Está en la página 1de 320

OF

ASPECTS

NATURE,

IN

DIFFERENT

LANDS

DIFFERENT

AND

CLIMATES;

WITH

ISlucftaticns.

BY

HUMBOLDT,

VON

ALEXANDER

MRS.

BY

TRANSLATED

IN

TWO

SABINE.

VOLUMES.

VOL.

I.

"
"
1

*"*

LONDON:
PRINTED

LONGMAN,

BROWN,
MURRAY,

ROW;

LONGMANS

AND

ALBEMARLE

1849.

AND

GREEN,

PATERNOSTER

JOHN

FOR

STREET.

qni

AUTHOR'S

TO

FIKST

THE

EDITION.

IT h not without diffidencethat I


seriesof papers which
natural

of

scenes

and

took their

or
grandeur

the forests of the

Detached

were

The view of Nature


concurrent

which I have

should

i.

into

whole

at

whole.

the display
of the
scale,
enlarged
or

and

powers,

the immediate

the

of
prospect
the
the

objects

design

of the treatisesof which it consists


one
completein itself,

should pervadethem
tendency
VOL.

spot and

to myself,According
to
proposed

Mexico.

and

the

on

afterwards moulded
an

pcean,in

Steppesof Venezuela,

affords to sensitiveminds,are

work,whilst each
form

"

written down

which
enjoyment

tropical
scenery

the

beauty,on

action of various forces

renewal of the

of my

on

publica

the presence of

originin

the

the

presentto

wildernesses of Peru

were
fragments

the moment, and

of

Orinoco,in

in the mountain

V.I

PREFACE

all. Such
b

an

common

artisticand

PREFACE

V1U

of

treatment
literary

difficultiesof

TO

natural

and

the

riches of Nature

a firm
imagination,

into
degenerating
I need

fear the

succeeded

describe

followingpages

in

accumulation

an

should

belong to

speciesof poeticprose.
fullydangers which

more

will shew

have

of the
descriptions

varied

distant

impart to

lands,may

enjoymentwhich

to

the reader
from

that these

hope

Nature

more

can

enhanced

portionof

their immediate

of the

by insightinto

different powers

and

the

in

assumes

more

that

plation
contem-

As
of such impressions.
susceptible

to
subjoined

additions.

T venture

Aspectswhich

is derived

mind

enjoymentis

I have

always

not

avoiding.

easilyperceivethan amend,

connection

the

from
guard the style

faults which
Nevertheless,
notwithstanding

by a

language.

disturbs the repose

to

undesirable

here

it

addressingthe feelingsand

is needed

hand
an

not

when

liable to

aid which

noble

occasion

unity of impressionwhich

picture. Moreover,

But

is
history

of our
flexibility

separateimages; and accumulation

and

EDITION.

the
composition,
notwithstanding

unbounded

of

FIRST

of
subjects

derives from the power


The

THE

this

hidden

forces of nature,

each treatise scientificelucidations and

PREFACE

the

the

influence

unfailing
moral

with

influence

of

dedicated.

the

and

is

in

me

addressed

of

the

higher
poet's

the

man.

of

life, the
is

boundless

of

ridges
voice,

the

in

peculiarly
especially

stormy

willing steps
the

the

to

surface

Andes.

the

of

To

sentence

"

Auf

den

Steigt

Bergen
nicht

Die

Welt

Wo

der

hinauf

ist

Ereiheit
in

ist

vollkommen

Mensch

nicht

die

Der

reinen

Hauch

Ltifte

der

Griifte

iiberaU,
hinkommt

mit

waves

recesses

Chorus

"

minds

soothing

more

the

from

feelings,
To

of

are

indicate

to

on

nature

pages

with

over

sought

sorrows

"escaping

spirit

IX

nature

these

forests,
the

to

the

or

they,

primeval

Steppe,

have

destinies

the

such

to

follow

contemplation

May

life/'

EDITION.

external

and

cares

the

and

precious;

of

the

FIRST

work

of

dispositions,

oppressed

of

entire

the

Throughout

THE

TO

seiner

QuaL"

the

them

of

the

AUTHOR'S

PREFACE

TO

SECOND

AND

twofold

THE
and

executed

animated

and
description,

insightinto

the

so

doing, I

successful
The

"

Nature)

endeavour

the

augmentation

of

to

enrich

separate parts, and

difficult of

attainment.

"

the

Eirst

obstacles

subjectin

knowledge,

to increase

in

the

action

to the

various

the

by

the
of

interest

mind

with

renders
desired

Edition.

oppose

the

purely
and

In

designed.

manner

to

nearly

me

which

reader's

of different

pointed out by

was

once

of Nature

at the time

literaryand
at

time

same

concurrent

Preface

of the
of

the

(a carefully
prepared

enjoyment

knowledge

to the

treatment

work
the

and

in the

alluded

imagination, and

of the

of

ago

combination

object,

of

state

forces

century

at

the harmonious

and

powers
half

present

to enhance

attempt

proportion to

EDITIONS.

THIRD

of the

aim

THE

scientific

occupy

the

new

ideas

due

arrangement

by

the

unity of composition,

Yet, notwithstanding these

dis-

PREFACE

Xll

TO

THE

SECOND

AND

EDITIONS.

THIRD

the publichave long regarded


advantages,
my imperfectly
with friendly
partiality.
undertaking

executed

second

The

by me
prepared

edition of the

added,
"

"

one

on

the

then

"

Vital

more

Ehodian

Genius"

for
partiality

allow it to be

part of

was

''

in

with

converse

me

on

the considerations in which


and

fibres when

nervous

graver turn to

discourse.

our

written at this time

it

The

appeared

Horen," a periodical
journal
; and it was

this littlework

which

encouragedme

reprinted.My brother,in

collection which

public(Wilhelmvon
Th. ii.S.

During

different substances,
often
chemically

and
specific

firstin Schiller's
his

Power," bearingthe

the recollection of his

to

the muscular

engagedon

excited by contact with


gave

the Structure

Lebenskraft,oder der rhodische Genius."

subjects
physiological
^ and
was

was

time two

same

Essay on

an

youthfulmedical studies,loved

"

and at the

in
long stay at Jena, Schiller,

my

der Natur"

of Yolcanoes in different regions


of the

of Action

earth ; and the other


title

Ansichten

in Paris in 1826

fresh treatiseswere
and mode

"

has

Humboldt's

at the

same

forming

been given to
recently

on
39),touches tenderly

but adds
question,

letter

Briefe
the

an

eine

very

the

Preundin,

of the
subject

time

to

memoir

justremark

PREFACE

"

THE

TO

SECOND

developmentof

The

the entire treatise;


would

is the

objectof

fonder at that time than

were

men

be of such

now

idea
physiological

Xlll

EDITIONS.

THIRD

AND

of
clothing
semi-poetic

they

scientific

severe

truths."

In

eightieth
year,

my

satisfaction of

stillenabled

am

a
completing

third edition of my

afresh to meet
it entirely

Annotations
and

have

been

either

might tend

the

of
requirements

scientific Elucidations

inspireand

to

have

hoped

cherish

in
study of Nature,by bringingtogether
results of careful observation

by showingthe importanceof
to

use

be made

comparison;
and

of them
and

The

are

on

the most

exact

command

Asia

that these

small space the


varied

numerical

subjects
;

data,and the

by well-considered arrangementand

prevailed

highercircles of society.

made
expedition

to Northern

or

by opposingthe dogmatichalf-knowledge

called the

myself,
by the

the

love for the

which have longtoo much


arrogantscepticism

in what

moulding
work, re-

or
enlarged
replaced
by new

comprehensiveones.

more

volumes

all the

Almost

present time.

enjoythe

to

by Ehrenberg,Gustav
of the

(inthe

Rose, and

Emperor of Kussia,in 1829,

Ural and Altai

mountains,and

on

PREFACE

"IV

TO

the shores of the


of the
publication

THfi

views in all that


the direction of

on

the

which
the

the
mountain-chains,

around

the

course

of the

the

and

Chinese

the

connection

of

earth,

steppes

distribution
geographical

of any accurate

knowledge

Himalaya(t.e.

and
Kuen-liin),

have
authorities,

ture.
tempera-

mountain-chains

the Altai and the

Central

my

the

thrown

ill-judged

greatobscurity

Asia, and

have

allowed

be substituted for the results of observation

which

have obtained extensive circulation.

of the last few

months

summits
culminating

the

of the two

continents has almost

which I hasten to avail myself.(Vol.


i.pp.

The determinations

of the

eastern chain of the Andes

heightsof
of

been freed from

those mountains

and

mountains

two

errors

of
additions,

57-58,and92-93.)

Bolivia,the
the

In the

comparison
hypsometrical

received important
corrections
unexpectedly

have
Illimani,

tion
expedi-

of
enlargement

great snow-covered

geography of

to
imagination

in works

the

other,and

situated between

Thian-schan

periodof

form of the surface of the

want
longsubsisting

neglectof

the

to
materially

regardsthe

of
subject
are

the

relation to ascertained conditions of

in
plants
The

EDITIONS.

second and third editions. This

and deserts with each


of

THIRD

AND

CaspianSea),falls between

contributed

has

SECOND

Sorata

which

above the Chimborazo,but

had

without

in the
and

the

placed
as

yet

PREFACE

TO

the

altogether restoring

to

pre-eminence

the

In

among

of the

measurement

in altitude

it next

with

recently

XV

certaintyits ancient

summits

snowy

the

Himalaya

the

latter

EDITIONS.

THIRD

AND

SECOND

THE

New

of the

World.

trigonometrical

executed

Kinchinjinga (28178 English feet)places


the

to

Dhawalagiri,a
of which

trigonometricalmeasurement

and

new

also

has

exact

more

been

recently

made.

For
of the

the
"

sake

in

measures

of

the

the

feet.

Observatory

BERLIN,

miles
The

at Paris

1849.

French,
are

previous editions

two

given

(unless

Reaumur's
in which

the

scale.
the

are

first meridian.

degrees

where

toise

geographical, fifteen

longitudes
as

the

I have

work

degrees of

old

The

equator.

Natur,"

present

in

the

are

Parisian

der

otherwise)

with

uniformity

Ansichten

temperature
stated

of

reckoned

of

expressly
The

linear

equals
to

six

degree

from

the

NOTE

IN

the

translation

Fahrenheit,

the

English

original

desirable

are

the

without

where

In

any

have

been

may

probably

taken

Greenwich

addition

in

simple

improbable.

appear

are

the

of

the

original figures

in

the

manner

feet, generally retaining

original figures
so

same

degrees

by

Parisian

miles,

have

as

to

very

the

substituted

60

render

few

statute

for

in

but

omitted,

"

in

the

of

English

English
The

from

miles

this

version
con-

error

miles"

explanation;

or

miles.

those

The

introduction

the

from

time

toises,

or

degree,

instances

author

original statement

are

same

important.

to

epithet

the

feet

usually been

farther

signify

is

accuracy

measures

at

French

or

in

given

are

time

same

the

geographical

being
very

at the

statements

in

TRANSLATOR.

temperatures

In

precaution

given

case

the

scale.

in

THE

retaining

Reaumur's

given

BY

sources,

longitudes

these

and

from

Paris, retaining in

particular

cases.

CONTENTS.

MM

AUTHOR'S

PREFACE

TO

THE

EDITION

FIRST

vii
.

AUTHOR'S

PREFACE

TO

THE

SECOND

THIRD

AND

EDITIONS

xi
.

NOTE

BY

TRANSLATOR

THE

xvii
.

STEPPES

DESERTS

AND

1
.

Annotations

Additions

and

27
.....

CATARACTS

OF

ORINOCO

THE

207
.

Annotations

NOCTURNAL

and

LIFE

.-

Additions

233

ANIMALS

OF

IN

THE

PRIMEVAL

FOREST

257
.

and

Annotations

Additions

273
.

HYPSOMETRIC

For

.277

ADDENDA

General

Summary

of

the

CONTENTS

of

the

First

Volume,

ASPECTS

DIFFERENT

NATURE

OF

LANDS

AND

STEPPES

DIFFERENT

AND

CLIMATES.

DESERTS.

extended and

interminable plain
stretches
apparently
from the southern base of the lofty
which,in
granitic
crest,
the youthof our planet,
when the Caribbean gulfwas formed,
braved the invasion of the waters.
On quitting
the mountain
of Caraccas,
and the island-studded lake of
valleys
Tacarigua
(l)whose surface reflectsthe stems of plantains
and bananas,and on leaving
behind him meads adorned
with the bright
and tender green of the Tahitian sugar cane
A

or

WIDELY

the darker verdure

of the Cacao

lookingsouthward,sees

groves, the

unroll before him

traveller,

Steppes
receding

until theyvanish in the far horizon.


Eresh from the richestluxuriance of
at

once

hillnor

the desolate

cliffrises,
like an

of
uniformity
VOL.

margin of

I.

he
life,
organic

treelessdesert.

treads

Neither

island in the ocean, to break the

the boundless

plain
; only here
B

and

there

broken

strata of

Banks"

limestone,several hundred

sensibly
higher than

extent, appear
"

DESERTS.

AND

STEPPES

(2)is the

givento

name

of the

those

globe,when

Steppesthemselves

were

adjoining
parts.
by the natives ; as
ancient condition

more

elevations

the bottom

the

them

recalled the
if languageinstinctively

of

square miles in

shoals,and

were
a

the

greatMediterranean

sea.

Even

at the

presenttime

these

images of

mind

with

the

nocturnal
When

illusion stillrecalls

the

and
rapidly
rising
constellations illumine the margin of the plain,
descending
when
their tremblingimage is repeatedin the lower
or
to see
before us a
stratum of undulating
seem
vapour, we
shoreless ocean.
(3) Like the ocean, the Steppe fillsthe
the

past.

of infinity;
and thought,escaping
feeling

from the visible impressions


of space, rises to
of

higherorder.

mirror of the ocean,

contemplations

Yet the aspectof the clear


with its

transparent

light,
curling,
gentlyfoaming,

sportive
waves, cheers the heart like that of a friend ; but
the Steppelies stretched before us dead and rigid,
like the
stonycrust (4)of a desolated planet.
In every zone
nature presentsthe phenomena of these
physiognomy,
great plains: in each theyhave a peculiar
and by elevation
determined by diversity
of soil,
by climate,
above the level of the
Tn northern

as

Europe,the Heaths,which, covered

with

all others,extend from


plantsrepelling
Jutland to the mouth
of the Scheldt,
may be

singlerace
pointof

sea.

of

true

Steppes, but Steppesof


"

if comparedwith
surface,
hilly

the Llanos

small extent
and

the
garded
re-

and

Pampas of

STEPPES

South America, or
and

of

countless herds of the

granderand

the

made

to

Coppermine river,where

shaggybuffalo

severer

the interior of Africa.

Ocean, it

DESERTS.

with the Prairies of the Missouri

even

Barrens

the

AND

and musk

ox.

aspectcharacterises

the

Like the wide expanse

(5)

range

plainsof

of the Pacific

is

onlyin recent times that attemptshave


explorethem thoroughly.They are partsof

been
a

sea

fruitfulregions
sand,which,stretching
eastward,
separates

of

each other,or

from

like islands ;

the basaltic mountains

Desert,near

of

where

as

temple of

mark

Ammon

ancient

civilisation.

desolate

plains,or

Neither

life;for
vegetable

of

where

dissolve
ascending,

heated

the

site of
bathe

rain

nor

their

developeon

germs

the ruins

the venerable
dew

the

Harudsh, (6)surrounds

rich in date trees,and in which

the Oasis of Siwah


of the

encloses them

these

glowingsurface

columns
and

vapours,

of

an

the

air,every

each
disperse

cloud.
swiftly
vanishing
Where

the Wadi
pours in to
The

Nun

supplythe

and

sea

covered

the east trade wind

of the

Atlantic

Cape Blanco,the

void left

towards
mariner, steering

through a
by

the
approaches

the Desert

with

by

these

of the

the

exceptionof

islands in the

of

sand, some

frequented
by

discovered,and

suddenlydeserted

nomade

Tibbos

the

vicinity

Herds of antelopes

the watered

groups
whose

air

currents.

through these

roam

regions;but,with
recentlybeen

sea

(7)infers
tropics,

swift-footed ostriches

sea

moist

tween
be-

of the Gambia

desert.
widelyextended heat-radiating
and

as

upward

the mouth

weed, when

Ocean,

Oases

of which

verdant

vast

shores

or

have
are

and Tuaricks,(8)the African

STEPPES

Desert

be

must

dwell

the

Moorzouk

"

to

Tafilet to

it is called in the

depends upon
the desert/'
(9)as

the eastern

African

world.

plainsoccupy

an

extent

three
nearly

times

Mediterranean
sea.
neighbouring
in the vicinity
within, and partly
partly
this situation their

on

the eastern

of
plateaux

central

character
peculiar

the
partof the old continent,
in the

geognostic
phenomenon occurs

same

On

temperatezone.

Asia,between the goldmountains

the Altai and the Kuen-lun,

(10)from

or

the Chinese wall to

Celestial mountains,and towards the

beyond the

traditionary

that of the

depends. In

sea

of

Aral,

extend,througha lengthof many thousand miles,the


vast,if not the most elevated,
Steppeson the surface

of the

globe.

thirty
years
the

I have

after my

of them
portion

lake

from

the possi"Bornou; adventurous undertakings,


bility

They are situated


of the tropics
; and

most

Timbuctoo, and

shipof

great as

there

traverse

caravans

the existence of the camel,

These

the

of years,

have

of which

languageof

as

from

distance

long

the

on

unaltered for thousands

remained

The
by man.
its borders onlyventure

By tradingroutes, which
periodically.

it

enter

to

uninhabitable

regardedas

civilisednations who

more

DESERTS.

AND

myselfhad

South

American

namely,the

Calmuck

the

opportunity,
fully

of visiting
a
journey,

tween
KirghisSteppesbe-

Don, the Volga, the Caspian,and the Chinese

beingan
Dsaisang,

extent of almost 2800

geographical

miles.
These
sometimes
over

tnem

Asiatic

Steppes,which

sometimes

hillyand
interrupted
by pine forests,
possess (dispersed
in groups)a far more
varied vegetation
than that
are

and

of the Llanos

STEPPES

AND

Pampas

of Caraccas

adorned

is
tribes,
pastoral

and
Rosacese,

white-blossomed

low

with

Buenos

and

is inhabited

which
plains,

finest partof these

The

DESERTS.

Ayres.
Asiatic

by

of luxuriant

bushes

and
Tulips,
Fritillarias,

with

Cypripedia|t
As the torrid

is characterised

zone

to become
in all vegetation

the

Steppes in

Asiatic

the

on

the whole

by

so
arborescent,

temperate zone

position
disof

some

terised
charac-

are

by the greatheightattained by floweringherbaceous


and Papilionacese
Saussureas and other Synantherse,
plants,
host
a
especially

speciesof Astragalus.In traversing

of

the low

seated
Steppes,the traveller,

these

pathlessportionsof

in

crowded
plants
thickly
bend beneath the wheels,but without rising
up cannot look
around him to see the direction in which he is moving.
Some

Tartar

of the

covered

with

the

sees
carriages,

Asiatic

Steppesare

grassy

succulent,
evergreen,

many

from
glisten

Cover

the

others

plains
;

articulated soda

not
soil,
clayey

:
plants

saltwhich

distance with flakesof exuded

are

to fresh fallen

unlike in appearance

snow.

Mongolianand

These

by

mountainous

civilisationof Thibet
of Northern

Asia.

have

and have
mountains
of

and

on

quently
freSteppes,
interrupted

divide
features,
Hindostan

They have

importantinfluence
They

Tartarian

the

the very

from the rude nations

in various ways

exercised

changefuldestinies

towards
compressedthe population

tended,more
of

than the

Himalaya,or

to

placepermanent limits

to

of

the

an

man.

south,

than the snowy

and Ghorka, to impedethe


Srinagur

and
nations,

ancient

intercourse

the extension

STEPPES

of milder manners,

AND

DESERTS.

and of artisticand intellectual


cultivation

in northern Asia.

But,

in the

of
history

opposingbarrier that
Asia

than

more

whence

and

Usuni,"

the world.

shaken

to

involve

overspreadand

pastoral
race, (ll)of Tukiuish
in
dwelling
Gobi.
tribe

tents of

Long

Europe

from
The

at

Turkish

or

of

course

like the

come

later period,

has threatened

in darkness.

brown

the Hiongnu,
descent,

skins,inhabited the elevated Steppe of

terrible to the Chinese

power,

part of this

The shock

driven back into Central Asia.

was

Central

source

in the

As

direction barbaric rudeness

same

an

"

earlyintellectual culture has


cheering
lightof the sun from the East,so,
the

as

Steppes, Moguls, Getse,Alani,

past ages,

from

alone

distant lands.

spreadover

of these

have

is not

theyhave proved the

devastation has

nations
pastoral

past,it

of
regardthe plains

must

we

once

the

or

pulse
im-

'

thus

given passedfrom

nation

to

the Ural

reached the ancient land of the Finns, near


From
admixtures

thence,Huns, Avari, Ghazar6s, and

of Asiatic races, broke

on
appearedsuccessively

Marne,

and

on

the Po,

the

with

forth from
withered

monument

the

on

forth.

Armies

various
of Huns

fair and

of Antenor, civilised man


after

Mongolian

monument.

deserts

ground
Cisalpine

the

it

tains.
moun-

Yolga, in Pannonia.,on

those
desolating

fieldswhich, since the time


adorned

nation,until

Thus

the

fertile
had
went

deadlyblast,which
tender long-cherished

flower of art.
From

of
the salt Steppes

in
smiling

summer

Asia,from

the

EuropeanHeaths

with their purpleblossoms rich in

honey,

STEPPES

Cochabamba,

and

forth,between

to

were,

the

detached
other.

spurs,

The

area

mountains,send

which

with the

greatthat

so

the isthmus

advance,as

it

plainconnects

narrow

of Buenos

Pampas

latter far surpass the Llanos

their extent is

and

(14)

the forest lands of the Amazons

Ayres.

of

provinceof Chiquitosand

each

meet

DESERTS.

the Brazilian group

some
Villabella,

of

AND

of Venezuela

in

while their northern

marginis bordered by palm trees,their southern extremity


The

resembles

Tuyu, which

these

is peculiar
to
rhea),
of

with ice.

covered
continually

is almost

the

Cassowary(theStruthio

Pampas,which

troopsof dogs(15)descended

are

also the haunt

from those introduced

by the
but which have become
colonists,
wild,dwelling
completely
and often attacking
in subterranean hollows,
with
together
whom
their progenitors
race
blood-thirsty
rage the human
served and defended.
Like the

of
greaterportion

northernmost

of the South

in the torrid

zone:

like
desolate,

the

theyappear

as

of Central Asia.
It is

American

regions,and

the Llanos,are
plains,

half of the year

duringone

(")

compare
to

in the New

the

natural

representby
causes

World

conditions

classed the

of

general
distant

lessen both heat and

which

(18)are

narrowness

of

few traitsthe results of this

manifold,and

understood.
as yet only partially
respects
be

theyare

Lybiansandywaste ; during the other,


resembling
grassy plain,
many of the Steppes

comparison. The

may

Sahara,(16)the

highlyinteresting
though difficulttask

geographyto

ness

the desert of

and

in

Amongst

deep indentation

drysome

these
of the

STEPPES

AND

DESEKTS.

land in the northern part of the torrid zone, where

American

the atmosphere,
on
resting
consequently

presentso heated

not

cooler

temperature
;
"

currents

of cold

coming

from

the coast

and

risinghigh

as

35" south

far north

the west ;

and
springs,

of rivers of

as

the

"

all the

which,
regions,

firststrike
north-east,

whose

Cape Pariiia,
lofty

snow-clad

mits,
sum-

clouds, cause

their declivities;

breadth,
which, after

enormous

the most distant coast ;

beingsandyare

and
latitude,

numerous

of

strata

of cold air to roll down

seek
windings,

from not

the

to

of
parallel

above

currents
descending

many

"

suddenlyto

the abundance

"

coast of Peru

chains rich in

mountain

"

the expanse of ocean


poles
;
acquiringthereby
sweep freely,

the south-west

turn

the extension

the flatness of the eastern coasts ;

of Chili in the

then

base,does
liquid

water from the antarctic

sea-

alongthe

advance

"

the

which the trade-winds

over
a

ascendingcurrent

an

towards

of the continent

Steppeswhich

"

less

of acquiring
a high
susceptible
forests occupying
the alluvial
degreeof heat, impenetrable
beneath the equator,protecting
plainssituated immediately
"

with

their shade

in the interiorof the country


sunbeams,and exhaling

of the
at

the soil beneath from the direct influence

great distance from the mountains

of moisture,partlyimbibed
quantities

vast

elaborated

contrasts
causes

all these circumstances

"

of America

climate which

with
wonderfully

that

we

are

new

by

its

and

ocean

partly

afford to the flatpart

humidityand

that of Africa.

that abundant

coolness

It is to the

to attribute the luxuriant

and
magnificent
forests,
the

and from the

same

the
vegetation,

leafiness by which

continent is peculiarly
characterised.

10

AND

STEPPES

side of

one
If, therefore,

than

this

mantle of
on

of
explanation

geological
myths.

the
planet

our

The physical
needs
inequality.
inquirer

clothe the

to

harmonious

and the western

later than

the other

placeat

that America

island of swamps

an

of
peninsula

of the

situated

and

marshes

from

from

other

checks

area

side of the

the

equator;

moister

globe"(20)to

Africa

breadth of the South American

belongs. The
from

African Desert.

The

Llanos

sea
wind, while
tropical
same

Persia,are

zone

in

sea
our

larger
partof

Steppe,

receive the influence of the

the African Deserts,beingsituated

of latitude

contact

than

or

west, is only a third of that of the

to

east

which the

the

America

of
greaterproportion

is cooler and

causes

Africa that extraordinary

northern half of the

measured

South

the old continent in

Four-fifths of South

southern

the

on

hemispherewhich

in the

emerged

of the
soil,and the relative position

developmentof organiclife.

and

that

assume

differentepochsin the

of land,producein
masses
neighbouring
which over
immense
an
aridity

of the outline and in the direction of the coasts;

but the nature

in

to

not

in

parts of the globe from the chaotic

and the southern

the form

are

phenomena

and serpents.
by alligators
between
is,indeed, a strikingsimilarity

There
America

needs

hemispheres
; or

waterycovering,(19)as
tenanted

He

these

reconciliationof the destructive

conflictof the elements took


eastern

moister atmosphere

the problem
thingsis amply sufficientto explain

presentedby
not

planethas

our

other,the consideration of the present

the

condition of

DESERTS.

as

Arabia

and

with strata of air which

the south of
have blown

STEPPES

of

only latelyappreciatedfather
spiritof

true

tne

7he

continents.
heat-radiating

warm

over

11

DESERTS.

AND

of northern

the Deserts

of the

of

know)

we

exhalingmoisture,and
covered

with

profilefrom

navigatorswhen
detached

As

extends

narrow

the

coast

the
as

The

now

breezes,and

the

is to

which

vapours

tains
moun-

seen

ancient
a

single

eastern

lies in

longatio
prowhere

mouldering

or
forminga long extended coast-chain,

range

Africa

range,

nearly to Dakul,

mistress of the seas,

rampart,the effect of the Atlas


north

(21)

only the

know

we

mount.
loftysky-supporting

Carthage,once

Of

Atlantic,appeared to

chain

as

coolness
producing

loftymountains.

sailingalong

of the

ruins.

of

perpetualsnow,

the

far

as

winds, there is (so

forests

part of the Atlas, (22)whose

western

and

comparative
paucityin

or

largerivers,of widelyextended

and

in

absence

an

even

of sand.

sea

In addition to the action of these hot


as

of Kerman

Greeks),and

Moultan, as forminga singleconnected

far

in

of nature, described

Africa,of Yemen,

(the Gedrosia

Mekran

and

Herodotus,
.history,

enlargedview

an

venerable

Gsetulian

the
intercept
ascend

from

cool
the

Mediterranean.
The

Mountains

of

the

Moon,

Djebel-al-Komr,
(23)

as
represented
forming part of
(fabulously

parallel
extendingfrom
African
to

of

Quito, to the

rise above

Lupata,

Mozambique

sources

the limit of
which
and

the

mountainous

high plateauxof Habesh,


of the

were
Senegal),

perpetualsnow.

extends

along

Monomotapa,

as

the
the

The
eastern

Andes

an

supposed
Cordillera
coast

of

along the

12

STEPPES

western

But

DESEETS.

of Peru, is believed to be covered with perpetual

coast

in the

snow

AND

gold districtsof Machinga and Mocanga.

allthese mountains, with the abundant


far remote

theygiverise,are

the

stretches from

from the immense

southern

to which

waters

of
declivity

Desert which

the

Atlas

the

to

Niger.
Possibly,however, all
which

have

dreadful desert,without

of nature,
"

partsof the African plainsinto

the

Profound

nourished.

have been

well

have been

caused

by

sends the

the banks

of Newfoundland

fruits
tropical

of
despoiled

of the

as

and

West

to reach

great

water

warmer

causes

the

the

the

India

"

directed from

sometimes
west

coast

the Azores

to

gulfover

the shores

of the

cocoa-nuts

and

the

sand-hills.

Africa,which

Other

Peru

between

hot

regionsof

sea

coasts

Amotape

neither Lecideas

and

Norway.

arm

of this

which
south-east,

it strikes at

the

part lined by

recall that of
(I particularly

Coquimbo)

the earth,where
nor

old

other

producesdisasters by carryingshipsupon
of

an

rotatorycurrent"

of Ireland and

coasts

such

it

irruption.
Perhaps

of the Mexican
to

their

plantswhich

There, is stillat least at the present time, an


current

the ocean,

veils the period


of
obscurity

(24)which

continent,and

revolution

some

of
irruption

an

event,and the force which determined


it may

of

concurrence

flat regions
may

as
soil,
coatingof vegetable

dryness.

and

have been insufficient to

may

such,for instance,as

whereby these

of heat

causes

enumerated

considerable

such

transform
a

been

the

rain

other Lichens

never

shew

that in these

falls and

where

centuries
(25)germinate,

of years

perhaps thousands

and

moveable

sand

elapsebefore

may

the roots

afford to

can

33

DESERTS.

AND

STEPPES

of

plantsa

the

secure

holdingplace.
considerations

These

of form, Africa
similarity

external

an

marked

presentso

climate and

to

vegetation.But

to

covered

with

such

at

South

America

althoughthe

thin

coatingof

South

mould

or

with

seasons

luxuriantly

could attract the surrounding

sproutingherbage,yet it never
nations

and

bathed by rains,
althoughit is periodically

fertileearth,and
becomes

explainwhy, with

difference of character both in respect

Steppeis covered

Amepican

and

sufficient to

are

tribes to forsake the beautiful mountain

or

valleysof Caraccas,the margin of the sea, or the wooded


ness
wilderbanks of the Orinoco,for the treeless and springless
;

and thus, previousto the arrival of

the
African settlers,
human

the

Hardly any

inhabitants
original

The

American

has
latitude),

race

and the

one

not

of cattle,
rearing

of the New

tribes have

advantageswhich

Esquimaux,is

South

suited to the

milk (26)
was
yielding

of the American

of the

respect.

indeed,well

of animals

care

to the

the

almost

Steppe was

inhabitants.

The Llanos are,


but

Europeanand
devoid of
entirely

nature

ever

passedfrom

availed themselves

the

in this

of
exception

from 65" North

to

and

life.
pastoral
the Musk

Canada

and

Ox)
the

Two

kinds of native cattle

feed in the northern

plainsof

55"

the state of hunters to

that of cultivators of the soil throughthe intermediate


of

known
un-

Continent.

offered them

(which,with
same

almost

(the Buffalo

of
prairies

arctic America, in

stage

western

and
Quivira,

14

STEPPES

around

AND

DESERTS.

the colossal ruins of the Aztec

in the

like
wilderness,

banks

of the Gila. The

abounds

American

an

fortresswhich
the

Palmyra,on

long-horned
Rocky Mountain

the aridlimestone rocks of California.The

on

and Lamas, belongto South


Huanacos, Alpacas,
but the two

firstnamed

Buffalo and

the Musk

freedom

cheese,like

the

Ox,

have

remained

retained

years, and

and
possession

(27)has

grasses,

solitary
Sheep

Yicunas,
America

of all these useful animals,i. e.} the

thousand

for two

rises

the

their natural
of milk and

use

cultivation of farinaceous

characteristicof
distinguishing

the nations of the old world.


If

of the latter have crossed from

some

the west

coast of

to
America, and if,keepingby preference

regions,
theyhave
(28)

the cooler mountain


the Andes

ridgeof

have taken

by

towards the

placeby ways

When

corn.

followed the

lofty
must
south, their migration

in which

their flocks and

cultivation of

northern Asia to

theycould

herds, or
the

not be

bringwith

panied
accom-

them

the

longshaken empireof
the movement

the

of this

Hiongnu fell,
may

we

powerfultribe may

also have occasioned in the north-east of

China

and in Corea

that
conjecture

shock and

caused civilizedAsiatics to pass


If such

migrationhad

the

not

hitherto been

comparisonof languages)would

absence
striking
of

into the

over

those

sometimes

Asiatic

colonies
priestly
embark

in

have

continent?

new

of the

this hazardous
pursued,
but

littlefavoured

at least

of the Cereals in America.

impelledto

may

consisted of inhabitants

was
Steppesin which agriculture

(whichhas
hypothesis

impulsewhich

an

whom

by
explainthe

one
Possibly

mystic dreams

long voyages, (of which

16

STEPPES

tree

AND

widelycelebrated ;

are

Orinoco

it alone,
from the mouth

nation of the Guaranis.


were

more

did

theysupporttheir huts
which

but

cords and

suspendedfrom
when

season,

covered
make

with

Guaranis

from

is

purposes,

the river to be

"

and

rainy
trees

is partly
cottages
which

the flames

the

their

women

at
appearing

suspendedhigh in

of
preservation

the

in the

to live in the
overflowed,

on
coatingof damp clay,

still owe

palm trees

the leaf-stalks of the

floor of these raised

firesfor household

night from

not only
contiguity,

stem, enabled them

to

stem

The
a

people

interwoven
mats, which, skilfully

the Delta

like the apes.

subdued
un-

scaffolding
formingthe floor,

theyalso,it is said,twined

Mauritia

this

the cut trunks of

on

rested

When

(31)

and lived in closer

numerous

on
pillars

as

of the

of the Sierra de Imataca, feeds the

north

to

DESERTS.

air.

The

and
physical,

to the half-submerged,
perhapsalso their moral,independence,

marshy,soil over
step,and

which

they move

to their elevated

likelyto

never

enthusiasm

by an

in
dwellings

be chosen

at

that

stem

lightand rapid
a

motives

religious

"

(32)
Stylites.
not merelya secure

but also various kinds of 'food.

palm

from

the trees,

American

affords to the Guaranis

male

with

Before

But

of

tion
habita-

the Mauritia

dwelling-place,

the flower of the

throughits tender sheath,and only


the pithof the
metamorphosis,
vegetable

tree breaks

periodof

of the tree contains

like the farina of the


like slices. The

meal

resembling
sago, which,

root,is dried
jatropha

fermented

palm wine
intoxicating

juiceof the

of the Guaranis.

in thin bread-

tree forms the sweet

The

scalyfruits,

which resemble in their appearance reddish fir cones,

afford,

STEPPES

AND

17

DESERTS.

jH

like the

and
plaintain

almost

all

fruits,a
tropical

ferent
dif-

kind of nutriment,according
as
their saccharine substance
earlieror

is

farinaceous state.

more

after

theyare eaten
in
or
fullydeveloped,

their

in the lowest

Thus

stage

of man's intellectual development,


find the existence of
we
entire

an

peoplebound
lives

the insect which

up with that of
on
exclusively

tree ;
single

like

singlepart of

flower.
particular
Since the
have become

of
discovery
habitable to

have been built here and

towns
streams

which flow

of cattle has

of reeds tied

with skins,are

placedat

other;numberless

estimated at the
and

roam
half,

of these
Old

there

on

the coasts,

the banks of the


The

all parts of these vast

over

formed
Eluts,

each

country and

throughthe Steppes.
(33)

began

Llanos

In order to facilitate
communication

men.

the Orinoco

between

the
Continent,

the New

regions.

with thongsand
together

distances of

herds of oxen,

epochof
peaceful

covered

da/s journeyfrom
and mules,
horses,

journeyat

my

rearing

million

Steppe.The immense multiplication


from the
animals,originally
broughtby man
the

over

is
Continent,

the

more

remarkable

from the number

dangerswith which theyhave to contend.


When, under the vertical rays of the never-clouded
the carbonized

fallsinto dust,the
turfycovering

soil cracks asunder


If at such times two

as

if from

the shock

opposingcurrents

of

an

of

sun,

indurated

earthquake.

of air,
whose conflict

in contact with the soil,


a rotatory
motion,come
produces
the plainassumes
a
aspect. Like
strangeand singular
clouds (34) the pointsof which descend
conical-shaped
VOL.

i.

18

to

STEPPES

the

in the

AND

earth, the sand

DESERTS.

rises

through

chargedcentre
electrically

the
resembling

loud

mariner.

loweringsky

coloured

The

suddenlynearer

sheds

the

the heart of the wanderer.


fillthe air increase its
the

wind, blowingover

the

to

The

hot

experienced

dim, almost

plain. The

Steppeseems

rarified air

whirlingcurrent;

waterspoutdreaded by

the desolate

lighton

of the

the

straw-

horizon

draws

contract,and with it
which
dustyparticles

heat,(35) and the east


suffocating
long-heated
soil,bringswith it no

refreshment,but rather

still more

The

burningglow.

poolswhich the yellowfadingbranches of the fan palm had


from evaporation
now
protected
gradually
disappear.As in
the

icynorth

under

the animals become

the influence of the

and the boa become


in the

drymud.

torpidwith cold,so here,

the
parchingdrought,

crocodile

motionless and fallasleep,


buried
deeply

Everywhere

the

and yet,by the playof


prevails,

death-threatening
drought

the refracted rays of

light

the phenomenon of the mirage,


the thirsty
traveller
producing
is every where pursuedby the illusive image of a cool

rippling
watery mirror. (36) The
raised by the influence
hovers above
narrow

the

ground, from

margin.
intervening

clouds of dust,restlesswith
the horses and
and

cattle

the horses

roam

of

contact

which

Half

the

not

the

it is

around, the

up

by

cattle

their

parentl
ap-

of

equally
un-

air,

separated
by a

thirst and

moister current

whollydried

bush

strata of

concealed

painof

out
stretching

the wind, if haplya


snuffing
of
neighbourhood

palm

dense
unequally

and therefore

heated

distant

the dark

hunger,

mally,
lowing dis-

long necks
may

pool.

and

the
betray
More

saga-

STEPPES

cunning,the

cious and

his
alleviating

thirst.

(37)conceals

cactus

AND

DESERTS.

male

seeks

The

and

then ventures

and

drink

juice. But

the

resort

of the

day is

one

plant

vegetable
sees

many

the cactus.

followed

in these latitudes is

bats suck

or
duringtheir sleep,

the

this

to

then the horses and

Enormous

enjoyrepose.

his fore feet,

of
by the prickles

night,which

even
length,

same

with

alwayswithout danger,and

burning heat

coolness of the

of

melonspherical

aside
prickles

animals that have been lamed


the

and

warilyto approachhis lipsto

the cool

fountain is not

When

different mode

under its prickly


a waterypith.
envelope

first strikes the

The mule

ribbed

19

by the

alwaysof

cattle cannot

their blood

like

attach themselves to their

pires
vam-

backs,

wounds, in which musquitoes,


hippobosces,
causingfestering
and

host of

animals
the

lead

fierce

moisture.
season

niche
insects,
stinging
a

painfullifeduring the

glow
At

themselves.

after
length,

the

of the rain arrives;and

deprivedof

the
longdrought,
then

how

the

when, under

season

the soil is

of the sun,

Thus

its

welcome

suddenlyis

the

changed! (38) The deep blue of the hitherto perpetually


cloudless sky becomes
lighter
; at night the dark
space in the constellation of the Southern Cross is hardly
distinguishable
lightof the Magel; the soft phosphorescent
scene

lanic clouds

fades away

Ophiucus in

the zenith shine with

even

the stars
a

in

Aquila and

tremblingand

less

planetary
light.A singlecloud appears in the south,like
from the horizon.
a distant mountain,rising
perpendicularly
the
Graduallythe increasing
vapours spreadlike mist over
sky,and

now

the distant thunder ushers in the

life-restori

20

STEPPES

rain.

Hardly

has

AND

DESERTS.

the surface of the

moisture,before
refreshing
exhale sweet

beginsto

the

earth received the

barren Steppe
previously

odours, and

clothe itself with

to

the many panicules


of the Paspalum,and
Kyllingias,
of grasses.

The

herbaceous

to the influence of

mimosas,with

unfold
light,

sun
greetthe rising

leaves to

birds,and

the

openingblossoms

salute the

morning.

and

and

tall

the

arid

the
measuringcarefully

as the
cat-like,
springs,

safe

his

on
tiger,

slowlyin

kind of mound

the outbreak of
cast

high into

meaning of
forth

from

The

clayis

the moistened

this

beholder

The

for
flies,
spectacle

water-snake
gigantic

torpidstate (39)by
rivers which

nature

or

brood

bound

the

wnich

stand

retire with

margin of

blister and

violent

rise

noise,like

with
acquainted

plainto

the

there will issue

vast

on

the

inland
the

and

in the first

dry and dusty

portionof

their foals to

like islands above

south, the

swollen
gradually

thirst

the

animals,who

same

panted with

presents the aspect of


inares

the

awakened
scalycrocodile,

life.
to adopt an amphibious
soil,
now

concealment,

the firstfallof rain.

constrains the

half olfthe year

hides the

passing
prey.

he knows

Arauca, Apure,and Payara,become


now

in

graze

volcano,the heaped-upearth is

small mud

the air.

then with

to

seen

oi

singlebound,

on
Sometimes, (so the Aborigines
relate),

the swamps

now

springinggrass

distance of

Asiatic

earlysong

plants,
jointo

cattle

who lurking
in
beautifully
spottedjaguar,

bility
sensi-

bering
droopingslum-

of the water

-The horses

full enjoymentof life. The

renewed

their

variety

sea.

the

Steppe

(40)

The

higherbanks,

the surface of

the lake.

STEPPES

Everyday the

feed

thingto
the

the marks

see

legsof

of the

the horses

the

many

and

stroke of their

by a

It is not

pointedteeth

and

tops of

drowned,

devoured.

tails,and

in search

of the

the crocodiles,
killed

powerfulnotched

the

The

seethingsurface

foals are

Many

water.

surprised
by

the

smaller.

for hours

on
sparingly

above
flowering
grasses rising

are

about

swim
together,

of other pasture,and

dark-coloured

21

DESERTS.

remainingdry becomes

space

animals,crowded

AND

rare

of these monsters

cattle who

have

narrowly
escapedfrom their blood-thirsty
jaws. Such a sightreminds
the thoughtful
of the capability
of
observer involuntarily
on

the most varied circumstances,


with which the

conformingto

of Nature

Author
all-providing
and plants.
The

followed
India

and

ox

man

the

Peak

of Teneriffe.

date

palm.

Europe,has

The

to encounter

exposedin

other

in

sun

plateau
of the

ploughreposes,
country by the

one

birch,and

in another

which, in
species

same

the River

to

the summit

wearied from the

ox

of the northern

shadow
quivering

Ganges

higherthan

the noontide

sheltered from

the

The

is

globe,from

shore to the mountain

sea

Antisana, (41)which

of

the

from
Siberia,

the African

have
cerealia,

farinaceous

surface of the

the whole

to Northern

Plate, from

is

horse,like the

over

certain animals

has endowed

by

the east of

the attacks of bears and wolves,

regionsto

assaults of

the

and
tigers

crocodiles.
But

the crocodile and

of the South
enemy

among

American
fishes.

jaguarare
horses ;
The

not

the

theyhave

marshy

onlyassailants

also

waters

dangerous

of Bera

and

22

STEPPES

Rastro
at

AND

filledwith numberless

(42)are

send
pleasure

length,and

animals
largest
in

once

obligedto

be

partof their

gymnotiare

from five to

their nervous
theydischarge

kill the
organs

the shocks

throughthe Steppewas

changed,because
in

small

drowned

were

stream

from

or
theyreceived,

anglingfrom

the shock

gymnotihad

that in

at

from

to him

electric fire
regions,

breaks

many

other fishes

the fisherman

damp

distance.

forth from

increased to

the effects of

fright.All

fears lest the

formerly

it
crossing

formidable eels. Even

high bank

the

the

every year, either from

of these
flythe vicinity

convey

any

-enough to
powerful

are

from Uritucu

numbers

horses

when

These

can

favourable direction.

The route

such

electriceels,
which

from
powerfuldischarge

bodies.
slimyyellowspotted
six feet in

DESERTS.

line should

Thus, in these

the bosom

of the

waters.

The
Mules

spectacle.
captureof the gymnotiaffords a picturesque
horses

and

surrounded

by Indians,

disturbance
One

sees

driven into

are

induce

them

are

others,with
terror

closely

noise

by the

and

their eyes,

the

the furyof
Gradually

the

which

tryto flyfrom

Indians, armed
back

have

Many

force of the invisible blows ;

standingon end, foamingand

manes

in
sparkling

clouds

unwonted

is

the belliesof the horses.

bamboo, drive them

Like

which

pugnaciousfish to beginan attack.


and trying
swimming about like serpents,

stunned

tempest. But

until the

marsh

the

cunninglyto glideunder
of these

with

into the middle

with wild
the

raging

long poles of
of the

unequalstrife beginsto

pool.

slacken.

the
dischargedtheir electricity,

24

STEPPES

Caucasian features.

AND

On

DESEKTS.

the south of the

Soudan, live hordes of negroes in many


civilization. In Central
Siberian barbarism

from

the

American

South

ancient

commercial

neat
cities,

in

noble

and

there.

To

the

their

the south

the

graniterocks (46)narrow

foaming rivers.
of the

Mountains

and

with the

and

the bank
some

and
mucus

secure

round

Massive

the bed

forests resound
the

roar

of

the

with the

of the

tiger-like

is left dryby the shallow current,the


open

often covered

his body marked


serpent,

his tailwound

the humid

melancholyrain-announcing
howlings

crocodiles lie,with
unwieldly
and

been

(4?)

sand-bank

rock

long

the Amazons.

waters,with
falling

of the bearded apes.

boa

find

Steppeterminates

fastnesses
impenetrable

leaden-coloured

piecesof

we

Forests,the growth of thousands

the Orinoco

sea,

cultivated
carefully

between
regions

Where

north,between

the Caribbean

and
villages,

Towards

of years, fillwith

and
jaguar,

boundaryof

the

desire of civil freedom, have

savage wilderness.

thunder

the

the love of art and scientificculture,


together

fields. Even

awakened

civilisation of

Steppesform

of Venezuela

the mountains

the

stagesof

Asia,the MongolianSteppedivides

partial
European cultivation. (45)

with

different

India.

of
peninsula
The

towards
Senegal,

jaws,as
with

motionless

birds.

as

(48) The

coiled up,
chess-board,
the branch of a tree, lies lurkingon
like

of his prey ; he marks

the young

bull

or

fee'blerinhabitant of the forest as it fords the stream,


seizes the victim,and covering
it with
swiftly
uncoiling
down
forces it laboriously

his

throat. (49)
swelling

AND

STEPPES

the midst of this

In

grand and

isolated from

tribes of men,

25

DESERTS.

live many

savage

nature

each other

by the

of their languages
: some
diversity

nary
extraordi-

nomadic, wholly

are

and

with agriculture,
and using ants,gums;
unacquainted
earth
a

food

as

kind of outcasts

ritares and
milder

the Otomacs

(50); these,as

manners,

humanity: others,like

from

Macos,
and

and Jarures,seem

ace

Maqui-

and
intelligent

settled,more
fruits which

live on

the

theyhave

of

selves
them-

reared.

Large spaces

the

between

and
Cassiquiare

onlyinhabited by the tapirand

are

whollydestitute of
rocks
of

(51)shew

degree of

some

witness to the

even

the social apes, and

these deserts

intellectual cultivation.

destinies
changeful

But
and

as

in the

so
cattle,

most

of man,

class
imperishable

and
Steppetigers

in the forests on

of Guiana, man

once

were

flexiblelanguages
developed
; which
the oldest and

Atabapo

beings. Figuresgraven

human

that

the

on

do

th^

the seat

They

as

are

the

bear
equally
un-

latterbelongto
of historic

morials.
me-

crocodiles fight
with horses
its borders,in the wildernesses

is ever

armed

againstman.

Some

tribes drink with unnatural thirst the blood of their enemies


others

"

and yetprepared
for murder (52)
apparently
weaponless

kill with

poisonedthumb-nail.

