 min
subgrade.
l'lF
41 min
11 min
g:
3
Silty Soils
aayey Soils
ConsIituenl materials
(d) General rating as
Excellent., Good
If plasticity index is equal 10 or less thaD (liquid Limit30), the sal is A75 (i.e. PL> 30%)
If plasticity index is greater than (I.iquid limil30), the sojl is A76 (i.e. PL < 30%)
Fair 10 Poor
!A
~
g~
~
~
~
~
.,
SOIL ClASSIFICATION
S
M
p,
Secondary
Description
Gravel
Sao"
Silt (Symbolh M obtained from the
Swcdis word 'mo')
ao,
OrganiC
poo,
Well.graded
P
M
C
Poorly graded
NonplastiC fines
Plastic fines
Low Plasticity
High plasticity
The system uses both the panicle size analysis and plasticity charaderistics of soils, like AASHfO
system. In this system, the soils are classified into 15 groups (Thble 5.3). The soils are first cmssiried into two
categories.
(I) Coarsegrained soilsIf more than 50% of the soil is retainOO 01] No. 200 (0.075 mm) sieve, it is
designated as coarsegraincd soil. There are 8 groups of coarsegrained soils.
(2) Finegrained soilsU more than 50% of the soil passes No. 200 sieve, it is called finegrained soil.
There are 6 groups of fmc*grained soils.
1. Coarsc_grnined SoilsThe coarsegrained soil., are designated a'i gravel (G) if 50% or more of coarse
fraction (Plus 0.075 mm) is retained on No.4 (4.75 mm) s ieve; otherwise it is termed sand (S).
If the coarsegraincd soils contains less than 5% fines and are wellgrnded (W), they are given the
symbols GW and SW, and if poorly graded (P). symbols GP and SP_ The criteria for wellgrading are given
in Table 5.3. If the coarsc*grnined soils contain more than 12% fines. these are designated as GM, Ge, SM
Of SC, as per aiteria given. If the percentage of fines is between 5 to 12% dual symbols such as GWGM,
SPSM, are used.
Z. Finegrained SoilsFinegrained soils are further divided into two types . (1) Soils of low
compressibility (L) if the liquid limit is 50% or less. These are given the symbols ML, CL and OL. (2) Soils
of high compressibility (ff) if the liquid limit is more than 50%. These are given the symbols MIl, CII and
OIl. The exact type of the soil is determined from the plasticity chart (Fig. 55). The Aline has the equation
" = 0.73 (w, 20). II scparntes the days from silts. When the plasticity index and the liquid limit plot in tbe
hatched paction of the plasticity chan, the soil is given double symbol CL ML.
The inorganiC soil ML and Mil and the organic soils OL, OH plot in the same zones of the plasticity chart.
The distinction between the inorganic and organic soiis is made by ovendrying. If oven drying dccrcnscs the
liquid limit by 30% or more, the soil is classified organic (OL or Off); otherwise, inorganic (ML or MIl)
Highly Organic SoilsHighly organic soils are identified by visual inSpection. These soils are termoo
p"',(P,).
5.6. COMPARISON OF AASDTO AND USC SYSTEMS
AASlITO system is for finding out the suit.1bility or otherwise of soils as subgrade for highways only.
Major Division
CoarscGraincd
Gravel (50% or
Soils.
more of coarse
fraction retained
on No.4 sieve
IMorethan
50% retained
on No. 200
sieve (0.075
mm))
a""
Typical
GP
Well graded
grovels
Poorly graded
gravels
GM
Silty grovels
GC
Gayey gravels
GW
Gravels
(4.75 mm)]
Gravels
with
fines
50% ofooarse
faction passing
Clean
s.",,,,
SW
Wellgraded
"','"
Poorly graded
SP
"''''''
SM
Si[IY sands
SC
Oayey sands
ML
Inorganic sillS
of low
plasticity
No.4 sieve
(4.75 mm)
So"",
with
[50%
more
CL
OL
~:i
~
e;~~
;.il11
::;g ~
C" > 4
C~1Io3
Ancrberg
Limits in
hatched area
GMGC
Auclberg Limits
above A.Jine
and plasticity
~~~l
index greater
~~~
to 3
thon?
ell :> 6
O_~'5 C~ _ I
~l~
~ [".g>
~Hi!l
fines
Fine
soils
Classification criteria
Mil
CH
Inorganic
daysolow
10 medium
Imaslicilv
Orgonicsills
or low
plasticity
InorganlcsillS
of high
plasticity
Inorganic
days of high
plasticity
na~
Orgnnic clays
011
of medium of
high plasticity
Peat. muck
"
"'" oil""
highly
organic soils
Visualmanual identification
SOIL CLASSIFICA110N
91
..
)0
\~
OH
" '
0,
<
l"'li ' /,
Ala
GW,OP
Alb
A24
A25
A26
A27
A3
A4
AS
A6
A75
A7.{'J
aM, SM
OM, SM
GC,SC
aM, OC, SM, SC
SP
ML, OL, Mil, OH
MIl, OH, ML, on
CL
on, MH,CL,OL
CH,CL,OH
98
Table 54 gives approximate equivalence in both the SystCffiS. If the soil has been classified according \0
onc system, its classification according \0 the other can be determined. However, the equivalence is only
approximate. For exact classification, the corresponding procedure should be used.
(i) Coarse
brained
components
Soil componenis
Symbol
Boulder
None
Cobble
None
Gravel
Silt
a.,
OrganiC maTtl!r
Orgonic moner
deromposition.
in
various
sizes
and
stages Ii
NG
SOIL CLASSIFICPinON
99
SO
: to
Diy
40
CL
",Is
the
;05
"
CI
CH
30
,"",1"
,.,,~e
.9
SC
S,
():,C>
vi'
20
~
'"
:~
IS
MH
10
7
0'

4  __
00
10
OH
MI
lML
0'
01
ML
.2(' Ol
20
of
J5
30
liquid
Fig. 5.6.
40
50
limit
PI~slicily
I"I)
',.
60
70
00
Chart (ISC)
\. Coarsegrained &ilsCoarsegrained soils are subdivided inlo grovel and sand. lhc soil is termed
gfllvel (G) when more than 50% of coarse fraction (plus 75~) is retained on 4.75 mm IS sieve, and termed
sand (S) if morc than 50% of the coarse fraction is smaller Ihan 4.75 mm IS sieve. Coarsegrained soils are
further subdivided as given in Table 5.6 into 8 groups.
2. Finegrained Soilslbe finegrained soils are fun her divided into three subdivisions, depending upon
the values of the liquid limit:
ge
(0) Sills and clays of low compressibilityThese soils have a liquid limit less than 35 (represented by
symbol L).
(b) Sills and clays of medium comprcssibilityThese soils have a liquid limit greater than 35 but less
g'
IS
30
75
'Y
'"
~.
'Y
:ic
u,
of
(c) SUts and Clays of high compressibilityThese soils have a liquid limit greater th<m 50 (represented
by symbol 11).
Finegrained soils are further subdivided. in 9 groups as given in T:lble 5.7.
10% fines, C" = 20 and Ce = 2.0 and lp = 6 will be classified as GWGM, and not GWGc.
100
soils (More
than half of
material is
larger than
75mieron
Subdi\lis;CNI
Gravel (0)
(more than
hal[ofcoorse
fmaion is
larger than
4.75 mm IS
sieve)
IS sieve
size)
dean
G=p
lAboratory Criteria
(l)GW
Well
graded
grovels
Co. grnterthan 4
(2)GP
Poo<l,
graded
requiremcflIsforGW
gravels
(Fines less
than 5%)
Typical
s)""bol
C~
between I and 3
gravels
Gravels
(;\)GM
with
Silty
gravels
appreciable
Ancrberg
Limits
below
:Jmount of
Aline or /p
fi nes (Fines
11!SSIhrin4
more [han
12%)
(4) GC
ChJYcy
gravels
Alterberg
limits above
Aline and
fp
grater
than 7
Sand (S)
(More than
half of coarse
fraction is
smaller than
4.75 mm IS
sieve)
Clean sands
(Fines less
than 5%)
(5)SW
(6) SP
Aucrberg
Limits plotting
above Aline
with lp bclwen
4 and 7 are
requiring
dual
symbols
such as
GPGM,
SWSC,
symool
GMGC
e"
Poorly
gr.>dod
border line
.",.,.
borderline
cases requiring
use ofduul
Wellgraded
",ds
e~
Remark
When lines
are between
5% 10 12%,
greellter than 6
between I and 3
"",ds
Sands with
appreciable
amout of
fines
(Fines more
than 12%)
(7)SM
silty
""'' '
(8) SC
Claycy
"",ds
Atterbcrg
Limits
below
AJincor Ip
Jess Ihan 4
Attcrberg
limits above
Aline with
Ip grealer
Ih3n7
Alleraerg's
urnils plotting
above Aline
with Ip
between 4 and
7 are borderline'l::ases
requiring use
of double
symbols
SMSC
SOIL ClASSIFICATION
101
DhisiOlJ
Subtiil'isiOll
Symbols
Typicaillames
2) Finegruined soils
(more than
Low
compressibility
(L) (Liquid
Limit less
tnan 35%)
{l)ML
Inorganic silts
with nOne 10
low plasticity
Atterbcrg
limits plol
below Aline
or /p less
than 7
(2) CL
Inorganic
clays of low
plasticity
Altcrberg
limits plot
above Aline
andJp greater
than 7
(3) OL
OrganicsiUs
of low
plasticity
(4) MI
Inorganic sillS
ofmcdium
plasticity
(5)CI
Inorganic
clays of
medium
plasticity
(6)01
Orgaic silts
of medium
plasticity
(7)MH
Inorganic silts
of high
compressibility
(a)eB
loorganic
clays of high
plasticity
(9)OH
Organic clays
of medium 10
high plasticity
1'<
Peat and
oth~r highly
organic soils
SO% """
75~ IS sieve)
Inteonediate
compre,<;sibility
(I)
(Uquid limit
greater than
35% but less
than 50%
High
compressibiliy
(11) (Liquid
limitgrealcr
than 50%)
(3) Highly
organlcsoil
Anerberg
limits pioting
above Aline
with Jp
='10
7
(hatched
zone) MLCL
Remarks
(1) Organic "d
inorganic soils
plotted in the same
zone in plasticity
chan are distinguished by odour and
colour 0' liquid
,,~
aftcr
limit
ovcnclrying.
A
roduaion
liquid limit after
"
ovcn drying to a
than
value
three founh of the
liquid limit before
ove, drying
,,,'
positive
"
identification
of organic soils.
",,,,,
(2)
amon
soils 01 India lie
along a band partly
Aline
'bo,,,
and panly below tho
Aline
.h,
AlillC
See. plasticity
chnrt (Fig. 5.6)
~ye
The soils can be identified in the field by conducting the following simple tests.
The sample is filSt. spread on a flat surface. If more than 50% of the particles are visible 10 the naked
(unaided eye), the soil is coarsegrained; otherwise, it is fine grained. The One grained particles are
102
smaller than 751l size and are not visible to unaided eye. lbc fraction of soil smaUer than 7511 size., that is,
the clay and sill fradion. is referred to as fines.
(1) Coarsegrained SoilrIf the soil is coarsegrained. it is further identified by estimating the
percentage of (a) gravel size particles (4.75 mm to 80 mm), (b) sand size particles. (75J.L to 4.75 mm) and (e)
silts and clay size panicles (smaller than 7511 size). Gravel panicles are larger than 4.75 mm size and can be
identified visually.
If the percentage of gravel is greater Ihan that of sand, the soil is a grovel; otherwise, it is sand.
Gravels and s.1nds are further classified as cle.m if they contain fines less than 5% and as dirty if they
contain fioes more than 12%. Gravels and sands containing 5 to 12% fines are given ooundary classification.
The fine fraction of the coarsegrained soils is identified using the procedure given below for fine grained
soils to determine whether it is silty or clayey.
To difJercntiate fine sand from silt, dispersion Icst is adopted. When a spoonful of soil is poured in a jar
full of wa:er, fine sand settles in a minute or so. whereas silt t.'1kcs 15 minutes or more.
(2) Finegrained soilsU the soil is finegrained, the following tests arc conducted for identification 00
the fmetion of the sOil finer than the 425micron IS sieve to differentiate silt from clay.
(a) Dilatancy (reaction to shaking) testA smaU pat of moist soil of aboul 5 ml in volume is prepared.
Waler is added to make the soil soft but not sticky. "be pal is placed in the open palm of onehand and
shaken horizontally, striking against the other hand several times during shaking. If the soil gives a positive
reaction, the water appears on its surface which changes t("l a lively roosistcncy and appears glossy. When the
pat is squeezcd between the fingers, Ihe watcr and gloss disappear from the surface, It becomes stiff and
ultimately crumbles.
'fl1e rapidity with which water appc.'1rs on the surface during shaking and disappears during squeezing 1<;
used in the identification of finegrained soils (pJbles 5.8). The larger the S:7..e of tbe particles, the quicker is
the reaction. The reaction is called quick if water appears and disappears quickly. The reaction is tcnned slow
if water appears and disappc.'1rs slowly. For no retlction, Ihe water docs nol appear at the surface.
(b) Toughness testThe pHI used in Ihe dil:lt:lncy test is dried by working and remoulding until it has
tbe consistency of pUlly. 'Ibe lime required to dry the pal depends upon the plasticity of the soil.
'Ibe pat is rolled on a smooth surface or between the palms inlo a threads of aboul 3 mm in diameter,
The thrc.'ld is folded and re rolled to reduce tbe water is soil, due to cvaporation by heat of hand, until the
3 mm diameter thread just crumbles. The water content at that stage is equal to the plastic limit and the
resistance to moulding at that stage is called the toughness.
After the thread crumbles, Ihe picces of the sample are lumped together and subjected to kneading until
the lump also crumbles. lbe tougher the thread at the plastic limit and the stiffer the kneaded lump just
before it crumbles, the higher is the toughness of the soil. The toughness is low if the thread is weak and the
soil mass cannot be lumped together when drier than plastic limit. TIle toughness is high when the lump can
be moulded drier than plastic limit and high pressure is required to roll the thread.
The toughness depends upon the polency of the colloidal clay.
T",
(a) DiJDlancy
(b) lbughness
ML
CL
OL
MI
CI
01
Mil
CH
OH
Quick
None 10
very slow
Sl~
Quick
10 slow
Noo,
Slow
Stow 10
None
NonclO
very slow
None
Medium
Low
None
Medium
Low
Low 10
medium
lIigh
None
of low
Medium
Low
Low
Medium
to high
Low to
medium
Low to
medium
High 10
very high
w;J
Low "
medium
0'
Medium
10 high
ovcn'd'l'' : J
SOIL CLASSIFICATION
103
The dry strength is determined by breaking the dried pat and crumbling it betwcc.n finger.;. The dry strength
is a mea<>ure of plasticity of the soil. The dry strength depends upon the colloidal frndion of the soil.
The strength is termed high if the dried pat cannot be powdered at all; medium, if considerable pressure
is required; and low, if the dry pat can be easily powdered.
Table 5..8 can be used for the field identification of different soils.
Permeabiliry
Compres,~ibility
SlIear Slrenglh
Workability
Negligible
Exccllent
Excellent
Negligible
Good
Good
Negligible
Good
Good
Very low
Good to fair
Good
Negligible
Very low
Low
Excellent
Good
Good
Excellenl
Fair
Fair
Low
Good to fair
Good
(a) Gravels
GW
GP
GM
GC
Pervious
Very pcrvioUo'l
Semipervious
impervious
Impervious
'0
(b)Snnds
SW
Pervious
SP
Pervious
Semi.pervious to
impervious
Impervious
SM
SC
(c)l..ow&.medium
Plasticity silt &.
clays
ML,MI
Semipervious to
impervious
Medium
Fair
Fair
CL,CI
Impervious
Medium
Fair
Good to fair
OL,OI
Scmipervious to
impervious
Medium
Fair
Fair
Semi.pervious to
impervious
Impervious
High
Fair to poor
Poo<
CII
High
1'<""
Poo<
OH
Impervious
High
"""
Poo<
Note. Highly organic SOils (PealS) are not used In englneermg works.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
Dlll'ltrative Example 5.1. A sample of soil was tested in a laboratOf)', and the following observations
were recorded:
Liquid Limil ::: 45%,
Plastic Limit
= 16%
l<"
U.S. Sieve No.
No.4
Percentage Pa&<>ing
100
No. 10
(2.0mm)
I
I
91.5
No. 40
(0.425 mm)
No. 200
(0.075 mm)
SO.O
60.0
Group Index = (F  35) [0.2 + 0.005 (w/  40)J + 0.01 (F  \5)(Jp 10)
GI " (GO  35)[0.2 + 0.005 x 5)] + 0.01 (40)(19)
= 13.3, S,ly 13.
Illustrative Example 5.2. Classify the soils A and /1, with Ihe properties as shown below, according ID
USC system.
Soil
w/(%)
I
I
45
fp(%)
29
% passing
No.4 sieve
% possing
No.2(){)sieve
59
100
B5
"
more than 5()% passes No. 200 sieve, the soil
100
PlassidlY index
40%
I
I
10%
% passing
4.75 mm sie\'e
60%
% passing
75JAsieve
45%
Solution. As more than 50% is rctClincd on 75", IS sieve, the soil is marsegrained.
Coarse frJction
= 55%;
Gravel fraction
= 40%;
Sand frdcUon
= 15%
As more lhan half the coarsefraction is larger than 4.75 mm IS sieve, the soil is gravel.
The soil has more than 12% fines. it can be either GM or GC.
As the Anerberg limits plot below Alioe (Fig. 5.6), the soil is GM.
Illustrative Example 5.4. Fig E 5.4 ,fIIOWS the grain size distribwion curves for two soils A and B. Tht
plasticity characteristics of the sails are given below.
son
A
Soil B
SOIL Cu\SSJFlCATION
t05
~.o~~~~~v?rH~
z
'"ffi
2ofl1fr:;l""ttiti
Q.
(mm)
Fig. ES.4.
Solution. (a) Soil A. As more than 50% pffiSCS 75~ sieve. the soil is linegrained. The Allcrberg limits
plot below Aline (Fig. 5.6) in the zone of intermediate compressibility. It can be either MI or 0/. If the liquid
limit reduces \0 thrccfounh of the original value or more on oven drying, it is IS; oIherwise MI.
(b) Soil 8. As more than 50% of Ihe Iolal material is larger than 75 I' sieve. the soil is coarse grained.
Coarse fmction
Gravel fmetion
Sand fmelion
= 87%,
= 37%;
= 50%.
As more than half of coarse fraction is smaller than 4.75 mm sieve, the soil is sand. As fines are more
than 12%, the soil can be SA{ or Sc. As the Atteroerg limits plot above A line (Fig. 5.6), the soil is Sc.
PROBLEMS
A. Numerical
5.1 Allerbcrg ]imil ICstS were carried out on 11 soil sample, with the following rC5ults:
Liquid limit'" 40%;
Plastic limil '" 2S%.
Oassify Ihe soil according to Unified Oassifjeltion system and the Indian Standard classification system.
[Ans. CL; CI]
5.2. The follOWing results were obtained [rom Ihe classification tests of a soil.
Percentage passing 7Sjl sieve = 40%
Liquid limil = 35%;
Plastic Limit = 15%
calculate the group index of lhe soil and dassify il aocording 10 AASlITO system.
[Ans.4; A6(4)]
5.3. The sieve analysis of a soil gave the following results :
% passing 75~ sieve:: 4;
% ret:lined on 4.75 mm sieve'" 50
Coefficient of curvature = 2;
UniformilY ooefficienl = 5
Classify Ihe soil according to ISC sySlem.
[Ans.GWJ
5.4. The sieve analysis of a soil gave the following results:
%passing 75~ sieve ", 8;
% retained on 4.75 mm sieve", 35
Coefficient of curvature '" 2.5;
Uniformily ooefficient ~ 7
The fine frnClion gave the folJowing results :
Plasticity index = 3;
Liquid Limit = 15.
[Am;. SWSM}
Classify Ihe soil according 10 ISC system.
5.5. Ascii has Ibe following charnCieristics:
% ~ng 75~ sieve = 58%;
liquirl Limit = 40%
Plasticity Index = 10%;
liquid lim!1 of ovendried sample", 25%
Classify the soil according 10 ISC syslcm.
[Ans.OI]
106
v)
C. MultipleChoice Questions
t. IS classification ()fsoil is in many respects simi lar to
(I) AAS HTO classificmion
(b) Tcxlurn! classitkation
(t') Unified soil elilssilication
(d) MIT clnssificmion
2. The maximum Sill! of pMticks of silt is
(a) 75 11
(b) 60 11
(e) 2 11
(d) 0.2 11
3. The maximum Si7.1! of parl iclc.~ or clay is
(0) 0.2 mm
(b) 0.02 mm
fe) 0.002 mm
(d) 0.0CI02 mm
4. Acconling to IS classifiC<11ion system. the soils can be cl.1ssilit"(,,1 into
(I) 15 groups
(b) 18 groups
(e) 3 groups
(d) 7 groups
5. The soils which pl01 above the A line in the pl.1sticity chart flrc
(I) cl!Jys
(b) silts
(e) sands
(tl) organic soil s
6. A silty soi l gives a positive reaction in
(a) Toughness tes t
(b) Dilmancy test
(c) Dry strength test
(I) None of above
7. A soil has the liquid li mit of 30. TIle cQrresponding plasticity index given b)' the Ali ne is
(tl ) 7.3
(b) 7.5
(e) 9.0
(d) 9.5
8. The max imum value of the term (F. I 5) in the group index is taken as
(a) 20
(b) 30
(c) 40
(d) 60
6
Clay Mineralogy and Soil Structure
6.1. INTRODUCTION
The coarsegrained soils generally contain the minerals quartz and feldspar. These minerals are strong and
electrically inert. The behaviour of such soils docs not depend upon thc nature of the mineral present. The
behavior of finegrained soils, on Ihc other hand. depends to a large extent on the nature and characteristics
of the minerals presenl. The most significant properties of clay depend upon the type of mineral. The
crystalline minerals whose surface activity is high are clay minerals. These clay minerals imparl cohesion and
plasticity. The study of clay miner.lls is essential for understanding the behaviour of clayey soi ls. Clay
mineralogy is the the science dealing with the structure of c lay minerals on microscopic, molecular and
atomic scale. II also includes the study of the mineralogical composition and electrical properties of the clay
particles. The study of clay minerals is important for particles smaller than about 2 micron size.
Soil struclIlre means the geometrical arrangement of soil particles in a soil mass. It is concerned with
the shape. si7..e and orientation of particles. If the individual particles are packed very close to one another,
the void ratio is low and the soil is dense and strong. If the particles are so arranged that there are more
voids, the soil is loose and weak. Engineering properties and behaviour of both coarsegrained and
finegrained depend upon the structure.
This chapter is mainly devoted 10 clay mineralogy. The soil struclure is considered in the last section. In
fact. clay mineralogy also discusses the structure of clayey soils nOi as a whole mass but at a particle level.
108
Side
Number of
Length
"be>
1.
10mm
2
1 rom
10'
3.
0.1 nun
10'
6xlolxl
6 x 106 x 0.01
4.
0.01 nun
10
6 x 109 x (0.01)2
5.
0.001 mm
(I,)
12
10
6 x 10 12 x (0.001)2
S.N.
~rfQCe
Vofumll!!
area
""=e
J
2
(mm /mm )
Ht'mml
600 mm2
Q.60
6.0
60.0
600.0
6000.0
with the surface [orces. The fine~grained soils possess the plasticity characteristics depending upon the surface
area, the type of minerals and the nature of environment present around thc soil particle.
A material in which the surface forces arc predominant is known as a colloid. ll1c lenn colloid has been
derived from Greek words kolla and Didos, meaning a glucy material and alike. For colloids. the ratio of the
surface area to the volume is very large. It varies between 6(X) to
mm2/mml:r1le dayey soils with
particles smaller than 2 micron size arc generally colloidal in nature. The colloids have very large speciflc
surface.
las
The number of electrons required to oomplete the first six shells individually are respectively. 2, 8, 8, i.8,
18 and 32. The total number of electrons required to oomplete are, IhereCorc , 2. 10, 18. 36, 54 and 86. The
deficiency or excess of electrons in a particular shell of an element is determined from the number of
electrons available and that required to complete the outersheU. For example,
aluminium has 13 electrons. It has an excess of 3 electrons over the second
shell (total 10 ekx:trons). IJkewise, oxygen whiCh has 8 electrons, lack 2 elec:Irons in the second shell (total 10 electrons). An atom of hydrogen has equal
excess and deficiency. It has only one electron which can be oonsidered either
as one deficient in the first shell or one excess elearon. Likewise, the alom of
silicon has 14 electrons which has equal excess and deficiency of 4 each. It has
an excess of 4 over the second shell or a deficiency of 4 in the third shell (total
18 electrons). See lbble 6.2 for ionic structure of various elements.
The atoms of two different elements combine to satisfy their individual
deficiency or excess. For example.. when aluminium and oxygen combine two
atoms of aluminium (excess 6) combine with 3 atoms of oxygen (deficiency 6)
to form aluminium oxide (Fig. 6.1).
~
Ai)
+,
A.I
~~ 61
~
~
~
Fig. 6.1. Aluminium oxide
fl
109
Element
Hydrogen
Symbol
Number of
Defficiency in
E/~/ron
outershcll
Excess in
oulershell
Remork
I
II
2.
Oxygen
3.
Silicon
Si
14
Aluminium
f<""",
Calcium
Sodium
Potassium
Magnesium
Chlorine
AJ
!3
F,
26
20
II
I.
..
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Ca
No
M,
K
CI
..
2
4
.1
12
17
+3
.8
.2
.2
I
2. Covalent BondCovalcnl bond develops between two atoms by sharing of electrons in their outer
sheU. lWo atoms, each lacking one electron, may combine by sharing of a pair of electrons. Likewise, two
atoms, each lacking two electrons, may combine by sharing four electrons. For example. the bond between
two atoms of oxygen in a oxygen molecule is a covalent bond. Each atom Lacks 2 electrons in the outer sheU.
The two atoms bond by sharing 4 electrons in their outer sheUs. In other words, a covalent bond occurs when
there is sharing of electrons by atoms of like valence. 'The covalent bond occurs generally in clements of
negative valences or in nonelectrolytes. such as carbon. (A nonelectrolyte does not form ions).
Primary valence bonds are very strong. These do not break in normal soil engineering applications.
lbcrefore, primary valence bonds are not of much relevance in soil engineering. However, the study of ionic
structure is useful in understanding the behaviours of various atoms.
6.4. IIYDROGEN DOND
The hydrogen alom has only one elcctron. The number of electrons required to fill the first sheU is 2.
The atom can be oonsidered either as a Oltion (with one excess electron) or an anion (with one electron
deficiency). The bond between the hydrogen
:+
cation (HI and anions of two atoms of
aoother element is caUed the hydrogen bond.
The hydrogen atom is attracted by two atoms
instead of only one atom as suggested by its
ionic struaure. The hydrogen atom cannot
decide to which of the two atoms it should
~H
r~~~OGEN
,O'=>
H+
02
H;rL{
no
.
~
CQti"H'
o2
2
AnionJ
I
1_
_I
I
.+"
III
""0
Silicon
0",,0
Oxygen
(a) Si lico tetrahedron
(b)
Simptifled
~
S.
Ie) Sili ca
r epre ~ entotion
4x(_21 '_ 8
6X(2).12
Net g _4
~heet
A number of tetrahedral unit combine 10 form a sheet, with oxygen atoms at Ihe base of aU tetrahedra in
a common plane, and aU the lips pointing in the same direction. Each oxygen atom at the base is shared by
two tetrahedra. A SHiCll sheet is formed by ternhedrnl units. The three oxygen atoms at the base being
common to two tetrahedra get their negative marge shared and the lip oxygen atom has two negative charges.
Thus, there are 5 negative charges and 4 positive charges, leaving a nci negative charge of one per
tctrnhedron. Fig. 6.6 (c) shows 4 tetrahedra units combined
having a net negative charge of 4. Fig. 6.6
(d) gives a simple representation of silica sheet, commonly used in clay minerals.
2. Octahedrul UnitAn octahedral unit consists of six hydroxyls (OIrl) forming a configuration of an
and
HYDROXYL
ALUMIN ......
(alOCTNIEDRAL
3XHl=_3
I X(H)=+3
3X(1)=3
lNT
~
"
)K
6X{'I'6
c=::J.
4X{+3J.112
(d) GIBBSITE
6X(I)=6
112
octahedron and having one aluminium atom at the centre (Fig. 6.7). As the aluminium (Ar~ has three
positive charges, an octahedral unit has 3 negative eh.'lrges. Because of net negative charge. an octahedral unit
eannOi exist in isolation.
Several octahedral units combine to form a gibbsite sheet. Fig. 6.7 (c) shows a gibbsite sheet formed by
four octahedral units. The sheet is electrically neulral. Fig. 6.7 (d) shows a simple representation.
1!3
reasons.
(I) There is always a substantial amount of isomorphous substitution of silicon by aluminium in silica
sheeL Consequently. the mineral bas a larger negative charge than that in montmorillonite.
(2) The link between different structural units is through non exchangeable pota<>Sium (Kj and not
through waler. This bonds the units more firm ly than in montmorillonite (Fig. 6.10).
(3) The latticc of illite is stronger than that
of montmorillonite, and is, therefore. less
susceptible to Cleavage.
(4) Illite swells less than montmorillonite.
However, swelling is more than in
"[
IONS
kaolinite.
F
AgPOTA55I""
tA
114
ENGlN~ERJNG
electrical <;ircuil containing a battery and an ammeter, there is a deflection of the needle of the ammeter. This
proves Lhat there is a flow of current through the medium. 1beoretically, a soil particle can carry either a
negative charge or positive charge. However, in aClu~ll tests. only negative charges have been measured.
The net negative charge may be due to onc or more of the following reasons.
(1) Isomorphous substitution of one alom by another of lower valency.
(2) Dissociation of hydroxyle ion (OlI) into hydrogen ions.
(3) Adsorption of anions (negative ions) on clay surface.
(4) Absence of cations (positive ions) in the lattice of the crystal.
115
charges or negative chargcs. The chnrgcs in clay minerals are due to molecular grouping and arrangement of
ions. The electrical charges in the minerals are responsible for their behaviour when they come in contact
with other panicles and with water prescnt in the soil. Clay deposits, because of their sedimentary nature,
always exist in the presence of water.
~ecause of the net negative charge on the surface, the clay particles attract cations, such as potassium,
calcium and sodium, from moisture present in the soil to reach an electrically balanced C<juilibrium. These
cations, in tum, attract panicles with negative charges and water dipoles.
(The engineering behaviour of coarse particles is not affected by surface electrical charges, because of
their low ratio of surface area to volume. In such soils, the gravitational forces are more important).
The plasticity characteristics of Clays are because of the unusual molecular structure of water in soil
deposits. Experiments conducted with clays using nonpolar liquid, such as kerosene, in place of water, has
shown that plasticity does not occur, and the soil behaves as a coarse.grained sands soil.
The water molecule is a dipole, since the hydrogen atoms arc not symmetrically oriented around the
oxygen atoms. The molecule acts as a bar magnet (Fig. 6.11). As the faces of clay panicles carry a negative
YGEN
HYDFlJGEN _
rO'YGEN
HYDROGE~
H/~ ~
Ce) MODEL
0
+
MOLECULE
Fig. 6.11. Structure of a water molecule. (ul Model, (b) Relatillc location, (e) Dipole water molecule
charge, there is aHraction between the negatively Charged faces and the positive ends of dipoles [Fig. 6,12
(a)] . 1be secood mode of attraction between the water dipoles and the clay surface is through cations [Fig.
6.12 (b)]. Cations are attracted to the soil surface and waler dipoles are attached to these cations through their
=000
(a)
o00
&!J
(b)
(c)
Gl CAnON
OIPOLE
SwfflCe.
negative charged ends. The third possible mode by which the attraction between the water and the clay
surface occurs is by sharing of the hydrogen atom in the water molecule by hydrogen bonding between the
oxygen atoms in the clay particles aod the oxygen atoms in the waler molecules [Fig, 6.12 (e)].
The cations attracted to a clay mineral surface also try to move away from the surface because of their
thenna! energy, The nel effect of the forces due 10 attraction and thnt due 10 repulsion is that the forces of
attraction decrease exponentially with an increase in distance from the clay particles surface. The layer
extending from the clay particle surface to the limit of atlroction is known as the diffuse dQuble layer (Fig. 6.13).
It is believed that immediately surrounding Ihe panicle, there is a thin, very tightly held layer of water
about 10 A 0 thick. Beyond Ihis thickness there is a seoond layer, in which water is more mobile. This second
layer extends to the limit of attraction, and is known as diffusedouble layer (Fig. 6.13). The water held in
lhe diffusedouble layer. is known as adsorbed water or oriented water. Outside the diffuse double layer the
water is nonnal. nonoriented. The total thickness of the diffusedouble layer is about 400 A 0,
116
6)'
I.
.ot~
111
Fig. 6.14. Soil slruclUre ill sallds and silts. (a) Single Graillcd Structure, (b) HOlleyromb Slructure
Depending upon the relative position of the particles. the soil may have a loose structure or a dense
structure. Fig. 6.15 shows spherical particles in the looscst and those in the densest condition. It can be
proved that for the loosest condition, the void ratio is ~
090 am:: that for the densest state, IS 035 In actual
sand deposits, as the particles are not exactly sphencal,
the vOId raho between the loosesl and densest
conditIOns vanes between 0 90 and 0 35
As mentIOned m chapter 3, the engmeerlng
properties of sands tmprovc considerably wIth a
(a) LOOSE
(b) DENSE
shear strength, and the lower Ibe compressibility and
Fig. 6.15. Sphere<; ill J~sl and densest states.
permeability. Loose sands are inherently more unstable. When subjected to shocks and vibratiOns, the
particles move into a more dense state. Dense sands are quite stable, as they arc not affected by shock
and vibrations.
(2) HoneyComb StructureIt is possible for fine sands or silts to get deposited such that Ibe particles
when settling develop a particletoparticle contact that bridges over large voids in the soil mass [Fig.
6.l4(b)J. The particles wedge between one another into a stable condition and form a skeleton like an arch to
carry the weight of the overlying material. The slructure so formed is known as honey<omb structure. The
honeycomb structure usually develops when the particle size is between 0.002 mm and 0.02 mm.
Honeycomb structure occurs in soils having small granular particles which have cohesion because of
their fioeoess. The particles arc helel in p:lsition by mutual attraction due to cohesion. The particles, however,
do not possess plasticity characteristics associated with Clayey soils.
Soils in honeycomb structure are loose. ,[bey can support loads only under static conditions. Under
vibrations and shocks, the structure collapses and large deformations take place. In nature, honeycomb
structure usually occurs in small pockets, and can be easily detected.
Honeycomb structure can also develop when fine sand is dumped into a filling without densification of
or when water is added to dry fine sand. The phenomenon is known as bulking of sand (see chap. 7).
::i:~~cJ~ha~~ac~d::sve~~~ th~t;:;tiV~~;
charged faces. This results in a flocculated
structure [Fig. 6.16(0)]'
~
~
.c::==:o
===
~o:::=::==s==
Ca)
Flocculat~d Structur~
Fig. 6.16.
(b)
~tS:U~:~
118
Flocculent structure is fonned when there is a net attractive force between particles.
When clay panicles settle in water, deposits fanned have a flocculated structure. 'The degree of
flocculation of a clay deposit depends upon the type and concentration of clay particles, and the presence of
salts in water. Clays settling out in a sail waler solution have 3 more []occulent structure than those settling
out in a fresh water solution. Salt water acts as an electrolyte and reduces the repulsive forces between the
particles.
Soils with a flocculent structure arc light in weight and have a high void ratio and water content
However, these soils arc quite strong and can resist external forces because of a strong bond due \0 attraction
between p<,rtic1es. The soils are insensitive 10 vibrations. In general. the soils in a Oocculated structure have
a low' compressibility, a high ,penncability and a high shear strength.
(4) Dispersed StructureDispersed structure develops in clays tlmt have been reworked or remoulded.
The particles develop more or less 8 parallel orientation {Fig. 6.16 (b)l. Clay deposits with a flocculent
structure when transported 10 olher places by nature Of man get remoulded. Remoulding converts the
edgetoface orientation to facetoface orientation. The dispersed structure is fonned in nature when there is
a net repulSive force between particles.
'The soils in dispersed structure generally have a low she~r strength, high compressibility and low
permeabilily. Remoulding causes a loss of strength in a cohesive soil. With the passage of time, however, the
soil may regain some of its lost strength. Due to remoulding, the chemical equilibrium of the particles and
associated adsorbed ions and water molecules within the double layer is disturbed. The soil regains strength
as a result of re estoolishing a degree of chemical equilibrium. This phenomenon of regain of strength with the
passage of time, with no change in water content., is known as thixotropy, as already disaJssed in chapter 4.
(5) Coarsegrained SkeletonA coarsegrained skeleta'i'! 'is a composite structure which is formed when
the soil contains particles of different types. When the amount of bulky, cohesionlcss particles is large
compared with that of finegrained clayey
in
particles.
the
bulky
grains
particletoparticle contact. These pmticles
fonn a framework or skeleton {Fig. 6.17 (a)].
The space between the bulky grains is
occupied by clayey particles, known as
binders. In nature, the bulky grains are
deposited first during sedimentation and the
binder is subsequently deposited.