The

weaker

hordes,when

they have to pass alongthe sandy margin of the rivers,


efface with their hands the traces of their timid
carefully
Thus man
in the lowest stageof almost animal
footsteps.
of our
rudeness,as well as amidst the apparentbrilliancy
highercultivation,
prepares

for

himself

and

his fellow

26

STEPPES

toil

increased

men

the

over

wide

inquirer
where

globe

the
of

in

which
ancient

are

and

for

life

of

well

as

past

wandering
the

as

historic

finds

ages,

of

spectacle

meditative

ever

operating

in

the

glowed

inborn
in

contemplation
in

pursuing

unchanging

gladly

caln\,

and

to

has

unreconciled

vegetation,

powers

years

the

intellectual

obedient

of

.upwards

of

traveller

saddening

amidst

who,

and

or,

thousands

land,

records

the

silent

forces

The

every
at

man

man.

seeks

nations,

and

sea

and

therefore,

He,

DESERTS.

danger.

by

uniform

with

variance

nature

and

searching
the

ANJ3

course.

the
the

discord

turns

hidden

human

on

undisturbed

those

template
con-

ties
activi-

sanctuaries

impulse

the

to

of

which

breast,
celestial

harmony

of
for

gazes

orbs,
their

ANNOTATIONS

AND

ANNOTATIONS

(*) p.
In

of

Venezuela

or

interior of South

chain

traveller

running in

treeless Steppesor

and

east

an

the foot of the above-named

range which

of the

Parime, runs

from

the Cataracts to Dutch

mass

of mountains

and

the Eio

Negro

their waters flow.

have

Those

geographyof

date 1775,

the

in

formed
who

these

an

Trench

chain of
the
lastly

Maypure.

direction
easterly
Guiana.

It is

on

is

and
parallel
ridges,

the south

the river of the Amazons


the channels

desire

fuller

regionswill do

in which

acquaintance

well to consult

great map of La Cruz-Olmedilla,bearing

(fromwhich almost all the

South America

and

It is bordered

forest plain,
throughwhich

and compare

Orinoco,and

divided into many

the site of the fabled Dorado.

with the

(thecoast

mountains,to which I have given the

of

of the Sierra

by the

vast

stretch from

occasions the Cataracts of Atures

This latter range


name

next
direction,

west

mountains

the left bank

to
Caraccas)

boundary

latitude to the

which
(losLlanos),

Plains

America

elevated mountain-

first an

crosses

the

shore towards

from the 10th degreeof North


Brazil,

Equator,the

and

of Tacarigua."

Lake

The

proceedingthrough the

from the Caraccas

ADDITIONS.

AND

1.""

27

ADDITIONS.

have been

more

formed,)and the

recent

map

maps

of

of Columbia

28

STEPPES

constructed
of

by me

Tom

my

AND

DESERTS.

own

astronomical determinations

and published
in 1825.
geographical
positions,
The coast chain of Venezuela,geographically
considered,

is a

partof the chain of the Andes

the Andes
the

divides

1" 55' and 2" 20'


of which

Magdalena,south

of

in

the

These mountains

de lasRosas into the


connects

Popayan,(between

snow-covered

sink down

land
hilly

The

rampartfrom Porto Cabello

heighthardly
equals750

the Paramo

the Cordilleras

with

chain forms

to the

an

Avila),decked

the American

Eose

Englishfeet above
Firma

toises or

west, formed
hoUowed

Englishfeet;

4795

and New

toises or

The

sea.

West

8630

coast of Terra

recognise
everywhere
Indian

east to

Islands,and

tonguesof
gulf.The projecting

and especially
the coast
Chuparipari,

of Cu-

offera remarkable spectacle


to the
Barcelona,
Islands
precipitous

of

Chimanas,riselike towers from the


the terriblepressure of the ^waters

chain when
the

1350

greatcurrent which,sweepingfrom

out the Caribbean

geologist.The
to

the level of the

(alsocalled

Befaria
purple-flowering

Alps,rise

the
by disruption

land of Arajaand

and

of the

the

bears traces of devastation. "We

the action of the

mana

with

unbroken

promontoryof Paria. Its

yet singlesummits, like the Silla de Caracas


Cerro de

of

Tocuyo,which

of Quibor and

coast

easternmost

mountains

towards

the coast chain of Venezuela

Cundinamarca.

mean

at
junction

into three chains,


the
latitude),

terminates

Merida.

of

chain of

The

at the greatmountain
itself,

of the

sources

of Peru.

it was

broken

Boracha, Caracas,

sea, and bear witness

againstthe

mountain

by their irruption.Perhaps,like

the Antillean gulfwas


Mediterranean,

once

an

inland

ANNOTATIONS

sea,

north.

the

the

Cape

Mountains

greaterthan

Point

the

of the

where

situated

was

The

Copper
Cuba

Santiagode

near

their elevation is probably


of Jamaica, (1138

My

Ocean,

were
continents,

Cumana,

exceeds

the

on
conjectures

the

somewhat

Pass.

Atlantic

written in

memoir

bounded

nearlythe

Morant.

which
Englishfeet,)

of
valley-form

Tableau

and

the St. Gothard

connection

chain

that of the Blue Mountains

toises,7277

Tiburon

nants
rem-

that
conjecture

may

of this Antillean

yetbeen measured,but

heightof

the

that

other most
we

(Montaiiasde Cobre)

have not

in

found ; and

are

highestpart

between

is remarkable

approacheach

these three islands

highestsummits

It

The

ocean.

of mica slate which

mountains
lofty

to

sea

with the

Cuba, Hayti,and Jamaica,stillcontain

of the
this

29

ADDITIONS.

suddenlyconnected

which became

islands of

AND

and

the ancient

on

entitled

detail

in

given more

Fragment

d'un

de
Geologiquede FArneriqueMeridionale (Journal

Messidor,An. IX.) It is worthyof remark, that


Physique,
Columbus
called attention
himself,in his Official Reports,
to

the connection

Antilles.
p.

the

and

current

between
form

of

the

direction of the

the

coast

de
(Examen critique

equatorial

line of the

1'hist.de la

larger

Geographic,

104-108.)
The

northern and most

Caraccas

is

country of

divided like the Swiss

cultivated
mountains.

Alps into

the

The

of
province

coast

chain is

several subordinate chains

enclosing
longitudinal
valleys.The
is the

partof

most

pleasant
valleyof Aragua,which

quantityof indigo,sugar, cotton, and,

celebrated of these

producesa great
what

is most

re-

30

AND

STEPPES

DESERTS.

The

markable,Europeanwheat.
beautiful

valleyadjoinsthe
Indian

lake of

is Tacarigua. The

name

southern

margin of

Valencia,whose

contrast

between

resemblance
givesit a striking

shores

less

Guiripahave
Alps; but,

grandeurof

the other

on

character than

thicklyclothed

of

Guigue and
the

bank
hand, the opposite

is

Tacarigualake, which

of

old

its opposite

the Lake

to

It is true that the bare mountains

Geneva.

this

with

Savoy
of the

plantains,

far surpasses in picturesque


mimosas, and triplaris,
beauty
the

vineyardsof

the

de Yaud.

Pays

miles
thirtygeographical

in

which, as the loss of


islands,
the influx,
are
have
the

in
increasing

even

become

Solanum

is cultivated which

and
islands,

has edible

has described in the Hortus

Wildenow

some

banks
years sandhave

received

Newly Appeared,"Las ApaCura the remarkable


speciesof

On

the

Within

"

recidas.

Tab.

the island of

exceeds
by evaporation

water

real

of the

name
significant

is full of small

length,and

size.

lake is about

The

and which
fruit,

Berolinensis

(1816,

xxvii.) The heightof the Lake of Tacariguaabove


sea

is almost

1400

230
exactly

measurement

French

to my
feet,(according
less
1470 Englishfeet,)
or
toises,

has several kinds of fish

of Caraccas.
The lake
valley
(seemy Observations de Zoologie

et d'Anatomic

T. ii p.

than the

the most

part of

heightof

mean

comparee,

the

179-181), and is

one

of

natural scenes
which I know
in any
pleasing
the globe. In bathing,
Bonpland and myselfwere

often alarmed

by the

appearance

three
crocodile-likelizard,

aspect,but

harmless

to

or

of the Bava, an

undescribed

four feet in

of repulsive
length,

We

in the lake

men.

found

32

AND

STEPPES

the wood

of the orange tree

thicker arid

placealmost

of the
sugar in

Europe would

native
same

the

time

same

against
any

It

was

ment
commence-

when
Pacific,

In
degeneration.

such

hundred

weightof

of
important
production

from

removed

become

hitherto
Experience

cane.

Cuba

has

the islands of the Pacific is only

Pacific.

The

Peruvian

travels in Peru and Chili,


the Tahitian

from

In

inhabitants of Easter

the
was

and
Society,
Friendly,

green, thick-stalked sugar-cane

Besides

the Cana

reddish African
in the West
of the

common

making rum.

de

unknown

Otaheiti and

Indies

its

de

cane,
sugarwater.

the light
Islands,

alwaysthe

called Cana
variety,

only

Island,who suffer much

Sandwich
is

are

periodof

of the
of fresh water, drink the juice
deficiency
also sea
and (avery remarkable physiological
fact)

the

for

cane

is

coast

and yet,at
twenty-five
days'sail from Tahiti,

The

cided
de-

It is singular
that

sugar.

farthest from

there.

the

Tahitian sugar-cane

partsof the Spanishcolonies which

my

its

caballeria

cultivated in those
the

on

importantquestion,

an

with
33 Englishacres)planted
(nearly

this

the

as

and
graduallydegenerate

common

produces870

an

of
Domingo, the prices
risen stillhigherthan theydid,

have

of the

cane

the

is

cane

in St.

war

trade.

soil,would

as

of the Tahitian

of the ruinous effects of those troubles

and
agriculture
whether

the
boiling,)

the introduction of this planthad

at the

bloodynegro

in consequence

is used for sugar

woody stalk

more

important
advantage.If
not taken

DESERTS.

one

the Cana

cultivated.
a
Criolla,

Guinea,is cultivated

than
juiceis less in quantity

that

Asiatic cane, but is said to be better suited

ANNOTATIONS

provinceof

In the

ANb

33

ADDITIONS.

Caraccas the dark shade of the

cacao

with the lightgreen of the


contrasts beautifully
plantations
Few tropical
trees have such thick
Tahitian sugar cane.
the Theobroma

as
foliage

It loves hot and

cacao.

humid

of atmosphere
of soiland insalubrity
:
valleys
greatfertility
from
inseparable

are

in Asia ; and

it has

each other in South America


been remarked

even

that

as

as

well

as

increasing

cultivation lessens the extent of the forests,


and renders the
soil and
less

climate less

nourishing.For

in
diminishing

humid, the
these

number

these

reasons

and

become
plantations

cacao

in the

extent

and increasing
in the
Caraccas,
rapidly
of New
the

moist

Barcelona

are
plantations

provinceof
eastern

more

vinces
pro-

in
Cumana, and particularly

and

woody districtbetween

Cariaco

and

the Golfo

Triste.

(2)p. 2.

"

""

'

Banks3

is the

to this

The

Llanos

name

given by

the natives

phenomenon"

of Caraccas

are

occupiedby

great and

widelyextended formation of congiomerateof an early


from the vallies of Aragua, and
period. In descending
the most
southern ridgeof the coast chain
over
crossing
finds
of Guigue and Villa de Cura towards Parapara,
one
successively,
gneissand mica slate ; a probablysilurian
and
formation of clayslate and black limestone ;
serpentine
close
and,lastly,
masses
greenstonein detached spheroidal
;
to the margin of the greatplain,
small hills of augitic
slate. These hills between
amygdaloidand porphyritic
on
Paraparaand Ortiz appear to me like volcanic eruptions
"

"

"

VOL.

I.

34

STEPPES

AND

DESERTS.

the ancient sea-shore of the Llanos.


celebrated

the

are

Morros
a

Farther

to the north

cavernous
grotesque-shaped

de San Juan ;

they form

kind

rocks

of

rampart,have

crystalline
grainlike upheaveddolomite,and

be

regardedas partsof
I term

islands.

to

it were

as

to the

sea

east

coast between

the

coast chain of Caraccas

beat

the
against

supposedto

the Sierra de la

and

of Merida and

mountains

Cottian

and

miles from

being 15
and 45
the

the sea, is
toises

toises

form

ties."

square

them

any

isolated

even

or

(192 Englishfeet)
;

no

the Llanos

partof

to be

foot

an

in the Mesa

it
palm-trees,

that of

Milan,in

area

the

of

more

higherthan

imagineto

that of Pavia,

globereminds
tumore
parvo plainis so perfect
that in

partof

"

in addition to this,we

bushes,and

strike

Alps and Apennines.

expression,curvata

miles appears

all

the

between

of
horizontally

of
portions

many

toises

(96 Engb'shfeet)less than

of the surface -of this

The

beat

is also directed from

(288 Englishfeet)less than

of Claudian's

one

The

Alps).

Llanos

barely30

plainsof Lombardy

The

Pamplona; (asitis

heightat Calabozo,400 geographical

Their

east.

to

the

Parime, and

of Lombardy,and
plains

Pennine

inclination of the American


west

doubt
scarcely

can

the whole basin between

have overflowed the

againstthe

eastern

we
Essequibo,

overflowed

once

consider

current sweepingfrom
equatorial

of the Orinoco and the

that the

we

as

their form
presentsea level,

west, and the lowness of the

mouth

rather to

gulfthan

for when
gulf,

their small elevation above the


open

are

the shore of the ancient

the Llanos

of

than 480

the rest.

If,

ourselves the absence of

de Pavones

will afford

some

the absence of
idea of the

ANNOTATIONS

aspectof
singular
eye can reach,it
of the

strata

hardlyrest

can

and
atmosphere,

render
refraction,

the horizon

altitudes
undulating,
from

sextant

horizon at
bottom

the

makes

As

far

as

a
singleobject

the consequent

the
few

changesof

indeterminate
continually

plainas

well

as

of the
greathorizontality
more

and

be taken with the

might

the

"banks"

the

on

sun

margin of

This

sea.

of the

plain.

that the state of the lowest

not

were

35

ADDITIONS.

this sea-like desert

If it

high.

inches

AND

from the

former

sea

striking.They

are

broken strata which rise abruptly


from two to three feet above
the

surroundingrock, and

of from

Steppestake

passingthroughthe

from

the

Rio

of the banks

surroundingrock, we
from 3 to 4 toises

and

the

west,near

of
junction

strata
solitary

of dense forest sank down

in 1790, and

lake

formed

was

diameter.
(1918 Englishfeet)

The

of

de
in

Partner

Orinoco,

an
Alcantara,

earthquake

an

than 300

more

tall trees

Hymenseas,and Malpighias)
longretained

the

of gypsum

the Caura with the

to the east of the mission of S. Pedro

extensive tract

of earthquakes.

standinghigher than

Englishfeet)lower.

25

small

return

our

frequenttraces

found here

(19 to

The

on
of.Barcelona,

found

length

these banks.

their rise on

Llanos

Negro, we

Instead

to the

over
uniformly

miles.
Englishgeographical

to 48

of the

streams

In

40

extend

toises

(Desmanthus,

their

and
foliage

verdure under the water.

(3)p.
The
when

2.

"

"We

seem

to

see

beforeus

shoreless ocean"

prospectof the distant Steppeis stillmore


the

spectatorhas

been

longaccustomed

striking,

in the dense

36

STEPPES

forests both

to

aspect of

rich and

on

the

stars
rising

sun

the effectsof

throughthe

of the Rio
The

mountain

"

the

Tsy.

"

The

the

Ulangom

also found

Orinoco,surrounded

Hist.
(Relation
tabular

rock

t. ii.p.

'

banks

of Africa

of rock

by

279).

luxuriant

the most
In

the middle

the

called

are

plainsof

vegetation

of these flat
thousand

some

and

from the

in the forest-covered

of all vegetation
save

few

feet

tributed
disscantily

find small islands of soil,covered with

alwaysflowering
plantswhich
of littlegardens.The monks

regardthese

of the

peculiarand

Malakha-Oola

and

denuded
diameter,

low and

of air

Mongoliaand
separates

of
and syenite
granite

lichens,
we

form
both

of

masses

light

stony crust."

naked

Schamo, which

are

continue

unequaldensity,to

part of China, these

They

the

current, and
ascending

of flat bare

chains of

north-west

just set

hemisphere
; and

characteristic features in the Deserts


the

had

sun

night.

tracts

In

Apure, we

"

"

Asia.

Capuchino,

plainby the vertical rays of


variations of refraction,
occasioned by

(4)-p. 2.
Immense

del

the

of air of

entire

the Hato

the mouth

rise like

of
radiation,

of strata

to the

return

our

on

refracted in the lowest stratum

was

the

causes

contact

I received

Steppe.

heatingof

excessive

The
the

distant

Steppeappearedto

of the

view,and

effacea
highly luxuriant vegetation.In-

to
opposite

againthe

firstsaw.

restricted field of

very

Upper Orinoco,when, from

mountain

DESERTS.

which
impression

is the
from the

AND

bare and

givethem
of the

the appearance

UpperOrinoco

level surfaces of rock,when


perfectly

ANNOTATIONS

AND

of considerable extent, as

they are

peculiarly
apt

fevers and other illnesses. Several


been deserted

removed

or

opinion,which

such

merelyto

(5)p.

2.

The

"
"

The

in

respectsby
excellent

and

by
especially

more

placein

North

America,

entertained

ing
respect-

have been rectified

the adventurous

journey of Major

forward

nature

South

of

America

the

his

companionEdwin

as

as

James,

observations
comprehensive

of

all other recent accounts,

These, and

work

New

on

Spain,

the subject
of
on
conjecture,

well

as

in

north.

the

historical

In

the

inquiries,

until by laborious investigation


long remain isolated,

theyare broughtinto
The

east coast

connection with each other.

of the United

States of North

from south-west to north-east,


in the

that followed in the southern


coast from

ranges of mountains

the eastern

same

hemisphereby

the river Plate to Olinda.

two

from

the atmosphere,

on

Missouri"

ridgesand plainsto

of
description

runs

of the

clear light
what,in my

only put

mountain

facts

Pampas

of
writings

CaptainFremont.

the

and

part of

Long, the

I could

action

chemical

and geognostical
views
physical

many

now

or

the effectof increased radiation ?

Llanos

the western

of this

influence of these flatrocks

an

the Prairies

and

cause

widely diffused. Supposing the

laxas to be attributed to
or

to

have
missionary
villages

elsewhere in consequence

is very

opinioncorrect,is

37

ADDITIONS.

coast; they are

In

exist at
more

America

direction

the Brazilian

the two
a

as

spheres
hemi-

short distance

to
nearlyparallel

38

STEPPES

each

other than

AND

theyare

DESERTS.

to the

chain,called
westerly

more

in South

America

the Cordilleras of Peru

in North

America

the

direction from

uniform

height.

are

Itambe) do

not

(5755Englishfeet).

nearest to the

SSW.

Parecis hills

The

of which

to

NNE.

the
rise
The

follow
Atlantic,
more

to

the

but diminishes considerably


broader,

becomes

west the group

in

toises

900

which
easterly
ridges,

most
a

heightof

and

Chili,and

The Brazilian

isolated group,

an

(theItacolumi

highestsummits
above the

Mountains.

Rocky

systemof mountains forms

and

approachthe

rivers Itenes

of Aguapehi (to the


and the mountains
Guapore*,
south of Yillabella)
approachthe loftyAndes of Cochaand

bamba

and Santa Cruz de la Sierra.

There is

connection between

"

which
Peru, for the low provinceof Chiquitos,
"

longitudinal
valley
running from
into the

plainsboth

Brazil
Plate,separates

rise
imperceptible
forms the

the

of

the

the east from

19"
(lat.

the

between

the Rio

where

and

of the river

the Alto Peru

terra

there

are

on

often almost

and
incognita,

only detached

the

Pilcomayoand
Guapore,and

Topayos.

The

Chayantaand

swell of
Poma-

the

20"),traverses

of the
which,since the expulsion

almost

south,and opening

the

Aguapehi and

to the south-east from


"

is

in Slavonian,
ground (called,
Uwaly)

Paraguayand

groundruns

bamba

of the Amazons

water-line
separating

Madeira,between

between

on

north to

Here, as in Poland and Russia,an

the west.

the

the eastern and

chains, the Brazilian mountains,and the Cordilleras

western

of

immediate

no

of Chiquitos,
province
has againbecome
Jesuits,

forms, to the north-east,


mountains, the "divortia

40

STEPPES

of the 17th

AND

DESERTS.

degreeof latitude and

the celebrated isthmus

of

the mountains,quitting
the coast of
Tehuantepec,
and following
direct northerly
a
more
Pacific,
course,
an

inland Cordillera.

Mountains"

de
(Sierra
chain.

Mountain

las

Here

In North

Mexico,the

Grullas)form partof

to
rise,

come
be-

Crane

"

the

the

Rocky

the west, the Columbia

and

the Bio Colorado of California ; and,to the east,the Eio Eoxo


the Candian,the Arkansas,and
Natchitoches,

de
or

shallow

a
river,

transformed
Between
40"

the

into

which

name

that of

has

river Plate.
silver-promising

summits
13')rise three lofty
hornblende

much

Peak,

James's

Peak.

or

(Seemy
edit. t. i.

2me

peaksexceeds
North

Pike's

Essai

(fromN.

(formedof

ppi82

Peak,

and

and

109.)

The

Spanish
Long's

or

Espagne,

elevation of these
of the Andes

the

18th

and

of

19th

from the group of Orizaba and


toises

2717
(respectively
17720

or

17374

Englishfeet,)to

the limits of

Popocatepetl
Englishfeet,

Santa Fe and

perpetualsnow.

James

Peak, in lat. 38" 40',is supposedto be 1798

toises,
or

11497

never

reach

containing
granite

la Nouvelle

that of any of the summits

toises or

Horn

Big

Mexico, which, indeed, from

and 2771

lat. 37" 20' to

littlemica),called

and

sur
Politique

of latitude,
or
parallels

Taos,

been ignorautly
latterly

of these rivers

sources

the Platte

Englishfeet ;

but of this elevation

(8537 Englishfeet)has
the

been

or
remaining463 toises,

in the absence
uncertain

estimations

of

of the

measurement
trigonometrical

measured

only] 335

toises

trigonometrically

pendent,
being deEnglishfeet,
barometrical observations,
on
2960

of
declivity
can

hardlyever

streams.

As

be undertaken

ANNOTATIONS

the level of the

from

AND

41

ADDITIONS.

of inaccessible

measurements

sea,

be partly
and partly
generally
trigonometrical,

heightsmust
barometrical.

Estimations

of the fall of

rivers,of their

and of the lengthof their course, are so deceptive,


rapidity
at the foot of the Rocky Mountains,nearest to
that the plain
to the
the summits above spokenof,was
estimated,
previous
of Capt.Fremont, sometimes at 8000,
importantexpedition
vol. ii.
at 3000
feet. (Long'sExpedition,
and sometimes
pp. 36, 362, 382,

App. p. xxxvii.)It

from

was

similar

of barometrical measurements
that the true elevation
deficiency
of the Himalayacontinued so longuncertain : but now
the

which

resources

belong to

increased in India

have

Gerard, when

Shipke,at

an

on

the

the

such

to

near
Tarhigang,

elevation of 19411

cultivation of science

degree,that Captain
the

north
Sutlej,

after breaking
Englishfeet,

correct
barometers,had stillfour equally

three

Researches
(Critical

on

of

ones

ing.
remain-

and Geography,
Philology

1824, p. 144.)
which
Fremont, in the expedition
1842

"

1844

found
States,

measured

group

in the years

of the
by order of the Government
the highest
summit of the whole chain

RockyMountains to the north


Long's,and Laramie Peaks.
he

he made

United
of the

north-west of Spanish,
James's,
This snowy

summit, of which

barometrically,
belongsto the
mountains.
It bears on the large

the elevation

of the Wind

River

by Colonel Abert,Chief of the Topographical


Office at Washington,the name
of Fremont's
Peak, and is
situated in 43" 10' lat. and
110"
13' W.
long,from
north of SpanishPeak.
Its height,
Greenwich,almost 5|-"
map,

edited

42

STEPPES

by direct measurement,
feet.

This

would

AND

DESEETS.

is 12730

make

French,or

Fremont's

2072

Englishfeet)higherthan

Long

to James's

The

referred to.

either
the

Wind

ExploringExpeditionto

year 1842, and. to

Oregon and
"

1843-44, p. 70,) says,


mountain

lakes,and

the

river,where

the

Columbia, or

called Snake

Eiver

the adventurous
Peak
me,

visited

the

Louis.

at
Pacific,

the northwest,

the summits

called

of the Missouri

source

that of the head water of the


of that branch

source

of

the

Peru,theyhad

great distance

insects
wingedlepidopterous

fall on

of it

To the astonishment

been

more

by

elevated

carried thither

of air.
from

of

top of Fremont's

but in much

involuntarily
by ascendingcurrents
in the

To

like the butterfliesseen


perhaps,

snow
perpetual

the Andes

the Wind

of the Missouri which

Lewis- Fork."

California to the

of the Yellowstone

sources

travellers,
theyfound

by bees

also among

regionsin

or

side,countless

one

of the Eio Colorado which

the true

itselfis situated,
not far from
or

on

perpetual
snow,

the Trois Tetons,where

in the

California in the years

saw,

at St.
Mississippi

with

Official Reportof

Bocky Mountains

branches
principal

covered
rise,

Oregon

(inhis

North

above

the divortia

the deepvalley
of
side,

situated the

are

of the

unites with

sources

the other

Pacific; and,on

We

position,

flowingtowards

through the gulf of

carries its waters

one
river,

the waters

the

its

form

(or

assignedby

in the map

Eiver mountains

CaptainFremont

ocean.

toises

324

the elevation

Pike's Peak

division between

or

aquarum,

Peak

Peak, which, accordingto

appears to be identical with

English

13568

the

the deck

I have

seen

coast,large
of the

ship,

ANNOTATIONS

AND

doubt, been

having,no

43

ADDITIONS.

carried far out

to

by

sea

land

winds.
Fremont's

investigations
geographical
comprehend
regionfrom the junctionof the Kanzas river

the extensive
with the

and

map

Missouri,to the fallsof the Columbia

missions of Santa Barbara


New

or
California;

and

and

of 28

space

from the 34th to the 45th

hundred

with

been

pointshave

barometric

Four

hypsometrically
by
most
cally
part,geographi-

of the Kanzas

to

miles

has
Tobolsk),

been

heightsabove

more

the level of

the form
in geognostic
profile,
represent,

countries,such
"

as

Mexico, and the Cordilleras of South

founded

Chappe, were
pleasureto

see

the

solid

on
applied

In

Mountains

of
portions
so

America, (thesemithe Abbe


traveller,

and

method
graphical

form of the earth in

grand a

the middle

of entire

ill-judged
generally
it has givenme
peculiar
rivers),"
mere

on

estimations of the fallof

Siberian

took
under-

the highlandsof
peninsula,

the Iberian

of
projections
perspective

than

represented

the first person who


believe,

As I was, I

sea.

to

to Eort Vancouver

(almost720

relative

shewingthe
profile,

map.

latitude.

of
parallel

by astronomical observations ; so that a districtwhich,


the windingsof the route, amounts
to 3600
phical
geogra-

the distance from Madrid

the

Angeles in

degreesof longitude,

observations,
and, for the

and the shores of the Pacific

the

de los

to the

determined

from the mouth


miles,

in

Pueblo

and

of

the
representing

the elevation of
vertical direction,
or
our

planetabove

scale

as

has been

its watery covering,


done

latitudes of 37" to

present, besides the

higher

in Fremont'

43", the Rocky


snowy

summits

44

STEPPES

with
comparable
of
plains

the Peak

of the earth,and
and west direction
the group

there

with elsewhere
as

mountains,which

the

on

extensive in

that of the Mexican

face
sur-

east

an

plateaux.Prom

commences

littleto

the

to

similar elevation may

A
whole

Mountains

space

from

proper

and

This space,
the lake of
a

as

elevation,
lofty

beyond the Wahsatch mountains,


is an
uninterrupted
swellingof the ground from
to 7400
English feet above the level of the

sea.

the

of Teneriffe in

almost twice

of Fort Laramie

west

5300

of

DESERTS,

hardlymet

extent

an

AND

34"
the

traveller well

45"

to

between

occupy

the

Californian snowy

kind of broad
has
Titiaca,

be said to

even

Rocky

coast chain.

like that
longitudinal
valley

been

of

called,
by Joseph "Walker,

with
acquainted

these western

and
regions,

by CaptainFremont, The Great Basin/' It is a terra


of at least 128000
incognita
square miles in extent,arid,
and full of
almost entirely
without human
inhabitants,
is 4200
salt lakes, the largestof which
Englishfeet
"

above

the level of the


lake of Utah.

narrow

Expedition,
pp.

154

sea,

the Utah

in 1776,
journeying,

Montereyin
Salt
name

my

New

from

of the

waters

map

Laguna
of Mexico

discussion

"

Rock

River/'

del Nuevo

Santa Fe

Mexico

discovered Fremont's
California,

de
;
on

the

in
language. Father Escalante,

Lake/' and, confoundinglake


of

with

(Fremont,Eeportof the Exploring


The last-mentioned
and 273"276.)

lake receives the abundant

Timpan Ogo, in

is connected

and

Timpanogo.
and this has
the assumed

and
As

to

Great

"

river, gave

it the

such I inserted it in

given rise

to

much

non-existence of

critical
un-

great

ANNOTATIONS

AND

inland salt lake in North


raised

by the

America,
American

Tanner.
geographer,

(Humboldt,Atlas Mexicain,planche2
la Nouvelle

Espagne,T.

questionpreviously

"

well-informed

45

ADDITIONS.

Essai

sur
Politique

i. p. 231, T. ii.pp. 243, 313, and

Fremont, Upper California,


1848, p. 9 ; and, also,
Duflot de Mofras, Exploration
de FOregon, 1844, T. ii.
420 ;

Gallatin says

p? 40.)

AboriginalRaces
p. 140,

in the

General

"

Timpanogo

nearlyas

had been

the

on

Americana, vol.
Archseologia

Ashleyand

the lake

the Memoir

in
expressly,

in the

Mr.

assignedto

have found

J. S. Smith
latitude and

same

ii.

longitude
Atlas

it in Humboldt's

of

Mexico."
I have
in the

dwelt

regionof

by its elevation
but

the remarkable

on

the

the

ground

Rocky Mountains, because,doubtless,

extent,it exercises an influence hitherto

and

littleconsidered,
the climate of the whole continent
on

of North

America,

continuous
with

ice every

social state and


North

America.

of
separation

to

the

night in

the month

progress

of the

Althoughthe

the waters

the

tensive
ex-

covered

August.

Nor

is

great United

States of

elevation of the line of the

6576
6865

of the passes of

of
Englishfeet),

the

and
Englishfeet),

of

(7476 French,or 7969 Englishfeet),


yet

to offer no obstacle to the use


as
gradual,
between
of all kinds in the communication
carriages

the ascent
of wheel

of

In

the waters

nearlyequalsthat

(6440 French,or

the St. Bernard

saw

east.

regionless importantas respectsthe

Simplon (6170 French, or

St. Gothard

and

south

Fremont
plateau,

the elevation of this

the

of
swelling

is

so

the basins of the Missouri

and the

Oregon;

in other words,

46

AND

STEPPES

between

the

states

Europe, and

the Atlantic

on

Astoria

to

The

the

Columbia, is, accordingto


of Lisbon

distance
From

the

of
gentleness

leads from
the

the

the Missouri

to

branch

Lewis

Pork

which

the

five to

Ural

Port

the situation of the

coast

of the

7490

Englishfeet;

Park

immigrantscall

the

Astronomical

tridentata

109"
longitude

has

called
already

24' W.

Eiver

greatSt.

South

the

Prench,or
480

Bernard.

Pass."

(Pre-

It is situated in

gneissrock

of Artemisia,
species
larly
particu-

asters,and
(Nuttall),

determinations

the

Wind

the mica slate and

found covered with many

easy

and
Mississipi

Eeport,pp. 3, 60, 70, 100, 129).

Artemisia

been

only450 Prench, or

this point"the

which

of

9760

even

not

of the

than the Pass of the

in
pleasantdistrict,

are

therefore

tht.

upwards

elevation of 7027

an

on

culminatingpoint,or

It is south

at
Pacific,

English,feet lower
mont's

from

Old

at

the

on

camping placesof

were

mountains, nearlymidway between

The

Port Hall

"

aquarum."

longitude,

Laramie,

Eiver,to

measured

thousand, and

determine

of the

Katharinenburg.
which
highplateau

near

it has
10,403 Englishfeet)
;

Prench, or

from

California and to the basin of

of the Platte

heightwas

and

one-sixth less than the

of the Columbia, all the

seven

"divortia

difference of

Eiver and

"

Oregon

the mouth

the ascent of the

Oregon, (fromthe

northern

to

from

opposite

distance
itinerary

about

miles,or
geographical

2200

the

on

Pacific at

the

on

Board

Sea

settlements

new

oppositeChina.

Columbia
Boston

the

DESERTS.

givethe

latitude 42"

from Greenwich.

attention to the

cactuses.

24',and

AdolphErman

circumstance

that the

48

STEPPES

Coast

Chain, where

settlements

Central

Malte
not

give the

to

Brun

readingon

(the river

an

Oregon. (Seemy
T. ii.p.
The
the

Essai

old

Spanishmap,
the

which, where

rocks

Chain,form

''

of this

situated,"

is

ignorathe

of

name

Nouvelle

Espagne,

comprisesthe
Mount

Hood,

14540

French

breaks

the 44th

California from

6.)

p.

this Coast

Jefferson,

of Mount

English feet

15500

journeyof eightmonths',

rise more

above

duration which

Range, far

p. 274, "we

had

Rocky

elevation of 7027
of the Maritime
more

1170feet

by the

Mountains

Alps,which

1247E.)

in his

peaks alwaysin view;

(7490 E.) feet,but

than 2000

"

are

we

During

made

was

Alps,"says CaptainFremont,

than

the level of

Chain,or

the Maritime

snowy

upon

This northern continuation

St. Helen's,which

heightof

the

the 47th

Memoir
(Fremont,Geographical

and Mount
or

to

that of the Rocky Mountains.


exceeds,therefore,

surmounted

through

de

three colossal summits

The

sea.

the Columbia

the continuation of the

1848,
Upper California,

ranges,

it is

the Cataracts,
mark

latitude.

degreeof

And

"

source

Columbia)

ia

with

geographer,M.

eminent

sur
politique

the

314).

Sierra Nevada

the

is connected

name

the word

more

either to

an

called the

now

Oregon

ignora)where

se

in
thoughthe recognised

he

of
This

of

the "*,Yaiahmutti

and

therefore it is the

name

singularmistake

yet known, (y aun

river"

Vancouver

the Coast Chain.

or

most

Tort

DESERTS.

situated,and

are

desirable not

AND

along
Report,
we

had

South

Pass at

found

the passes

an

divided into several parallel

feet higher/'therefore,
onlyabout

belowthe

summit

of Etna.

It is extremely

ANNOTATIONS

reminds

and
remarkable,
and

eastern

which
range),

of the difference between the

us

nearest

that
Chili,

the

to

St. Helen's

almost

and
constantly,

Mount

St. Helen's

the

on

sent

forth

it is onlythe

(the Californian

sea

has stillactive volcanoes.

Regnierand

of

49

ADDITIONS.

Cordillerasof

western

of mountains

chain

AND

The conical mountains

are

to emit smoke

seen

of November

23rd

1843,
which

quantityof ashes

covered the banks of the Columbia

for forty
miles like snow.

the volcanic Coast

Eange also belong,(in Russian


America in the high north),
Mount
St. Elias (1980 toises
high,accordingto La Perouse,and 2792 toises,
according
and Mount Fail
to Malaspina
(12660 and 17850 E. feet),
To

Weather, (Cerrode
E.

feet

Buen

stillactive volcanoes.

importantalike

Fremont's

collected volcanic

products,such

and
trachyte,

in
obsidian,

found

signsof

no

emittingat
with such
of

"

volcanoes

times lava

the
activity

smokinghills;"

years
VOL.

ashes.

almost

"cotes

I.

little to

the

W.)

28

We

are

brulees,"or

east

of

but there

is to

say,

not to confound

"
"terrains ardens,

and by natives
Englishsettlers,
M. Nicollet,
accurate observer,
says,

the

and
periodically,

together.No

basalt,

Rocky Mountains, and

still active,that

of low conical hillsare

ranges

smoke

or

be

stillimperfectly
explained
phenomenon

theyare called by
French.
An
speaking
as

"

the

extinct volcanic crater

supposedto

scoriaceous

as

43" 2', long.112"


Hall, (lat.

Fort
are

an

are

14732

(whichwas
expedition,
and geological
results),

for its botanical

even

or
toises,

2304

these mountains

Both

high.

Tempo)

flames

are
E

covered with

often for two


seen."

This

thick black
or

three

phenomenon

50

STEPPES

AND

DESERTS.

in the districtof the


shews itselfprincipally
and stillnearer
where
tains,

Watpa, or

UpperMissouri,
of the EockyMoun
declivity

to the eastern

river bears the native

the

river of the

"

smoking

such
pseudo-volcanic
products,
are

found

in the

the

of
expedition

that
prevalent
banks.
with

of
vicinity
Lewis

the Missouri

Professor

pumice.

this appearance, which

formation, to

and
pyrites,

to

was

reaction

hills."

Since

become

opinionhas

an

depositsreal pumice on

Ducatel

beds

of

ascribe

disposedto

was

observed
principally

on

its

have been confounded

masses

of
decomposition

"

Scoriacous

porcelain
jasper,

"smoking

Clark

and

earth."

kind of

the

cellular whitish

Fine

as

of Mankizitah-

name

water

in the chalk

by sulphuric

lignite."(Compare

Keport,p. 164, 184, 187, 193, and 299, with


Nicollet'sIllustration of the Hydrographical
Basin of the

Fremont's

River,1843,
Upper Mississipi
these
If,in concluding

physical
geographyof
our

p.

generalconsiderations

few

North

America,we

attention to the spaces which

coast

chains from

contrast,on

the

the central

hand,

one

of above

five

the

intervenes between

west

or

chain,we

two

the

Alps which

turn

diverging

find,in striking

the arid uninhabited


feet

the

on

more

once

the
separate

six thousand

Californian Maritime

39-41.)

plateau

which
elevation,

central chain

and

skirt the Pacific ; and

in
the
on

Eocky Mountains, between them and


(thehighestsummits of which, Mount
Alleghanies,

the eastern side of the


the

Washington and
6240

and

5066

Mount

Marcy, are, accordingto Lyell,

French,or

above the level of the

6652

and

5400

Englishfeet

the vast,well-watered,
and
sea,)

fertile

ANNOTATIONS

low

basin of the

plainor

The

conformation
hypsometric

plainsof Lombardy.

of this eastern

partsabove the

sea,

i. e.
region,

too

earlydeath.

His

240

excellent map

of elevation.

basin of the

to the

Mexico

riqueT. iii.p.
the United

The

is one
Mississipi

that

plain,so

of the

Upper

in the years 1836-1840, is based

determined latitudes,
and
astronomically

measurements

nomer,
astro-

science has been deprivedby

largeand

constructed
Mississipi,

the

has been elucidated

Trench
by the valuable labours of the highly-talented
of whom
Nicollet,

which

feet above the level of the sea,

about twice the elevation of the

altitude of itsseveral

51

ADDITIONS.

the greaterpartof
Mississipi,

French

to 600

is from 400
or

AND

on

170 barometric

plainwhich

contains the

with the Northern

Canadian

low

regionextends from the Gulf of


Arctic Sea.
(Compare my Relation Histo284, and Nicollet's Reportto the Senate of
one

1843,
States,

p. 7 and

57.) Where

and where, between 47"


undulating,
hills (coteauxdes

and
prairies,

nomenclature
un-English
ranges, these ranges

and

divide the waters which

and 48" of

coteaux

of the

the

des

low
latitude,

bois,in

the still

in connected

occur
natives)

of
gentleswellings
flow towards

plainis

the

ground

Hudson's

Bay from
Such a dividing
line
those which seek the Gulf of Mexico.
is formed north of Lake Superior
by the MissabayHeights,
Hauteurs
and more
des Terres,"in
to the west by the
"

which

were

in 1832, the true


firstdiscovered,

one
Mississipi,

of
highest

of the

these ranges

rivers
largest

of the

sources

in the

of hills hardlyattains

world.
an

The

elevation

English)feet.

From

of

1400

St.

of the MisLouis,a littleto the south of the junction

to

1500

(1492

to

1599

52

AND

STEPPES

souri and

mouth

of the latter river at

Balize,it has onlya fall of 357

distance of
itinerary

an

miles

to the
Mississipi,

the

Old French
feet in

DESEUTS.

surface of Lake

The

than 1280

more

geographical

Superioris 580 (618 English)

feet above the level of the sea, and


Island is 742

(380 English)

its depthnear

Magdalen

(791 English)feet;its bottom, therefore,

feet below the surface of the


(173 English)

is 162

(Nicollet,
p. 99, 125,

and

ocean.

128.)

himself from Major Long'sexpedition


Beltrami,who separated
in 1825, boasted of
the
its

in
Mississipi
course

13' and
source

Allen

Lake Cass.

The

The

was

source

Lake

of

partof
Cass is

(inlat. 47"

first recognised
true
as the

of Schoolcraft and
in the expedition
Mississipi
1832.
This afterwards mighty river is only 17

of the
in

and

inches

15

deep

Lake
singular
horse-shoe-shaped
scientificexpedition
of

of the

received
Hauteur

by the

of

the

of Istaca from the

the

not until the


a

clear knowledge
definite by

heightof

remotest

the

affluent

dividingridgeor

deTerre,"is 1575 (1680 English)feet above the

level of the

sea.

the southern

slopeof

in which

of Istaca. It was

positions.The

viz.
Mississipi,
Lake

it issues from

obtained and rendered

determined
astronomically
sources

when

in 1836, that
Nicollet,

of the localitieswas

In the immediate
the

and
vicinity,

indeed

on

is Elbow Lake,
dividing
ridge,
River of the North, which after

same

the smaller Red

windingsflows
mountains
Carpathian
many

which

uppermost is the Istaca Lake

long.95" 0'),and

feet wide

"

the

river in the upper

throughfour lakes,of

passes

the second.

havingdiscovered

into Hudson's

Bay, has

The
its origin.

presentsimilar circumstances in the

ANNOTATIONS

and
proximity

AND

relative

send their waters

which

the Baltic.

53

ADDITIONS.

of
positions

the

to the
respectively

of rivers

sources

Black

Sea and to

Twenty small lakes,formingnarrow

the south and


Nicollet the
adversaries

of

names

as

Istaca,have received from M.

of Lake

west

well

groups to

distinguished
Europeanastronomers,
friends.

as

The

becomes

thus

map

kind of

album, remindingone of the botanical


geographical
of Euiz and Pavon's Mora Peruviana,in which the

album

of

names

new

Calendar,and

of

genera

adaptedto

plantswere

to the various

the Court

changestaking placein

the

Oficialesde la Secretaria.
To

dense
Mississipi

the east of the

prevail
; but
in which

of the river there

to the west

the buffalo

forests stillpartially

onlyPrairies,

are

and
(Bos americanus),

feed
(Bosmoschatus),

in

(the largestof the

New

largeherds.
World)

the musk

Both

these
the

serve

ox

animals,

wandering

the ApachesLlaneros and the ApachesLipanos,


for
Indians,
The

food.

to

seven

Assiniboins

sometimes

bisons in what

eighthundred

parks,"artificialenclosures
driven.
Nord-

Prinz
(Maximilian,

into which
zu

by

no

means

Continent ;
elk
even,
common

are

few

days from

called

(Cervusalces)and
in the human

the reindeer

race,

to the northern

bison,

much-prizeddainty,

the Aurochs

other kinds

althoughsome

are

Cibolo,which is frequently

of
variety

mere

bison

"

the wild herds

America,Bd. i. 1839, S. 443.) The American

killedmerely
for the sake of the tongue a
is

Wied, Eeise in das innere

called by the Mexicans


buffalo,

or

kill in

of the Old

of animals,as

the

and
(Cervustarandus),

the short-statured

polarman,

are

evidencing
partsof both continents,

54

AND

STEPPES

their former
call the
horned

continued

long

European ox

DESERTS.

connection.

in the Aztec

The

dialect "

a horn.
animal,from quaquahuitl,

horns of cattle found

quaquahue,"a

Some

in the ancient Mexican

bison
with the

of Mexico,
city

to the musk ox.


belonged
tamed to agricultural
labour.

to have

me

be

can

but
European cattle,

it was

large

very

not
buildings

far from Cuernavaca,to the south-west of the


appear to

Mexicans

The

dian
Cana-

It breeds

longuncertain whether

who, before he
hybridwas fruitful. Albert Gallatin,
had
appearedin Europe as a distinguished
diplomatist,
obtained by personal
cultivated
inspection
greatknowledgeof the un-

the

partsof the United


breed

mixed

the north-western counties of

not

but sometimes

breed

littlemilk.

Yirginia
; and

but

The

"

were

with the
for

cattle were

were
complaints

favourite food

an

Trifolium

undescribed

made

the cows,

repens, and

long time

that

clover

designated
by

of
the
I do

"

Europeancows."
of this

theygave

of the bison

of
species

some

the

beingtamed,
caughtby dogs,and

buffalo grass
Tripsacumdactyloides
(called
and

in

"

bison

the grown

and driven out

Monongahelaall the

mixed

ago

bison calves

young

broughtup

At

fifty
years

that

like all others.""


mixture,propagated

remember/' he adds,

were

us

quitecommon

was

issue of that

assures
States,

or

very

buffalo is

in North

lina),
Caro-

nearlyallied to

Barton

as

Trifolium

bisonicum.
I have
note
to

de

called attention
already

elsewhere

(Cosmos,vol. ii.

455, Englished.)to the circumstance that,according


statement

las

of the

Indias,cap.

General
Gomara, (Historia
trustworthy
214) there was still livingin the six-

56

STEPPES

From

on

intersected Tierra del

and

the

by

of Researches

Historyof

the west the

loftiestchain

on

our

in the direction of

contains
schists

same

of subterranean

into the

and

fire,

Geology and

Beagle,p. 266),

by

to the North

"

Sea,the Cordilleras extend in lengthmore

miles.
geographical

deeply

the Countries visited in 1832-1836

ShipsAdventure

Polar

on

Fuego,which

metamorphic action

(Darwin'sJournal
Natural

in the

"

the east silurian schists and

altered

the

DESERTS.

cliffsof Diego Ramirez,


granitic

the

indented

AND

than 8000

They are the longestthough not the


planet; beingraisedfrom a cleftrunning
meridian from

poleto pole,and

ing
exceed-

in linear distance the interval which in the Old

nent
Conti-

the Pillars of Hercules from the Icy Cape of


separates
the Tchuktches

in the north-east of Asia.

divide into several

chains,it
parallel

ranges nearest the

sea

are

Where

is remarked

those
usually

which

the Andes
that the

exhibit most

activity
; but it has also been observed repeatedly,
that when
the phenomenaof still active subterranean fire
in one
chain, theybreak out in another chain
disappear
the volcanic
to it. Generally
runningparallel
speaking,
with that of
found in a direction corresponding
cones
are
volcanic

the axis of direction of the entire chain ; but in the elevated


of
highlands

Mexico

the active volcanoes

transverse cleftrunningfrom

direction.

sea

access

sea

mountain

or
foldingof
corrugation

has been

opened to

ii. p. 173.)

masses

the crust

the molten

placedalonga

in the east and west

T.
(Humboldt, Essai Politique,

Where, by the elevation of


ancient

to

are

in

the

of the earth,

that interior
interior,

continues to act, throughthe medium

of the

cleft,

ANNOTATIONS

the

upon

chain has not

state:

rocks,very

reference to age,
and have

arrived at

found

to
penetrated

once

at

we

call

now

its

superimposed
upon

present

the surface

each

well

rocks,as
eruptive

complicated
process

of

as

to

other,

channels.

formed
by early

of the formations is due to the

and elevation of
and

That which

different in the order of succession in

are

The various nature

57

ADDITIONS.

upheavedwall-like mass.

mountain

AND

ing
outpourthe slow

metamorphicaction takingplace

in cleftsfilledwith vapours and favourable to the conduction


of heat.
For
have

long time past,from 1830 to 1848, the following


been regardedas the culminating
or
highestpointsof
a

the Cordilleras of the New


The

Nevado

de

Continent.

Sorata,also

called Ancohuma

or

(S.lat. 15" 52')a littleto the south of the


Tusubaya,
in the eastern Bolivia
of Sorata or Esquibel,
village
23692
or
or
Parisian,
Eange: elevation 3949 toises,
25250
Englishfeet.
Nevado

The

de

Dliman^

Yrupana(S.lat.16" 38')in
as

Sorata

elevation 3753

The Chimborazo

21423

The

1838.

map

the

of the Mission

same

mountain

22518
or
toises,

of

range

or
Parisian,

Englishfeet.

24000

Quito

west

elevation

of
(S.lat. 1" 27')in the province
3350
20100
or
or
Parisian,
toises,

Englishfeet.

Sorata and

Illimani

were

firstmeasured

by

tinguish
dis-

Mr. Pentland,in 1827, and also in


geologist,
Since the publication,
in June 1848A of his great
of the basin of the lake of Titbaca,we

above-mentioned

elevations of these two

know

that the

mountains

are

58

STEPPES

AND

DESERTS.

3960
2851
and
respectively
English feet, too great.
The map givesto the Sorata 21286, and to the Illimam
21149
gonometr
Englishfeet. A more exact calculation of the triof 1838 has led Mr. Pentland to
operations
these new
results. There are, according
to him, in the
western Cordillera four peaks of from 21700
to 22350
Englishfeet. The highestof these,the peak of Sahama,
would thus be 926
Englishfeet higherthan the Chimand but 850 Englishfeet lower than the Yolcano
borazo,
of Acongagua, measured by the expedition
of the Beagle
Yol. ii.p. 481.)
(FitzRoy'sNarrative,

(6)p. 3.