As long as the soil structure is not
Fig. 6.17. Composite SlrUcture (a).coRJSe Grnind Skeltion,
disturbed, a coorscgr<lined skeleton can take
(b) Clay MafIix
heavy loads without much deformations. However. when the structure is disturbed, tbe load is transferred
from the coarse.grained particles to clayey particles, and Ihe supporting power and the stability of the soil is
considerably reduced.
(6) ClayMatrix Structu~laymatrix structure is also a composite structure fonned by soils of
different types. However. in this case, the amount of clay particles is very large as compared with bulky,
coarse grained particles [Fig. 6.17 (b)]. The clay forms a matrix in which bulky grains appear floating
without touching one another.
The soils with a Claymatrix structure have almost the same properties as Clay. Their behaviour is similar
to that of an ordinary clay deposit. However. they are more stable, as disturbance has very little effect on the
soil formation with a claymatrix structure.
PROBLEMS
A. Numerical
6.1. A dry mineral has a mass of 100 gm and adsorbs 50 mg of catcium. Determine its base exchange capacity.
(Ans. 2.5 meg per 100 mgJ
forc~
119
and surface forccs. What is the et"ft'Cl of increased surface area on the
)i{ul.~
63. What arc primary valent"\: bonds'! What is their imponancc m soil engmccring '!
6.4. What do you undcrl>t,md by hydrogen bond? Give examples.
6.5. Wh:lI arc secondary valence bonds'! Wrile a shorl nOle on Vander W331 forces.
6.6. Describe the constitution of the two basic structuml units rcqulft'(l in Ihe formation of clay minerals. Are these
ele<:trically nCUlr:Il?
6.7. Discuss the charactcri~l1cs and the construction of Kaolinite. Montmorillonite and Illite mineral groups.
6.8. Write ~hon n(lte~ nn:
(I) Base exchlmge capacity.
(ii) lsomorphollssubstitution.
(il') Adsorbed water
(iii) Electricnl double I.lyer
6.9. What arc ditfcrent types ot soil Slnlctures which can occur in mllure 1 Describe is brief.
6.10. STate whet hcr the followlllg statements arc InIC Of fillse.
(a) The l11 il1(:nl l qU:lrtz b electrically act ive.
(b) T he clay minerab li re rcspt.ll1sib le for plaslicty chnrnclC rislics of ~oi l s.
(e) T he hydrogcn hond is stronger than secondary v~tl c n ce bo nds.
(d) I SI' l11orJlhou~ ~ubstillition docs not change the electrical ct13rg<::
(1') The soib containing. thc minerallmlloyshe have .1 high unit weight.
if) The miner'll !l\ulllmurillu11I tC. cause.> excessive swclhng and shrinkage.
l1:) The nd~urbeJ water imparts phlsticity to SOils.
(II) Honeycomb ~tructure occur~ in clayey soils.
(0 Remouldcd tinegrainoo soils have a tlocculat<!d structUI"C.
C. MultipleChoice Questions.
1. The behaviour of clay h govemed by
((I) Mass energy
(b) Surf:lCe energy
(e) Both (a) and (b)
((/) Nei lher (a) and (b)
2. Honeycombed strut:turc 1~ found in
(a) Gravels
(b) Co.lfSC sands
(e) Fi ne ~ands :U1d SIltS
(fl) day
3. TIle weakest bond ill ~otl~ I~
(b) Covalent bond
(11) Ionic bond
(tf) SecondJry valance bond
Ie) Hydrogen bond
4. All O~'lahedrJl unit ha~
(a) Pour neg: llIvc charges
(b) Thrcc negative c!mrgc.~
(e) One Il<::galive
(If) No negative charge
5. In illi t<:: mineral. Ihebond be twecnstructural u11itsis
\a) Hyd ro;:cn bo nd
(b) PQt ~l ssi um i011 bo nd
(e) Water l11ok.cu lcs bond
(tI) COV:l1e11l bond
6. The plas ticity charJcteri~lics of clays arc due 10
(f/) Adsorbed water
(b) Free watcr
(r) CapI llary wmer
(tI) None of above
7. In tine l>:tnds and ~ihs, the most common type structure is
(II) Smg!c grained
(b) Honey comb
(c) Flucculated
(II) Disperred
H. The base cxc!mnj,lc lapacity of lhe mineral montmorrillonite is .. buul
(/1) 70 mtqI1QO g
(b) 700 mav l OO g
.
(c) 7 meql100 g
{(/) 40 meqf l OO g
~_ J~1~1~~m~W~~7m8~
7
Capillary Water
7.1. TYPES OF SOIL WATER
The soil water is broadly classified into two categories: (1) Free water, and (2) Held water. Free water
moves in the pores of the soil under the influence of gravity. 'll1e held water is rcwinoo in the pores of the
soil, and il cannot move under the influence of gravitational force.
Free water flows from one point to the other wherever there is a difference of total head. The rate at
which the head is lost along the flow passage is equal to the hydraulic gradient. The flow of free water in
soils is just like laminar flow in pipes. Because of very smaU flow passages in the SOil, the velocity head is
generaUy neglected, and the total head is lakcn equal 10 the sum of the elevation head and the pressure head.
la)
(b)
(a)
(b)
Fig. 7.1. Effed of Surrace tCr15ion .
CAPlUARY WATER
7
r
121
The forces tend to reduce the surface area of the airliquid surface to a minimum. The surface assumes a
curved shape to maintain equilibrium. 'l11e intcrfHcc behaves like a stretched membrane or a skin. The surface
tension exists at the interface. Surface tension is defined as the force per urut length of a line drawn on the
surface. It acts in the direction normal to that line. The surface tension of water at normal temperature is
about 0.073 N/m at 20C. It decreases with an increase in temperature.
It is because of surface tension that a smaU needle can float on water, and insects can walk on it.
Capillary water exists in soils so long as there is an airwater interface. As soon as the soil is submerged
under water, the interface is destroyed, and the capiUary water becomes norma~ free water. The capillary
water is always under tension (negative pressure). However, the properties of the capillary water are the same
as that of normal, free water.
7.3. CAPILLARY IUSE IN SMALL DIAMETER TUBES
Water rises in small diameter, capillary tubes, beatuse of adhesion and cohesion. Adhesion occurs
because water adheres or sticks to the solid walls of the tube. Cohesion is due to mutual attraction of water
molecules. If the effect of cohesion is less significant than the effect of adhesion, tbe liquid wets the surface
and the liquid rises 1lI the point of contne. However, if the effect of cohesion is more predominant than
adhesion, the liquid level is depressed at the point of contact, as in the case of mercury.
If a glass tube of small diameter. open at both ends, is lowered into water, the water level rises in
the lube, as the water wets the tube. Let 8 be the angle of contact between the water and the wall of the
tube [Fig. 7.2 (a)].
T,
r,
,01
'b)
Fig. 7.2. Capillary Rise
F"  Fd
(T.cos9) xd _ y.(xl4d')h.
41~cos8
h. 
4 T,cos 9
:;::;t"  KP.:d
... (7.1)
For a clean glass tube and pure water, the meniscus is approximately hemispherical, ie. 8 = O. 1berefore,
122
h .. 41~
~
y",d
... (7.2)
4 )( 0.073
3)( 1D....~
9810 d ..   d  melres
If d is in cenlimctcrs.
ht
3 )( dlO
h~_cm
where d is in mctres.
..
metres
... (7.3)
Capillary rise in tubes of nonunifonn diamcter depends upon the direction of flow of watcr. If a tube
with a largc bulb is dipped in water. the water is lined due to capillary action. but it may not rise past the
bulb where the diameter is d 2 lFig. 7.2 (b)J. The capillary rise is limited to a height of (hell because water
cannot maintain equilibrium at a large diameter d2
If the same tube, with a large bulb is fiUed by pouring water from above or by lowering the tube below
the water level and then raising when filled. an equilibrium is maintained at a height (hfh [Fig. 7.2 (c)l. '[be
water is able to maintain equilibrium at the diameter d j above the bulb.
lllUs the capillary rise in lubes of nonuniform di(lmeler is more if the flow is downward than when it is
upward. The capillary rise docs not depend upon the shape and the diameter of the tube below the meniscus
when tbe flow is downward. In upward flow. the capillary rise is terminated if the diameter of the lube is
greater than that required for equilibrium.
The height of capillary rise docs not depend ulX>fl the inclination of the tube. Even if the capillary tube
is inclined, the vertical rise of water remains the same, equal to hf'
In a capillary tube of uniform
diameter, no water can be retained
when lined. The upward forces (F..)
due 10 surface tension arc balanced by
downward forces (Fd) at tbe lower end
[Fig. 7.3 (a)l. However, if (he (ube is
necked, witb smaller diameter at lOp,
the upward force (F..) is greater than
the downward force (Ftil. and some
T2
12
water can be retained in the tube [Fig.
, . FcJ
7.3 (b)].
12 ~o,i T2
'd"
T,.
CAPILLARY WATER
!l
F
Ca)
Cb)
PE .. Yw h
The capillary tension, therefore, varies linearly with the height of point above the water surface, as shown
in Fig. 7.4 (b). The pressure al point F below the waler surface is, of course, positive (hydrostatic).
As the capillary tube is open to atmosphere, the pressure at point A above the meniscus is atmospheric,
i.e. zero. Therefore, the pressure difference across the two sides of the meniscus is equal 10 "twhe. The
pressure difference is also known as pressure deficiency (P").
Thus
p" .. "tw h~
Substituting the value of he from Eq. 7.2,
"  y. (4T,)
4T,
y.d  d
...(7.5)
2 2)
"
T (
p.'d;+d;
Capillary water can be likened to hanging of a weight 10 the inside walls of a chimney. The walls of the
chimney support the load and transfer it as reaction to the base. The weight causes compressive stresses in
the walls of the chimney. In a similar manner, the capillary water causes compression in the walls of the gJa<;s
tube. The compressive force (F) is equal to the weight of suspended column of water.
F 
(~h,)
y.
.. :(7.7)
The compressive stress in the wall of the tube can be determined from the contact area and the
compressive force. The compressive stress is constant in the entire height he of the tube.
124
results of capillary rise in circular tubes arc useful for understanding the phenomenon of capiUary rise in soils.
The channels formed in the soil arc a sort of capillary lubes of varying diameter but not necessarily vertical.
These capillary tubes may be inclined in any direction.
Capillary rise in soils depends upon the size and grading of the particles. The diameter (d) of the
channels in pore passage depends upon the diameter of the particle. It is generally taken as onefifth of tbe
effect:~diameler
(D10)d::;:
ooan;e.grained soils.
ffkSQI<.'.W/k.w;;:x:...'VX~~~V
ZONE OF AERATION
ZONE
OF CAPILLARY
SATURATION
yW.T.
The space above the water table am be divided
into two regions: (1) Zone of capillary saturation, in
rig. 7.5. CapillHI)' zone.
which the soil is fully saturated. (2) Zone of aeration,
in which the soil is not saturated (Fig. 7.5). The height to which capillary water rises in soils is known as
capillary fringe. It includes the zone of capillary saturation and a part oC the zone of aeration in which the
capillary water exists in interconnected channels.
The soil above the capillary fringe may contain water
~MOISTURE
in the Corm of contact water (Fig. 7.6). In this Conn l water
Corms a meniscus around the poim of contact. Surfaoe
tension holds the water in contact with soil. Because of
the tension in the capillary water, there is an equal and
opposite Corce induced at the points of contacts which
presses the particles together. The contact pressure
depends upon the water content, particle size. angle of
conlaCt and density of packing. The contact pressure
.
dccrcascs as the water cootenl increases because of an
Fig. 7.6.
increase of radius of meniscus. EventuaUy, a stage is reached when the contact pressure becomes zero as sooo
as the soil becomes fully saturated.
Terzaghi and Peck (1948) gave a relationship between the maximum height of capillary fringe and the
effective size, as
0~~
.. ~
where C = constant, depending upon the shape of the grain and impurities.
~ = void mtio.
DlO = effective diameter, the size corresponding to 10% percentage finer.
If D IO is in mm, the value of C varies between 10 to 50 mm 2, and the height (h)max is also given in mm.
23.
4.
s.
6.
SoU Type
fine gravel
Coo",,,,,,,
Fine sand
Silt
C.y
Colloid
Capillary rise(m)
0.02 to 0.10
0.10 to 0.1S
0.30 to 1.00
1.0 to to.O
10.0 to 30.0
more than 30.0
125
CAPIUARY WATER
and logl~
=2
~~
It is worth noting that the capillary potential is always negative. The maximum possible value of '" is
equal to zero when the soil tension is zero, which occurs when the water is at atmospheric pressure. As the
water content in the soil decreases, the tension increases. This causes a decrease in capillary potential. The
capillary potential is minimum when the water rontent is minimum .
Water in the capillary fringe is seldom under equilibrium. It moves from a region of high potential (more
water content) to a region of low potential (less water COIllent). The water starts moving as soon as the
suction equilibrium is disturbed either due to evaporatioo of water or due to an increase in water content. The
velocity of the capillary water is given by
v _ k" . is
... (7.10)
where k" = coefficient of unsaturated permeability,
i, = suction gradient, which is equal to the potential difference per unit length.
126
water.
7.9. ~~~~ AFFECTING SOIL
;g
depends upon the size of interstices, a change in the soil structure affects the soil suction.
(5) 'ThmperatureA rise in temperature causes a reduction in surface tension (T,) of the water.
Consequently, the soil suction decreases as the temperature increases.
(6) Denseness of soilAs the denseness of a soil increases, generally soil suction inaeases. When the
soil is loose, with a low density, the pores are of large radius and the soil suction is low.
(7) Angle of contactThe angle of contact between water and SOil. particles depends upon the
mineralogical composition of soils. As
tbe angle of contact (8) increases, the
soil suction deaeases. The soU suction
is maximum when the angle of contaa
is zero.
suction.
7.10. MEASUREMENT OF SOIL SUCTION
Suction in a soil mass can be measured
using the following methods:
(1) Tensiometer MelhodA lensiometer
consists of a porous pot filled with water. The
top of the porous pot is connected 10 a U tube
containing mercury. The pol is placed in the soil
127
CAl'ILLARY WATER
~
2. (TTT~
... (1.12)
128
where h = soil suction. expressed in terms of the height of water column (log h _ PI')'
0> = rotational speed (rndinns per serond)
'1 = radial distance from the centre of rotation to the water table
'2 = radial distance from the centre of rotation to the middle of the soil sample.
The test is conducted at various speeds to obtain a relationship between the water content and the soil
suction.
The centrifuge method can be used for determination of very high suctions, of the order of several
thousands of kN/m 2 For accurate results, thin samples shaD be used. If the sample is relalive!y thick, it is
subjected to an additional overburden pressure due to its own weight and erroneous results are obtained.
=== ::::::;?NSES
III
_____ L ______ L
___ J~Y'L
The soils which are prone to frost action are mainly silts and fine sands. These soils have large capillary
rise due to relatively fine panicles. Moreover, water can easily flow through these soils because of fairly good
penneability. In coarse~gmined soils and clayey soiL<;, the frost heave is relatively small. In coarsegrained
soils, the frost heave is limited to about 4%, as there is very little capillary risco Clayey soils, on the other
hand, have very large capillary rise, but their permeability is very low. lhe water cannot move easily thrOUgh
these soils and, therefore, the frost heave is lim itcd. However, if the clayey deposited have fissures and
crack.s, water moves easily and a large frost heave may occur in such soils.
If the temperature persists below the freezing point for a long period. frost penetrates the soil further, and
the depth of the affected soil increases. The depth upto which the water may fl'CC'Le is known as the frosl line.
The basic condition for the formation of the frost he.1ve may be summarised as under:
(I) The temperature in the soil is below freezing point and pen;ists for a long period.
(2) A reservoir of the ground water is available sufficiently dose to the frost line to feed the growing
ice lenses by capillary action.
(3) The soil is saturated at the beginning and during the freezing period.
(4) The soil has sufficiently rugh capillary poIenlial to lin the water above the ground water table.
(5) The soil has good penneabilily so that water moves quiclc.ly through it.
CAPILLARY WATER
(6) The soil particles of size about 0.02 mm arc rn05t prone to frost heave.
If a unifOlm soil contains more than 10% particles of the size 0.02 mm or if a well~grndcd soil a:mtains
more than 3% particles of this size, the soil is prone to frpst heave.
The foundations of structures should be carried below the frost depth to avoid possible frost heave after
the completion of the structure. However. highways and runways have limited depth below the ground surface
and cannot be constructed below the frust line. In soch cases. other meao;ures are taken to reduce frost heave.
as discussed in Sect. 7.13.
in the upper layer while the lower layers are stiU frozen. The strength of the soil in the upper layer is reduced
due to its softening caused by an increases in water coment. The process of softening of soil due to Iibemtion
of water during thawing is known as frost boil.
Frost boil affects the structures resting on the ground surface:. The effect is more pronounced on highway
pavements. A hole is generally formed in the pavement due to extrusion of soft soil and water under the
action of wheel loads. In extreme cases., the pavement breaks under tramc. and there is ejection of subgrndc
soil in a soft and soapy condition.
'!
Coarsegrained soils arc not affected much by (rost boil. as the quantity of liberated water is sman. and
lhal too is drained away quickJy. The soils most prone to the softening effect are s ilty soils. These soils have
low plasticity index and beoome very soft with a small inaease in water roment. Oayey soils are not affected
as much as silty soils since the quantity of liberated water is small and the plasticity index is high.
130
Shrinkage is due to tension in soil water. When tension (negative pressure) develops in water,
compressive forces act on the solid particle. The compressive forces induced in the solid particles are similar
to those induced in the walls of the capillary lube discussed in Sect. 7.4. When the water content of a soil
mass reduces due to eV8lX'ration, the meniscus
retreats. This causes oompression of the solid
particles and hence a reduction in the volume
of the soil mass.
The Strc5SCS in pore water during
shrinkage can be studied from the capillary
tube analogy (Sect. 7.4). Let us consider a soil
,I
CAPILLARY WATER
Jhis
VOIDS
~.,.L.?0.,
SIPHONING
SPILLS OVER COAt)
capillary rise, water flows from the storage reservoir to the downstream over the core. Omsiderable quantity
I of stored water may be lost due to capillary siphoning. To prevent this, the aest of the impervious core
should be kepi sufficiemly high. In other words. the difference of top level of the oore and water level in the
reservoir should be more than the capillary risc in soil of the shell.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
llIustrative Example 7.1. What is the negative pressure in the water just below the meniscus in a
capillary tube of diwlleter 0.1111111 filled with watet, The surface tension is 0.075 Nlm and wetting angle is 10
degrees. .
Solution. From Eq. 7.1.
4 T. cos
hr ..
gp:;J ..
"
4 )( 0.075 )( 0.9848
.. 0.301 m
9.81 )( 1000 x 0.1 )( 103
132
lJIustmllve Example 7.2. Estimate the cnpillQry rise in a soil with a void ratio 0/0.60 and an effective
size of 0.01 mn!. Take C = 15 mm2,
Solution. From Eq. 7.8,
e;lo"
he"
0.6 !50 .01 .. 2500 mm .. 205m
illustrative Example 7:3. The PF of a soil is 2.50. Determine the capillary potential of the soiL
Solution.
)C
tal
N/m'
..  31.02 kN/m2
Dlustratlve Example 7.4. The capillary rise in a soil A with an effective size of 0.02 mm was 6() em.
Estimate the capillary rise in a similar soil B wilh an effective size of 0.04 mm.
Solution. From Eq. 7.8,
(h,h
(D",),
(h,), (D",h
(~2
..
~:~
.. 2
or
(hen" JOan
llIustrative Example 7.5. The capillary rise in sill;s 50 em and IMI in fine sand is 30 em. What is the
difference in the pore size of the twO soils ?
he '" 0;: em
For sill,
(he)l .. 50 ..
d~
or d L
(heh 30 
d~
or d,.  10,0
..
6.0 )( lcrJ an
X
10..3 an
4.00 x 103 em
PROBLEMS
A, Numeriall
..
soil which has a void ralio of 0.65 and the effective Si~:::' ~~~~l~i
7.2. The effective size of a soil Is 0,015 mm. Estimate the height of capillary rise. Take surface tension as
0.074 N/m.
[Aos. 10 m]
7.4. The glass vessel shown in fig. P 7.4 is filled with water. It hns two holes of diameter 0.01 em and 0.03 ern as
shown. If a fully developed meniscus is formed in the upper hole, determine the height h of the wall of the
vesseL
[Aos. 20.27 em]
7.5. In Prob, 7.4, if both the holes ore of the some diametcr, equal to 0.Q1 em, determine the cont9Ct angle in the
lower hole if that in the upper hole is zero and h ;; 20,27 an,
[ARS. 70.54"1
CAPILLARY WATER
133
T
h
1
Fig. P.7.4
7.9. Differentiat!! bl!tween frost heave and frost boil. Whm is their tHect on soils? How frost actiun can be
prevented ?
8
Premeability of Soils
8.1. INTRODUCTION
A material is porous if it contains inlenitices. The porous material is permeable if the interstices are
interconnected or continuous. A liquid can flow through a permeable material. Electron photomicrographs of
even very fine clays indicate that the interstices are interconnected. However. the size, cross seaian, and
orientation of the interstires in diITerent soils arc highly variable. In general. all the soils arc permeable.
The property of a soil which permitS flow of water (or any other liquid) through it, is calkd the
penneability._In other words, the permeability is the ease with which water can flow through it. A soil is
highly pervious when water can now through il easily. In an impervious soil. the permeability is very low and
water cannot easily now through it. A completely impervious soil does nOI pennit the water to flow through
it. However. such completely impervious soils do not exist in nature. as all the soils arc pervious to some
degree. A soil is termed impervious when the permeability is extremely low.
Permeability is a very important engineering property of soils. A knowledge of permeability is essential
in a number of soil engineering problems. suCh as settlement of buildings, yield of wells. seepage through and
below the earth structures. It controls the hydraulic stability of soil masses. The permeability of soils is also
rrquircd in the design of filters used 10 prevent piping in hydraulic structures.
As mentioned in chapter 7, free water or gravitational water flows through soils under the influence of
gravity. Flow of free water depends upon the permeability of the soil and the head causing flow. This chapter
deals with Darcy's law for flow of water, the methods for the determination of permeability and the [adors
affecting the permeability of soils. further details of flow o[ water and seepage problems are discussed in the
next chap{er.
PERMEABlLTfY OF SOILS
Point
IZ
,f
hZ
Totol heod
h'
,e
is
d
;h
al
,d
of
,.
he
ye
ilt.
:ly
",I
tor
al
'he
he
,be
.gIl
Ihe
elevation head, the pressure head and the total hcad at three points I, 2 and 3 are also shown in the figure.
The total head at point 1 is h and that at point 3 is zero. llle head h is known as the hydraulic head. It is
equal to the difference in the elevations of water levels at the entry and exit points in a soil mass. Obviously,
it is equal to the loss of head through thc soil. Thc hydraulic head is also known as the effective head.
The loss of head per unit length of flow throujllhc soil is equal to the hydraulic gradient (I),
i _ hl L
.. (8.1)
whcre h hydraulic head. and L = lcngth of the soil specimen.
The variation of head at various points is represented by the line CD, known as the hydraulic gradient
linc (H.G.L.) or pressure gradient line. If a piezometcr is inserted at any intcnnediate point 2, the water will
rise upto the level of the hydraulic gradient line at that point. The line CD. therefore, represents a piezometric
surface. It is generally assumed thai the loss of head over the length of the soil sample is uniform and,
therefore, the variation of head is linear.
The velocity of flow is also known as the discharge velocity or the. superficial velocity.
Eq. 8.2 is known as Darcy's law, which is one of the comcr stones of soil engineering. The discharge q
is ootaioed by multiplying the velocity of flow (v) by the total cross sectional area of soil (A) nonnal to the
d.iredion of flow. Thus
q _ vA  kiA
... (8.3)
The area A includes both tbe solidS and the voids.
The coetrJcient of permeability can be defined using Eq. 8.2. If the hydraulic gradient is unity, the
coefficient of permeability is equal to the velocity of flow. In other words. the coefficient of penneability is
defined as the velocity of flow which would occur under unit hydraulic gradient. The coefficient of
permeability has the dimensions of velocity [Ln]. It is measured in mmtscc. cmlsee. m/sec, m/day or other
velocity units. The coefficient of penneability depends upon the particle size and upon many other faaors as
136
explained later. Table 8.1 gives the typical values of the cocflkicnt of permeability of different soils.
Thble 8.1. 1yplcal Values of the Coefficient of Permeability
Coefficient of
S. No.
(mmlsec)
Drainage
properties
to+ 1 to 10+2
Very good
penneabilily
Soil Type
Cleangruvel
to 10+1
..
10
10 10
10 2
Fair
4.
1O~ 10 104
p"",
5.
103 to 105
Good
Very poor
According to USBR, the soils having the coefficient of permeability greater than 103 mmJsec are
classified as pervious and those with a value less than 105 mm/sec as impervious. The soils with the
coefficient of permeability between 105 10 103 mm/sec arc designated as semipervious.
8.4. VALIDITY OF
DAI~CY'S
lAW
Darcy's taw is valid if the flow through soils is laminar. 'Inc now of water through soils depends upon
the dimension of interstic.::cs. which, in tum, depend upon the particle size. In finegrained soils, the dimensions of
the interstices are very small and the flow is necessarily laminar. In coarsegrained soils, the flow is also
generally laminar. However, in very coarsegrained soils, such as coarse grdvels, the flow may be turbulent.
For flow of water through pipes, the flow is laminar when the ReynOlds number is less than 2000.
For flow through soils, it bas been found that the now is laminar if the Reynolds number is less than
unity. For now through soits, the characteristic length in the Reynolds number is taken as the average
particle diameter (D).
Thus
137
PERMEABILITY OF SOILS
(0) Laboratory Methods. 'Ibc coefficient of permeability of a soil sample can be determined by the
following methods :
(I) Constanthead penneability test
(il) Variablebead permeability test.
1lle instruments used are known as permeameters. The fonner lest is suitable for relalh1cly more pervious
The pumpingoul tests influence a large area around the pumping well and give an overall value of the
coefficient of permeability of the soil deposit. The pumpingin Icst innucnces a small area around the hole
and therefore gives n value of the coefficient of permeability of the soil surrounding the hole.
(e) indirect Methods. The coefficient of permeability of the soil can also be determined indirectly from
the soil parameters by
(I) Computation from the particle size or its specific surface,
(it) Computation from the consolidation test data.
The first method is used if the partiCle size is known. The second method is used when the coefficient
of volume change has been determined from the consolidation test on the soil.
(d) CaplllurltyPenneubility test. The coefficient of permeability of an unsaturated soil can be
determined by the capillaritypermeability test (Sect.. 8.16).
::: :
h
air release valve. The drainage base and cap have
fillings for clamping to the mould.
Fig. 8.2 shows a schematic skeLCh. The soil
sample is placed inside the mould between two
porous discs. 1bc porous discs should be at least
138
It is essential thai the sample is fully saturated. This is done by one of the following three methods.
(l) By pouring the soil in the pcrmeameter filled with water and thus depositing the soil under water.
(il) By allowing water to flow upward from the base to the top after the soil has been plaoed in the
mould. 1ltis is done by attaching the COrlStanthead reservoir to the drainage base. The upward flow
is maintained for sufficicnt lime till aU the air has been expelled out.
(iit) Dy applying a vacuum pressure of about 700 mm of mercury through the drainage cap for about 15
minutes after closing the drainage valve. Then the soil is saturated by allowing dCllired water to enler
from the drainage base. 1be airrelease valve is kept open during saturation process.
After the soil sample has becn saturated. the oonstanthead reservoir is connected to the drainage cap.
Water is allowed to flow out from the drainage base for some time till a steadystalc is established. The water
level in the constanthead chamber in which the mould is placed is kept constant. The chamber is filled to the
brim at the stan of thc experiment. The water which enters the chamber aner flowing through the sample
spills over the chamber and is collected in a graduated jar for a convenient period. The head causing now (h)
is equal 10 the difference in water levels between the constanthead reservoir and the constantbead chamber.
If the crosssectional area of the specimen is A, the discharge is given by (Eq. 8.3)
q .. kiA
q
k~A
k_
... (8~)
PERMEABILITY OF SOILS
139
~~ns:~
I
1
h,
STANO PJPE
112
h
SAMPLI
adh _ qdt
whcre a is cr06Sscctional area of the standpipe.
or
adh(Axkx,)xdt
adh....4.kx~xdl
A Icdt
dh
;Lh
Jntegrating,
or
,uj'
aL
dl_
IJ
!: ~
10,
log., (hi/hi)
...(8.6)
where t _ (12 11), the time intcrval during which the bead reduces from hi to h'2'
140
a<;
~T~r
~l~l
iA1
(b)
(.)
Fig. 8.4 (a) shows the longitudinal seaion through a soil sample in which the voids and the solid
particles are segregated. However, it must be clearly understood that the voids and solids in actual soils fonn
a complex system and it is not possible to segregate them . From the oontinuity of flow.
... (.)
q  vA _ v,A ..
where A., is the area of flow through voids and v, is the actual seepage velocity.
v,  v x (A/A.~)
From Eq. (a).
Multiplying the numerator and denominator by the length (L) of the specimen,
v,  v x (:. :
i)
...
(b)
The product (A x L) is equal 10 the lota1 volume V and the prodLKi (A .. x L), equal to Ihe volume of
voids (V.) [Fig. 8.4 (0)].
There[ore,
v,  v x
'Y:'
... (0)
v
v _,
n
... (8.8)
In other words, tlie seepage velocity is equal to the discharge velocity divided by porosity.
v, 
or
v, _ Ap xi
... (8.9)
wbere
~  k/n
... (8.10)
The ooefficient ~ is known as the coeDkienl of percolation.. Its value is always greater than the
coefficient of penneability (Ie).
PERMEABILITY OF SOILS
141
Strictly speaking, the seepage velocity is not be absolute velocity through the interstices. The interstices
are tortuous and irregular in crosssection and cannot be represented as shown in Fig. 8.4 (a). The absolute
velocity varies from point to point. Its direttion may also change and, at times, i! may be directly opposite to
the general direction of flow. In fact, the problem is so complex that an analysis based on the absolute
velocity is not possible. Although on the microscopic scale, the flow path is tortuous, on a macroscopic scale,
it can be considered as a straight line. The seepage velocity can be taken a'> the maC'OSa>pic velocity at which
the line of wetting progresses in the direction of flow. ObviOUSly, it is not equal to the absolute velocity as
the water flows not in a straight line but it detours around solid particles. Fortunately, the absolute velocity is
not of much practical use in soil engineering. lbe geotechnical engineer is interested in the macroscopic
behaviour of the soil aDd not in its microscopic behaviour.
The total discharge can be computed using either the discharge velocity (v) or the seepage velocity (VI).
The discharge velocity is more convenient and is commonly used in soil engineering. In this text, when the
tcnn velocity is used without any qualification, it means discharge velocity.
now in a pipe.
, ~ (~ )
where 1.1. = coefficient of viscosity and
... (0)
~ = velocity gradient.
For steady flow, the net force acting on the element in the horizontal direction is zero. Therefore,
(Plpvrci  (2ttrl)"'C _ 0
Substituting the value of"'C from Eq. (a), and simplifying,
dv
 dPlJ>i)
d;~
PI lwhl
Thus
dv
d; 
P2  lw h2
and
ryw(hlhV
2~1
dv
r'(wi
d;~
Integrating,
v _
;f~ i ( ~ )
+ C
The constant of integration C can be obtained from the condition of no slip (Le.. v
142
'tw iR2
C~
v .. '1",1
Therefore
+ y",ifil
4J.l
v_
4"
'h!.(R2
4"
_ ?)
... (8.11)
pipe
y.i ..,
4; (,,,.AI
dq  (2x,dr) v  21Udr
q _
Integrating.
I'
Jo
2w
(~)
(R'?)dr _ ,,!.ilt
41'
8"
Writing the radius R in terms of the hydraulic radius RH (i.e RH .. D/ 4  RI2) and the area A
for n: R2,
q 
! ~ R~I
)C
... (8.12)
2 "
Ukewise, it can be shown thai the discharge through two parallel plates of width B and placed at distance
d apart is given by (see any text on Auid Mechanics),
q_
l~(2Bd~
3
Substituting
A=2Bd
nnd
"
RH  ;n:  d.
q .. 1. , (... i Rl, )( A
.. . (8.13)
3 "
Comparing Eqs. 8.12 and 8.13, it is observed
that the general fonn of the equation for laminar flow
through passages of different shapes is the same. The difference is only in the numerical value of the
constants. The general equation for discharge in a conduit of any shape can be written as
q  C,
C~i) RI, A
... (8.14)
Since the flow through porous media is laminar. Eq. 8.14 can be used. However, the area of flow passage
in the cac;e of porous media is equal to the porosity times the total crosssectional area and, therefore., Eq.
8.14 becomes
q  C,
() RI,
(NI)
...(0)
PERMEABIUfY OF SOILS
143
R ..
H
areaofflow
A~
wetted perimeter ..
p:,
Multiplying the numerator and the denominator by the length of the passage (L).
mass. Thus
RII ..
V~
eV.
'JtrY/ 6
eD
A, .. T, .. e ;;[j2 .. 6
q . c,(~)(eN(~)A
q ~(~)(I: . )D'iA
Replacing C,I36 by another cocfHc ient C,
k.C(~)(I:e)D'
... (8.15)
Eq. 8 .15 gives a general expression for the coefficient of penneabWty of soil.
8.11. FACffiRS AFFEcnNG PERMEABILITY OF SOILS
The following factors affect the permeability of soils.
(1) Particle size. As it is evident from Eq. 8.15, the coefficient of permeability of a soil is proportional
to the square of the particle size (D). l11e permeability of coarsegrained soils is very large as compared to
[hal of fine grained soils. The permeability of coarse sand may be more than one million times as much that
ofcJay.
(2) Structure or soli mass. The coefficient C in Eq. 8.15 takes into 3CCOlUlt the shape of the flow
passage. The size of the flow passage depends upon the structural arrangement. Hx the same void ralio, the
permeability is more in the case of floca.J1ated structure as compared to that in the diSpersed structure.
Stratified soil deposits have greatcr permeability parallel to the plane of stratification than that
perpendicular to Ihis plane. Pcnncability of a soil deposit also depends upon shrinkage cracks. joints, fissures
and shear wncs. Loess deposits have grealer permeability in the vertical direction than in the horizontal
direction.
The permeability of a natural soil deposit should be detcnnined in undisturbed condition. 1be distwbance
caused duriog sampling may destroy the original structure and affect the penneability. The effect of
disturbance is more pronounced in the case of fmc grained soils than in the case of coarsegrained soils.
144
..i!.
1.0,,
... (8.16)
05
S
~
::>
01.,
03
02
().1
O'~04
t'rJ
mm/~c:
_____
PBRMEABILITY OF SOILS
145
coeffkient of penneability inaeases with an increase in temperature due to reductiO'I in the visrosity.
It is usual practice (IS : 27111 Part XVU) to report the coefficient of permeabililJ at 27 D C. The following
equation can be used for conversion of the penneability to 27D C.
k",  k,
!;
...(8.17)
kn  e,k,
e, is tbe corted.ion fadar. equal to
... (8.18)
(jA.,/!lv).
The correction factor e, can be determined from the values of the coefficient of visoosity given in
Thble 3.2.
(6) Degree of Saturation. If the soil is not fully saturated, it contains air pockets fanned due to
entrapped air or due to air liberated from percolating water. Whatever may be the cause of the presence of
air in soils, tbe permeability is reduced due to presence of air which causes blockage of passage.
Comequently, the permeability of a partially saturated soil is considerably smaller than that of a fully
saturated soil. In fact, Darcy's law is not striclly applicable to such soils.
The penneability of a partially saturated soil is measured in the laboratory by the capillarityI'.",,,ability test (Sect. 8.16).
Adsorbed water. 1be finegrained soils have a layer of ad<iorbed water strongly attached to their
surface. This adsorbed water layer is not free to move under gravity. It causes an obstruction to !low of water
in the pon:s and hence reduces the penncability of soils.
It is difficult to estimate the voids occupied by the adsorbed water. According to one estimate, the void
ratio occupied by adsorbed water is about 0.10. The effeaive void ratio available for flow of water is thus
about (eO.l) and not e. In some cases, at very low hydraulic gradients, the coefficient of permeability of
rmegraincd soils becomes negligibly small due to presence of adsorbed water.
(8) ImpurlUes in water. Any foreign maller in water h$ a tendency to plug the flow passage and reduce
tbc effective voids and hence the permeability of soils.
... (8.19)
KC(~)Ii'
1+
Therefae, the coefficient of absolute permeability (X) is independent of the properties of water_ It
146
The coefficient of absolute permeability for a soil with a given void rntio and structure is constant. It has
tbe same value whatever may be the fluid.
constant and the water level in the well does not change. The water table, which was originally horizontal
before the pumping was started, is depreSsed near the well. The water table near the well fonns an inverted
cone, known as the cone of depression. The maximum depression of the water table is known as the drawdown (d).
The expression for the coefficient of permeability can be derived making the following assumptions,
known as Dupuit'S assumption.
PERMFABIUfY OF SOILS
147
J.
Let
q .. kiA
Substituting the value of i from Eq. (8.20) and taking A equal to 2nI' z,
q. k
IS
,e
,11
"u.
..I
ed
or
Integrating,
!!!.. ..
(~)
2nkzdz
/ <E:.
q
2d /
Irq
Iog.('';',)'
k =
(2xn)
uJz
~ (zl zl)
q
fL,;1t(Zi  .:1)
or
log.. (r1ir )
... (8.21)
~
k (zl _ zl) log" ('';'')
... (8.22)
Near the test well, there is a rapid drop in head and the slope of the hydraulic gradient is steep, and
asswnption (8) is not satisfied. The observation wells 1 and 2 should be drilled at considerable distance from
the well for acx:urate measurements: The radial distance of the well should be at least equal to the thickness
of aquifer (D). The observation wells are usually arranged in two orthogonal lines, one along the general
direction of flow of the ground water and the other at right angle to this direction.
An approximate value of the coefficient of pennenbility can be detennined if the radius of influence (R)
is known or is estimated. The circle of influence, over whicb the effect of pumping is observed, extend) to a
very large area. In fact, it gradually merges asymptotically 10 Ihe water table. The radiw; of influence varies
between 150 to 300 m. According to Sichardt, it can be found using the relation
'1
R JrnJdVli
where R = radius of influence (m),
d = drawdown (m)
and
J.: = Coefficient of penneability (m/SeC)
According 10 Kozeny (1933), the radius of innuence;
R [(12 rln)(qk/nJ""]'"
where I is the time required to establish steady oooditions, and
Eq. 8.21 can be written as
II
is the porosity.
148
k ~ 109. (RI,.)
where r... :: radius of test well,
R = radi~ of influence,
D :: depth of aquifer measured below tbe water table.
also approximate.
P.S. = PIEZOMETRIC
SURFACE
... (8.23)
11
D
G.S.
0;.:;.. .
CONE
DEPRESSION
T ~.LL<====~
CONFINED
AQUIFER
;r,==='777n'7f.r.=c:'::l+.~~:>hJr",77777
aquifer.
Initially, the piezometric surface is
.
horizontal. When the pumping is
Fig. 8.9. Confined AqUIfer.
started from the weU, it is depressed and a cone' of depression is fonned. The expression for the coefficient
of penncability can be derived making the same $Sumptions as in the cze of unconfined aquifer. Let us
consider the discharge through a cylindrical surface at a radial distance , from the centre and of height z.
From Darcy's law,
q  kiA
q ok
Integrating,
(;l;) (2rub)
or
or
...(a)
.(8.24)
... (8.25)
= height of water level in observation well (1) at a radial distance of '1 and
Z2 = height of water level in observation well (2) at a radial distance of '2'
As in the case of an unconfmed aquifer, an approximate value of k can be detennined if the radius of
where
%1
C&'ie,
k q log. (RI,.)
2nb(Dh)
... (8.26)
PERMEABILITY OF SOIlS
149
pumpingoul tests give more reliable values than that given by pumpingin tests. The pumpingin lests give
the value of the coefficient of permeability of stratum just close to the hole, whereas the pumpingout lests
give the value for a largearea around the hole.
There are b~lcally two types of pumpingin tests: (1) Openend tests, (2) Packer tests. In an openend
tests. the water flows oul of the test hole Ihrough its bottom end, whereas in packer tests, the water flows out
through the sides of the section of a hole enclosed between packers. 1be value of the coefficient of
pcnneability is obtained from the quantity of water accepted by the hole. The water pumpedin should be
clean, as tbe impurities, such as sill, clay or any other foreign matter, may cause plugging of the flow
passages. If the water available is tUrbid, it should be clarified in a settling tank or by using a filter. The
temperature of the water pumped in should be slightly higher than the temperature of the ground waler 10
preclude the formation of air bubbles in stratum.
(1) Open~nd 'Jests. A pipe casing is insencd into tbe bore bole to the desired depth and it is cleaned
out. The hole is kept filled with water during cleaning if it extends below the water table. This is necessary
to avoid squeezing of the soil into the bottom of the pipe casing when the driving 1001 is withdrawn.
T
H
",
~,
lOT
t''I
",
(o)
~
(b)
S;ZW.T.
(<I
After the hole has been cleaned out, water is added to the hole through a metring system. The constant
rate of flow (q) is determined at which the steady conditions are established. The coefficient of penneabilily
is detennined by the fOllowing equation (USBR, 19til).
k 
s1rH
...(8.27)
iI
ISO
is difficult 10 maintain a constant water level in the casing and some surging of this level has to be tolemted.
Eq. 8.27 can also be used in this case. However, in this case H is equal to the difference of inlet level and
the bottom end of the pipe. If required, the rale of now (q) can be increased by pumpingin water under a
pressure A with a total head of (H + ply..,).
(2) Packer Tests. The packer tests are perfooned in an uncased portion of the pipe casing. The packer
tests are more commonly used for testing of rocks. The tests are occasionally used for testing of soils if the
bore hole can stay open without any casing.
(a) Single packer tests. If the hole cannot stand without a casing, singlepacker lest is used. The packer
Is p~ as shown in F4,g. B.l1 (a). Water is pumped into the hole. It comes out of the sides of uncased
portion of the hole below the packer. If the casing is used for the full depth, it should have perforations in
the portion of the stratum being tested. The lower end of the casing is plugged.
(a)
(b )
When the steady ooooitions are attained. the constant rate of flow (q) is dctmnined. lbe value of the
coefficient of penneability is found by the following equation (USBR, 19(1).
k 
k where
if L
tOr
if lOr> L
. (8.28)
:t
.. .(8.29)
If the water is applied under pressure (P). the value of II beoomc:s (H + pI., ...). ao; in the case of
openend tests.
After the test is oomplete. the packer is removed. If required. the hole is made deeper and again a packer
is placed and the test repeated for that portion.
PERMFABILITY, OF SOILS
'"
stanJb~i~~~~~:~: d:~le~~:erh~:t ~~
~i~::i:I:::'ris~~:; ~~ :~:edde~~:
szW.T.
specified.
(.)
(0)
k  C Dl.
...(8.30)
k_~'..L.
(C,J.lS)7:Z
where
1 + e
... (831)
The KozenyCarman equation gives good results for coarsegrained soils such as sands. and some silts.
However, when the equation is u.<;ed for clayey soils, serious discrepancies are observed. The acruracy for
coarsegrained soils is about 20%.
For computation of k from Eq. 831, the value of specirlC surface S is required. The specific surface (S)
of a particle is equal to. the surface area of the particle per unit volume of the particle. It depends upon the
shape and size of the particle. For a Spherical panicle of diameter D. specific surface (S) is given by
s_
(.10') _ ~
(.0'16)
D
The specific swface of spheres unifonnly distributed in size between the mesh size
... (8.32)
Q
and b, is given by
S _ 61.fiifi
... (8.33)
For accurate results, the ratio alb should not be greater than 2.
Ir the particles arc of irregular shape. the specific surCa<.:e can be determined indirectly from 8
comparison with the specific surface oC unifonn sphere of the same size, and using a factor known as
angularity factor (J).
I ..
;:~~s~::=::s~e:u;!:;~~~~~
The value of f depends upon the angularity of the particles. Its value is usually taken as 1.1 for rounded
sands, 1.25 for sands of medium angularity and 1.4 for angular sands.
If Mh M2 ... Mil are the percentage of the total soil sample retained on different sieves. the overall
specific surface oC the lotal sampk: is given by
S .. j{M1S 1 + M2~ + ...... M"S,,)
.. (8.34)
where S .. S2 ...... 5" are the specific surface of spheres uniformly distribute:! wilhin the corresponding
sieves.
(3) Loudon's Fonnula. Loudon gave the following empirical formula.
IOg10 (k s')
a + bn
... (8.35)
where k
lO"e,
1"
PERMEABILITY OP SOILS
...(a)
vln
dx
k. (hi + he)
x
xdx ..
k..(h~: he) dl
di  S;;
ht)! dl
Integrating,
or
 2   Sn
Xdx .. i.(h l +
Sn
..sil
..s  .G
(1211) ..
k.(hl+h.) (
t2  tl
...(8.37)
Eq. 8.37 can be used to detennine the coefficient of pcnneability (l..) if all other variables are given. As
the capillary head (he) is also not known, there are two unknowns (ktt and ht) on the righthand side of the
equation. Therefore, one more equation is required.
The SCCX)nd equation can be derived if the head is changed from hi to ~ when the water surface has
advanced 10 about half the length of the transparent tube by closing the valve C and opening the valve
D. Let %2 and x,l by the distances measured from the left end at the time t;2 and I). Eq. 8.37 becomes. for
this case, as
.oi..s
21. (h,+ h.)
(I)tV .. Sn
... (8.38)
The values of the unknown k,. and ht can be obtained analytically from Eqs. 8.37 and 8.38. A plol. is
154
... (8.39)
... (8.40)
;Z
4
x?
V  T:;;
e_Gp"'_l
Pd
and
n .. _e_
I + e
The degree of saturation (5") ' is obtained from the water rootent of lhe soil delennined after the test, using
the equations developed in chapter 2.
S .. wGle
For accurate results, the capillary head (he) should be maintained constant almg the vertical wetting
surface. It is done by slowly revolving the tube about its axis.
If
"1 LAVER 0)
For flow parallel to the planes of
q
stratification, the loss of head (h) over a length L
is the same [Of both the layers. Therefore, the
L_ _
 __
_ _"
hydraulic grndient (I) for each layer is equal to
the hydraulic gradient of the entire deposit. The
system is analogous to the two resistances in
i.~1
parallel in an elearical cira.1it, wherein the
potential drop is the same in both the resistances.
Fig. 8.15
From the continuity equation, the total discharge (q) per unit width is equal to the sum of the discharges
in the iodividual layers. i.e.,
... (a)
11Hz
~_LA_~E_R_(2)
II.L.
1SS
PBRMEABIUrY OF SOILS
Let (kllh snd (kllh be the permeability of the layers 1 and 2 rc5ped.ively, parallel to the plane of
stratification and (kh) be the overall penneability in that direction. From Eq. (a), using Darcy's law,
~
>.)(
k
(kil
HI + <kiln )( H2
/I HI + H2
If there are n layers instead of two.
k _ (k"h )( HI + (k"h )( H2 + ... + (k"),, )( H"
ll
HI + 112 + ... + II"
. . .(8.41)
(b) Flow normal to the plane or stratlncatlon. Let us consider 8 soil deposit consisting of two layers
of thickness HI and 112 in wbich the
occurs normal to the plane of stratification (Fig. 8.16).
now
I'] '" 1T
i.
Loyer 0)
to
Loyer III
I.
let (k..)1 and (k..h be the ooeffic.ient of permeability of the layers 1 and 2 in the direction perpendiruJar
to the plane of stratification, and Ie., be the average coefficient of permeability of the entire deposit in that
direction. In this case, the discharge per unit width is the same for each layer and is equal to the discharge
in the entire deposit. The case is analogous to the resistances in series in an electrical circuit, wherein the
current is the same for all resistances.
Therefore,
.. (a)
Using Darcy's law, considering unit area perpendk:ular to now,
... (b)
h" )( ill )( I  (k..)1 )( (i..h )( I  (k"n )( (i..h )( 1
where i .. = overall hydraulic gradient, (i,,)1 = hydraulic gradient in layer I,
(i~h = hydraulic gradient in lay~ 12
... (c)
...(d)
(i,), [(k,)/(k,),
(~h
[(k,)/(k,), I x
As the 100ai loss of head (h) over the enlire deposit is equal to the sum of the loss of beads in the
individual layers,
WritiDg in teoos of hydraulic grandient (I) and the distance of flow, remembering h .. i )( L,
i" )( H 
(i~)1 )( HI
+ (i..h
)(
Hl
(k,)
(k~)1 x 1,,)(
H
I
(k,)
(k~h x ' .. )(
H
2
'"
k,
[(Z;,
j
(Z~
H  H, + H,
k..~
HI
H2
(k,), + (k,h
.t.. ..
HI + H2 + . .. + HII
HI . H2
RIO
(k,)' + (k,h + ... + (k,)"
... (8.42)
Evan (1962) proved that for isotropic (A;. .. kll) and homogeneous layers. the average permeability of the
entire depooit parallel to the plane of stratification is always greater than that normal to this plane. For
illustration, let us consider a deposit oonsisling of two layers of thickness 1 m and 2 m, having the coefficient
of permeabJljty of 1 )( 102 em/sec and 1 x 104 an/sec, respectively.
From
):I".
"""'I
8.41.
Ie
1)( 10
... ..
Hi OO + 2'x;OO
Ie" ..
~+~
.. 1.49 )( 10..... em/ sec
k, > Ie..
It may be noted that the average permeability parallel to the plane of stratification depends mainly on the
penneability of the most permeable layer and its value is close to the permeability of that layer. On the other
hand, the average permeability normal to the plane of stnllulCation is close to that for the most impermeable
layer. In other words, the avemge flow parallel to the plane of stratifICation is governed by the most
penneable layer and that perpendirular to the plane of stratificationby the lc$t permeable layer.
Thus
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
Dlustratlve Example 8.1. In a oonstant head penneameter test, the following observations were taken.
))istaIIU between piezometer lappings
c:: 100 nun
Difference of waler levels in pinmne~rs ;:: 60 mm
D~ter of thI! tesl sample
"" 100 mm
Quo.nlity of water colJectt!d
= 350 ml
[)uraliOf'l of the test
= 170 seconds
Detl:rmine the coelflC~t of permeability of the soiL
k =
In this case.,
"
1.296 x 10.0
_ 0.0275 aD/ sec.
(n/4) x (10)' x 6.0
Dlustratlve Example 8.2. ~ failinght!ad permeability test was conducted on a soil samplt! of 4 em
diameter and 18 cm len~h. The hMd fell from 1.0 m 10 0.4IJ m in 20 minuta. If 1M cross stiOMl aIU of
the stand pipe was 1 em detl:rmine tilt c~fficit!1U of permeability.
1berefore,
PERMEABILITY OF SOILS
157
1.0 x 18.0
Jog. (1.0/0.40)
(It/4) x (4.0)2 x 20 x 60
1.09 x 103 em/sec.
lIlustratiye Example 8.3. A soil has the cOl'jficient of penlleahiUt)' of 4.75 x irrl mm/uc at Jife.
Determille iT.I vallie m 2r'C. 'fake the coefficient of viscosity at lO"e and 27'C as 8.0 milii poise and 8.5
mill; pnise. respecr;vt'I.I:
trt  Ie. ; ;
'
n1ustratlve Example 8.4. Estimale the value of the coelflCienl of permeability of a soil with an effective
ditvneter of 0.2 mm. .
Solullon. From Eq. 8.30.
k C~o
k 125 x (0.02)2 0,05 ~1t1/sec.
Thking C 125,
illustrative Example 8.5. The coefficient of J>Crmeability of a soil al a void raw of 0.7 is 4 x 104
em/sec. Estimate its va/~ at a void ratio of 0.50.
Solution. From Eq. 8.15,
As all the parameters remain constant, except e,
k,n
(0.70)'
(1 + 0.50)
k;:;  (1 + 0.70) x (050)'
4 : _104 2.421
or
...s
ko., 
Altematlve Method
k.1.4ko.a.~e2
4 x 10' _ 1.4
ko.as 
or
For e _ 0.50,
ko"
x (0.7)'
5.83 x 10'
Th
'
ere.ore,
k _
Zl"
100 x 10'
1
(25/3)
[(8)' _ (5.50)') og,
 0.002 m/sec
 2 mm/sec.
'"
Illustrative Example 8.7. Dnennille the coejficielll of permellbWly of a confined aquifer 5 m thick which
Rilles a .frcelli), tIi.~c/llIrge of 20 /itreslsec through (/ well of 0.3 til radills. The height of water in 'h e well which
1\'(1.\' 10 '" aIJo\'(! the base lJeJ()I1.~ pumping dropped to 8 m. Take the I'Mius of influence as 300 m.
k = q /ogr (Rlr)
2xb(Dh)
, =
= 0.0022 m/"c.
lIIustrntive Example 8.8. De/ermine the average coefficient of pemllmbiliry ill 'he horh,ollral and
wmical diret',j(JI1.~ for (I deposit ("(msi~'ril1g of llime layers of thickness 5 m. J til a/1d 2.5 m and having the
cm'fficit:III.\' of perml'a{,ility of 3 x /01 /11I11/.H~C. 3 x JO.~ IIIIIi/sec. and 4 x J(r 2 mmhec. respectively. Assume
tile layer.\ an: i.Wllrvpic,
Solution. From Eq. R.4J. taking /I = 3,
_ (1.,,),
I.
!J 
8.50
k"
Z2
+
+ H~
.!.... + .!... +.2..
Hfl i
(',.),
k"
(1/1
aquifl'l' ille/illl'li 01
(',J.,
2~5
3 x 102
3 x IO s
';m
levels in
~7 6~b.f,~~)~\~it:~! ;:;~"~:!:e~:,,;;;;;~~:~(l~~.~;:~:
.;',::'~
~'
. .::.:.: ::":" . ',' .
depll!
= 601co)l
I.
= /ilL
dis~ha!ge
10
= 60.926
~9026
:,:'.>','::
60 m
Pig, B8.9
observation wcllt;
Hydfllulir.: gmdienl
x 10.... mm/s
4 X 102
8'9~
100 10 Ihe
1I'(/fl!Y
~ = 2.S
5 + I +
103
~+~+2.SX 10'
(',.),
".
,
= 0.082
=k iA
= 0.7 x
= 0.169
lit/sCi:,
15.
PERMEABILITY OF SOILS
04m
..L
or
SOIL B
0 3m
03m
Fig. E8.10.
or
ks  0.214 mm/sec.
23m
 ::==:
q _ k
dz )
;&
,(z, I)
t.
..I '
t160 m  I
Fig. E8.n .
qdz_kzdz
Integrating,
... (0)
q
The water surface z at x
01775
,
""
)( 103 (;  11.2
2(300)
160
or
or
z .. 11.666 m.
Illustrative Example 8.12. A capillaritypermeabilily test was conducted in two stages under a head of
50 em and 200 em al th~ end of entry of water. In the first stage, the wetted surface advanced from its initial
position of 2 em to 8 em in 6 minutes. In the second stage it advanced from 8 em to 20 em in 20 minutes. If
the, degree of saturation at the end of the test was found to be 90% and the porosity was 30%, determine the,
~  >1
tz 
6)(60
..
2I<.(50+h,)
0.9)(0.30
s;;n
(20)' _ (8)'
2k. (200 + h,)
20)(60"
0.9)(0.3
k,. (200 + h,)  0.0378
or
... (1)
~  xi
2!,,(h1 + he)
I, _ I, 
Eq. 8.38.
.. .(2)
and (2).
From
or
Eq. (1).
he .. 170.59 em
k,. (50 + 170.59)  0.0225
A Numerkals
8.1. (0) A CODStmthead permeability test was run on a sand sample 30 em in length and 20 cml in area. When a
loss of bead was 60 em, the quantity of waler ooIlecled in 2 minutcs was 250 mi . Dclennine Ihe mefficient
~ of permeability of the soil.
(b) If the specific gravity of grains was 2.65, and dry mass of the sample, 1.1 kg, find the void ratio of the
sample.
[Ans. 0.052 an/Sec; 0.445]
8.1.
161
8.5. Calculate Ihe coeflklent of pemleability of a soil sOlmp[e 8 em in height and crosssectional area 60 cm 2. It is
observed thnt in [2 minutes. 600 ml of water passed down under an effective constant hc~d of 50 em.
On oven drying, Ihe test specimen weighs 750 gm. Taking 2.70 as speeific gravit~ of soil, calculate the
seep:lge velocity of water during the test.
lAos. 2.22 x 10' em/sec; 0.33 emlsec.]
8.6. Fig. P8.6 shows :J. eros.qse<:tion through the simla underlying a site. Calculate the equivalent permeability of the
layered system in the venical and horizontal din'Clioll.
..
Assume thaI ench layer i~ isotropic.
[Ans. 1.41 x 106 cm/sec: 0.081 emlsec1
Fig. PS.6.
8.7. A glucial cl;lY deposit eontnins a series of sill partings in il at un average venical spacing of 2 m. If the silt
layel'll are about 5 mm in thiekne.qs and have a permeability of one hundred limes thlll of the clay. determine Ihe
ralio of the horizontal and vertical penlle.1bi litics.
[Aos. 1.244]
,8.8. In l\ fllllinghead permeameler ir Ihe time intervals for drop in levels from II( to "2 and 1z2 to 11:1 are equal. prove
thai
8.9. If the eITcrlivc gmin sile of the soil is 0.3 mm, estimate the cocfficielll of permeability. Take Hazen's C = 10.
[Ans. 0.9 mm/sec[
8.10. A soil ha~ a eodlicient of pcrme.1bilily of 0.5 x 104 emlsce at 20C. Determine its vulue when the temperature
rises 10 35C. (~11O" '" 10.09 x 10~ paiM: and ~IW'" 7.21 x 103 poise).
[Ans. 0.7 x 104 emlsecJ
8.11. A dminage pipe beneath :I dam h;\s m..come clogged with sand whose cocflicient of permeability is 10 m/day. It
[Ans. 26.67 mJ
8.12. A soi l has the coefficient of permcnbility of 0.4 x 104 em/sec 1lt :I void ralio of 0.65 llOd a temper,lIu re of
30"C. Detemline the coefficient of permeability al Ihe same void ralio and a temperatu re of 20C. At 20G C.
p,..= 0 .998 glll/mi and ~ = 0.010 1 l>Oisc lind al 30~C. p .. '" 0.996 gmlml and ~ '" 0.008 poise.
What would be the eoeflident ot' penneability al a void ratio of 0.75 and a temperature of 20C?
(Ami. 0.317 x 104 emlsee; 0.422 x 104 cmlsee]
162
8.19. How would you (\ctermine the average permeability of a soi l deposit consisting of a number of layers ? What
is its use in soil enboinecring?
8.Z0. Write whether the following statements are true or fnls<:.
(a) The coellicienl of pcrnlcability of II soil increa$Cs with an increase in temperature.
lb) The soils with [\ higher void ralio have alw3Ys greater pt!mll~ability than soils with a smaller void ratio.
(el The coctlic.:icnl of pcnncability decreases with un increase in the specific surfncc.
(d) For a given soil, the coefficient of permeability incrctlscs with an increase in void mtio.
tel For a soil deposit co nsisting of isotropic layers, the cocftident of permeability parallel \0 the plane of
st[;).lificalion is always greater than that normal 10 [his plane.
if> The variablehead permeability tcst is used for fine grain.! soils_
(8) The line joining the piezometric.: surra(:"cs i~ also known us the hydraulic grac.lient line.
IAns. True
C.
00, (g)
MultipleChoice Questions
I. The pcrmellbility of sOil varies
(a) inversely as square of grain size
(b) liS SqUllrc of grain sizt/:
(e) as grain size
(tl) invt/:rsely as void ratio.
2. The maximum particle size for which Darcy's IllW is applicnble is
(a) 0.2 mm
(b) 0.5 mm
(e) 1.0 mm
(J) 2.0 mm
3. According to U.S.B.R .. n soil with n coemdent of pcrmeubiHty of 104 mmlsec will be classified as
(a) Pervious
(b) ImperviOUS
le) Semipervious
(e) Highly pccvious
4. The coefficient of permeability of clay is generally.
(a) Between 101 lind 101 mmls
(b) Between IO~ and 104 millis
(e) Between 10:'1 and 1011 mmls
(JJ Less then roll mm/s
5. A constanthead permeamcter is used for
(a) Conrsegrained soils
(b) Silty soils
(e) Clayey soils
{d)Organic soils
6 , The coemcient or permeability of a soil
(a) increa.~es with a increase in temperature.
(b) increases with II decrca.~e in temperature.
(e) incrcase~ with II dt.'Crea.~e in unit weight of water.
(tI) decreases with an increase in void rJtio.
1. A soil has a discharge velocity of 6 x 101 mls and a void r.llio of 0.50. Its seepage velocity is
(a) 18 x 101 mls
(h) 12 x 107 mls
(C') 24 x 101 m/s
(tl) 36 x 107 IIlls
8. In a pumping.out lest. tlte druwdown i.~ 5m. If the coefficient of permeability of the soil is IOlmls, the radius
of inlluence will be about
(a) 250 m
(b) 300 m
(rl) 200 m
9. For II sphere of 0.5 111111 diameter. the specific surface is
I
(a) 12 mm(b) 6 mm t
(c) 8 mm I
(rl) 9 mm t
(e) 150 m
~_I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~a~
9
Seepage Analysis
I. INTRODVcnON
Seepage is the flow of water under gravitational forces in a pcnneablc medium. Flow of waler lakes
place from a point of high head to a point of low head. The flow is generally hlminnr.
,
The path taken by a water particle is represented by a flow line. Although an infinite number of now
lines can be drawn, for convenience, only a few arc drawn. At certain points on different flow lines, the total
head will be the same. '111e lines connecting points of equal total head can be drawn. These lines arc known
as equipotential lines. As flow always takes place along the steepest hydraulic gradient, the equipotential lines
cross flow lines at right angles. TIle flow Unes and equipotential lines together form a flow net. The flow net
gives a pictorial rcpresentalion of Ihe path taken by water particles and the head variation along Ihat path.
Fig. 9.1 (a) shows a glass cylinder containing a soil sample of length L. A steady now occurs vertically
downward through the soil sample under a head of II. The elevation head, the pressure head and the total head
(0)
Point
Elevation
(he)
"eo:!
Pres~ure
Totol
heod (H)
head(tp)
Equipotentla t
Flow
line~
0151'1
I)
O5L
O.5L"'H,O.5h
,,0.5"O.5l
0 251'1
L+HtO.51"1
:051'1
Flow nel
(0)
li n e~
164
at points. A, Band C can be worked oul as shown in Fig. 9.1 (b) and 9.1 (e). The point B is at a height of
0.5 L above the datum. As the rate of loss of head is linear, the loss of he.'ld upto point B is hfl. Therefore,
the total head at point B is IIfl. Fig. 9.1 (d) shO\Vs 0 simple flow net, in which five flow lines and an equal
number of equipotcntinllincs are drawn. TIle equipotential lines are horizontal and the now lines arc vertical
in this case. If a dye is inserted al a few points on the top of the soil sample, the paths taken by the dye
represent the flow lines. 11lc flow nets in aclua! soil engineering problems are not as simple as shown in the
figure.
In Ihis chapter, the methods for construction of flow nct and their uses arc discussed. 1be forces
associated with seepage and their effect on the stresses are dealt in the following chapter.
~: . dx)
"D
...
. Yx +
~ . dz)
in zdirection.
~V, 1
d_
""
Fig. 9.2. TwodImensional Row.
As the flow is steady and the soil is incompressible, the discharge entering tbe element is equal to thal
leaving the element.
Thus
v"dz + Vz dr
(~ + ~) dxdz
(v"
0
~ . aX) dz + (Vz + ~
tit) dx
SEEPAGE ANALYSIS
165
(~ +
or
~)
.. 0
...(9.1)
~,
and
..
~
The minus indicates that the head decreases in tbe direction of flow.
V.o; .. k:.: ~,
_~ if h
ac?
k iPh
if h
'ac
_ k
/,. [Ph
.o;axZ+""a;
kx .. k:..
{Ph
Vz ..
kz ~
.. 0
Therefore,
a2 h
... (9.2)
ac?+ai'O
Eq. 9.2 is the Laplace equation in terms of head h.
~
__ kh
~
Therefore,
and
*
v, z
V;r
t, given by
k~
k
t.t
t.t 0
ar'+ai'
... (9.3)
,ct.
..[9.4(a)]
... [9.4(b)]
and
As a stream function is a continuous function, its total differential is given by
ihI>!':'I>.u+!':'I>.tt.
ax
az
166
~ and ~
dtp .. 
v~
dx + v... dz.
II:
dr +
V.o:
dz. .. 0
(1!) _"
or
dx...
...(9.5)
V.o:
*.
~
and
 v, 
k* . .
[96(o)J
v: ..  k
y ... [9.6(b)J
,oj
~:.,
.~~~
lb)
d'''~'dx+~.dz
If $ is a constant along a curve,
dcp .. 0
O~'dx+~dz
Hence,
(dz)
dX ...  ~
or
v,
acp/oz ..  ~
dx ...
dr.
V.o:
x " 1
v,;
Thus, the stream function and the potential function are orthogonal to each other.
From Eqs. (9.4) and (9.6),
~ . ~
Ox .. az
or
n~
and
~~
., ax
ariJz" iPz
... (9.7)
161
SEEPAGE ANALYSIS
_i'.!.. ~
ilxiJz
Therefore,
0:2
~ + ~ __ .i.t +
ar
;v?
axaz
l i _0
araz
Thus., the stream function ("') also satisfies the Laplace equation.
Determination of Discharge
The discharge 6q between two adjacent flow lines 'tjI and (til + .6.",) can be determined as follows
[Fig. 9.3 (a)].
The discharge is equal to the resultant velocity v multiplied by the nonnal distance (An) between 'tjI and
('I' + d\j. Obviously.
discharge _  v~ de + v", dz
Therefore,
6.q 
J",:t+
'"
( v" dr + v",dz)
Aq
A 'I'
... (9.8)
In other words, the flow between two adjacent flOW" lines is ronstant and is equal to the difference of
stream functions of the two lines.
V6
is the
v",_v,cosa
Vz
. ..[9.9(a)]
...[9.9(b)]
 v,sina
~.~~+~ . ~
Using Eqs. 9.6,
a,
. 2
... (9.10)
168
Likewise,
~_v..
From Eqs.. 9.10 and 9.11.
Sin2a+vICXJS2a_ v,
... (9. 11 )
as  an
... (9.12)
as .. !J.n
6$/!J. ~J
..
con.'.tant
sections.
(1) Graphical method,
(3) Soil Models,
(5) Solution of L1place's equation.
It will be assumed that the flow is twodimensional. In many of soil engineering problems, such as flow
through a long carth dam, seepage under a long sheet pile and seepage below long gravity dams, Ihe flow is
actually twodimensional. In all such cases, vertical sections at different points along the length are identical.
The velocity has components only in two orthogonal directions (x, z), the component in the third direction
(ydircction) is zero. However. if the length of the soil mass in the third direction (ydircction) is small, the
end effects are important and the flow is not truly twodimensional and Laplace's equation. as derived above,
docs not apply.
SEEPAGE ANALYSIS
'69
depend much on the exaciness of the now net. A reasonably good estimate of hydraulic quantities can be
made even from a rough flow net.
'fl1e following points should be kept in mind while sketching the now net.
(1) Too many flow channels distrad the attention from the essential features. Nonnally, three to five
flow d:13nnels are sufficient. (The space between two flow lines is called a flow channel).
(2) The appearance of the entire flow net should be watched and not th:lt of a part of it. Small details
can be adjusted after tbe entire Dow net bas been roughly drawn.
(3) The curves should be roughly elliptical or parabolic in shape.
(4) All transitions should be smooth.
(5) The flow lines and equipotential lines should be orthogonal and form approximate squares.
(6) The size of the square in a flow channel should change gradually from the upstream to Ihe
downstream.
The procedure for drawing the flow net can be divided into (he following steps:
(1) First identify the hydraulic boundary conditions. In Fig. 9.5, the upstream bed lcvel GDAK represents
100% potential line and the downstream bed level CFJ, 0% potential linc. The first flow line KLM hugs the
hydraulic structure and is formed by the flow of water on the upstream of the sheet pile. the downstream of
lhe sbeet pile and at the interface of the base of Ihe dam and the soil surface. "lbe last  now line is indicated
by the impervious stratum NP.
(2) Draw a trial flow line ABC adjacent to the boundary line. The line must be at right angles to Ihe
upstream and downstream beds.
The location of the first trial line is determined from experience. An experienced person will make a
good estimate of the first trial line and subsequent work would be reduced.
(3) Starting from the upstream end, divide the first flow channel inlo approximate squares by
equipotential lines. The size of the square should change gradually.
Some of the squares may, however, be quite irregular. Such squares are called singular squares.
(4) Extend downward the equipotential lines forming the sides of the squares. These extensions point out
approximate width of the squares, such as squares marked (1) and (2).
Other sides of the squares are set equal to the widths as determined above. Irregularities are smoothened
Qui, and tile next flow line DF is drawn joining these bases. While sketching the flow line, care should be
taken to make flow fields as approximate squares throughout.
(5) The equipotenlial lines are further extended downward, and one more now line GlD is drawn,
repeating the step (4).
(6) If the flow fields in the last now channel are inconsistent with the actual boundary conditions, the
whole procedure is repeated after taking a new trial now line.
170
II is nOl necessary tbat the last flow channel should make oomplete squares. The flow fields in the last
channel may be approximate rectangles with the same length to width ratio. In this ca<>e, the number of flow
channels would not be full integer. In facl, the flow channels will be an integer only by chance.
exists between the two types of now. The analogous quantities in the two systems are given in Table 9.1.
Thble 9.1 Analogous Quantities
S.Na
Flow of water
kfA
1
....w : q 
2.
3.
Disclurge,q
Hend,h
Length, L
Nen,A
4.
5.
6.
Permeability. k
Flow o/CurrenJ
Law:I_K'
' ,4
Current, 1
VoImge,E
Length. L
A1ea,A
Conductivity, K
An electrical model is , made whose boundary conditions are similar to those of the soil modeL 1be
equipotential lines are drawn by joining the points of equal voltage. The now pauem obtained from the
elcctrical model are used in the construction of Oow net in the model.
The following three types of electrical. analogy modelS are used.
(I) Electrical Analogy Tray. A shallow tray, with a flat bottom , made of an insulating material is taken.
The tray is filled with water. A small quantity of salt or hydrochloric acid or copper sulphate solution is added
to water to make it a good conductor of electricity.
The hyd~ulic boundaries are simulated on the tray. For the flow below a sheet pile shown in Fig. 9.6
(a), the boundary flow lines :)rt ABC and FG. An insulating material, such as ebonite or pcrspcx, is used to
simulate the boundary flow lines. The insulating material is fixed to the tray by means of some
nonconducting adhesive, such as plasticene or bee wax.
The boundary equipotential lines DA and CE are simulated by some good conductor of electricity such
as copper bars.
For obtaining the flow pauern, an electrical potential difference of 20 V is applied to the two electrodes
DA and CEo A VOltage dividing variable resistor, known as potential divider, is connected in parallel to the
alternating current source to vary the voltage in the range of 0 to 20 V. A galvanometer (or any other null
indicator) and a probe are connected to the variable potential ann [Fig. 9.6 (b)].
The position of the equipolentiallines is determined by locating the points of oonstant potential (VOltage).
To trace the equipotential line corresponding to a given percentage of total potential (say }O%), the VOltage
divider is set at that potential (2V). 1be 'Probe is moved in the tray till the galvanometer shows no ament
flow. That position of the probe gives tbe point corresponding to 2V potential. By moving the probe, other
points corresponding to that potential are obtained. A graph sheet is generally placed below the transparent
plate to detennine the roordinates of the poinlS. A line joining all these points gives the equipotential line
corresponding to 10% of the total head. likewise, the c:;quipotential line oorrespooding to 20% of the total
head is3lbtained by changing the selling on the voltage, divider to 4V and repeating the procedure. Other
equipotential lines can be drawn in the same manner.
After the equipotential Ii"es have been draWl), flqw lines can be sketched manually. The flow lines
should be orthogonal to the Cfluipotential lines and must. satisfy the actual hydraulic boundary conditions.
Alternatively, the flow lines can be drown electrically by interchanging the boundaries. The copper strips are
used for impenneable boundaries ABC and FG and insulating strips for VA and CEo The VOltage difference
SllEPAGE ANALYsrS
171
~:
<
capillary effects.
The main use of soil models is to
demonstrate the fundamentals of flow
nct and seepage in a laboratory. In
practical problems. their use is rather
limited, because of the time and effort
required in the construction of these models.
'rt
A seepage flume of width of a few centimeters is used in thi... mcthoo. A model made of plastic is
fastened to one side wall of Ihe flume, leaving II small space of 2.5 mm or less between ,Ihe model and the
SIDE
Fig. 9.8. Plastic model.
GLYCERINE
')
PLASTIC
"
MODEL
VIEW
A highly viscous fluid. such as glycerine, is made to seep through the small space between the model and
the side wall. The flow is laminar. As the fluid flows, it gives an accurate representation of seepage through
soil. The flow lines can be observed directly by injecting II dye at suitable points.
Plastic models can be constructed more quickly than soil models. The flow lines in such models are also
better defined. Consequently, the flow net obtained is more acaJrate than that obtained from soil models.
Different penneabilitics of the soil can be accounted for by varying the space between the model and the
wall. Anisotropic soils can be represented by a zigzag face.
'10
.. ~~
where
b ch and , .. are the potentials at the four adjoining points around the central point 0 with the
potenlial " (Ag. 9.9).
The aos,ssection of the earth structure, for which the flow net is required, is covered with a square grid
with a number of nodes. The values of the potential (,) at various nodal points 2rc assumed, satisfying the
SEEPAGE ANALYSIS
173
:I
1I
., 1
I
L. ______ .~ _____ J
GRID AROUMl 0
Ag. 9.9. Fillito Diffcl'<:llocGrid
"ll1e methods of drawing a flow net discussed in the preceding sections are used when the boundary flow
lines and equipotential lines are given. Seepage through an earth dam is a case of unconfined seepage in
which the upper boundary of flow net
is not known. In such cases, it becomes
necessary to first locate the upper
boundary before a now net can be
drawn.