"

"

The

Desert

near

the basaltic mountains

of Harudsh"
Near

the

Strabo had
is

and

EgyptianNatron Lakes,(whichin the time of


there
not yet been divided into six reservoirs),

the northern
on
range of hills which rises steeply
runs

appears

from
to

east to west

join the

past Eezzan, where it finally

chain of the Atlas.

north-eastern Africa,
as

the

side,

Atlas

does

It divides in

in north-western

Africa,the inhabited maritime Lybiaof Herodotus

from

the land of the

in wild
or Biledulgerid,
Berbers,
abounding

animals. From

the limits of Middle

Egypt the whole region

degreeof North latitudeis a sea of sand,


in which are dispersed
or
islands,
Oases,containing
springs
The number of these
of water and a flourishing
vegetation.
and which
Oases,of which the ancients onlyreckoned three,
south of the 30th

Strabo
been

compared to

the

spots on

considerably
augmentedby the

travellers.

The

skin, has
panther's
discoveriesof modern

third Oasis of the ancients,


now

called

ANNOTATIONS

Siwah,was
a

the Nemos

placefor
resting

of the horned

AND

of Ammon

Ammon

and

fountain of the Sun.

The

residence of

and

caravans,

the site of the

templeof Ammon,
which

monuments

dawn

have

priests,
temple

the

cool
supposedperiodically
ruins of Ummibida, (Omm-

to the
Beydah),belongincontestibly

at the

59

ADDITIONS.

fortifiedcaravanserai

and therefore to the most


down

come

to

from

us

ancient
the

early

of civilization.

Ideler in den

(Caillaud,
Yoyage a Syouah,p. 14 ;
Fundgruben des Orients,Bd. iv. S. 399-

411).
The

word

Auasis
p.

Oasis

Egyptian,and

is

with

synonymous

Hyasis (Strabo,lib. ii. p. 130, lib. xvii.


813, Gas.; Herod, lib. iii.cap. 26, p. 207, Wessel).
and

Abulfeda callsthe
the

malefactors
Caesars,

sent

were

banished to these islands in the


and

the

to New

than

Englishhave
Holland.

throughthe

In the later times of

Oases,el-Wah.

sent

sea

of

Oases; being

sand,as

the

Spaniards

criminals to the Ealklands

Escape by
desert.

to the

the

is almost easier

ocean

of the
fertility

The

or

Oases

is

by the invasion of sand.


The small mountain-range
of Harudsh is said to consist
of basaltic hills of grotesqueform (Ritter's
1822,
Afrika,
to
subject

diminution

1003). It is the Mons Ater of


called
its western extremity
continuation,
or

S. 885, 988, 993, and

Pliny; and
the Soudah

mountains,has

the
friend,
of basalt in
from

adventurous

been

explored
by my

traveller Ritchie.

rows
limestone,
tertiary

dike-like fissures,
appears

same

This

eruption

of hillsrising
abruptly

analogousto

to be

outbreak of basalt in the Yicentine


often repeatsthe

unfortunate

the

Nature
territory.

phenomena in

the most

distant

60

STEPPES

parts of
"white

the earth.
Harudsh"

belong to
number

the old

AND

In the

DESERTS.

limestone formations of the

which
(Harudje el-Abiad),
found an
chalk,Hornemann

perhaps
immense

Lyon remarked

of fossilheads of fish. Ritchie and

mountains,like that of the

that the basalt of the Soudah

mixed with
placesintimately
carbonate of lime, a phenomenonprobably
connected with
throughlimestone strata. Lyon's
eruption
map even mentions
dolomite in the neighbourhood.Modern mineralogists
have
found syenite
and greenstonein Egypt,but not basalt.
the material of some
of the ancient Egyptianvases,
Possibly
which are occasionally
found of true basalt,
may have been
taken from these western mountains.
May Obsidius lapis"
Monte

in many

Berico,was

"

"

also have been found there ?

soughtfor

near

the Red

formations
eruptive
African

or

are

Sea ?

of the

basalt and obsidian to be


The

Harudsh,on

stripof
the

volcanic

or

marginof the

vesicular
of the augitic
geologist
which are
and greenstone
amygdaloid,
porpyhry,
phonolite,
onlyfound at the northern and western boundaries of the
Steppesof Venezuela and of the plainsof the Arkansas,
the hillsof the ancient coast line. (Humboldt,
on
as it were
Relation Historique,
to
torn. ii.p. 142 ; Long'sExpedition
the Rocky Mountains,vol. ii.pp. 91 and 405.)

(7)p.

reminds
desert,

"

3.

"

When

suddenly

of the tropicsin
It is

remarkable

deserted

by

the east

covered with

weed"

phenomenon, well

known

sea

wind

among

of the African coast (between


vicinity
and particuCanaries and the Cape de Verde Islands,
larly
between Cape Bojadorand the mouth of the Senegal),

that
sailors,
the

the

in the

ANNOTATIONS

often takes the

west wind

of the

trade-wind

AND

desert of Sahara which


over

and

without
The

changesof land

to the

The

same

rarefiedand ascends,

coast,which

of
vicinity

seeingthe
and

the

made

are

in this

desert
heat-radiating

continent to

which

which
breezes,

sea

of the

at certain hours

The air

supplythe void so formed,


arises a west wind, adverse to

to the American

even

or

rushes in to

sea

to feel the

manner

east
general

this westerly
wind.

causes

thus there sometimes

shipsbound

the

is the wide expanse of the

sandyplainbecomes

the heated

the air from the

placeof

tropics.It

61

ADDITIONS.

day or nighton

it

blow

belongs.

alternately

all coasts,are

due

causes.

accumulation

the African

of sea-weed
been

coast has

in the

often

of
neighbourhood

spoken of by

ancient

of this accumulation is a problem


locality
which is intimately
connected with our conjectures
respecting
which
the extent of Phoenician navigation.
The Periplus,
has been ascribed to Scylaxof Caryanda,and which,
to the researches of Niebuhr and Letronne,
was
according
compiledin the time of Philipof Macedon,
very probably
describes beyondCerne a quantity
of fucus forminga weedcovered sea
Mar de Sargasso
a kind of
;" but the locality
writers.

The

lf

"

indicated appears

to

me

to

differ very much

from

that

in the work entitled De Mirabilibus


assigned
bus,"which longbore,unduly,the greatname

Auscultationi-

in Hudson,
(Compare Scyl.Garyand. Peripl.

vol. ii.p. 53,

"

with

Aristoti de Mirab.

of Aristotle.

Auscult. in opp. omnia

ex.

rec.

Bekkeri,p. 844, " 136.) The pseudo-Aristotle


says,
Phoenician mariners,
in four
driven by the east wind, came
"

days'sail from

Gades

to

part where theyfound

the

sea

62

STEPPES

AND

covered with reeds and


sea-weed

is uncovered

Is he not

34" and

here

(Spvov*atyvKoe.) The

sea-weed
at ebb

speakingof

and

covered at flood tide."

shallow

placebetween

the

in
dissappeared
of volcanic eruption?Vobonne
speaksof
consequence
rocks north of Madeira.
(Comparealso Edrisi,Geog.
Nub., 1619, p. 157.) In Scylaxit is said,"The sea beyond
Cerne is unnavigable
of its greatshallowness,
account
on
its
sea
so

36"

DESEETS.

of latitude?

Has

shoal

of
muddiness,and tfcegreatquantity
grass liesa span

thick,and

that it pricks."The

is full of

sea-weed found

grasses.

sea

Tire

pointsat the top,


between Cerne,
"

Gaulea,or, according
(thePhoenician stationfor laden vessels,
western
the small island of Fedallah,
the northto Gosselin,
on
coast of
not

now

by any
tract of

Mauritania),and Cape

means

"

form

fucus,a

greatsea

"mare

de Verde, does

meadow,

herbidum,"such

or
as

nected
con-

exists

of the coast
description
beyond the Azores. In the poetic
by Festus Avienus, (Ora Maritima,v. 109, 122, 388, and
of which,as Avienus himself says,
408),in the composition
of Phoenician
(v.412) he availed himself of the journals
the obstacle presented
ships,
by the sea- weed is referred to
much
in a very circumstantial manner
; but its siteis placed
farther north,towards lerne,the

"

Sacred Island."

Sic nnlla late flabra propellunt


ratem,
Sic

humor aequoris
stupet.
segnis
pigri

et illud,
plurimuminter gurgites
Adjicit
vice
Exstare fucum, et ssepe virgnlti

Retinere

puppim

....

Hsec inter undas nmlta

Eamque

csespitem
jacet,

late gens Hibernorum

colit.

64

STEPPES

bank,
Bermudas

of

of the

shipsgoing from
the

de Plata

of St.

approvedby
adoptedby him

my

included

p.

old

and

band

direction

West

the greater
and

friend Major Kennell,


and

Currents,where he has

on

by many

new

and additional
Histo-

torn. iii.p. 68-99,


critique,

Examen

The

184.)

togetherwith

the

honoured

of the
Investigation

Ocean, 1832,

transverse

(CompareHumboldt, Relation

torn. i.p. 202, and


rique,

with E/ennelTs

of seeing
these inference
gratification

confirmed them

observations.

by

the Bermudas,

to

30",connects

and

greatwork

in his

and
supported

East

an

is crossed

(Caye d'Argent, Silver

Domingo,

I have had the

lesserbanks.

which

60" E. direction.

N.

of 25"
parallels

between the

under

bank

natans, running in

of Eucus

further

small

Baxo

north

to have

appears

the

25"-31",long.66"-74".)
Bahamas, (lat.

and the

on

form, is situated between

roundish

longeraxis

Cay)

DESERTS.

of the Azores ; while the lesser and westernmost

Corvo, one

The

AND

Currents of the Atlantic

two

the

groups

transverse

of the

generalname

six or
a space exceeding
altogether

of

sea-weed,

connectingband

SargassoSea, occupy

seven

times the

area

of

Germany.
Thus
most

it is the

remarkable

of
vegetation

example of

the

an

ocean

which

offers the

assemblageof

"social

plants"of a singlespecies.On terra firma,the savannahs


of America,the heaths (ericeta),
or grassy plains
or
prairies,
Europe and Asia,consisting
offer a less degree
and willows,
trees,birches,

and the forests of the North


of coniferous

of uniformity than

show, in

do

of

those

Our
thalassophytes.

the north,in addition to

the

heaths

Calluna
prevailing

ANNOTATIONS

AND

65

ADDITIONS.

Erica tetralix,
E. ciliaris,
and E. cinerea;
and
vulgaris,
in the south,Erica arborea,E. scoparia,
and E. meditThe uniformity
of the aspectofferedby the Eucus
terranea.
is greaterthan that of any other assemblage
natans
or
association of plants. Oviedo
calls the fucus banks
de yerva.
"meadows/' praderias
Consideringthat the
island of Elores was
discovered in 1452, by Pedro Velasco,
native of the Spanishport of Palos, by following
the
a
of certain birds from the island of Eayal,
it seems
flight
almost impossible,
of the greatfucus
seeingthe proximity
bank

of Corvo

meadows

and

should

not

Flores,that
been

have

when
of

surrounded

phenomenon

to

the sailors. The

of

and the
sea-weed,

thereto,are
extracts

from

the

danger to

winds.

at least was

unknown
previously

by the

accumulation

of his companions
in reference

murmurs

mentioned

by

givenby Las
ship's
journal
and murmurs
the complaints

be feared from the weak

in the

Columbus

Casas.

He

respecting

but constant East

only the son, Fernando Colon, who, in


endeavoured
father's life,
to depictthe fears

of the sailorsin

Accordingto
fucus bank

VOL.

in 1492,

It is

writinghis

both

Columbus

Yet

from the ]6th


uninterruptedly
October,shews that the magnitude

anxieties excited

indeed

not

merelyspeaksof
the

weed

Columbus,by

to the westward.

companionsof

the 8th of

Septemberto
of the

by sea-

before

seen

Portugueseshipsdriven by storms
the astonishment of the

part of these oceanic

my

manner.

Columbus
researches,

crossed the

great

in 1492, in lat. 28|-0,


and in 1493, in lat. 37",

times in the
I.

dramatic

long,of

from
T

38" to 41" W.

This is

66

AXD

STEPPES

'deducible

tolerable

with

estimation of the
sailed
from

data afforded

rate,and
ship's

the

distance

"

corded
re-

daily

the log,bnt
casting
of half-hour sandglasses

by the running out

firstcertain and definitemention

The
(ampolletas).
of

Columbus's

from
certainty

derived indeed,not from

;"

over

DESERTS.

log (catenadella poppa) which

I have been able to

is in the year 1521, in Pigafetta's


gellan's
discover,
journalof Ma-

Voyage

the "World,

round

(Cosmos,vol.

ii. p.

259, and Note 405, Englished.) The determination of the


Columbus

while
ship's
place,

the
engagedin traversing

was

of sea-weed,is the

greatmeadows

more

because
important,

learn from it that for three centuries and


of this greataccumulation
from
from

phenomena

we

strengthand

may

of

remained

of

the

the

physicalinquirer
in the

ever-

limits of the fucus

direction of the

from Paris

axis
principal

of the

of Columbus,
imagination
this bank

was

or

greatnatural

"

(38"38'

century
W.

greatbank."

the idea of the

connected
intimately

the

prevailing

stillin the middle of the 19th

the meridian of 41" W.

Greenwich)as

sea,

in correspondence
with
considerably,

variations of the

the vivid

stream, has

Althoughthe

resulting

of the

theypresentthemselves

element.

oscillate

winds,yet

bottom

attention of the

arrest the

moving oceanic

take

the

evidences of the permanency

with double force,when

banks

of

the direction of the- Gulf


Such

half the situation

whether
of thalassophytes,

the local character

same.

we

with

from
In

tion
posithe

line of demarcation,
to him,
which, according
greatphysical
divided the

globeinto

and
variation,
magnetic

two

parts, with

the

with climatic relations.

changesof
Columbus,

ANNOTATIONS

himself

the
of

4th

of the firstfloating
streamers

appearance

bank.

great Corvo

by

by the

(de la primerayerva)on

of weed

The

May, 1493,

the eastern

line
physical

powerfulinfluence

celebrated

of the

into

margin

the

line,being made
political

the

between

the

Spanishand

iii.p. 64-99, and

Examen

my

Cosmos, Englished.

vol. ii.

279-280.)

p.

(8)p.
These

us

The

with

Lower

Tibbos

inhabit the

firstmade
and

Bornou,
known

The

firstare

through the eastern,and

roam

called

in continual movement,
into those of
often

engaged as

languageis the

"

The

black; but

the
all

are

other
The

the

the

great

from being
tribes,

Tuaricks

are

guished
distin-

Aghadez

and those

conductors
same

as

of

Tagazi. They

of caravans,

and in trade.

that of the Berbers ; and

the

Tuaricks

phenomenon.
accordingto

by the

birds."

to
belong unquestionably

Lybian nations.

to

Lyon'stravels.

(Tueregs)throughthe western, parts of

desert.

Their

were

by Hornemann's

Tibbous

or

Tuaricks"

and

deserts between

Egypt. They

exactness

some

Tilbos

Nomadic

nations

two

Tuaticks

The

3t_"

Fezzan,and

are

was,
on

Portuguese rightsof possession.(Compare


torn.
Critique,

of the

of demarcation

Admiral, converted

line of demarcation"

"

67

ADDITIONS.

his longitude,
rected
respecting
(February
1493),di-

uncertain

when

AND

number

of

present a

the

and
climate,
white,yellowish,
without

woollyhair

de TAlgerie,
T.
scientifique
(Exploration

or

primitive

remarkable

Different tribes among

siolog
phy-

them

are,

almost

even

Negro

ii.p.

they

features.

343.)

68

STEPPES

(9)p.
In
the

oriental poems,

shipof the
6d. par

nouv.

But

Desert

the camel

countries

the camel

is not

is called the

them

shewn

diffusion of these

national

of

rain is either

infrequent.No
the

with

life of man,

"

several thousand
Bedouin

758).

The

as

(Asien,Bd.

camel

Carthaginiannation

in
development,

the

Marusians
train

of the

of

by

Canary Islands
were

not

the

brought

Csesars; perhaps in

the Ptolemies.
and

the

it

the
und

of

centuries

their

of their

city.

militaryuse,

Lybia, in

consequence
the

for

to the cultivated

into

the

of its

valleyof
to

times

the

the Berber

the camel before the 1 5th

in

ment
employ-

Guanches, the inhabitants

probably related

with
acquainted

developementof

destruction

in
operations
The

very

i. 1847, S. 610

all the

armies, in Western

in commercial

parts

closelyassociated by

so

viii.Abth.

through

first

the hot

the lifeof the camel among

existence,until
flourishing
The

in the

wantingor
altogether

unknown
entirely

was

on

established
historically

connection
"

he is

life of nations

particular
stageof

years,

tribes"
"f

nomadic

life is

animal's

other

each

with

different

and
animals,the principal

patriarchal
stageof
planetwhere

between

in his excellent memoir

of the

natural bonds

carrier of the desert,and

renderingcommnnication

essential condition

our

or
land-ship,

T. iii.p. 376.

merelythe

connects
possible,

sphereof

Desert."

(Sefynet-el-badyet)
; Chardin,Voyages,

Carl Bitter has

also,as

DESERTS.

Ship of the

Langles,1811,

the link which,

the

The

"

4."

AND

of

Nile
the
race,

century,

AND

ANNOTATIONS

when

introduced

it was

In the

by Norman

conquerors and settlers.

limited communication

probably
very

with the Coast of

69

ADDITIONS.

of the Guanches

small size of the boats would

the
Africa,

prevent the transportof largeanimals.


race,

and

diffused

throughoutthe
the Tibbos

to which

The

true Berber

interior of Northern

and

Tuaricks,as

Africa,

mentioned,
already

belong,owes doubtless to the use of the camel


throughoutthe Lybian desert and its Oases,not onlythe
but also the preservation
of intercommunication,
advantages
of its national existence to the

hand, the

negro

races

of the camel ; it was

use

of their

never,

onlyin

company

doctrines
their prophet's
carrying

over

to the westward

The

with the conquering

vides
and

of the

and

introduced among

was

took

Goths

by Aramean

camels

races,

(theDanube),and

conveyedthem

in much

numbers
larger

the banks

part of

of the

continent; one

the Ghazne-

as

far

as

India

two.
distinguish
throughoutthe northern

under

the whole

operating
throughGyreneon
Africa;and the Mohammedan

fourth

"We must

Ganges/'

the diffusionof the camel

the African

the

earlyas

as

spread

the black popu

Istros

epochsin

Bedouins,

the whole of Northern

the Lower

centuryto

any

the useful animal of theNedjid,


of theNabatheans,

and of all the countries inhabited

lation.

the other

accord,made

own

and proselyting
missions
expeditions

that
Africa,

On

presentday.

the

Ptolemies,

of the north-west of

epoch of

the

conquering

Arabs.It

has

long

been

whether
question,

those domestic

of mankind
animals which have been the earliestcompanions
oxen,

sheep,
dogs,and

camels

"

are

stillto be

met

"

with in

70

STEPPES

state

of

AND

DESERTS.

originalwildness.

The

Asia,belongto the nations who earliesttamed


wild camels

domestic

animals.

Eastern

and

trained

The

compilerof the
work, Si-yu-wen-kien-lo,
(HistoriaRegionum

as

greatChinese

in

Hiongnu,

occidentalium,
quae Si-yuvocantur, visu

et auditu

cognita-

rum,) affirms that in the middle of the 18th centurywild


camels,as well
in

East

as

wild horses and wild asses, stillwandered

Turkestan.

Hadji Chalfa,in

written in the 17th


chase

camel

of the wild

Turfan, and

Khotan.

speaksof
century,

Schott

countries to the north of China


or

frequent

high plainsof Kashgar,


from a Chinese
translates,
are

and

Cuvier alone

Tangut.

the

graphy,
Geo-

in the

author,Ma-dschi,that wild camels


in Ho-si

his Turkish

to

west

be found
of the

in the

Hoang-ho,

(EegneAnimal, T.

i. p.

257), doubts the presentexistence of wild camels in the


believes

He

interior of Asia.

theyhave merely become


"

gious
wild;"because Calmucks, and others havingBuddhistic reliwith
affinities
in order
liberty,

"

to

them,

set camels and

other animals at

themselves merit for the other

to
acquire

Accordingto Greek witnesses of the


of Cnidus, the
and Agatharchides
Artemidorus

world."

Gulf of the Nabatheans

camel.
The

was

Asien,Bd.
(Bitter's

of
discovery

fossilcamel

CaptainCautleyand
Himalayarange
of notice.

Doctor

the home
viii. s.

of mastodons, of true

were

of

Ailanitic

of the wild Arabian

670, 672, and

746.)

bones of the ancient world

by

Falconer,in 1834, in the sub-

of the Sewalik

These bones

times

is peculiarly
hills,
deserving

found with other ancient bones

of giraffes,
and
elephants,

twelve
land tortoise(Colossochelys),
gigantic

feet in

of

length

72

STEPPES

(Humboldt,Premier
in the Annales
303 ; Second

and

the

Memoire

de Chimie

de

Physique,T.
p.

Flnde,

iii.1816, p.

5-55.)
of

plants,

for
degreeof temperature requisite

kinds of cultivation,
had

between

et

les Montagues de

sur

concerningthe geographical
range

mean

doubts

DESERTS.

Memoire, T. xiv. 1820,

views

My

AND

as

to the

earlyled

able
to entertain consider-

me

of
continuity

certain

greatTartarian plateau

the

Himalayaand the Altai. "Writers continued to


characterise this plateau
it had been described by Hippoas
crates
the high and
(De ^Ere et Aquis," xcvi. p. 74),as
naked plains
of Scythia,
which, without beingcrowned with
"

mountains, rise and extend


of

Bear."

the

havingbeen

the first to make

of

of

than

indeed

beingaware

acquaintedwith

the true

tinct
disgreatand entirely

the Kuen-liin

and

the Thianname

and the Sacred


Kashmeer, Baltistan,

Thibet,(theManasa

and the

Ravanahrada)

Thian-schan,

alreadysurmised by Pallas,without

been

The

the Celestial Mountains, the

importanceof
had

"

of

merit

partof Asia which is better entitled to the

"central"

Lakes

us

constellation

the

the undeniable

direction of two

chains of mountains
a

beneath

Klaproth has

extent,and
position,

schan,in

to

of their volcanic nature ; but this

his

highly-gifted

of nature, hampered by the then prevailing


investigator
hypothesisof a dogmatic and fantastic geology,firmly
in
chains of mountains radiating
from a centre,"
believing
"

saw

in the

point of
whence
which

Bogdo
the

Oola

(theMons

Thian-schan)such

all the Asiatic mountain


dominates

over

Augustus,or culminating
"central node, from
a

chains

in
diverge

rays, and

all the rest of the continent \"

ANNOTATIONS

The

idea of

erroneous

73

ADDITIONS.

AND

elevated

vast
single

the whole of central Asia,the

plainoccupying

Plateau de la

"

Tartarie,"

took its rise in Prance,in the latter half of the 18th


It

the result of historicalcombinations,


and of

was

attentive studyof
sufficiently

not

as well
traveller,

Yenetian
those

unityand

the

time)were

able to traverse

more

had

dated

would
Siberia,
ancient

Mogul empireat

on

that

the east coast of China.


the

and
language

farther back among

the

and

no

venerable

from
authority

of the Mahabharata

mountain

with
supplies

as

an

ancient
us

than

describe

once

"

the south of

in its supportan

that

in

appears,

the

sources

the

geographical

Meru"

and
(Irtysh),

of the

The

source.

not

elevation of the

enormous

water at

of the Bhadrasoma

Himalayaand

doubt have had adduced

to
fragmentBliischmakanda,
as

relations of

of this central plateau,


century,the hypothesis
ing
occupy-

the wide space between

poem

the celebrated

almost the whole of the interior

with
acquaintance

exact

literatureof India
a

of the naive

as

of the

extent

Sea to the shores of the Pacific

half

writingsof

from the portsof Syriaand of the Caspian


continent,

of the

the

who, in the 13th and 14th centuries,

monks
diplomatic

(thanksto

If

tury.
cen-

so

much

land,which

Ganges,those

those of the forked Oxus.

These

views were
intermingledin
physico-geographical
reveries
Europewith ideas of other kinds,and with mythical
vated
of mankind.
said that the eleto the origin
It was
relating
from which the waters firstretreated,
(geologists
regions
in general
must
were
long averse to the theoryof elevation),
also have received the firstgerms

of civilisation. Hebraizing

and views connected


systems of geology,

with

the

Deluge

74

AND

STEPPES

and

DESERTS.

favoured
by local traditions,
supported

The

intimate connection

the

of
beginnings

between

time and

social order and

lent to the
the surface of the earth,

interest.

late matured
as

and

Asia
the

well

"

fundamental

those
especially

supposed uninterrupted
"

of

China,

ments,
measure-

have

gradually

of
exaggerations

of all arts and

seat
primitive

sciences.

The

Atlantis,
happilydescribed by
Bailly's

but
havingtaughtus everything

in
Posidoiiius,

no

The

plateauof

havingthe

those

the

Gobi, Scha-mo

it is situated,
as

chains

SSW.-NNE.

tion,
direc-

Eastern Thibet
south

of

Lake

by which

towards
Baikal.

Measured

rightanglesto

118"

E.

to

the

it is intersected ;

remarked, between 79"


already

Paris, (81" and

at

the time of

ground is probablyanterior

long, from

of the

Scha-ho
(sanddesert),

in

of Kentei

elevation of the mountain

and

name

unequal elevation,

very

from
with littleinterruption,

swellingof

own

lib.ii.
(Strabo,

manner.

considerable but

knot

d'Alembert

Casaub.)

and Hanhai,-runs
(sandriver),

mountain

ancient

supposedinhabitants

less derisive

of

names

their

been treated,
in
already

lib. xiii.p. 598,


p. 102; and

This

direct

The mountain plains


of Central
(opoiredia)
hypotheses.
no
are
longerregardedas the cradle of civilizationand

Oceanic Atlantis had

the

almost

an

studyof Asiatic languages

the inaccuracies and

has vanished.
existence,"

of

of positive
Acquisitions
knowledge,the

of

as

literature

nation of
as

space, between

character
plastic

fruit of scientifictravels and

demonstrated
wild

the

assumptions.

and
Tartary"a peculiar
importance,

Plateau of
moral

these

from

and

116"

Greenwich).

its breadth
its longitudinal
axis,

ANNOTATIONS

AND

75

ADDITIONS.

between

is,in the south


seat of the

greatLama,)

Hoang-ho

the In-schan

near

north,between

Karakhorum
which

and

in

Khauggai,where the great cityof


stood,and the chain of Khin-gan-Petscha,

north and

south

from
travelling

miles.
geographical

ground,which

chain, hardly480

of the

the

once

runs

in

more

miles; between
geographical

720

in the Celestial Mountains, and the great bend

Hami

the

Ladak, Gertop,aiid H'lassa,(the

The
be

must

(inthe partof
Kiachta by Urga
whole

the Gobi

Pekin)760

to

of this

extent

swelling

from
carefully
distinguished

elevated mountain

to

range

versed
tra-

the east,may

be

the far

mately
approxi-

estimated,takingits inflections into account,


about

three times

mountain

ranges

Bergkettenund

the
and

clearest

Vulkane

mountain

ranges

map

Asia

and the Gobi

(Carteder

plateau.It

shows

in which
description,

rich, examined
Julien.

My

and

of the mountain

marks

founded

was

the

mean

Kherson

north

and

the
on

tions
determina-

of

orographic

beyond measure

requestby Klaprothand

Stanislas

direction and the

height

the leadingfeatures
chains,and represents

of the interior of the continent

degreesof

vast amount

literature is

Chinese

at my

map

on

in the

between

the criticalemployment of all the astronomical


accessible to me,

of the

Central- Asien),constructed

von

until 1843,
published
hypsometricrelations

the

manner

The

volcanoes of Central

in 1839, but not

by nie

of France.

area

at

and
latitude,

of

Asia,from

between

30" to 60"

the meridians

from
It differs materially

Pekin,

of

viously
any pre-

published
map.
The

Chinese have

enjoyeda

threefold

towards
advantage

76

STEPPES

AND

greatan

amount

DESERTS.

"

the collectionof

so

of Asia,and
highlands

west),north
the

mountains, between
and

Khuku-noor,
The three

Thang

of the

I allude to
advantages
the west,

towards

centurywhen

the borders of the

and

the

"

era, and

our

advanced

conquerors

are,

Hi

mountain
the

far

as

Tarim.

Han

again in

and

the ninth

Ferghanaand

as

with
together
Caspian),

lake

military
tions
expedi-

of
(under the dynasties

years before

122

in the

and south of the Celestial

In-schan,the

banks

the

data
orographic

in the regions
especially
(hitherto

more

in the

little known

so

of

the

to

peaceful

more

interest
pilgrims;the religious
loftymountain summits on account of

conquests of

Buddhistic

attachingto

certain

"

offered there; and the early


periodically
and generaluse of the compass in givingthe directionsof
and of rivers.
The
mountains
knowledge and use of
the
South pointing"of the magneticneedle twelve centuries
be

sacrifices to

"

"

before

our

era,

has

given to

the

orographicand

of countries by the Chinese,a


hydrographic
descriptions
of the same
the descriptions
kind
over
great superiority
which Greek or Eoman
writers have bequeathedto us,
and

which

besides

are

sagaciousStrabo,was
direction of the

extremelyfew.

and

acute

alike imperfectly
with the
acquainted

and
Pyrenees,

with those of the

Appennines. (CompareStrabo,lib.ii.p.
iii.p. 137 ; lib.iv. p. 199
To the lowlands

The

and 202

belongalmost

Alpsand

71 and

of the

128; lib.

lib.v. p. 211,

Casaub.)

the whole of Northern

Asia

to the north-west of the volcanic chain of the Thian-schan

the

Steppesto

chain ;

"

the north

of the

the countries which

Altai and

of the

"

Sayan

extend from the mountains

of

ANNOTATIONS

AND

77

ADDITIONS.

in the

(" cloud mountains"


Bolor,or Bulyt-Tagh,
which
dialect)
from

follow

north

and

and
direction,

south

Oxus, (whosesources

the upper

Uigurian

found

were

by

the

pilgrimsHiuen-thsangand Song-yun in 518


Polo in 1277, and by Lieutenant
and 629, by Marco
Lake
"Wood
in 1838, in the Pamer
Lake, Sir-i-kol,
Buddhistic

Tenghiror

the

throughthe KirghisSteppe,towards

the

the

towards
Victoria),
Balkhash

Lake

Caspian
j

and

from

of the Ural mountains.


extremity
of 6,000 to 10,000
As comparedwith high plains
to
feet above the level of the sea, it may well be permitted
of
lowlands" for flatsof littlemore
the expression
use
sea

of Aral

and the southern

"

than

to 1200

200

last two

numbers

the town

of

and

lowest of the

The

corresponds
nearlyto the altitude of
Mannheim, and the highestto that of Geneva

Tubingen.

in modern

feet of elevation.

works

If the word
on

often misemployed
so
plateau,
is to have its use
extended
geography,

to elevations which

hardlypresentany sensible differencein


climate and vegetation,
the indefiniteness of the expressions
"highlandsand lowlands,"which are onlyrelative

terms, will
x

deprivephysical
geographyof

the idea
expressing
and climate,
between

of the connection

and

temperature.When

the decrease of

in Chinese
and Lake
and

or
profile

Dzungarei,between

Dsaisang,at

from the mouth

myselfin
taught me

the

the

of

means

between

elevation

relief of the
T found

boundaryof

ground
myself
Siberia

equaldistance from the Icy Sea


the Ganges,I mightwell consider

an

of

Central Asia.
that

the

the

The

barometer,however,

plainsthrough which

Irtyshflows,between Ustkamenogorskand

the
the

soon

Upper
Chinese

78

STEPPES

AND

DESERTS.

DzungarianPost, Chonimailachu, (sheep-bleating,)


are
raised 850,
scarcely
of

the

or

at the most

Pansner's

sea.

(which,however,were
confirmed

are

in
Irtysh,

barometric measurements

until after my expedipublished


tion),

not

by mine.

of Chappe,relativeto the
of the

older

1170, feetabove the level

Both

refute the

hypothesis

supposed
highelevationof the banks

Southern

Siberia ;

based
hypothesis

an

on

estimations of river declivities. Even

further to the

Lake

Englishfeet,above

Baikal is only222

the level of the


In

order

the terms

1420

sea.

to

connect

and

lowlands

in
gradations

or
toises,

East,

the

the

idea

of the

highlands

heightof

and

relation

of the

of

various

elevated

or undulating
plains
grounds,with actual examplesascertained by measurement,
I have subjoined
scale of such
a table,
formingan ascending

districts in
said above
p

ains,which

with the

different

parts of

the
respecting
1 have

mean

termed

numbers
following

the Globe.

What

I have

heightof
lowlands,may

those

Asiatic

compared

"

Toises.

Plateau of

be

Auvergne

English feet.

170

1087

260

1663

350

2239

"

of Bavaria

"

of Castille

"

of

Mysore

460

2942

"

of Caraccas

480

3070

"

of

900

5756

"

round Lake

950
(inAbyssinia)
the Orange River (inSouth Africa)1000
1100
Axum
(inAbyssinia)

6076

'

Popayan
Tzana

6395

"

of

"

of

"

of Mexico

1170

7483

"

of

1490

9528

"

of the Province de los Pastos

1600

10231

"

round Lake

2010

12853

Quito
Titiaea

7034

80

STEPPES

AND

prevalent
among

the

and establish its

empire anew

DESERTS.

Moguls,the

will one

ocean

in Gobi.

One

day return
is reminded

of the Chinese tradition of the bitter lake, in the interior


of

Siberia,mentioned

boldt, Asie

by

Centrale,torn. ii.
The

Polyglotta,
p. 232.)
so

in another

me

work.

141; Klaproth,Asia

p.

basin

or
valley

of Kashmeer,

extolled by Bernier,and
enthusiastically

praisedby

Victor

Jacquemont,has

barometrical. measurement,

Jacquemont

of the Wulur

Lake

from

836
citySirinagur,

the chief
feet.

of water

but

also

in the

Uncertain
gave

Lieutenant

Baron

or
toises,

by

the

Cunningham only790

height
not

5346

far

lish
Eng-

boilingpoint

result of 910, and

Hugel a

von

the

derately
mo-

careful

valleyof Kashmeer,

determinations
Carl

found

too

casion
given oc-

By
exaggerations.
great hypsometric

to

(Hum-

toises.

(Comparemy

Asie

Centrale,torn. iii.p. 310, with the Journal of the Asiatic


vol. x.
of Bengal,
Society

1 841
,

p. 1 14

.) Kashmeer,

ing
respect-

"

so much
which,in Germany.particularly,

interesthas been

but the delightfulness


of whose climate is considerably
felt,

impairedby four
von
Sirinagur
(Carl

months

of winter

Hugel,Kaschmir, Bd.

the southern
where

of those
declivity
the

separatesit from
are

ridgeof

196), is not
"

the

mountains.

elevation
rampart-like

On

the southwest,

of the Pir

Panjal

Punjaub,the snow-covered summits


crowned, accordingto Vigne, with formations of

basalt and
from

ii.S.

Himalaya,
oil
(Kesselthal,
valley
Caldera,)
cauldron-shaped

situated,
as isoften supposed,
upon
but is a true

the

in the streets of

snow

the

the

amygdaloid.The
natives the

latter formation has received

characteristic

name

of "schischak

ANNOTATIONS

deyu,"marked

by

AND

81

ADDITIONS.

the devil'ssmall-pox.(Yigne,
Travels

in Kashmeer, 1842, vol. i. p.

The

237-293.)

has from the earliesttimes been very


itsvegetation
the visitor came

as
described,
according

luxuriant

of India,or
vegetation

of Turkestan,Samarcand, and
It is also
obtained

summits

which

interval between

from the rich and

regions

Ferghana.
clearer views have been

elevation of Thibet ; the levelof the

plateau
havinglongbeen
the

differentl

from the northern

that
onlyvery recently

the
respecting

beautyof

confounded
uncritically

most

rise from

the two

Thibet

it.

greatchains

with

occupiesthe

of the

Himalayaand
the Kuen-liin,forming the raised ground of the valley
between them.
It is divided from east to west, both by
the natives and by Chinese geographers,
into three portions.
1500
cityEPlassa,
Upper Thibet,with its capital
probably
toises (9590 Englishfeet)above the level of the sea;
"

Middle

Thibet,with the

Englishfeet)
;"

9995

or

called the Thibet of


situated Iskardo

of Leh

and

or

Little

Ladak

(1563 toises,

Thibet,or

(SariBoutan),in
Apricots,

or
(985 toises,

and south of Iskardo


the

town

but

6300

of the

of Deotsuh, measured by Vigne,and


plateau

be 1873

possess

are

Indus,

found

to

examiningall
the three Thibets,
(and
respecting

or
toises,
11,977 Englishfeet.

the notices that we

which

Englishfeet),
Gilgit,

the left bank

on

Baltistan,

On

which will have received in the presentyear

rich augmentation

of
under the auspices
by the boundaryexpedition
become conthe governor-general,
Lord Dalhousie),
soon
vinced
we
that the region
between the Himalayaand the Kuenliin is no unbroken
plainor table land,but that it is interVOL.

I.

82

STEPPES

sected by mountain

DESERTS.

to wholly
undoubtedly
belonging
elevation. There are, properly
speaking,

groups,

distinct systemsof
very few

AND

plains
; the

considerable

most

those between

are

Gertop,Daba, Schang-thung(Shepherd's
Plain)the native
and Schipke(1634 toises,
10,450
countryof the Shawl-goat,
Englishfeet); those round Ladak, which have an elevation
"

of 2100

toises,or

confounded

with

situated; and
and

visited

was

Other

the

depressionin

the plateauof
lastly,

"

Manasa

Ravanahrada

earlyas

so

filled with
entirely

parts are
"

of

waves

and
Sutlej,
regardedas

the

sea

so

which

and 8952

also with

are

many

73" and

Thibet,between

mean

heightof

hardlyequalto

1800

the

in Peru, and is 211

feet)less than
street

the

pavement of

heightof

"

was

the level of the

conclude that the


does
long.,

not

surements
mea-

plateau
reach

(11510 Englishfeet)
; this is
of Caxamarca
the fertileplain

the

Upper

feet).
13,665 English

it, like

toises (1350 and 2154

and 337

the

mountainous

collected
carefully

85" E.

toises

heightof

Lakes

of Pangi,
villages
(Humboldt,Asie Centrale,

of elevation 1 think I may


of

is

the Thibetian

From

281-325.)

town

formerly
the Brahma~-putra,
pointshave
only between 1050 and 1400

Kunawur, Kelu, and Murung.


T. iii.p.

be

the Indus,the
Along the rivers,

Englishfeet)above

respectto

not

Sacred

crowded

which
Yaru-dzangbo-tschu

identical with

(6714

the

the

recent traveller expresses

vast ocean."

been measured
toises

which

must

which
2345
toises),
(probably
by Pater Antonio de Andrada.

1625

as
elevations,rising,"

the

Englishfeet,and

13430

English
of Titicaca,
and the
plateau

Town

of Potosi

(2137 toises,

ANNOTATIONS

AND

That outside of the Thibetian


the boundaries of which
in

Asia,between

the

and
depressions

even

and
highlands

have been denned

of 37"
parallels

by the

without

travels of Marco
and

the

degreeof
Polo,in

productionof

to this

point. In

above,there

are

48", considerable

plantswhich

heat.

less
bound-

one

the cultivation of the vine


in

cotton

northern

latitudes

attention of the acute

Chinese

thrive

cannot

attentive studyof the

An

which

spokenof,had longcalledthe

Gobi,

formerlyimaginedto exist,

cultivation of

certain

and

of the

lowlands, where

true

uninterrupted
plateauwas
is shewn

83

ADDITIONS.

entitled

work,

"

are

Klaproth

Information

Barbarians (Sin-kiang-waithe recently-subdued


respecting
it is said, the countryof Aksu, somewhat to
tan-ki-lio),"
"

the south of the Celestial Mountains


the rivers which

form the

and
pomegranates,
cotton

producesgrapes,
greatTarim-gol,

numberless

other excellent fruits; also

which
(Gossypiumreligiosum),

clouds.
yellow

In the

summer

nor

heavy snow."

and

Yarkand,stillpays

The

the Oasis of Hami

its tribute in
Polo.

T.
Baldelli,

above
(Khamil),

The

productsof

cold

home-grcwn cotton

as

(II Milione

di Marco

i. p. 32

87.)

200

and

In

miles east of Aksu,


fruit is of

and flourish.
cultivation which

implythe

existence of

that

extensive districts. At

over

severe

Khotan, Kashgar,

and vines whose


trees,pomegranates,

superior
quality,
grow

the fieldslike

Turfan,neither

district round

it did in the time of Marco

Polo, pubbl.dal Conte

covers

the heat is exceedingly


great,

and in winter there is here,as at

orange

near
(theThian-schan),

onlya

small

are

thus

noticed

and
degreeof elevation,
so

greata

distance from

84

AND

STEPPES

any coast, and in those


winter is known
nearer

as

our

high as

partof

Madrid

or

but would

summers,

meridians
easterly

to exceed

own

DESERTS.

the

the cold of

latitudes
corresponding

of

that

where

should be

which
world,a plateau

Munich

indeed

have

4 '3"and

44"

might

hardlyhave,in

mild winters with scarcely


extremely
any snow.
83 Englishfeet below the level of the
Caspian,
in 46"

at Astrachan

vine

I
lat.,

21'

"

13"

"20"

Near

the

Black

Sea,

heat ; but

summer

to "25"

It is therefore necessary to

Eahr.)

latitude,

the cultivation of the

saw

favoured by a highdegreeof
greatly

the winter cold is there from

very hot

("4"

Cent.

protectthe

to

vines

sinkingthem deep in the earth. Plants


which live,
as the vine,
we
as
may say, onlyin the summer,
the cotton bush,rice,
and melons,may indeed be cultivated
after November, by

with
of

success

between

than 500

more

favoured

the latitudes of 40" and 44"

plains
toises (3197 Englishfeet)
being
elevation,

radiant
by the powerful

pomegranate trees

of Aksu, and the orange

whose fruitPere Grosier extolled as


bear the cold of the

longand

be the necessary consequence


land ?

T.
(AsieCentrale,

(inthe

heat ; but how

learned

of

that the Tarim

i. e.
depression,

99) has

chains of the Thian-schan

his

"

used to be described

as

429.)
Karte

the desert between


and the

an

Carl Zimmerman
Inner

von

probable
extremely
the

tain
moun-

where
Kuen-liin,

Stepperiver Tarim-golemptiesitselfinto
which

Kami,

considerable elevation of the

it appear

made

trees of

the

winter which would

severe

of
Analysis

S.

could

for itsgoodness,
distinguished

ii.p. 48-52, and

Asien,"] 841,

on

the Lake

of

the

Lop,

lake,is hardly1200
alpine

(1279 English)feet above the level of the

sea,

or

onlytwice

ANNOTATIONS

AND

the

heightof Prague.

to

that

of Bokhara

Sir Alexander

the elevation of the

made

water

All

of
plateaux

or

by

with

more

measurements,

calculations

our

limits of

direct barometric

determinations of the

boilingpointof

set at rest

than is usually
given to them.

care

the
respecting

difference between

and the maximum

elevation of vine

at

present

intersect the interior of

the following
Asia, I subjoin
generalreview.
with the four
an
regularity

chains,which
parallel
east

and

other at

detached

After the four

notice chains
the

the

the
following,

transverse

in the

epochof

Himalaya), we

direction

tion.
elevaThian-

have

to

of meridians,viz.

Ural, the Bolor, the Khingan,and the Chinese chains,


of the Thibetian and Assamo-

which, with the greatbend


Bermese
Ural

connected

chains (theAltai,
the
parallel

schan, the Kuen-liin,and

begin

tolerable

as
indicate,

difference in the

Europe,a

western

are

pointsby

direction

Differences of

We

follow with

and
direction,

west

few

was

to the
presentwork, relatively

systems which

great mountain

Alps of

too

on

the smallest space that which

in
rectify

said in the last edition of the

elevations.

the

uncertain elements.

In order to

each

English

middle Asia,south of 45"

cultivation in different climates,rest

with

assigns

by

perpetual
snow,

complexand

also

that all doubt respecting


desired,

be
finally

should
of latitude,

Burnes

elevation of 1190

only an

to be
feet. It is earnestly

85

ADDITIONS.

Dzangbo-tschu,run

divides

north

part of Europe but

the level of the

sea

from

The latter was

and

south.

The

little elevated above

stanced.
circumpart of Asia similarly

called

by Herodotus,(ed.Schweig-

86

TEPPES

T.
haiiser,

v.

p.

and

204)

DESERTS.

ATsD

even

countries to the north of the


in this view

Europe, includingall

Siberian

Syros,a Scythianor

be

it would

earlyas Pherecydesof

as

of the laxartes

Caspianand

continuation

the

of

Europe

"

longed
pro-

to the north of Asia."

The

greatmountain

mountains"

of

writer who

lived

Menander

of

earlyas

as

Moguls,and

of the

systemof

the
century,
of the

Altai-alin

forms
Chinese),

the greatSiberian lowlands ; and

50" and

running between

the 7th

gold

historical

Byzantium,an

the Kin-schan

boundaryof

the southern

the Altai, (the' '

of
52-|-0

north

extends
latitude,

from the rich silvermines of the Snake Mountains,and the


of the Uba
Baikal.
"

are

Altai,"taken

to be

from

systemof

obscure passage of

an

the Russian

sceptre
;

and the

Abulghasi,

i. p. 247.)
(AsieCentrale,T.

the Altai

KolywanskiAltai,the

or

the meridian of Lake

of the "Great"

names

avoided.
altogether

The mountain
proper,

Irtysh,to

divisions and

The

Little

and the

fluence
con-

it is west

comprehends(a)the
whole of which

of the transverse

Altai

is under

openingof

the Telezki Lake, which follows the direction of the meridian ;


and in ante-historic times
of the

greatarm

of the sea;

(AsieCentrale,T.
which

ii.p.

with the

by which,in

138),the

Icysea

"

follows the direction

Tangnu, and

Ulangom

with
tolerably
parallel
direction.

The

the eastern shore

the direction of the

lakes,Aksakal-Barbi

stillexisting
groups of

connected

probablyformed

or

and

Sary-Kupa
basin was
Aralo-Caspian

(b) East of the Telezki chain


of the meridian,the Sayani,
Malakha

each other and

Tangnu,which

chains,all running
in

an

sinks down

east and

west

and terminates

88

STEPPES

is situated in

volcano of Turfan
almost

Thian-schan

of

far

hist, de

The

year

of Turfan

volcanic

the

89,

(Kune-

of
eruptions

and

the

out

Chinese

the Chinese

General,Teu-hian,
tains
Fire Moun-

"the

saw

of molten

masses

Hiongnu

Tableau
(Klaproth,

Kharaschar
The

the

pursuedby

Thian-schan,and

send

when

A.D.,

Irtyshwere

Kutch

as

greatdistance

interior of Asia

is

Remusat,in

1820,

p.

from

the

that flow for

rock

and

letter to Cordier

1528

miles
geographical

mouths

of the Indus

miles

to the

and

the

IcySea
;

of the volcano

at the mouth

to the

south,or

Ganges, 1512

of the
to the

geographical

miles to the Caspian


geographical
Karaboghaz; and to the east,1020 geographical

miles to the shores of the

sea

of Aral.

The

active

supposedto
previously
remarkable instances of such phenomena at a
from the sea ; their distance,however,is only

volcanoes of the New

greatdistance

case

to
geologists

west, 1360

of

offer the most

(Annalesdes Mines, T.

for example,
in the
distance,

Obi, is

in the Gulf

solitary
phenomenon.

the attention of

of Pe-schan,to the north,or to the

of the volcanoes of the

sea

remarkable

137),firstdirected

this fact. The

132

Bischbalik),

or

Li."

many

v.

the
of the

surmounted

Abel

the meridians

1'Asie,
p. 108).

which

of Ho-tscheu

Pidjan. The

as

sources

as

army

sal-ammoniac

reach
chain,recorded by Chinese historians,

far back

of the

sulphurand

coal district; the stillactive

(orvolcano
between

midway

Turpan),and

as

furnishes

Urumsti,which

and
(nao-scha),

DESERTS.

massive elevation Bogdo-Oola


; the Sol-

greatsnow-covered
fatara of

AND

miles
geographical

"World

in the

were

case

of the volcano of

Popo-

ANNOTATIONS

89

ADDITIONS.

AND

in Mexico, and only92, 104,


catepetl

and

I exclude from
Eragua,respectively.
allextinct volcanoes,
and alltrachytic
tains
moun-

these statements
which have

no

of the volcano

East

S.W.

with the interior of

ii.p. 16-55, 69-77, and 341of Turf an, and

of the fertile

rich in fine fruit,the chain of the Thian-

givesplaceto

follows

permanentconnection

T.
(AsieCeutrale,

Oasis of Hami
schan

Sangai,

de la

Tolima, and

356.)

phical
geogra-

volcanoes

miles in those of the South American

the earth.

156

the mountain

and

direction.

N.E.

chain,caused by the
than

This

transverse

which

of
interruption
intersection of

the

Gobi, continues

but

in the somewhat
beyondit the mountains recommence
tains,
chain of the In-schan,
the Silver Mounor
southerly
from west to east
running(northof the Pe-tscheli)

more

for

tract of Gobi

greatelevated

the

more

9J degreesof longitude
;

almost to the shores of the Pacific near


a

continuation of the Thian-schan.

In-schan
of the

as

Gobi)of the

of the same,
Seas
or

or

the

cleftabove which the Thian-schan


the Caucasus

beyondthe

as

The

mean

N. lat.; that of the

of the Russian

W.N.W.),

in
Meyendorff,

Prance,T.

is between

of latitude
parallel
oscillates between

Caucasus,accordingto

Etat-Major(runningrather
41" and 44" N. lat.

the Bulletin de la Societe

ix. 1837-1838, p.

chains which

stands,so

axis of elevation of the Thian-schan

the map

the

tion
prolongawesterly
greatbasin of the Aral and Caspian

of Turan
depression

40|-0and 43"
and

As T have viewed

easterly
prolongation
(beyondthe interruption

an

view
mightpossibly

one

Pekin,and forming

traverse Asia

230.)

from

east

E.S.E.

(Baronvon

geologiquede

Of

the four

to

west, the Thian-

parallel

DO

STEPPES

schan is the

mountain

Kulkun),ifwe

sea

system of

(Kurkun or

and its western

Persian Elbourz and Demavend, is,


next

the surface of

on

the Kuen-liin

Cordillera of the

to the American

line of
Andes, the longest

planet.Where

our

the north-

and -south chain of Bolor intersects the Kuen-liin


the
angles,

lattertakes the

angleof

eastern

of the

name

is also givento

which
Mountains),

intersection.

boundaryof Thibet,runs

and west

in the
direction,

knot
the

which

the

of
geography

the Chinese.

chains of Nan-schan
an

somewhat

of
easterly
prolongation

to the Chinese

think I have been

T. i. p. 23, and 118-159


the

wall

to

regardthe

but
Himalaya,
to

and

Hindu-Coosh

the

mythical
northerly

almost

be

garded
re-

the Thian-schan.

Kuen-liin

T. ii.p. 431-434
axes

(theThsung-

(AsieCentrale,
and 465) that

of the Kuen-liin and

and

west, whereas

the

makes it reasonable
north-west)
not of the
as
a
continuation,

of the Kuen-liin.

Kafiristan,
throughan

Khuku-noor,

Liang-tscheu.West

near

(both being east

Himalayais south-east

of

tain
greatmoun-

more

the first to shew

direction of
corresponding

the Hindu-Coosh

the

Kilian-schan. may

and

east

In the meridian

celebrated in the

of the intersection of the Bolor and

ling)I

in an
regularly

lake
alpine

The

the

at

Kuen-liin,
formingthe
very

or Starry
Sea,so
Sing-so-hai,

They extend

part of the Bolor

latitude of 36".

surrounds

right

at

(Onion
Thsung-ling

takes placefrom
interruption

an

as

The

northern

of H'lassa

had

/summits have yet


determined by measurement.
no

include in it the Hindu-Coosh

in the
prolongation

elevation

DESERTS.

in which

onlyone

their elevation above the


3. The

ASD

From

extent of 45

the Taurus

in

Lycia

degreesof longitude,

ANNOTATIONS

ANE

91

ADDITIONS.

this chain follows the

of Rhodes, or
parallel

of Dicearchus.

view
grand geognostical

The

(Strabo,Lib.

thenes

and Lib.

xv.

p.

689),which

of the Taurus
of Asia to

India,in

have been

founded
partly

Persians and

affirm,"
says

in

that

511;

the

tinuation
con-

the whole

across

which

Punjaub.

reached

"The

in his
Indicopleustes,

from Tzinitza

the

"

direction,"
appears

same

statements

on

Indians from

line drawn

and

which

Lyciaextends

Collectio nova
(Mountfaugon,
"

of Erastos-

is farther developed
by Marinus

and the

one

Cosmas

diaphragm

ii.p. 68; Lib. xi. p. 490

Tyre,and Ptolemy,and accordingto

of

the

the

Brahmins

Christian

graphy,
Topo-

Patrum, T. ii.p. 137)


Persia and

across
(Thinse)

cuts the middle of the inhabited earth."


Romania, exactly

is deserving
of notice that Eratosthenes had

that this
the

axis
longest

to

so

of elevation in the Old

It

remarked
early
in
Continent,

of 35-^"and 36", pointsdirectly


parallels
through the

basin

of
(ordepression)

Hercules.

the Mediterranean

(Compare Asie Centrale,T.

to the Pillars of

i. p. 23

and

138; T. ii.p. 430434, with Kosmos, Bd. ii. S.


438, p. 188, and
the Hindu-Coosh

note

292,Engl.ed.) The

122-

222

and

partof

easternmost

is the

of the ancients,
the
Paropanisus
Indian Caucasus of the companionsof Alexander.
The now
used term of Hindu-Coosh,belongs,
as may be seen
generally
from the Travels of the Arab
p.

97), to

slaves often

singlemountain
perishedfrom

Ibn Batuia
pass

cold.

on

The

Thian-schan,shews igneousoutbreaks
hundred

miles from

issue from
distance,

the
a

sea.

in
avcity

(Englishversion,

which

Indian

many

Kuen-liin,like the
or

at
eruptions

Flames, visible
the Schin-khieu

at

many

great

Mountain.

92

STEPPES

T.
(AsieCentrale,
the text of

of

is
Jellalabad,

(20132 Englishfeet)
;

chain sinks to 400

friend Stanislas

toises

Englishfeet)in

toises above

3164

the

Herat, the

north
until,
(2558 Englishfeet),

heightof

toises

2295

(14675

the volcano of Demavend.

mountain

direction of this
81" to 97" E.

Hindu-

the

in

to the west, towards

Teheran,it rises againto


4. The

measured

highestsummit

Coosh,north-west

of

I have followed

ii.p. 427 and 483, where

translated by my
Yuen-thong-ki,

Julien.) The

sea

DESERTS.

AND

system of

the

normal

followed from

and west when

systemis east

The

Himalaya.

than

long,from Greenwich,or throughmore

fifteendegrees
of

longitudefrom

the

colossal

Dhawalagiri

to the breakingthrough
Englishfeet)
river (theIrawaddy,
Dzangbo-tschu
long-problematical

28071
(4390 toises,
of the

and
to Dalrympleand Klaproth),
according

runningnorth
China,and

and south which

in the

Kuang-si form
the

Kiang.

The

has been

as

Schamalari, but

this east and west


hitherto
the

between

and
Englishfeet)
or

26438

measured

partof

supposed,the

the

peak of
Bootan

is 4406
: its height
Dhawalagiri

the account

from India says

English feet.

It

of this measurement

that
decidedly,
"

the
is
and

23980
(3750 ? toises,

toises,

was

in the
by trigonometrical
accurately
operations
as

the

mountain

of Sikhim, between

the Schamalari

of

sources

Himalaya,is

eastern

Kinchinjinga. This

28174
or
Parisian,

year, and

by me

the

of the

group

highestculminatingpoint to

next

situated in the meridian

Nepaul,and

the whole of Western

of Sse-tschuan,
provinces
Hu-kuang, and

the greatmountain

of
Dhawalagiri,

not,

cover

the chains

to

new

first
sent
pre-

received

determination

of the

latterthe firstrank among

leaves^tothe
Dhawalagiri

all the

snow-cappedmountains

heightof

the

that of 4390

of Sir James

Englishfeet,

nist
botaaccomplished

the

of
(Letter

Ross's Antarctic

Dr. Joseph
Expedition,
July 25, 1848.) The
Dorjiling,

Hooker, written from

turningpointin

the direction of the axis of the

range is not far from the

in 79"
Dhawalagiri,

(81"22' Greenwich).From

Paris

Himalaya,"the

28071
Parisian,

26340

hitherto ascribed to it.

of the

be greaterthan
necessarily

must
Dhawalagiri
or
toises,

93

ADDITIONS.

AND

ANNOTATIONS

Himalaya
long,from

E.

thence to the westward

the
to

Himalayano longerruns east and west, but from SB.


as
a great cross
vein,between
itself,
NW., connecting

Mozuffer-abad

partof

and

Gilgitsouth

the Hindu-Coosh.

Such

of
a

with
Kafiristan,

bend

change in

or

direction or strike of the axis of elevation of the

(from E-W.

part of

western

age
from

or

SE-NW.),

to

epochof

doubtless

elevation.

The

the sacred lakes Manasa

elevation of 2345

course

and

toises,14995

Englishfeet)measured
highlandsthe

same

measured

and

known

to

the

be 4027

Iskardo

(at an
the vicinity

and

to the

12993
toises,

the Thibetian
as

the Himalaya.

Djawahir,
longsince well
toises (25750

English

of Kashmeer, where
valley

elevation of

wave

Upper Indus,

in
Englishfeet)

direction
north-westerly

in elevation,
and
feet)

Lake

of the

elevation of 2032

of the

the

difference in the

by Yigne,follows in

Here is the summit

in

Eavana-hrada

of which the great river rises,to


of Deo-tsuh,(atan
plateau

the

Himalaya

points,as

EuropeanAlps,to

our

at

an

the Wulur
feet),
only836 toises,
(5346 English
freezes every winter,and, from the perpetual
calm,no

ever

curls its surface.

94

AND

STEPPES

DESERTS.

Havingthus described the


of

Asia,which

chains

four great mountain

systems

in their normal

character are
geognostic
of latitude,
I have next to
parallels

with
coinciding

dians,
with merispeakof the seriesof elevations coinciding
nearly
(ormore
direction),
havinga SSE.-NNW.
precisely,

which,from Cape Comorin


to the

77" E.

to
opposite

Greenwich.

the alternations remind

To

this

system,of

which

faults in veins, belongthe


the Bolor,and the
chain,the Paralasa,
of

us

Ghauts,the

Soliman

Ural.

of the
interruptions

The

Ceylon

the meridians of 66" and

Icy Sea,alternate between

long,from

the Island of

seriesof elevations are

so

in respectto
that,beside their alternate position
arranged
each new
chain beginsin a degree
of latitude to
longitude,
chain had not quite
which the preceding
portance
reached. The imwhich the Greeks (although
not before
probably
attached to these chains induced Agathe second century)
thodemon and Ptolemy (Tab.vii.and viii.)
to represent
to
themselves the Bolor,under
of elevation

far

extendingas

basin of the Lower

the

name

the

the Obi.

Irtisch and

elevation
perpendicular

above the level of the


the
geologist

sea

(AsieCentraie,

of mountain

summits

the eyes of the

circumstance of the

difficultof attainment,
an

Europein

Asiatic
single

snowy

or lesser
greater
tion
corrugalike allthat is
be),is still,

the
objectof popularcuriosity,
of the gradual
metric
progress of hypso-

historicalnotice
following
knowledgemay here

axis

367.)

as in
(unimportant

of the crust of the earth may

returned to

an

62" N. lat. into the low

as

T. i. p. 138, 154, and 198; T. ii.p.


As

of Imaus, as

1804

find

suitable place. When

after a four

summit

not
absence,
years'

either in the

the
Himalaya,

96

STEPPES

and

Mooicroft

Sacred

accounts

were

and

met

Thibetian

in the

were

received in

by

doubts

memoirs

Annales

Tiefen thaler,
who
and

in 1766

into
penetrated

divined
Nepal,had already

Dhawalagiri.We

read

doubts

in

obsiti."

of
provinces

the

of
importance
"Montes
Albi,

the

his map,

on

Webb
Captain

alwaysuses

of the

Until the measurements

name.

same

of these
groundlessness

P.
Jesuit,
Physique. The Tyrolese

et de

nive
qui Indis Dolaghir,
the

incredulity,

much

tion.
influence of refrac-

the
respecting

the

These

(Surles Montagues de Flnde),printedin the

de Chimie

Kemaun

England with

at

corn,

Blanc.

Mont

the

and

Daba

plateauof

the heightof
exceeding

I have shown

the

DESERTS.

fieldsof
Lakes,fine pasturesand flourishing

altitudesfar

two

AND

30" 22',long,79" 58',altitude 4027


(lat.

Djawahir

25750
or
toises,

28" 40',long.83"
and of the Dhawalagiri
(lat.
Englishfeet)
21',altitude 4390? toises,28072 Englishfeet)were made
known

in

Chimborazo

Europe,the

to
Englishfeet),
according

21421

or
(3350 toises,

measurement,
trigonometric

my

d'Observations astronomiques,
T. i. p. 73) was
(Recueil

everywhere
regardedas
the earth.

The

was
comparison

676

toises

the

highestsummit

with the

South American
attention
p. 320

and

323)

heightof

the

on

of

two

Bureau
snowy

which
Titicaca,

the Chimborazo

the

toises

1040

1827

des

(6650

Pentland's

and

1838, fixed

Longitudes,1830,

summits
were

the

Dhawalagiri,

Chimborazo.

in the years
travels,

(Annuaire du

east of the Lake

the

Djawahiror

(4323 English feet),or

Englishfeet),
higher than

the surface of

on

accordingas
appeared,

now
Himalaya

made

still

of

Upper Peru,

supposedto

by 598
respectively

surpass

and

403

AND

ANNOTATIONS

07

ADDITIONS.

25?TEnglishfeet.) I

toises,(3824 and

have .remarked

above,pp. 53-54, that the latestcalculation of the

ments
measure-

of the Sorata and Illimani shews this view to be incorrec


The
of
valley

of which, in
(on the declivity
Dhawalagiri

Ghandaki, the Salagrana


Ammonites,

the

the Brahmins

among

of

Vishnu, are

difference between

the

Continents of

the New

still shews

culminating
pointsof
than

6200

brated
cele-

of the incarnations

symbolsof one
therefore
collected)
as

more

so

the

the Old and

Parisian,
or

6608

Englishfeet.
The

questionhas

been

whether
raised,

exist behind the southernmost

more

or

less

chain,other stillgreaterelevations.

Lloyd, who
of

in 1840

CaptainAlexander

opinionthat
somewhat

edited

the
and

Gerard

in the part of the

vaguely
"

the Tartaric

not

sured
meaperfectly

Colonel

George

importantobservations
his brother,
entertains an

Himalaya which he calls


chain,"(meaningtherefore

in north Thibet towards the Kuen-liin,and


of the sacred lakes,or

there may

perhapsin Kailasa

beyond Leh) there are summits of


from 29000
thousand
two
to 30000
one
or
English-feet,"
feet highertherefore than the Dawalagiri. (Lloydand
Gerard,Tour in the Himalaya,
1840, vol. i.p. 143 and 312;
Asie Centrale,
T. iii.p. 324.) So longas actual measurements
such possibicannot decide respecting
are
one
lities;
wanting,
from which the natives of Quito,long
as the indication,
before the arrivalof Bouguer and La Condamine, recognised
the superior
altitude of the Chimborazo
(namely,from the
of its heightabove the regionof perpetual
snow
portion
might
beinggreaterthan in any of the other mountains),
VOL.

I.

98

STEPPES

prove

very

in
deceptive

radiation is
limit of

AND

the

equal elevation,as

it does

of
declivity

the

19409
or
Parisian,

18210

Gerard, with
a

gang,

the

sea

tropics.The

by human

attained

ever

be

an

greatest

or
toises,

Himalaya,is 3035

Englishfeet,reached by Captain

littleto the north-west of

happensto

regularline at

of Tarhi-

the mountain
on
barometers,

seven

the Transactions of the


This

form

in the

elevation above the level of the

beingson

Thibet,where

and where the lower


table-land,

does not

snow
perpetual

of

temperatezone

active in the

so

DESERTS.

in
Schipke. (Colebrooke,

vol. vi. p. 411.)


Geological
Society,

the
exactly

that reached

heightas

same

by myselfon the 23rd of June, 1802, and thirty


years later
the 16th of December, 1831,
on
by my friend Boussingault,
the declivity
of the Chimborazo.
The unattained summit
on
1260
of the Tarhigangis,however, 197 toises,
or
English
feet,higherthan that of the Chimborazo.
from Hindostan
The passes across
the Himalaya,leading
into Chinese

between
particularly

LangzingKhampa,
the

pass of

Ladera

the
are

Englishfeet.

to 18544

de

rather into Western

or
Tartary,

rivers of

from 2400

Buspa

to 2900

Thibet, more
and

Schipkeor

toises,
or

In the chain of the Andes

Assuay, between

Quito and

Cuenca

15346

I found
on

the

Cadlud, havinga similar elevation,being2428

toises,or

35526

mountain

plainsof

Englishfeet,high.

throughoutthe

greatpart of the

the interior of Asia

year in

perpetualsnow

would

and

be

ice,if

buried
it

were

not, that by the greatradiation of heat from the Thibetian

plateau,
by the

constant

the formation of

snow

of
serenity

in the

the

ot
sky,by the rarity

and by the
dryatmosphere,

pov

ANNOTATIONS

erful solar heat


limit of

AND

the

Himalaya, perhapsto
above

the level of the

(Hordeum hexastichon)are
14707
or
toises,

Englishfeet ;

Ooa, and

alliedto Hordeum

Wheat

toises,
or

of
declivity

the

limit of the

higherbirch

for

fuel to

30|"

their

warm

northern

side of the

Himalaya,on
toises,or

2600

at

whilst

the southern

line sinks to 2030


But

Western

PerpetualSnow
the

Asie

of

Thibet

dwell there.

the inhabitants
the

latitude

toises

2650

or
toises,

about 16600

about

atmosphere,the

would

be uninhabitable

(Compare
on

the

T.
Centrale,

in round

snow-

temperaturein

mountain

the

plain of

to the millions who

of the

Examination

two

declivities of the
;

the

English feet;

my

ii.p. 435-437

on

Englishfeet.

distribution of

the

the

follow,

Himalaya the

13000

toises

under

perpetualsnow

the

of

(1279 English

the average, and

of
declivity

for this remarkable


strata

upper

14068
toises,

perpetualsnow

take the lower limit of

numbers,
on

the upper

the data hitherto collected it would

equator. From
may

highlands

found

serve

200

higher.

the northern

latitude,
a
height of
almost

to 2300

much

On

huts, attain, in

barley

of barley
variety

to 2200

which

the limit of

feet)higher than

we

ascend

small bushes

and

or
(16945 Englishfeet),

that

woods

of

up

Thibetian

the

in

Himalaya,CaptainGerard

31" of north

and

another

Englishfeet.

12022

up to 1880

Kunawur

even
cceleste,

extremelywell

succeeds

Englishfeet ;

and

the northern

on

Fields

sea.

in

seen

the
climate,

16625
toises,
or

2600

"

Englishfeet

called

continental

is wonderfully
raised

snow
perpetual

slope of

the eastern

to
peculiar

99

ADDITIONS.

T.

Limit

of

Himalaya,in

iii. p. 281-326,

100

STEPPES

and

Engl. ed.

in Kosmos,

DESEKTS.

AND

vol. i. note

403

S. 483

of the

original.)
justreceived

I have

letter which

who

Joseph Hooker,

well

researches,as
geological

geographyof plants,
says
here

the

relations of

of

correctness

Asie

the

limit of

at

in 27"

mountains

between

of the

Snow-line

Paris

Southern

in

feet.

15600
declivity
"'"

Difference

The

the

mean

part of the

in
inequality

the northern

on

In the

'

Eng.

in the

and Bur-

Asiatic snowy

12981
3645

sinks

ought to distinguish
the

in both

we

contested
formerly

and the Indian declivities.

Extremes

according
Hooker's

to

Northern

"

Difference

as

Joseph

feet.

18764
declivity

iSouthern

local differences vary stillmore,

Dr.

letter.
Paris

feet.

16626

and

mence
onlycom-

Assam

but
heights,

...

12180...
3420

mean

laya.
the Himaiii. p. 326.)

the

Sutlej

trans

limit

snow

southern

manner

the Thibetian

(Asie Centrale, torn.

Northern

hypsometric

Englishfeet,while

I believe we

in the clearest

respectingthe

statements

height

the

saw

the most

and

differences between

My

regard

we

the limit of perpetualsnow


situated,

the extreme

manifested

of the

reason

Himalaya.

Englishfeet/"

to 15000

the

third

Brahmaputra,between

lat.,where

are

the

in

altitude of 20000

an

south of the

passes

odgson,who

snow
perpetual

often

with the

completelyrecognisesthe

statement

your

36" lat. we

region'in

ranges,

declivitiesof the

southern

see

snow

the
Centrale,respecting

height of

man,

Mr.

"

connected

those

as

Dr.

and
meteorological

with
geographerbest acquainted

the

as

in

engaged

is

India from

from

may

Eng.feet.

20000
.

14073... 15000
4691

5000

be

from

seen

AND

ANNOTATIONS

given in

the list of extremes

Gerard

Alexander

295.

of
declivity

Thibetian

(20465 English);and

Jacquemont once
even

low

as

the

Parisian

The

Hiongnu (Hiong-nou),who

him

the

and
territory,

U-siun

Eleuthes.

But

the Huns

Huns,
were

Pastoral

Race,

Deguignes,and

considered

to

rude

by

Uralian

or

(sunburnt);

possessedtowns.

on

caused

They

d'Herbelot

Scythians.On
and

latter cultivated
are

by

west

the

Turkish,and
northern

Huns

even

part of the nation

T. i. pt,i. p. 217
of the

or

declares

gen. des

to

or

or

Nepthalites,

them

white,or
to be

Tanju of

taken

fair

Indo-

the Huns,

which, about

46

A.D.,

migrate northwards,(see

Huns, des Turcs, "c., 1756,

pt.ii.p. Ill, 125, 223, 447.)

Huns

Haja-

had a
Caspian),
the ground,,
and

often called the

Punu, the Leader

Deguignes,Histoire
accounts

on

dominion),

The

race.

the southern

the great droughtand famine


a

is bounded

the

shore of the

eastern

complexion. The

Huns, and

Huns,

with agriculture,
people,
unacquainted
pastoral

dwelling
alongthe

fairer

with

the country of the

telah,(calledby the ByzantinesEuthalites


and

the

be

to

Hiongnu belong to

the Finnish

brown

dark

the

the north

on

Jumnotri,

Hiongnu"

the

by Uo-leang-ho(thepresentMantschu
the
south by the Chinese wall, on

the east

declivity,

the

on

regionof Tartarywhich

that vast

inhabited

on

brown

historians,
long

many

Indian

(11,510 English)feet.

p. 6.

"A

the

Parisian feet

19200

southern

(n)

"

iii.p.

limit ascend,on

snow

to
Himalaya,

on

T.
Centrale,

it,north of Cursali

saw

10800

as

Asie

my

the

saw

the

101

ADDITIONS.

from

the

All the

above-mentioned

102

STEPPES

celebrated work
examination

the result of this

widelydiffused Turkish

centurybefore

for the

Ti, Thu-kiu

north and north-west of China.

The

name

the Christian era,

Turks, in the

or

The southern

came
Hiongnu over-

with them destroyed


Chinese,and in conjunction

the

empire of

the

west, and

impulseto

the

Huns, who

were

the northern
this

Hiongnu.

flightseems

migrationof

nations

Klaproth,to

between

These

have

to

long confounded

Uigureswith thellguresand
to

learned and strict

Mountains.

Tangnu

in the third

generalname
the

the

Hiongnu belongto

Hiongnu, even
a

to
subjected

have been

of the Altai and

races

DESERTS.

by Klaproth. Accordingto

research the

was

AND

giventhe

in Middle

with the

the

latter fled to
first

Asia.

The

Hiongnu,(asthe

according
Hungarians),
belonged,

the Finnish

Europe and Asia,a

race

of the Ural
which

tains
moun-

variously
Asia
mingledwith Germans, Turks,and Samoieds. (Klaproth,
de TAsie,
Polyglotta,
p. 183 and 211; Tableaux Historiques
p. 102 and

109.) The Huns (Olwot)are

a writer
nysiusPerigetes,

information
learned
had

who

him

adopted son

was

was

firstnamed

able to obtain

more

by Diorate
accu-

the interior of Asia,because,


as
respecting

born at Charax

man

sent

race

back
Caius

to

on

the Arabian

the East

Gulf,Augustus

to accompany

Agrippa. Ptolemy, a

thither his

century later,

writes the word


St. Martin
of

name

with a strong aspiration,


which,as
(Koi/voi)
observes,is found again in the geographical

Chunigard.
(12)p. 7.
"

On

the banks

of the

"No

carved

Orinoco

near

Stone"
Caicara

where

the

104

STEPPES

the French

themselves

cityof Quebec

had

asked several of my
in

collection of

older, but

find

existence of

be
really

Maurepas, but

search

to

del

edificios de

America, in Pedro

Peru, P.

i. cap.

without

de

of his first voyage,


T. i. p. 67.

M.

Navarrete,Viagesde

in

de Yerandrier

earlier travellers had

also

the

tive
primi-

de

Leon,

letras
los

in Columbus'
los

the

to

as

Yinaque);in Garcia,,
Origen de

1607, lib.iii.cap. 5, p. 258; and

success.

Ciega

(losacon

87

this

out

in existence in the

equallydoubtful,statements

of

I have

found.

belongingto
alphabetical
inscriptions

nations
Chronica

friends in Trance

Count

it

had been let into

small tablet which

it should

case

theyhad

that

Kalm

it was
stone,in which position

cut

monument,

assured

Several

1746.

in their hands
supposedinscription

the

engravedupon

of
pillar

DESERTS.

of Canada, in
Governor-general

Jesuits in the

was

AND

los

en

Indios,
Journal

Espanoles,

affirmed,(and

moreover

thought they

had

observed

of Western
Canada,
prairies
traces of the ploughshare
throughoutentire days'journeys,
discoverable ; but the total ignorance
of the primitive
were
nations of America
with regardto this agricultural
ment,
implethe

thing),that

same

the want

ground
lead

me

over

to

and
cattle,

of draft

which

the

the

great

supposedfurrows

that
conjecture

ploughedfield
on

in the

has been

this

are

of

extent

found,

singularappearance

"

all

of

effectof water

producedby some

the surface of the earth.

(13jp.
The

7.

"

"Like

wJiich
greatSteppe,

an

arm

extends

of the
from

Sea."

east to west

from

AND

ANNOTATIONS

of the ^Orinoco to

mouth

the

105

ADDITIONS.

the snowy

mountains

of

Merida,turns ta^he south in the 8th degreeof latitude,


the
filling

space between

mountains

of New

the eastern

Granada, and

of which is,in this

south to north.

part,from

the Llanos,which

portionof

of the high
declivity
the Orinoco,the course

is watered

This

by the Meta, the

Yichada, the Zama, and the Guaviare,connects


with

of the Amazons

Paramo, which

word

The

the

valleyof
I often

in SpanishAmerica
signifies
which

elevated from

are

level of the
and

sea

(11500 to

in which

prevails.Hail
the

of
quantity

absolute

but from the


termed
currents

The

as

arborescent

these pages,

regions

Englishfeet in round

bers),
num-

fall daily
for several hours in the

snow

beneficial supplyof moisture

from
supplynot arising

aqueous

vapour

in these

rain),produced by

of air,and

Orinoco.

toises above the

2200

of showers,(hail
and
frequency

well

as

valley

ungenial,
rough,and mistyclimate

an

alpineplants
;

Lower

the

employ in

to

14000

Paramos, and furnish

upper
to

and

the

all those mountainous

1800

latter

the

large

highregions,

beingso
rapidly
changing
snow

the variations of the electrictension.

vegetationof

these

regionsis

low

and

of largeflowering
laurels and
consisting
chiefly
spreading,

alpineshrubs,whose knottybranches are


myrtle-leaved
adorned with fresh and evergreen foliage.Escalloma tubai,
Escallonia

WeinAralias,
myrtilloides,
Chuquiraguainsignis,
and Andromeda
reticulata,
mannias, Erezieras,
Gualtherias,
may

be

this

vegetation.To

Bogota

regardedas
is the Paramo

of the physiognomyof
representatives
the south of the town
de la Suma

Paz ;

of Santa Ee da

mountain
lonely

106

STEPPES

in

group,
treasures

the

DESERTS.

which, accordingto
buried.

are

remarkable

Icononzo

Be

"

The

natural

rises in

entitled

AND

Indian
which

torrent

bridge of

this Paramo.

distribution

the
In

sought to

quae

mire

emollitse defluunt

nimborum

grandinisque
jactutumultuosa
calefacta.

se-

:
regions

Paramos

solutse et

nunquam

memoir

mountain

nomine

hispanisuno

Habitantur

appel-

ad
obnoxise,

regio,
quse

ac

seque

tristi luce fere

et

in hac

quas

flatibus

nives; ventorum

solis nubila
riget,

et per noctes

Latin

of

solitudines,
hexapod. Asperriinse

lantur,
tempestatumvicissitudinibus

per diem

ravine

rocky

montium, 1817,"

characterise those

1700-1900

colonis

under

geographicaPlantarum

cosli temperiem et altitudinem

"Altitudine

flows

my

cundein
have

vast
tradition,

ipsaaltitudine sat

magna3

ut MicuipampaPeruvianorum,ubi
civitates,

metrum

centes. meridie inter 5" et

8",noctu

thermo-

0".4 consistere

"

vidi; Huancavelica,propter cinnabaris

venas

celebrata,

ubi altitudine 1835

annum

temperies

Martii

mensis

hexap.fere totum

per

de

distrib. geogr.

eastern

mountains

(Humboldt

Parish's."

Plant,p. 104.)
8.

f14) p.
send

South

The

forth

Andes

detached

and
spurs

the

advance

which

towards

other"

each

The

"
"

vast

regionsituated

America

narrowed

by

two

and

the eastern

mountain

from each other the three

Orinoco,of

between

the

eastern

of
declivity

masses,

which

the Andes

of the

of
is

divide
partially

or
plainsof
valleys

the Amazons, and

coast

River

the

Lower

Plate.

The

ANNOTATIONS

AND

107

ADDITIONS.

northern mountains, called the group

most

the Andes

to
opposite

are

far to the east,and

of the

of Cundinamarca

which

in the 66th and 68th

assume

Parime,

project

degreesof

the form of high mountains, connected


by the
longitude
hillsof French
narrow
ridgeof Pacaraima with the granite
On

Guiana.
my

the map

astronomical

own

The

marked.

which

this
observations,

plainsof

the Rio

and

Quimiropaca. The

divides the

(west of the Parecis


of

Santa

Parime

group

of the

of the

Orinoco,nor

connected
absolutely
have

(See

my

Cruz

which

causes

the

direct connection

the

mountain
from

mass,

the Eiver

of Chiquitos
province

As

the

the Brazilian group

view
geognostical

Hist. T. iii.p.

second

la Sierra.

de

with

as

it approaches
the
hills),

of

range

far

as

journeythe ridgesof

In the

Plate,is the Brazilian group.

from

the missions of

the Amazons

valleyof

by me

connection is clearly

Branco,and

in the

boundary,crossed

Pacaraima

constructed

from
Caribs,who penetrated

the Caroni to the


Brazilian

of Columbia

of

neither

great

of South

the

cataracts

mountains,are

of
Andes, the plains
with

montory
pro-

those

of

zuela
Vene-

Patagonia.

America, in

Eelat.

388-244.)
(15)p.

"Troops of dogs"

8."

or
Europeandogs have become wild in the grassy plains
and in
Pampas of Buenos Ayres. They live in society,
hollows in which they hide their young.
If the society

becomes
form

new

too numerous,

colonies.

wild, barks

as

loud

some

The
as

families detach themselves and

Europeandog,which
the oriainal American

has become

hairyrace.

108

Garcilaso

thai
relates,

Peruvians

DESERTS.

AND

STEPPES

before the arrivalof the

He

dogs, "perros gozques."

had

the
Spaniards
calls the

dog, Allco

native

it is called at

presentin

the Quichua

from
him
the European dog,
language,to distinguish
Runa-allco," Indian dog" (dog of the inhabitants of
the country). The hairyRuna-allco seems
to be a mere
"

"

He

of the shepherd's
dog.
variety
of
(usually
and

with

bites the

seldom

mischievous

with

wars
cutec,in his religious

When

great

disposedto
Inca

the

Pacha-

the Indians of Xauxa

of Huancaya and
(the presentvalley

Huanca

spots,)

barks

He

natives,however

the whites.

to

longhair,

and brown

white

ears.
uprightsharp-pointed

deal,but
be

with
ochryyellow,

an

is small,with

and

conquered
Jauja),

to the worshipof
them, and converted them forcibly

the sun,

found

he

Priests blew

on

them

the

i. p.

184.)

valleyof Huancaya
entire mummies

even

Huacas, or
Yon

Peruvian

Tschudi,the

has examined

skulls of

of

of dog which
peculiar
species

called

cooked
Near

Among

an

of

excellent Fauna
believes them

dogs

in

the

The

to

Huancas

inhabitants of other

are

still

provinces,
"dog-

Rocky Mountains,

before strangers
as

Laramie, (one of

Peruvians,

belongto a
and which
inga3,

he call, Cams

the natives of the

dog'sflesh is set

Eort

pers
worship-

Vega,Commentarios

veneration

European dop1.

by the
derisively

eaters."

dogs.

the reason
why skulls and
probably
of dogs have been found in the
to the earliestepoch.
graves belonging

and
skulls,

is differentfrom the

the

to

is

author

these

This

la

honours
and

dogs,

de
(Garcilaso

ate their flesh.

Reales,P.

paying divine

feastof honour.

the stations of the Hudson's

ANNOTATIONS

AND

Bay Company for me fur


CaptainFremont attended

trade with
a

of the
The

moon

Mexican

latter was

The

race

Techichi

Spaniardsfound

with the

Koupara

latter is identical with

of the

confounds

Baton

small head, and

of

word
itzcuintli (another
T

was

dog

for

the

155.)

p.

Ursus

can-

sur

les quadrupedes
the other

with

the

hand,

Mexican

still onlyimperfectly
scribed
de-

is formed

short tail,a
back.
from

The
the

very
name

Aztec,

humped, a
dog),and tepotzotli,

struck
particularly

in

America, and

in Peru, with the great


generally
of black dogs without hair, called by Buffon
turcs" (Canissegyptius,
Linn.) Even among the
this varietyis common,
but it is generally
despised

in Quito
especially

Indians

(Azara

by a
distinguished
largehump on the

signifies
humped-dog, and
humpback.

the

crab-eatingAquara-

varietyof dogs

the dumb

confounds

(T. xv.

Linnaeus,on

i. p. 315.)

said to be

Buffon

Procyon or

the

crabier,or

kind
a
Itzcuintepotzotly

"chiens

the old Chinese

this food,before the introduction

of Guiana.

'coast.
Patagonian

Paraguay,T.

number

the Aztec,Tetl,a

Storia antica
(Clavigero,
extirpated.
gradually

crivorus, the

du

dumb.
completely

that almost
so
indispensable,
European cattle,
was

Techichi

over.

dog,which

to
according

eaten

was

was
eclipse

common

Chichi,was

del Messico, 1780, T. i. p. 73.)

guaza

42.)

until the

of the
a variety
Techichi,

The
of

The

mont's
(Fredescription.

from
signifies
literally
stone-dog,

fashion.

whole

beaten

theywere

p.

Indians),

singular
part to playin eclipses

called in Anahuac

Techichi
stone.

dogs had

Sioux

the

feast of this

1845,
ExploringExpedition,
The Peruvian

109

ADDITlONC.

and

110

STEPPES

and

ill-treated. All

AND

European breeds

themselves very well in South


not

are

handsome

so

DESERTS.

dogs perpetuate

America,and if the dogsthere

those in

as

of

Europe,the

is partly

reason

of care, and

that the handsomest varieties (such


partly
and the Danish spotted
fine greyhounds
breed)have never

want
as

been introduced there.


Heir
in

to

makes

of

dogs and

the

kind
particular

of mortal

of the

tho town

English)feet

14100

to

in
daysin fits,

few

convulsive
back

several
it

exposed

Innumerable

"

animals

above

the level of the sea, but such

which

cats and

the cats

then

Trench

taken at firstwith

were

tried to climb

the walls,fell
In Yauli I had

chorea-like disease ;

of the absence

consequence

(or

the end of

dogs dyingat

and died.
and motionless,

to be

are

domestic

as

this
of observing
opportunities

seems

cat

de Pasco, 13228

movements,

exhausted

feet,tender

13000

disease.

keep cats

that

Cerro

both
attemptshave failed,
a

singularremark,

European domestic

attemptshave been made


in

the

at elevations of
Cordilleras,

the

races

Tschudi

von

of sufficient

the hairless
atmospnericpressure."In the Spanishcolonies,
looked

dog was

upon

Perro Chinesco,or Chino.


come

from Canton

it has

of Chinese
The

race

from Manila

been extremely
common
certainly

earlytimes.
there

or

as

was

an

or

American

have

accordingto Klaproth,
in China

since very

indigenousto

(from the Mexican

slave).On

called

supposedto

was

but
hairless,
entirely
dog-like,

called Xoloitzcuintli
servant

the animals

Among

and
origin,

dogs,?ee

very

Mexico

largewolf,

xolo
Smith

or

xolotl,
Barton's

of Pennsylvania,
P.i. p. 34.
Fragmentsof the Natural History

112

STEPPES

in the open air ; at


in the
a

snow

dog that

In Mexico
them

DESERTS.

holes for themselves

nighttheyscrape

theyhowl

A"*D

like wolves,
in

with
accompaniment
off.

sitsin the middle of the circle*


and sets them
the

dogswere

fatter and

to
subjected

better

eating.On

an

make

to
operation

of the

borders

the

of Durango,and farther to the north on the slave


province
at least,
lake,the natives,
formerly
conveyedtheir tents of
buffalo skins

on

their

residence with

placeof

the backs

these traits resemble


eastern Asia.

8.

change of

the

customs

of the

"

T.
(Humboldt,Essai polit.

hist.T. ii.p.

(16)p.

the

largedogs when

of

"
"

Sahara,

changing
All

season.

inhabitants

of

tion
ii.p. 448; Rela-

625.)

Like

the greater

the Llanos

part of

of

the Desert

in the torrid zone.33

are

such
denominations,particularly
Significant
"

as

refer to

the form

in relief of the earth's surface,and which have

arisen at

periodwhen

there

only very

was

uncertain

and their
the countries in question
respecting
hypsometricrelations,have led to various and longinformation

"

continued
of the

Greater and Lesser

"

cap.

1) has

exercised the

No

doubt

the snow-covered

in the

of
territory

Atlas of

Ptolemy;

ancient denomination

The

errors.
geographical

Atlas" (Ptol. Geogr.lib. iii.

influence here
prejudicial

Morocco

western

may

be

summits

alluded to.

of the Atlas

as
regarded

the Great

but where isthe limit of the Little Atlas ?

Is the division into two Atlas chains,which the conservative


tendencies of
to be

for
geographershave preserved

stillmaintained

between

Tunis

and

in the

Tlemse ?

1700

years,

of Algiers,
and
territory
Are

we

to seek between

even

the

and

coast

] 13

ADDITIONS.

AND

ANNOTATIONS

the

interior for

chains constituting
a
parallel

lesser Atlas?

All travellers familiar with

greaterand

views, who have visited Algeriasince it has


geognostical
of by the French,contest the meaning
been taken possession
received nomenclature.
Among
conveyedby the generally
the parallel
chains,that of Jurjurais generally
supposed
of those which have been measured ;
to be the highest
chef des
but the well-informed Fournel,(longIngenieur
en
affirms that the mountains of Aures,
Mines de rAlgerie),
near

Batnah, which

the

end

of

stillfound

were

March,

Little and

existence of

Little and

Great Altai

There is onlyone

between
which

Great

Fournel

snow

at

denies

the

Atlas,as I do that

(AsieCentrale,T.

i. p.

is to be

name

to
applied

succession of crests which

the waters

to
flowing

flow towards

the

the Sahara

direction of the Eastern


is from east to west ;

the

"

Mauri-

foldings/'

form the division

and
Mediterranean,
lowland,

Mauritanian

of

247-252).

called Dyrisby the


Atlas,formerly

and "tins
tanians,

("rides")or

higher.

are

covered with

those

,The strike

portionof

or

the Atlas

that of the elevated Atlas of Morocco

from north-east to south-west.

The latterrisesinto summits

de
which, accordingto Renou, (Exploration
Scientifique

rAlgeriede

1840

1842, publieepar ordre du Gouverne-

ment, Sciences Hist, et

Geogr.T.

attain

of

an

elevation

viii.1846, p. 364 and

10,700 Fr.

the heightof
exceeding,therefore,
formed

highlandof

Marga),bounded

on

situated in 33" lat.


VOL.

I.

an

the

almost
south

From

(11400 Eng.) feet;


Etna.

square

singularly
shape, (Sahab el
A

is
by higherelevations,

thence
I

373),

towards

the

sea

to

] 14

STEPPES

about

the west,

declines in

The

:
height

low

of

we

take

on

regionof
a

part bears the

the

boundaries of

Sahara,as

estimation the

mean

Atlas

limits towards the fertileSoudan,are


If

Mogador, the

this south-westernmost

Mauritanian

northern

extended

DESERTS.

degreesouth

of Idrar-N-Deren.

name

AND

well

as

the

widely

its southern

still
,butlittleknown.
of 16J" and
parallels

32J" as the outside limits,we obtain for the Desert,


its Oases, an area
of more
than 118500 square
including
miles ; or between nine and ten times
German
geographical
of Germany, and almost three times that of the
the area
Mediterranean

exclusive of the

best and most recent

Black

Sea.

for which
intelligence,

we

From
are

the

indebted

to the French

Colonel Daumas

and Carette,
we

learn that the desert of Sahara is composed

of several detached

and MM.

basins,and

Fournel,Kenou,

that the number

and the

than
of the fertileOases is very much greater
population
desert character of
been imaginedfrom the awfully
route

Insalah

between

Mourzouk

and

in Fezzan, to

Timbuctoo, and
Bilma, Tirtuma,

had
the

that from
and

Lake

affirmed that the sand covers


generally
onlythe smaller portionof.the greatlowland. A similar
propoundedby the acutely
opinionhad been previously
Siberian travelling
observant Ehrenberg,my
companion,
de
from what he had himself seen
(Exploration
Scientifique
wild
Hist, et Geogr.T. ii.p. 332). Of larger
1'Algerie,

Tschad.

It is

now

wild
animals,onlygazelles,
met

with.

"

asses, and

ostriches are

Le lion du desert,"
says M.

to be

Carette,
(Explor.

T. ii.p. 126-129; T. vii. p. 94 and 97), "est


del'Alg.
les poetes. II
mvthe
im
popularise
par les artistes et

AND

ANNOTATIONS

dans

n'existe que
pas de
et

se

leur

iiourrir. Quand

il y
froid,

done

Feau

chez

dans
paraissent

il y

Whereas
from

Sahara

Lake

quiboivent
il faut

nous

la

que

Aussi
il y

ou

essaims de

lions

des

of the

ne

des collines

la

ces
moustiques,

course

de Fair
lions de

aux

craignonsque

ne

quelquehumidite."
Dr. Oudney, in the

to
Tripoli

southern

Chez

Nous

et d'innoinbrables
(lefa)
ou

des lions

vous

le Zahara

boisees et de Feau.

la

habitans du desert de

la chair vive.

et de

courante

s'abreuver
quoise loger,

parleaux

des feuilles?

et broutent

sort

ne

Europeensleur donnent pour


repondentavec un imperturbable
sang

ils

coinpagnons,

on

de

animal

les

betes feroces que

ces

imagination.Get

il trouve

montagne ou

sa

115

ADDITIONS.

vipere

derniers

longjourney

Tschad,estimated the elevation of the

at 163 7

'Englishfeet,to

German

which

ventured to add
additional
an
geographershave even
thousand
feet,the IngenieurFournel has, by careful
barometric measurements
made

based

tions,
observacorresponding

on

it tolerably
that
probable

desert is below the level of the


desert which

is now

called

"

partof the northern

That

sea.

portionof

the

le Zahara d'Algerie"
advances

to the chains of hills of Metlili and

el-Gaous,where

the

northernmost

of all the Oases, that of el-Kantara,


fruitful

in

situated.

dates, is
"

"

This low

of 34" lat.,
receives
parallel

65" towards

de Muriate de Soude

Mines, 4me

the south
en

touches the

the radiant heat of

of chalk,(full
of the shellsof

angleof

basin,which

stratum

inclined
Inoceramus),
sur
(Fournel

Algerie,
p.

Serie,T. ix.,1846,

at

les Giseniens

6 in the Annales

p.

Biscara/' (Biskra),
says Fournel,"un

546).

an

"Arrives

horizon

des
a

indefini

116

AND

STEPPES

celui de la

comme

Biscara and

mer

deroulait devant nous."

se

Sidi Ocba

DESERTS.

groundis only228 (243Eng.)

the

feet above the level of the

the

inclination increases

The

sea.

towards the south.


considerably
Centrale,T. ii. p. 320), where
to
relating
everything

In

another work,

I have

Le

accordingto

of
depression

of Suez, when

isthmus

General

accordingto
Fayoum, are
Among
a

of
portions
noticed
already

some

"bitter

vertical

of

from

of Sahara,at

as in my
projected,

are

differentplane, a north-south
"

toises (2122 Eng. feet),


the
Batnah

and

Tizur, at

(3580 Eng. feet).In


Biscara and

t.
Sciences,

xx.

learn from the old accounts


the

countryknew

an

the

of

p.

which

Mexican
ing
Ascend-

one.
an

elevation of

elevation of

partof

only 560

the desert situated


has had

(ComptesEendus

success

1845,

far from

culminating
pointis found

Tuggurt,Fournel

Artesian wells dug with


des

the

on
Philippeville

spotnot

from Constantine,at
uninterruptedly

between

givesall

taken is south 20" west;

were

but the elevationsdetermined

oises

Fonrnel, I

direction of the line on

The

the barometric measurements

between

of

inclinations of the strata,representing


a

the Oasis of Biscara.

332

lakes

M.

which
geological
profile,

to the Desert

on
a
profiles,

and,

ranean.
the level of the Mediter-

section of the 'surface the whole way


the coast

Natron

the

on

"

Andreossy,the
than

lakes"

littlewater,

manuscriptnotices

other

inflexions and

the

they have

also lower

"

possess

Pere

(Asie

broughttogether

continents below the level of the sea, I have


that

Between

seriesof

de TAcad.

170, 882, and 1305).

We

of Shaw, that the inhabitants of

subterranean

supplyof water, and

ANNOTATIONS

relate fabulous tales of


"

el-erd)

Eresh waters

of the old cretaceous

117

ADDITIONS.

AND

the earth

(bahrtoht

between clayand
flowing

marl strata

"

under

sea

and other

under
sedimentary
deposits,
hydrostatic
pressure form gushingfountains

the action of

pierced(Shaw,Voyagesdans plusieurs
t. i. p. 169 ; Rennell,
de la Berberie,
Africa,
Append.
parties
when

p.

the strata

Ixxxv).

are

That

fresh water

should often be found

in this

beds

near

of

part of the world


rock salt,need not

with mines, since Europe


acquainted
geologists
surprise
offersmany analogous
phenomena.
The riches of the desert in rock-salt,
and the fact of
rock-salt havingbeen

used in

have
building,

been known

since the time of Herodotus.

The salt zone

of the Sahara

is-the
(zonesaliferedu desert),

southernmost

of three zones,

across
stretching

Northern

Africa from south-west to northeast,

and believed to be connected with the beds

or

deposits

of rock-salt of
Hoffman
Muriate

and
de

Vorkommen

and Palestine,
described by Eriedrich
Sicily
les Gisements de
sur
(Eournel,
by Robinson.

Soude

en

Algerie,
p.

des Kochsalzes

28-41

the

Karsten iiber das

auf der Oberflache der

1846, S. 497, 648, and 741.) The

Soudan,and

Erde,

trade in salt with

dates in the Oases,


of cultivating
possibility
dences
formed by depressions
caused probably
by falls or subsiof the earth in the gypsum
beds of the tertiary
cretaceous or keuper promotions,
have alike contributed
to enliven the Desert,at least to some
extent,by human
intercourse.
The high temperatureof the air, which
makes the day'smarch so oppressive,
renders the coldness
of the nights,
often in
so
(ofwhich Denham
complained
the African Desert,and Sir Alexander Burnes in the Asiatic),

11 S

so

STEPPES

much

the

AND

DESERTS.

Melloni,(Memoria suh"
striking.

more

abas-

e serene,
temperaturadurante le notti placide
55),ascribes this cold,produceddoubtless by the

di

samento

1847, p.

radiation from

the

of
serenity

calorificoper
sky,(irrigiamento

the

ground,less to

serenita di cielo nell'immensa


than
centrale),

to

greatpurityand
la

grande

deserta pianuradel? Africa

the
in

of all movement

the

absence
profoundcalm,the nightly
the atmosphere. (Consultalso,respecting

African

Aime
in the Exploration
de
meteorology,
T. ii.,
generate,
1846, p. 147.)
FAlgerie,
Physique
of the Atlas of Morocco sends to
The southern declivity
the Quad-Dra (Wady-Dra),
the Sahara,
in lat. 32",a river,
which

for the

which

Renou

p.

greaterpart of

(Explor.de FAlg. Hist,

65-78)considers to

be

long.5" W.,
the

it turns

greatfresh

which
region,

Lake

of

was

on

the coast "the

in
explored

by CaptainCount
by
and

order

sea

08' W.

in
formerly

the 15th

the

at

This

of
history

and
century,

countryof

of
rouk," (achief independent
It

long.11"

the

was

is
wrapped in profoundgeographical
obscurity,

called

now

its former

Debaid,enters

celebrated

so

Portuguesediscoveries of

afterwards

It

west, and, after passingthrough

water

was

viii.

lat. 29" N. and

rightanglesto

in lat. 28" 46' N. and

Cape Nun,
the

in
south,until,

almost at

the

to

runs

T.
Geogr.,

et

sixth longer
than the Rhine.

flows at firstfrom north to

course,

the year is nearly


dry,and

the months

the

Emperor of Morocco.)
Julyand August 1840,

of

Bouet-Yillaumez

of his government. Prom

Surveyswhich

it
manuscript,

have

appears

been

the Sheikh Bei-

of the French

Navy,

the officialReports

communicated

evident that the

mouth

to

me

in

of the

120

STEPPES

the Latin version Nunii


Wadi

or

Ostia.