Let US consider the case of a
homogeneous eanh dam on an imperviFILTER
ous foundation and having a hOrizontal
filter at the downstream end (Fig. 9.10).
The horizontal filter starts at point C.
Fig. 9.10. EArth Dam with a horizontal filter
The impermeable boundary CD is a flow line wh:ich forms Ihe,lower boundary of the flow oct. The upstream
face AD is an equipotential line as the total head at every point on this face is equal to h. The discharge face
cn is the equipotential line of zero potential. Thus, Ihn:c hyclnlulLc houndarv c(>nditicms :Ire known.
The fourth boundary of the flow net is
the lap flow line AB, which is not known in
A
the beginning. Below the line AB, the soil is
saturated and the pressure every where on the
AB is atmospheric. The line AB is known a<>
phreatic line or seepage line. As the pressure
PERVI().J5
~~a~te;:::
;::nlS
of soocessive equipotential lines and the
phreatic line. Once the phreatic line has been
located, the flow nct can be drawn by the
usual methods.
=1(t ~Z'
KOZENV's BASIC FMABOLA
Ag. 9.11. Kozcny" Solution.
Kozcny studies the problem using the method of conformal !nmsformation. The boundary conditio[]S fa
the now region ABeD are as under (Fig. 9.11).
174
Kozcny's solution represents a family of confocal parnbolas of flow lines and equipotential lines. The
equation of Kozcny's basic parabola AD, with C as focus as well as origin, is
x _
1.
2
...
(9.16)
Kozcny's conditions arc not entirely fulfIlled by any practical earth dam. However, an earth dam with a
horizontal drainage approximates the conditions at exit. An inconsistency occurs due to the fact that tbe
upstream equipotential tine in an actual earth dam is a plane surface and not a parabola as assumed by
Kozeny. OIs3grnnde (1940) recommended ilial the seepage line in actual dams can also be taken as ba<>ic
parabola. provided the starting point for the parabola is taken al point E, sucb that AE '" 0.3 AF (Fig. 9.10).
The distance AF is the projection of the upstream slope Oil the water surface. lbe coordinates of the phreatic
line can be determined using Eg. 9.16. The origin is at C, which is also the focus.
Substituting z = 0 in Eq. 9.16, the value of x is given by
xo ..
i (;)  ik
or q  2kXo
The distance
... (9.17)
x~(tr')ft
or
i2xs? ..
0
... (9.18)
Eg. 9.18 can also be derived directly using the property of the parabola that the distance o( any point P
on the parabola (rom the focus is equal to the distance from the directrix. (Fig. 9.12). lbus
FP  PO
~ .. sx
By squaring,
or
Xl + ? .. i
i2rs?O
+ x2_2sx
equation becomes
s' 2xsr' _
+
0 ... (9.19)
The value of s can be determined using the
coordinates of the starting point E (Fig. 9.10).
Substituting x .. d and z _ " in Eq. 9.19.
s2 + 2ds_h 2 .. 0
PARABOLA~
2d=~
2
Taking positive sign, s _ ..; (Jl + h 2 ) d
... (9.20)
Once the value of $ has been determined, Eq. 9.19 can be used to determine the coordinates of the
various points on the phreatic line. For diITerenl value of X, the corresponding z coordinates are computed and
ploUed.
SEEPAGE ANALYSIS
175
PHREATe
LINE
net can be completed using the methods already discussed. Fig. 9.14 shows a typical [Jow net.
15
10
l~"m~~
Fig. 9.14. Flow Net in lin Ellrth dam.
q '"' k ~ . (z x 1)
From Eq. 9.19,
...(a)
s1Y:t
z'"' (2xs+
dz
S
dX  (2xs + i)Y1.
or
q '"' k s
.. (9.21)
Eq. 9.21 is a simple Iuation which gives approximate discharge through the body of Ihe dam.
The discharge can also be obtained from the flow net, as explained Inter (Sett. 9.14).
9.U. SEEPAGE THROUGH EARTH DAM WITH SLOPING DISCllARGE FACE
Fig. 9.15 shows an eanh dam
without any filter on thc downstream ~
side. The downstrcam facc through
which water escapes is inclined to the
horizontal. In this case. the phreatic
line cuts the downstream face. It i s r t h . . .
nonnally not pennilled in earth dams as
it may cause the failure of downslream
Fig. 9.U. Flow Nel for c:anh dam without filler.
slope due 10 sloughing action. The
176
Cd)
Fig. 9.16.
laking the point C as the focus and also the origin. 'lbc phreatic line is given the entry correction as before.
An additional correction at exit is required in Ihis casc, as the basic parabola goes outside Ihe
downstream face, which is impossible. lbe actual seepage line meets the discharge face langcntially for
p < 90, ll1c seepage line has been shown by full line, whereas the theoretical basic parabola is shown
by dotted line.
In the case of borizontal filter, the angle p is 180<> [Fig. 9.16 (b)]. For a rock toe [Fig. 9.16 (c)J, the angle
~ is greater than 90<>. The phreatic line drops vertically in this case.
Casagrande gave the charts for the exit
O.
correction. The basic parabola is shifted by
distance 6.a 10 locale the point where the actual
seepage line cuts the discharge face. The value
o3
of All is obtained [rom the value or
Aa/(a + 6.a) after the distance (a + Aa) is
obtained from the basic parabola. lbe value o[ .+ o 2
Aa/(a + An) depends upon the angle p, given in
Fig. 9.16 (d). The value is also available in the
1
form of a curve (Fig. 9.17). It is wonh noting
that the correction is zero when the angle fl is
ISO. That is the reason why exit correction was
o0
30
90
126
156
not applied in the case of horizontal filler. The
chart is applicable [or p :t 30<>.
/l
'....
"
"'.
6
'" "'"
Obviously, An .. C (a + ALl)
where C is the correction [actor obtained from the chart (Fig. 9.17)
9.12. SEEPAGE THROUGll EARTH DAM WITH DISCHARGE ANGLE LESS TllAN 30
If the angle p is less than 30<> (Fig. 9.1 8). point S at where the seepage line becomes tangential to
downstream face can be obtained using Schaffemack's method. It is assumed that part CS of the seepage line
is a straight line. A tangent at point S coincides over the length CS with tbe seepage line.
SEEPAGE ANALYSIS
177
Fig. 9.18
jz.;j;
q 
But
... (9.22)
.. i .. tanp
and
Therefore,
~,
where SC '" a
... (9.23)
Integrating between x ..
..
j ,'
or
or
kosin~tan~
..
zdt  asinptan~dr
cos P to x .. d., and between z ..
zdz = o~tanpj
.~,
sin P to h,
dx
h2 _d' sin2
h'';''~
sin~
0' coo
p .. 20 ~ (do cos p)
cos~
p_
2 ad +
h2~ P ..
sm ~
+ 2d.
0"
V4d'4(h'COSP/Sin'P)COSP
2cosp
... (9.24)
Once the value of 0 has been detennined from Eq. 9.24, the discharge can be found using Eq. 9.23.
9.13. SEEPAGE THROUGH EARm DAM WITH DISCHARGE ANGLE GREATER mAN 30
BUT LESS THAN 60.
Eq. 9.24 was obtained on the basis of Dupuit's assumplioo that the hydraulic gradient is equal to dz/dr,
Casagrande suggested that the actual hydraulic gradient for discharge angle greater Ihan 3Qis given by
178
dz
I ..
(is
q_k(~)Z
... (9.25)
T
h
I.
Fi.g 9.19. Earth Dam with dischJirge ~ng!e greater than 30".
~  sin~
aod
q .. kasin'lj3
Ie
... (9.26)
~z .. kasin2~
zdz. .. aSin'lf3ds
! zdz .. aj
Integrating,
or
culnp
i(h 2
h2 _ 02
or
02
(sinzj3)ds
(J
2tJS
sin2p _
2az smz 13
h
2aS+ SinZj3.0
or
a ..
S_Vsl_hz/sinzp
... (9.27)
Therefore,
SVd'+h'
... (9.28)
a _ ~  ~
... (9.29)
Once tbe value of a bas been determined, the discharge can be obtained from Eq. 9.26.
For angle j3 > 60, the error introduced due to approximation in Eq. 9.28 becomes large and this method
is nOI normally used.
SEEPAGE ANALYSIS
179
of flow channels. The difference between two adjacent equipotential lines is called ~ quipotcntial drop. l...ct
Nd be the number of equipotential drops. In Fig. 9.20, there are 5 flow channels and 10 equipotential drops.
n:l///
2/
31
lI \
"
\8\
\\
4! 5 6\ '1
: ~
777;;;);;;}) 777/;; 777 77l!..17;)) J
IIo1PERVlOOS
Lei US consider the flow through the flow field shown hatched. From Darcy's law, the discharge through
the flow field per unit length.
dq  k .
where
and
(* 1
(dn x 1)
.. (a)
Substituting
Ah 
k
in
Eq. (a),
dq  k
~.
Nd
("!!.)
As
!fi .(~ )
Total discharge,
q  NI
q  k.h."if;.
In Fig. 9.20,
Q  kxhx1o0.5kh
6. q  kh.
N,
...(930)
The rotio (NINd ) is a characteristic of the flow net. It is known as shape [actor (p). It is independent
of the penneability (k) of the soil. It depends only on the configuration or the shape of the soil mass.
It is not necessary that NI and Nd be always full integer. The last flow channel may consist of rectangles,
However, in the last flow channel, the \englhtbreadlh (/!..s/6n) ratio should be approximately the same for all
flow fields.
(2) Thtnl head. The loss of head (Ah) from one equipotential line to the next is hINd' The total head at
aoy point (P) can be delennined as under.
h, _ h  n x (hiNd)
... (9.31)
where n is the number of the equipotential drops upto point P.
In Fig. 9.20, n = 8 for point P. Therefore, total head at P is
I'"
(0
(3) Pressure head. The pressure at any point is equal to the total head minus the elevation head. As
= pressure head
... (9.32)
Obviously, the pressure head at P is equal to the height of water colwnn in the piezometers at P, as
shown in the figure.
(4) Hydraulic gradient. The average value of hydraulic gradient for any flow field is given by
i_MiAs
... (9.33)
where tJ.s is the length of the flow field and Ah is the loss of head.
The hydraulic gradient is generally maximum at the exit near point B where the length !u is a minimum.
As the velocity depends upon the hydroulic gradient, it is also maximum at the exit.
and
v"  k"i" 
k,,~
...(a)
k:i, 
~~
... (b)
v, 
Vz
_. a'h _ . a'h
"'ax'
<'al
k,a'h+k,a'h_ O
ax'
... (9.34)
al
As Eq. 9.34 is not Laplace's equation, the principles of flow net cOllStructiOn, as described in the
preceding sedions, are nol applicable to anisotropic soils.
Eq. 9.34 can however be converted to Laplare's equation by transformation. lei the x coordinate be
transformed to the new coordinate XI by the transformation (Fig. 9.21).
x,  x,r,;;k.
... (9.35)
TD"
'"
1.
c.)
C"
Fig. 9.21. Trnnsfonnlllion of Coordinates.
SEEPAGE ANALYSIS
181
a<;
( ~)t!!+i'h.O
k. a2
a?
2
or
a h+i'h.o
a;;
... (9.36)
a?
Eq. 9.36 is the Lnplace equation in X, and z. Therefore, the principles of flow net construction can be
used for anisotropic soils after transfocmmion.
The crosssection of the soil mass whose flow nel is required is redrawn keeping the zscale unchanged
but reducing the x scale by the ratio ~. The flow net is constructed for the transformed section by usual
methods [Fig. 9.22 (b)]. The flow nCI for the actual section is obtained by transferring back the flow nct to
the natural section by increasing the xscale in the ratio ..ff;7iZ;. Obviously. the flow nct for the natural section
docs not have the flow lines and the equipotcntial lines orthogonal to each other [Fig. 9.22 (a)J.
~
(.) NATURAL SECTION
(b) TRANSFORMED
FILTER
SECTfDN
The discharge through an anisOtropic soil mass can be obtained from an equation similar to Eq. 930,
q K h (NINd )
. (9.37)
where k' is the modified coefficient of permeability
as determined below.
Discharge through a flow channel on the transformed scale per unit width is given by
Aq K (M/Ax,) 6z
Discharge through the same flow channel on the natural scale per unit width is given by
Aq. k.(M/Ax)6z
Since the discharge is the same in both the channels,
K (M! Ax,) . 6z k,' (MI Ax) . 6z
or
K k.' vr;:;7fJ
or
vr;r;
K
The discharge q is determined using Eq. 937 with a value of It obtained from Eq. 9.38.
...(0)
... (b)
... (9.38)
182
s  ~ . ~ +
Using the relations,
and
v% 
kx~. v~ _ ~
VI _
 kl
~
Now
*. .
V% _
cos a
~,
~ . ~  ~ . ~
VI
i .._'
(0)
and vl
... (b)
_
~cooa
VI
sin a
and~_Sina
.. .(9.39)
... (9.40)
vr;
Vllri:\lion
of
permeability.
+J
&/1
= kl (~hl6sl) &II
or
&f2
kl
(AhlAsl )
AqJ  Aq2
Ani  kz (Ahlsv . An2
SEEPAGE ANALYSIS
183
.......
tl tz J'
, : l
,, kd, .f
~,'
(b)
(0)
1\
Ronhomogeneous soil.
... (9.4))
or
kl
k,
tan al  tan a2
lei
tan al
.. ,(9.42)
tana2
Eq. 9.41 must be satisfied at the interface by every flow line aossing it.
Case (2) kJ < k1. Fig. 9.is (b) shows the case when the flow takes place (rom a soil of low pcnneability
to that of high pennc.'lbility. At the interface, the flow line is deflected away from the nonnaL Using a
procedure si!Dilar to that for the first case, it can be shown U).'l\
k; 
kl
k,
lanai tan~
or
As ~ > kl> the angle
kl
k; 
lanaI
Ian a2
k, <"'"
Fig. 9.26. Nonhomogeneous
llCCli~.
)84
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
(3) The now net in soiJs2 consists of rectangles. The ratio of the sides of the rcaangIe can be
determined as under: From Eq. 9.41,
k)
(~::) 
k,
(~~)
!;:  ~
Ani
6$1,
(~::)
.6.n:z
k1
6521;
or
1n Fig. 9.26, as ~ > k J
/>.'2
now
drawn. Tbe 1005 of head in the soil of higher permeability is neglected. For example, in Fig. 9.26, if
k t > 104 the flow net in soill is neglected and it is assumed thnt the now lines in soill are horizontal.
The flow net will be constructed only (or soil2, taking the interface as the uj:l>tream face. On the other
hand, if kz > 10 *10 the flow net will be drawn only for soilI. In Ibis latter case, the interface will act as
D.
discharge face.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
Illustrative Example 9.1. Determine the coordinates of the phreatic line for the earth dam shown in Fig.
9.14, Find the discharge through the earth dmn from the flow net and also analytically. Taire k
4.5 X 1fT'
em/sec.
Solution. From Eq. 9.20, taking d = 72.5 m and h = 30 m,
, _ >I(d'
+ h')  d
~72.55.96m
The coordinates of the phreatic line are determined from Eq. 9.19.
i+7xsilo
or
(5.96)' + 2x(5.96);  0
35.52 + 11.92xil  0
30m
185
SEEPAGE ANALYSIS
Fig. E9.2
The total head at the two extremities or the floor are 7.0 m and 0.5 m. These are also equal to the
pressure heads, as the underface or the floor is al the datum (dis level).
Total uplift roree
U 
(hl +
~(7.0
U  1048.4 kN
The length (As) or the last C10w field ncar toe is 1.0 m.
Thererore, exit gradient (I)
_ 6.h/lls _ 0.5/1.00 _ 0.50
or
PROBLEMS
9.1. Determine the seepage discharge through the foundlltion of an earth dDm if the flow net has 10 cquipolcnlial
drops and 3.5 flow channels. The length of the dam is 300 m Dnd the coefficient of permeability of the soil is
2.5)( 10'" cm/see. The
level
of water
above
the base of
the dam is
12
9.Z. In the experimental set up shown in Fig. P 9.2, now lakes place undcr a constant head through the soils A
andD.
Fia. P9.2.
186
(I) Determine the piezometric head at point C.
(u) If 40% of the excess hydrostatic pressure is lost in (Jawing through soil B, whnt are the hydraulic bead and
piezometric head Dt paim D.
(iii) 1 the coefficient of permeability of soil B is 0.05 cm/sec, determine IDe same for soil A.
(iv) What is the dischnrge per unil area ?
(Ans.
120 em, (li) 24 em, 64 an, (;i/) 0.033 cm/sec (iv) 0.02 m11scc.
9.3. A homogeneous canh dam is provided with a horizoolaJ filter drain 30 m long III ilS loe, as shown in Fig. P 93.
<,)
Fig. P9.3.
Also determine the seepage discharge per unit length jf the coefficient of permeability is 40 m/dOlY.
IAns. s .. 3.99 m, q = 159.6 m1/dayj
9.4. A Stlndy stratum 5 m thick has II slope of 1 in 10 and lies between two impervious simta (Fig. P 9.4). If the
piezometers inserted at two points 20 m apart indicate a pressure difference of 3.5m nnd the coefficient of
permeability is 1.91 )( 10""" cm/sec, determine the seepage dischnrge.
[Ans. 5.96 litccSolbour]
Fig. P9.4.
9.5. Water percolntes across a rcclilngulnr silly earth fill 30 rn long and 15 m wide. The fiJI is founded on an
impervious strotum and the depth of watcr on one side is 5.0. Compute the seepage dischllrge. Ie = 0.15
crn/minute..
[Ans, 108 m3/dny]
9.6. A homogcneous dam is 21.5 m high and has a free board of 1.5 m. A flow net was constructed and the
following results were observed.
'" 12
No. of polcntinl drops
No. of now chnnels
=3
The dam has n horizonUlI fillcr of 15 m length
Cnlculate the discharge/m length of the darn if the coefficient or permeability or the dam mnterinl is 2.7 )(
10~ rnlsec.
.
[Ans. 1.35 )( 105 culllCCS/m]
9.7.
pro~tties
SEEI'AGE ANALYSIS
Uri
Fig. P9.7.
9.10. Describe the electrical analogy method of flow net construction.
9.11. Prove that the discharge per unit width of .:m earth dam with Il horizOI1Ull filter Ilt its toe is equal to the
coofficient of permeability times the focal length.
9.12. Prove that the discharge through on earth mass iii given by
q ...
where
k..t;'Nf
9.13. How would you draw the flow nct for a homogcneom earth dam without any filter 1
9.14. Whlll is entry correction of the flow nct 1 How is it donc 1
9.15. How would you conslructthe flow net when lhe soil is anisotropic 1
9.16. Explain the method of constructing the flow net in an earth dam consisting of two different zones.
9.17. Memion whether the fallowing sUitemems are true or false.
(a) The flow lines and equipotential lines are orthogonal for an isotropic soil.
(b) The number of equipotential lines and flow lines is always a full integer.
(c) In twodimensional flow, the velocity in the thi rd direction is zero.
Cd) The velocity potential is equal to the totnI head.
(e) The flow net for anisotropic soil can be obtained from Loplacc's equation.
(/) The electrical analogy method can be used to obUlin directly flow lines.
(g) Relaxation method is used 10 determine the potentiDls at various poinlS.
(Ii) The upstream fDoe of an earth dam is an equipotential line.
(I) The shape factor depends upon the type of soil.
(J) When the flow pl\'iSCS from a soil of high permeability to that of low penneability, Ihe flow lines are
deflected aWllY from the normal.
~
(1) The equipD(ential lines make equal vertical intercepts on the phreatic line.
(I) The phreatic line of a homogeneous seccion always cuts the downstream face.
(m) The phreatic line at the entrance may rise upward.
(n) For an earth dam with a horizonUlI filter DC its downstream loe, lhe casagrande exit correction is zero.
IA..... Tru', (Q~ (,~ (j), (g), (h), ('), (I), (n)]
C. MultipleChoice Questions
1. The phreatic line in a homogeneous dam is
(a) Circular
(b) Ellipliad
(c) Hyperbolic
(II) Parabolic
2. If there is flow from a soil of permeability 1 tothat or k2, the angles Ih and 02 which the flow line makes witb
the normal to the interface are related as
",
kl
(tI) sina2 =
k2
c~se l
(c)
COSe2
k2
6. The slarting point of the horizontal dminage is usually taken as .... of parabola
(a)
Focus
(b)
(c)
Vertex
Origin
ha.~
(0) 0.2304
10
Effective Stress Principle
10.1. INTRODUcnON
The effective SlreSS principle enunciated by Karl Thrzaghi in 1936 fonns an extremely useful basis of the
most importanf theories in soil engineering. 1be effective stress principle consists of two parts :
1. Oefmitioo of the effective stress.
2. Importance of the effective stress in engineering behaviour of soil
This dlapter is devoted mainly to the fin! part. 1be socond part dealing with the importance of effective
stress is discussed briefly in the follOWing article. The role of effedive stress on compression rflaraderistics
and shear strength is dealt in detail in chapters 12 and 13, respectively.
The methods for determination of effective stress in soils for hydrostatic conditions and for steady
seepage conditions are discussed separately. The effect of seepage pressure on the stability of the soil masses
in described. Piping failures and the methods for its prevention are also disrussed.
10.2. EFFECTIVE STRESS PRINCIPLE
(1) DeOnilion of Effective Siress
Fig. 10.1 shows a soil mass which is fully saturated. Let us oonsider a prism of soil with a O"OSSsectional
area A. The weight P of the soil in lhe prism is given by
P _ Y,tII hA
...(a)
where YUIl is the saturated weight of the soil. aod h is the height of lhe prism.
Total stress (a) on the base of the prism is equal to the force per unit area. Thus
a~y,.h
... (10.1)
While dealing with stresses, it is more convenient to work in teons of unit weights rather than density.
As discussed in chapter 2,
y .P . g
3
3
where Y is in N/m and p is in kgfm , g = 9.81 m/sef?Thus,
Y,t/I  P,al X g  9.81 p,.,
Generally, the unit weigblS are expressed in kN/m 3 and the mass density in kgfm 3 In that case,
Y,,,,  P7~ g 
9.81 )( to
P,.
..(a)
190
YSN  0.01
U :: W<: .
...(b)
Ps....
15
rilling(he VOldSO[(he,~:' ::
. (102)
pressure. Thus
0  0  11
. . .(10.3)
J!r
a.y'h
compression
f( a)
and
shear strength
.. q> ( 0)
where f and <p represent some fund ions.
As lhe effea.ive stress in a soil inaemes., the compression of lhe soil occurs. This causes seUlemenl of
structures built on soils.
The shear strength of 8 soil depends on its elTective stress. As the effective stress is changed, the shear
strength changes. The stability of Slopes, the earth pre&SW'CS against retaining structure and the bearing
capacity of soils depend upon the shear strength of the soil and hence. the effective stress. The importance of
shear strength in soil engineering problem cannQ( be ovcr~mphasised. It is one of the most important
properties of soils.
As discussed in chapter 8, the pcnneability of soil depends upon the void ratio. With .tt change in
effective stress, the void rdtio of the soil changes. Therefon.. to some extent, the penneability of a soil is also
g?vemed by the effective stress.
Let us oonsider a physical model of a soil mass, fully saturated. as shown in Fig. lO.2(a). Let us lake a
wavy plane X X passing through the points of contact of solid particles. On the macroscopic scale, the wavy
plane cannot be distinguished from a true horizontal plane as the individual particles are of relatively small
siZe. 1berefort, for all practical purposes. the plane XX can be assumed as horizontal.
191
The lOtal normal force P acting on the soil model is resisted partly by the interparticle forces at the points
of contact (P"') and panly by the pore water pressure force (P..,) [Fig. 10.2 (b)].
'Thus
P  p. + p.
",(105)
At every point of contact, the interparticle force F can be resolved into the normal component (N) and
the tangential component (T) to the plane XX [Fig. ID.2 (e)]. The interparticle forces are random in both
o
Pm
(b)
,~,
Am
j.A
(e)
.... /
..j
(d)
1\
soil mass.
magnitude and direction throughout the soil mass. The tangential components, however, neutralise one another
and the resultant of all the normal components is downward.
The effective stress is the nominal stress transmitted through the soUd particles, and is given by
(; _
sumar::~~~mpk:n~
0_ I:
",(lO,6)
Let the area of qosssection occupied by the solid particles (minerals) be Am and that occupied by wale<
bl: A_ [Fig, 10,2 (d)J
A  A", + A...
Therefore,
A ...  A  A",
Let u be the pore water pressure. From Eq. ID.5,
P _ Pm + P", .. l:N + IV
or
oA 
,.(10.7)
",(108)
Am + uA ...
where 0 is tbe actual normal stress transmitted at the points of contact of the solid particles, and a is the
total stress (Eq. 10.1).
a _ " (Am/A) +
(A.lA)
o .. 0 (A",/A) + u (1  A".IA)
'"where
0"0
Q",
Am/A.
Q ...
+ u (Ia",)
".(10,9)
1<>2
'Ille geolcdmical engineer is interested in the effective stress (0) not in the actual contact stress (0). Let
us again consider the equilibrium in the vmical direction [Fig. 10.2 (d)}. We have
P _ TN + uA ...
aA .. 'EN + uA ...
0 _ IN/A + u (A,./A)
or
.. .(10.10)
In Eq. 10.7, as the area occupied by the interparticle contact (mineral to mineral) A. is very small (about
3% for granular soils). the area A ... be taken approximately equal to the lotal area A. In other words,
A ... _A .
Therefc::re, Eq. 10.10 becomes 0 " IN/A + u
..
cr ..
or
+ u
0 u
It must be nOled that the effective stress (0) depends upon the normal force (IN) transmitted at the points
of contact, but it is not equal to the contact stress (fJ). It is equal to the total normal (orce N transmitted at
the points of contad divided by the total area A, including that occupied by water. It has no physical meaning
and, therefore. cannot be directly measured. It is much smaller (han the actual contact stress '&.
The pore water pressure due to water in voids acts equaUy in aU directions (pascal's law). It docs not
resist any shear stress. and, therefore, is also called the neutral stress. However. it is very important as tbe
effective stress depends upon the pore water pressure.
In clayey soils, there may not be direct contact between the minerals due to the surrounding adsorbed
water layers. However, it has been established by actual experiments that the interparticle contact forces can
be transmitted even through tbe highly viscous adsorbed water. The above equations whK;b have been
developed assuming 'he soil as coarsegrained may be used for clayey soils as well.
For surface active minerals, Eq. 103 is modified as
0  u + (A'  R')
... [10.3 <a)]
where A' and If are respectively the attractive and repulsive forces per unit area.
cr
w ..
1 HI A + 'f,at 112A
i.
1H} + 1,,# H2
..
Y HI + y,atH2
! ! ! ! !U
w = 1."t+ f sa Hz'
Fig. to.3
u .. y,.,H2
From Eq. 10.3,
0'
(j .. yHI
+ (y_  Y...) H2
J93
... (10.11)
Eq. 10.11 gives the. effcaive stress at section XX. Fig. 10.3 also shows ti<l: directions of a and u at
XX.
(a) If the water table rises to the ground surface, the whole of the soil is S.'ltUf'dted, and
a.y'(H\+H,).y'H
As y' < y, the effective stress is reduced due to rise of water table.
(b) If the water table is depressed below the section Xx,
... (10.12)
'0  1 H
... (10.13)
In this case, the effective stress is increased.
Thus, it is observed that the fluctuations in water table level cause changes in the pore water pressure and
the corresponding chnnges in the effective stress.
10.5. EFFEC'IWE STRESS IN A SOIL MASS UNDER nYDROSTA"nC CONllrnONS
Fig. 10.4 (a) shows n soil mass under hydrostatic conditions, wherein the wmer level remains constant.
As the interstices in the soil mass nre interconnected, water rises to [he same clevmion in different
'nlC
'tw
WATER
SOIL.ltl'5.;lIt>'
(Yut~
SOIL.2!)'U\),
(lui?
Fig. 10.4.
W~ler
u  1... H
... (a)
a
... (b)
0 
... (e)
... (e)
194
St.!ction CC
cr  'fl'
Therefore,
... (j)
HI + '/2' 1/2
Comparing Eqs. (a), (b), (c) with (d). (e) and (f). it is observed that the depth H of water above the soil
surface does not contribute to the effective stress al all. In other words, the effective stress in a soil mass is
independent of the depth of water above the soilsurface. It should therefore not be surprising that the marine
soil dCpc6its, which are under a very large depth of water, have a low effective stress and correspondingly
low shear strength.
(3) Water Table In Soill
fig. 10.5 (a) shows the case when the water table is at DD in the Soill al depth H/. The effective
stresses at various seclions arc determined as follows.
.
(.)
(b)
auCi_O
Section AA
Section DD
where
'(J
0""
Therefore,
Section nn
Therefore,
Section CC
Therefore,
Ht ..
0,
=0
(j  '(I Hl'
0"
U ..
"\VhCIl
yllIl',
0" 
a .. ylH
Fig. 10.5 (b) shows the condition when the water table is at EE in Soil2 at depth Hz'. The effective
stresses at various sections are as under:
Section AA
auaO
Section 88
a .. yllIl, U" 0, Ci .. yllIl
Section EE
0" .. 11 II t + YiJI'";.' , U .. 0
(Note. lIz' + Hz" .., HV
Section CC
u .. Y... Hz"
Ci .. "'1'1 HI + YzHz' + Yz' Hz"
EF1~nVE
srnESS PRINCIPLE
195
Fig. 10.6 shows the condition when the water table is below CC.
As the pore water pressure is zero everywhere, the effective stresses are
also equal to the total stresses.
SectIon BB
a ...
y,H,
Section CC
0  a . . y,H, +YaHl
The following pointS arc worth nOling in lhe five cases studied
above.
(1) The effective stress at any section goes on increasing as the
Fig. 10.6. Water Table below soil.
water table goes down.
(2) The effective stress depends upon the bulk unit weight above the water table and the submergcd unit
weight below the watcr level.
(3) The effective stresses in a soil mass can be determined from the basic definitions, without
memorising any Connula.
o
q + y,H, + (YsahHl
u ... y..,Hl
I I I I I
/A
1".
"
0
(l"satlz
1bcrcfore,
a ... q + YI H, + Yl'1I1
C
C
From the above illustrations, it is clear that the effective stress
throughout the depth is greater tban the case with no surcharge
Fig. 10,7. Effect of SucchHrge.
discussed in the preceding section. The difference is equal to the
intensity q. Tn other words, the effective stress is increased by q throughout.
10.7. E.'FECTIVE STRESSES IN SOILS SATURATED BY CAPILLARY ACITON
If the soil above the water table is saturated by capillary action. the effective stresses em be determined
using Eq. 10.3. However, in this case the pore water pressure above the water twle is negative [Fig. 10.8 (a)].
The water table is at level BB. Let us consider two cases:
(1) Soil saturated uplO surface level AA [Fig. 10.8 (a)]
(2) Soil saturated upto level DD [Fig. 10.8 (b)]
(1) Soil saturated upto surface level AA [Fig. 10.8 (a)]
The pore pressure diagram is drawn on the right side.
~e
Section AA
196
Hi~
uSaturated
Wet
}"'
"2
C
(b)
If the soil was not saturated with capiUary action. the effective stress at section AA would have been
zero. "hus, the capillary action has increased the effective stress by ,(""HI" In other words, the negative
pressure acts like a surcharge (q'Section DD
rJ
(0" ..) HI'
(Note. HI' + Ht" = HI)
I.f
Therefore,
=
y",H(
= y.(lil
 HI')
If the soil had bccn saturated due to rise in watertable 10 AA, the effective stress al section DD
would have been Yl' Il( Thus, tbe effective sIre&'> is increased by y..,HI due 10 capillary action.
&!clion 88
<1 
(Ys)' H L ,
u _ 0
1l1ererore.
jj  (Ysa)\H\  'f1'1/\ + '1 ... 111
If the soil above BB had been saturated duc to rise in water table to AA, the effective stress would
have been y/ H, " Thus the effective stress is increased by 't ... 1l1 by capiUary action
Section CC
a  (Ysa), HI +
b...h Hz .
u  y... 1i2
Therefore,
At this section also, Ole effective stress has also increased by ,(""HI.
lt may be noted that the C[fectivc stress at all levels below the plane of saturation AA, due to capillary
water, is increased by y",H I The capillary water pressure y... H I acts as if a surcharge. The effect is somewhat
similar to the ronstant rompressive Stresses induced in the walls of the capillary tubes discussed in chapter 7
Section DD
ylH l',
(J ..
as unclcr.
0_0
(J _
Section AA
There is no effect of capillary water.
Il "
 y... flt
Therefore,
Section
nD
(J ..
yiN + (Yz..h
" 0
Therefore,
lit ..
197
The effective stress is increased by 'I ... Ht" due to capillary action.
Likewise, it can be shown that the effective stress is increased by 'Iwllt at section CC also.
The following points may be noted from the study of both cases :
(1) The capillary water above the water table causes a negative pressure '1 ... 11, where 11 is the capillary
rise. This negative pressure causes an increase in the effective stresses at all levels below the
saturation level. The increase is equal to '1 ... 11. The capillary action is equivalent to a surcharge
q  y.H.
(2) If the soil is saturated due to rise in water table, the e[fcx:tive stress depends upon the submerged unit
weight; whereas for the soil saturated with capillary water, the e[fedive stress depends upon the
saturated unit weight. In the latter case, the water does not contribute to hydrostatic pressure.
(3) If the water table rises to the top soil surface, the meniscus is destroyed and the capillary water
Changes to the free water, and the effective stress is reduced throughout.
(4) Eq. 103 is applicable in all cases. However, it should be remembered that the pore water pressure
in the capillary zone is negative.
10.8. SEEPAGE PRESSURE
As the water flows through a soil, il exerts a force on the soil. The force acts in the direction of flow in
the case of isotropic soils. The force is known as the drag force or seepage force. The pressure induced in
the soil is lenned seepage pressure.
Let us consider the upward flow of water in a soil sample of length L and crosssectional area A under
a hydraulic head of II [Fig. 10.9 (a)l. The expression for seepage force and seepage pressure can be derived
considering the boundary \/ater pressures III and u2 aC1ing on the lop and hoIlom of the soil sample, as shown
in Fig. 10.9 (bXI). The boundary water pressure can be resolved into two components, namely, the hydrostatic
pressure and the hydrodynamic pressure as shown in Fig. 1O.9{bXil) and 1O.9(b)(iit).
(I) The hydrostatic pressures III(S) and u2(s) are the components which would occur if there were no
flow. If the samples were submerged under water 10 a depth of HI, lhese pressures would have
occurred.
(b)
".
(2) The hydrodynamic pressures Ul(d) and u2(d) arc the components which arc responsible for flow of
waler. This pressure is spent as the water flows through the soil. 'nlcse components cause the
seepage pressure.
At the lop of Ihe sample,
U2
(d)
p, .. l / A .. '1 ... h
'(he seepage pressure (Ps) can be expressed in terms of the hydraulic gradient. From 10.15,
.. (10.15)
P." i1... L
The seepage force (1) can be expressed as the force per unil volume
.
) .. A"";L ..
YwhA
:;u: ..
Y..,
... (10.16)
V). as
or
j .. h...
... (10.17)
lbus, the seepage force per unit volume is equal to the product of the hydraulic gradient (I) and the unit
weight of water. As the hydraulic gradient is dimensionless, the seepage force per unit volume has the
dimensions of the unit weight (i.e.)!F/L)). It bas the units of N/mJ. For isotropic soils, the seepage force acts
in the direct ion of now.
10.9. FORCE EQUILIBRIUM IN SEEIJAGE PROBLEMS
Force equilibrium in seepage problems can be considered adopting either of the following approaches.
(1) Considering the equilibrium of the entire mass and using the boundary pressures.
(2) Considering the equilibrium of the solid particle or the mineral skeleton, and using the hydrodynamic
pressures.
(a) Vertical F10w
(I) Upwards . Fig. 1O.10(a) shows the forces acting on the soil mass shown in Fig. 10.9 (a). The unit
weight of the soil used is the s..1turntcd unit weight. 'rne resultant force (If) on the soil mass considering the
equilibrium of the entire mass, adopting the first approoch,
)!T
I l4J lj]
1'.;1 ~I
,~H+h)'
U,' ....
"
5
BOI..IiD4RY
R : u,+
FO~CES
ll2
w
: LA,'_ Y."A
h, )
FORCES ACllNG ON
SOLID PAATrClES
R:W"'ui~w"_J
:tA'f'Y... A
fb)
now.
199
R = (W + Ud  U2
R .. (LA
'(sat
+ '(wAHl)  '(... A (H J + L + h)
R .. LA l'  1whA
... (10.18)
or
The figure on the lefthand side shows the force diagram. The resultant force R acts downwards. For
stability of the mass, R must act downwards.
Fig. to.IO(b) shows the forces acting on the solid particles, adopting the second approach. 1be unit
weight of the soil used in this approach is the submerged unit weight. 1be resultant force (10 on the soil
skeleton is given by
R
.. W'  U2'
R .. LA'('  l..,hA
In Eq. 10.18, the first term gives the submerged unit weight and the second term, the seepage force (Eq.
10.14). It must be noted that in the first approach, the seepage force (J) is not considered separately. It is
automatically accounted for in the boundary forces.
(iI) Downwards. Adopting a similar procedure, it can be shown that the resultant force when the flow is
downward is given by
... (10.19)
R '" 1..A y' + 1.., IIA
(b) Inclined Flow
Fig. 10.11 (a) shown the flow through an inclined soil specimen. In this case also, the resultant force R
can also be determined by adopting either of the two approaches discussed above for the vertical flow. As for
the vertical flow, in tbe first approach, the resultant force R is the vectorial sum of the saturated weight
1b)
(WSIl') and the boundary forces U. In the second approach, the resultant force R is the vectorial sum of the
submerged weight (W. ub ) and the seepage force (J). 1be force triangles are shown in Fig. 1O.1I(b). Thus
(1)
(2)
ii _ if, U
ii  if,", ]
... (10.20)
.. (10.21)
B .. W,at  WslIb
.. . (1 0.22)
The two approaches give identical results. However, the first approach is more IX>pular. It is more
convenient to determine the boundary forces than 10 determine the seepage forces. 1be seepage forces depend
upon the direction of flow and change from point 10 point. It becomes diffio.lit to determine the seepage
forces, especially in twodimensional flow.
200
1bercfore,
aO
a  (Yz,.)' H , + ..,,11"", u  y... II",,!
a .. <'r1l..),I1\
+ 1..,H..,  l..,H...1
y",(I1... + HI  H ...1)
For hydrootatic oomJitions, the effective stress is ll'IlI as discussed in Sect. to.5, The second tenn
indicates the effect due to [low. As (H"" + HI) > H",b the effective stress is incrtascd due to downward now:
Section CC
Therefore,
(J ..
a  y... H..,
u ..
or
0  y,' III + Y2' H2 + y",h
A oomparison with the effective Slres...es corresponding 10 hydrostatic conditions shows that the effective
stress is increased by y... h.
The conclusion that the effective stress is increased due to downward now c.1n also be drawn from
inlitutive feeling that as the waler flows downward, it exerts a drag force in the downward direction and
causes an increase in the interparticle forccs.
"(b) Upward Flow. Fig. 10.13 shows the case when the now is upward. The piezometers at various
elevations indicate the pore water pressure.
Section AA
TIlercfore,
Section Bn
1bcrefore,
0'
(J 
'0_0
0 1", H..,' + (y'....)l III,
cr ..
U  y..,H",1
As 11"'1 > (H) + H..,), the tenn 'r".(H, + H",  /1,,'1) is negative, and the effective stress is less than that
~rom the corresponding hydrostatic conditions
201
Section CC
cr ..
""tl' HI +
yi
a ..
U ..
y",H.. 1
..
(j .. ..,' L  ..,... h
111e second term can be written in terms of the hydraulic gradient a'i under.
y..,11 .. Yw . (h I L) . L .. Y.., i . L
Therefore,
(j .. y'L  "'wiL
..,..,(L + h)
202
1 'L  '1",; L
or
i  1 '11.
. .. [IO.23(a)J
The hydraulic gradient at which the effective stress becomes zero is known as the critical gradient (ic)'
Thus
i,  1 '11.
. .. (10.23)
Substituting the value of the submerged unit weight in terms of void ratio from Eq. 2.24 (a),
ic ..
(~ : ~)
... (10.24)
Taking the specific gravity of solids (G) as 2.67, and the void ratio (e) as 0.67,
ir ..
~.6: ;6~
.. 1.0
Thus the effective stress becomes zero for the soil with above values of G and e when the hydraulic
gradient is unity i.e. the head causing now is equal to the length of the specimen.
Alternative method
The above expression for the critical gmdient can also be obtained from the equilibrium of forces. When
the quick condition develops, the upward force is equal to the downward weight. Thus
1_ (L )( A) .. (h .. L)_Alw
or
or
hlL .. l'/y..,
Ll'  hl.
i. .. y'/y..,
.. [10.23(b)]
111e shear strength of a cohesionless soil depends upon the effective stress (see chapter 13). The shear
strength is given by
s .. (j Ian ..
where , is the angle of shearing resistance. 1be shear strength becomes zero when the effective st~
(j is zero. The soil is then said to be in quick (alive) condition. If the critical gradient is exceeded, the soil
particles move upward, and the soil surface appears to be boiling. The quick rondition is also known as
boilillg condilion. During this stage, a violent and visible agitation of particles occurs. The discharge suddcn1y
increases due to an inaease.~ in the coefficient of penneabjJjt~ occurred in the process. If a weight is placed
on the surface of soil, it sinks down. The soil behaves as a IJquld having no shear strength.
When a natural soil deposit becomes quick, it cannot support the weight of man or animal But contrary
to common belief, tbe soil does not suck the victims beneath its surface. As a mailer of fact, quick sand
behaves like a liquid with a unit weight about twice that of water. A person can easily float in it with about
onethird of his body out of quick sand. However, qUick sand is highly viscous and movement In it would
require a great effort and energy. A person may die by drowning (suffocation) if he gets tired and let his head
fall into the quick sand in panic.
If a person is caught in quick sand conditions, he should keep his head high above the soil surface aod
move slowly towards the bank. He should try to calch some tree on the bank and try to pull himself out of
lhe quick sand.
I! is to be emphasized that quiCk sand is not a special type of sand. It is a condition which occurs in a
soil when the effective stress is zero. Any cohesionless soil can become quick when the upward seepage force
is large enough to carry the soil particles upward. The quick sand condition may also develop in gravel when
the hydraulic gradient exceeds the critical gradient. However, the discharge required to maintain quick
condition in gravels is very large, which may nol be available. The required discharge depends upon tbe
permeability of the soil
,m
r
L,"h 1
by
,\
W...b(AxL)y'
The upward force is equal to the seepage force
(&J. lO.14).
J .. iyw (A xL)
When the soil becomes quick, the resultant force
is zero.
1lterefore,
W.ub  J
lWSlJb
j
I'ig.10.15. Seepltgc Pressure Approach
ALy'  iy .. (A xL)
i _
... (some ... &J. 10.23)
Y.
Altematively. one can work with pressures instead of forces. The downward pressure due to the
submerged weight of soil is given by
(j .. y' L
The seepage pressure is given by Eq. 10.16 as
P.  iy",L
The net effective stress would be zero when
Thus
a  Ps'
iLy",  y' L
i .. y'/y...,
l~c
Fig. 10.16. Effect
or Surcharge.
o .. l",H... + q + 110lL
u .. 1... H...1
or u .. l",(h + H", + L)
(j .. ("f...,H... + q + 1,,,, L)  1... (h + H..., + L)
aDd
Therefore,
or
h L.!,.
Y.
hlL .. y'/y",
i .. y'/y...
Backward erosion of soil is caused by the percolating water, and the piping begiru; when the hydraulic
gradient at exit, known as exir gradient, exceeds the critical gradient (if), given by Eq. 10.24. The soil at the
exit is removed by the percolating water. When the soil near the exit has been removed, the flow nct gets
modified. There is more ooncentralion of the flow lines in the remaining soil mass, resulting in an increase
of the exit gradient. This causes further removal of the soil. This process of backward erosion continues
towards the upstream reservoir and a sort of pipe is formed (Fig. 10.17). As soon as the channel approaches
the reservoir, a large amount of water rushes through the channel so formed and the hydraulic sttuaure fails.
Backward erosion piping may also occur in the body of earth structure. such as an earth dam. This lakes
place when the phreatic line cuts the downstream face of the dam and the seepage pressure is high. It is
indicatl by a progressive sloughing of the downstream face. Such failures can occur even when the exit
gradient is low. If the dowru;tream face has the slope angle equal to the angle of internal friction of the
cobesionless soil, the critical gradient at which failure occurs is approximately equal to zero. In other words,
the failure may occur even when the scclX"lge is almost horizontal towards the downstream face.
Backward erosion piping may also occur along any weak bedding plane in the fOlJndation, or along the
periphery of a conduit embedded in the e.1rth dam when the seepage pressure is high.
Generally. backward erosion piping failure occurs when the exit gradient is greater than the aitical
gradient. But, in exceptional casc..<;. it may occur even when the overall downward submerged weight of the
soil is greater than the upward focce due to seepage. In such a case, some of the fine particles of the soil are
carried by the percolating waler even though the most of soil particles are restrained. Thereafter, the seepage
concentrates in the loosened soil and results in piping failure.
(2) Heave Piping. Failure by heave piping occurs in the form of a rise or a heave of a large mass of soil
due 10 seepage pressure. When the seepage force due to upward flow of water at any level is greater than the
submerged weight of the soil above that level. the entire soil mao;s in that zone heaves up and is blown out
by the percolating water. This type of failure is known as heave piping failure.
Heave piping may occur on the downstream of a sheet pile cutoff wall of a hydraulic structure (Fig.
10.18). According to Terzaghi, heave piping occurs within a distance of D/2 on the dowmtream of the sheet
pile, where D is the depth of pile below the ground surface. It occurs in the zone marked abc d when the
upward seepage force is greater than the submerged weight of the soil in this zone. 1be seepage force can be
determined from the flow n~.
In Fig. 10.18, the equipotential line or potential 0.4 h passes through d and that of 0.3 h through c. The
average excess hydrostatic pressure on the base c d of the prism abc d is 0.35 h. Therefore, upward seepage
force, U _ Y... (0.35 h) (D/2 )( 1) per unit length and downward force due to submerged weight,
206
W .. y'x(D/ 2xD)
Heave piping would occur when U it W'. The failure is associated with an expansion of the soil which
results in an increase in the permeability of the soil. The flow suddenly increases and ultimately leads to
failure.
The factor of safety with respect to heave piping can be obtained from the following equation.
F.~.~
U
Y. (h,) (D 12)
or
where ha is Ihc average excess
... (10.26)
hyd~latic
The ocamence of piping in and below a hydraulic structure such as an earth dam is disastrous. This may
cause catastrophe. The following measures are generally adopted to prevent piping failures.
(1) Increasing the palh of percolation. The hydraulic gradient (I) depends upon the path of per(:olatioo
(L). If the length of the path is increased, the exit gradient will dcaease to a safe value. The length of the
path of percolation can be intteased by adopting the following methods.
(a) Increasing the base width of the hydraulic structure.
(b) Providing vertical cut off wulls below the hydroulic structure.
(c) Providing an upstream impervious blanket, as shown in Fig. 10.19.
(2) Reducing Seepage. With a reduction of seepage through the dam, the chances of piping failure
through the body of the dam are considerably reduced. The quantity of seepage discharge is reduced by
providing an impervious core, as shown in Fig. 10.19.
(3) Providing drainage niter. A drainage filter changes the direction of
away from the downstream
face. It prevents the movement of soil particles along with water. The drainage filter is properly graded, as
discussed in the following section.
The drainage filter may be horizontal or in the form of a rock toe (Sect. 9.11). It may also be in the fonn
now
""
of a chimney drain. as shown in Fig. 10.19. A chimney drain is effective for stratified soil dcpooits in which
the horizontal permeability is greater than the vertical penneability.
(4) Loaded Filter. A loaded filter consists of graded sand and gravels. The function of the loaded filter
is to incrc~ the downward force without inaeasing the upward seepage force. .
The loaded filter is placed at the exit point where the water emerges from the foundation. For the sheet
pile wal~ the filter is placed over the affected zone abc d in Fig. 10.18. 1be loaded filter increases the factor
of safety against heave piping. The foclor of safety (F) is given by
F _ W'~ W
... (10.27)
where (f) stands for filter and (b) for base material.
(2) The filter material should be fine enough that the soil particles of the base material are not washed
through the filler.
It would not be necessary to saeen out all the particles in the base materia).. If the mler openings
restrain the coarsest 15% i.e. Dss size of base material. the soil particles are checked due to fonn~tion of a
skeleton. The coarser 15% particles rollect over the openings in the filter material and form smaller openings
to trap the smaller particles. ~ shown in Fig. 10,20, Therefore, the size of the openings formed in the filler
must be less than Dss of the soil. It has been established that the diameter of the openings is about 115 of the
DIS size of the filter. "lberefore. the seoond criterion is
~ DIS of filter
material <
... (10.29)
208
"',,
~~~L',f":::';Q~7
\
\
" .... ,
Fig. 10.20. Openings in filler
Dls(J)
Dls(J)
D85(b) < 5 < Dls(b)
The U.S. Corps of Engineers have recommended that
D",IJ)
D,,(b) < 25
... (10.30)
In a graded filter, each layer is designed considering it us a filler and the preceding layer as a base
material. 111C p..1rticJe sizes of the layers increase in the dircction of flow. (Fig. 10.21).
C"
(4) The material of the last layer should be coarse enough not to be carried away through the openings
of the perforated drainage pipes, jf provided.
If the Dss size of the last layer satisfjes the following criterion, lhe chances of washing of the filter
material into the pipes are reduced.
'
... (10.31)
Dasoffiltermateriai
Width ofslol
> 1.4
Generally,
... (10.32)
for both types of the openings is kept equal 10 or grater than 2.0.
(5) The grain size curve of the filter material should be roughly parallel to Ihat of Ihe base material.
209
(6) To avoid segregation, filter should not contain the particles of size larger Ihan 75 mm.
(7) For proper working, the filter material should not contain more than 5% of the fines passing 75~ IS
sieve.
(8) The thickness and area of Ihe filter should be sufficient 10 c..1rry tbe seepage discharge safely.
If the filter has to work as a londed filter, the lotalthickncss should be large enough to provide adequate
weight.
10.17. EFFECTIVE STRESS IN PARTIALLY SATURATED SOlLS
In partially saturated soils. air is also
prescnt along with water. Tn the discussion
given below, it is a<>Sumed thnt air is in
sufficient quantity such that there is
continuity in both the air phase nnd the water
phose. Because of meniscus formation, the air
pressure is greater than the water pressure. It
is assumed thnt the air pressure and water
pressure are constant throughout Ihe void
spaces. Thus, Ihere are three measurable
stresses in a partially saturated, namely. total
stress a, pore water pressure u'" and air
pressure u".
Let us consider the forces acting on the
wavy plane X~, shown in Fig. 10.22 (a).
The wavy plane passes through the points of
contact of solid particles. The wavy plane can
be taken as a plane as already mentioned.
Fig. 10.22 (b) shows Ihe forces acting on the
plnne. From equilibrium in the vertical direction.
c.c
(b)
".(a)
IN
a 
0'
0  (j
where
a = effective stress (
INIA),
A",
U'"
A"
U"
".(b)
a.,. .. A,./A,
a
".(1033)
where X (pronounced as Ch,) represents the fraction of Ihe area of the soil occupied by water. It pepends
mainly on the degree of saturation S (Fig. 10.23). Its value is zero for dry soil and is unity for fully saturated
soil. The value of X also depends upon the soil structure, the cycle of welting and drying, and stress changes.
210
'0
/'
o e
o6
o 2
o 0
"
20
40
Of
DEGREE
Fig. 10.23.
60
SO
100
SATURATION (5) ~
Vllri~lion
of X with S.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
Illustrative Example 10.1. A sand dC/lOsit is 10 /II thick and overlies a bed of soft clay. The ground
wotel' table is 3 m below the ground surface. If d,e sand above the grollnd water table has a degree of
saturation of 45%, plot the diagram showing file variation of the total stress, porI! water pressure and tire
effective stfJ!SS. The void ratio 0/ the sand is 0.70. Take G = 2.65.
Solution
Bulk density,
p ..
(~
!e)
p _ (2.65;
p...
~'~7~ 0.70)
x HID _ 1744.12kglm]
or
(2.~')+ +o.~~O)
Section ,8B
a _ 51.33
Section CC
u _ 0
kN/m2
Fig. E to.l.
211
" =7
x 9.81
Fig. E 10. 1 shows the variation of stresses.
= 68.67
kN/m 2,
Dluslratiye Example 10.2. Delennine the increrue in the effective stress at section CC ill Illustrative
Example 10.1 whe/l the water table is lowered by 5 m. Assume that the soil above the water table has lhe
degrte of soturation of 45% thmughout.
=8 x
Solution.
= 175.54 kN/ml
17.1 I + 2 x 19.33
II
a = 78.0
/I
= 6 x ID.O
= 60.0 kN/ml. a =
cr
a at
leveIB~
Fig. E 10.3.
a=
(p = 1.925 MglmJ ). The w{Uer table;s at tlr~ IIpper sllr/ace of the clay layer. Determille the effec'ive pressure
at variOlfS levels immedialely after placemellt of a surclrarge load of 58.86 tNlml 10 the ground surface.
= 58.86 kN/m
, II
o. a = 58.86 kN/m2
B8
5S.S6kNlml
+
Jm
lm
!L
B .CLV_ _ _ _"""500d
ClOy
"C      "    
35m
Grovel
",,).770'.175.11
kN/m2
kNlm2
kNIm2
'ig. F. 10.4
St.'clio"
l~n
~tioll
CC
~ction
1)0
a ..
.
A
'"rI c
25m
25m
'IOPlJII'[A
X'"
~'''~~
~:"n
.Nlm'
Fig. E 10.5
(j ... ()
n ..
41.93 kN / ml
a .. 4}.93 ( 9.81)
Lewl ('C
_ 51.74 kN/m%
213
2
lJ~L
. '. Sond
Rg. E 10.6.
or
Illustrative Exam ple
The gravel is wuler WI w'lesiclII pl?SSlIre of 12.5 m. II i~' propOl"ed 10 excavate a founda tioll trellch 2 m deep.
Detent,ine the facto/" of safety against heaving.
(b) What wOl/ld be llle faclOr of safel), against heaving whe/l (/ IIl/iform IJressure of 98./ kNIII/ 2 is applied
t() the footillg cQlutmcte,/ ill the above trench?
F =
(102)
= 1.19
(b) After Construction. Thc downward force is increased due to the uniform pressure of 98.1 kN/m2
F
1864.64 (9.8]
;8~O:\;.fO2) +
98. 1
= 1.99
Illustrative Example 10.8. De/ermine the factor of safety againsl heave f(lilure in the hydraulic structure
showlI ill FiR. Ex. 10.8. P = 1850 kgll//
Solution. Average pressu re on the base of soi l prism,
h" = 0.42h
= 0.42
= 3.36m
= 8.34
kN/m 2
~~ ~,
IDustrative Example 10.9. Determine the apl'fflximate Um its oftheft/ter material requiredfor Ihe soil of the
bqse material which IUl.\ D,!o = 0.0/ mm alld DS5 = O. /0 mm. and the grading curve as shown ill Fig. E 10.9.
From Eq. 10.28, Dl~(/) > 5DI!I(b)
Solution.
214
00
II
90
V //
V /
O.10mm
80
70
Bose material!
.0
10
0
0.001
V /
//
Filter+/
j" /
/ //
V'!'
//
II
/ /,6
10,0
size (mm) _ _
fig. E 10.9
Therefore, DIS of filter material should lie between 0.05 mm and 0.5 mm. As the gradation curve of the
filter matcrial should be roughly parallel to that of the base material, the hatched portion indicates the limi~
of the material suitable as filler.
IIIustralive Example 10.10.1[ excavation is carried out in a soil Wilh a porosity of 0.40 and the specific
gravity of solids 0/2.65, determine the critical gradient. A 1.50111 layer of the soil is subjected to an upwlJld
seepage head of 1.95 m. What depth of coarse sand would be required above the soil to provide a foeror tJ
safety of 2.50 ? Assume that sand has the same porosity and sp. gr. of solids as the soil.
Solution.
e 
6  ~::  0.667
'"
eritreal gradient
Sntumtcd density
~ Q.::.l ~ ~ ~ 099
I + e
I + 0.667
t~ : ;)
p,,,,:
p"
= (1.50 + x) 9.71
= 1.95 x 9.81
. . . = 3.42m
PROBLEMS
A. Numerical
10.1. Determine Ihe 101al, neulml and ellcctive stresses at the bottom of the deposit shown in Fig. P 10.1.
IAns. 199.14.83.39,115.75 kN/m2)
G5.
l
in
j':16g/ml
W.T.
io
3m ____'_._2_.0~g_/m_'________
205m
,_170 g/ml
1m ==f;P=;:IB51i,,jqjzlmiii[:,===:
2m __~~~~I.~85~g~l~m~I_______
Fig. P 10.1
10.2. The water table in a deposit of uniform sand is located at 2 m below the ground surface. Assuming the soil
above the water table is dry. determine the effective stre~s at a depth of' 5 m below the ground surface. The void
ratio is 0.75 and the specilic grnvity of solids is 2.65.
{b) If the soil above the water table is saturated by capillary action, what is the effective slress at the thai depth?
(Ans. 57.43 kN/m2; 65.83 kN/m 2j
IS
10.3. A deposit of fine sand ha.~ a void ratio of 0.54 and the specific gravity of wlid particles is 2.67. Compute the
safe exit gradient, with u factor of safety of4.
[ADS. 0.271)
10.4. A deposit of silly clay lies between two layers of sand,
as shown in Fig. P lOA. The lower sand layer is under
anesian pressure of 4 m and the water level in the upper
sand layer is 2.0 m below the ground surface. Detemline
the effective stress at the bottom.
"' .t6 kNlml
t7
~ 2,;
(h) Also. determine the head above G.S. that would
.... 20kN/ml
cause heaving at the base of Ihe clay.
[Aos. 32 kN/m 2,7.2 m]
10.5. The porosity of a sample of ~al1d in the lOOSe stale was
lLL___
54% and in dense stale, 38%. Find out the critical
hydraulic gradient in hath the slates if the specilic
gravity of the wil grJin was 2.60. Also lind out the
Fig. P 10.4.
l~1
___y_"_"_'_N'_""______
'fr
216
Fig. P 10.6.
ou
10.12. What is the effect of the seepage pressure on the effective stress? Give examples.
10.13. Whot is quick SlInd ? How would you calculate lhe hydraulic grodienl required to create quick sand conditions
in iI sample of sand ?
10.14. Explain the mechanics of piping in hydraulic structures. Wlult methods ore used 10 incrCllse the foCtor of safety
against piping?
10.15. Why a filter is used on the downSircam of an carlh dilm ? How would you design a filter?
10.16. What are two different types of piping failures? Explain with the help of sketches.
10.17. What is effeCtive stress principle?
19.IS. Wrile whether Ihe following statements are correct.
(a) The effective stress is the stress at the points of contact of the soil partidcs.
(b) 1lte effective stress stress CIIn be measured directly in the field.
(c) The effective stress is equal to the lotal stress minus the pore water pressure.
(d) The rise of wnter due \0 Cilpillnry action reduces the efTeclive stress.
(e) The shear strength of n soil depends upon ilS effective stress.
(J) In partially s:llurnted soils, the pore nir pressure is more thnn the pore waler pressure.
(g) Quick sand is a type of sand.
217
wIn
W lill
(e) 1.07
(lI) 1.10
~_lm2~ 1m ~~~m~~~ ma~~~
11
Stressees Due to Applied Loads
11.1. INTRODUCTION
Stresses are induced in a soil mru;s duc to weight of overlying soil and duc to the applied loads. These
stresses are required for the stability analysis of the soil mass, the settlement analysis of foun<1.1tions and the
determination of the earth pressures. The stresses due to self weight of soil have been discussed in chapter
10. These stresses are summarised in Section 11.3. lbe rest of the chapler is devoted to the determination of
stresses due to applied loads.
The slreSSeS induced in soil due to applied loads depend upon its stressstrain characteristic. The
stressstrain behaviour of soils is extremely complex and it depends upon a large number of factors, such as
drainage oonditiollS, water content, void ratio, rate of loading, the load level. and the stress path. However,
simplifying assumptions are generally made in the analysis 10 obtain stresses. It is generally ru;sumed that the
soil mass is homogeneous and isotropic. The stressstrain relationship is as.<iumed to be linear. The theory of
elasticity is used to determine the stresses in the soil mass. Jl involves considerable simplification of real soil
behaviour and the stresses computed are approximate ones. Fortunately, the results are good eoough for soil
problems usuaUy encountered in practice. For more aocurate results. realistic stressstrain characteristics
should be used. However, the procedure becomes complex and numerical techniques and a high speed
computer are required.
11.2, STRESSSTRAIN PARAMETERS
The main stressstrain parameters required for the application of elastie theories are modulus of elasticity
() and Poisson's ratio (v). The modulus of elasticity can be determined in the laboratory by conducting a
triaxial compression test (see Chapter 13). The stressstrain curve is plotted between the deviator stress
(0)  oJ)' and the axial strain (1). An unoonsolidatedundrained (UU) or an unconfined compression test can
be performed for saturated, cohesive soils. A consolidated drained (CD) is usually conducted for cohcsionless
('1.,.)
soils. The value of modulus is generally laken as the
(<1jGj)1
               
=::
value
SKont mod.Ilus
219
Poisson's raUo on the oomputed stresses is not significant and an approximate value can be used without
much error.
Tubles 11.1 and 11.2 give typical mnge of values of modulus of elasticity and Poisson's mtio,
respectively, for some soils.
Tllble 11.1. 1)rplcal Values of E
Type of SQil
S. No.
1.
Sorraay
Hard day
3.
4.
Silty Sand
Loose Sand
Dense Sand
Dense grovel
S.
6.
MN/m
kN/m2
1.54.0
6.015.0
6.020.0
10.025.0
40.080.0
100200
15004000
600015000
600020000
1000025000
4000080000
to 2 x lOS
I x
105
1.
2.
3.
4.
S.
0.40.5
0.10.3
0.30.35
0.300.50
0.200..30
Uns.oturuted clay
Silt
Loose ",nd
Dense sand
The method for the determination of total vertical stresses duc 10 self weight of the soil have been
discussed in. chapter 10. The stresses due to self weight of soils are generally large in comparison with those
induced due to imposed loads. This is unlike many other civil engineering structures, such as steel bridges,
wherein the stresses due to self weight are relatively small. In soil enginccring problems, the stresses due to
self weight are Significant. In many cases the stresses due to self weight are a large proportion of the lotal
stresses and may govern lhe design.
When the ground surface is horizontal and the properties of the soil do Dot change along a horizontal
plane, the stresses due to self weight are known as geostalic stresses. Such a oondjtion generally exists in
sedimentary soil deposits. In such a case. the stresseS are normal to the horizontal and vertical planes, and
there are no sheariog stresses 00 these planes. In other words, these planes are principal planes. The vertical
and horizontal stresses can be detennined as under.
(a) Vertical stresses. 1be vertical stresses are detennined using the methods described in chapter 10. Let
us oonsider the horizontal planeAA at a depth l below the ground surface {Fig. 11.2 (a)]. Let the area of
croS.IH;ection of the prism be A. If the unit weight of soil (y) is oonstant, the vertical stress (oJ is equal to
the weight of soil in prism divided by the area of base. Thus
Oz _
or
weiS!!.'! :;~prism
I (z AX A)
...(B.l)
IT the soil is strotified, having n layers of thickness l1o~ .... lll' with unil"weight 't1l '12) ... "t", the vertical
stress is given by
E,
... (11.2)
':>il
w=j
yA dl
lV
a ;: =A"== 
j ydz
a t ==
yA d,
Afbi
... ( 11.3)
o
If the soil is stratified and also has a variable ani! weight,
the vertical stress is given by
;1
'1
...
a;: =
... (11.4)
o
0
0
(b) Horizontal stresses. The horizontal stresses (ax and a,.) act on vertical planes, as shown in Fig. 11.2
(b). The horizontal stresses at a point in :I soi l mass are hig'hly variable. These depend not only upon the
vertical stresses, but also on the type of the soil and on the conditions whether the soil is stretched or
compressed laterally. In the treatment that rollows it wou ld be assumed that a.r = 0,.
The ratio of the horizontal stress (0 ..) to the vertical stress (oz) is known as the coefficient of lateral stress
or lateral stress ratio (K ). Thus
0,
K==~
or
0 ...
Ko:.
... (11.5)
In natural deposits. generally there is no lateral strain. The laleral slress coefficient ror this case is known
as the coefficient of lateral presS/tl"e al rest (Ko). The value of its coefficient can be obtained from the theory
of elasticity, as explained helow. In retaining structures (chapter 19). there is either stretching or contraction
of soils and the value of K is different.
The strain in xdirection is given by (see any text on theory or elastici ty or mechanics of materials)
.. ==
E~,
[o.o:v(o ,.
+ O~)]
= O.
Thus
o.r =
Taking u... = 0 ,. and simplifying ,
O.,(lv) =
It
(0)" + OJ
0t
0,=(,:,)0,
Os
where
= Koot
Ko =~
... (11.6)
... (11.7)
221
The vulue of Ko can be obtained if the Poisson's ratio v is known or eslimated. Eq. 11.7 is not of much
prnctiCl I ~ as the soil L'i not a purely elastk: material and it is dHncult to estimate the Il()i.'~,s()n r.uio.
The value of ~ is detcnnined from actual measurement or soil prcs.,>ure or from experience. For :J
sedimentary sand deposit, its value varies from 0.30 10 0.6, and for a nonnally consolidatctl d:lY, iL.. value
generally lies betwccn 0.5 and 1.10. Table 11.3 gives the average values of Ko for diITcrcnl types of soil...
Juky's fonnulu is oommonly used, according to which
Ko I  sin<p'
where " is the angle of shearing resistance.
7'ypt a/Soil
K,
Loose sallil
$llnd
0 5 0.(0()
J)ellS~
11.:\~ )5U
3.
Cluy(tlrai/~)
11.5  0 .(,0
4.
Clay (UIIl/rail/cd)
(j.HO I . 1
5.
I.
2.
I .U_ :\.U
(I) 1be soil mass is :In clastic continuum, having a amslant valuc of modulus of clastldty
... (11.8)
where R ::: polar distance betwccn the origin 0 and point I'.
p '" angle which the line 01' makes with the vcrticul.
R V~
Obviously,
+ 1 +?
R_~
and
(o~)
and
,'l.2.i
cas.p .. zl/l
where
Ii~.
In
a l1lflCCl"lllllted
1(\111
222
az~~ .~
or
oJ ..
3Q
Zit .
(Z/R)'
3Q i'
nr
.. 23t
. If
a,~ . ?~
~ l [(? :
a, 
a,_~.!,.
~.
or
az  18 .
where
f8 ..
i')"
.. (11.9)
[I + (d')'J>'
... (11.10)
3
... (lLl1)
2lt[1 + (rlZ)2]~
The coefficient 18 is known as the Boussinesq influence coefficient for the vertical stress. The value of
18 ron be delennincd (or the given value of rtz (rom Eq. 11.11. The oomputed values are tabuJ31ed in Table
11.4.
,I,
0.00
0.05
0.10
18
,I,
0.4775
1.05
0.4745
0.15
0.4657
0.4516
o.w
0.4329
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.4103
0.3849
1.30
1.35
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.10
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00
0.3577
0.3295
0.3011
0.2733
0.2466
0.2214
0.1978
0.1762
0.1565
0.1386
0.1226
0.1083
0.0956
lAO
18
,I,
0.0745
0.0658
0.0581
2.05
21.0
2.15
0.0513
0.0454
0.0402
0.0357
0.0317
l.45
150
1.55
1.60
0.0282
1.65
0.0179
0.0160
0.0144
0.0129
0.OU6
O.otOS
1.70
1.75
1.80
1.85
1.90
1.95
2.00
0.0251
0.0224
0.01Il0
0.0095
0.0085
18
,I,
18
2.W
0.0071
Q.(XJ70
0.0064
0.0058
2.25
0.0053
2.~
0.0048
0.0044
0.0040
4.50
0.0002
4.75
5.00
0.0002
0.0037
10.00
0.0000
2.35
2.40
245
250
255
260
265
210
275
280
2.85
290
295
3.00
3.25
350
3.75
4.00
4.25
0.0011
0.0008
0.0005
0.0004
0.0003
OJJOOI
0.0034
0.0031
0.0029
0.0026
0.0024
0.0022
0.0021
0.0019
0.0018
0.0016
0.0015
0.0844
The following points are worth noting when using Eq. 11.10.
(1) The vertical stress does not depend upon the mcx1ulus of elasticity (E) and the Poisson ratio (v). But
the solution has been derived assuming that the soil is linearly elastic. The stress distribution will be the same
in all linearly elastic materials.
223
(2) The intensity of vertical stress just below (he load pc>int is given by
0, 0.4775 ~
... (l1.12)
(3) At the surface (z = 0), the vertical stress just below the load is theoretically infinite. However, in an
actual case, the soil under the lond yields due to very high stresses. The load point spreads over a small but
finite aTCa illld, therefore, only finite stresses develop.
(4) The vertical stress (oJ decreases rapidly with an increase in r/z ratio. Theoretically, the vertical stress
would be zero only at an infinite distance from the load point. Actually, at r/z = 5.0 or more. the vertical
stress beoomes extremely small and is neglected.
(5) 10 actual practice, foundation loads are not applied dirccUy on the ground surface. However, it bas
been established that the Boussinesq solulioo can be applied conservatively 10 field problems concerning
loads at shallow depths, provided the distance z is measured from the point of application of the load.
(6) Boussinesq's solution can even by used for negative (upward) loads. For example, if the vertical
stress decrease due to an excavation is required, the negative load is equal to the weight of the soil removed.
However, as the soil is not fully elastic, the stresses determined are necessarily approximate.
(7) The field measurements indicate that the actual stresses are generally smaller than the theoretical
values given by Doussincsq's solution, especially at shallow depths. Thus, the Boussincsq solution gives
conservative values and is commonly used in soil engineering problems.
Limitations of Bousslnesq's Solution. The solution was initially obwined for determination of stresses
in elastic solids. Its application to soils may be questioned, as the soils arc far from purely elastic solids.
However. experience indicates that the results obtained are satisfactory.
The application of Boussinesq's solution can be justified when the stress changes are such that oruy a
stress increase occurs in the soil. The fC.'11 requirement for use of the solution is not that the soil be elastie
(Le., fully recoverable), but it should have a constant ratio between stress and strain. When the stress decrease
occurs, the relation between stress and strain is not linear and. therefore, the solution is not strictly applicable.
If the stresses induced in the soil arc small in comparison with the shear strength of the soil, the soil behaves
somewhat elastically and the Boussinesq solution can be used.
For practical cases, the Boussincsq solution can be safely used for homogeneous deposits of clay,
manmade fills and for limited thickness of uniform sand deposits. In deep sand deposits, the modulus of
elasticity inaeases with illl increase in depth and, therefore, the Boussinesq solution will nOI give satisfactory
results. In Ihis case, the assumption of proportionality between stress and strain cannot be justified. For such
a case, nonlinear elastic solutions or elastieplaslie solutions arc required.
The point loads applied below ground surface cause somewhat smaller stresses than are eaused by surface
loads, and, therefore, the Boussinesq solution is nol strictly applicable. However, the solution is frequently
used (or shallow footings, in which z is measured below the base of the footing.
t.,.
""'..,. "Ssi
~  "t.l)'i
""tu "t".r:t.
".)01."=
and. therefore independent unknown components are only six 0 .... 0,. 0:. "..,.,
The equations for
determination, of 0.: have already been given. The corresponding equations for other components are :
o .1Q. [~.
2x
R'
('2Vl,{
__' __ (2R
,)J' _.}]
3 ' R(R.,)
R'(JI.')' II'
+
224
[D.
~ If
Y2n
u_
~~R+
i!..=M
{ R(R+z)
1
2
:)4: ~}]
_~[:!..l!_(l2V)~ 1
2"
;r:y
'" _
If
:.
Jf(R+z)2
~.~
... (11.13) ,
o)(OOy
and
"t..,.
Cylindrical Cooroinates. Sometimes, it is more convenient to use cylindrical coordinates (r. e, z) instead
of cartesian coordinates (r, y. z). The Boussinesq solution in lerms of cylindrical coordinates IS as under
(F;g.11.5).
3Q
Vertical stress,
a,  OX
Radial stress,
'
_.[ 3%..'  ~l
R'
2l<
Tangential stress,
Shear stress,
"ox'/1
3Q
Shear streSses
where R ... ,,; +
"C..e 
l.
as before.
..i'
'tze ... 0
.. (11.14)
R(R + z)
~1
225
0, 
18
Taking oJ  0.1 Q.
0.1 Q  18 .
18
0.1 z'
... (a)
2.00
18
0.25
0.00625
0.50
0.25
1.25
0.1562
150
0.225
1.75
0.3062
,I'
1.50
0.05625
1.16
1.0
0.10
2.16
0.93
0.75
0.59
0.44
0.400
0.27
0~'i4
0.75
0.87
0.93
0.938
0.885
0.770
0.540
lkplh
2185
0.4775
0.000
0.000
Isobars are useful for determining the cITccI of the load on the vertical stresses al various points. The
zone within which lhe stresses holve a significllnt eITect on the
sctt1cm~nt
of structures is known
(IS
the
'I'
I,
'"
050
0.25
0.4775
0.1194 Q
0.4103
0.1026 Q
1.00
050
0.2733
0.0683 Q
1.50
0.75
2.00
250
3.00
0.1565
1.00
0.0844
1.25
0:0454
1.50
0.0251
4.00
2.00
0.0085
0.0390 Q
0.0211: 0
0.01130
0.0063 Q
0.0021 Q
'
0 00210
Fig. 11.7 shows tbe vertical stress distribution diagram. The diagram is symmetrical about the vertical
axis. The maximum stress occurs just below the load (r = 0), and it decreases rapidly as the distance r
increases.
The vertical slress distribution diagram on a horizontal plane can also be obtained graphically if tbe
isobars of different intensity are avai11ble. The horizontal plane is drawn on the isobars diagram. The points
of intersection of the horizontal plane with the isobar of a particular intensity give that vertical stress.