Nun, somewhat

days'journeyin
de Non.
Long

Edrisi

river Nuius, in

speaksof

to the

more

town,

south,and three

the interior: Leo Africanus callsit Belad

Portuguesesquadronof Giliother Europeannavigators


had advanced much beyond,
Don Jayine
the southward of,this Cape. The Catalan,

anez,
or

DESERTS,

the north-west coast of Africa

placedon
Nul,

AND

to

Ferrer,in 1346,

before the

as

learn from the Atlas Catalan

we

lished
pub-

by Buchon at Paris,had advanced as far as the Gold


River,(Riodo Ouro),in lat.23" 56' ; and Normans, at the
end

of the 14th

8" 30'.

The

merit of

the western

equator on
like that of

so

f :r

century,as

as

havingbeen

Sierra Leone
the firstto

cross

the

of Africa

coast

other memorable

many

in lat.

however,
belongs,
to the
achievements,

Portuguese.
(17)p.

8.

"

of
The

Meta,

Llanos
over

strictestsense

"As
the

grassy

plain,resemblingmany

Steppesof

of Caraccas and

which

Central

Asia"

of the Eio

Apure

largeherds of cattle,
are,
term, grassy plains."Their

roam

of the

and the
in the

"

to
vegetation,
belonging
Graminese,consists of

the two families of

lent
preva-

Cyperacese
and
various species
of Paspalum,
P. leptostachyum
of Kyllingia,
and P. lenticulare;
K.
K. odorata;of Panicum, P. granulimonocephala(Rottb.),
ferum, P. micranthum; of Antephora;Aristida;
Yilfa;
and Anthistiria,
A. reflexa,
and A. foliosa. Onlyhere and
there are found, interspersed
a few
among the Graminese,
herbaceous dicotyledonous
of two very
consisting
plants,
of Mimosa, (Sensitive
Mimosa
low-growing
Plant),
species

ANNOTATIONS

dormiens,which

and Mimosa
intermedia,

with the wild horses and cattle. The


group
on

greatfavourites

are

natives

giveto

this

close their delicate feathery


leaves

which
plants,

of

121

ADDITIONS.

AND

of Dormideras

name
beingtouched, the expressive

plants.For many
sleepy
but where solitary
trees

square

miles not

found, they

are

"

tree is seen

are, in moist

the Mauritia Palm ; in arid districts,


a Proteacea,
places,
the Ehopalacomplicata
described by Bonplandand myself,
regardedas an Embo(Chaparrobobo),which Wildenow
de
or
thrium; also the highlyuseful Palma de Covija,

Sombrero
to

and

our

Coryphainermis,an
is used

which
Chama3rops,
far

How

mor"

varied is the

to

umbrella

Throughouta largeportionof

the

the roofs of huts.

cover

aspectof

palm allied

the Asiatic plains


!

Kifghisand

Calinuck

which I have traversed from the Don, the Caspian,


Steppes,
and the Orenburg Ural river the Jaik, to the Obi and
the

Lake

Upper Irtyshnear

Dsaisang,
througha

1 have never
degreesof longitude,
Llanos,the Pampas, and the Prairies,
an
40

seen,

as

space of
in the

horizon like that

of the ocean, where the vault of heaven appears to rest

on

the unbroken

plain. At the utmost this appearance presented


itselfin one direction,
or towards one
quarterof the

heavens.

The Asiatic

Steppesare

often crossed

of hills,
clothed with coniferous woods
or
in the most

fruitfulpastures
the

limited to grasses ; there is a

plantsand

shrubs.

rosaceae
red-flowering

Prunus

and
spinosa,

aspect. I

have

In

or

by ranges

forests. Even

is by no
vegetation

means

of herbaceous
greatvariety

small
spring-time

snow-white

and

and

(Spirsea,
Cratsegus,
amygdalese
Amygdalus nana) presenta smiling

mentioned
already

the tall and luxuriant

122

STEPPES

AND

DESERTS.

and
(Saussureaamara, S. salsa,Artemisias,
Synantherse
and of leguminousplants,
of Astragalus,
Centaureas),
species
and Caragana. Crown
Cytisus,

Imperials,
(Fritillaria
and tulips,
ruthenica,and F. meleagroides),
Cypripedias,
the eye by the bright
of their colours.
variety
rejoice
of these Asiatic plains
A contrast to the pleasing
vegetation
is presented
by the desolate salt Steppes,
particularly
by the

partof the Barabinski Steppewhich is at- the foot of


between Barnaul and
Altai mountains,and by the Steppes
Mountain
Serpent
Here

and the

the

the east of the

Caspian.
SaliAtriplex,

countryon

of Salsolaand
species
Halimocnemis
(each species
crassifolia,
growing

some
Chenopodias,

cornias and

the

the muddy ground.


form patches
of vegetation
on
socially"),
of the South of Russia
in the Steppes
See GobeFs Journey
1838, Th. ii.
(Reisein die Steppedes siidlichenEusslands,
S. 244 and 301). Of the 500
phanerogamousspecies
the Syrnnwhich Glaus and Gobel collectedin the Steppes,
and the Cruciferse,
were
more
therse,the Chenopodese,
than the grasses ; the latterbeingonly-^ of the
numerous
whole,and the former -fthand -"-th.In Germany,from the
the Glumaceae
mixture of hill and plain
districts,
e. the
(a.
and Juncacese collectively),
form
Graminese, Cyperacese,
or Composite
-fth; and the Cruciferse
-fth
; the Synantherse
"th
of all our German
thern
phanerogamia.In the most nor"

'

partsof
Admiral

and

Wrangellshews

lowlands,the

that the extreme

fine map

of

northern limit of

and Amentacese)
(Coniferae
is,in
vegetation
towards the Behring's
Straits side,in 674-"lat.;
portion

tree and

the

the flat Siberian

shrub

more

71",which

to

the west, towards the banks of the

of the north
is the parallel

cape of

Lena,in

Lapland.

AND

ANNOTATIONS

123

ADDITIONS.

plainswhich border the Icy Sea are the domain of


cryptogamousplants.They are called Tundras (Tunturin
The

: theyare
Finnish)

the eye

districtsextending
farther than

swampy

reach,partlycovered with

can

and
Sphagnum palustre

other mosses,

thick

carpetof

and

with a dry
partly
snow-white coveringof Cenomyce rangiferina
(Eein-deer
and other lichens. Admiral
moss),Stereocaulon paschale,
his perilous
in describing
to
Wrangell,
expedition
Siberian islands so rich in fossil wood, says :

accompaniedme

to the extreme

"

by rein-deer moss,
of

turf

green

eye of the

dwells with

new

dras
TunTheir

In the

dreary

surrounded
traveller,

on
pleasure

showing itself now

These

arctic coast.

soilhas been frozen for thousands of years.


the
of landscape,
uniformity

the

and

the smallest

patch

then

moist

on

spot."
(18)
p.

"

8.

The

"

causes

drynessin
I have tried to

and

causes

which

tric state of the


Continent

and
atmosphere,

whole.

the
Margarita,

Coasts

any

partof

the maximum

brief and

producegreatermoisture
;

it will of

such as
districts,
Single
of Cumana and Goro,are

Africa.

It must

the island of
as

hot and

also be remarked
a

Ganges,and

seriesof years, to be almost

the Orinoco ;

as

that

day has
equalat very

summer's

differentparts
of the earth's surface,
on the Neva, the
the

be

course

of the New
the temperature

of heat at certainhours of

been found,on

compendious

the general hygromequestion


respects

as

both heat and

World"

the New

less degreeof heat in America

understood that the

dry as

lessen

in
bringtogether

the various

manner

which

Senegal,

between
beingapproximately

STEPPES

27"and 32"Eeaumur

DESERTS.

(93"and104"Fahrenheit),and
generally

the observation be
higher, providing

not
at

AND

"

in the

shade,

distance from all solid bodies which could radiate heat

to the

in

thermometer,not

of dust
absorb

sand,and

or

air filled with

an

with

not

the

ascribe the dreadful

must

Eeaumur

(122" to

133"

hot

particles

thermometers,which
spirit

to
light.It is probably
and formingcentres
in the air,
floating
we

made

fine

grainsof

of radiant heat,that

temperatureof

Pah.) in

sand

the

40" to 44".8

shade,to

which my

unhappy friend Eitchie,who perishedthere,and Captain

Lyon,were
The
in

exposedfor
remarkable

most

in the Oasis of Mourzouk.

weeks

instance of very

air probably
free from dust, has

an

observer who

well how

knew

to

high temperature,
been recorded by an

placeand

to correct all his

degreeof accuracy. Eiippell


greatest
in
37".6 Eeaumur, (110".6Fahrenheit,)
at Ambukol

instruments with the


found

sky,strongsouth-west wind,and
annual temperaThe mean
thunderstorm.
ture
approaching

with
Abyssinia,
an

of the

clouded

of
or
tropics,

land, between
8 5".5

the

and
chery,

Surinam.

Table

Senegal,Pondisur

T.
Centrale,

I mightalmost
greatcoolness,

considerable

coast of

les lignes

iii.Mahlmann,

partof

which
say cold,

the year within the

Peru, causingthe thermometer

Eeaumur

by no

Asie

difference

iv.)

The
a

considerable

any

(Humboldt, Memoire
-

palms,is,on

(or 78".2 and

Eeaumur

observations collected in

isotherm es, 1817, p. 54.

for

23".8

20".5 and

Fahrenheit)without

between

the proper climate of

means

(59" Fahrenheit),
is,as
to be

to

on
tropics

the

sink to

12"

I have noticed

ascribed to the

prevails

of
vicinity

elsewhere,
the

snow-

covered

rather to the

Andes, but

the solar disk,and

to

cold

strikesthe coast of Chili


thence streams

On

It is

Fahr.)
remained

"aerial

ocean," or

whether

land

or

it is 21" E.

(79".2

should

have

visit to the shores of the

the

differentregions
depend

character of the bottom


the nature

on

sea, continental

atmosphererests.
warmer

whilst
(60".2Fahr.),

a fact
striking

temperatureof

great degreeon

or

northward,as

1802.

The variations of
a

so

until my

unnoticed

in October
Pacific,

in

Eeaumur

that
singular

and
Conception,

Lima, the temperature

latitude out of the current

same

the south-west,

to the

the coast,near

of the Pacific is 12".5


iiithe

Valdivia and
coast

veil

which, commencing

comingfrom

rapidly
alongthe

Cape Farina.

far as

near

fogs (garaa)which

current

sea

and
in the antarcticregions

125

ADDITIONS.

AND

ANNOTATIONS

of the floor

Seas, often traversed by

colder water, (oceanic


have
rivers),

or

base,

which the

on
oceanic,

or

of the

currents

an

of

effectvery

whether unbroken

differentfrom that of continental masses,


or

of islands,
which
or
articulated,

latter may

as

shallows in the aerial ocean,

which,notwithstanding

their small

dimensions,exert, often

notable influence
masses

we

must

on

districts. In

to

the climate of the

regarded

a
great distance,

In continental

sea.

between sandydeserts devoid


distinguish

savannahs
vegetation,

in the

and

be

or

grassy

Upper Egypt

and

and
plains,
in South

of

forest-covered

America, Nouet

found respectively
former,and myselfin the latter,
the temperatureof the

groundcomposedof granitic
sand 54".2 and 48".4 Eeaumur
(154"and i41" Fahr.) Many
carefulobservations in Paris have given,
to Arago,
according
40" and 42" Eeaumur, 122" and 126".5 Fahrenheit, (Asie

at

noon

126

T.
Centrale,

iii.p.

the Missouri

and

STEPPES

AND

DE3E2.TS.

176.)

The

Savannahs,which between

the

are
Mississipi

called

and
Prairies,

which appear in South America as the Llanos of Venezuela


and the Pampas of Buenos
Ayres,are covered with small
the

plantsof
monocotyledonous
with grasses of which

the thin

the delicatelanceolate leaves


unclouded

sky,and

Wells
and

278) have
has

6".5

or

so

possess

Daniell

and

seen

even

less

much

an

in

or

and
familyof Cyperaceae,
pointedstalks or ears, and
radiate towards the
blades,

sion."
extraordinary
power of emis(Meteor.Essays,
1827, p. 230
"

where the
latitude,

our

thermometer

the
transparency,

8" of Reaumur

18"

(14".5or

the grass.

abassamento

temperaturadurante le

serene,"1847,
state of the

p. 47 and

strongradiation and

are

heaviest.

53, has shewn


is

in

how

calm

of
cooling

the

air

groundas beingthe

under the clouded


of the equator,
vicinity
Upper Orinoco,the Rio Negro,and the Amazons
In the

of

zone

the northern
the Meta

placidee

necessary condition of

clothed with dense

to the north and south of this wooded

the

notti

Sull

"

of
promotedby the particles

cooled sinking
to
already

sky of the
are
River,the plains
from

memoir,

of the formation of dew, the

the grassy surface is also


which

Melloni,in

which
atmosphere,

sink

on
Fahrenheit),

being placedon
di

phere
atmos-

forests;
primeval

regionthere

but

extend

trees,in
dicotyledonous
palms and lofty

the
hemisphere,

Llanos of the Lower

and the Guaviare,and in the southern

Orinoco

hemisphere

Pampas of the Rio de la Plata and of Patagonia.The


in South
by Savannahs or grassy plains
space thus occupied

the

America

is at least nine times

The wooded

regionacts in a

as

greatas

the

threefold manner

area

of France,
in diminish-

128

AND

STEPPES

of leaves also
stratum

until all the leaves of the

stratum

to

less radiation

greateror

modified

as

have passedinto
position,
which

the law

in the

radiation ;

and

by

of
diversity
stable equilibrium
of

mathematical

analysis.

clear nights
of the

summit

noctial
equi-

would

the

process of

of its thin
greatquantity

for

measure

example2000

square

the temperatureof
diminishing

several thousand

by

a tree,the horizontal section


leaves,

or

act in

to
equivalently

cooled

of the

reason

appeiidicular
organs
feet,would

by

long and

of leaves becomes

strata

of whose

deduced

tree, by

their

by

state of

from

the forest air contained in the intervalsbetween

zone,

the

be

can

In this manner,

continue

operationwill

similar

DESERTS.

space

of bare

than
greater

times

turf-covered

or

the air

ground

square feet

2000

(Asie

Centrale,T. iii. p. 195-205). I have sought thus to


in detail the comp icated effectswhich make up the
develope
totalaction of extensive forestsupon the

they have

been

often touched

so

upon

importantquestion concerningthe
Germany and
As

its

in the old continent

earlyremarked

mean

is,as it were,

as

is to
Brittany

it

was

coast

degreescolder in

Almost

on

climates

of

ancient

European civilizationhas

western

that,under

eastern
opposite

"

coast,it could

had

not but be

the
equaldegreesof latitude,

of the United

States

was

several

annual

temperaturethan Europe,
western peninsula
to Asia,
projecting

the rest of France.

that
forgotten

higherto

in reference to the

Gaul.

seats
principal

which

because
atmosphere,

But

in this remark

these differences decrease from

the lower latitudes in such

from 30"
entirely
disappear

manner

downwards.

that

the

they

For the

ANNOTATIONS

west

coast of the
are

new

stillalmost

of the winters in New


of America

and

AND

129

ADDITIONS.

exact thermometric observations


continent,

but the mildness

entirely
wanting;

California shews that the west coasts

Europe,under

the

same

of latitude,
parallels

differlittlefrom each other in mean


probably
table shows what are
The subjoined
mean

annual

of the
latitudes,
the New

in the
temperatures,
west

coast of

annual
the

same

Europeand

rature.
tempe-

ing
correspond-

geographical

the east coast of

Continent.

(Continued.
VOL.

I.

130

STEPPES

iND

DESEETS.

ANNOTATIONS

In the column

in
temperatures

of

stands

in

temperature
; and
the

placeof

that which

the

annual

mean

difference between
striking
distribution of that

stands in the

and
feelings

our

placeof

coasts in

temperatureinto

on

winter

mean

temperature,there
the two

minator
deno-

the

great

is also

respectto

the different seasons


is most

the processes of

the

the year ; that

the

numerator

the year, and it is this distribution which


on

table
preceding

temperature. Besides

summer

mean

difference of

both

131

ADDITIONS.

the temperature
of
represents

first number

which

AND

the
of

influential

Dove
vegetation.

that the summer


temperatureof America
generally,
of latitude than that of Europe:
is lower under equaldegrees
tafeln nebst Bemerkungeu iiberdie Yerbreitung
(Temperatur
remarks

auf der Oberflache

der Warme

der

Erde, 1848,

The climate of St.


annual

the

mean

59"

56'),is found

or

1"^"

(orto speakmore
Petersburgh,
temperatureof that citywhich
on

the east coast of America

to the

more

south; in

like

manner

S.

95.)

correctly
is in lat.

in lat.47-|-0,
we

find the

Konigsberg,(lat.54" 43'),at Halifax,(lat.


43" 36')
44" 39'). The temperatureof Toulouse, (lat.
38" 53').
to that of Washington (lat.
corresponds

climate of

It would
statements

the United

be

general
of
the temperaturein the territory
respecting
in
States of America,as we
must distinguish
very hazardous

to

lay down

any

three regions
:
1, the "Atlantic States east of
territory
the Alleghanies
States in the wide basin
; 2, the Western
between the Alleghanies
and the Eocky Mountains,through

that

which

"

the Ohio,the Arkansas,and the


Mississipi,
between the Eocky Mountains,
3, the highplains

flow the

Missouri ;

132

STEPPES

and

the Maritime

the

Oregon or

AND

DESERTS.

of New

Alps

Columbia

California

River finds

through which
Since the

passage.

honourable establishment,
highly
by John Calhoun, of
observations of

plan at

military
posts,and

35

and annual means,


than

views
time

of

have

we

those

which

reduced to

arrived at
so

were

them

differences of

Bluffs

on

second

the

or

plantstowards

the

middle

if

of
quantity

annual

mean

further advance

the west

the nature

of those

the different distribution of the

heat.

The

wide

of
valley

influence of the Canadian

Lakes, and

the

space of 92,000

Ontario),
occupy

The

climate is much

milder and

of the

of Reaumur
a

same

Mississipi
warming

of the Mexican

Gulf

five lakes,(Superior,
Michigan,Huron, Erie,

and

15'),the

of

of the Alle-

its northern and southern extremities the

The

reckon

we

regionis higherthan

region. The

the north,on

and partly
on
plants,

while at

the

whole,the

ghany mountains,depends partlyon

43"

from

gical
meteorolo-

of 40".
longitude

that of the firstor Atlantic

stream.

These

in the

Vancouver, lat.45" 37',theyinclude

Port

temperatureof

enjoysat

just climatic

the Missouri ; and

It cannot be affirmed that,on

annual

daily,
monthly,

received
generally

observatories extend

or

the Council

certain

uniform

an

point of
Thompson's Island, (Key West),lat, 24" 33',

Florida and

amongst

on

more

Jefferson,
Barton,and Volney.

stations

to

made
temperature,

terrupted
unin-

mean

more

Englishsquare
equablein

the

miles.

bourhood
neigh-

lakes; for example,at Niagara,(lat.


winter

is onlyhalf
temperature

below
(1".2Fahrenheit)
distance from

the

degree

freezingpoint,

the lakes,in lat 44"

53',at

the

ANNOTATIONS

winter

temperatureof

15". 9 Fahrenheit

or

"the

on

and

Climate

(whosesurface
feet above
lakes

is from

the

it),recent
country
hotter

to

observations

and

summers
"

AUeghany

Atlantic
which

side."

from

the

to 37".7

The

by

in the

ground,has
Reaumur,

statement

any

or

so

Virginia,the
of the

or

Gibson,

as

often

the climate

west

Biver

that of

in

mean

the
Gibraltar,

any reflected heat

August 1834,

rise

to

althoughunsupported
repeated,

measurements,
in New

rendered

see

that

since

the first

and
England, Pennsylvania,

of many

forests

the climate

cooler in

disbelieved.

We

proved/'says

117" Fahrenheit.

and
winter

78 years.

of the

the Arkansas

on

without

seen,

on

both

more

sides

equable,

summer), is now

rally
gene-

metric
thermoSeries of trustworthy

observations in the United


back

feet below

excessive than that of the

more

been

Alleghanieshad

doubted

of the

i. e.y
character,

It is

data,that

shade, and

eradication

milder in

English-

in lat. 35" 47',with


Mississipi

thermometric

European settlements

(i.e.,

"

Lakes,

climate

the

continental

temperaturehardlyequal to

thermometer

p. 37, 39,

the bottom

five hundred

colder winters.

Fort

At

to 640

have 'shewn

is

Memoir

the Canadian

sea, whilst

proper

Chain

falls into the

annual

from

thermometrical

Forry, by our
of the

possess

States/'1842,

is about

Huron

7".2 Reaumur,

Ferry'sexcellent

to 600"530

500

the
Mississipi,

"

United

level of the

Michigan and

the

is
Snelling

this distance

At

102.)

Fort

(seeSamuel
of the

133

ADDITIONS.

of the river St. Peter's with

confluence
mean

AND

in the

States

hardlyextend

so

far

observations,
Philadelphia

134

STEPPES

from

that

1771

to

DESERTS.

AND

1824, the

annual

mean

1".2 Reaumur,

hardlyincreased
differencewhich

temperaturehas

(or 2".8 Fahrenheit), a


"

is attributed to

the

increased

and to the
town, to its greaterpopulation,

engines. The

increase

period an

same

cold,amountingto 0".9 Reaumur,


three other

had become

seasons

and-thirty
years'observations
shew
within
whole
of

at

become

colder

annual

the east

respectto
the

the

coast

and

coasts

the western

two

voyage
the

and
of
same

of the

(Forry,

latitudes

same

am

Russian

to

have been very

shores

few

of the

America, and

Gottenas
respectively

indebted

Iluluk
circumnavigation.

its insular climate

Admiral

to

Liitke's

and

and althoughthe
parallel,
to

the

on
"region

the

in
comparable

only take

will

(Sitkain

Geneva)

Iluluk,owing

have

old continent,so

America

of which

George,in

burg

States is

Europe and

properlycompared together.

Fort

the destruction

temperaturein equal latitudes

Chinese

also the west coasts of

for
Pacific,

Salem, instead

4" Fahrenheit.

of the United

annual

examples from

of the

mean

107.)

mean

Siberian

or

oscillate,

means

thirty-three
years,

of the

by 1".8 Eeaumur,

p. 97, 101, and


As

course

the

in Massachusetts

Salem

having become milder,as supposedfrom


forests in the

Three-

warmer.

of years ; and the winters of

number

winter

mean

2" Fahrenheit

or

degree of Fahrenheit,about

of the

on

of

somewhat

all: the

alteration at

no

steam-

numerous

be merelyaccidental,
possibly

difference may

for I find in the

size of the

Danzig are nearly

mean

and

temperatureof
to

cold

136

STEPPES

of the

mouth

by comparingthe

AND

and

Howard, and the Council

the

and
Mississipi

DESERTS.

Oregon with

(Lat. 41"

46"),
"

"

where, to speak in the languageof JBuffon,we

and

of 16".8 and 17".5 Keaumur

(19)p. 10.

"As

"

"

An
said

acute

(69"and 71".4 Fahr.)

ifAmerica

the chaotic

had

emerged

with greattruth,(Fragmentsof the Natural


T cannot

"

puerilesupposition,
unsupportedby

nature, that

greatpart of America

emerged from

the

continents/'

The

bosom

of the

memoir

than
on

by myself
"

and justly
praisedhave repeatedbut
generally
that America
Her

luxuriance

of

of the word

the
vegetation,

New

abundant

of her

(Neue
Writers

too

often

Continent.

wraters of her

powerfulvolcanoes,

earth,from
(saythey)proclaimthat the stilltrembling

the face of which


nearer

sense

the unrepose
rivers,

enormous

all

is in every

other

the

the

on

of

probablylater

touched

subjectwas

same

deem

the evidence

has

ocean

but

'nations of America
primitive
Bd.xv. 1806, S. 190).
BerlinischeMonatschrift,
a

from

enquirerinto nature,BenjaminSmith Barton,

long since

later

watery covering"

P. i. p. 4),
Historyof Pennsylvania,

in

an

(-32"
singledays,of -28".4 and -30".6 Eeaumur
"37" Fahr.),followed by mean
summer
temperatures

on

it

find

winter cold,

climate, a

continental

true

excessive, or

Snelling

Bluffs,in the interior of


basin

Missouri

Torts

to

Continent.
commenced

the waters have not yet dried

the chaotic
Such
my

primordialstate

ideas

than

is here
off,

in the

Old

appearedto me, long before I


and contravels,alike unphilosophical

ANNOTATIONS

137

ADDITION'S.

AND

laws.
acknowledgedphysical
traryto generally

terrestrialyouth,and unrepose associated

images of

and

hand,

one

"

themselves

to

minds

contrasts
striking

strive to

as

is almost

former

volcanic

between

the

increasing
dryness,
only have presented
to draw ingenious
or

we

two

to

regardthe

its northern

suppose

and

of
earthquakes

have

to

of the earth,the
of
cleavings

Italy
the

and
incessantly
disquieted
by earthquakes
small

phenomena are

the presentday,in

with those revolutions of nature which


must

south of

because
portions,

eruptions? Besides,what

the volcanoes

the

than to
hemispheres,
view,the construction
general

one

Are

than

could

"

inclined

more

globe.

modern

more

age,

comprehend,in

of the entire

on

the other,those of

on

inertia in maturer

and

Fantastic

accompanied,in

the

parison
com-

geologist

the chaotic state

and
elevation,
solidification,
disruptions,

the mountain

of causes
Diversity
in the operations
of natural forces,
must
producediversity
in countries remote as well as near.
Perhapsthe volcanoes
of the new
continent,(ofwhich I stillreckon above 28 in
have only continued to burn longer
state of activity),
a
than

masses?

mountain
others,because the lofty

theyhave broken

forth in

are
fissures,

proximity
seems,

with

rows

few

of the subterranean firesin

series above

which

terranea
long sub-

to the sea, and because this

nearer

or

on
ridges,

to affectthe
exceptions,
some

way

not

energy

plained.
exyetsufficiently

both earthquakes
and fire-emitting
tains
mounBesides,
with periodsof
periodsof activity
alternating
"At the present moment," (I -wrote thus 42 years

have
repose.

calm reignin
and political
disquiet
!) physical
"

ago

the New

138

STEPPES

Continent,while
disturbs the
time

is

DESERTS.

AND

strifeof nations
desolating
Perhapsa
repose of nature.

in the Old the

enjoymentof

coming when,

the

this

in

the
and moral forces,
physical
will change parts. Volcanoes

two

sides of the

Atlantic

are

quiescentfor

centuries

and
they burst forth anew;
so-called older countries,
certain
a

the idea that in the

before

nature, is founded
There

exists

our

planetto

are

indeed

no

on

be older

raised from

or

play of
assumingone
than

newer

the bed

and

many

be

indeed

may

formations of the

like many

entire side of

be

said to

than

newer

Europeancentral chain.

of the valliesin the

small district

and

Kashmeer, (and

Moon),by annular mountains,

to be
might be said,figuratively,

become

of fresh

connected

with

of land ;

masses

been

have

of recent

each other

and

partsof

submergedby

the

oscillating
ground; b'ut submersions
embrace

hemisphere,
can,

at
imaginedas extending

earth.

Plutonic

many

water ; and

the

ground

to establish itself
vegetation
beginsgradually

which

land

the

low flatislands of the Pacific ; and these

be longcovered with
inundations,
by partial
after the flowingoff of this lake or inland sea,

have

volcanic

animals,as

may,

oil

Islands

by

ocean

coral

like Bohemia
earth,surrounded,

of the

the

the other.

of the

action,and gradually
heightenedby
Azores

in
prevail
imagination.

peace must

mere

for

reason

between

singularcontrast

The

plainsof

sea

cannot

the Orinoco

the

origin.Islands

by
the

the elevation

dry
previously

subsidence
so

the

of

generalas

to

from

laws,onlybe
hydrostatic

same

time

over

all partsof the

overflow
permanently

the boundless

and the Amazons, without also

over-

ANNOTATIONS

AND

whelming the plainsadjoiningthe


and

world

animals

plantsand

of

remains

in

enclosed

coal formation

ancient

several great

and in

in the

Europe,compare

Hist, des

LyelTs Travels

Charles

and

organic

over
simultaneously

d'une

Adolph Brongniart,Prodrome
Eossiles,p. 179;

the

fossil vegetable
remains

America

in North

sequence

of the

that

placealmost

globe." (Forthe

the entire

The

belongingto

strata, shew

those

taken

have
depositions

Baltic.

sedimentarystrata,and

the

of
identity

139

ADDITIONS.

Vegetaux
in North

America, vol. ii.p. 20).

(2")p.

10.

"
"

than

moister

Buenos
Chili,

Peru,

have

"

mild

Southern

America

As

regardedas

Antarctic

the southern

it

as

or

far

latitude this character


be

half of

result of the

insular climate j
winters.

Hemisphere is

Northern

our

Ayres,and

all,as

of South
true

The

of the

Pole,South

wilderness.

The

nent
of the conti-

south,a

of cool

summers

and

48th

of
parallel

50th

or

Southern

Hemispheremay

farther

on

towards

becomes
gradually

America

Brazil and

the

but
advantage,

an

partsof

taperstowards

the

as

globe."

the

narrowness

climate

cooler and

difference

of

an

the

pitable
inhos-

latitude of

the

southern

Yan
terminatingpointsof Australia,(including

Diemen

Island),of Africa, and

to

each

of these

Straits of

continents

Magellan are

of

and
latitude,

sun

is 18 hours

yet

between

in December

above

the

of

America,

gives

"

The

peculiarcharacter.
the 53d
and

and

54th

degrees

January,when

the

horizon,the temperaturesinks

140

STEPPES

A.ND

DESERTS.

4"

to

Beaumuiy

daily,and

the

Churruca

by

9"

of the

latitude

chain

Berlin.

as

be

attain

in the
of

sort

the

pointsin

Australia,
"

and

56"

the

Southern

deeply indented

and

and

to

modifytheir

Northern

in the

of
proportion

continental

of

comparedwith
temperatethan
of

the
as

13

to

in
inequality

pole.

The

climates.

and

But

"

temperature

which

divide these

of

areas

this

Southern
zones

the distribution of the


on

the

rially
very mate-

dry land

to each other

Hemisphere, as

In the

to the

more

temperatezones

Hemispheres,the
as

5 to 4.

dry land

strengthof

in

in extent
inferiority

Southern

zone.

1 ; in the torrid

of

Fuego,

The

Hemispheresare
the

in

to the torrid

sensible influence

del

Northern, belongsmuch

the

Northern

terminating

icypole,contributes

the

3 to 1.

masses

the

coinciding

34", 46"",
respectively

are

of ocean,

Southern

and

the continents

of America, in the

Tierra

south

unequal extents

pointsfrom

the

"

the

in the

al Estrecho

the Pole,

Hemisphere,

"

southern

76.)

of 70",
parallel

of Africa,

southern

the

Hemisphereall

intersected

distant from

of the very

p.

Cabo

toises,or

Andes, is almost

limit towards

with
prettyregularly

The

del Yiage
(Relacion

Northern
mean

of those

218

regardedas

of the

1793,
Magallaues,
apendice,
While

falls almost

52".2 Eahr.

R., or

towering rock, though only

termination
same

Snow

December, (the summer

Englishfeet high,may

1394

is

in

above

not

Pilar,whose

Fahrenheit.

highestatmospherictemperatureobserved
(1788)

was
regions),

de

41"

or

the

ratio

The

exercises

great
a

very

ascendingaerial

ANNOTATIONS

which

current

the

towards

turns

of

the noblest forms

the southern

the Southern

temperatureof

141

ADDITIONS.

AND

pole,and

Hemisphere.

on

Some

of

for example the


tropical
vegetation,

advance south of the equatoras far as the parallels


tree-ferns,
of

46",and

are

of

not found

53";

even

of
beyondthe tropic

Appendix to

Flinders'

distributione

boldt,de

whereas north of the


Cancer.

Yoyage, p.

(EobertBrown,
and 584; Hum-1

575

Plantarum,p. 81-85.)
geographica

Tree-ferns thrive

Hobart

Diemen

the

well at
extremely
42" 53'),
where
Island,(lat
is 9" Eeaumur,

l".6 Eeaumur,
Toulon.

or

3".6

the equator than

Hobart

of 12".3

E., or

of 6".5

5 2".2

or

is almost

Rome

Town

and
Fahrenheit,

Fahrenheit,less

degreeof
and

Town,
59".8

has
"

and

"

Fahr.

p.

than

that of

annual

an

winter

perature
tem-

ture
tempera-

temperature

a summer

beingin

Hobart

8".9,4".5,and 13".8 E., or 52".0,42".2, and


In

S. lat. 46"

Dusky Bay, New


8',and

Zealand,tree-ferns

in the Auckland

and

in 53" S. lat. (Jos.Hooker, Flora

even

is therefore

latitude farther from

Fahr.;

E., or 46".4 Fahr.,

in Van

annual temperature

mean

of 24" E., or 86" Fahr. ; these three values


Town

equatorthey

63".

grow

in

CampbellIslands,
1844,
Antarctica,

107.)
In the

same

0".4

of
Archipelago

latitude

as

Tierra del

Dublin, the

Eeaumur, (33"Fah.) and

only8" E.,

or

50"

mean

the

Fuego, where,in
"

winter
mean

the

temperatureis
ture
tempera-

summer

Fahr., CaptainKing
"

found

the

most luxuriantly
in large
"vegetation
thriving
woody-stemmed
trees

of Fuchsia and Veronica" ; while this


the
on
which, especially

western

vigourof

coast

of

tation,
vege-

America

142

STEPPES

in 38"

described
of

40"

and

by

AND

of south

is
latitude,

picturesquely
south
Darwin, suddenlydisappears

Charles

Cape Horn, on

DESERTS.

so

the rocks of the Southern

Shetland Islands,
and of the Sandwich

Orkneyand

These
Archipelago.

but scantily
covered with grass, moss, and lichens,
Islands,
Terres de Desolation/'
callthem,
as the Trench
navigators
''

stillfar north

are

Northern

of the Antarctic Circle ; whereas in the

Hemispherein 70"

of

of
at the extremity
latitude,

fir-treesattain a heightof between


Scandinavia,

Englishfeet.

(CompareDarwin

iii the

"

60 and

70

Journal of Researche

tive
1845, p. 244, with King in vol. i. of the Narraof the
If

we

Voyagesof
Tierra

compare

Famine

the Adventure
del

in the Straits of

which is one
Berlin,

Fuego,

and
and

Magellanin

degreenearer

-0".5

the

34".8

E., 42". 6,

Fahr.

50".0

8".0

data which

we

temperatezone
may

be

summer

view

the few

in the Southern

most

heat and

well-assured

temperature

presentpossess, for the lands of the

at

comparedwith

in
Hemisphere,

find for

63".2

4". 7,

one

38',with

Fahr. ; and for

1".2

in
subjoin

lat. 53"

we
equator,

K, 47". 2,
13".9

Port
particularly

30".8

Berlin 6" 8,

Port Famine

Beagle,
p. 577.)

Hemisphere,and

temperaturesof the Northern

the

the distribution into

parts of which

winter

which

cold is so

less equable. I

employthe

before used and

in
explained

differentand

convenient method
pages 129

"

131.

so

much

of notation

144

AND

STEPPES

like

arm
dried-up

of the

DESERTS.

of
valley

The

sea.

the Nile is

mus
LybianDesert. Beyond the Isthand basaltic
of Suez, beyondthe porphyritic,
syenitic,
rocks of Sinai,begins the Desert mountain
plateauof

the eastern limit of the

Nedjid,which occupiesthe whole


and is bounded
Arabian Peninsula,
by

fertile and

the

happiercoast

of the interior of the


to

the west and south

lands

Euphrates,bounds

Hadhramaut.

The

SyrianDeserts

towards

the east.

of

Hedjaz

the Arabian

Immense

Persia from the Caspianto the


cross
(bejaban),
Among them are the salt and soda Deserts
and
Beloochistan,
Seistan,

Mekran.

from the Desert of Moultan

(22)p.
The

11.""

Phoenician

western

discussed in modern

legendshave
combined

and
was
father,)

confusion

*'

At

Kerman,

separated

the ancient Atlas

times,but

the oldest

in this discussion

and the

Romans.

with thoroughmathematical
deepphilological

astronomical
the

Professor Ideler,
(the
knowledge,
firstperson who explained
and dispelled
the

of ideas which

me

of

latteris

had

existed
previously
introduce

on

very

this

on

here the remarks

writer
and highly-informed
clear-sighted
to

Indian Sea.

Indus.

been confounded

subject.I permitmyselfto
that

sand,

part of the Atlas."

the later fables of the Greeks


who

man

by the

the position
of
question
respecting

has been much

with

The

The

and

of

seas

and

has communicated

this important
subject.

earlyperiodof

beyond the

the world the Phoenicians

Straits of Gibraltar.

and Tartessus on* the

and
Spanish,

They built

tured
ven-

Gades

Lixus and several other

ANNOTATIONS

towns

AND

the Mauritania!! coasts

on

145

ADDITIONS.

of the Atlantic,

They

sailedalongthose coasts northwards to the Cassiterideswhere

theyobtained tin,and to the Prussian coast from whence


theybroughtamber; and southwards,
past Madeira,to the
Cape de

Yerde

Islands.

and
the Canaries,

They visited/
among

other

places,

struck

by the appearance of the lofty


enhanced by its rising
Peak of Teneriffe,
from
immediately
the sea.
Through the colonies which theysent to Greece,
and especially
throughthat which came under Cadmus to
the notice of this mountain rising
Boeotia,
high above the
of clouds,
and of the
Fortunate Islands,"
adorned
region
with fruits of every kind, and especially
with the golden
Here the tradition was propaorange, spreadinto Greece.
gated
by the songs of the bards,and thus reached Homer.
He speaksin the Odyssey(i.52) of an
Atlas who knows
allthe depthsof the sea, and who supports
the greatpillars
were

"

"

which

divide heaven

speaks,too, in
describes

as

the

earth from

of
Iliad,

land
lovely

expresses himself in
who

and

the

other."

which
Elysianfields,

in the west.
similar

each

manner

He
he

(II.iv. 561.) Hesiod


Atlas,
respecting

of
of the nymphs the daughters
neighbour
Y. 517.) He callsthe Elysian
fields,
Hesperus. (Theog.
which he places
the islands
at the western limit of the earth,
of the Blest. (Op. et dies,v. 167.) Later poets have
added further embellishments
to these myths of Atlas,
of the Hesperides,
and the Islands of
their goldenapples,
of the virtuous
the Blest,assigned
the dwelling-place
as
of
afterdeath ; and have combined with them the expeditions
the Tyrian
Melicertes (theGrecian Hercules).
god of trade,
he makes

VOL.

I.

146

"

The

Greeks

Phoenicians and

DESERTS.

AND

STEPPES

onlybegan at a very late date to rival the


in navigation.They visited
Carthaginians

the coasts of the Atlantic it is true,but


far
penetrated
saw

into the

very

I doubt whether

ocean.

the Canaries and the Peak

that Atlas,which

their

highmountain
be

appear to have

never

theyever

They believed

of Teneriffe.

poets and legendsdescribed

placedat
the west

the western

limit of the
It

coast of Africa.

as

earth,

placed
there also by their later geographers,
Strabo,Ptolemy,and
others. As there is not any single
mountain distinguished
by its elevation in north-western Africa,the true situation
must

of Mount
been

soughton

Atlas has been

sought,sometimes
sometimes

further towards
firstcenturyof

and
of perplexity;
subject

the coast,sometimes

on

Mediterranean,and

the

near

the south.

It became

era, when

our

runs

of Atlas to the African


from west

to east almost

and
chain

arms

it has

in the interior,
sometimes

(inthe

the custom

the Roman

into the interior of Mauritania


name

was

penetrated

Numidia,)to givethe
of mountains

with
parallel

which

the coast of the

Mediterranean.

Pliny and Solinus were, however, very


sensible that the descriptions
of Mount
Atlas givenby the
Greek and Eoman
not
to this long
applicable
poetswere
mountain

chain ; and

theytherefore thoughtit necessary to


transfer the Atlas,of which theygave a picturesque
tion
descripin accordance with the poetic
legends,to the terra
of Central Africa. Accordingto what has been
incognita
said,the Atlas of Homer
of

Teneriffe;and

must
geographers

the

and Hesiod
Atlas

be in Northern

onlybe

can

of the

Greek

Africa."

and

the Peak
Roman

AND

ANNOTATIONS

the

I will onlyadd
discussion

by

remarks
following

Professor Ideler.

Atlas rises from


Solinus,
and

longridge. How

never

we

known

in Tene-

term

Atlas is a

now

the Romans

came

instructive

sandyplain(e medio arenarum);.

What
declivity.

its

on

to this

Accordingto Plinyand

were
(whichcertainly
elephants

feed
rift'e)

147

ADDITIONS.

in
recognise

to

this

long ridgethe isolated conical mountain of Herodotus?


be found in the optical
delusion by
May not the reason
chain seen
in profile,
which every mountain
in the prolongation
of its direction,
has the appearance of
I have often

longchains

above

which
ridges,

or

mountains.
Morocco

in this manner,

seen

Accordingto

with
1800

toises,or

might

Host

perpetual
snow,

from

the sea, the ends of

be

taken

the ancient

called the Atlas


Mauritanians,

on

the other hand

thinks that he
name

"

between

occasion to the

beyond the
lesIdees

p. 10.

of

word

on

The

Daran,a word

Dyris. Hornius,

Dyris in

the Guanche

Teneriffe,
Aya-Dyrma. On

purelymythicalideas
the way in which

image of

Pillars of

mountain

Hercules,see

cosmographiques
quise

in Eerussac's

as

Dyris."

(de Originibus
Americanorum,p. 195),

the
recognises

of the Peak

and
traditions,

consonants

It is also

i. e.
Barbarians/'

"

chain of the Atlas is stillcalled by the Arabs


same

near

elevation of

English feet.

the
to Pliny,
that,according

has almost the

for isolated

animplies

remarkable

which

cone

narrow

the Atlas is covered

which

11510

and

the

nection
con-

geographical

the Titan Atlas gave


the heavens,
supporting
Letronne's

rattachent

au

nom

"Essai

sur

d'Atlas,"

Mars
Bulletin universel des Sciences,

1831,

148

STEPPES

that
Considering

DESERTS.

AND

present(itis true, very limited)

our

knowledge of
geological

the mountainous

Africa does not

acquaintedwith

make

us

within
eruptions

so

Western

in the

Atlas,and
The

continent.
Hanno's

indications of

in
phenomena,,

indeed

ship-journal,
may

threatened

by

give to. each

wild inhabitants

other notice of the

the appearance

danger

of the hostile vessels.

summit
flame-enlightened
lofty

of the

chariot of the

"

in

of
onlybeen strips

fireskindled by the
burninggrass, or signal
of the coasts to

the

often mentioned

have

coast of the

west
neighbouring

of fire,so

streams

ble
is very remarka-

many

belief in the existence of this class of

North
of volcanic

trace

any

times,it

the ancients

find among

to

historic

partsof

The

gods"

the Peak of Teneriffe ;


(Qe"voxrifjia),
may recall obscurely
but farther

ground.

Harmo

on

describes

finds in the Gulf

He

largeisland,and

in it

smaller island.

South

conformation
singular
the Western

near

salt lake which

bay of
repeated. Is

Horn, a

againcontains

the Gorilla
this

of
description

conformation

coral

of "lagoonislands,
or
(Atolls)"
productions,
lakes" in

upheaved?

the

middle

The Triton lake

of the lesser

but
Syrtis,

Cent. T. i. p.

179.)

of

earthquakeswhich
of fire.

?ri/poe

were

not

was

lake

in the

has been

cone

neighbourhood

in
disappeared

(Asie

consequence

bursts
accompaniedby great out(Lib.iii.53, 55) says expressly,

"K-0vr"/juarajueTaXa. But

formation

volcanic

the Atlantic coast.

near

The

Diodorus

of which

Apes,the

same

"crater

is

of the

of

is ascribed to the

"

the most
hollow

in
hitherto littlenoticed,
occurring

one

wonderful

Atlas" in
of the

con

passage

philosophic

ANNOTATIONS

Dialexes

of Maximus

lived in

Rome,

Atlas is "on

AND

Tyrius. This

the

Platonic

Commodus.

under

149

ADDITIONS.

philosopher

situation of his

The

the Western

where
continent,

Lybians

peninsula.The mountain has in it


projecting
towards the sea a semicircular deep abyss. The precipices
are
so
steepthat-theycannot be descended ; the abyssbelow
inhabit

is filledwith trees,and
and
a

on

"

the fruits which

well."

looks down

one

theybear,as

if one

(Maximus Tyrius,viii.,
7,

is so graphicand
description
doubtless

ed.

lookinginto

was

The

Markland.)

marked, that
individually

so

recollections

the

conveys

upon their summits,

impressedby

it

real

prospect.
(23)p.

II."

"The

Mountains

of

the Moon.

Djebelal

Komr."
The Mountains

of the Moon

(creXrjvrjQ
opoe)form
mountain
west.

The

on

of

Ptolemy(Lib.iv. cap. 9,)

older maps

our

an

Africa
traversing

zone,

existence of these mountains

but their extent,their distance from the


are
direction,
general

all unsolved

alluded in another work,

297, Engl.ed.)to the


with Indian
the

and
languages,

Zend, teaches
of

commercial

regionsof

us

that

Ptolemy forms
connection
Southern

in which

direction of ideas shews

east

to

certain;

appears

Equator,and

problems. I

have

their

already

and note

closer acquaintance

with the ancient Persian idiom,

partof
an

the

and

clature
nomengeographical

historic monument

of the west

Asia

from

(Cosmos,vol. ii.p. 191,

manner

terrupted
unin-

immense

with

Eastern

itself in

the

of

most

Africa.

the

distant

The

same

questionvery recently

150

STEPPES

broughtforward.

It is asked,whether the greatgeographer

and astronomer
of the

AND

of Pelusium

DESERTS.

in the

meant

in that of the "Island

Moon/''as

(Jabadiu,
Java),merelyto give the
native

of "Mountains

name

whether

Barley"

translation of

El Istachri,
probable)
and other early
Arabian geographers,
Edrisi,Ibn-al-Yardi,
onlytransferred the nomenclature of Ptolemyinto their own
whether theywere
misled by similarity
in the
or
language
;
sound of the words and the manner
of writing.In the notes
to the translation of Abd-Allatif s celebrated description
of
Silvestre de Sacy,(ed.de 1810,
Egypt,my greatinstructor,
name

"

(as is

Greek

of

most

"

p. 7 and 353,) says


le

nom

de

les sources

montagnes que

ces

du

ne

cette denomination

entendent

de la lune, et

sais si les Arabes


de

regardecomme

ont

On

Ptolemee.

en

le

'

prono^ant

j'aisuivi

prisoriginairement
peut croire qu'ils

effectivement aujourd'hui
le mot

de la lune

sens

Africain

Leon

Nil,par montagnes

Je

cet usage.

traduit ordinairement

On

"

:
expressly

Kamar*

A-"

jene

dans le
crois pas

et6 Topinion
des anciens ecrivains arabes
cependantque $'ait
Aboulfeda
le prouve Makrizi,Komr.
quiprononcent,comme
1'opinion
de ceux
rejette
positivement
kamar,
quiprononcent
et qui derivent ce nom
le
de celui de la lune.
Comme
inot
un

komr,

considere

d'une
objet

couleur

comme

verdatre

Fauteur du Kamous, il
cru

que cette

on

d'un blanc

suivant
sale,

paroitque quelquesecrivains

montagne-tiroitson

The learned

de -_A_J|, signifie
pluriel

nom

Eeinaud,in his recent

de

sa

out

couleur."

excellent translationof

Abulfeda (T.ii.,
P. i.,p. 81-82),considers it probable
that
the Ptolemaic

of the
interpretation

name,

by

"

Mountains

152

STEPPES

DESERTS.

AND.

33" E.

and
Habesch, in 7" 20' N. latitude,
35"

Paris,or
the

22' from

Arabs,from

the native

Greenwich.

of sound,may
similarity

have

Gama.ro

the

name

belongingto

Nile ?) has its source, to

(Djebelal-Kamar);
have

taken

1848, S.
The

Me,

for the

has

which

again been

excited in

towards
The

Science,held

inhabitants

of the

the Mountains

The

the Mountains

to

plateauat
of the

the

the

Moon, which

to the coast,or
parallel

from NNE.