11.8. INFLUENCE DIAGRAMS
An influence diagram is the vertical stress distribution diagram on a horizontal plane at a given depth,
due \0 a unil concentrated load. In Fig. 11.7, if the concentrated load Q is taken as unity, the diagram
becomes an influence diagram. The influence diagrams are useful for dctennination of the vertical stress at
any point on that hOriz?"tal plane due to a number of ooncentrated loads applied at the ground surface.
'"
"
dO'
"'B'e".
GeC~bce
I~: "t
~,1 " xox~;'x
i
I
' I
_~~~~~~_.. .........
ow
'
___ m
__
Fig. 11.8 shows three influence diagrams, mark.ed II> 12 and T). due to unit loads applied at three points
A', C' and 8' on the ground surface. The stress at any point A on the horizontal plane at depth z due to three
loads Qb Q2 and Q3 is given by
(O:).~  QIOM + Q20AB + QJ 0AC
where
and
... (11.15)
The values of
OM , 0AB
The computation,
work
and 0AC can be abtained from the influence diagram IL' 13 and h.
is coosklembly _simplified using the reciprocal theorem, according to which
...(11.16)
Zl.7
and oCA,
Therefore; there.is no need of drawing three influence diagrams in Ihis case. Only one influence diagram
(11) with unit load at A' is sufficient. The values of of and 0CA are determined from II diagram below the
load points B' and C'.
If the stresses al any other point, say point D, are required, then the influence line for load above that
point (B' in this case) would be drawn. Alternatively, the influence line diagram II can be lraced on a paper
and placed in such a way that its axis of symmetry passes through the point B'.
Oz .. (IBIz?) Q. Table 11.7 shows the calculations for vertical stresses on a vertical plane al r ::: 1 m.
Table 11.7. Calculutions of Vertical stresses ut r = 1m
,I,
18
0.25
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
4.0
2.0
1.00
0.667
0.50
0.40
0.20
0.0004
0.0085
0.0844
0.1904
0.2733
0.3294
0.4329
0,0064 Q
0.0340 Q
0.0844 Q
0.0845 Q
0.0683 Q
0 .0527 Q
0.017 Q
5.00
axis the
11.9,
60 _ 3(!~y)
z
~.
(r' +
The vertical stress at P due to the line load extending from
... (0)
i')"
.....QO
to +
00
is obtained by integration,
3t/i"~
a, 
or
zn L
(r'
3q'i"a,  z;;
f_
i')"
dy
(x'
y' + 1)"
... (b)
228
Fig.ILlO
Substituting ~
+ z?
O"~
Let )'
= II Inn O.
Therefore. d)' =
3q'Z3
II
2n
cr.=~
Lei sin 9
= I.
<1\,
+ I).
(I"
r
0
u.s sec's O
cos~9d9
.. (c)
sect 9 dO.
a. = ~
J
2n _
."
2 1tu~
1l1crcfore. cos 9 dB (It
usl a dO
... (d)
Eq . (d) becomes
~
4
cr~
cr1.
=~
1t1l"
'u
J:
[1 11"]'
3
a , = 3q'z? x!.
1tli~
0,
2.~'
( I  ,2) dt
~
1t (Xl
[I ;xIA
+
(2)1
... (11.17)
Therefore.
lhe expressions for lhe slresses
a~
0'..
= ''L
1tZ
. .. (11.18)
and t.o;: can be obr.aincd in II similar manner, starting from Eq. 11.13.
.l~
2q'
Ox ""
and
""""it (.i + zh 2
2q'
xi'
'n,,~
...(11.19)
... (11.20)
~[Il'
1 + (xl::)2
6u,
nz
The stress due to entire strip lood is ootained as
a _!9.
,
LetX/ZtanlL
1U
1'hcrefe,dx=zsec'ludu
or
a, ..
~;cos2udu
u, 
J.
f: C ~2u) '"
+
Ca)
or
0:
! (29
+ sin29)
...(11.21)
I:===':~
2qdx [
/l
0:  ;u1 +
Eq. (a) is simplified making the following substitution,
dx_zscc 2
x_ztanp
ox
or
/lO: 
Integrating,
0,
]'
... (a)
pllP
Therefore
(x/Z)2
2
cos
[ 1 +
~dJJ
~n'~ r
"
,1 (I + =2~) all
"
p + ~ sin 2p ]PI
'1. f
*I
0:
Substituting ~2
! [(~~J
(sin~2cosf12
sin~ICOSPI)]
PI  2 e,
...(b)
231
0z
and
't;<;
0, .. ';
and
't;<; ..
... (11.22)
i [sin 28 sin2ql]
... (11.23)
... (11.24)
It may be mentioned that Eqs. 11.22 to 11.24 are geneml equations which can be used even for the case
when the point P is below the centre of the load.
In this case,
P1 .. 131 .. 8
232
and
~J+~20
<p 0
.;
Eq. 11.22 can be used to determine isobars of different intensity due to strip load. Fig. 11.13 shows the
isobars. The isobar of load intensity 0.1 q is at a depth of about 6 B below the load. Fig. 11.13 can be used
for determination of vertical stresses fit various points.
11.12. MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESSES AT l'OINTS UNDER A STRIP LOAD
The shear stress at any point P below a strip load is given by Eq. 11.24 as
't,Q ,.
~ sin
planes on which the shear stresses arc zero nrc known as principal plancs. TIlcrefore [or principal planes,
"t.a:; = O.
~sin29sin2<p=O
As q and 9 cannot be zero, 't,Q will be zero when
sin2",=O
or
2<p=O
The principal stresses are obtained from Eqs. 11.22 and 11.23, substituting 2<p _
OJ 
0: 
02  0., 
o.
(29 + sin29)
~(29
 sin 29)
... (11.25)
... (11.26)
The maximum shear Slress is equal to half the difference of the principal stresscs. TIlUS
"tmax 
(OL 
(3) 
sin 28
...(11.27)
Eq. 11.27 indicatcs that the maximum shear stress at P depends upon thc anglc 29 subtcnded by thc strip
load at the point J~ Obviously, the maximum shear stress will remain constant if the anglc 28 docs not
Change. Let us draw a circle with the centre 0 obt~Lined by the intersc('1ion of lines OA and on mnking angles
.........
(9O2B) with the ends of the load. as shown in fig. 11. I 4. As the angle subtended at the centre of circle is
twice that at the circumference, the point P makes nn angle 2B. All the points on this circle will subtend an
angle 28.
From Eq. 11.27, US the maximum shear stress depends on the angle 2B, the circle is the locus of all points
with sheur stress equal to 'tmax. The absolute maximum value of shur stress, ("t".....Jmax will occur when
sin 2B = 1 in Eq. 11.27. Thus
~)
;
'The locus of (tmax)mru: is a semi circle, which has the width of the loaded strip,
sin 28 1
oc
D,
28 _ 90.
,\<'\,
1
\\,
P;rom ;(:lx9'z",,u) I
0,  ~ . %' . [1 + (,I')'J"
The vertical stress due to entire 10mJ is given by
,d,
the poUlt
0, 
Let
3qz
I. (,.' + ?)"
'<~2 e";~'
\).,tF
...(0)
___
+ ;  u. Therefore, 2r dr _ du
Fia:.
(Ii + l)
0, 
Ie
3q?
/,1/
I ,:/
du
'}""
or
[~
[1 {I
(R' :
1)'" 1
;RI,)'
.. .(11.29)
.. .(11.30)
234
wh.ere Ie is the influence coefficient for the drcular area, and is given by
E,  [
111
;RIz)'
... (11.31)
Table 11.8 gives the value of the influence coefficient lc for different values of Rlz.
RJ,
/,
RJ,
I,
RJ,
/,
RJ,
/,
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.0000
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.4109
130
135
0.7734
1.9S
1.45
1.50
0.7891
0.8036
0.8170
0.8293
1.55
0.8407
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
0.9050
0.9106
0.9488
0.9684
0.9793
0,9857
0.9925
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.0037
0.0148
0.0328
0.0571
0.0869
0.1286
0.1592
0.4502
0.4880
0.5239
0.5577
1.00
0.5893
0.6189
0.6465
1.05
0.6720
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
0.6956
0.7175
0.7376
0.95
0.2079
0.2416
0.2845
0.3273
0.3695
0.7562
lAO
1.60
0.8511
1.65
1.70
0.8608
0.8697
1.75
1.80
1.85
1.90
0.8779
0.8855
0.8925
0.8990
0.9956
0.9972
0.9981
0.9987
0.9990
1.0000
Eq. 11.31 for the influence coefficient./c can be written in tenns of the angle 29 subteoded at point P by
tbe load.
Let tan
a = R/Z. Therefore,
[
E, 
111
~n'e }YO
.. (11.32)
Eq. 11.32 indicates that as e tends to 90, the value of /( approaches unity. In other wor~, when a
uniformly loaded area tends to by very large in comparison with the depth Z, the vertical slress al the point
P is approximately equal to q.
When the point P is not below the centre of the load, analysis becomes (;()mplicated and is outside the
scope of this text. In that case, the isobars shown in Fig. 11.16 can be used to determine the vertical stress at
any point. It may be noted that the isobar of O.lq cuts the axis of the load at a depth of about 4R (= W)
below the loaded area. The zone within which tbe stresses is indicated by tbis isobar. as mentioned above, is
known as the bulb of pressure. The reader should compare this pressure bulb with that below the strip load,
which is much deeper.
11.14. VERTICAL STRESS UNDER A CORNER OF A RECTANGULAR AREA
The vertical stress under a comer of a rectangular area (Fig. 11.17) with a uniformly distributed load of
intensity q can be obtained from Boussinesq's solution. From Eg. 11.9, the stress at depth z is given by, taking
dQ  q M qd< dy,
"
_ 3ql
f rB
t ~ """"27t Jo Jo
By integTlllion.
qdxd}'
l + Z2)~/2
(x2 +
Although the integral is quite t.:omplicated, Newmark was able to perform it The results we re presented
as rollows:
0t
where m
=.!L[
21t ~
1//11
= BIz
The values of
expressed as
and
III
II
m: +1I2;;
III
/I
III II
+ I
+ sin I (
"'m2 +
112
mn
] ... ( 11.33)
+ m2 n2 + I
=Uz
O"l.
236
(J~
= iNq
... (11.34)
I
N=21t
[11/1/
",1+,""+ 2
. _I
~. 11/2+,,2+ 1112,,2+ ,+sm
mil
",,1112+112+11121/2
+ I
II.
0.2
0.4
0.6
O.B
1.0
2.0
3.0
5.0
10,0
0.2
0.0179
O.032g
0.0504
0.0610
0.0619
0.0620
0.0620
0.1154
0.1562
0.1850
0.2046
0.2399
0.2465
0.2491
0.2498
0.4
0.0328
O'(}('O2
0.0435
0.0801
0.0931
0.0547
0.1013
O.JJ34
0.1150
0.1154
0.0
0.'
0.0435
{I.GSOI
0.1069
0.1247
0.1361
0.1533
0.0504
0.0931
0.1247
0.1461
0.1598
1.0
0.0547
0.1013
0.1361
0.0610
0.1134
0.1561
0.1849
0.2044
0.2395
0.1150
0.2034
0.2378
0.2439
0.2461
0.0620
0.0620
0.1154
0.1154
0.1533
0.1555
0.1561
0.1562
0.1555
0.1841
0.2034
0.2378
0.0618
0.1598
0.1812
O.I!Wl
0.1752
2.0
3.0
'.0
10.0
0.1812
0.1999
0.2325
O.I!W9
0.2044
0.2046
0.2395
0.2399
0.2461
0.2465
0.2486
0.2491
0.1850
0. 1999
Fadum gave charts for detenmnal\on of Lhc inlluence factor IN (Fig. 11.18). These charts can be used in
a design office. The t:harls t:an also be used for dClenninalion of the vertical stress under a strip load. in
which case the length tends to infinity and the curvc for II 00 can be used .
o.26
0""
.l
V"
20
.1
..
./"'
//

1/
/,1%:
/~
0.1
n,"
ncO.6
nsO.S
n",0.4
n",
n~o.2
"""'~V
1~P
:I~F
I
n~ ~o
"mO
0'
I
ID
rectangles has a comer at the point where the vertical stress is required. The vertical stress is delennined
WJing the principle of superposition. 1bc following three cases can occur.
(1) Point anywhe~ below the rectangular area. Fig. 11.19 (a) shows lhe location of the point P below
tile rectangular area ABeD. The given rectangle is subdivided into 4 small rectangles AEPH, EBFP, IlPOD
and PFCG, each having one comer at P. The vertical stress at P due to the given n:ctangular load is equal to
that [rom the four small rectangles. 1bcrefore, using Sq. 11.34,
E
(J)!
(2)
Hrt F
\to)
())
(a'
(b,
E
(e)
Now rea.angle ABCD = rectangle AEPF  rectangle BEPH  rectangle /X1PF + rectangle CGPH
The last rectangle CGPH is given plus sign becal..lSC this area has been <leducted twice. once in rectangle
BEPH and once in /X1PF.
Therefore, the stress at P due to a load on redangle ABeD is given by
0,  q [(IN)'  (INn  (IN>' + (IN)']
... (11.37)
where (IN)!> (INn. (IN) and (IN). are the influence coefIkients for the rectangles AEPF, BEPH, /X1PF and
CGPlf, n::spocti.vely.
(3) Polnt below the edge or the loaded area. If tile point P is below the edge of the loaded arca AlJCD
(Fig. 11.19 c). the given rectangle is divided inlO two small rectangles APED and PBCE. In this cme,
0,  q [(IN') + (IN),]
where (IN)J and <INn lireiqfluence coefficients for rectangles APED and PIJCE, respectively.
.. (11.38)
238
~ q [ 1  { 1 + (~,/Z)'
0. 
r]
(a)
'" ]
20 [ {I
.. !L 1 _ _1_ _
+ (R,Iz)' }
... (b)
... (1139)
Rl/z  0.270
Solving Eq. (b).
Thus every onetwenLieth sector of the circle, with a radius R] equal to 0.270 z, would give a vertical
stress of 0.005 q al its centre.
Let us now consider aoother concentric circle of radius R2 and divide it again into 20 equal sectors. Each
larger sector is divided into two subareas. H the small area (marked 2) exerts a stress of 0.005 q at P, the
vertical slress due to both area (1) and (2) would be equal to 2 )( O.cX)5 q. Thus.
2 x 0.005 q  !L [ I  { _ _1_ _
, }'"
20
1 + (R,h)
. .. (c)
94
0.64 Z, 0.77
toxO.OO5q!L20[I{_I_,}'" ]
1 + (R,oIz)
or
RIO 
QC
Fig. 11.21 shows the complete NeWmarlc's influence chan, in which only ~ circles hove been drawn roc
OIl
the chart.
Use of Newmark's Chart. The chart can be used to determine the vertical stress at point P below the
loaded area. A plan of the loaded area is drawn on a tracing paper to a scale such that the length AB( = 2 em
in this case) is equal to the depth (z) of the point P below the surface. For example, if the pressure is required
at a depth of 1 m, the plan should be drawn to a scale of 2 an 1 m or R.F. 1150. The traced plan of the
loaded area is placed over the Newmark chan such that the point P at which the .'pressure is required
coincides with the cenlle of the chan. The vertical stress at point P is given by
Oz"/)( n )( q
... (11.40)
where I.: influence coefficient ( = 0.005 in this case),
239
n = number of small area units covered by the plan. Each area between two successive radial
lines and two successive concentric circle is taken as one unit.
q = intensity of load.
The following points are wO1h IlOting:
(I) The fractions of the unit areas should also be rounted and properly accounted for.
(2) If the plan of the loaded area extends beyonds the 9 h circle. it may be assumed to approach the
10th circle for the purpose of counting the unit areas.
(3) The point P at which the vertical stress is required may be anywhere within or outside the loaded
an:8.
(4) If the depth at which the stress is required is changed, a fresh plan is required such that the new
depth is equal to the distance AB on the chllrt.
and
l!T 
o.oOJJ~o,'O'i""'O~""ro'r'OT.60"r'1o."''''r7I.00'1:~~~~ii~
TT
..
LA
rcu~~V/QUor
0." 0.6'3
I+sq~"a_"...,X
q:1?+AI~<'''''''1'PfH
2.00.08
2.5 0.06
3.0 0.010
triP
0.70
0.8'3
0.14
0.01
0.0"
0.31
0.25
0.20
~'.~: ~:~;
,., 11/",t:Ij!.fhHHHH
1/
2.01/!+++++I4H
2.5
3.0
It
L.L.L.L...L...L..L..L...Ll
u 'IlL!'
stI'CSS
t 
2i [~ a 
sin 26 ]
where & Js the angle which the line PB marks with vertical, and a is tbe a ngle subtended by PA and PB
at p.
IC the point P is CXadly beknv the end B, x .. 2b and & = O. Therefore,
<1
_!L (~(l)
2x
_~
Jl
241
The above equations can also be applied to the case whcn the intensity of the load increases linearly from
zero 81 one end to a maximum q and then decreases to zero (Fig. 11.24).
For tho load shown in Fig. 11.24 (a),
2b
2b.1
I'
2b
.1
2b
~~.
z
(b)
(a)
~t
centre.
. .. (11.43)
When thc point P is exactly below the point B, 01  az a and x :: 2b. [Fig. 11.24 (b)]. 1ncrcforc,
0,  ~ [2b )( 20 + 2b(a  a)]
... (11.44)
.~rI~
p
p
(b)
(a)
Fig.l!.25. Trapc:zoidalload.
0<
0,  ;;ra(al
au
~ '" 1
+ bad
Obviously. for the lrapezoidal load shown in Fig. 11.25 (b), the vertical stress at P,
... (11.45)
242
0, _
... (11.46)
2QIsin8
r(2usin2a)
0,
... (11.47)
2QJ sin e
,(.0)
2Q\sinO
0, _  . , (b) Concentl'1llcd Load
... (11.48)
written as
cr,. 
,,.,. ~
iL
2
,. R'
[~_
R'
(12\1) + (l2V)R1.13 
(R .,)'
~}]
n' (R
+ ,)
'" _f . .LIt x [~
+ (I  2v) n' 11 _x' R + ')}]
Rl
(R+Z)2
n2(R + 2:)
"'~
(3
~~~.
~y:=~.*
... (11.49)
'"
(Jr ";cr, _
When the lood is vertical,
:It
sin pSin9j
!It
2~'ros(e_~)
. ... (11.51)
.. O.
or ..
2~2
COS e
(q,,)'l'" . ;:t
[C'
0, 
1.
... (11.54)
... (11.55)
The values. of I ... arc considerably smaller than the BOllSSinesq influence factor (10). Table 11.10 gives the
values of I .... 'The values of 18 are also given for comparison.
'Thble 11.10. CompllrLson of lw and 18
riB
I,
lw
'/l
I.
I.
I
I
I
0.0
0.1
0.2
03
O.4nS
0.4657
0.4329
0.3849
0.3183
O.lO9O
0.2836
0.2483
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.1762
0.1386
0.1083
0.0844
0.1142
0.0925
0.07S1
0.0613
0.4
0.3295
0.2099
I
I
I
2.0
0.0085
0.0118
0.5
0.2733
0.1733
I
I
I
3.0
0.0015
0.0038
0.6
0.2214
0.1411
I
I
I
6.0
0.0001
0.0005
Fig. 11.28 shows the variation of 18 and Iw with rh. The Westergaard influence factor is about 2/3
.
of the Boussinesq values fo r small values of rlz. But for rlz more than 2.0, the Westergaard values are
slighlly gre<lter. The effec~ of the load is negligibly small in bOlh the cases when rlz is greater than about
2.0.
Q
0: 
21t .
(cz)2p + (rlcz)2)3/l
The above equation can be integrated to obtain the vertical stress (oz) below the centre of a uniform
circular load of intensity q and radius R as was done for the Boussincsq solution for derivation of Eq. 11.29.
In this case,
o, _ q
[1_{_1}"2
1 + (Rlcz)2
(1l.50
IT instead of the full circle, only I/Bth sector of the circle is considered, the stress is given by
0 . 9.. 1'8
__
1_ _ ,n
{ 1 + (Riel)' }
... (1l.5~
Eq. 11.57 is similar 10 the equation used for Newmark's chart, with one difference that the depth used
here is the modiLed depth cz.
The radius Rl of the first circle can be determined for a constant value of 0%(say, 0.001 q). Thus
0001
.
q
_ ~
1 ___
1__
{ 1 + (R,/czl' }
In
.. 0.127
<G
245
ou t
A
t CZ l
Fig. 11.29. I'enskc'$ Chart ( I _ 0.001).
Ukewise, the radii of other circles are determined. Unlike the Newmark chart, the radial divisions are
also changed in Fenske's chan. There are 8 radial divisions [or the first circle and 48 radial divisions for the
18th circle, The radii of the circular arOi and the number of radial divisions are so chosen thai each influence
!9.
;6)
area unit is approximately a square. Thblc 11.11 gives the values of R/({:z) for different circles and their
corresponding number of division.
The method of using the Fenske chart is similar to thai for the Newmark: chart. However, in this case the
d~tance AD represents the modified depth cz. 'The plan of the loaded area is drawn on a tracing paper to a
scale such that the distance AD is equal 10 c times the depth z of the point P at which the stress is required.
For Poisson's ratio of zero, the value of c is equal to 0.707.
Table H.H. Values of Riel. ror Fenske's Chart
'7)
ed
1
1 2 1 3 1
1 5 1 6 1 7 1
I 0.127 I 0.204 0.292 0.376 0.472 0.560 I 0.664 I 0.772
Di"~io,. I' 8
1 12 I 2D 1 24 1 321 32 I 40
40
C;",t, No1
to
1 It 1 12 1 t3 1 14 1 IS 1 16 1 t7 1 18
Rl(cz) 1 1.032 1 1.176 1 1.332 1 1.512 1 1.712 1 1.952 1 2.236 1 2.592 1 3.044
o;"'~... I 48 I 48 I 48 I 48 I 48 I 48 I 48 I 48 I 48
Ci"kNo
RJ (ez)
0.900
48
19
4.420
48
246
[Qd'D), < Q,
0,'
1
or
0,
;:
(',n? <
. < Q. (',). 1
,:?,
... (11.58)
Q, (',),
+
.
+
.
..1
..
>Equival~nl
r.+.+.+.::!,,/
5
9
10
"II
12
point loads
iolB+Z.j.,
Fig. 11.31 . Two""o..()ne Distribution.
The average vertical stress crz depends upon the shape of the loaded area, as given below (see Fig. 11.31)
(1) Square Aren (B x D),
0"%'"
qIi'
zf
... (11.59)
(8 +
n, unit length),
... (11.6<J)
q.
18\(~)
Xx
1;
... (11.61)
... (11.62)
The above method gives fairly accurate values of the average vertical stress if the depth z is less than 2J
times the width of the loaded area. The maximum stress is generally taken as 1.5 times the average stress
determined above.
(3) Sixty Degree Distribution. This method is similar to the preceding method. In tttis case, tbe pressurt
241
distribution is assumed along lines making an angle of 600 with the horizontal instead of 63~0 (2 : 1). The
method gives approximately the same results.
11.25. CONTACr PRESSURE DISTIUBUTION
The upward pressure due to soil on the underside o f the footing is tenned cont;:la pressure. In the
derivations of Ihe prcceding scctions, it has been assumed that the fooling is flexible and the cont."lct pressure
distribution is unifonn and equal to q. Actual footings are not flexible as assumed. The aaual distribution of
the rontact pressure depends upon a number of factors such as the clastic properties of the COOling material
and soil. the thickness of footings. In faa, it is a soil structure interaction problem.
Borowicka (1936, 1938) studied the rontaa pressure distribution of uniformly loaded strips and circular
footings resting on a semiinfinite elastic mass. assuming the base of the footing as frictionless. The analysis
showed that the contact pressure dislribution depends upon thc relative rigidity (K,) of the footingsoil system.
The relative rigidity is defined as
K
_.!.6~
(I  >?) (~).
E,
(1.)'
...
(11.63)
where
Ie
f.oWldth ~ 2 b   l
tl
o.oq '77"70'777777'?1
!a}Circulor
'001in9
9)
0)
I)
2)
..5
a value of about 0.5 q for the circular fOOling and 0.67 q for the strip footing. The contact pressure is very
large at the edges. In fact, it tends to infinity. For purely flexible footings (K,  0), the rontact pressure is
uniform and equal to q.
Borowick.a's rcsullS can be used to determine the contaa pressure on a cohesive soil which behaves like
an elastic soil mass. In a cohesionlcss soil. modulus of elasticity increases with depth due 10 an increase in
confining pressure. Such soils are nonhomogeneous.
Contact pn!SSure on saturated clay. Fig. 11.33 shows the qualitative cont."lct pressure distribuLion under
flexible and rigid footings resting on a satumled CIHY and subjected to a unirormly distributed load q. When
the footing is flexible, it deforms inlo the Shape of a bowel, with the maximum deflection at the centre. The
contact pressure distribution is uniform.
IT the footing is rigid, the settlement is uniform. The contact pressure distribution is minimum at the
centre and the maximum at the edges. The stresses at the edges in real soils cannot be infinite as lhcoretlcaUy
determined for an eltlstic mass. In real soils, beyond a certain limiting v;3!ue of stress, the plastic Dow occurs
and the pressure becomes finite.
248
( a ) FLEXIBLE
fOOTI NG
(tl)
RIGID
FODTlNG
Contact Pressure on sand. Fig. 11.34 shows the qualitative contact pressure distribution under flexible
and rigid footings resting on a s<mdy soil and subjected to a unifonnly distributed load q. In this case, the
edges of the flexible footing undergo a larger sellicmcnt (han al the centre. The soil at the centre is connned
and, therefore, has a nigh modulus of elasticity and deflects less for the same contact pressure. The contact
pressure is unifonn.
( ;a ) FLEXIBLE
FOOTING
(tl)
RIGID
f OOTING
If the footing is rigid, the settlement is unifonn. 'The contact pressure increases from zero at the edges to
a maximum at the centre. The soil, being unconfined at edges, has low modulus of elasticity. However, if the
footing is embedded, there would be finite contact pressure al edges.
Usual Assumption. As discussed above, the oonlact pressure distribution [or Oexible footings is unifonn
for both clay and sand. The contact pressure for rigid fOOling is maximum at the edges for footings on clay,
but for the rigid footings on sand, it is minimum al the edges. For
convenience, the oont.act pressure is assumed to be unifonn for aU
types of footings and all types of soils (Fig. 11.35) if load is
symmetric.
'I11e above assumption of uniform pressure distribution will result
in a slightly unsafe design for rigid footing on clays, as the maximum
bending moment al the centre is underestimated. It will give a
. conservative design for rigid footings on s<mdy (cohcsionlcss) soils, as
Fig. J135. Unironn contAct Pressure.
the maximum bending moment is overestimated. However, at the
ultimate stage just before the failure, the soil behaves as an elastoplastic material (nnd not an elastic material)
and the contact pressure is uniform , and the assumption is justified at the ultimate stage.
11.:Z6. LIMITATIONS OF ElASTIC 1lfEORIES
Both Boussinesq's and Wcstergaard's theories are applicable to c:l.:1stic materials. Actual soils do not
behave in the manner as assumed in the analysis. 'The resulls obtained are necessarily approximate. The
theories have the follOWing limitations.
(1) The soil mass is never truly isotropic and homogeneous.
249
(2) TIle soil mass is not clastic as the particles do not return to lhe origi nal position when the load is
removed.
(3) The , stressstrnin ratio for most soils is not constant.
However. for m Ost soils the stressstrain ratio is approximately constant provided the stresses are well
below the failure stresses, ilnd no unloading occurs.
Although the applicability of elastic theories to soil problems is questionable, yet the results arc generally
not much different from the observed values. A difference of 20 to 30% between the theoretical and the
measured values may OC!;UT. This diffcren!;e is generally ignored considering many complexities of the
problem. The eluslic theories are used as better theories are not yet available which can be used in a design
office.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
U1ustrative Example 11.1. A concelltrated load of 2000 leN i.f applied (j( the ground slIIface. Determille
the vertical m 't!5S at a poi"l P which is 6 //I directly below tlte load. Aim calculate tile venical stress at a
poillt R which i~' (If u depth of 6 11/ bllf til (I horiwllfal distance of 5 m form Ihe axis of the load.
Solution. From Eq. 11 .9,
(11
rlz
Point R,
rl z = 5/6.
[I
+ {rldl'li
3x2000
= O.
Point P.
3Q
= 2nz?
0": =
21[(6)2
rI +
= 26.53 kN/m
015/2
3 x 2000
I
2
o~ = ~. (I + (516)2]~h  7.1 kN/m
mm;trative Example 11.2. A IOllg strip footillg of width 2 III carrie~' a loatl of 400 kNlm, Calwlute the
maximum stress at a depth of 5 /II below the cemre line of the fnotillg. Compare Ihe resllirs with 2 : I
distributioll method.
Solution. From Eq. 11.21,
In this
ca~c.
/, = I m
and
o~
(29
sin29)
z = 5 m.
2 9
2:
= 0.395
(0.395
radians
~:!
2~+\2
= 57. 14;.649 .6
Percentage error
= 57.1 kN/m
x 100 = 15.2%
Illustrative Example 11.3. There 6' {/ line load of 120 kNlm aCfing 011 the ground surface along yaxis.
Determine the vertical ~tress (If a poilll P which Iws x and z coordinates as 2 1/1 alld 3.5 m. respectively.
Solution. From Eq. 11.1 7.
EL[
_ _I_ ]'
m:
I T (xld
t 
AI point P.
=2 x
1t
J' = 12.40kN/m2
120 [ _ _I _ _
x 3. 5
+ (2/3.5)2
250
llIustrative Example 11.4. The unit weight of the soil in a uniform deposit of loose sand (Ko = 0.50) is
16.5 kN/ml, Determine the geostatic stresses at a depth of 2 m.
Solution. From Eg. 11.1,
0 ... yz .. 16.5 )( 2.0 .. 33.0 kN/rnl
a., ..
Ko o...
illustrative Example U.5. Determine the vertical stress at a point P which is 3 m below and at a radial
distatlCC of 3 m [rom the vertical load of 100 kN. Use Westergaard's solution (v = 0.0).
(J
..
,
Oz
[! + 2(3/3)'1'"
..
I"" .
(3)'
0 .. q [ 1 { _ _1_ _ }'"
'
1 + (R/x)'
cr at P  100 [ 1  {
1
}"']_ 52.39 kN/m 2
,
1 + (2.012.5)'
0:
Illustrative Example 11.7. An Ll>/lQped buil4Nlg in plan (Fig. E 11.7) exerts a pressure of 75 kNlm]
tile soil. Determine the vertical stress increment at a depth of 5 m below the interior cartier P.
Solution. The loaded area is subdivided into three small areas such
that each small area has one comer at P.
From Eq. 11.35,
For Ilre8 Al
From Table 11.9,
For area A z
From Table 11.9.
(IN), = 0.2325
111 _
15/5 .. 3,
For area AJ
(lNh = 0.2378
m .. 20/5 .. 4,
(INh .. 0.2450
Therefore, 0, .. 75 {0.2325
12"
12 ..
1015 _ 2.0
1515 _ 3
0/1
:I~
: 10m
20m
Fig. E 11.7.
Hlustrative Example 11.8. A rectangular foundation 4 m by 5 111 carries a uniformly distributed foad af
zoo kN/m 2. Determine the vertical stress at a point P located as shown in Fig.
'"
E 11.8 OIId at a depth of
2.5 m.
Solution. From Eq. 11.35,
0'%"
In
(IN) .. 0.1461,
For A3 and
A.,
III
:: 0.80
(IN),  0.1684
Therefore,
0%"
.. 12S.8kN/ m l
llIuslrative Example 11.9. A Tshaped foundation
(Fig. E 11.9) is loaded with a uniform load of 120
leN/n? Determine the vertical stress at point P at a depth
of 5.0 m. Use NL'Wlllark's inflllence chart. Compare the
OIISW'er by exact method
I,'m I 3m "I
Fig. Ex. 11.8
o~
.. { x n x q
Fig. E 11.9
Exact method. The loaded area is divided into 3 areas. such that they have onc corner at P.
Area AI
11/ = 3/5.00 = 0.60 : /I = 1.5/5.00 = 0.30.
(IN). = 0.0629
Area Al
II! = 3/5.00 = 0.60: /I = 615.00 = 1.20,
(fNh = 0.1431
Area A3
11/ = 3/5.00 = 0.60 ; 11 = 3/5.00 = 0.60.
(fNh = 0.1069
From Eq. 11.35,
o~ :: q I(lN)] + (fNh + (lNh J
or
o. = 120 [0.0629 + 0./431 + 0.1069J :: 37.55 kN/m2
2
lUustralive Example 11.10. A r~tonglilar loaded area '2 m x 2.5 m carries a load of 80 lcN/m (Fig. E
1/.10). Determine the vertical stress at point P located outside the loaded area at a depth of 2.5 In.
Solution. From Eq. 11.37,
Fig. E 11.10.
~IL
252
Dlustrutive Example U.l1. A recllJngular foundation 3.0 )( ISO m carries a uniform load of 40 *Nlnt
Determine the vertical stress at P which is 3 m below the ground surface (Fig. E 11.11). Use equivalent point
load method.
~~~3m'1
101
l' ~m~
__
(1_I__}__(21__t.,(311
I IL_(7_)_1__(8_)_~
15
(1
(51
(61
__
(9_)____'
Fig.E.ll.H.
Solution. Let us divide the loaded area into 9 small areas of size 0.5 m x 1.0 m.
load on each area
.. 40 )( (1.0 )( 05) .. 20kN
The stresses at point P are determined due to 9 point loads, using Boussinesq's solution
For loads (1) and (4),
r ..
V(1.5)2
rlz  0.300
rfz _ 0.559
Therefore,
01:
In lhis case,
3x20 [ 2
a, 2x (3)' x [1 + (0.507)']'" + (1
11.9).
,/z 0.186
0.559,
+ (0.75)2 .. 1.677;
3Q
CEq
rlz  0.507
)( ,.,,':,"'"
[1+(,1%),),/'
+(O'.I'86~)''']''"''n.
I
+ [1 + (0.30)2fn + [1 + (0.559)2]5/2
0 , = 1.061 11.129
3.674
1.612 + 0.507]
= 7.34 kN/ro 2
Dlustratlve Example 11.12. Determine the vertical stress at a point P which is 3 m below the ground
surface and is on the centre liM of the e~nt shown in Fig. E 11.12. T~ 1 .. 18 IcNlmJ
2'3
Fig. E 11.12.
[a (a, +
aV
+ b
a,l
a:z 
a: ..
3~~
.. 4.667;
~ Xx 1~
0,588 radians
PROBLEMS
A. Numerical
11.1. A monument weighing 15 MN is erected on the ground surfoce. Considering the load ns
determine the vertical pressure directly under the monument at
concentrated one,
lJ
1)7m
11 m
Fig. P 11.9.
11.10. A 1000 kN lood is uniformly distributed on II surface area of 3 m x 2.5 m. Find the npproximmc value of
vcrlicrll stress al a depth of2 m. using.
(i) 2: 1 distribution
2
(il) 60 0 distribution.
(AIlS. 44.4 kN/m ; 392 kN/rn1
U.U . A concentrated lood of 1000 leN ncts vertically at the ground surface. Determine the vertical st TCS$ at D point
which isot
(I) a depth of 2.5 m and a horizonllli distance of 4.0 m
2
(il) DI a depth of ~.O and D radial distance of 2.5 m.
[Ans. 3.2 kN/m ; 10.93 kNlm1
255
(1) 'The Boussinesq solution always gives stresses greater than the Wes tergaard solutioll.
<I) The equivalent point load gives reliable re~ults if the dimension of the area is greater than three times the
depth.
(k) TWotoone load distribution llilU sixtYOcgree distribution give approx imately the same messes.
Cf) In actual design. the contact pressure distribution is generally taken as uniform.
IAn.~, True, (ll). (Ir), (k), (/)]
C, MultipleChoice Questions
1. The stress developed at !I point in the soil exactly below a point load a\ the surface is
(1I) proportional to the depth of point.
(b) proponiooal to the S(lu!lre of the depth of point.
(e) inVersely proporlionnl to the depth of point.
(d) inversely proponiolllil to the square of the depth of point.
2. An isobar is a curve which
(a) joins poims of equal horizontal stre.~s.
(b) joins points of equal verlkal mess.
(el Joins points of zero vertical ~tress.
(d) joins points of maximum vertical stre.~s.
3. If the entire semiinfinite soi l mass is loaded wilh a load intensity of q at the surface. the vcnicnl stress at any
depth is equal to
(a) q
(b) 0.5 q
(e) zero
(d) infinity
4. For a strip of width 8 subjected to a load intensity of q at the surface, the pressure bulb of intensity 0.2 q
extends to a depth of
(u) 38
(b) 6 B
(e) 1.5 B
(d) B
S. Newmark's intluence ch'lrI can be used for the determina.tion or verlical slres.s under
(II) circular load area only
( b) rcctangul:!r 100000 area only
(el strip loud unly
(tI) Any shape of loaded area
6. The WC~lergaard analysis is used for
(a) homogeneous soiL~
(b) cohe.~iYe soils'
(e) sandy soils
(d) slratilicd soils
7. A concentrated load of JOOO kN acts vertically al a point on the soil surface. According 10 Boussinesq's equation
the ratio of the venical stresses at depths of 3m and 5m is
tal 0,35
(b) 0.70
(c) 1.75
(d) 2.78
8. A load of 2000 kN is uniformly distributed over an area of 3 m )( 2m. TIle average venical stress at a depth of
~a~ ~~~n~~/~J
(e) 48 kN/ml
distrihution is
12
Consolidation of Soils
12.1. INTRODUCTION
When a soil mass is subjected to a compressive force. like all other mmerlals. its volume decreases. The
property of the soi l due to which a decrease in volume occurs under compressive forces is known as the
compressibility of soil. 111e compression of soils can occur due to one or more of the following causes.