"

feet

8000

of

to

east and

to SSW.

the

mountain

extremity
passes
not

high,

10" 1ST.latitude.

or

highlandshas

run,

The

"

says

appearance

its southern

ing
respect-

of the Moon

He

nearly9"

of
declivity
coast

Swansea,

at

in detail his ideas

Habesch.

of

the south

eastern

of

sources

traveller,
Abyssinian
ciation
meeting of the British Assoof

between

Mountains

the

southern

above
elevated plain,
Abyssinian
generally

but

of
discovery

the

the above-named

at the recent

Beke,

the connection

chain.

59-63, with

Nil-Quellen,

the most

more
August 1848, to develope

extends

Eoyal

Entd. der

Exped.zur

for the Advancement

and

earlyArab

the Journal of the

for
expedition

of
discovery

Nile, induced

Charles

the Indian Ocean,

534-536.

livelyinterest

England
the

instructive

Godjeb

Mountains

Moon

mean

the Semitic version,


'givenby

of the

sources

the

vol. xviii. 1848, p. 58, 55, and

Fred* Werners
the

in which

Abyssiniaand

immigrants. (CompareAyrtonin
Geogr.Soc.

interpreted
Abyssinian

Ptolemy himself,familiar with

that

so

the intercourse between


may

that
conjectures

He

mountains,in the south-west of Gaka


(orWhite

long,from

into

west,

extending

from 10" N. to 5" S. latitude. The

of the

of the Mountains

the coast of Mombaza.

stillon

side

(Ib4"7)

autumn

Eebmann

and

have

They

the Wakainba

vicinity,
among

the

Last

missionaries
Abyssinian

the two

"J-" S.,

fallsinto the Indian Ocean

Moon,

Melindeh,north of Mombaza.

near

Nile

the eastern

where the river Sabaki,on

far from

not

of the White

sources

in
country,probably

situated in the Mono-Moezi

are

153

ADDITIONS.

AND

ANNOTATIONS

Krapfwere

established in

station
a missionary
tribe^

promisesto be very useful


to the
also for geographical
discovery.Families belonging
Eabbay Empie,

called

tribe have

Wakamba

the upper

far distant.

by the

An

The

the

Nile

ancients is probably
the

Godjeb or

far

as

of the Nile
these sources,

Beke),is to

coming from

six

greatlake Nyassi

sources

advice of

or

country,as

to
expedition

the west

is preparing
set out

referred

or Keilah,
Bahr-el-Ghazal,

which falls into the Nile in 9" N.


of the

five

of Hanover,
Bialloblotzky,

undertake,(bythe

Mombaza.

from

lat.?),and

S.

Priedrich

Herr
to

to

(5"
not

are

which

the west

to

of the river Lusidji,


the

course

Zambeze

which

advanced

miles into the interior of the

hundred

or

which

lat.,above

the mouth

Sobat."

scientificexpedition,which
Kussegger's

by Mehemet
of Fazokl on
gold-washings
"

Ali's desire
Blue

the

1838,
"

Moon"
of

sent

was

to

(Green) Nile, Bahr-el-Azrek,in

had made
appear

the existence of the

very doubtful.

Ptolemy,issuingfrom

lake

the

Tzana) winds

mountains;

but

from

towards

the

The

"

Blue Nile,the

an

Astapus

(now called

the colossal

the south-west

and
of the

Mountains

lake of Coloe

amongst

1837

Abyssinian

extensive

low

1 54

STEPPES

tract of

AND

DESERTS.

The

countryappears.

from

Charium

the command

the autumn

of 1840, which

of Selim

August 1841), first


to the

the

south,run
from

leftbank
Ali's

of the Bahr-el-Abiad.

first saw
expeditions

Werne's

Gebel
land

rise to 3400

continued
the

and

island of Tschenker
Commander

Selim

and

shallow river makes

mountains

the Moon

they are
such

as

limit of

4"

as

not

third iu

which,

wards
after-

approachthe

second of Mehemed

chain,according
Gebel Abul

1 1 J", where

(3623 Eng.)

feet.

The

the

river

to

the
the

4', where

and

high

its way between

more

of
parallel

the

of
expedition

Eeizulla Eifendi terminated.

rise againin the

feet.

Eng.)

The

4|" lat.,to

in

French

to east, and

west

approachednearer

south, between

another in

high mountains

the mountain

account, in lat.

Kutak

and

and
south-east,

to

stillfarther
4",and probably

"

at first from

north-west

and the White

Bimbashi

Thibaud

unveiled the

of 6"
parallels

1839

by the
accompanied

was

and
Arnaud, Sabatier,
engineers

between

November

to the confluence of the Blue

Nile,under

to

expeditions
exploring

by the Egyptiangovernment, (one in

sent

to

three

The

rocks, and detached

countryof

Bari to 3000

(3197

probablybelong to the Mountains of


in .our most recent maps, although
represented
indeed mountains covered with perpetual
snow
These

Ptolemy had
snow
perpetual

be found below

an

described

(lib.iv.

cap.

9).

in these latitudeswould not

elevation of 14500

The

certainly

(15450 Eng.) feet.

PerhapsPtolemy transferred to the countryof the sources


Nile the knowledgewhich he may have had
of the White
of the

high

mountains

of Habesch, which

are

nearer

to

and

Upper Egypt

to

Miecha,and Sami,
and

the

(10657

14000

the Red

e.,

Godiam, Kaffa,
rise to 10000

Eng.) feet,accordingto
accordingto Bruce^ who gives

not

wide
exceedingly

(5041 Eng.) feet,instead

4730

In

14920

the elevation of Chartum


".

Sea.

mountains
Abyssinian

and

measurements;

exact

155

ADDITIONS.

AND

ANNOTATIONS

of the truth,

of 1430

(1524 Eng.)

of the most accurate observers of the


one
Euppell,
present day, found Abba Jaret,in 13" 10' of latitude,
only66 (70 Eng.) feet lower than Mont Blanc. (Compare
Bd. i. S. 414, and Bd. ii.
Euppell,Eeise in Abyssinien,
the Buahat,an elevated
S. 443). Euppellfound,adjoining
plain13080 (13939 Eng.) feet above the Bed Sea,barely
feet !

covered with

small

T.
boldt,Asie Centrale,
of

snow
Abyssinian

the
believe,

iii.p.

Juba
"

than

and

The

272).

Niebuhr

Adulis,which

later than

fresh fallen snow

of
quantity

celebrated inscripti

considers to be

in

T.
tropics(AsieCentrale,

This

of snow
antiquity

iii.p.

what
some-

Augustus,also speaksof

that reaches to the knees."

earliestmention

(Hum-

235) ;

as

the

is,I

within the

Paropanisus

is 12" of latitude north of the northern limit of the torrid


zone.

Zimmermann's
Nile shews
the Great
domain

the

map

of the countries about

determines the basin of

it on
Eiver,and separates

the south-east from the

of the rivers which

flow into the Indian Ocean ;

"

the Doara, which

of

the

Magadoxo;
the Amber

whose

Upper

line which
dividing

that is to say, from

on

the

abundant

from

coast,near
stream

Teb, which

Ogda ;
is formed

enters the

sea

north

has its embouchure

and

by

from
the

the

Goschop,

confluence

of

156

STEPPES

the

Gibu

the

the

Godjeb,rendered

and

d'Abbadie, the

AND

Zebi,and

DESERTS.

which

he

from
distinguishes

celebrated since

and

missionaryKrapf,

results of the travels of Beke,

by

1839

Antoine

Beke.

These

Krapf,Iseuberg,
Russeger,

and
Abbadie, and Werne, broughttogether
Biippell,
in the

comprehensiveand

most

Zimmermann,

with the most

1843

Carl Bitter.
an

to

hailed

were

me

in
lively
joy,as expressed

"If/' I

to

wrote

him,

him, there is

able to compare

exists,and

and

developethemselves
all had

where

see

long

to those who

even

the

live

of being
delight

knowledgewith

that which

great advances in knowledgegrow

now

to

letter to

lifeprolonged
to

"

in
compensation

older states of

in

it several inconveniences

and perhapssome
individual,

the

by

manner

their appearance

on

periodbringswith

advanced

with

by

convenient

shewn

under

eyes in

our

slumbered

in

departments

with
inactivity,

the

of attemptsby hypercriticism
to render
exception,
perhaps,
doubtful.
previousacquisitions
time

time

to

fallen to

our

studies,and
geographical

of

discovered

be

work

of

our

and

new

map

are

mation
confor-

leadingtraits

usually
among

unravelled.

the eastern

againbrought these
His

its

depends in

friend Carl Zimmermann,

of the Nile and

our

in reference to
particularly
which formerly
could onlybe

uncertainty.The
hesitating

continent

from

this

relations which
plastic

several
to

enjoymenthas

share,yours and mine, in

those very partsof the world


treated of with timid

This

new

on

on

the latest

and

the upper

excellent

country

parts of central Africa,has

considerations very

shews in the clearest

manner

before
vividly
to

the eye,

me.

by

ANNOTATIONS

method
particular
unknown, and what, by the
of

means

happilyhold
disclosed to

and

whom

our

"

It is

us.

valuable

for farther advances

inferences,when

been

already
which

one

comprehensive

more

with
thoroughlyacquainted

persons,

of

countrymen

own

and
service,
and

is still

perseverance

has

important place,

an

the way

shading,what

courage

among

"

opens

of

travellersof all nations,

157

ADDITIONS.

AND

the

who do not
often widelyscattered,
materials, men
existing,
and, wheremerely draw and compile,but compare, select,
"

it is

ever

check
possible,

determinations

astronomical

by

and control the routes of travellers


of

position,undertake
"

to

the results of the elements of knowledge


graphically
represent
at
possessed

the time.

the world

to

much

so

rightto expectmuch
augmented the
that when
you

could

have
often
and

of

you executed

you

have

greatwork

your

by

synonyms

largely
believe

Africa in 1822

on

accessions

many

are

which

on

course
northerly

of the

they are

different families of

by

us

influences

course

have

as

we

knowledge acquiredis,indeed,

their
at

once

course

the form

men,

called in

languages; but

the nourishers

the channels of intercourse between

The

especial

their branches,
rivers,their direction,

of

earth,and

given

an

connectingpoints; yet I

The

belongingto

rivers reveal to

unknown

done, have

hardlyhave expectedso

the various

of the

have themselves

since their combinations

number

only that

dialects

who

as

received."

now

Those

and

of the surface
of

vegetation,

pregnantwith

the future.
of the White

easterly
Nile,and the south-

greatGoschop,would indicate that

158

AND

STEPPES

of
swelling

or
swelling

ground separatesthe

the

these rivers.

DESEETS.

We

be connected with the mountains

elevation may

it may

manner

be continued

and
beyond the equator. Probably,
friend Carl

accordingto
26"

S.

the

excellent

this is also the

"Wilhelm

connected

surface

opinion

on

Peters, extend

with the elevated

the north

side of the

equator,(or

Moon.

The

African

is used in the language of Tette


traveller,

word

"

adjective,
meaning

"

thus be called the "closed"

or

the mountains

The chain of mountains

"barred."

Portuguesewriters,"
says Peters,
"

two

thousand

the mouth
feet

rampart is north

of the

high.
and

"The

elevated
far

latitude,as
the Eio de

Bay

is about 90

to

the west.

ridge,which
the

It is sometimes

the whole

of the Zanzibar

extends

the

from

longbut

6" to 26" S.

Factory of Lourenzo-Marques,on

English).

towards

legoasor

direction of this mountain

The

Santo (inthe Bay


Espiritu

of the

advances

as

would

Lupatachain,

coast, the traders into the interior speakof this


very

an

Zainbeze,and is onlyabout

interrupted
by plains. Along
not

as

south, but with occasional bends

east and

to the
alternately

of the

learn from the last-named

Lupata/'we
closed."

to

parts of

mountains),by
Abyssinian

leaguesfrom

of

southward

with the

of

Eitter,the Lupata mountains, which,

latitude,
are

the Earth's

basins of

or

how such
know, indeed,but imperfectly,

Habesch,and in what

of my

domains

The

da

Lagoa,or Delagoa

farther the

soath, the

nearer

it

Lupata

chain

the
approaches

coast,from which itis onlyfifteenlegoasdistant at Lourenzo-

Marques."

L60

AND

STEPPES

the Isthmus

part of Mexico,

to the northern

of Panama

barrier to the farther continuance of this movement-

opposes

DESERTS.

is constrained to

of the waters, and thus the current


assume

the

windingsof
between
of

Antonio

the

The

Rio

Norte,

northwards

and re-issue into the open


Gulf

Stream,"a

coast.

as

in

soon

as

current

San

Cape

the

water, which

4 1st

has

or

of

mouth

of the

Mississipi,

Bahama

Channel,

theyform

the well-

riverof warm

and

rapidly

obliqueor diagonaldirection
bound

their

the North

American

for this coast, when

are
longitude,

enabled

by

of the current to direct their course,

of
position

indicated with accuracy


Prom

an

the Gulf

theyreach

latitude only. The

Here

farther from

respectto

obliquedirection

that

through the

Ships from Europe

uncertain
this

farther and

and

ocean.

moving water, flowingin


it
carrying

and

of Yucatan

Cruz, Tamiagua,the

Yera

del

Bravo

"

enter the Mexican

a great rotatory
movement
Cuba, after completing

force their way

known

thence to follow

Rica,Mosquito,Cam-

which

waters

Catoche

Cape

circuit,
by

or

Yeragua,and

the coast of Costa

Tabasco.

peachy,and
Gulf

off

course
northerly

Stream,by observations
this

greatcurrent

and
Williams,
by Franklin,

degreeof latitude,the

was

of

first

Pownall.

river of

warm

been

in rapidity
diminishing
gradually
and increasing
in breadth,
turns
suddenlyto the east. It
almost touches the southern edge of the greatNewfoundland

bank, where
between

the

I found the

temperatureof

stream, and that of the


to
subjected
thereby

of difference

amount
greatest

the

waters

warm

water

on
resting

coolingprocess.

of the

the banks

Gulf
and

Before the stream

ANNOTATIONS

AND

of the Azores

reaches the westernmost

Ireland and

Norway, and

the West

and

Canaries

Coast

Yoyage

of my

of Africa.
in

the

to

advances

the other towards

by me
rotatorymovement, (described
volume
first,

it divides into two

of which, at least at certain seasons,

branches,one
towards

161

ADDITIONS.

This

the

Atlantic

detail in the

more

Equinoctial
Eegions),

and
of trunks of South American
the possibility
explains
of the trade winds,
in spite
West Indian trees beingcarried,
to the coasts

have made

of the

Stream

bringsthe

its

temperaturetwo

much
or

and
rapidity,

three

form

it

as

The

(5"to 7"

Reaumur

unmoved
adjacent
banks

the

were

more

I have thus found

degreesof

that of the

Fall.)higher than

Gulf

of Newfoundland.

of lower latitudes into

water

warmer

with
regions

water, which

Banks

of the
vicinity

in the

stranded there.

of the
temperature

the

on
experiments

many

Stream

northern

CanaryIslands,and

of

masses

of

the

warm

oceanic river.
The

fish
flying
the

the
water

warm

by the
of the

sea-

the

The

carried

of Scotland.

Even

of the cargo of

I."

Stream

far into the

(Pucus natans),
chiefly
of

Mexico, shews

mainmast

by the

of the

fire

the

on

Gulf Stream

casks filled with

shipwrecked
M

off

when

arrangementof

shews the direction of the

Tilbury,destroyed
by

Domingo,was

VOL.

weed

current, and the

weed

of the water.
war,

of the Gulf

in the Gulf

stream

the
shipis entering

branches

companies
actropics(Exocetus volitans)

Floatingsea-

temperatezone.
taken up

of

the

ment
move-

Englishshipof
of San

coast

to the north coast

palm oil,the

Cape Lopez on

remains

the coast

162

of

carried in the

Africa,were

after

by the

N.

lat.

2" and

the

20th

of

of

covered

picked up

South

lichens,had

to

west

of
Investigation

"

in lat. 38"

papers

closed,
en-

Arran),on

before my

52', and long.


of June, 1820,

the 2nd

on

the west

coast

arrival at Teneriffe

(Cedrela odorata),well

cedar
been

equitorial

English ship Newcastle

Island of

American

the

45" and 55"

bottle with

the

by

short time

with

of

of

from

once

of the

January,1819,

Rosses,(nearthe

of Ireland.
stem

the voyage

was

the

Stream, between
347

p.

overboard

63" 58',which
at the

12" N. lat.,and

Rennell, in

thrown

with

west

Scotland*,

breadth

whole

the
to

aid of the Gulf

Currents/'relates

on

east

to

manner

same

traversed

from

once

between

current
east

twice

having

Atlantic ;

DESERTS.

AND

STEPPES

cast

ashore in the harbour

of Santa Cruz.
Effects of the
of

Gulf
and

Fayal, Mores,

in

Stream

in

Corvo

cut
artificially
piecesof wood,

speciesof

and corpses of

of unknown

men

faces,contributed
Columbus
of Asiatic

[* The
of

North
"

countries

Vide

of

race

with

unknown

an

Indian

Islands,

unusuallybroad

discoveryof America, by
and

referred to

the cargo

conveyedby the
Cape.

the

trunks

firming
con-

in his belief of the existence to the westward

circumstance

palm oil,part of

were

to

Azores, bamboos,

the

and the West

Mexico

Pine from

the Islands

strandingon

current

Editor's

of the
to

even

at

more

shipwrecked

no

impassable

in the

Casks

remarkable.
near

Cape Lopez

Finmarken, and stranded

note

Cosmos," vol. i. p. xcvii.] Tr.


"

was

islands

near

the

English translation

of

AND

ANNOTATIONS

Cape de

the

settlers near
"

greatdiscoverer

The

distance.

la

by

built

and

is

con

such

and

it has

as

decked

that

the Islands of
a

Greenlander

seen

was

church

by several

Greenland

his boat

at Barra

Orkneys call

Finns
In

or

"

persons, who

in their

canoes

of

in 1682
Point of

did not

succeed

fisherman

off the Island of Westram.

In the

there

suspendedan Esquimaux boat,

was

tempests. The

Greenlanders

so

inhabitants of

appearingamong

them

Ehmmen."

Cardinal Bembo's

Englishcoast

tive
Historyof Venice,I find a narrain 1508 a French shipcaptured
near

small

boat, with

strange and foreignappearance.


well with
ocri

from the North

Greenland

to the effectthat

the

dor),
Labra-

or

Wallace,in his "Account

In 1 684,

driven thither by currents and


the

natives of

in his boat off the South

to shore.

bringinghim

appearedin

hunden."

that
Orkney,(1700,p. 60),"relates,

the Island of Eda


in

James

not

testimonyto

long been doubted,of

by currents or driven by storms


crossed the Atlantic
West, havingactually
shores.

se

well-confirmed

carried

our

boats,

theycould

nunca

que

America, (probably
Esquimaux from

and reached

covered

or

foreignappearance,

manner

movediza

casa

highlycredible

the fact,much

met

lipsof

the Azores, of some,

strange and

in
apparently

founder,"almadias
There

of

persons

heard from the

even

Yerga in

westward,had
who, in sailing

manned

163

ADDITIONS.

statura,

The

seven

of

suits extremely
description

Esquimaux,(homineserant septem medi-

colore subobscuro, lato

una
cicatriceque

persons

violacea

their language. Their

signato.)No

was
clothing

et

patente vultu,
one

understood

composedof

fish sJdus

164

AND

STEPPES

together.On

sewn

DESEETS.

their heads

"

theywore

coronam

cul-

pictam,
septem quasiauriculis intextam." They ate raw
Six of the men
and drank blood as we would wine.
flesh,
mo

died

duringthe

passage of the

had been taken ; but

the

Historia

coasts of

of

called Indians

men

Germany, under

the

Barbarossa,in the 10th

and

is

(Bembo,

then at Orleans.

was

Venetse,ed. 1718, lib.vii.p. 257).

The appearance

as

presented

seventh,a youth,was

king of France, who

to the

board which they


on
vessel,

related

by

Cornelius

on

the western

Othos,and under

Frederic

centuries,and

12th

Nepos, (ed. Van

even,

Staveren,

T. ii.,
Bardili,
1820, p. 356), Pomponius Mela, (lib.
iii.cap. 5, " 8), and Pliny,(Hist.Nat., T. ii. p. 67),
cur.

when
may

Metellus

Quintus
be

explained
by

winds

of

Celer

similar effectsof currents

long continuance.

others say of the Suevi,gave the


men

Pro-consul

was

to Metellus

king

in
and

Gaul,
west
north-

of the

Boii,

dark-coloured
shipwrecked

Gomara, in his Historia Gen. de

Celer.

las Indias,(Saragossa,
refersto this account,
1553, fol. vii.),
and

considers the Indians

natives of Labrador.

en

spoken of

Si ya

"

los Romanos
tuviesen,

el color/'

The appearance of

coasts of

Europe may

and

Finn

centuries

this

under

the

name

south

as

the

race

engailados

Esquimaux on the

we

ern
north-

extended

in

in the llth and 12th


considerable

numbers,

of Labrador,even
Skralinges

good Vinland ;'

more

know, from the researches

Magnusen,that

of the
"

por Indianos

be believed to have occurred

often in earliertimes,because
of Eask

been

fuesen de Tierra del Labrador,

no

y los

in it to have

as

far

chusets

ed. p. 234
T. ii.p.
As

the winter cold of the most

which

so

cast

Geographie,

the shore

of the extension
far to the

dinavia
parts of Scan-

of the

Gulf

Stream,

fruits (cocoa nuts, and


tropical
and

scandens

upon

northern

the influence

by

American

does Iceland also

the Anacardium

beyondthe

of the

northward.

The

occidentale)

beneficial influence

of the Gulf

waters

warm

of Iceland

coasts

Islands,receive

seeds

degreeof latitude,

62nd

enjoythe
occasionally

of the Faroe

those

de la

lish
Eng-

247-278.)

of the Mimosa
are

ii.S. 270 ;

de FHist.
critique

Examen

is softened

by

(Kosmos,Bd.

Connecticut.

and

165

ADDITIONS.

AND

ANNOTATIONS

as

Stream
well

as

wood,
great deal of drift-

which, coming formerlyin greaterabundance, was


into beams

cut

Fruits of
between

and

planks and

collected
tropical
plants,

Raufarhavn

of the waters

used for

the coast of Iceland,

on

the
Vapnafiord,
testify

and

from the southward.

movement

"Walters-

von
(Sartorius

Skizze
hausen, physisch-geographische
S.

buildingtimber.

Island,1847,

von

22-35.)
(25)p.

12.

"

In northern

"Neither

with

Lecidea

muscorum,

which

herbaceous

only

take
plants

Bseomyces roseus,
L.

prepare

in
their

the

for the

place.

similar

growth of

where
tropics,

shady places,some

becomes

Cenomyce rangiferinus

and
icmadopliila,

the way

plants. In

abound

other Lichens"

nor

the earth,if leftbare,soon


countries,

covered

mea3,

Lecideas

mosses

Cryptoga-

grasses and
and lichens

of
species

succulent

166

STEPPES

(26)p. 13.

"

"The

care

The

ruins

DESERTS.

AND

yieldingmilk,

of animals

fortress"

the Aztec

of

The two kinds of cattlealluded to,and

of,
"

the Bos

Queisneque

"

mos,

the

the

at

bisons,and
drink.

indeed been

drink

found, but onlyamong

speaksof

Gomara

who

of Mexico

jungeretauros.
JEn. i. 316.
Virgil,

cultivated maize.

time

same

been

have

may

I have

have

been, generally
a feature
speaking,

the natives of the New


in

Cochin

China, who yet were

near

common

The

herds of tame

cultivated the

life. Pedro

de

ground

rare

and

to all

which

of China

to
neighbours

true

they
and

pastoral

lamas,found in the highlands

and

settled population,

did not follow

seems

to

exceptional
case,- that

plateauof

Europeans,

nomadic

del Peru,Sevilla,
Ciegade Leon, (Chronica

1553, cap. 110, p. 264)


as

inhabitants

Quito,Peru, and Chili,


belongedto

who

and

more

common

one

"

the

nations.
of

Continent, and

with

possess

tame

at least the

or

absence of its use, appears, before the arrival of


to

of

blood, (Prescott,

the

dislike to milk,

remarked,the

once

peoplein

meat,
clothing,

Conquestof Mexico,vol. iii.p. 416) for,as


than

I have

possessedherds

these animals

derived from

The

"

the milk, of these animals.

blood, not

remarked,(p.54),that

north-west

the natives

cultus erat,nee

neque

have
Singleexceptions
tribes who

But

peculiar

are

"

continent.

drink the fresh

before

and Bos moschatus,

americanus

to the American

spoken
subsequently

Collao

lamas

were

imply,though certainly
in the Peruvian
used

for

tain
moun-

drawingthe

168

AND

STEPPES

in the

them
are

DESERTS.

high plateaubetween Quito and Riobaraba,


of
to the landscape.The Moromoro
greatornament

Chili appears

to

be

of
variety

mere

stilllive wild
Guanacoes,and Alpacas,
13000
latter

to 16000
are
species

sometimes met

lower

elevations

introduction of the

not bear the

useful

more

The two

sea.

with tamed, but the guanaco

well

so

Vicunas,

elevations of from

at

feet above the level of the

only rarely.The alpacadoes


of the

the lama.

the lama.

as

climate

warmer

Since the

horses,mules,

and

and beautywithin
(the latter acquiregreat spirit
the custom

beasts of

alpacaas
the

of

mines,has

articlein the

decreased.

of
industry

by separatenames;
tame

that these animals

island,so
in his

by Darwin

swim

can

that the

greatease

Patagonianfiords

p.

Fuego,

cumstanc
cirfrom

offer

descriptions
pleasing

or

Mar

de

the Bio

Cortes,

ruins
the enigmatical
Steppe,

the Aztec Palace,called by the

no

66.)

the Californian Gulf

Aztecs,about

wild

by the

with
River,which, together

the solitude of the

the

with

the

of the

Cordilleras to Tierra del

Journal,1845,

of the Gila

Colorado,enters

When

distinguished

dissemination

obstacle to their wanderings.(Seethe

stand,in

are

guanaco

in herds of 500, has been favoured

island to

such

being called Luan, and

wide

guanaco, from the Peruvian

South

wool, of

the

the inhabitants of the mountains.

the wild

The
Chilihueque.

sometimes

But

is stillan important
respectto fineness,

Chili the wild and the tamed

In

the tropics),

rearingand using the lama and the


burden, in the mountains and among

much

different qualities
in

asses,

of

las Casas grandes.


Spaniards

the year 1160,

came

from the

un-

ANNOTATIONS

known

AND

land of Aztlan

for a time

the banks

on

Garces and Font, are


the Casas

to

Anahuac, theysettled themselves

of the Gila. The

Franciscan monks,

the latest travellerswho

and theydid
grandes,

the ruins to extend

169

ADDITIONS.

above

over

Englishsquare miles). The

so

have visited

in 1773.

square

whole

They

German

plainis

stated

mile (16

strewed

with

fragmentsof paintedpottery. The


house built of unburut

English feet long


rare

work

and

palace,(ifa
principal
is 447
claycan be so designated),
277 Englishfeet broad.
(See a
entitled Cronica seraficay

in Mexico,and
printed

del Colegio
de PropagandaFide
apostolica
de Queretaro por Fr. Juan
The

Domingo Arricivita).

as
Taye of California,

The

Mountains," near
differentfrom
black

animal

same

it,on

the

drawn

is also

Father

musimon
seen

on

of the Peace

sources

Venegas,
of the Old

the

"

Biver.

Stony
Very

the other hand, is the small white and

spottedgoat-likecreature

Missouri and Arkansas


A.
furcifer,

by

the Ovis

appears to differ littlefrom


Continent.

de la Santa Cruz

tememazama

rivers.
of

The

which

feeds

synonymy

Smith,and

of

near

the

Antilope

Ovis montana, is still

very undetermined.

(27)p.
The

14).

"

"

The

cultivation

habitat
original

offarinaceousgrasses"

of the farinaceous grasses is wrapped

as that of the domestic animals which


obscurity
since his earliest migrations.The
have accompaniedman
word for corn,
German
Getraide,"has been ingeniously
derived by Jacob Grimm
from the old German
gitragidi,

in the

same

"

getregede.It
"

is as it were

the tame

frumenfruit (fruges,

170

STEPPES

which
turn),
of tame

has

AND

DESERTS.

into the hands

come

of

man

as

speak

we

to wild ones."
(JacobGrimm,
opposition
Gesch. der deutschen Sprache,
1848, Th. i. S. 62.) It is
a very striking
certainly
phenomenon,to find on one side of
our
planetnations to whom flour or meal from small-eared

animals in

grasses (Hordeaceseand

unknown,
completely

were

partsof

the

other

hemispherecultivate

the two

on

the other

red

Leontine
a

Ceres

hand,

wheat,and
well

belief entertained

was

partsof

Siculus.

found

shewn

greaterpart

rest of mankind

in Northern

grew

nent,
Conti-

wild in the

placesin Sicily,

of Enna

and

dorus
Dio-

Atlantis

were

Ceres,because they had


before those fruitshad

Sprengelhas

collected several

that
which lead him to think it probable

of

our

European

in the northern

summer
namely,

see

where, from the

inhabitants of the

the fruits of

interesting
passages

In the Old

That wheat

meadow
alpine

to mortals."

wild
originally

In the New

by ancient nations,and is mentioned


(Lib.v. p. 199 and 232, Wessel.)

in the

with
unacquainted
from the
separated

the

the world.

in several other

fables that "the

been

the Cerealia,
and

fruits of Ceres,wheat, barley,

oats.
as

all

characteristicdistinction

find every

we

the
history,

as
fields,

by Diodorus

milk,

cultivation of different

viz. maize.
cultivated,
species

earliest times of

speltor

of

use

52" north to 46" south latitude,


we

Continent,from

onlyone

The

be said to afford

kinds of grasses may


between

the

while -the nations of almost

animals.
milk-yielding

rear

was

and
Avenacese),

wheat in the
India

kinds

partsof

of

grainwere

Persia and

India,

a procountryof the Musicanes,


vince

xv.
(Strabo,
1017) ; barley("anti-

AND

ANNOTATIONS

quissimumfrumentum,"
onlycereal with

the

171

ADDITIONS.

Plinycalls it,and

as

which the Guanches

of,the Canaries

to
according
acquainted),

Moses

of Chorene

ed.

360),

on

Winston, 1736,

p.

Georgia,and accordingto
India

Northern

Marco

But

instructive critical memoir

existence of

earlyregardedthe
in Asia

have been

there

seen

as

the

Catherine

Empress

stalked

our

of
junction
of

mild.

herborised

growingin
plants

on

what

might

as

la

28.) Eeinhold Porster,

into
expedition

and the

Southern

Yolga.

At

of

Russia

the

two-

wild

near

the end

Uralsk to Saratow

the banks

might

ground,but

differfrom the
from M.

grain

(Essaisur

be called

plantsdid

cultivated ones.
ordinary

Carelin

kind of rye, Secale

KirgisSteppe,and

for a
regarded

the

time

as

which

the

of

the
We

and

rye

wild state in the

not appear to

us

to

Ehrenbergreceived
fragile,
gatheredon

Marschall

or
original

and

of the Samara.

of wheat
indeed,struck with the quantity

uncultivated

also

kinds of

history,
reportedthat

the Samara

Akad.

Berl.

such

an

on
September,1829, Ehrenbergand myself,

also
Caspian,

the

Link, in

CaptainCook, made by order

journeyfrom Orenburg and

were,

has been

as

(Hordeum distichon),
barley
grew

summer

the month

an

of natural

for purposes

the

with

before his voyage

who

viewed

hayingbecome
p.

red

speltor

teacher

wild
originally

Geographicdes Plantes,1805,

in

uncertainty.I

extremelydoubtful,and

as

and

(Abhandl. de

1816, S. 123), still leave much

in

in Balascham

Polo

and

Kur

or

these passages,

friend
by my keen-sighted

shewn

were

(Geogr,Armen.

the Araxes

(Ramusio,vol. ii.p. 10)

Hamadan.

wheat, near

which is also

von

mother

Bieberstein

plantof

our

172

STEPPES

cultivated
Michaux

AND

Secale

rye,

cereale.

Although

Olivier and

as growingwild
speakof spelt(Triticumspelta)

Hamadan

in Persia,Achill Richard

Michaux'

herbarium

bears out

confidence is due to the most


the unwearied

zeal of

Carl Koch.

He

found

in the
pectinata)

Pontic

of five

DESERTS.

been

cultivated.

"the

more

this statement.

recent

much

elevations of

feet,in placeswhere

Koch

grainof

no

remarks,that
with

"

kind

and
spontaneum,"

Hordeum

wild

collected

zur
Beitrage

Mora

des

A negro slave of the


in New

wheat

Quito, I

the

grainnever

greatCortes
He

Spain.

as
preserved

saw

In
a

Fray Jodoco Rixi,a


first sowing had been
down

the forest which

of the volcano

monks, who

the Plazuela

of Pichincha

partsof

the

calls

he

and

142.)

the firstwho
found three

vated
culti-

grainsof

broughtfrom Spainfor
Franciscan

convent

at

relic the earthen vessel which

monk

what is now

was

the

contained the firstwheat sowed

on

i. S. 139

had

had

The

pagates
pro-

originally
(CarlKoch

Linnaeus.

of

Orients,Heft

army.

ever

the circumstance is

barleywhich

of

it amongst the rice which had been


for
provision

had

the

considers to be the

zeocriton"

Hordeum

upwards

the kind

this

us

p,

within

In the Schirwan
itselfspontaneously."

"

by

var.
(Secalecereale,

rye

importantbecause

Caucasus, Koch

Greater

obtained

accounts

Mountains,at

of the inhabitants

memory

consider that

Professor
traveller,
highly-informed

six thousand

or

does not

at

there

by the

native of Ghent
made

Franciscan

in Flanders.

in front of the convent,

de San
then

Francisco,after

extended

to the

I often visited duringmy

from

ting
cut-

the foot

spotin question.The
stayat Quito,begged

ANNOTATIONS

AND

173

ADDITIONS.

the earthen
on
explainto them the inscription
ence
which theythoughtmust contain some
mysticrefervessel,
to

me

I read the motto, which

to the wheat.

and
dialect,

old German

Would

drinks

that there had

was

been

Continent the names,

where in the New

who

firstintrusted to it these its fruits


of mankind
with the civilisation

more

in the

the

care

whereas the

had to create

words.

new

such indications

"

But

the fact that in


Greeks

par with the Germans

Slavonians,
argues

and

comparison
on
a
nearly

appear

in favour of

of
earlycontemporaneous emigration

very

Yet

the Indian

comparedwith

with

when

and

latter.

and
grain,

those connected

with the Sanscrit,


Romans

the

are

had stillmuch
dispersed
cultivators of the soil
subsequent

of cattle: herdsmen

in common,

on

as
grain,

different languages,
a

of differentkinds of

case

than
of agriculture,
subjects

on

in the Old Continent !

the

rare

of those

ciated
earlyasso-

so

of the kinds of

names

affinitiesof
original
has remarked,that
high authority
much

of those who

by bloodyconquests,but

to the
respectgenerally

me

not

the earth desolate

bearingon

from

venerable
truly
preserved
every

made

In

in the

I too felt with the monks

vessel
drinking

that this old German


relic.

"Whoso

"

God/'

forgethis

let him not

was

was

the

two

Java" (F^jnentumhordeum),

the Lithuanian

and the Finnish


jawai/'
jywa,"offersa singular
exception."
(Jac.Grimm, Gesch.
der deutschen Sprache,
Th. i. S. 69.)
"

"

(28)p.

14.

"
"

Keeping by preferenceto
mountain

ThroughoutMexico

the cooler

regions?

and Peru the traces of

greatdegree

174

STEPPES

of civilisationare
have

seen

between
heights

DESEKTS.

confined to the elevated

the Andes

on

AND

1600

the ruins of

and
palaces

and ISOOtoises

(10230

Englishfeet).It can onlyhave been men


from the north towards
migrating
race, who.,
find delight
in such

(29)p.

15.

"
"

plateaux."We

of
the

baths at

and 11510
a

northern

south,could

climate.

The

historyof the peoplingof Japan"

The

of the western nations of the New Continent


probability
havinghad communication with the east of Asia long
before the arrival of the Spaniards,
I think shewn by
was
me

in

work

of America

the monuments

on

(Vuesdes

Cordilleres et Monumens

de TAmerique).
indigenes
of the Mexican
a comparison
from the correct

"

elevations towards

four

epochsof

of mankind

of the
the different quarters

peuples

I inferred this

myths and

heavens,
"

traditionsof the four ages

destruction of the

after

des

from
probability
and Thibeto- Japanese
calendars,
orientation of the stepsof the pyramidal

and from the ancient


or

of the native inhabitants

world,and

the

dispersion

greatflood of waters. The accounts


work, in England,France,and the

since my
published
the
United States,
describing

wonderful

bas reliefs,
almost

in the ruins of Guatimala and Yucatan,


style,
value.
have givento these analogies
a still higher
pare
(Comof the Ruins of an
Antonio del Eio, Description
Ancient City discovered near
Palenque,1822, translated
from the original
manuscriptreportby Cabrera (delRio's
took placein 1787), p. 9, tab. 12-14; with
exploration
Incidents of Travel in Yucatan, 1843, vol. i.
Stephens,

in the Indian

pp. 391

and

429-434; vol. ii. pp. 21, 54, 56, 317, 323;

176

is

conclusions

subjectto

uncertainty.(Stephens,

much

in Yucatan, vol. i. p. 439

Incidents of Travel
p.

DESERTS.

AND

STEPPES

and vol. ii.

278.)
I

regardthe

existence of ancient connections

the inhabitants of western


than

more

probable,but by

what

presentbe decided.
educated

The
the

to
expeditions

voyages to

New

Continent
On

Fusang or Japan.

of

matter

which

historythat

the eastern

instead of

Chinese

our

China

x.

by

storms

to Alashka,or
islands,

coasts of the

American

and the eastern


from NE.

to

coasts

hand, Japanese

there.

We

in search of

seas

era,
were

by storms
know

as

800

medicine

some

Under

Tschin-schi-

young

sent

theysettled

to

couples,

Japan, and

Nipon (Klap-

at

p.

79; Nouveau

1832, p. -335; Humboldt, Examen

T. ii.p. 62-67). May


critique,
driven

of

reallyapplyonly to

de TAsie, 1824,
historiques

T.
Asiatique,

bring

and other adventurers sailed

women,

young

to
returning

roth,Tableaux
Journal

Bonzes

years before

and

men

young

at

social state

have been driven

entirely
prevent death.

should

kuang-ti,209

been

sufficientto

the other

landed

coast, and

American

what

stories formerly
narrated of Chinese

and Sian-Pi from the Corea may


the

with

or

as

of individuals of the

caste might perhapsbe


priestly

America.

western

Asia

place,cannot

great alterations in the civil and

about

over

took

small number

eastern

routes,

nations,the communications

Asiatic

to

and

America

between

or

have
not similar expeditions

other accidents to the Aleutian

to New

California?

As

the western

continent trend from NW.


of Asia in the

to

SE.,

or
oppositedirection,

SW., the distance between the

two

continents

AND

ANNOTATIONS

in 45"

in the

of latitude,
or

of such
probability

of the

admit

takingplacein

like the
has

movement
general

proceededby
of

in the

the

climate
inhospitable

of

in America,
population
to south

north

t. iii. p. 155-160).
historique,

The

shipsfrom Cathay,i. "?., from Japan or China,

supposedto

were

must, then, assume

successive stations from

(Humboldt, Mat.
remains

considerable to

too

duced,
65", and that the civilisationthus intro-

55" to

of from

made

is most

accidental'settlement

an

We

that latitude.

firstlandingto have been

which

temperatezone

is
development,

favourable to mental

177

ADDITIONS.

have

been

found

on

the coasts of the

ginning
Quivira and Cibora)at the beDorado, (called

northern

of the 16th

century (Gomara, Hist, generalde las

Indias,p. 117).

knowledgeof

Our

languagesof

the

America

is stilltoo

for
limited, consideringtheir great variety,
the hope of
to relinquish
entirely
idiom

which
at

that of

have

may

affinity.Such

which

or

spoken,with

would
discovery

yet

certain modifications,
America

at least indicate

may

as

an
day discovering

in the interior of South

once

Asia;

been

some

us

ancient

an

be
certainly

one

of the

can

be

of mankind.
history

But

of language
analogies
onlydeserve

confidence when

in
not resting
enquirer,

most

brilliant which

resemblances
into the
all which
human
VOL.

the

of sound

expectedin

and in

or

analogies

forms,and
organicstructure,the grammatical
in

languagesshews

itself as

the

the

on
dwelling

in the roots, traces the

intellectand character.
I.

reference to

productof

into
the

178

STEPPES

(30)p.
Whole
the

15.

resembles

the

the

in appearance

at

greaterelevations

Andes

under

(4476

to

the

from

Eng. feet);but

5115
"

characters,
specific

any

2000

(12789 Eng. feet).

called in the

"

provinceof

animal

Caraccas

beingpursuedin

and

on

the

that

we

could often catch it with

are

smoked

from
ate

the

plainby

the

monkey

in

have

and

16.

It

runs

hands.

so

"
"

The

tunate
unfor-

badly

so

disagreeable

willingly
marked
beautifully

odour
an
disagreable
Yiverra

to

Its extremities

the Orinoco

preference. The

and
mapurito,Yiverra zorilla,

(31)p.

on

up

by the crocodile,

the water

our

the

capybara,

is an
chiguire,"

for hams, but their taste is very

hams

animals which

"

with

Cavia

tigeror jaguar.

smell of musk

also often

is met

The

the

toises

800

to

larger,and

European by
toises

700

from
hardlydistinguish

I could

white, stag, which

is not

mexicanus

of
mountain-slopes

the

equator than

saw

stance
singularcircum-

Cervus

on

We

Europe.
a

"

The

over

stag is spotted,and

young

the roe-deer of

zone.

wander

mexicanus

white,
entirely

many

in the torrid
found

forms of animals"

Cervus

Steppes:

them

among

of

DESERTS.

other

"Many

"

herds

Caraccas

AND

we

are

the Yiverra

vittata.

Gttaranis, and

the

fan-palm,

Mauritia"
The

small coast tribe

in British Guiana
Caribs

or

nation of the

the Warraws

U-ara-u),inhabit

not

or

Guaranis, (called

Guaranos,

only the marshy

and

by the

Delta

and

river network
of the

Orinoco, and

of the

and

Grande

Manamo

179

ADDITIONS.

AND

ANNOTATIONS

the
particularly

Cano

the

Macareo, but also

extend, with little variation in their modes


the

between

coast

sea

de Navios

the Boca

T.
historique,

the

of the Orinoco.

Reisen

"

testimonyof
there

are

the last-named

still 1700

district of

Warraus

Ciunaca, and

river,which

emptiesitself into

The

the Delta

of the Orinoco

were

Cardinal

"quibusdam

says,
in

arboribus

It is
at

and

sedificant"

probablethat

the mouth

mouth
in

more

of the

of the

Gulph

August 1499,
Juan

in locis

de

la

their residence

he

Text
(Riccardi's
account
s
Yespucci'

is

in my

contemporary
de

of

He

Hojeda.

domus
p.

88).

the Guaranis

to the natives

sopra

Alonzo

de

near

the

Hojeda,

populationhaving
Yenezia"

come

acqua

crit. t. iv. p.

Examen

(in which

etymologyof

Yenezuela, Little Yenice, for

great

accompaniedby Yespucci

was

of his voyage

first indication of the

de

in
living

to the

to
alluding

Cosa, also found

"fondata

the Boca

Yenetse, 1551,
(Historise
Bembo

the

Barima

piopter paludesincolse

Macaraibo,where

when

of the

gulf of

Alonzo

Orinoco, than

of

banks

the

Columbus, Amerigo Yespucci,and

the

livingin

alreadyknown

Bembo,

i.

and observer,
explorer

of the tribes

and customs

manners

historical writer

the

703, with

Guiana," Th.

Guaranis

or

along the

Navios.

and

According to

194).

excellent

tion
Rela-

(Compare my

in Britisch

1847, S. 62, 120, 173, and

life,along

Essequibo and

i. p. 492, T. ii. p. 653

Schomburgk's

Richard

of

of the

mouths

banks

the

Province

term

of

496).

we

In

find the

Province

of

he
Caraccas),

180

AND

STEPPES

onlyspeaksof

DESERTS.

houses raised upon

foundation

not
pillars,

of

habitations in the trees.


Walter

Sir

Raleigh

authority
; he
that

the Orinoco, he

is

the

of the

of

Guiana, 1596,

also the firstwho

which
Mauritia-palm,
of its

account

Gumilla, who
says,

scales,to

twice

he very
fir

dwellingsraised

upon

145, and 163).

(Journalof

the

tab. 4.

as

missionary,

their habitation in the


but

he
not

and

situadas
p.

143,

Schomburgk,
Palm, read

1845

the Murichi

or

the British Association held at

printedin

opinion that

were

imp. 1791,

Ita

of
Description

June

speaking from

foldings
scaf-

xii. 1842,

Meeting of
;

only

growingstate j (Gumilla,

Sir Eobert

and

Jose

Padre

and
high pillars,

Orinoco, nueva

Hillhouse

fruit

vol.
Eoyal Geographical
Society,

at the

of

brevis et

"

de las Naciones
natural,
civil,
y geografica

las riveras del Eio

p. 175;

The

morasses;

fire

justlycompared,on

cone.

the

attached to trees stillin

en

The

90).

broughtto England the

visited the Guaranis

palmares (palm groves) of

Historia

p.

the Latin edition

indeed,that this peoplehad

mentions

in the

descriptio
reguiGuianse,"(Norib.1599)

Ealeighwas

of

"fires3 of the Tivitives and the

in a drawingin
represented

admiranda

in the mouth

"

Discov.
(Ealeigh,

high

of Guiana,
description

in 1595, when

voyage

saw

his

of

(so he calls the Guaranis) high up

Oua-raa-etes
trees"

later evidence

in
expressly,

says

his second

on

offers

both

the

Simond's

Bembo

and

Colonial

Cambridge,

Magazine),are

Ealeigh,(the former

reportsof others,the latter as

deceived

by the high tops of

the

an

witness)
eye-

palm-trees

ANNOTATIONS

being lit

nightby

at

up

sailed by

that those who

attached to

were

AND

the flames

thoughtthe

the trees.

suspendshis

on

such

hammock

(Comparealso

Edition of

habitations themselves
do not

deny

the

fires are

Indian

topsof

trees ;

the

under

made

Schomburgk'sNew

Sir Eobert

of Guiana,1848,
Raleigh's
Discovery

Accordingto Martius,the

that

the
musquitos,
from

however, no
occasions,

hammock."

of fires beneath,so

"We

order to escape the attacks of the


sometimes

181

ADDITIONS.

p.

50.)

Moriche, Mauritia

fine Palm

Labours
Quiteve,or Ita palm,(Bernau,Missionary
flexuosa,
in British Guiana, 1847, p. 34 and
as

the group

Calamus, to

of

Linnaeus has described it very

or
Coryphinese.
Lepidocaryeae
he erroneously
as
imperfectly,

considers it to be leafless.

feet,but

well

44), belongs,as

The

trunk

highas

as

grows

it

from 120 to 150 years


probablyrequires
to reach this height. The Mauritia extends high up on
of the Duida, north of the Esmeralda mission,
the declivity
26

where I have found


fine groups
places
us

of that of

moisture
Indians
roots

our

of the

it in great beauty. Ii forms in moist

of

fresh

Alder

The

groves.

ground by

their

say that the Mauritia

the destruction of the serpentsand

the Mauritia

confounds
flexuosa

arbol de la vida.

of the

hence

the

round its
similar

somewhat

not be killed ; because

the

each other
cause

preserve the

the water

By

theorytheyadvise that serpentsshould

child of nature

trees

shade, and

draws

attraction.
by a mysterious

poolsor lagunasaccompany

reminds

which
shiningverdure,

dryingup

thus the untutored

and effect. Gumilla


Guaranis

of the

terms

the tree of

It grows in the mountains

of

life,

Eonaima,

182

east of the

sources

Eng.) feet.

On

in

the

of

Mauritia

Orinoco,as high as

of the
the

discovered

we

pricklystems,

The

16."

founder

on

than
He

the

"An

of the

sect of the

preceding. The
to be

last

Germany, in
erect

such

men

who

For

in

the Diocese

pillars/each
higher
ells

40

high.

years there
of

manner

and
life,

saints). Even
(pillar

of Treves, it

aerial cloisters,
but

plation
contemreligious

hundred

seven

fanatical

Syrianherdsman,

was
pillar

imitated this

sancti columnares"

"

of

of five successive

the summits

called

were

son

the
Stylites,

passedthirty-seven
years

died in the year 461.

continued

Species

et

Stylites"

American

the
Sisanites,

Simeon
pillar-saint
is said to have

aculeata;

310).

p.

(32)p.

species

new

Genera

(Humboldt, Bonpland and Kunth, Nova


Plantarum, t. i.

Atabapo,

Mauritia

our

(4263

4000

of the Rio

unvisited banks

interior of Guiana,
with

DESERTS.

AND

STEVPES

the

iu

proposedto

was

Bishops opposed the

undertaking
(Mosheim,Institut.Hist. Eccles. 1755, p. 215.)
(33)p.

17.

"

Towns

"

which

Families

who

the banks

on

of the

flow through the Steppe"


live not

but by the
by agriculture

have congregated
in
cattle,

the middle

of the

small

towns, which, in the

would

hardlybe regardedas villages.Such

in 8" 56' 14"

N.

Villa
observations,
S.

and
Sebastian,

streams

lat. and

67" 42'

del

lat 8" 38'

Pao,

others.

of

Steppe in

cultivated parts of
are

care

Europe,

Calabozo,

to
long,according

my

1", long.66" 57',

184

STEPPES

DESERTS.

AND

gazelle."(Seemy Relation
and 625; T. ii. p. 161.) All

Sanscrit the "thirst of the


T. i.
historique,

objects
appear
seen

pp. 296

to hover in the

air,and

reflectedin the lower stratum

the entire desert


surface of

assumes

the wave-covered
and
trees,cattle,

Palm

appear inverted

the horizon.

on

time

same

such times

of air. At

aspectof

spreadlake.

wide

camels,sometimes

In the

to Egypt, the soldiers,


parchedwith
expedition

French

were
thirst,

state of

often

broughtby

this

illusion into
optical
been

This phenomenonhas
desperation.

in all quarters
of the
with

the

at the

are

the remarkable

LybianDesert.

ancients

acquainted

were

refraction of the rays of

I find mention made

remarked

in
light

the

in Diod. Sic. lib.iiu

illus- \
(p.219, Wessel),of extraordinary

p. 184, Ehod.

images,an

globe. The

African Fata

Morgana,with

most

extravagant

of the supposed
of the particles
explanations
conglomeration
of air.

(37)p.
The

19.__"

Cactus melo

and
diameter,

has

the whole
Cactacese,
to the New

The Melon-Cactus."

cactus

is often 10

inches in

to 12

usually1 4 ribs. The natural group of


of Jussieu,
of Nopaleae
clusively
family
belongexContinent. The cactuses

assume

great

of shapes
lated
: ribbed and melon-like (Melocacti)
variety
; articuor
jointed(Opuntiae);
forminguprightcolumns or
and creeping
pillars
(Cerei)
(Bhipsalides)
; serpentine
; or
with leaves (Pereskise).
Many extend highup the
provided
sides of the mountains.
in the elevated
a

new

kind of

Near

the foot of the

Chimborazo,

1 have
sandyplainaround Riobaiuba,

the
Pitahaya,

Cactus

even
sepium,

at

found

height

AND

ANNOTATIONS

185

ADDITIONS.

10,000 (10,660Eng.) feet. (Huinboldt,


Bonpland,and

of

Orbis novi,T.
sequinoct.

Kunth, SynopsisPlantarum

iii.

370).

p.

19.

(38)p.

The

"
"

in the

scene

Steppe is

suddenly changed."
endeavoured

1 have

season, and the

deep
the

dark

to

the comingin
depict

signsby which
of the

azure

sky

completesolution

more

of the

it is announced.
in the

The

the vapours

patchin

beginto

be

indistinct

The
precipitated.

and
diminishes,
of rain.

the

as

from

of the vapour contained in the

the constellation of the Southern

"comes

usual

tropicsarises

atmosphere.The cyanometerindicates a palerblue


as

rainy

dark

soon

spotor

Cross

of
transparency

this alteration announces

as

the

the

near

gradually
atmosphere
approach

of the Magellanic
clouds,(Nubecula
brightness

The

vanishes
major and minor),gradually

in

similar manner.

The

like

planetswith

fixed stars,which

and
tranquil,
steady,
even

before shone

not

light,now
trembling

in the zenith,where

Arago,in
are

Relation hist.T. i.p.

my

623).

the results of the increased

diffused in the

(39)p.

the vapours

20.

scintillate
least.

(See

All these appearances

quantityof

vapour

atmosphere.
"

"

are

Awakened

from

torpidstate ly

the

firstfall of rain"
Extreme

and
drynessproducesin plants

phenomena as

does the withdrawal

shed
trees and plants
Many tropical

animals the

same

of the stimulus of heat.


the
theirleaves during

dry

186

STEPPES

The

season.

themselves

crocodiles and other

in the mud, where

animals

in

sleepby

cold.

and

DESEB-TS.

AND

state of

animals hide
amphibious
dead,like
theylie apparently

or
hybernation
plungedinto

Relation

(Seemy

winter

T. ii.pp.
historique,

192

626.)
(40)p.

Nowhere

20.

"

aspect of a

these inundations

are

the network

The

"

of rivers formed
and

Cabuliare.

the

the

Steppefor 40

(41)p.

21.

"To

"

sea."

extensive than

more

in

by the Apure,the Arachuna,

Pajara,Arauca,
countryover

inland

vast

Large

vessels sail across

50 miles.

or

the mountain

plateau of

Antisana."
The

great mountain

volcano
above

of Antisana

dogs,bleed

so

I have

The

(13473 Englishfeet),

atmospheric
pressure

small that the wild

22."

described the

comparee,

Bera

and

173-190).

without

was

M.

Gay

circuit succeed
stillvery

hunted

Rastro."

captureof the Gymnoti in

vol. i. p. 83-87

at

and mouth.

nose

"

when
cattle,

and

Relation

T. ii.
historique,

Lussac and I found the


with
perfectly

experiment

living
Gymnotus,

when broughtto
vigorous

is solely
dependenton
discharge

detailin

d'Anatomic

de Zoologieet
place. (Observations

another

which

plateausurroundingthe

toises

sea.

from the

(42)p.

p.

is 2107

the level of the

this elevation is
with

plainor

Paris.

The

the will of the animal.

ANNOTATIONS

We
so

did not

see

any

AND

187

ADDITIONS.

spark,but

other

have
physicists

done

several occasions.

on

(43)p.

23.

"Awakened

"

the contact

by

dissimilar

of moist

particles"

partsof organicbodies dissimilar substances are


in all,solids are
associated
in contact with each others
all

In

and life,
Thus, wherever there is organization

with fluids.

there is also electrictension


as

of
experiments

the

or

the

playof

Nobili and Matteucci,and

the latestadmirable labours of Emil du


last named
presence

has
physicist

succeeded

electric muscular

of the

magneticneedle

firstin
pleasure,

one

at

and

especially

Bois,teach
in

he
of

in

livingand

shews
a

that

copper

these movements
of
on

oppositedirection."
I have

Emil

du

witnessed

have had the

ficatio
grati-

thrown
seeingtherebygreatand unexpected
light
which

I had

and hopefully
laboriously
youth.

devoted several years of my

(44)p.

Osiris and

23.""

the conflict between

pastoral
peoplein
Upper Egypt who
on

i. S. xv.)

and
producedat pleasure,

phenomena to

On

the

distance to be deflected at

then in the

Bd.

"

wire,can

iiber thierische Electricetat,


von
(Untersuchungen

Bois-Reymond,1848,

The

us.

"manifestingthe

current

whollyuninjuredanimal bodies :"


human
body, throughthe medium
cause

the voltaic pile,

Lower
were

two

races

Egypt,and
in

a more

the fair-haired
Prince

Typhon"
of men,
the

the Arabian

race
agricultural

advanced

in

tion,
state of civilisa-

Baby or Typhon,who

founded

188

STEPPES

Pelusium, and

AND

Dionysos or
dark-complexioned

the

on

DESERTS.

Zoega'sancient,and

Osiris,see

for the

now

views, in his greatwork

abandoned

"

De

most

part

Origineet

Usu

Obeliscorum,"
p. 577.

(45)p.

"

24.

The

"

boundary of

partial European

cultivation ."

de Caracas,as generally
Capitaniageneral
every

the

In
where

the eastern

on

introduced

by Europeans,and

limited to

are

shores of America, the cultivation

their presence and

stripof country along the

narrow

Granada, and Quito,on

In Mexico, New

the other

deep into
European civilisationhas penetrated
country,and advanced

of the

degreeof
arrival of the

at

and

enlargedthe
the old
as, for

(46)p.

24.

In the

ancient

example,of
Massive

Orinoco,and

derable
consi-

sation
followed this civili-

sea

its seat

They retained

coast.

of which theyeither mutilated


cities,

Indian
significant

"
"

regionsa

to the
civilised lifeprevious

distance from the

near

hand,

leras.
the Cordil-

whether
they found it,regardless

was

names,

settled and

coast.

the interior

ridgesof

Spaniards
; and theyhave

wherever
or

the

up

existed in these last-named

There

influence,

names,

gave

them

new

Christian saints.

leaden-coloured
more

or

granite rocks"

at the
especially

Maypuresand Atures,all blocks

of

Cataracts of

and
granite,

even

white

of quartz,
whenever theyare touched by the water of
pieces
the river,acquirea greyish-black
coatingwhich scarcely
of a line below the surface of the rock.
a hundredth
penetrates

ANNOTATIONS

The

AND

producedis

appearance

graphite.The

with

189

ADDITIONS.

that of basalt,or

crust

and carbon ; I say appears, for the


examined.
yet been thoroughly

not

by Rozier

remarked

Philse ;

Syene and
the

rockybanks

are

by

of the

the Berbice.

burgh on
S.

the

on

On

212.)

their

wet; and

(Rel.hist.
in
generally

Congo;

Sir Robert

is imparted
to the
not act

these

24.

"

so

coffee-brown

place. No
as

to

black

form

or

black colour
that is to say,
from its constituent

the

apes."
the small apes, Simia seni-

culus,Simia beelzebub,
"c., are
commences

"

rain-announcinghowlingsof

howlingsof
melancholy

the rain

of

when

leaden-coloured crust.

bearded

The

rocks

Negro, and

rivers which have

waters

the stone

The

Orinoko,

producefevers.

In the Rio

rocks by the waters


granite

or

am

leaden-coloured

believed to

effects take

upon

"

und

Schom-

exhalations
pernicious

out

299-304.)

a black
particles

(47)p.

by

in Guiana
(Reisen

waters/' "aguas negras,"or

theydo

and

proximityis

such

of the Nile,near

CaptainTuckeyon

the South American

yellowtint,no

phenomenonhas

the unfortunate

give

T. ii. p.

ganese
man-

Somethingsimilar was

rocks
syenite

the Orinoco

considered to

contain

to

appears

fossilscoloured

it is

as

heard
if the

some

before

hours

heard

tempestwere

of the noise produced


ragingat a distance. The intensity
by such small animals can only be explained
by their
number
tree.

seventyor eightybeing often lodgedin

On

the organs of voice of these

see
animals,

treatise in the firstchapter


of my
vations de

vol. i. p.
Zoologie,

18.

my

single
tomical
ana-

Recueil d'Obser-

190

STEPPES

(48)p.

24.""

AND

DESERTS.

Often covered

birds."

with

The crocodileslie so motionless that I have


on
(Phcenicopterus)
resting

of

beingcovered

time

same
a

their

with

flamingos

seen

heads; the body at

like
birds,
aquatic

the

the trunk

tree.

(") p.

Down

24.""

his

The salivawith which the boa


process of

decomposition
; the

softened into such


limbs of

serpentfrom

his prey hastens the

covers

muscular fleshthus becomes

that he
state,
gelatinous

and
larger,

force entire

can

bodies of smaller,
animals

division. The

throat without

swellingthroat."

down

Creoles call this

"
these circumstances,

his

gigantic

which
Tragavenado,"

Stag swallower:" they tell fabulous stories of


snakes beingseen with the antlers of a stag(whichit was
in their throats. I have
to swallow)sticking
impossible
several times seen
the boa
swimming in the Orinoco,
and in the smaller forest streams,the Tuamini,the Temi
"

means

and the

Atabapo.

dog. Its skin

skins which have


largest
measured
do
Europe and carefully

broughtto
21

It is said to attain a
is finely
spotted.

feet; but

of 48

to

It holds itshead above the water

the

feet.

23

The

South

American

boa

as

like a

length

yet been

not

exceed

(which is

Python)differsfrom the East Indian. On the Ethiopian


boa,see Diodor. lib.iii.p. 204, ed. Wesseling.
(50)
p.
It

New

was

25.
a

"
"

very

Using ants,

gums,

prevalent
reporton

and

earth

as

food"

the coasts of Cumana,

and Caraccas,visited by
Barcelona,

the Franciscan

192

STEPPES

DESERTS.

AND

deepriver water

of fish ceases, for it is as difficultto fish in


as

in the

or

three months'

which is of two
It is in this interval,

deepsea.

of earth.
quantities

Bueno,
these

The

assured
Indians),

three

quartersof

day. Accordingto
give,this

that

us

pound

to

forms

and

which

the Otomacs

their

or

fern root.

that
of
as

They have

in the

even

fish,
theyeat
kind

of

such

dainty. These

have

men

no
perceive

as

selves
them-

time

same

a small fish,
lizard,

obtain

dark

assured
misssionary,

alterationin their health

every

day

They are fat,

monk

who

that he

us

plenty

copper-brown

features.

Franciscan

The
large-bellied.
them

among

the

they can

Tartar
and unpleasing
complexion,

but, not

at

littleearth after their meals

for the clay,


predilection

when

dry season,

quarterin

subsistence
principal

obtain it,a

theycan

eat from

pound

duringthe rainyseason, though theyeat


when
occasionally,

would

of them

one

the accounts

earth

midal
pyra-

monk, Pray Ramon


intelligent
(who lived twelve years among

very

native of Madrid

considerable stores of

found

"We have

great

in
clayballs beingpiledtogether

it in their huts,the

heaps.

swallow

duration,that the Otomacs

lived
could

duringthe earth-eating

season.

The

simplefactsare

therefore as follows :-rThe Indians eat

of earth
largequantities

without

theythemselves regardthe

to
injury

earth

i.e. theyfeel themselves


substance,

considerable time

that for

earth

and
clay,

or

which

and

not to the other

theynow

and

then

so

eaten

their health ; and


as

an

alimentary

satisfiedby eating
it,and

theyattribute

this to the

scantyarticlesof

obtain in addition.

ence
subsistIf you

ANNOTATIONS

inquirefrom

AND

Otoraac

an

about

193

ADDITIONS.

his winter

provision,
(in

is usually
called
South America the rainyseason
tropical
balls stored in his hut.
he points
to the heapof clay
winter),

determine the questions,


simplefacts by no means
be really
whether the clay
substance ? whether
an alimentary
earths be capable
of assimilation? or whether they merely
But these

to appease

serve

pretendto

cannot

decide these

uncritical Father Gumilla


as

such.

T. i. p.
meal

questions.(Bel.hist. T.

It is curious that the

p. 618-620.)

credulous
usually

denies
positively

the

(Historiadel Bio Orinoco,nueva

179.)

and

He

affirms that the balls of

crocodile-fat mixed

stomach?

the
hunger by distending

ii.

and

earth-eating

impr. 1791,

clayhad

with them.

But

maize-

the missionary,

FrayBamon Bueno, and our friend and travelling


the laybrother Fray Juan Gonzalez,who was
companion,
lost ut

sea

both

off the Coast of Africa with


assured

fat with the


it we

us

clay;

that the Otomacs

part of
never

our

tions,
collec-

mix

dile
croco-

and of the meal said to be mixed with

heard

absolutely
nothingduringour stayin Uruana.
The earth which we
broughtback with us, and which
is thoroughly
Vauquelinanalysed,
May
pure and unmixed.
have been
Gumilla,by a confusion of thingswhollydistinct,
to the preparation
of bread from the longpod of a
alluding
kind of Inga,which is previously
buried in the earth in order
to hasten the commencement
of the first stageof decay?
That the health of the Otomacs should not sufferfrom eating
so

much

earth appears to

they become

accustomed

remarkable.
particularly

me

to

?
generations
VOL.

i.

it in the

course

Have

of several

194

STEPPES

AND

DESERTS.

In all tropical
human
countries,

beingsshew

dinary
extraor-

an

and almost irresistibledesire to swallow earth ; and


not

alkaline earths,
which

to neutralize

acid,but

runningout
I

rain.

have

in the

women

to

and

unctuous

It is often necessary to
from

theymight be supposedto

strong-smelling
clays.

confine children to prevent them

eat earth

observed

of
village

after
immediately

with

astonishment

Banco

the

on

put greatlumpsof clayinto


remarked

Storia

at

an

Americana,T.

their mouths.

earlier
ii.p.

the

fall of
Indian

potter's
wheel,

The

periodby Gili.

311.)

Magdalena River,

whilst engagedin shaping


earthen vessels on the

was

crave

Wolves

thing
(Saggiodi
same

alsa eat earth,

and

in winter.
It would be important
to
especially
clay,
examine carefully
the excrements of animals and men
that

eat earth.

of all other

With

the

races

who

of
exception

indulgefor any lengthof

have
strangedesire of earth-eating
it.

of San

At the mission

Indian

who,

woman,

anythingbut

earth.

the Otomacs, individuals

Borja,we

his mother
He

their health

was,

saw

time

the

injured
by

the child of

said, would

an

hardlyeat

to
however,wasted nearly

skeleton.

Why is it that in the temperateand cold zones


for eating
earth is so much more
craving
rare,
when
confined,
entirely
women

while in the

in
indigenous
eat

negroes

it is met

this morbid
and is almost

with,to children and pregnant

it
tropics

would

appear to be

quartersof the globe? In Guinea the


earth, whieh they call Caouac.
yellowish

all

When

-broughtas

obtain

slaves to the West

Indies,theytryto

similar earth,and affirm that in their

own

country

habit

the

Islands

did them

never

consequence ; but

in 1751, sold

was,

"Les

de

negres

in
secretly
Guinee

de

du Caouac

manger

chatiment

en

dans

in

Ceux

sont

Martinique.

leur pays

qui sont

si friands

qui puisseles empecherde

in

jaunatre)

rouge

certaine terre,
dont le

etre incommodes.

en

American

forbidden

was

the market

disent que

mangent habituellement une


sans
plait,

it

(un tuf

kind of earth

the

In

harm.

any

ill by it,and

made

theywere

195

ADDITIONS.

AND

ANNOTATIONS

ils

gout leur

dans 1'abus

qu'il
n'ya

pas de

devorer de la terre."

de Chanvalon, Voyage a la Martinique,


(Thibault
p. 85.)
In the Island of Java, between
Sarabayaand Samarang,

Labillardieresaw
for sale in the

small square reddish-coloured cakes

The
villages.

natives called them

exposed

tana

in Malayand Javanese,signifies
(tanah,
earth).On

ampo

tion
examina-

and

he found that the cakes consisted of reddish


enquiry
and that theywere
eaten.
clay,
(Voyagea la Eecherche de
la Perouse, T. ii.p. 322.) The edible clayof Samarang
has recently
been sent to Berlin by Mohnike, in 1847, in
the

shape of rolled tubes,like cinnamon, and has been


examined
by Ehrenberg. It is a fresh-water formation
of microscopic
depositedon limestone,and consisting
Polygastrica,
Gaillonella,
Naviculas, and Phytolitharia
iiber die Verhandl. der Akad. d. Wiss. zu Berlin,
(Bericht
dem

aus

J. 1848, S.

Caledonia,to

222-225.)

appease

their

no

la Eecherche

and

several

inhabitants of New

hunger,eat piecesas big

the fistof friablesteatite,


wliich
in addition

The

Vauquelinfound

inconsiderable quantity
of copper.
de la

Perouse,T.

ii.p.

partsof Peru, calcareous

205.)

In

as

to contain

(Voyage
Popayan,

earth is sold in the

196

STEPPES

streets

as

AND

DESERTS.

eatable for the Indians ; it is used with Coca

an

(theleaves of the Erythroxylon


pemvianum.) Thus
the

diffused throughoutthe torrid

of eatingearth
practice

zone,

indolent

among

finest and

the
inhabiting

races

find

we

'

most

globe. But accounts have also come


from the North, through Berzelius and Betzius,according
Infusoria
to which,hundreds of cartloads of earth containing
said to be annually
consumed
are
by the country people,

fertilepartsof the

in the most

from

more

even

from

fancy (likethe smokingof tobacco)than

!
necessity
mixed

breadmeal, and

parts of Sweden, as

remote

In Finland this kind of earth is occasionally

with the bread.

It consists of

small and
so
animalculae,

soft that

empty shells of

they do

not

crunch

between
the teeth; it fillsthe stomach, but
perceptibly
In periodsof war, chronicles
givesno real nourishment.
and documents
in archives often giveintimation
preserved
of earths containing
infusoria havingbeen eaten ; speaking
of them

under the vague

meal/'

It

Pomerania
in the

thus

was

of
mountain
name
general
during the ThirtyYears' War in

and

"

in the Lausitz

(atCamin);

of Dessau
territory

in 1719

and

Wittenberg. (See

unsichtbar wirkende

Ehrenbergiiber das

and

(atKlieken); and subsequently

at the fortress of

1733

(atMuskau) \

Leben,
organische

1842, S. 41.)

(51)p.
In
4th

25.

"
"

Figures graven

the interior of South

degreesof

enclosed

by

North

on

the rock"

America, between the 2d and

forest-covered plain is
a
latitude,

the
four rivers,

the B/io
Orinoco,the Atabapo,

ANNOTATIONS

Negro,and

AND

197

ADDITIONS.

the

and
granite
Uruana,with
of

In this districtare
Cassiquiare.
of syenite,
like those of
covered,

colossal

of
symbolical
figures
and drawings
of household utensils,
and
tigers,

found rocks
Caicara and

crocodiles and
of the

sun

and

At the

presenttime this remote corner of the earth


is entirely
without human inhabitants,
extent
an
throughout
moon*

of

than 8000

more

nearest

square

its boundaries

to

the lowest

stageof

human

miles.
The tribes
geographical
are
wanderingnaked savages, in
and far removed from
existence,

rocks.
on
thoughtsof carvinghieroglyphics

any

trace

in South

more

than

America

of the

of

extending
through
of rocks so ornamented;
longitude,

the

Eupuniri,Essequibo,and
Pacaraima,to the banks of the Orinoco

Yupura.

These

carvingsmay

different epochs,for Sir Hobert


the

on

Bio

(Eeisenin

later date than the


a

tben

Schomburgk even

at the

500), which

S.

of the
beginning

wilderness where
as

belong to

the
and
very

found

of a Spanishgaliot
Negro representations
Guiana und am
Orinoko,tibersetztvon Otto

Schomburgk,1841,
in

may

entire zone,

an

eightdegreesof

viz. from
mountains

One

the natives

presenttime.

must

16th
were

But it must

have been

century;and

of

this

rude
as
probably
not be forgotten

nations of very different


that,as I have elsewhere noticed,
when in
descent,

similar uncivilized state,


havingthe

same

and being
and generalise
to simplify
outlines,
disposition
to form rhythmical
by inherent mental dispositions
impelled
and series,
repetitions
may be led to producesimilar signs
and symbols. (Compare Relation hist. T. n.
p. 589,
and Martius uber die Physionomiedes Pflanzenreichs in

Brasilien,
1824, 8,14.)

198

STEPPES

AND

DESERTS.

of London,
of Antiquaries
Meetingof the Society
17th of November, 1836, there was read a memoir

At the
the

on

by

Traditions of
Schomburgk On the Eeligions
Indians,who inhabit the Upper Mahu and a

Sir Eobert

the Macusi

Pacaraima

partof the
who

for

"

Mountains

""

nation,consequently,

the journeyof
century(since

have
Hortsmann,)

not

Schomburgk says

survivor of

the adventurous

changedtheir residence.

"

The

Macusis

Sir Eobert

believe that the sole

the earth by changing


general
delugerepeopled

beings." This myth (thefruitof the


and which reminds us
of these nations,
lively
imagination
shews itselfin a somewhat altered
of Deucalion and Pyrrha),

stones into human

mankind
the

of the Orinoco.

the Tamanaks

form among

survived the

the
greatflood,

without
Mexicans,theyreply
and

man

one

Tamanacu, on
threw
the
and

over

woman

took

the banks of

any

"

'

one

refugeon the highmountain of


the Asiveru,
and that theythen

the kernels of which sprang

who

Tepu-Mereme,or

of
figures

age of waters" of

that
hesitation,

the earth/
repeopled
in the middle of
Encaramada,there rises,
rock

asked how

their heads and behind their backs the fruitsof

from
Mauritia-palm,
women

When

animals and

the

rock.
painted

Some
the

men

miles from

the
savannah,

It shews several

outlines which resemble


symbolical
much
those observed by us at some
distance above Encaramada,
in 7" 5' to 7" 40' lat. and 66" 28' to
near
Caycara,
67" 23' W. long,from Greenwich.
Eocks thus marked
between
found
the Cassiquiare
and
the Atabapo
are
and what is particularly
remarkable,
(in2" 5' to 3" 20' lat.),
560
miles farther to the East in the solitudes
geographical
of the Parime.
This last fact is \ laced beyonda

200

AND

STEPPES

and which
Islands,
of the

work

consider to

Caribs,
by whom

inhabited.
formerly

DESERTS.

that

be,without doubt,the
the Antilles was

partof

I made the utmost

effortsto detach portions

of the roqk which contained the


desired to take with

me

fever had taken away


threatscould
a

hammer

mental
superior

regardthem

as

the Indians to

cultivation of their
the

work
we

met

and
Spirit,

with
acquainted

moment

would

Indian

them.

the

great

Terror

who
companions,

that the fire of heaven

that my endeavours
clearly
would be fruitless,
and I contented myselfwith bringing
The last
away a completedrawingof these memorials."
determination was certainly
and the editor of the
the best,
adds a note to
EnglishJournal,to my greatsatisfaction,
my

head.

predecessors.
They

at
with,thoughliving

the faces of my

with
of the

monuments

of the Great

appearedto expectevery
fall on

blow
givea single

"

nevertheless

paintedon

was

strength.Neither promisesnor

rocks, the venerable

different tribes who


were
distance,

but the

my

on
prevail

to these

and which I
inscription,
stone was
too hard,and

saw

the effect that it is to be wished


successful than

more

traveller from
the

Mr.

that

no

one

Schomburgk,and

civilizedcountries may

destruction of these monuments

do

else may

that

no

be

future

towards
anything

of the

unprotected

Indians.

symbolical
signsseen by Robert Schomburgkin the
the rapidsof Waraputa,
near
Valleyof the Essequibo,
(BichardSchomburgk,Eeisen in Britisch-Guiana,Ih. i.
remarked by him to bear a greatresemS. 320),were
blance
of the small
to
in
one
genuine Carib ones
th$ wide
VirginIslands (St,John's)
; but notwithstanding
The

ANNOTATIONS

AND

extent of the-invasions of the

which,

have

as

said,form

a
traversing
great part of

east,

be

to

are

"

distinguish
by

now

we

still unknown.

by the

traces of
an

various

similar works.

of

execution

which

should

be

the tribes

everywheretestified

the banks

Caycara,on

There
:

of the

inclined

were
appellations

they have

mentioned

to

sation,
ancient civili-

an

Indians of the presentday for these rude


that

belt

west

am

epochwhen

veneration

the

Even

of their predecessors,
shews

and

as

belonging,
perhaps,to

"

from

their work.

regardedas

ings,
engrav-

immense

an

America

South

these remains

rather to view

whom

Caribs,and the ancient power

believe that all the rock

of this fine race,. I cannot


"

201

ADDITIONS.

sculptures
idea of the

no

is another
between

stance
circum-

Eucaramada

Orinoco, a number

of

the face of
are
on
figures
sculptured
hieroglyphical
which could now
be reached only by
at a height
precipices
asks the
of extraordinarily
If one
means
high scaffolding.
these

natives how
as
laughing,

could

man

waters
a

these
if it
be

have been

can
figures
were

fact of which

that
ignorant,

their fathers went

geological
fancy is

in

canoes

made

problempresentedby a

"in

to

the

cut,

theyanswer,
but

none

days of

at that

afford

an

civilisationwhich

white

the

great

height." Thus
to

answer

has

the

long passed

away.

Let
which

me

be
borrow

permittedto
from

introduce

letter addressed

here
to

a
me

remark

by

the

Sir Eobert
traveller,
Schomburgk. "The
distinguished
more
are
hieroglyphical
widelyextended than you
figures
had perhapsrupposed. During my expedition,
which had

202

STEPPES

for its

the
object

only observed
similar

57J" W.

4" 21' 30"

57"

55' 30"

extremelyremarkable

W.

than any which

Their size is about ten

figures.The

it encompasses

the

head,spreading

in breadth,and is not unlike


considerably
the heads
in paintings
as
surrounding
represented
Sacred

in
figures

colony,but

the

allbefore the

lay them

Cuyuwini,a
since

by actual
and

from

zone

of

57"

hope

of Saints

drawingsof these
day to be able to

some

ruder

saw

the halos

on
figures

emptiesitselfinto

the

similar figures
the
on

the

Essequibo

it from the north-west


N., entering

seen

1" 40' N, lat.

left my

public. I

river which

in latitude 2" 16'


I have

I have

Persons.

feet,and

head-dress is

out

and

These

long.

greatercare

human
represent

to

I also discovered

but
long.),

I discovered in Guiana.

theyappear

the rock of Timeri

on
figures

executed with much

are
figures

not

great cataracts of the Corentyn,in

the

lat. and

N.

CorentynRiver,I

of the

colossal

some

near

ones

DESERTS.

examination

lat. and

(4"" N.

AND

and

Essequiboitselfin

These

as
tained
ascerfiguresextend,therefore,
from 7" 10' to 1" 40' N. lai,
observation,

30'

66"

to

30' W,

rocks extends,so
pictured

presentexamined,over

long.

far

Thus

the

it has been at

as

space of 192000

square

phical
geogra-

the
miles,comprisingthe basins of the Corentyn,
Essequibo,and the Orinoco; a circumstance from which
we

of

may

form

some

inferences

the
respecting

in this partof the


population
Other remarkable remains of

no

are
longerexists,

the

former amount

continent.'"
a

which
degreeof civilisation

vases
granite

with

ornaments, and the earthen masks

graceful
labyrinthine

Roman
resembling

ANNOTATIONS

ones, which

been

have

wild Indians.

among

p. 318-324

discovered

of my
the historicalportion
are
Antiquaries

of the Palace of

astonished at the

accompanies

gions.
ReEquinoctial

of these
similarity

Grecian

form),to those

Oaxaca,in Mexico.

I have
carvings,

at Peruvian

which

Travels to the

Mitla,near

remarked

never

1779,

107.) I have had them

a well-known
(resembling

ornaments

vol. v.

Britan.
(Archseologia

"PicturesqueAtlas"

the

Mosquito coast,

the

on

and vol. vi. 1782, p.

engravedin

203

ADDITIONS.

AND

In

looking

of the
figures

any

of men, so frequently
in the basrace
represented
large-nosed
in Guatimala,and in the Aztec paintreliefsof Paleiique
ings.
having seen individuals with
Klaprothremembered
similar largenoses
the Chalcas,
a northern
Mogul
among
tribe.

It is well known

American
noses

red

or

Indians
copper-coloured

and that this is an

between

them

tribes of the North

that many

and

the

distinction
essential physiognomic

presentinhabitants of Mexico,New

Granada, Quito,and Peru.

the

Are

large-eyed,
tively
compara-

fair-complexioned
people,
spoken of by
havingbeen
coast of

seen

fine aquiline

have

in 54" and

58" lat.

America,descended from

an

on

Marchand

as

the north-west

Alano-Gothic

race, the

Uslini of the interior of Asia ?

(52)p.

25.

"

"Apparently weaponless,and yet prepared


for murder"

The
A

mere

Otomacs

often

poisonthe

scratch of the nail is

with the blood.


from
plant,

the

We

obtained

juiceof

which

thumb-nail

deadlyif

with Curare.

the

specimensof
the

curare

curare

the

is

mixes

climbing

at
prepared,

204

STEPPES

Esmeralda

the

on

AND

DESERTS.

we
Upper Orinoco,but unfortunately

did not find it in blossom.


appears to be related to

curare

the notice in the work

Since

556).
or

ourari

plantand

as

done much

with,the
acquainted

to

referred to

of the

both as a
mentioned by Raleigh,
(previously
the brothers Robert and Richard
poison),

Schomburgkhave
of which

it
Judgingby its physiognomy
Strychnos(Eel.hist. T. ii.p. 547*

nature and

the

wa"

towards

blossom in Guiana

bringa

first to

Europe. Richard
on

making us accurately
of this substance,
preparation
considerable
the

Schomburgk found
the banks

of the Pomeroon

quantity
plant

in

and the

of the Caribs,
who are not, however,
territory
with the manner
of preparing
the poison. His
acquainted
in the

Sururu

Th.
(Reisenin Britisch-Guiana,

instructive work

461), contains

the

chemical

of
analysis

the

i. S. 441-

juiceof

the

its name
and
Strychnostoxifera"which, notwithstanding
its organic
accordingto Bousstructure)does not contain,
singault,
any trace of strychnine.Virchou and Hunter's
make it probablethat
experiments
interesting
physiological
the

curare

or

ourari

poisondoes

but only when


absorption,
of which

absorbed

has
continuity
slightly)
; that

the

has been wounded

not

kill

by mere external
stance
by livinganimal sub-

been severed (i.e. which


it does not

class of tetanic
take

away

the

belongto

the

effect is to
poisons
; and that its particular
of voluntarymuscular movement,
power

functions of the heart and intestines


involuntary
of
the older chemical analysis
stillcontinue. Compare,also,
whilst the

in the
Boussingault,

Annales

T. xxxix. 1828, p. 24-37.

de Chhme

et de

Physique,

THE

CATARACTS

OF

THE

ORINOCO.

208

CATARACTS

THE

OF

ORINOCO.

Maypures, which, previousto


had

visit,few Europeans

my

"

seen.

ever

left on
impression

The

minds

our

less even
is frequently
determined,

by the aspectof nature


character
by the peculiar

terrestrial portionof
strictly

of the

lightthrown

mountain

on

either by
plain,

or

by the

sky of

veiled

by loweringclouds; and
of nature act upon
us
descriptions

purity,or by

one

manner

same

the scene, than

azure

in the
more

or
more
as
feebly,
powerfully
according
they are more or
less in harmony with the requirements
For
of our feelings.

it is the inward mirror of the sensitive mind


the true and

image of
living

determines the character of

horizon, the dark shade


"

and
feelings
On

us

nowhere
than in
the

its

with

fall, all

the

"

inner

nature

rests

the

affords.

nobler

portionof

Nowhere

the

does she penetrate

deeplywith the feelingof her grandeur,


does she speak to us with a more
voice,
powerful
the tropical
world,under the Indian sky,"as, in
"

ages, the climate of the torrid

If, therefore,I

Assemblywith
the hope that

the

zone

of

free and

belongsto
a

was

this

occupy

I do
regions,

which

remembrance

land, the aspect of


"

those

charm
peculiar
The

again to

venture

of
description

will not be unfelt.


endowed

cliffsto
overhanging

more

earlymiddle

called.

"

man.

this communion

enjoymentwhich

communion
mysterious

lifeof

All that

"

rushingbetween

in antecedent

are

the natural world.

reflects

landscape,the outline of the


bound the
distance,
far-vanishing
of the pine forests, the sylvan

mountains,which, in the

torrent

which

distant

so

in

them

richly

vigorousvege-

CATARACTS

OF

"

love
present,

to

awhile,and

escape

the earlier youthful


age

with

mind ; in the

oppressedwith

when
spirits,

our

as

209

ORINOCO.

the
strengthens

tation, refreshes and


manner

THE

the

same

actual

themselves
delight

to

of mankind, and

with

the

manifestations of its simplegrandeur.

Favouringwinds and currents


Ocean arm,
the peaceful
across
valleybetween

New

the

bear the voyager westward

(l)which

Continent

and

fillsthe wide
Africa.

western

Before the American

shore rises from

hears the tumult

contending,
mutuallyopposing,and

of

The mariner

waves.
inter-crossing

regionwould
outbreak

surmise the

of fresh

like those in the


to the

nearer

the

of shoals,
or
vicinity

springsin

the middle

of
neighbourhood

coast
granitic

issues forth like


around

ocean

wonderful

of the ocean,

Cuba.

On

of

covers

green, and

shallows the milk-white,tint of the fresh water


with

the

colour
indigo-blue

of the sea, and

sharpoutlines the limits of the river waves.


The name
Orinoco,givento the river by
and which
of

language,is

Nations

in

in
probablyoriginated

unknown

rude

state

the
the

contrasts

with

its firstdiscoverers
confusion

some

proper

on

marks

in the interior of the

designate
by

sensible

mightyriver,

shoreless lake and


The

(2)

approaching

of Guiana, he becomes

with fresh water.

the

with
unacquainted

that he has entered the wide embouchure


which

he
plain,
liquid

country.

geographical

be confounded with each


as
can
only such objects
other.
The Orinoco,the Amazons, and the Magdalena
called simply The River,"
Tiie Great River,"
are
or
rivers,

names

"

"

or

"

The

VOL.

Great Water
I.

/' whilst
P

those who

dwell

on

their

210

CATARACTS

banks

even
distinguish

OF

THE

ORINOCO.

the smallest streams

by particular

names.

The

producedby the Orinoco,between

current

and the Island of Trinidad

the mainland

with its asphaltic


lake, is

strong,that shipswith all sail set,and with a favourable


make
breeze,can with difficulty
againstit. This
way
so

deserted and dreaded


Sadness

(GolfoTriste)
; the

Mouth
towers

part of

(Boca del Drago).


above the

by

is called the

sea

Here

the

forms

entrance

Bay

of

Dragon's

cliffsrise like

detached

and
foamingfloods,

the ancient site of

broken

the

stillto indicate

seem

rockybulwark (3),which, before

it was

the force of the current, united the island of

Trinidad with the coast of Paria.


The

aspect of this regionfirst convinced


of the New

World

of the existence of

the

body

course,

of fresh water
and

"

continent,not

could

only be

that the land which


island."

an

American

an

continent. Familiar with nature,he inferred that

coverer
greatdis-

so

immense

collected in

suppliedit

must

long
be

As, accordingto Arrian,the

the
companionsof Alexander,after crossing

snow-covered

Paropanisus,
(4)on reachingthe Indus imagined,from the
in that river a
that theyrecognised
presence of crocodiles,
branch
of
of
to

of the Nile

so

of the- similarity

Columbus, unaware

physiognomywhich characterises the various productions


the climate of Palms,readily
supposedthis new continent
be the eastern

Asia.

The

mild

coast

of the

continent
far-projecting

coolness of the

eveningair,the

of

ethereal

of the
purityof the starryfirmament,the balsamic fragrance
flowers wafted to him by the land breeze, all led him (as
"

CATARACTS

tells us

Herrara

THE

OF

in the

the

first parentsof the


him

appearedto

be

to

the sacred

human

with

vegetation.This poeticpassage
October

Hayti,in

interest.
psychological
peculiar
the creative imagination
of the
as

in every form of human


In

South American

from the

of
journal

and

has
Isabella,
us

that

anew

poet exists in the Discoverer

greatness.
water

arises
question
"

which

the Orinoco

Which

of the great

Rivers, the Orinoco,the Amazons, or the


"

?
The question,
Plate, is the largest
however, thus

River

"

put is

not

determinate

one,

the idea of size in this


The

definite.
being altogether

not

descending

newly decked

It teaches

the quantity
of
considering

bears to the Atlantic,


the

Orinoco

letter written from

to Ferdinand

1498,

The

water the earth

rather from

or

dwelling-plac

of the four rivers

one

Paradise,to divide and

voyage,

that he had

race.

from

Columbus's

deem

Decades) (5),to

the garden of Eden,


approached
of

211

ORINOCO.

widest

Eiver

Plate

miles
geographical

embouchure, being 92

case

has the
across;

its lengthis comparatively


small.
but,like the British rivers,
Even
as

to

at Buenos

so
Ayresits depthis already

impedenavigation.The

all rivers :

its

breadth

in the

cataract

of

is 2880

provinceof

The

at

Jaen

of

de

longestof
of LauriBut

Bracamoros,near

by me

its
the

at the foot of the

Patachuma, hardlyequalsthat of

Mayence.

Orinoco

River Plate

miles.
geographical

Rentaina,as measured

mountain
picturesque
the Rhine

is the

from its origin


in the Lake

course

cocha to its mouth

Amazons

inconsiderable

or

is

narrower

the Amazons

at
;

its mouth

than

either the

to
and its length,
according

212

CATARACTS

OP

THE

ORINOCO.

determined by
positions
astronomically
1120

miles.
geographical

But,

the interior of Guiana, 560


found

its breadth,when

feet.

The

miles from

comparisonit
of
profile

the

differsvery

the river

America

raises
annually

30 to 36 feet above

from

rivers which

enormous

would

hand, far in

its mouth, I still

Sufficient materials for

of South

to

16200 Parisian (17265 Eng.)


full,

its level at this part of its course

of the

the other

on

periodical
swellingof

its lowest level.

onlyamounts

me,

accurate

an

intersect the

still wanting. For

are

be needful

parison
com-

to know

in each

tinent
con-

such
case

the

and the velocity


of the water, which
river-bed,

in
greatly

different partsof the

stream.

same

divided and still


If,in the Delta enclosed by its variously

unexploredarms,
and

in the

"

fall, and

the Orinoco

"

number

the

in

"

of
regularity
and

pointsof

shews

its

size of

rocks

shores
wood-fringed

and

Nile

an

the

rivers,

windings

of their

to the sea, between

their waters

almost

to

and syenitic
by granitic

mountains, duringthe remainder

they slowlyroll
banks, over

formed

diles,
croco-

the two

rushingrapidlythrough many

after,long

between

its

resemblance

Nile,there is this further analogybetween


that

rise
periodical

horizontalbed.

An

course

treeless
of the

arm

flows from the celebrated


(theGreen Nile,Bahr7el-Azrek)
mountain-lake

near

Gondar, in the Abyssinian


Gojam

throughthe
Alps, to Syene and Elephantis,
Shangallaand
rises on

Sennaar.

the southern

in the 4th and 5th


from

Prench

In

similar

of the
declivity

of
parallel
Guiana

North

towards

manner

mountain

mountains

the Orinoco
chain

which,

extends
latitude,
the

of

Andes

ward
west-

of New

The

Granada.
visited

by

THE

OF

CATARACTS

of the Orinoco

sources

European, or

any

been in communication

with

213

ORINOCO.

by

even

(6)have

any natives who

the Upper Orinoco in the summer


ascending
passedthe Mission of Esmeralda,and reached

of the Sodom

oni and

the

of the Yeonnamari
which

mountain
grand and picturesque

spectatorone

of the

world
tropical

has

finest

Its

to offer.

above

the level of the

mountain

presentsa

eveningair

The

sea.

presentsto the

The

treeless grassy

stalks of the

which

the

southern

slopeof

and
surface,

my
feet

(8823 Eng.)

is filled far and wide with the

ripeananas.

Duida,

to
altitude,
according

is 8278

measurement,
trigonometrical

the mouths

or

of nature

scenes

of 1800,

rises high above

Here

Guapo.

the clouds the massive summit


a

have

Europeans.

In
we

been

never

the

the humid

of
fragrance

the

with
pineapples,
swelling

rise between the lowlyherbs of the meadow,


juice,
and the golden fruit is seen
shiningat a distance from
of bluish-green.Where
under its leafycrown
mountain

rich

springsor
the

scene

whose
On

rivulets break

is further adorned

the east

by

of the Duida

groves

and
begins,

turfycovering,

of tall fan-palms,

groups

cool breeze.

mountain

of the celebrated Bertholletia


the

the

feels the influence of

never
foliage

wild Cacao

forth from

dense thicket of

amidst these

are

found trees

the
excelsa,

most

of
vigorous

of the tropical
world (7).
productions

Here

the Indians

collect the

materials for their

stalks

above
havingjoints

Some

Franciscan

of the

monks

where
Chiguire,

colossal
blow-pipes,

grass-

18 feet longfrom knot to knot.

have

as far as
penetrated

the river is

so
already

(8)

the mouth
narrow

that

214

CATARACTS

natives have

the

OF

thrown

THE

ORINOCO.

the waterfall of

it,near

across

Guaharibes,a suspension
bridgeformed

the

of

stems

climbingplants. The Guaicas,a

lightcomplexionbut
poisoned
arrows, forbid
that
All,therefore,
lake

in nature

for the

has been

the
put forward respecting

is fabulous

as

maps

"We seek in vain

(9)

inland

an

(a branch

the Pirara

But

is situated is four

80

sea

of the

the swamp

geographical
of Amucu,

Mahu) flows,given
in which

the lake of

to
degreesof longitude

the

the district in which

is stillmarked

the little reedy lake

Has

rise to this fable?


Amucu

towards the east.

Laguna of El Dorado, which

length.

from which

with

of small stature,armed

in Arrowsmith's
miles in

twining

of comparatively

race

any farther advance

the Orinoco

of
origin

of the

the east of

of the Orinoco

sources

must

be

sought.
It

was

make

all the

largerrivers

lakes.
of the Orinoco

Pumacena,

of micaceous

century,played,in
and

to

clouds of the southern


in

the

deceived

It is the belief of the

of the metallic

siderable
con-

site of the

the fable of El

Dorado,

humanity often

that
natives,
even

ship Argo,

of the
brilliancy

island of

the glitter
of which,
slate,

and
hemisphere,

constellation of the

in
originate

formingthe supposedorigin

transferred the

was

memorable,

part.

to
dogmatising
geographers

of the world

the lake

To

rock

in the 16th
a

of

ancient custom

an

the

fatal

Magellanic

the fine nebulae


are

reflection

silver mountains

of the

Parime.
The

Orinoco

seem
windings,

is

one

of those rivers

to return back

which, after

towards the

regionin

many
which

216

whose

CATARACTS

banks

OF

adorned

are

ORINOCO.

THE

Melastomas,and the Teini,Tuamini, and


rivers of
groves

coffee-brown colour.

this colour

arborescent

with Carolinias and

the shade

In

almost

seems

Guainia,are

to

of the

palm

ink-black.

into

pass

all

When

the water appears of a


vessels,
placedin transparent
goldenyellow. The image of the Southern Constellations
is reflected with wonderful
"Where their waters
when

flow

takingastronomical
a

most

less

clearness in these black streams.

gently,
theyafford
observations with

excellent artificialhorizon.
from

torment

to the

observer,

ments,
instrureflecting
A

cooler atmosphere,

stingingmosquitoes,greater

and the absence of crocodiles (fish,


however,are
salubrity,
also wanting),
mark the regionof these black rivers. They
colour to a solution of carbuprobablyowe their peculiar
retted hydrogen,
to the luxuriance of the tropical
vegetation,
and to the quantity
of plants
and herbs on the ground over
which

theyflow.

razo, towards

On

the western

the coast of the

flooded waters of the Bio de

of
declivity

I remarked
Pacific,

almost coffee-brown

the meadows

some

In the

that the

assumed
Guayaquilgradually

goldenyellowor
for

the Chimbo-

colour,when

covering

weeks.

of the
vicinity

mouths

of the Guaviare and

Atabapo
palm trees,

Piriguao,
(10)one of the noblest of
whose smooth and polished
trunk, between 60 and 70 feet
curled at the
high,is adorned with a delicate flag-like
foliage
margins. I know no palm which bears such large and
coloured fruits. They resemble peaches,
and are
beautifully
tingedwith yellowmingledwith a roseate crimson. Seventy
or
pendulousbunches,of
eightyof them form enormous
grows

the

CATARACTS

which

each tree

be called the
luxuriance

often devoid

the mouth

Orinoco

southern

de

Parime;

covered
the

from

plain of

chain

de

seeds,and

turns

of
variety

of
declivity
bank

River

the

forest-

stretches far

suddenlyto

Sierra

the vast

degree of

15th

ways.

of the Guaviare, the

its southern

to the

the Orinoco

Fernando

preparedin

the Amazons

equator,even

When

be

along the

and

from the

are

of

might

nutritious farinaceous food which, like

and potatoes,
can
plantains
Hitherto,or as far as
flows

This fine tree

fleshyfruits

The

most
vegetation

offer to the natives

217

ORINOCO.

ripensthree.
annually

peachpalm.

of

THE

OF

latitude.

south

the north

Atabapo,it breaks througha partof

beyond
San

near

the

tain
moun-

base of which it had

flowed ;
previously
and this isthe siteof the greatwaterfallsof Atures and MayThe
river bed is here everywhere
hemmed
in by
pures.

alongthe

colossal masses

of

rock,and

divided

as

it were

into

separate

reservoirs by natural dikes.


.In front of the entrance
middle of

natives have
of

giventhe

because when

costs those who

the

very

are

name
appropriate

the waters

the
ascending

rockybays. Oppositeto

"

rock

daysto

pass it.

land,forms picturesque

the Indian mission of Cari-

chana the travelleris surprised


bythe
his view.

the

of the

the

low it sometimes

are

river two

Orinoco,eatingdeep into

itselfto
presents

there stands in the

isolated cliff,
to which

an
mightywhirlpool

;"
patience

Here

of the Meta

which
singular
prospect

His eye is

riveted
involuntarily

rock,el Mogote de Cocuyaa,a cube


abruptgranitic
with vertically
sides,above 200 feet high and
precipitous
its upper surface a forestof trees of rich and varied
on
bearing
on

an

"18

CATARACTS

OF

THE

ORINOCO.

foliage.Resemblinga Cyclopeanmonument
this mass
grandeur,

in its

of rock rises high above the

simple

topsof

the

surroundingpalms,its sharp outlines appearingin strong


reliefagainst
the deep azure
of the sky,and its summit
lifting
uphigh in

air

forest above the forest.

the
descending

In

Orinoco from this point,


stillwithin -the

range of the Carichana

mission,we

river where

has forced for itself a

the

the stream
pass of

narrow

Baraguan.

arrive at the part of the

Here

traces of chaotic devastation.

and

Uruana

notched

which

graniteof

and serrated outline and

whiteness highabove
dazzling

with

grotesqueaspectshine

the thickets from amidst

the Apure, that


region,after receiving

leaves the

Orinoco

chain
granitic

Guiana

from the grassy


to
everywhere

on
plains

rest

as

on

entire space between

the Caura, is surrounded

on

which

of the

the horizon

the

of the Jao and

sources

Orinoco.