(I) Compression of solid particles and wmer in the voids.
CONSOUDATIOH OF SOILS
,.
"
'.
y.
Y
id
"
"'y
g.
Valve open
closed.
100mm
lLL.J
(0)
.. 0
btl
Ib)
10)
258
Po.' + P ... P
where P w
= load
taken by water, p.
= load
... (12.1)
= total
load.
P",+Pr1.0
... (12.2)
.6.0;' U  .6.01
... (12.3)
Initially, just after the <lpJllication of pressure, the entire load is taken by water. The pressure developed in
water, also known as excess hydrostatic pressure or hydrodynamic pressure (U), is equal to the applied
pressure. The pressure taken by the solid particles, represented as the effective stress, .6. 0, is zero. Thus
o + (iiI)  601
... (12.4)
The excess hydrostatic pres..<;ure developed after the application of the load sets up a hydraulic gradient,
and the water starts escaping from the voids. A:;, the water escapes, the applied pressure is transferred from
the water to the solids. Eventually, the whole of the pressure is traQ.sferrcd to the soil solids as the effective
stress, and tbe excess water pressure becomes zero. Thus
.6.0'" .6.0]
... (12.5)
As the effective stress increases. the volume of the soil decreases. The decrease in volume is generally
expressed as change in void ratio. Fig. 12.3 shows decrease in void ' ratio with time, as the effective st~
increases due to transfer of pressure to the solid particles. Initially, just after the application of the pressure (I
= 0), the void ratio is eo. Finally, when the pressure has bccn fully transferred to the solid particles (t = tf)'
L)
t)
25.
CONSOUDATION OF SOILS
'0
t (~t1 ~
L
:T
:rlr
0,
.l
Fig.
12~"i.
Comolidatioll T($I.
cells with a diameter upto 100 mm are also available. 'The thickness of the sample is fixed from the following
considerations:
(1) The thickness of the sample should be as small as possibJe to reduce side friction, but a minimum
thickness of 20 mm is usually required to get uniform distribution of pressure on the Sc'lmple.
(2) The diameter to the thickness ratio should be a minimum of 3.
(3) The thickness of the specimen should not be less than 10 times the maximum sile of the particle.
The thickness of the sample for a 60 mm diameter cell is usually taken as 20 mm. The specimens of
diameter 50, 70 and 100 mm may be used in special cases.
The consolidometer has arrangements for the application of the desired load increment, saturation of
sampie and measurement of change in thickness of the s.'lmple at every stage of consolidation process. The
consolidation cell is placed in a water jacket or water trough SO that water ha<> free access into and out of the
sample. The cell is provided with a perforated pressure pad at its top for the application of load. The load is
applied either by suspending weights from a hanger rcsting at the centre of the pressure pad or by a lever
arrangement. The arrangement for saturation of the sample consists of a small water reservoir connected to
the c.:ell with a plastic tube (not shown in figure). A dia1 gauge is used to measure the change in thickness as
the consolidation takes place. The sample is kept submerged under water to prevent evaporation from its
surface.
Before conducting the test, the porous stones are saturated either by boiling them in distilled water for
about 15 minutes or by keeping them submerged under water for 4 to 8 hours. 'The bottom porous Slone is
fi rst placed in the consolidation cell and a filter paper is fixed on the porous stOlle. The ring containing the
sample is then placed on the bottom porous Slone. Another filter paper is kept on the top of the sample and
then top porous stone is placed. The loading pad is placed on the top porous SiOOC. The bolts are lightenoo
SO as to hold tbe entire assembly, and then the consolid.'ltion cell is kept under the loading unit. It should be
centred carefully so that the load is applied axially. The dial gauge is mounted and adjUSted. The mould
assembly is connected to the water reservoir to saturate the Sc'lmple. The level of water in the reservoir should
be approximately same as that of the sample.
An iniual setting pressure of about 5.0 kN/m2 (for very soft soils, 2.5 kN/m2) is applied to the sample.
The initial setting pressure is chosen such thm there is no swelling. The load is allowed 10 stand till there is
no change in the dial gauge reading or 24 hours whichever is less. The rmal dial gauge reading under the
initial setting pressure is noted.
The first increment of load to give a pressure of 10 kN/m2 is then applied to, the specimen. The dial
gauge readings are taken aft~ r 0.25, 1.0,2.25,4.0,6.25,9.0, 12.25, 16.0, 20.25,25,36,49, 64,81, 100, 121,
144, 169, 196, 225, 289, 324, 400, 500, 600 and 1440 minutes (24 hours). Sometimes, after 49 minutes,
readings are taken at 1. 2, 4, 8, 10 and 24 hours. The primary consolidation in the sample is usually complde
within 24 hours.
The second increment of the load is then applied. It is usual practice to double the previous load in eacll
increment. The successive pressures usually applied are 20, 40, BO, 160, 320 and 640 kN/m 2, etc., till the
desired maximum required load intensity is renchcd. lbe maximum load intensity is governed by the actual
loading on the soil in the field after the construction of the structure.
After the consolidation under the final load increment is complete, the load is reduced to onefourth <i
the final Io.'ld (160 kN/m2 in above case) and allowed to stand for 24 houts. The sample takes water am
swells. lbe reading of the dial gauge is taken when the swelling is complete. 'Ibc load is further redUCJ!d to onefourth intensity (40 kN/m1 and the swelling recorded after 24 hours. The load is then reduced to to kN/rn 2
and the swelling is noted. The load is finally reduced to the initial selling load and kept for 24 hours and lilt
final dial gauge reading laken. Throughout the test, the container gutter should be kept filled with water.
Immediately after complete unlo.'tding, the ring with the Sc'lmple is t..'lken out. The excess surface water iI
dried using a blotting paper. The weighl of the ring and the sample is taken. The sample is then dried in III
oven (maintained at 110C) for 24 hours and its dry mass Al, and the water content are delennined.
,.
,I
,[
>d
,.
"
is
CONSOUDATION OF
spn..s
261
Hst(~w)'
where
... (12.6)
II~
of specimen,
e _ volume of voids _ V  V,
volume of solids
V,
... (a)
...(12.7)
G = 2.67,
Ms  100.24 gm.
Least counl of dial gauge = om mm
wf= 24.94%
CalculaJions
Observalions
Applied
pressure
(kNlm 2)
Dial
gauge
reading
0.0
10.0
490
482
470
431
390
343
20.0
40.0
".0
160.0
320.0
640.0
0.0
295
249
364
Change in
IhicJUless
tJl (mm)
 0.08
0.12
 0.39
 0.41
 0.47
 0.48
 0.46
+ 1.15
H=HoT.l:JI
HHs
25.00
24.92
10.75
24."
24.41
24.00
23.53
23.05
22.59
23.74
10.67
10.55
10.16
9.75
9.28
8."
8.34
9.49
fl ..
2.~~~2~.O xi>"
1.425 an
.. 14.25 mm
e .. /1 0 11 .. 11  14.25
HI
14.25
... (a)
Obviously, the iniUnl void ratio (eo) at the start of the test is given by
110  fI,
e ."
FOr an intermediate stage,
n;
... (12.9)
H H,
e .. ~
... (12.10)
After dctennination of the void ratio and the water content at the beginning and at the cnd of the tesl,
the corresponding degree of satumtion can be found from the relation, S .. wGle.
From the calculnted void ratiOS, a plot of "e' versus log 0 can be made, as shown in Fig. 12.8.
(2) Change in Void milo method. In this method, the final void ratio (e/). corresponding to oompletc
swelling conditions after the load has been removed, is determined from its water content, using the equation,
e, .. wG
The void ratio corresponding to intermediate loading stages is determined as explained below. From the
definition of void ratio,
e_vv_~_1
V,
V,
where V = total volume and V. is the volume of solids. Eq. (a) can be written as
V  V, (l + e)
A )( 11  V, (1 + e)
where A is the crosssectional area of the specimen and /I is its total height.
3y partial di[Jerentiation of (b), A dH _ V, de
(e~
7f 
... (a)
... (b)
... (e)
1':'e
Ae_O;je)AH
... (12.11)
Eq. 12.11 can also be derived directly, taking the volume of solids as unity and the crosssectional area
also <IS unity. In this case.
Original volume
"'" /I  1 + e
Change in volume
= 6e, and change in height = A H
Therefore,
6e
6H
""I"+eH
l!e 
!!.jf1 AN
e, and the total height H of the sample arc known at Ihe end of the test, the void r"ollio
at any other stage can be determined from the change in thickness AH measured by the dial ga~ge. Thus, tbe
change in void ratio (Ae) under each pressure increment is calculated from Eq. 12.11 bY ,working backwards
from the known value of void ratio at the end of the lest afier swelling.
e,
Thus
(1 +e,)
Ae_~AH
... [12.11(')1
263
CONSOUDATION OF SOILS
me~urcd
e, From
WI )(
A = 50 cm 2
W, _ 24.94%.
H/ .. 23.74
~~7~)
6 e  (I
om
)( 6. fl 
0.0702 6. H
... (4)
mm.
Obsef1l(1tions
CaJcu/miolls
Challge ;11
thickness
Dial gauge
reat/ing
H.Hoj:l:6.ff
6.J1(mm)
490
482
470
431
390
343
295
0.0
10.0
20.0
40.0
BO.O
160.0
320,0
640.0
0.0
= 190.24 gmt
Applied
pre.ssuree
(kNlm,>
M~
....08
 0.12
 0.39
 0.41
0.47
 0.48
 0.46
+1.15
24.
364
25;.00
24.92
24.80
24.41
24.00
2.1.53
23.05
22.59
23.74
A,
(from Eq. (d)
+
0.006
0.008
0.027
0.029
0.033
0.034
0.032
0.081
0.754
0.748
0.740
0 .7 13
0.684
0.651
0.617
0585
0.666
Cloy
".......... ..,.,SOnd
Ti m~
(0
Co)
Cb)
Fig. 12.6. (a) Dial gIluge reading li me plot. (b) Final void f3tioa plot
slows down as the time passes. There is practically no change in thickness after 24 hours. The oonsolidation
al Ihal load increment is considered to the. complete at 24 hours. for sand, tbe change in thickness occurs
very quickly and stops after a few minutcs. This is due 10 high penncability of lhe sand which pennits easy
Dow of water.
264
The plot betwccn the dial gauge reading and time is required for determining the coefficient of
consolidation. which is useful for obtaining the rate of consolidation in the field.
(2) Final void ratioefTectlve slres.q plot. The thickness of the specimen after 24 hours of application o[
the load increment is taken os the final thickness [or that increment. The final void ratio (el) corresponding to
the final thickness for each increment is determined using the methods discussed in the preceding section.
Fig. 12.6 (b) shows the plol between the fin.'li void ratios, (elb (efh, (e,) ... etc. and the corresponding
effective stresses 0\.(20), ... for load increments 1. 2. 3, ... elc. As the sand is relatively less compressible,
the change in void ratio is small. TIle plot between the final void ratio and the effective stress is required for
detcrminaUon of the magnitude of the consolidation senlement in the field.
The reader must carefuUy note the difference between Fig. 12.6 (a) and Fig. 12.6 (b). The former shows
the process of consolidation under a particular increment. For each load increment, 8 plot like Fig. 12.6 (a)
can be plolted. The latter shows the plot between the final void ratios reached under diffcrelll load increments
and the corresponding effective stresses under those increments.
(3) Final 'Void rutioIog CJ plot. Fig. 12.7 (0) shows a plot between the final void ratio and the effective
Stress, which is similar to one in Fig. 12.6 (b). For convenience the suffix f has been dropped. The curve bas
Log<r   (0)
Ib)
Fig.12.7.(Q)~aplor.
(b)~logaplOl
concavity upward. The slope of the curve at different points is different. The slope decreases with an increase
in effective stre..<;s.
It is more common to plot the results on a semilog graph. in which the final void ratio is plotted on the
natural scale and the effective stress as
abscissa on the log scale [Fig. 12.7(b).
A
The plot is practically a straight line for a
nonnally consolidated clay (defined laler)
within the range of pressure usually
encountered in practice.
(4) Unloading and Reloading plot.
In Fig. 12.8, the curve An indicates the
decrease in void ratio with an increase in
the effective stress. 1l1e curve is similar to
,0
UNLOAD'NG E
one shown in Fig. 12.7 (b). It is the
'>i:: G
loading curve.
After the sample has reached
I
equilibrium at the effective stress of
as
<j
shown by point B, the pressure is reduced
Log~ and the sample is allowed \0 take up water
,,,
oz.
"2
,.,
CONSOUDA110N OF SOILS
unloading. This is known as the expansion curve or swelling curve. It may be noled that the soil cannot attain
the void ratio existing before the start of the test, and there is always some permanent sct or residual
deformation.
If the specimen which has swelled to the point C is reloaded, the recompression curve CFD is obtained.
As the load approaches the maximum value of the lo."ld previously applied corresponding to point B, there is
reversal of curvature of the curve and then the plot DG continues as an extension of the first loading rurve
AB. However, the reloaded specimen remains at a slightly lower void ratio at point D than that attained at B
during the initial compression for the samc load.
de
Thus
a,.  do 
6e
.6 0
... (12.12)
As the effective stress increases, the void ratio decreases. and therefore, the ratio del dO is negative. The
minus sign makes a~ pooitive. For convenience, the coefficient of compressibility a~ is rcported as positive.
As the value of a~ is different at various effective stresses, while reporting its value, the effective stress
to which that value corresponds must be mentioned. The coefficient of oompressibility decreases with an
increase in the effective stress. In ocher words. Ihe soil becomes stiffer (less compressible) as the effective
stress is increased and the curve becomes flaller.
The coefficient of compressibility (a,,) has the dimensions of [L 2/F). The units are m2/kN. It may be
noted that the units are inverse of that for pressure.
(2) Coefficient of Volume change. The coefficient of volume change (or volume oompressibility) is
defined as the volumetric strain per unit increase in effective stress. Thus
m~
where
..
 A VIVo
... (12.13)
m~
The reader should note that the coefficient of volume change is inverse of the bulk modulus used in solid
medianics and fluid mechanics, For most clays, m~ _ 1 )( 103 to 1 )( lO4m2JkN.
The volumetric strain (.6VIVo) can be expressed in tenns of either void ratio or the truckness of the
specimen as explained under:
(a) Let eo be the initial void ratio. Let the volume of solids be unity. Therefore, the initial volume Vo is
equal to (1 + eo). If Ae is the change in void ratio due to change in volume AV, we have AV  Ae. Thus
AV
Ae
Yo  r:;e;;
Therefore, Eq. 12.13 becomes
m~ ..  A e~(~ + eo)
...(12.14)
(b) As the area of crosssection of the sample in the consolidometer remains constant, the change in
volume is also proportional to the change in height. Thus .6 V .. tJI
AV
.6H
Therefore,
where Ho
V;" Ho
initial height.
266
or
m~
..
 Mllllo
... (12.15)
... [12.15(a)J
Q ..
and
In ..
.. 1 :veo
m~
...(12.16)
like Q .. the coefficient of volume change m .. depends upon the effective stress at which it is determined.
Its value also decreases with an increase in the effective stress. The unit of m" is the same as that of a,~
However, the coefficient of volume change m.. is more commonly used in practice than the coefficient of
compressibility Q",
(3) Compression Index. The compression index (C() is equal to the slope of the linear portion of the
void ratio versuS log plOI [Fig. 12.7 (b)]. Thus
c( ..
JOg:
~(j~o)
... (12.17)
where 00 = initial effective stress, '0 = final effective stress, de "" change in void ratio
..
a!:
6.
(J
10glO(~)
...
(12.18)
Cc
,.
... (12.21)
... (12.22)
The coeITicient of compressibility av may be calculated' from the compression index as under:
a,.  0.435
50.
10 (0+40)
g lO~
plot
... 12.23)
1b7
CONSOUDATION OF SOILS
As it is evident. the expansion index is much smaller than the compression index.
(S) Recompression Index. Recompression is the compression of a soil which had already been loaded
and unloaded. The load during rerompression is less than the load to which the soil has been subjeaed
previously. The slope of the recompression curve obtained during reloading ( CFD in Fig. 12.8) when plotted
as elog 0, is equal to the recompression index (C.). Thus
C _
lie
10g(0+:0)
... (12.24) .
lbc reoompression index is appreciably smaller than the compression index C~. It is usually in the range
of 1/10 10 1/5 of lhe compression index.
(6) NonnaUy consolldnted and Over<:onsolidated clays. A normally consolidated soil is one which had
not been subjeacd to a pressure greater than the presenl existing pressure. A soil is said to be
overconsolidalcd if it had been subjected in the past to a pressure in excess of the present pressure.
The {Xlrtion AD of the curve in Fig. 12.8 represents the soil in normally oonsolidaled condition. The curve
in this ronge is also called the virgin compression curve. '!lIe soil in the range CD when it is recompressed
represents overconsolidatcd condition. as the soil had bccn previously subjected to a pressure 02> which is
greater than the pressure in the range CD.
lbe maximum pressure to which an overconsolidated soil had been SUbjected in the past divided by the
present pressure is known as the overconsolidation raLio (O.C.R.). For example, the soil indicated by the
coodition at point C bas an overconsolidatioa ratio of o:0'J'
It may be emphasized that normally consolidated soils and O\lerconsolidated soils are not different type<>
of soils but thcsc are conditions in which a soil exists. The same type of soil can behave as nonnally
consoLid..lted in a certain pressure range and an overconsolidatcd in somc other pressure rangc. For example,
in Fig. 12.8, the soil which behaves as overc:onso1idat~ in the range CD would again behave as normally
consolidated in the range DG.
The liquidity index of a normally consolidated clay is gen,erally between 0.6 and 1.00, whereas that for
an overconsolldated clay between 0.0 and 0.60.
As the recompression index (C~) is very small as compared with Ihe compression index (C~), the soils in
the overconsolidated Slate have smaller compressibility. The settiemenlS of the strudures built an
overconsolidated clays are small.
(7) Vnderconsolldated clays. If the Clay deposit has not reached equilibrium under the applied
overburden loads, it is said to be underconsolidated This normally ocrurs in areas of recent land fill.
12.9. TERZAGill'S TDEORY OF CONSOLIDATION
(1) Assumptions. Terzaghi (1925) gave the theory for the determination of the rate of consolidation of a
saturated soil ma<iS subjected 10 a static, steady load. The theory is based on the following assumptions :
(1) The soil is homogeneous and isotropic.
(2) The soil is fully saturated.
(3) The solid particles and water in the voids are incompressible. The consolidation occurs due to
expubion of water from the voids.
(4) The coefficient of permeability of the soil has the same value at all points, and it remains constant
during the entire period of consolidation.
(5) Darcy's law is valid throughout the collSOlidation process.
(6) Soil is. laterally oonfmed, and the consolidation takes place only in axial direction. Drainage of water
also ocrurs only in the vertical direction.
(7) Ihe time lag in consolidation is due entirely to the low permeability of the soil
(8) There is a unique relationship between the void ratio and the effeaive stress., anc;t.lbis relationship
268
remains constant during the load increment. In other words, the coefficient of compressibility and the
coefflcienl of volume change are oonslant.
r~''''T'''''1S!l;I}\f*,.t
H:2d
Ilo:rl~"''''h
1 Wa..::r
tabl.
,..
CONSlOUDATION OF SOILS
excess hydrostatic pressure is independent of the position of the water table. Foe convenience. the water table
is assumed at the level of the surface of the clay layer.
Water starts escaping towards the upper and the lower sand layers due to excess hydrostatic pressure
developed. The hydrostatic exress pressure at the top and the bottom of the clay layer, indicated by points C
and E in the pressure diagram. drops to zero, However. the excess hydrootatic pressure in the middle portion
of the cIay layer al D remains high. The curves indicating the distribution of excess hydrostatic pressure are
known as isochrones. The isochrone CDE indicates the distribution of excess hydrostrltic pressure at time t.
As the consolidation progresses, the excess hydrostatic pressure in the middle of the clay layer decreases.
FiroUy al time t _ 'I. the whole of the exces.... hydrostatic pressure has been dissipated, and the pressure
distribution is indicated by the horizontal isochrooe CFE.
Let us consider the equilibrium of an element of the clay al a depth of z from its lOp al lime I. The
consolidation pressure 6.0 is partly carried by water and partly by solid particles as
6.0" flo +
(12.25)
where 6. is the pressure c.1rried by solid panicles.
and
Ii is the excess hydrostatic pressure (pressure units)
...
The hydraulic gradient (I) althal depth is equal to the slope of the i'>OChrone CDE at a horizontal distance
the point C in the pressure diagram.
z from
i ..
Thus,
_ 0 (iily...,) ..
oz
oz
..!..
1...,
(El.)
...
a z
(a)
Ah~.!..(!..
y..,
yOO' az
dz)
.!..(i.)
i _ ~_
dz
y..,
iJz
...!..('!.)
az
1...
lberefore,
~'dz
oz
v+
~['!'(i.)l
ilz y... ilz
/I
Thin Sliec.
dz
. ..(1226)
270
1; . dz ) (Ax )( Ay)
AQQ_Q"
AQ  [
AQ ..
(v + Tz . dz)  v1Ax x Ay
z (ar x Ay )( Al)
... (b)
As the water is squeezed out, the effective stress increases and the volume
From Eq. 12.13,
o~
. m~(Ax
fly Al)
... (c)
As the decrease in volume of soil mass per unit time is equal to the volume of wntcr squeezed oul per
unit lime, Eqs. (b) and (e) give
~ (Ax
Ay 6.z) ..
m~
i;mv~
From Eq. 12.25,
Au .. A
aAa
at ..
(<1)
0'  ; ;
ll
iJt
8u
at
a,
au
.. at
_ m.
(.)
at
... (12.27)
~
1.
a'u _ m. (.)
az'
at
,a2 u au
c" a1 
at
... (1228)
CONSOUDATION OF SOILS
271
k
k
.(12.29)
c..   ..  't",m..
gp ... m ..
Eq. 12.28 is the basic differential equation of onedimensional coosolidation. It gives the distribution of
hydrostatic excess pressure Ii with depth z and lime t.
12.10. SOLUTION OF BASIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF CONSOLIDATION
The solution of the basic differential equation of one dimensional oonsolidation (Eq. 12.28) can be
obtained using Fourier series. Let us express hydrotatic excess pressure U as
u  fdz)
. "(,)
... (12.30)
c.
["(,)
a'
8z'
[fdz)]
ata [(, (/) ]
oe
r,w
c'/,(/)
The leflhand side of the above equation is a function of x only and the right.hand side is a function of
only. In other words, if the lefthand side is e.quallO some constant (say,  A2) when t is taken as a variable
and the righthand side is equ.1l to the same constant when z is considered as a variable.
t
Thus,
.cd
a'
8z'
_A' fdz)
... (a)
...@
II (x)
C 1 cos Ax + C2 sin Ax
... (c)
...(4)
where C) is a constant of integration and e is the base of the hyperbolic or Napierian logarithm.
Substituting the above solutions in Eq. 12.30,
u _ [Col
eA.'lc.I
C,oo C1 Cl and C s  C2 C)
The oonstants C 4 and Cs can be determined from tile boundary conditiom :
(.)
I =0
iii
for any value of z
u
(il)
(i~)
,u _
z:H(=2ti)
uooO
... (1231)
... (e)
'ii .. 0 at z .. H.
Cs sin (AH)
Therefore,
e
A1c
..
The above equation is salisfied if AH .. mt, where n is any "integer. The equation can be written in the
following form:
'ii .. 8 1 sin (nz/H) e(,,2/ff)c~ 1 + 8 2 sin ('br::z11l) e_ (4,,21112)c. t
+ ... + B. sin (malH)
e_{,,2 ,,1/n1c~ t
+ ...
. . (1232)
or
t '"
. .[12.32 (0)1
(n 1t zll1)
.1
If m and
11
Ia sin mxsinnxd:c .. 0
Ia sin nx tb: .. xl2
2
and
In the above identities if (1tl IfI) is substituled for x. the differential dx changes to ('1[/11) dz and the
limits of integration change to 0 to H.
Therefore,
II
f o sin
sod
(1I1f.zI J1) dz  HI 2
Mulliplying both sides of Eq. 12.32 (o) by sin (n It z/H) and integrating between the IimilS
o to H,
i [8. . /'
III_I
(m ",,)
.i, [B.. f,
sin' (n n z/1I) dz
The rightbald side of the 000ve equation ha<; been split into two parts: (/) when m .. n (ii) when m = ..
Using identities (j) and (g), the above equation beoomcs
{
Therefore,
8""
2 I' JiJ
Uj
o
sin (nxZ/11) dz
{RING
CONSOUDATION OF SOILS
... (e)
u .. ~:L.. 2u
rut'
0'
(lcosn:rc)(sinn:rczlH)e (~ . 1/
"I
in the
Only odd integers n are relevant, because for even intcger lcos rut ..
~. f
... (x)
ii.
!u. ~
'NL:o (2N+1)
l't
12.32)
1e
2N+ll,llJllC' y l
... (12.33)
Eq. 12.33 is the required solution of the basic diffecential equation of onedimensional consolidation. It
gives the variation of hydrostatic excess pressure ii with depth z at any lime t in terms o f the initial
hydrootatic excess pressure Ui ( equal to & o/y...).
Substituting H 2d, where d is the length of the drainage path, in Eq. 12.33,
_.;
n: N~O
32 (a)l
u
Let
T>7
Ind the
.. (fJ
. .(g)
.. (12.34)
U _
... (1235)
~
l't
_1_
[ . (2N + 1)m:
NL:o (2N+l)( sm
2d
1 _(2N+l)l,.?r./4
e
... (1236)
A series of isochroncs indicating the variation of U with z Co1n be plotted for diffcrent values' of T~ . The
shape of the isocbrones dcpends upon the initial distribution of excess pore water pressure ii; and the drainagc
C(l{lditions at the boundaries of the cL'l)' layer. If both the upper and lower boundaries are free draining. the
clay layer is known as open layer. If only one boundary of the clay layec is free draining, the laycr is called
halfdosed layer.
limits
Fig. 12.11 (a) shows the isochrones for an open laycr of thickness 2d when the initial distribution of
pressure is uniform. TIle upper balf of the diagram is also applicable for a halfclosed laycr of thickness d
(Fig. 12.11 (b)]. The hydraulic gradient at any pain! is equal to the slope of tbe isochrone at thai point.
The progress of consolidation nt any point depends upon the porc water pressure at that point. The
dcgree of consolidation (UJ at any point at depth z L.. equal to the ratio of the dissipated excess pore water
pressure to the initial excess pore water pressure, i.e.,
... (h)
lal
274
... (12.37)
Substituting the value of Uliii from
Eq. 1236,
UzI "
where
M.
2 .
!ism
(Md') .AlT.
...
...(12.38)
.0
i (2N
+ 1)
Eq. 1238 gives the degree of consolidation at a point. In practical problems, the main interest is to know
the average degree of consolidation of the whole layer. The average degree of consolidation (U) is defined as
U _ U j  V,
U;
whecc Vi is initial excess hydrostatic pressure over the entire depth,
Ui
1 l"'2d
JO U;
..(12.39)
dz
aod V, is the average excess hydrostatic pressure after time t over the entire depth,
1 1'V,  2d 10 u
dz
l"
udz
U_l _'2dJ
__
_
o _
1 l"'2dJ o Uj
r"
Ul;_
10
Uj
dz
dz
... (12.40)
dz
For constant initial excess pore waler pressure Uj, Eq. 12.40 becomes
u
1
1  2dUj
1'_
10 u dz
... (12.41)
Uwhere M ..
l"~
2";.
~
Sin
1  _1_ j"
2dui.0N_oM
~ (2N
12.41,
(AI')
eAIT
d

+ 1) as before.
. .. (12.42)
U  [(T.)
... (12.43)
CONSOUDAll0N OF SOILS
upon the nondimensionaJ time fadar T~ The curves can be obtained between U and T, for different drainage
conditions and the pressure distribution.
Table 12.3 gives the values of T~ for different values of the average degree of consolidation (U). Case (1)
is applicable for unifonn pressure distribution for ooth open layer and halfcloscd layer. This is also
!)
applicable for triangular (linear) distribution of pressure in the case of open layers. Case (2) is applicable for
triangular distribution of pressure for halfc1oscd layer with maximum pressure near the drainage face. Case
(3) is also applicable for triangulru distribution of pressure for halfclosed layer but with
the drainage face. Fig. 12.13 gives the rurve for the three cases considered.
Thble 12.3. Variation or U with
~)
Presrure
dislribuljOll
"[JOr
;;~'J,'
,'f,r:,
Curve (1)
Ca.{e (1)
,' j",
~J
Cun>e(3)
Case (3)
T.
T.
T.
0.0
0.0
0.0
O.!
0.008
0.003
0.047
0.2
0.031
0.009
0.100
03
0.071
0.024
0.158
0.4
0.126
0.048
0.221
05
0.196
0.092
0.294
0.6
0.287
0.160
0.383
0.7
0.403
0.270
0.500
O.B
0567
0.440
0.665
0.
0.848
0.720
0.940
0)
pressure ncar
T~.
r~
Curve (2)
Casc (2)
zelO
1.0
.1)
The time factor T" depends upon tbe coefficient of consolidation (e,,). time I and the drainage patb d (Eq.
12.35). lbe coefficient of consolidation represents tbe combined erred of the coefficient of permeability (k)
and the coefficient of volume change (m~) as indicated by Eq. 12.29.
Thus
...(12.44)
As the codsoliclation progresses, both the coefficient of permeability (k) and the coefficient of volume
change (m,,) decrease, but the ratio (kim,,) remains almost constant over a considerable mnge of pressure.
Consequently, the coefficient of consolidation remains almost constant.
The drainage path (d) represents the maximum distance that the water has to lravel before reaching the
freedrainage boundary. For an o(X!n layer, the value of d is equal to half the thickness of the layer, whereas
for a halfclosed layer, it is equal to the thickness of the layer.
The time (t) is measured from the instant tbe load is applied to tbe layer.
, As indicated by 'Eq. 12.44, the time factor T" and hence the degree of consolidation depends upon
t, m,. d and t. It also depends upon the distribution of pressure across the thickness.
The rurve (1) in Fig. 12.13 is parabolic. 1llc relationship can be represented by tbe following empirical
equations.
27'
O~
o.
r
'~
o.
o. ,
"'" ""'",
'~
o. ,
 I'
'\
"
" \
"\ ~)
O.
L.
o.
\\
""
o. 8
\ [\
'\1\
o.9
0
0.01
O.Q)
().()<j
0.070. I T I / _ a . )
O.S
OJ'
LO
T~ _ ~ U2
... (12.45)
and
... (12.46)
CONOOUDATION OF SOILS
277
can act as good drairiugc faces arc missed in the boring operations. On the other hand. sometimes
isolated sand pockets arc wrongly laken as drainage faces.
(4) The equation is based on the assumption that the consolidation is onedimensional. In field. Ihe
consolidation is generally 3 dimensional. The lateral drainage may have a significant effect on the
lime rate of consolidation.
(5) 'llie initial consolidation $lnd the secondary consolid.ation have been neglected. Sometimes, these
fonn an important part of the total consolidation.
(6) In the field, the load is seldom applied instantaneously. The effect of the loading period has to be
considered, as explained in Sect. 12.15.
(7) In actual pradice, the pressure distribution may be far from linear or uniform. The theory becomes
complicated when correct disJ:ribution is considered.
NotwiUlstanding the above limitations. the consolidation theory is used to predict the time rate of
settlement of the structures built on a soil. The results arc fairly occurate if the theory is applied with caution,
keeping above limitations in mind.
12.11. DETERMINATION
m"
COEFFICIENT OF CONSOLIDATION
The curve between dial gauge reading and time I obtnincd in the laboratory by testing Ihe soil sample is
similnr in shape to the theoretical curve between U and T~ obtained from the consolidation theory. This
similnrity between Ihe laboratory curve and the theoretical curve is used for the detennination of the
coefficient of consolidation (c~) of the soil. The methods are known as the filling mer}wds. '!be fallowing two
methods are commonly used.
(1) Squareroot of time method. The method. devised by Taylor, utilizes the theoretic.'ll relationship
betwccn U and ff.,. The relationship is linear up to the value of U equal to about 60% (Eq. 12.45). It has
been rurtbcr established that at U = 90%, the value of ff., is 1.15 times the value obtained by the extension
of the initial straight line portion [Fig. 12.14 (a)].
The sample of the soil whose coefficient of consolidation is required is tested as explained ;n Sect. 12.5
For a given load increment, the dial gauge readings are taken for different time intervals. A curve is plotted
between the dial gauge reading (R), as ordinate. and the.fi as abscissa [Fig. 12.14 (b)], The curve AlleDE
shows the plot. The curve begins at the dinJ gauge reading Ro III time to. indicated by point A.
I\s the load increment is applied, there is an initial compression. 11 is obtained by producing back the
Ro A
I R~
~1
~_\oI';
bo
u/.
Theoreticat
,curve
b"~
901Jl!Q===::::=~::,..
iT,
)]
IOOL
~)
RgO            
~
E
(b)
.[T 
~~~~~i%~ion
278
initial linear part of the curve to intersect the dialgauge reading axis at point A '. This corresponds 10 the
corrected zero reading (N,,). The conso lidation between the dial glluge reading Ro and RI . is Ihe illilial
compression. The TCf:l.aghi theory of consolidation is not applicable in this range.
From the corrected zero reading point A', a line A' C is drawn such that ils abscissa is 1.15 times Ihat
of the initial linear portion A ' 8 of Ihe curve. "Inc intersection of this linc. with the curve at point C indicates 90%
of U. The dial gauge reading corresponding to C is shown as Roo and the corresponding absciss..1 as "rr;.
The point D for 100% primary consolidation can be obtained from Roo as,
R,.  RlOo
"*
(He  H<)())
The consolidation <lfter 100% of primary consolidation. in the range DE, is the secondary consolidation.
The value of the coefficien t of consolidation of the soil for that load increment is obtained fTom the value
of W;; obtained from [h:lt plol. From Table 12.3 , for U = 90%. [he value of T" = 0.848. Therefore. using
Eq. 12.35,
... (12.47}
The distance of the drainage path d is half the total thickness. The total thickncss may be taken as the
average or the initial thickncss (II,) and final thickness (NJ~ of the sample.
Th,,
d  li2 d=H
2
'
[Hi
()
+2
Ht ]
. .. [12.48(a)[
... [12.48(b}[
The test is repealed for different load increments and an average value of c" obtained, as shown in
Fig. 12.15.
(2) Logarithm of time method. llle method
given by Casagrande uses the theoretical curve
between U and Log T,., as shown in Fig. 12.16 (a).
The curve consists of Ihree parts : (i) an initial
portion which is paraholic in shape, (ii) a middle
portion which is almost linear, and (iii) the last
portion to which the horizontal axis is an asymptote. c..,
It is observed that the point of intersecti on of the
tangent drawn at the point of inllexion on the curve
and the asymptote of the lower portion gives the
value of 100% consolidation.
Logr __
The sample of the soil is tested as explained in
Section 12.5. For a given load increment, 11 curve is
, ploned betwccn the dial gauge reading R nnd log I
Fig. 12. 15. Vnriation of C.
[Fig. 12.16 (b)}. Let Ro be the in.i[ial dial gauge before the application of the load increment. The corrected
zero reading (R..) is ob[ained using the fac[ that the initial portion of the curvc is parabolic. Two points Band
C arc selectcd cOITcsponding to some arbitrary time II and 4th respectively, illld having the vertical intercept
a, as shown. Point A' is located such that the vertical intercept hetween B and A' is also equal to u. It
represenls the corrected dial gauge reading Rr corresponding to zero primary consolidation. As a check, the
procedure can be repeated hy selecting two other points (not shown) with the time ratio I : 4. It should also
give approximately [he same location of point A ' . Obviously, the consolidation ' between the dial gauge
reading Ro to RI " represented by A and A " is initial compression.
CONSOUDATION OF SOILS
279
[s:
h." <O.
c:.urv~
100
'
... Tv
'0)
RIOO
R.
 !~~_
  _____ ____ 1_     __ . :_ _ _ _ _ _ _
''30
'00
logt  _
'b)
Fig. 12.16. Logarithm or tim e: Plot.
The fmal portion of the experimental curve is linear. The point F corresponding to 100% consolidation is
obtained from the intersection of the two linear parts, as shown. The values of Rloo and 1100 are obtained
corresponding to point F. TIle compression between the dial gauge readings Re and RiOO is the primary
consolidation, and thai between R 100 and R, is the secondary consolidation.
The point M corresponding to 50% primary consolidation (Rso) is located midway between Re and R 100
800 the value of time 1$0 is obtained.
Thus
Re  Rso 
t (Re 
R 1(0)
From Table 12.3, for U = 50%, the value of Til is equal to 0.196. From Eq. 12.35,
C. _ __
0.196'"
I",
... (12.49)
1be distance d of the drainage path is detennined using Eq. 12.48, as in the first method.
The test is repeated for different load inqements and an average value of CO' for the desired load range is
determined, as shown in Fig. 12.15 ..
Comparison of the two method... The two methods for determination of the coefficient of consolidation
give comparable results for most of the soils. However, the following points must be carefully noted.
(1) For some SOils, the squareroot of time plot does not give a straight line for the inilial portion and,
therefore, to 10000te the corrected zero Rc becomes difficult. For such soils, the logoftime method is
better.
>d
00
p'
"
he
ge
(2) The squareroot of time method is more suitable for soils exhibiting high secondary consolidation. In
such soils the log Iplot does not show the characteristic shape required to locate the point
COITtSponding LO 100% consolidation.
(3) The squareroot of time method is more convenient for a general case, as it requires dial gauge
readings covering a much shorter period of time compared with the logtime method. The )atter
method requires accurate plotting of the secondary coosolidation curve in order to locate tbe
asymptote.
Compression Ratios. The following definitions for different compression ratios are used.
(I) Inldlll compnsslonJ8t1o (T,). It is the ratio of the initial oompression to the total compession. In
tcnn.s of dial gauge readings. it is expressed m;
... (12.50)
where Ro = zero dial gDuge reading, Rt = corrected zero reading, and RI = final dial gauge reading.
(il) PrImary compression mtlo (r,.). II is ralio of Ihe primary oomlxession 10 the 10lal oompression. In
terms of dial gauge readings. it is given by
... 12.51)
RlOo = dial gauge reading corresponding 10 100% primary consolidation.
(ii.) Secondary comprtSSlon mtlo (rr)' It is the ralio of Ihe secondary compression 10 the total
compression. In terms of dial gauge readings,
RlOo  Rf
... (12.52)
r,  ~ _ H
w~cre
r, _ 1  (ri + r;)
... (12.53)
r, .+ rj + rp  1
"<:';4Jv
NG
50)
In
51)
)tal
52)
53)
,.n
CONSOUDATION OF SOILS
(7)
The vertical PJ cuts the curve at point K. lhe portion ARK of the curve represents the
recompression curve and the portion KeD as the virgin compression curve.
l>i'
I I I I I I i + I I I
w+///lI//l1lllZTP7/1M
e;s
>
of
tho
A}f .. mJlo(A 0)
Representing the final seUlcmenl as As, and laking}fo .. AI..
As,_ mv 62 (AD)
Total settlement of the oomplete layer,
Ao.
f"''
... (1255)
.~;
H.
...(1256)
dHH.(~)
1 + eo
r:r.. [J:"...
~ '.
l
(a)
(b)
Fig. 12.20
... (12.57)
C
f
6.e
10810(00 + Acr}loo
or
where tJ.e is change in void ratio when the effective pressure is increased from
this value of Ae in Eq. 1257,
00 to @o
+ 40). Substituting
,.3
OONSQUDATION OF SOILS
Sf 
~~ eo
Ho . 10gIO
(a ~oa a)
o
..
(12.58)
(b) Preconsoliduted soils. The final settlements are small in the case of preconsolidated soils as the
recompression index C, is considerably smaller thun the compression index. From Eq. 12.24,
ae
Therefore, Eq. 12 57 gives
 C, log
"  
c,+
eo
ao 6a)
(0;;+
. Ho . log
(ao + ,;a)

... (1259)
00
The above equation is applicable when (cio + a 0) is smaller than the perconsoli<ialion pressure 0(.
If the perconsolidation pressure oe is greater than 00 but less than \ao + aO), the settlement i'> computed
in two parts:
(l) Settlement for pressure ~ to 'O~.
(iJ) Settlement for pressure Or to (00 + II 0)
For the first, part, the recompression index is applicable, whereas for the second part, the compression
index is used. Thus
ao)
C,
_
Crflo
(00 +
',   1  ' Holog\crc / oo) + Ilog   
+
+
In this case, the first part is relatively small and is sometimes neglected. ~
... (12.60)
The timescUlemeDt curve in the field is obtained based on the a<iSumption that the selllement at the end
of construction period (lp) is the same as that would have occurred in half as much time had the entire load
been applied instantaneously. In other words, the actual settlement at time lp is equal to that at t/2 due to
instantaneous loading. In Fig. 12.21 (b), the OJNe DB is the load settlement curve obtained using the Terzaghi
theory, assumin6 that the full load P is applied instantaneously at time 10. The oorrected curve is obtained
from the instantaneous loading curve. The point C on the oorredcd curve has the setllement FC at time tpo
This settlement is equal to the settlement AH at time t/2 of the instantaneous CUNe. A horizontal line AC is
drawn [rom point A to cut the vertical FC at time Ip at C.
The settlement on the corrected curve at any other time is also obtained from the instantaneous curve.
The settlement LG at time, is obtained from the settlement KD at time tl2 of the instantaneous CUNe, but a
correction is applied. At time t, as the full load is not acting, the settlement is not exactly equal to KD. The
actual load ading at t is equal to P x (tltp ), i.e. the load ading at time t is (t/tp ) times the full load P. The
correction to the settlement is made graphically, as described below. A horizontal line DE is drawn to cut the
venical at time tp at E. The diagonal DE is drawn. It intersects the vertical LG al time I at point G. The actual
settlement at time t is given by LG. Obviously. this is equal to FE x (tltp ) or KD x (tltp ). Therefore, the
correction factor is (t/~).
284
________________ lptP~~,~F~u~"~LOO~d~'~p~
t"]
i
L
r7'lP"'''''c 11meo
'0'
,..,~ic__4c_+~'_tlme
Ukcwisc, the settlemem at any other time can be obtained. Fig. 12.21 (b) also indicates the settlement at
time 1/4 of the in')taneous curve. A smooth curve is drawn through all points so obtained. Thus the corrected
curve OC is drawn. 1hc curve eM beyond the loading period is extended by making offset 8M equal to AC.
The load after time tp is equal to the full load P. The offset, therefore, remains equal to the onehalf of tbe
looding period (/,/2). In other words, the horizontal offset between the oorreclcd curve and the instantaneous
curve after the k>ading period is constant, and equal to 1/2.
Alternative method.
The corrected curve can be obtained ea<>ily if the mle of settlement is not of interest during the
construction period (tp ). In this case, the correde(l curve can be taken as the curve for instaneous loading in
which the origin is t:lken at t _ t"l2. In other words, the whole load P is assumed to be applied
instantaneously at half the loading period (t/2).
12.16. FlELD CONSOLIDATION CURVE
lbe oomprcssion characteristics of insitu soils are di(ferent from those obtnincd from the tests conducted
on the soil samples. Even the socalled undisturbed S:JmpJes are also slightly disturbed when these are taken
out. "Ille disturbance causes a slight decrease in the slope
of the compression curve obtained in the laboratory after
conducting' a consolidation test. Consequently, the slopeof
the curve for insitu soils is, expected 10 be greatcr than
,thnt obtained from the tcst. The mcthods for obtaining the
field consolidation curve from the laboratory consolidation
curve are discussed separately for normally consolidated, ~
overconsolidated and undcrconsolidated soils.
Cc
(a) Normally consolidated soli. Schmenmann ~
established thai the lab<),ralory virgin curve intersects the
field oonsolidalioo line at n void ratio of 0.40 eO. where
eo is the initial void ratio. The initial void ratio (eo) can be
taken as the void ratio at the start of the laboratory test.
Thus the field consoUdation lint mum pass through point Ag. 12.2Z. ficld Consolidation Curve of H.C. Clays.
CONSOUDATlON OF SOILS
C C04l'eSponding to a void ratio of 0.40 eo (Fig. 12.22). [Note. In some texts. il is taken as 0.42 eo]. The
coordinates of point D represent the natural void ratio (eo) and the effective overburden pressure (00) before
the sample was extracted. When the sample has been taken out. the overburden pressure reduces to zero, but
the water content (w) and hence void ratio remain essentially the same. The process is represented by line
De_
at
ed
C.
he
he
in
ed
ed
en
:uRV(
When the undisturbed sample is tested in the laboratory. the compression curve (k.. ). represented by the
curve ABC is obtained. The portion A 8 of thL.. curve represents the recompression ana the portion BC as the
virgin compression. The upward extension of the linear portion BC intersects the horizontal line through eo at
point . For a nonnally oonsolidatcd soil, the point E always lies towards the len of the point D. Once it has
been established that the soil is normally consolidated, the field consolidation Line or insitu consolidation line
(kt) is drawn joining the points D and C. 'rbe slope of this line DC is equal 10 the compression index of the
in situ soil.
If the sample is remoulded and again tested, the compression curve (k,) is obtained. The slope of the k,
curve is somewhat smaller than that of the k..curve. However. the downward extension of the k,.line also
intersects the horizontal line drown from 0.4 eo at point C.
(b) Preconsolidnted soli. In Fig. 12.23, the curve ABC is the laborotory compression curve (kw) for the
undisturbed sample. The poinl C corresponds to a void ratio of 0.4 eo The backward extension of the linear
portion of the curve ABC meets the
horizontal line eo D at point E. In case of
preconsolidated soils, the point E lies towards
the right of point D representing the insitu
condition ('00. eo). It is obvious that there is
recompression of the soil from a pressure of ]:
00 to the prcconsolidation pressure (O~). A
smooth curve !Xi is drawn from point D
Thus
o~ < 00
or
O.C.R. < 1
The total compression ror such soils when subjected to extemal loads is equal to the sum or the
compression due to overburden pressure till equilibrium is reached and the additional compression due to
external loads. Thus
6e 6e L + lie2
where lieL = decrease in void ratio due to 00
tt.e:z = decrease in void ratio due to applied pressure. as found in nonnally consolidated soils.
12.17. SECONDARY CONSOLIDATION
According to Terzaghi's theory of consolidation, the primary consolidation stops when the excess pore
water pressure becomes zero. In actual practice, it has been observed that some consolidation continues even
286
after the full dissipation of the excess pore water pressure. This additional consolidation is known a<>
secondary consolidation. In other words, the secondary consolidation is the consolidation which occurs after
the completion of the primary consolidation.
The causes of secondary consolidation are not well underslood. This is probably due to tbe gradual
readjustment of the soil skeleton which oc(.:urs after the stresses caused during primary consolidation. There
is plastic readjustment of the soil pnrticlcs 10 the new stress. (In Ihis respect. secondary con.<tOlidation is
somewhat nnalogous to the creep in sleel when it is overstressed and is in the plastic slale.) Secondary
consolidation may also be due to progressive fradurc of the interparticle bonds and the particlcs themselves.
1'11e rate of secondary consolidation is given by the secondary compression index (el ). as defined below.
C, ..
10g~O~t~tl)
. .. (12.61)
(Fig. 12.24).
Primary consolidotion
100/.
..:.~t_,
______==s_._'o_ndCIr y conSOlidation
C :!; '2 It ,
t:
Logt_
Another pnramcl.cr, known as the coefficient of secondary consolidation (Cu ), is more commonly used. It
is given by
C _~ .. ~. _ _1_ _
"
I + ep
1 + t:p
loglo (t2Itl)
where ep = void ratio at the end of primary consolidation
and
At: = change in void mtio between time tl and t2'
The magnitude of the secondary cotL'\Olidation is given by
lime II
Ss .. C u x 1IIOglO(t2111)
COfTcsponds to the end of primary consolidation.
... (12.62)
... [12.62(a)J
The rate of secondary consolidation depends upon the plastic characteristics of the soil. It is controlled
by higblyviscous, adsorbed water layer surrounding the clay minerals. As the secondary conso'ldation is
highly erratic, its estimate l$ing the above equations is seldom accurate.
For a p.'lrticular soil, the rate of secondary consolidation increases as the ratio of the pressure increment
to the existing pressure is decreased. For standard consolidaLion lest, the ratio is kcp,t one. The rate also
increases with a decrease in the thickness of the specimen used in the test. There are a number of other
factors which control the rate of secondary consolidation. In general, the value of Co. for normally
consolidated soils varies with the compressibility and hence with the natural water content.
The rate depends upon the length of time the preload may have acted on the soil. It also depends upon
lbe shear stresses and on the degree of disturbance of the sample.
Serondary consolidation is important only for highly plastic Clays and organiC soils. In some organic
CONSOUDATION OF SOILS
soils, the secondary consolidation may even be more than the primary consolidation. [0 overconsolidaled,
inorganic clays, the secondary consolidation is usually small and hence it is neglected.
12.18. 3D CONSOLIDATION EQUATION IN CARTESIAN COORDINATES
Teralghi's tbeory of onedimensional consOlidation discussed above is based on the assumption thai the
soil is laterally confined and the consolidation takes place only in the vertical direction. In field, as the layers
are not Laterally confined, the consolidation takes place in all the threedimensions. In general, the
consolidation in the horizontal direction is small and. therefore, neglected. However, in some special cases,
such as in sand drains, there is significant radial drainage. in addition to the vertical drainage. For such cases,
threedimensional consolidation equation is required to determine the rate of consolidation. The equation for
3D consolidation' is derived below, making the following assumptions :
(1) The soil mass is homogenous.
(2) The soil is completely saturated.
(3) The soil particles as weD as the water in the voids are incompressible.
The consolidation takes place
due to reduction in voids
caused by flow water.
(4) Darcy's law, in generalised
form,
is
applicable
to
anisotropic soils.
(5) Pressure increment dO is
applied instantaneously to
I
I
develop an initial excess pore
I
Ptx,y;!:):
water pressure Uj.
Fig. 12.25 shows a parallelepiped
\Vy dy
....Ly""""iY.~............
of soil mass with sides li:c, dy, liz with
its centre at point P (x, y, z). Let the
.............
velocity components at the point P by
/'
v"' v,. and v:. 100 velocities on the s ix
faces are obtained using the partial y
Y:r._~.!tt..
derivatives and are shown in the figure.
"
2
Fig. 12.25
The volume of water entering the
parallelepiped per unit time (QJ is obtained from the products of the relevant velocities and areas. Thus
.,
Q;
(v.  ~ .~ )dY
<4 +
(v,~ ~) dr<4 +
(v, ~
~)
dx dy
Likewise, the volume of water going out per unit time (Qo) is given by
Qo (v"+~.
~)dy<4+ (vYaz2
+~. <!l)dx<4 + (v: +~.
'22
az '!!.2) x dxdy
Therefore, the volume of water squeezed out of the parallelepiped per unit time is given by
dQ
dQ 
QoQ;
iJv" + ~
iJ"~)
iJy + az dxdydz
( ax
... (a)
The volume of the parallelepiped V is equal to dx I dy, dz. It is also equal to V, (1 + e), where V, is the
volume of the solids and e is the void ratio. Thus
v _ _ v __ dxdydz
~
1 +e
1 +e
V .. V1 (1 + e)
1* fr [V.
av
(1 +
e) ]  V. ~
dxdydziJe
...(b)
atI+e'ai
Obviously the volume of waler squeezed oul per unit time is equal 10 the mange in volume of
parallelepiped per unit time, From Eqs, (a) and (b),
dxdydz ,
I+e
~
at
(~
ax
ay
~)
az
dxdydz
E!=(l+e)(~+5+~)
at
ax ay az
If ii is the
excess
... (c)
law as
*.
vxk~i~~ %'i*x:!:'~
ky
ky:!: . ~
vy "
ky iy
v: ..
k~i~Is ~k:t~
"
~ .. .!.......!
at
'Yw
...(d)
As soon as the pressure increment (~ 0) is applied, the pore water pressure develops, Initially, the load
is entirely taken by pore water, but as the lime passes, water is squeezed out. The excess pore water pressure
gradually decreases and the effective stress increases, as in the onedimensional consolidation. Thus
~o~o
+&
A'O ..
iJe
Therefore,
But
a5'"
 ~u.
ae
~
coefficient of compressibility
Therefore,
0v
(Eq. 12.12),
iJe
au ..
0"
ae
ae
ai~'
au
iii  avo at
... (e)
CONSJUDATION OF SOILS
289
The above equation can be written in tenns of lhe coefficient of volume change mit'
a.
nr~_~
Thus
The equation can be written in tenns of coeITicienls of consolidation
directions using Eq. 12.29.
au
at 
Therefore,
il~
c~ ~ + e,y ~ + e,~
a2;i
c~.
a1;
al
... (12.63)
Eq. 12.63 is lhe general equation for lhrcedimensio:1ai consolidation (3D consolidation).
12.19. 3D CONSOLIDATION EQUATION IN CYUf\JI RICAL COOJt Hl NATES
Threedimensional consolidation equation, obUlined in :11,' proceixling !\l',l::){m. can be twnsfonned into
cylindrical coordinates (r, a, z) by making the followillg ELlrn,.,\Ulion:
xreasa,
y_rsinO and Z ': 2:
where r = radial distance (polar distance).
and
= angle made by the radius with the pole.
Thus,
lan
yl x or
arc Ian (y/x)
... (a)
a_
Differentiating Eq.
Ukewisc.,
From Eq.
or
a
r2_x'+l
and
(a~
(b~
2r.!:..2x
ax
.!:.
ay .. r, ..
as
L
a;   2
... (b)
ax
sin S
='r
s""S~~
aa
Therefore,
,.
aa
=.l.
sinS
,> ;
cosO
ay";J~
au au.2!..+...~
a;a;
ax as ax
au aU.cose _.@..(Sin9)
ax"ar
as
r
and
'a
iii
ax2 1\iJr
a ) (a;;
rosa  I .
s109 rosS  1..@
, as
r
ar
ar
sine)
290
Likewise,
C,,,,
at =
iJu
at ~
Using Eq. (e),
ali
at ..
Thus,
(say)
= c\)' = c,,,
au
(aljj
ax2
C ,.,
ai
a21i)
ai
(alii 1
c,., a,'l + ;
a2~ ""
ae
aii ..
at
al/i.
iJ'2jj
a:;z + c,"
c""
alii
+
+
C""
ail
alii
c,.: ail
a;: + ? iPU)
a 82
au
a2/i.
+ c"" a?
c ,.,
(alii.!..
iJ1J. + r
Ii)
alii
ar + c", ai
...(12.64)
Eq. 12.64 is the governing equation for consolidation in three dimensions in Icrms of cylindrical
coordinates for the case of axial symmetry. The equation can be split into two pans :
2
c11'
(aar21i
c,~
.!.r .E.)
at
'" Jj{Jt
iJaJ) .. !
... (12.65)
.. (12.66)
&j.12.43,
... (12.67)
U,  fl.',)
... (12.68)
and
U"  [(T,)
where T, and T" are time factors in radial and vertical directions. respectively, given by (using Eq. 12.44),
7;
and
= c,.,I/(4R')
T" = c,.~(/Jl
... (12.69)
... (12.70)
... (12.71)
The value of U v can be obtained using the theory of onedimensional consolidation as already discussed.
lbe value of U, js obtained as explained in the following section for the sand drains.
CONSOUDATJON OF SOILS
4)
,,1
56)
lng
291
R"OS25S
'01
ffiI
Wi
~
~_
at
~~lh:~e~ I~~i=
(aar2u+ !r
2
c
...
.)
ar
67)
68)
14),
SAND
69)
BLANKET
70)
SAND DRAIN
ical
.7 1)
sed.
'".:.":
Fig. 12.21. Sand Dralns IrwaJladon.
292
In Ihe case of free strain case, the boundary conditions are as under
AI time I .. 0,
at T .. r.... and al r .. R,
W,:
The solution for excess JXlrc waler pressure Ii at any time t and at a r'Jdiai distance, is obtained by the
solution of the differential equ.'1tion as
Ii.o>
UI.<lZ. ...
w~crc 12 ..
eH{J.~,,7,)
Rlr", and
Udal Jdo) Y, (a)  Y, (0) J, (a)
Uo(an) .. 10 (0 n) Yo (a)  Yo (an) 10 (a)
,~
:I!'!:.I
wt:cr~
(Z)
10 (a)
c,,. ..
.~
l,o. i~ic:1
[';1l'.
kJ,
nr~l.... 111"1...
,u"" 
u~,.~ ... a2
4vf
(n2 _ 1)
(a)
rn2V~(OJJ) _
UT(a)J
'The average degree of radial consolidation Vr can be detennincd from the equation
... (12.72)
Fig. 12.28 shows the variation of V, with the time factor T, by dolled lines for different values of
wheren _ Rlr....
/I,
(2) Equal Strain Case. This case occuno when the surcharge applied is rigid, such as heavy steel plates.
!n this case. the settlements are uniform. but the distribution of pressure is nonunifonn. The problem was
solved by Barron, who gave the expression for excess pore water pressure as
4u_
[,
(,',:.)]
u  (2R)2 F(n) R log. (rlr...)    2 where F(n) _
~ )~)
'1  1
u....
_ (),l
4n
II"" _
iii
e;"
~
wmer pressure throughout out the embankment
in which A _
;~~)
.. .(12.73)
CONSQUDATION OF SOILS
293
tf.~T,IF(/f
. .. (12.74)
Fig. 12.28 shows the variation of U, with T, by firm lines for 3 values of n.
(EqU(lI
Tr
strain
can)
Url1o} n .. o;
n~
!O
0.012
0.021
0.039
20
()'OZ6
0.046
o.oaZ
30
0.01..2
0060
0.070
0.1]1
0.188
0.2'1'1
10
n ~ l"O
0.:331
0431
0.'192
0.81..7
1.102
1.69)
Fig. 12.28.
V~rill1ion
of U, which T, .
It may be observed thai the curves for free strain and equal strain are nOI much different and they give
approximately the same results. Equal strains case is generally preferred as it is more convenient. Fig. 12.28
also gives the value of T, in a labular form for lhe equal slWin case.
Effed of Smeal'" Zone. A smear zone is formed around a sand drain due to the remouldining of clay
caused during its construction. A decrease in the ooefficienl of permeability in the radial direction occurs due
to remoulding. Burron extended the analysis of the equalstrain case taking into account the effect of smear zone.
The analysis is based on the assumption thaI the clay in the smear zone bas zero
excess pore water pressure on the inner boundary and the timedependent excess pore
water pressure on the outer boundary. Fig. 12.29 shows a crosssection through a sand
drain having a smear zone. The radiaJ distance from the centre line of the drain weU
to !he farthest point on the smear zone is equal to the radius of smear zone r~.
3)
where
n]
... (12.75)
III
.'
ttl _
82 log.. (niB) 
0'
43 + 4n2
k,(.,o')
k; .,
log.. B
Fig. 12.29. Smear Zone
SOIL
294
MEC~IANICS
and
V, _ I _ ~ _ 1 _
e ( 8T./mj
... (12.7~
The solutions for values of III are also lMlilable in the fonn of curvcs for different values of klolk, and B
and n. It may be noted that for no smear zone. B = 1.0 and the results of equalstrain casc apply.
"rne net effcct of the smear zone on the consolidation is thaI the influence area of the drain is reduced.
As an upproximation. the effect of smear zone is sometimes taken indirectly into acrounl by reducing tht
radius 'of influence R to 0.5 R.
'Inc following points regarding sand dmins may be noted.
(1) Secondary consolidation is nol taken into acrounl in [he design of sand drains. In fact , the sand
drains arc ineffective in controlling the sc(."(mdary consolidation for highly plastic and organk soils.
(2) Sand drains tend to act os weak piles ond reduce the stresses in the clay. Consequently, the excess
pore water pressure developed is gcncrnlly less os compured with that in the case when there arc !XI
sand drnins. This factor is nO!. taken into nccount in equation given above.
(3) The typical design parameteffi for the sand dl1lins arc os under:
(0)
(b)
(c)
(d)
... (12.7
where SOI is the final settlement based on the assumption of no lateral strain using onedimensi
consolidation theory. as explained in Sec. 12.14. The correction factor f.1 is given by
f'
0 111 ,
"
.1.0 1
{AO,
+~(l
A
 A)
dz
... (12.7
... (12.7
/1603 tiz
where ao 
i'o
Ao! dz
lbe value of a dcpcnd<; upnn the sh:lpc or the lo.adcd area and the thickness D of the clay stmtum .
relation to tile dimension of the luaued :Irc<l. II c;ln be ollculmed using the theory of elasticity. 'Ibe value
Q for the cirrular and strip fu()tJn!t" arc given in '];Ible 12.4.
r
""
CONSOUOATION OF SOILS
:ed.
the
.and
its.
0.
DIB
0.0
0.2."i
0.50
1.0
2.0
4.0
10.0
n
(circular fooling)
1.0
0.67
0.50
0.38
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.25
n
(Slrip/OOIing)
1.0
0.80
0.63
0.53
0.45
0.40
0.36
0.25
Note: (1) B"is e<juaJ to the width of strip fOOling or diameter of the circular fOOling.
(2) For square foolings, USC the values of a for the circular footlng of the same arca.
The values of the pore pressure coefficient A depend upon the type of the clay.
'fhe typical values of the correclion factor Il are given in TaDJc 12.5. Fig. 12.30 gives the values of
different values of A and DJB ratio, where D is the thickness of soil layer.
cess
j.l
for
~l.
Type of Soil
0.25 to 0.4
0.4 to 0.7
0.6
LO to 1.20
to
1.00
1.2'
:ounl
2.77)
~onal
2.78)
0.6
,.0
,.'
.2.79)
LH"ovily OVff tonsolidoted
Fig. 12.30. Plot for vlllueof 11.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
lim in
tue of
Illustrative Example 12.1. Calculate the final sculemen! of the clay layer slwwn in Fig. E 12.1 due to
an increase of pressure of 30 kN/nl at midheight of the layer. Take y", .. 10kNlnl
T
40m
cc"o.zz
Cloy
~1,,18 kN/m 3
'0;\.30
2.Sm
Fig. E 12.1
Also calculate the settlement when the water table rises to the ground surface.
Solution. Initial pressure at the centre of the clay layer.
ao ..
From Eq. 12.58,
Ilo
Sf" C,
eo
_ ~
(ao ~ 6,0)
log lo
00
250 I
1 + 1.30)('
oglO
(102.5 + 30.0)
102.5
.. 0.0263 m _ 2.63 em
When the water table rises to the ground surface,
00 ..
Therefore,
0.22
(50+30)
so
.. 0.0488 m .. 4.88 an
As expected, the seulement inm:ascs due to the rise of Ihe water table.
Illustrative Example 12.2. A footing IuJs a size of 3.0 m by 1.50 m and it causes a pressure increment
of 200 kN/m2 ai ilS base (Fig. E 12.2). Determine the consolidation settlement at me middle of me clay layer.
Assume 2 : 1 fresswe distribution and consider Ihe variation of pressure across the depth of the clay layer.
"Y..... 10 leN/III
Il
l...
q"';;x:<;j}:x::.<:<V?)
~'V.I<.'W?
!,.'ml
':160 kNlml
l5~t:'!OkNlmJ
1m
0f,m
CLAY
_ . _ _ _ __
. _ . _ _ _ ._3m
r: IS~N/m3
Ib;O80
Cc =030
Fig. E J2.2.
'0
CONSOUDATION OF SOILS
297
The pressure increase at the top, middle and the bottom of the clay layer are found as follows (Eq.
11.60).
. 17.3
;.O\\~}:O;.O)
kN/m2
The average pressure can be found from the following equation (Simpson's rule).
or
d a ..
A (1
~. (5 1.4 +
..
0.30
(51.5 + 29.9)
sf" 1 + 0.80 x 3.010g 10  51.5
sf .. 0.09941 m .. 99.41 mm
= , +c,.eo
Ho 10gIO
(a,.
=)
~ = 0.05 x
0'
00
+ , c,.
(ll 1
./
2.0 1 <'
1 + 1.40 0.,10
.f/
50
+eo
Ho 10glO
(a "a)
o
 + 0"<,
+ 0.25 )( 2 1
( 50 + 40
I + 1.40 oglo
75
10) m
or
sf = 23.84 x 10'\ m = 23.84 mm
lII11.dralive Example 12.4. A consolidation test was conducted on a sample of a normally cOlZSolidated
clajl with an initial void ratio of 1.55, and the following results were obtained.
80
I",
320
640
1280
1.35
1.28
1.14
0.%
0.78
(b) If the thickness of the clay layer in the field is 4 m and the increase in the pressure due to loading
is 50 kN/m 2, compute the settlement.
(00.
Solution. Fig. E 12.4 shows the requjred plot The field consolidation line is drawn between the point
eo) and the point D where the plot cuts the horizontal line through e = 0.40 eo = 0.4 x 1.55 = 0.62.
Eq. 1258,
C( 
0.844
''' ,~,,.,,r~
"
'."'r,tt+":tttl+~
....... ,
Il0r+..jf+::".,'~t~~~J
1', \
: \. \ ,
1.1Or +++ijhi,j1+l
\ \
\ \\
l.o0r+f+tL~~.cl_____+l
1
\\
Jl.obc>rgbycUl've~\
~,
"++1
O.80ttI+}+l~1
o.rortt++++++~
\J
:
'\
o. lt ~     0.60 10
20
!  
100

1';0200
;r kNltnlJ
Fig. E 12.4
0.844
_ ~)(4.0JoglO
( ~
150 + 50 )
_ 0.1654 m .. 165.4 mm
. Illustrative Example 12.S. A clay straalm 5 m thicJc has the initial void ralio of 1.50 and the effective
2
overburden pressure of 120 kNlm 2, When the sample is subjected to an increase of pressure of 120 kNlm , the
void ratio reduces UJ 1.44. Determine the coefficient of the volume compressibility and the final settlement of
the stratum.
Solution From Eq. 12.14,
6.e/(1 + eo)
mv  ~
or
From Eq. 12.54,
s,
"'v Il a Ho
299
CONSOUDATION OF SOILS
llIuslrative Example 12.6. Determille the coefficiem of eonsolidntion of soil whose test data is plotted in
Fig. E 12.6. The sample was 2.0 em thick alld had double draillilge.
Fig. E 12.6.
tin minvtu
I':n.
0.848 cf
12.47,
c~.;;;
x (1.0)2
 0.848
. 42.90
00198
2/.
.
em mm.
Illustrative Example 12.7. Determine the coefficient of consolidation of a soil whose data is plotted in
Fig. E 12.7 The sample was 20 mm thick and had double drainage
100
191R..:..191_~
181:0.20
~ ~: ~~ IJ..l.I..+J.I.Ul".LLL
IlllilL
111111f+HttI
"~
160'~lrl++,H+"I,,,++l+tl
Rc R 50 : t(R cR100 1
"7(19179):56
R'jQ" 191_56:135
0.,
4567891.0
3 4 109~10
t in
fig. E 12.7.
mil'\Ut~5
'og'
IIH+ttl
2 ) 4 56 800
300
Solution. The construction lines ore shown in Fig. E 12.7. R100 is obtained from the intersection of the
two Slruight lines drawn. 1be poinl 50% consolidation (R!IO) and (he corresponding 'so are detennined.
R~
 Rso 
(Rc  R iI)
Rc  191, RiOO  79
In this case,
Therefore,
t5() 
3.802 minutes
0.196<1'
= 288.12 s
0.196 x (10)'
~  ~ 
228.12
0086 mm'/scc
.
muslratlve Example 12.8. A 3 III thick clay layer beneath Q building is overlain by a permeable stratum
and is underlain by an impervious rock. The coeffICient of consolidation of the clay was found to be 0.025
cm 2/minute. The [mal expected settlement for the layer is 8 cm. (a) How much time will it lake for 80% of
the total settlement 10 take place? (c) Determine the time required for a settlement of 2.5 em to occur. (d)
Compute the settlement that would occur in ()nI! year.
Solullon. (a) Length of drainage path, d
Substituting the values,
U ., 80%,
U 
Po )(
U = 31.25%,
100  31.25%.
T" _ 0.078
3.6 x 106
t ..
)(
... (a)
T" _ 0.567
(c)
=3 m =300 em.
C~  T~tfll
0.025 _ T~(300)2It
=0.146,
or
T" .. 0.146
=0.429.
Therefore,
settlement
= 0.429 )( 8 ::;: 3.432 em
nlustrat lve Example 12.9. A clay kzyer 4 m thjck has a fiMI settlement of 6.0 em. The layer has double
drainage. If the coefficient of consolidation is 0.02 cm1/m;'wte. determine the time required for different
percentagf!S of consolidation from 10% upta 90% and hence plot the timesettlement curve.
Solution. From Eq. 12.35.
T" _ C"tltf
T,  0.02 x 11(200)'
or r  2 x 10' T,
2 x 106 T..
60 x 24 x 365  3.805 T"
The calculations are given in the tabular from below for U of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90% and
the corresponding T.. obtained from Thble 12.3.
The settlements are ca}rulnted from the values of U and the final setllemcnt (Sf) i.e. s .. U )( Sf or s .. 6U '
U (%)
l(ye4r)
10
0.008
0.030
20
0.031
0.118
0.270
30
0.071
40
0. 126
0.479
50
0.196
0.746
seem)
0.6
1.2
1.8
2.4
3.0
60
0.287
0.092
3.6
70
0.403
1.533
4.2
80
0.567
2157
4.8
90
0.848
3.227
5.4
301
CONSOUDAll0N OF SOIL.'i
o.0
3 456789
3456789
3 456 "ISo
tt
r.
.0
.0
r....
I
.0
.0
1\
C 5.0
f.
~ 6.0
jj
7.0
8.0
9.0
1.0
0.10
o.01
'III
a final sellfell/em of 60
?
' (b) If the sand drains (8 ;:: 3 m and r..,
consolidation. Take
C,'r ""
in Ihis case.
Solution. (a)
_ 40/60  0.6667
i.e. 66.67%
Ct. t _
1~, i'lt
0.364 )( (3)2/0.30  10.92 months.
or
From Fig. 12.28, for
From Eq. 12.69,
R .. 0.525x31.575m
n .. Rlrw .. 1.575/0.30 .. 5.25
U .. 90% and n .. 5.25, we have
r
Tr';' 0.270
T, .. c, .. 1/ 4,r
0.270~
4 x (1.575)2
or 1 .. 1.34 months.
nIustrative Example 12.11. The laboratory consolidation data for an undisturbed clay sample are as
follows. el .. 1.00, a) .. 85 kNlm 2, and e2 .. 0.80, '02 .. 465 kNlm 2.
Determine the void ralio for a pressure 'OJ of 600 WI,,?
Solution.
C .. ~ .. ~
..
loglo (O:YOI)
logw (600/85)
Now
0.271 ..
1.~~9 e)
or
c} ..
0.77
illustrative Example 12.12. A clay layer 4 m thick is subjected to a pressure of 55 kN/m1. If the layer
has a double drainage and wldergoes 50% consolido.tion in one year, tietermine the coefficient of
consolidation. Take T~ .. 0.196.
If the coeffICient of permeability is 0.020 IIIlyr, determine the sel/lemen! in one year and rate of flow of
water per unit area in one year.
Solution.
Cv ..
0.784 m2 /yr
k
0.020 )( 1000
m~ .. c"Y... '" 0.784 x llX)() )( 9.81
Settlement rate Since U is proportional 10 ..fi for U < 0.60, the settlement (s) is also proportional to
C. Thus
S2
\\Then t
= 1 year,
S :::
<X
or
t ..
Cs2
0.286 m. Therefore,
1
C  (0.286)'  12.226
Thus
I _
~ ..
12.226,'
2 )(
1~.226 S
..
24.:52 $
..
0.143 m/yr
A. Numerical
12.1. A sntumted soil stmlum 4 m Ihick lies above an impervious stratum ond below II pervious stratum. It has a void
ratio of 1.50 at lin initial pressure of 150 kN/m 2.
(I) Compute the change in void ratio due to to an increase or stress or 50 kN/m2. Take Ct = 0.20.
(il) Also compute the final settlement of the soil stratum due to above increase in stress.
(iiI) Who! would be the time required for 50 percent consolidation? Thke Tv "" 0.20 and k ,. 3.0 X 10...4 cm/sec.
12.2. In a laboratory, Ihe consoIidntioo test
WIlS
CONSOUDATION OF SOILS
303
lit top and bottom. The time required for 50% consolid:Jtion of the sample was observed to be 15 minutes.
Determine the coefficien\ of consolidation of clay.
QJlculate time required for 50% lind 90% consolidation for this clay deP9Sit in the field 3 m thick and
drained at both ends.
[Ans. 4.93)( 10:..4 crr?/sec; 104.17 days; 450.69 dllYs]
123. There is a layer of soft cloy 4 m thick under a newly constructed building. The overburden pressure over the
2
centre of the clay layer is 300 kN/m . Compute the settlement if there is an increase in pressure due to
2
construction of 100 kN/m . Take C~ '" 0.50, G :: 2.70. The water content of the deposit wa.<; found to be 50%.
[Ans. 10.63 em]
2
Il consolidation test, on increase of 100 kN/m in the veniall pressure was applied to a saturated clay sample
initially 2.5 em thick. The thickness of the sample reduced to 246 em after 24 hours. The sample was then
relieved of jlressure and allowed 10 take up water. The final thickness was 2.465 cm and the moisture content
was 30%. Assuming that the sample was saturated throughout the tcst, calculote the following:
(l) the initial void rario. (fake G = 2.68)
(il) the void ratio afler consolidation.
(iiI) the void mtio after expansion
[Ans. 0.83, 0.80, 0.804, 1.6 )( W ...4 m 2/kN]
(iv) the coefficient of compressibility.
In II consolidation test on a soil, the void ratio of the sample decreased from 1.2..'1 to 1.10 when the pressure is
increased from 200 kN/m2 to 400 kN/m 2. Cnlculate the oocfficient of consolidation if the coefficient of
2
permeability is 8 )( 108 cm/sec.
[Ans. 755 m /yearj
The time required to reoch 60% consolidotion for a sample 1 em thi ck tested in consolidometer under conditions
of double drainage wos found to be 35 seconds. De