South,to

Below

to the

the

of the river is uninterrupted


by rocks

at the
itsmouth, excepting

of
whirlpool

rapiddo

not

the river as at Atures and


the river in the

extend

across

Maypures.

of the
vicinity

sea, the

the

Carichana
or

rapidsto

the Boca del Infierno

mouth)near Muitaco,where,however,
(Hell's
occasion the

ocean.

mountains,which

West, and
course

flows

',hevault of heaven

three sides,
to the

North,by the

the

forests of
impenetrable

the elevated cluster of the Parime

the
occupies

and

of mountains

the
eastward to the Atlantic,
dividing

Thus

rily
extraordina-

theyrise.

It is in this

seems

recognise
everywhere

we

To the north,(towards

of

Encaramada),masses

through

way

the rocks which

the entire bed of

In these lower

partsof

onlydangerfeared by

CATARACTS

the boatmen

is that of

THE

OF

the greatnatural rafts,


encountering
of
from the banks by the swelling
often wrecked duringthe
canoes
are

of trees torn
consisting
which
the river,
against
night. These rafts,covered
remind
plants,

water

the Mexican

219

ORINOCO.

like meadows

with

flowering

of the floating
gardensof
spectator

the

lakes.

After this rapidreview of the

of the Orinoco,and

course

relations to the
of its general
to the

surrounding
country,I pass
Palls of Maypuresand Atures.

of the
description

Between

the

sources

of the rivers Sipapoand Yentuari


the elevated mountain

from
granite
ridgeprojects

Cunavami, and

ridge
; two, the Sipapoand

The

Near the

of the eastern
the
recognise

from this

the eastern
on
Sanariapo,

Camejiand

the

Toparo,on

side
its

of Maypuresthe
village
Missionary

retireand form

foamingstream

Maypures,descend

the

of the Orinoco ; and two, the

mountains

tains
moun-

Four streams,which may be said to mark

the limits of the cataracts of

side.

group of

advances far to the west towards the

of Uniama.

western

wide

bayopen

presenttime

flows at the

and
declivity,

mountain

ancient bank

forsaken

now

to the south-west.

far to the west

by

the water.

feet above
grass-covered
onlyabout thirty
plain,
level of the river,
extends
highest

at the foot
we

the present

between the two chains of

hills. The Jesuits have built upon

it a small church formed

of the trunks of
The

palm trees.
geological
aspectof

rocks of Keri and


of

the
islands,

Oco,

water- worn

which have

island
opposite

so

much

shapesof

same

all
of Uivitari,

heightas

the

the character

hollows in the firstnamed

the
rocks, situated at exactly
the

the district,
the

of these

the cavitiesin

that the
testify

Orinoco

220

CATAllACTS

OF

filledthe whole of this now

once

the waters formed

wide lake

THE

ORINOCO.

drygulfor bay. Probably


as
longas the northern dike

was

able to withstand their pressure.

the

now
prairie

inhabited

by

have been the firstpartwhich


which

"When

it gave

way,

Indians

the Guareke

appearedabove

must

the waters

subsequently,
perhaps,have longcontinued
the rocks of Keri and Oco, which rising
like mountain

may

surround

fortressesfrom .the ancient bed of the

to

river,
presenta

diminished
picturesque
aspect. As the waters gradually
to the foot of the eastern hills,
theywithdrew altogether
where the river now

flows.

This
The

is confirmed by several circumstances.


conjecture
Orinoco,like the Nile near Philse and Syene,has the
black colour to the reddish white

propertyof impartinga
masses

of

As far

as

which it has bathed


granite
the waters reach,one
may

shore the leaden-coloured

for thousands of years.


remark

described
coating

rocky

in page 189

mark
presence, and the hollows before mentioned,

heightof the

the

on

its

the ancient

waters of the Orinoco.

In the rock of Keri,in the islands of the

in
Cataracts,

the

above the island of Tomo, and


hillsof Cumadaminari
gneiss
at the mouth of the Jao,we trace these black-coloured
lastly
hollows at elevations of 150 to 180
feet above the
teaches

us

presentheightof
fact of which

in the river beds of

magnitudenow
remains

we

Europe;

excites our

of the immense

(160 to

the river.
may

English)

Their existence

also observe indications

viz. that the streams whose

astonishment
masses

192

of water

are

onlythe

feeble

to
belonging

an

earlierage of the world.


These

simpleremarks

and

inferences have not

escaped

CATARACTS

There is in

waters.

grassy

Uruana

plainnear

witnesses,there
the

drawingsof

at

are

and

sun

heightof

rows

lines.

or

to
impossible
to be

examined
carefully

arrangedalmost

by

be

now

serves
de-

future travellers. The

the mountains

equallyremarkable

are

eighty

which
precipice,
perpendicular

ascend this

Encaramada

or

worthy
trust-

animals,

artificialaid it would

Without

rock engravings
on
hieroglyphical
and

isolated

than

more

and of many

moon,

crocodiles and boas,engraven


particularly
in

an

to the reportof
which, according'

graniterock, on
feet

everywhere

the
height/of

of the former

attention to the traces

called our

Indians

The

the rude natives of Guiana.

even

221

ORINOCO.

THE

OF

of Uruana

in

respect to

situation.
If

asks

one

the natives how

in the rocks,they

cut

waters

were

so

high that

littlelower than
art would

human
age

as

answer

these

can
figures

that it

in such

their fathers' boats

case

state of the waters

have

which must

an

belongedto

implyinga

earlier condition

adorned

the

only a
the

same

distribution of land
and
prevails,

now

our

with that in which


the gigantic
planet,

bodies of extinct land animals,and the oceanic creatures of


chaotic state,became

more

of

entombed

of

of the earth's surface ;

not, however,be confounded

which
the earliervegetation

were

when

rude memorials

and water very differentfrom that which


to
belonging

done

was

drawings. Those

the

have been

in the

crust
indurating

globe.
At

the northernmost

is excited

by what

of the Sun

are

and Moon.

of
extremity

attention
the cataracts,

called the natural


The

rock

drawingsor pictures

Keri, to

which

I have

222

CATARACTS

several times

spot which
which

ORINOCO.

from
conspicuous

the Indians have

to the
similarity

in

THE

has received its name


referred,
is

myselfable

OF

a
thoughttheyrecognised

to climb the

island of
Indians
which

Uivitari,which
with

has

the twin mountain

the

as

have contributed to these

image

East.

the American

word Camosi

of the Sun

one

Unlike
French

or

in
or

similar disk

of the Sun, Camosi.


the two

rocks

may

West, and the Camosi

(or

to the

in
have thoughttheyrecognised
etymologists

Some

Chomeus,

the

denominations,as the Keri

is turned to the

Rock)

of the

basaltic appearance,

of
Perhaps the geographical
position

Moon

quartzformed by a

of

mysteriousadmiration

they venerate

not

was

greyish-black
granite-

the Keri rock, on

shew

able
remark-

moon.

in

but the white mark


steepprecipice,

is probably
a largeknot
question

Oppositeto

white

great distance,and

disk of the full

cluster of veins in the

from

to Camosh,
similarity

of the Phoenician

and
Beelphegor

and
dialects,

the
to

name

Apollo

Ammon.

the

grander falls of Niagara (which are

150

Englishfeet high)the

"

Cataracts of

140

May-

descent of
precipitous
by the single
of waters, nor
are
mass
a vast
they narrows" or passes
as
throughwhich the river rushes with accelerated velocity,

pures" are

not

formed

"

in the
The

Pongo

of Manseriche

Cataracts of

Maypures consist

of littlecascades
"

of
so

Raudal"

in the Eiver of the Amazons.

(thename

succeedingeach
givenby

is formed by
cataract)

numerous

the

of

countless number

other like
to
Spaniards

steps. The
this

species

islands and rocks which

that out of
restrictthe bed of the river,

breadth of 8000

224*

CATARACTS

OF

ORINOCO.

THE

found with astonishment

by barometric measurements, (geofrom the inaccesdesical levelling


sibility
beingout of the question
its highly
insalubrious atmosphere,
and
of the locality,
the

of

swarms

which
mosquitoes

fallof the Eaudal

from

the mouth

Toparo hardlyamounts

of- the

English)
.

I say,

fillthe

of the

to 28

I found with

"

that the whole


air),

or

of the river

the results of the

are

countless rocks and

by

producedby the

Maypures to

form and situation of the

the bed

this

From

counter

of the small

foaming surface
once

to the eye

and

battlemented

iron-black
towers
are

adorned

the cloud

the summits
of spray and

glowingeveningsun

are

of rock.

the

the

villageof

of Manimi.

ruins
resembling
the waters.

with the luxuriant

of the

its bed

heightof

frowningfrom

mist
forest;a perpetual
tropical

waters, and

ing
foam-

lengthpresents itself at
of rock

masses

rise

for this

prospectis enjoyed. A

of four miles in

Rocks and islands


of the

wonderful

32

currents

masses

by descendingfrom
of the river by the rock

point a

""

narrowingof

fall is obtained

whole

(30 or

dashingand

and of the
islands,

best ocular demonstration

The

30 feet

astonishment

shews that the dreadful noise and wild

that

Cameji to

vegetation

hovers

over

the

loftypalmspiercethrough

vapour.

When

the

refracted in these

rays of the

humid

tions
exhala-

effectbegins. Coloured bows shine,


magic optical
vanish,and reappear ; and the ethereal image is swayedto
breeze.
and fro by the breath of the sportive
During the
the streaming
waters bringdown islands
longrainyseason
a

of

vegetablemould,

with

and thus the naked

bright flower-beds

adorned

with

rocks

are

studded

Melastomas

and

CATARACTS

with

Droseras. and

OF

THE

225

OllINOCO.

small silver-leavedmimosas

These spotsrecal to the recollectionof the


blocks

of

amidst

the

in the

granitedecked

This

name), glowing at

sunset

to detect the

if in roseate

as

: no
daily

returns

appearance

the mountain

the mountain

on

chain

which terminates abruptly


longextended ridge
We
the latter,
is its
saw
cone.
(Calitamini

truncated

Indian

solitary

"Courtils."

Alps "Jardins," or

of Cunavami, a
a

rise

called by the dwellers

are

In the blue distance the eye rests

in

Europeanthose

with flowers which

of Savoy,and
glaciers

aiid ferns.

has

one

flames.

been

ever

of this brightness,

cause
precise

which may

surface
perhapsproceedfrom a reflecting
of talc or mica slate.
by the decomposition

Duringthe

five dayswhich

it was
of the cataracts,
the

rushingtorrents

by day.

What

there is nothingto
the currents
in
density

in the

be its cause

can

the
interrupt

of heated

The
wheels.

draw the

canoes

I.

phenomenon

wilderness where

Perhaps

disturbance

theymay

occasion

duringthe nocturnal cooling


cease.

attention to ancient tracks of

our

admiration of the horned animals,

in the times of the Jesuit missions used to


on

Orinoco,from

VOL.

same

repose of nature ?

upwardcurrents

They speakwith

(oxen),which

in

by nightthan

of
impede the propagation

of sound ; whereas

called

hood
neighbour-

ascendingair by causingirregular

the elastic medium

Indians

the

duced
pro-

hear the thunder of

sound three times louder

of the earth's surface the

the

to
striking

duringthe day,by the


waves

passedin

In all Europeanwaterfallsthe

is remarked.

sound

we

near

wheeled
the mouth

alongthe
supports,
of the
Q,

Camejito

leftbank
that

of

of the

226

CATARACTS

Toparo.
nor

The

OF

ladingwas

ORINOCO.

not then removed

the latter worn

were

THE

and

from the

injuredas they now

boats,

by

are

stranded upon the rocks and draggedover


beingconstantly
their rough surface.
The topographical
plan of the district sketched by me
shews the facilitieswhich

opening of

for the

would

which

form

the nature

canal from the

navigableside

dangerousportionof

which

would

of the

Eaudal

to the

arm

like

it,it

is

forces its way

the midst

from
palmsrising
most

twelve thousand

or

river,the

of the

I proposed

of Venezuela.

that of

cluster of islands between

for ten

Toparo,

be thus avoided.

resembles
closely

of Atures

the

Camejito

its execution to the Governor-General


The

ground offers

Maypures;

which

yards;

the river
forest of

foaming waters.

The

Steps"of this Eaudal are situated between


between Suripamana
Avaguriand Javariveni,

celebrated "

the islands of

Uirapuri.
M. Bonpland and I returned from
When
the Bio Negro,we ventured to pass the latter or
and

the Eaudal
for the

rockydikes

Sometimes

which

the waters

theyfallwith
and

with the loaded canoe,

of Atures

flowingfor

connect

rush
hollow

time

over

one

the banks

lower half of

often

it
leaving

island with

these

another.

dikes,and

thunderingsound

of

into

through subterranean

times
some-

cavities,

channels,

largepiecesof the bed of the river dry. Here the


golden Pipra rupicolamakes its nest; it is one of the
beautiful of tropical
birds,with a double moveable
most
leave

crest of

feathers,and is as pugnaciousas the East

domestic cock.

Indian

OP

CATARACTS

rockydike

piled-upgranitespheres. We

of

shiningByssus,and

confervse and

high above
We

had

leftus

time

more
accidentally

enjoymentof

this

round

re-embark.

with

where the river rushed

than

desired for the

we

of nature.

grand scene

The

Indians had

island below which

long narrow
waited

We

hour

an

and

coming on,

vain for shelter between

masses

monkeys, which

we

had

the

of

should not here notice


if the Indians

had

an

not

in the cataracts;and

seen

surance

we

had

even

ventured

part of the river. Meanwhile


forced to pass the

Raudal,
of the

wet

that

us

in

dependenceon

reappearedwith

state of the

waters

theyhad

the

the

down

in this

of the

noise
thundering
;

until at last

Prom

canoe.

found the

as-

might be

the middle

every moment
our

had intended to let themselves


been forced to seek among

by

were

this

bathe

anxietylest we

deafened

the Indians

in

Orinoco,

crocodiles

no

to
repeatedly
our

waters,increased
falling

for months

us

usual in the

so

longtropical
nightin

throughand

sought in

shewed their greatage.

occurrence

assured

we

heavy

cries attracted crocodiles

wicker cages,
whose

and

to

were

granite. The little

carried with

by their mournful
colour
size and leaden-grey

we

half under

tempestuousrain ; nightwas

more

covered

were

in the middle of the cataract,proposing


to take the

canoe

ever

sists
con-

noise.
deafening

heads with

our

weir

or

rior
creptinto the inte-

grottothe damp walls of which

227

ORINOCO.

of Canucaii the

In the Raudal

of

THE

the

low

stepsby which they

and
inaccessible,

of
labyrinth

had

channels for

practicable
passage.
Near

the southern entrance

of the Raudal of Atures,on

228

CATARACTS

rightbank

the

is the
of the river,

widelycelebrated

is

of a
burying-place

of

cave

Ataruipe,which
The

the Indians.

among

melancholycharacter

ORINOCO.

THE

OF

of the scenery around

and not without

fits it for the

climbed with difficulty,

We

deceased nation.

grand and

dangerof fallingto

great depth

steep and

bare granite
precipice.It
perfectly
be hardlypossible
to keep one's footing
the
on
if it were
of feldspar,
not for largecrystals
surface,

below,

would
smooth

much

which,resisting weathering,"
as
project
"

inch

an

as

from the face of the rock.


On

summit

reachingthe

the traveller beholds

and striking
diversified,
prospect. From
rise wood-crowned
of the Orinoco
the

the eye rests

horizon the Mountain


Such

and

on

where

hover

where

save

the vulture

All

the hoarse

sucker
goat-

as

they wing their

flight
through the deep-sunkravine,their
are

seen

until

theyvanish

This
rounded
more

base

gliding
alongthe

rockyprecipice

from the eye.

summits

which

are

cause

detached

enormous

to 50 feet diameter

theyrest onlyin

movement,
slightest
must

face of the bare

silent shadows

is bounded by mountains
precipitous
valley

than 40
on

threatening

barren rocks.

or

in mid-air,or,
solitarily

them

of the

late,
prospectis deso-

nearer

by high and

plainof

part

one

rises like

is the distance ; the


in

at

shore

western

the boundless grassy

of Uniama

hemmed
closely

is motionless

bed
foamingriver-

while beyond the


hills,

save
Meta, uninterrupted

cloud.

the

wide,

to

such

as

that of

roll down.

on

granitespheresof

theyappear

to touch

singlepoint,as
a

whose

the

if the

faint earthquake
shock,

OF

CATARACTS

The

farther partof the

THE

is densely
wooded, and
valley

in this shadyportion
that the
It is not
formed

far

placeis the

by the

vault or

"We counted about


as

baskets

many

Ataruipeis
a

vaulted roof

when

waters

cemeteryof

at their ancient level.

extinct nation.

an

from

woven

the stalks of

the Indians call "

palm

The

Even

(u)

new-born

skeletons

are

so

leaves.

are
umpires/'
shaped

like square sacks, differing


in size according
to

mapire.

situated.

skeletons placedin
well-preserved

600

These baskets,
which

the deceased.

itis

the cavity
cliff,
over-hanging
havingapparently

been formed
This

of

cave

cave, but rather

properly
speakinga

by a

229

ORINOCO.

the age of

children had each

perfectthat

not

its
bone

own

or

jointis wanting.
The
some

bones

had

been

bleached,some

of the

Bixa

preparedin

coloured red with onoto, the

Orellana; and

Indians assured

the fresh corpses for

us
some

like mummies

some

in sweet-smelling
resin
enveloped
The

three different ways;

and

closely

leaves.
plantain
had been to

that the custom


months

pigment

in

bury

damp earth, which

consumed
the flesh; theywere
then dug up, and
gradually
This
away with sharpstones.
any remainingflesh scraped
said

the Indians
Guiana.
half burnt

stillthe

was

Besides the

mapiresor

claywhich

entire families.

The

of
practice
baskets

appearedto

of
larger

these

several tribes in
we

found

urns

contain the bones


urns

were

of
of

about three

oval form
pleasing
and greenish
colour,havinghandles shapedlike snakes arid
round
ornaments
and meanderingor labyrinthine
crocodiles,
are
the upper margin. These ornaments
quitesimilar to

feet high and

nearlysix

feet long,of

230

CATARACTS

those which
Mitla.

different
and

ORINOCO.

of the

Mexican

found in all countries and

They are

the Greeks

THE

walls

the

cover

in the most

0"

stagesof

Romans,

human

well

as

the shields of the

rather

are
detail,

more

to such

or

causes,

be

to

ascribed

as

ancient intercourse between

regular
in

psychological
mental

our

evidences of kindred

stitution,
con-

descent

differentnations.

could give us
interpreters

Our

of

to

to
belonginherently

as

than to be viewed
or

"

have elsewhere remarked

I
as
similarities,

tives
na-

wherever

Sea,

gratified
by the rhythmicalrecurrence

These

forms.

and
climates,
"

of Tahiti and other islands of the South


the eye is

at

cultivation,
among

on

as

Palace

certain information

no

as

to the age of these vessels ; that of the skeletons

for the most

the Guareca

among

pressedupon

by

the Cataracts ;
which
their

century.

there

cave

of

Indians, that the brave Atures, being

cannibal

Caribs,withdrew

are

cavitiesand

which

recesses

familyof

the Atures

may

there
for (a singular
deceased,
fact,)

parrotof

whom

because he
We
the

to the rocks of

It
Ataruipeas burying-places.

that the last

old

It

in
refugeand dwelling-place,
melancholy
the distressed tribe finally
and with them
perished,
language. In the most inaccessible parts of the

Raudal
the

to exceed

part not

appeared
is reported

left the

not

have served like


is even
have

is stillin

probable
been

long
Maypures an

the natives affirm that he is not understood

speaksthe
cave

at

figuredby Blumenbach

language'.

after havingcollected,
to
nightfall,

of our
greatdispleasure

the entire skeleton of

Ature

man.

Indian
One

several skulls and


guides,
of these skulls has been

in his excellent

work,
craniological

ANNOTATIONS

ANNOTATIONS

(*)p.

209.

the

"

"Across

wide

AND

the

ADDITIONS.

peacefulocean

valley between

233

ADDITIONS.

AND

which

arm,

tlie American

shore

fills
and

Africa.'3

Western

The Atlantic

Ocean,from the 23d degreeof South

to the

70th

has the form of an excavated


degreeof North latitude,
in which the salient and re-entering
angles
longitudinal
valley,
to each other.
I first developedthis idea in
are
opposite
de FAmerique merimy "Essai d'uii Tableau geologique
in the Journal de Physique,T. liii.p. 61.
dionale,"
printed
Skizze
(Geognostische
der
and
23d

in Gilbert'sAnnalen
Siidamerika,

Bd. xvi. 1804, S. 394-449.) From the Canaries,


Physik,
of North latitude and the
from the 21st degree
especially
coast of
to the North-East
degreeof West longitude,

South

America, the surface of the

the

ani
in

von

waves

so

that
gentle,

an

is usually
so

sea

open boat

calm,

might navigate

safety.

(2)p. 209.

"
"

wonderful,outbreak

the middle

On

of

the oczan"

the southern coast of the island of

the Port of Batabano

in the

ocean

under
probably

Cuba, south-west of

gulf of Xagua, a

from the coast, springs


of fresh water
the

of fresh springsin

gush from

the influence of

few miles
the bed of

hydrostatic
pres-

234

OF

CATARACTS

sure, and

rise

issue forth

through the

with

ORINOCO.

THE

midst of the salt water.

force that boats

such

which
approachingthis locality,
of

account

vessels

the

high

cross

sailing
alongthe

sometimes

visit these

has

and

coast

which

depthfrom

found to be.
does not
here.

The

the water

"

river

cow/'

by a friend of mine, Don


trigonometrical
survey of
farther to the
Jardines del

the

Bay

in the

South

Xagua
210.

itselfin every

The

fresher it is

manati,which

ancient

unwearied

of

Xagua.

made

have

been

of islands called the

group

longitude
; but

of
strength

site

of

of
spirit

Having

never

rocky bulwark."

observation exerted

his letters to the

his mind

the East and West

breaking
up

and
islands,

of the southern

Jamaica,which

I have

the
hypothesis
geognostical
respecting

Antilles.
larger

Indian

Lemaur, who

direction,
propoundsin

he ascribes to it the
West

Trichecus

greater

itself.

"
"

monarchs

with the

The

sea.

fresh

making astronomical
Eey,(theKing'sGardens),

Columbus, whose

of the

supplyof

taken,the

Francisco

observations for latitude and

(3)p.

Trading

in salt water, is often killed


habitually
remarkable
phenomenon of fresh springs
the sea has been most
examined
carefully

This

at

on

remain

issuingfrom

been

is

in

disposedto land,

not

water, which is thus obtained in the open


the

ill repute

caused.

take in

springsto

cautious

are

an

thus

sea

They

the

coasts

nish
Spa-

forms

deeplyimpressed

current,
Equinoctial

of the group

of the smaller

singularly
lengthened
configuration
of Porto Rico,Haiti,Cuba,and

all follow almost

exactlythe

direction of

ANNOTATIONS

AND

of latitude. On
parallels
1498
del

his third voyage

to the end of November

Drago to

Haiti,he

with
conformity

de los

of the heavens

expresslythat

says

had been torn from the mainland


He

current.

monarchs,

"

alludes to

by the

de

of
the rights
respecting

marear

rumbos
del
por
and

figuraque

y vientos por los

hizo el Almirante
a

T. i. p. 253
los Espanoles,

sends

to

the
is

Don Diego
against

the Admiral.

qualesvino

movimiento

"

himself,which

"Es

la carta

senalando

Paria,que

Asia",(Navarrete
Yiagesy Descubrimientos
mar

Equinoctial

violence of the

he

la tierra" by

often referred to in the celebrated lawsuit


Colon

from

the Island of Trinidad

chart which

pinturade

"

the Boca

of the waters which is in accordance

the movement

he
cielos,"

end of May

and afterwards
Margarita,

feltthe whole force of the

current,"that movement
or

(fromthe

1500),in which,from

the Island of

that island to

235

ADDITIONS.

los

dicen parte

que hicieron

and 260 ; T. iii.p. 539

587.)

(4)p.

210.

Over

"
"

Diodorus's

Paropanisus."

of the Paropanisus
Sicul.
descriptions
(Diodor.

lib. xvii. p. 553,

Rhodom.) might almost

of the Andes

of Peru.

placeswhere
(5)p.

the snow-covered

211."

snow

The

pass for

tion
descrip-

habited
Army passedthroughin-

fell daily
!

"Herrara

in the Decades."

de las Indias occidentals,Dec. i. lib iii.


general
1601, p. 106] ; Juan Bautista Muiioz,Historia
cap. 12 (ed.
del Nuevo
Mundo, lib.vi.c. 31, p. 301 ; Humboldt, Examen
Historia

Grit. T. iiip. 111.

236

CATARACTS

(6)p.

213.

"

The

"

been

Thus

OF

Sources
visited

by

THE

ORINOCO.

of

sources

the firstedition of the "Ansichten

der

repeatthe

never

iiithe year 1807, in

Natur,"and

I have to

after an interval of 41 years.

statement

same

have

European''

any

these
respecting

I wrote

Orinoco

the

travels of the brothers Robert

The

and Richard

Schomburgk,so
importantfor all departmentsof natural knowledgeand
have afforded us thoroughinvestigations
of other
geography,
and more
facts ; but the problemof the situation
interesting
of the
solved
M.
or

by Sir Robert Schomburgk. It was

Bonpland

and

myself advanced

the confluence of the Orinoco

able to describe with

mouth

of the

It

and the

only approximately
from the West
far

Guapo ;

of the Orinoco

to

to the small Waterfall

(the altitude of

the inhabited

portionsof

to

the Orinoco

Majonkongsand

Guinaus

Guiana,] 841, S. 448).

of
position
lat. 3"

by the

W.

long.65"

he

F.,or 3517 E.

Paramu

(Reisen

Atlas I had estimated the

the confluence of the Padamo

12',and

which

River,which the

(Guaynas?)call
In my

burgk,
Schom-

dians,
Majonkong In-

at 3300

Padamo

the

above

(Raudal)de

of the

of water
by the boiling
point

was

aid of well-assured informati

the mountains

came
feet),

and I

from the East that Robert

was

that

Esmeralda,

as

advancingfrom
estimated

N.

course

Gehette,and

los Guaharibos.

as

by the
certainty,

the upper

in

has been

of the Orinoco

sources

46'

with the Orinoco


Robert

at

Schomburgk

65" 48'.
lat.2" 53',long.
found it by direct observation,

The

objectof this traveller'sarduous journeywas not the


leading
but the solution of the prize
pursuitof natural history,
ques-

ANNOTATIONS

tion

proposedby

in November

the

London

viz. the connection of the coast of British

"

the easternmost

pointwhichI

After many

Upper Orinoco.

237

ADDITIONS.

of
Royal Geographical
Society

the

1834,,

Guiauawith

AND

had reached

difficultiesand much

ing,
suffer-

the desired objectwas


attained. Robert
completely

burgk arrived
1839,

at

Esmeralda.

longitudeof
I had
let

with his instruments

the

His determinations

placeagreedmore
be the

would
expected

allow the observer

us

words

to describe the

sprang

shore.

to

began on

aim

My

of this

physical
powers
surrounded
it was

that I had been

to

surmount, and

kind

towards

"I

"

want

connection

hoped for

1 had

that

almost allmy

common

no

now

nature,
from him,

reached.

difficulties
we

surmounted/'

After

myself,I

must

be

was

with unalterable

could do, what

had

observations,

and when

press onward

goalwhich

as

Indians and faithful guidestold

my

any words

than

frankly
own,

me,

difficultiesof

encouragedto

time when

which
recognition

of
figures

than
plainly

Esmeralda

nigh deserted

determination towards the


emaciated

mine

broughtinto

were

at a
enterprise,

had well

the

himself:

attained ; my

was

at

by dangersand

onlyby

of the latitude and

with
closely

speak for

the coast of Guiana,

course

February,

(S.xviii.and 471). Here

case

to

of

Schom-

which overpoweredme
feelings

with those of Humboldt


in the

the 22d

on

on

The
more

had had

so
expressions

permittedto subjointhe
Preface to the German

following
passage,

extracted from

Edition of Eobert

Schomburgk'sAccount

my

of his Travels,published

in 1841.
"

Immediatelyafter

my

return

from

Mexico, I notified

238

the direction
to

OF

CATARACTS

explorethe

Continent

the

and

Relation

have
Historique,

the

joy of havinglived
by

of

means

the
requiring

to

see

so

Motives

such

as

have had that of

I feel united

by

of

the double bond

in this

case

hand

for the

Valleyof

the

of

to

heartfelt

pursuitof

an

namely,in the

East to

West, from the

"

"

own

my

of

in

forego

mind,

the

from
penetrating

of

impliesless of

(which I
sufferings

can

in

partappreciate

in reachingthe goalwhich
experience),

proposedto

execution

troduct
to in-

after five
Essequiboto Esmeralda, succeeded,

years of efforts and

from

overcome

reason,

consent

accomplishedtraveller who,

task
self-imposed

of

than that of the author

I could not

allitsinterest from
object
deriving

by

country.

common

our

of

prise,
enter-

executed

of expressing,
thus publicly,
opportunity
my

endure

my

seeingit at-

and well-conducted

entertain,
perhapswithout

But

of the work.

extension

devoted perseverance,

most

prefaces
by another

had

Esse-

near

these have alone been sufficientto

the distaste which

esteem

tain
moun-

in
strongly

importantan

and efforts,
and
of pursuits
similarity

he

Orinoco, the

after the lapseof almost


last,

courageous

with whom

man

young

the

American

sea-shore

the

followed

century,been for the greaterpart fulfilled. Besides

tained

at

knowledge,I
geographical

our

South

the

wishes,which I expressed
so

These

of the

sources

quibo.
half

portionof

Pacaraima, and

of

chain

the

be

should

which

routes

unknown

between

ORINOCO.

THE

himself.

hazardous
inward

Courage for

action is

more

than
strength,

the

momentary

met with,and
easily

does

the resolution to

incurred
long-continued physical
sufferings,
patiently

240

CATARACTS

of the

know

THE

of the Eio

course

north to south

OF

through the

reasons,

partan

East and West

testifieda

east of the Rio Branco.

the

requestof

des limites des

the

See the memoir

court
Portuguese

to

appears

limit

which

have

been

for east

of the

Eobert

course

tolerable

of the Orinoco

sources

meridian

be

the

of

65J"

from

and
placed,

Duida),it appears

to

me

the

extend,at
really

the utmost,

W. from
66"" from Paris (64".08'
pointis accordingto my combinations
which

was

great

the upper

of

of the littlelake of Amucu,

ingly
surpris-

52' East of the

that
probable

sidering
con-

de los Guaha-

countryof

GuaycasIndians,and

of the Orinoco does not

West

Viewing

long,from Greenwich). This being the

fair-skinned

This

de Pieces

with

determined

beyondwhich theycannot

the meridian

la fixation

the
Uraricapara,

the

on

in
(aboveCarlo Chiguire,

Cerro

plains

I drew up at

Eecueil

the state of the river at the Eaudal


ribos

tical
poli-

extensive

in 181 7," sur

the
by Portuguese
engineers,

W.
Paris,(63".8'
eastern

Prom

T. i. 1818, p. 48-58).

Eosa

Santa

be looked

cannot

pursues

et Portuguaise"
(Schoell,
GuyanesPrai^aise

positionof

accuracy

its course,

interest in the
lively

officielles,
Memoires, "c.
of which

Orinoco ;

Upper

direction.

et politiques,
ou
historiques

Archives

the

part of

flows from

since the beginning


of the present
Brazilians,

the

century,have

Branco, which

basin of the

while that river itself,


in this
for the most

ORINOCO.

reached

part

beyond
wich.)
Green4". 12

by

Sir

Schomburgk.

I next

giventhe
view,the

the conjectures
of that gentleman,
having
subjoin
earlierones
course

formed

of the upper

by myself. Accordingto
Orinoco

his

to the east of Esme-

ANNOTATIONS

AND

241

ADDITIONS.

ralda is directed from South-east to North-west ;


tions
my estimaof latitude for the mouths
of the Padamo
and the
Gehette

to
appearing

Eobert

be

19
respectively

the

Schomburgk supposes

be in lat.2".30'

(S.460) ;

the
Interior of

(W.

only48'

of

Guayana,

Schomburgk/'which

panies
accom-

the
in

and
i. e. 1".6' west of Esmeralda,
Paris),
to the Atlantic than I had
longitudenearer
from

admissible.
has

the Orinoco

Prom

placedthe

astronomical

Near

the mouth

three
scarcely

was

of

mountain

nine thousand

upwardsof
long.65".38/
is

to

of

"

Schomburgk

more

"Map

splendid
Englishwork entitled Yiews in
of the Orinoco
Guiana,"placesthe sources

67".18'

thought

of the Orinoco to

sources

and the fine

to illustratethe route of R. H.

36' too small.

and

feet

combinations

Maravaca,which

high,in

lat.3".41/ and

of the Padamo
hundred

to
the west,where it spreads

or

Paramu

yards wide

and

breadth of from four to

banks
yards,it was so shallow and so full of sandto digchannels,
the
that the Expedition
were
obliged
river bed being only fifteen inches deep. Fresh water
numbers ;
in large
Dolphinswere stillto be seen everywhere
of the 18th century
a
phenomenon which the zoologists
to expectin the Orinoco and
would not have been prepared
six hundred

the

Ganges.

(7)p.

213.

ee
"

The

most

vigorousof

the

productions

of the tropicalworld!'
The Bertholletia excelsa

(andplacedin

Richard

was
Lecythidese),

VOL

I.

of Myrtacese
of the family
(Juvia),

Schomburgk'sproposeddivision of

firstdescribed
R

by Bonplandand myselfin

242

CATARACTS

the

"Plantes

This

THE

OF

ORINOCO.

T. i. 1808,
equinoxiales,"

122, tab.

p.

in
and magnificent
tree offers,
gigantic

the

36.

formation
perfect

of its cocoa-like,
round, thick,woody fruit enclosing
the three-cornered
remarkable

and

the
woody seed-vessels,

most

example of high organicdevelopment. The

Bertholietia grows
between

also

in

the Padamo

Mapaya,and

the forests of the

and the Ocamu,

also between

Orinoco

Upper

the mountain

near

of

the rivers Amaguaca and Gehette.

T. ii.p. 474, 496, 558-562.)


(Relation
historique,

(8)p.

213.

stalks

"Grass

"

havingjoints above eighteen

feet longfrom
Robert

the

fortunate

which

as

determine

to

says of this
;

the Indians

plant:

"

to

17

great mountain

with

thickness of

is

alwaysinclined.

sandstone

mountains

(Padamo),and
and
of

in

largetufts

hence,from

the

knot

tubes
He

arrows.

like the Bamto

beginsto put

as
Arundinaria,

Arundinaria

blowpipesor

dischargetheir

feet before it

of the

Esmeralda,was

speciesof

for the

It grows

entire heightof the

The

the

the first jointrises without

from 16

small mountainous

his way to

Majonkongs,on

furnishes the material

through which
busa

knot."

to

the
Schomburgk,when visiting

countryof
so

knot

heightof

forth leaves.

it grows

at the foot

of Maravaca, is from 30 to 40

half
scarcely
This

kind

between
Mavaca.

an

inch diameter.

The

feet,

top

of grass is
the
The

to the
peculiar
Ventuari,the Paramu

Indian

name

is Curata,

the excellence of these far-famed blow tubes

great length,the Majonkongs and

Guinaus

of these

ANNOTATIONS

AND

districtshave been

given the

(Eeiseuin

und

Guiana

214.

(9jp.

lakes of these

The

lake

Orinoco"

originof the

"

regions(some

exaggerated
by

real size much

of the Curata nation/'

names

Orinoco,S. 451.)

am

Fabulous

"
"

243

ADDITIONS.

of which have had their

theoretical geographers,
while

the existence of others is purelyimaginary),


may
into two

firstof these groups

The

groups.

be divided

comprisesthe

"

lakes,whether real or imaginary,


placedbetween
mission

(theeasternmost

the second

and

Branco;

on

British Guiana.

This

should

shews
sight,

lose

never

there is

yet

other than

and

that the

Parime

Arnucu,

exist in

to

of

which

the

travellers

questionof

of

east

the Eio

French,Dutch, and

generalview,

Lake

the Lake

and
Orinoco),

those assumed

Eio Branco

the

district between

the upper

Esmeralda

Eio

the

whether

Branco,

by Hortsmann, Santos,

seen

Schomburgk,has nothing whatever to


As the
of the Orinoco.
problemof the sources
friend the former Director of the Hydrographic

Colonel Barata,and
do with the
name

of my

Office at Madrid, Don

of great
FelipeBauza, is deservedly

which ought to preside


the impartiality
weightin geography,
over

makes
every scientificinvestigation

recall that this learned


there must
from the

London,

be lakes west

sources

man

of the

short time

of the

Orinoco.

the upper

duty to

inclined to the view, that


Eio

Branco

He

before his death

here, that I might converse

geographyof

was

feel it a

me

with you

on

Orinoco,which

wrote
"

and not far


to

me

1 wish you

the

has

from
were

of
subject

the

occupiedyou

244

C.iTARACTS

I have been

much.

so

OF

ORINOCO.

THE

fortunate

so

to

as

entire

from

rescue

destruction the papers of the General of Marine, Don


in
Solano,father of the Solano who perished
a

at Cadiz.

manner

division between

the

Spaniardsand

the elder Solano had

with which

with Chef d'Escadron


since 1754.

In allthese

sometimes

quitedetached

admit

then,to

Don

from

Portuguese,
Yicente

sketches I

the

as

the

in conjunccharged,
tion

and
Yturriaga

sometimes
Parime,represented
and

been

plansand

melancholy

so

dary
relate to the boun-

documents

These

Jose

see

Laguna

of the

source

Orinoco,

that river.

the existence of another

Doz,

Are

we,

lake north-east of

Esmeraldar

Loffling,the
Cumana

celebrated

the botanist of the

as

alluded to.

After

the Caroni

he died

the 22d

on

confluence

of the

documents

of which

which

greatmap

the

They constitute

the

Bauza

by

\756
ind

by an

Archives

and

can

and

the Caroni.

the

same

unskilful
of the

Olmedilla

all the maps

which

be

M.
compiler,

placedon

appearedin
drawn

maps

last
in

expedition,

de Surville,
Keeper of the
The

shews the littledependence

the surveys

besides which, Caulin's acute

on

is based.

State's officeat Madrid.

these maps

The

those

to the close of the

served for the two

of
Secretary

as

la Cruz

up

the

at

littleto the south

Peter Caulin,the historian of Solano' s

discordance between
which

the Piritu and

on

1756,
February,

speaksare

type of

theyalso

of

Orinoco

England,Prance, and Germany


century;

missions

Murucuri,a

of De

to

above
boundaryexpedition

the
traversing

mission of Santa Eulalia de


of the

pupil of Linnaeus, came

remarks

of the

lead

us

expedition;
to

perceive

ANNOTATIONS

AND

the circumstances which gave occasion


Parime ; and

Lake

Surville's map,

not

White

Sea and

to the fiction of the

which

accompanies his

this lake under

only restores

work,

245

ADDITIONS.

of the Mar

the

of the

name

Dorado, but also adds another

the Orinoco,
lake,from which,partly
throughlateraloutlets,
the

Siapa,and
the

myselfon

Ocamo

indeed

went

Maypures,but

and

issue.

and

that the

instruments

of the

Rio

Negro, or
Orinoco

the

of the

and
Cassiquiare;

theywere

This extensive

journeyno

exact

in search of

Pimichin
that

only by a

and Don
discoveries;

and

even

the
the

on

of the

few

soldiers

de
Apolinario

la

I obtained from the archives of the


(whosejournals

without
of Quiros),had collected,
province
from the
flatterthe

had not

long.68".09';

to my
country,in which previous
observations had been attempted,
had been

traversed since the time of Solano

of the

of

confluence of the

taken above the mouth

not

Atabapo.

Puente

the cataracts

Boundary Expeditionwere

carried either to the Isthmus


to

satisfy

in the missions.,

beyond

beyondthe

not

not

sent

able to

was

the Orinoco,in lat, 4".3' and

Guaviare

Upper

well known
spot of the fact,

Jose Solano

that Don
Atures

the

lyingtales told by Indians,whatever

of the
credulity

Expeditionhad
advanced

criticaldiscrimination,

governor Centurion.

seen

lake,and

any

farther than

the Cerro

Don

No

could

member

Apolinario

Yumariquin and

the Gehette.

Having now

established

the
throughout

to which itis desired to direct the


a

line boundingthe
dividing

remains

to

extensive

district,

zeal of travellers,
inquiring

basin of the Rio Branco, it still

remark, that for

centurypast no

advance has

246

CATARACTS

taken
west

The

placein
of this

OF

ORINOCO.

THE

geographical
knowledge of

our

the

country

61J0 and 65J" W. longitude.

valleybetween

made by the Government


attemptsrepeatedly

of

Spanish

of Iturria and Solano,to reach


Guiana,since the expeditions
and

to pass the Pacaraima

mountains,have onlyproduced

very inconsiderable results. When

the

in
Spaniards,

the missions of the Catalonian

to

Barceloneta

Capuchinmonks

the confluence of the Caroni

at

Paragua,ascended

the latter river,


in

with
junction

Paraguamusi,
theyfounded

the

latter

the

mission

the
junction

received the pompous


it in about 4

J" of

latitude.

and

the Eio

Guirion,which

at

first

de Guirion.

place

From

powerfulnation

of the

what
prosecuted

were

and founded
farther,
two

of Santa
villages

the former

on

of
tributary

the

to
Ipurucotos,

then

German

called

beyond the

thence

the governor

of
Arimuicapi,

search for el

the

Dorado,

spiritual
conquestsstill

Pacaraima

bank

highereastern

mountains

the

28

to the east south-east.

of the

a
Uraricapara,

Curaricara ; and the latter six

miles
English)geographical
The

riguez
in the narrative of Rod-

the Uraricuera which

(24 or

given

Eosa and San Bautista de Caudacacla

I find called Eio


seven

and

chiefs,Paranacare

Indian

two

its

at the site of

accounts
Centurion,stimulated by the exaggerated

by

of

goingsouthward,to

of Ciudad

name

North

of

ling
travel-

astronomer

of the

or

farther

Portuguese

Boundary Commission, Don Antonio Pires de SylvaPontes


and the captain
of engineers,
Leme, captainof a frigate,
Don

Eicardo Franco

and 1804

d'Almeida

surveyedwith

of the Eio Branco

the

de

who between 1787


Serra,

greatestcare

arid its upper

the whole

branches,call the

course

western-

248

CATARACTS

ORINOCO.

THE

the river to the mouth

ascended
"

OF

of the Meta.

Besides the

Valleyof Inundation/' above spoken of, we

largelakes

expanses of water

or

and the Parime.

One

between

of these

mountains

Pacaraima

spokenof
the

in the

more

country

at

Spanishmissions
cacla

or

the Lake

the

attempthas

east
territory

to

of
valley

of the

of
subject

the

regardto

fresh

the basin of the


mountains.

the Eio Branco

as

far

has of

the

as

path would

the

daysto

days to

by

1773

periodno

Pacaraima

Massaruni

says,

and

successful examination.

some

the
navigated

in three
In

since that

of the
declivity

the travellerin two

Branco.

plains.The

before
destroyed

penetratefrom

Caranang,from whence, he
and

of the

were
Centurion,

century,and

been made

Hillhouse

will be

similar character to

in the years 1770

Manuel

late years been the


Mr.

which

of Amucu,

commencement

Caroni to the southern


The

river,

of Santa B/osa and San Bautista de Cauda-

Don

the close of the

the Tacutu

subjectto great periodical

sequel,
impartsa

founded
Cayacaya,

the Governor

Xuinuru

at the foot of the

Even

the rivers are

overflows;and

the Eio

belongsto

and the other to the Uraricuera.

find other

have

flowinginto

windingsof

ducted
con-

of the Massaruni,

sources

streams

bay of

the

the Eio

great river

Massaruni, described by -Mr. Hillhouse,that gentleman

remarks,in

letter written to

1, 1831), that "the

Massaruni

flows firstto the West, then


of

afterwards
latitude,

North
East, and finally
the

Essequibo." As

me

almost

Mr.

Demerara

(January

beginningfrom

to

and

from

the North
200

N.N.E.

Hillhouse

for

its

degree

one

English miles
to its
was

source

to

the

junctionwith

unable

to

reach

ANNOTATIONS

the southern

AND

of
declivity

account,that
printed

the shore and

occasioned

river,he had become

I had formed

with
theyagree entirely
after
Finally,

maps.

in direct

was

the
respecting

according

Pirara flows

Hortsmann, Santos, aud Bodriquez,


with the

me
inspired

accounts

it

as
surprise,

some

of Amucu, from which the Cano

whose

gained

lake at allin these districts." This

me

the narratives of

to

he had

all the country

traverse
constantly

contradiction to the views which


Lake

not

was

he says himself,in his

the Amazons

satisfiedthat there is no
statement

Lake

from the information

"

from the Accaouais,who


between

chain, he

the Pacarima

the Amucu

with
acquainted

249

ADDITIONS.

confidence because

more

the recent

Portuguesemanuscript

five years of

Sir
expectation,

Robert

all doubts.
Schomburgk'sjourneyhas dispelled
It is difficultto believe,"
says Mr. Hillhouse,in

his

"

memoir
interesting

greatinland
to

Massaruni, that the reportof


"

water is

that
possible

me

the

on

givenoccasion

without foundation.
entirely
the following
circumstances

of Teboco

of the Massaruni

or

Teboco

the

some

tranquilsurface

epoch the

had been

of

appear to the eye


a

lake.

horizontal stratum

there would

and

or

twelve

If at
of

thus

broad and 1500

miles

Annales
long." (Nouvelles

p. 31

6.)

It is not

the
solely

vast

des

more

waters

tfheir
present level,

have been formed

Englishmiles

as

graniteat

perfectly
compactand unbroken,the

feet above
have stood at least fifty

must

ten

the waters

less remote

have

may

distance from the fallen rocks

At

as

seems

to the belief in the existence of the fabulous

lake of the Parime.

motionless

It

an

immense
to 2000

lake,

English

Voyages,1836, Sept.

extent

of this

supposed

"

250

CATARACTS

inundation

which

I have

this explanaaccepting
tion.

space of 400

6400

(equalto

Apure, the Arauca, the

can

from

German

geographical
Englishgeographical
square

such times the

miles) At
Maps

ORINOCO.

plains(theLlanos),where duringthe
of the affluentsof the Orinoco
overflowing

with water

miles

square

preventsme

THE

seen

the

rainyseason
cover
annually

OF

17 and 18 of my

of branches between the


labyrinth
and the Sinaruco (see
Capanaparo,
and Physical
Geographical
Atlas),

for the separate


courses
longerbe traced,

no

and all appears


Dorado

of the

vast lake.

one

Parime,and

But

of the White

the fable of the

Sea

or

as I endeavoured
Parime, belongshistorically,

another work

thirty
years

ago, to

rated,
oblite-

are

Lake
to

of the

shew

in

differentpartof
entirely

an

Guiana, namely,to the country south of the Pacaraima


mountains
micaceous
Parime

and

in the shining
originated
appearance

rocks of the Ucucuamo,

name

of the
(EioBranco),the overflowings

and
that river,

the existence of the


especially

which is in the

of the
vicinity

and is connected
I have

seen

throughthe

with

Eio

his

map

pleasurethat
which

of the Eio
tributariesof

Lake of Amucu,

Eupunuwinior Eupunuri,

Pirara with the Eio Parime.

confirmed
Schomburgk have fully

part of

the

of the

the travels of Sir Eobert


these

gives the

views.
early

course

The

of the Esse-

and of great geonew


quibo'and the Eupunuri is entirely
graphica
importance.It placesthe Pacaraima chain in
3" 52' to 4" North latitude (I had givenit 4" to 4" 10'),
it reach the confluence of the Essequibo
and makes
in 3" 5?' N. lat.and 60" 23' W. long,
and the Eupunuri,
this spot
01' from Greenwich).I had placed
from Paris (5'8"

ANNOTATIONS

half

calls the

251

ADDITIONS.

far to the north.

degreetoo

AND

Sir Robert

Schomburgk
river Eupununi,accordingto the prolast named
nunciatio
of the Macusis ; he givesas synonymes
of Eupu-

niri,Eupunuwini and Opununy, the Carib


districtshaving much
the letter r.
the

to

(Maou)

Malm

accordance

in articulating
the
difficulty

situation of Lake

The

with my

and

west

Branco,flows

Hortsmann
a

placesthe

Schomburgk's
of

Lake

of Amucu

with

of which

fine mine of

His Waa-Ekuru

map.

Lake

of

throw

some

is the Tavaricuru

Leme

it is the tributary

approachesnearest

the

to

When

with

to

mile,and

(Thisremark

reeds."
in

1748.)

"

us.

Mahu.

The

supposedWhite
and

Januaryits

".tssurface

is found

as

was

half

earlyas

The Pirara issues from the

of Pirara,
and
village
from
last named
river,

lake west north-west of the Indian


or

of Eobert

subjectbefore

and the

visited it in December

we

in D'Anville's map,

into the Maou

narrative

the

lighton
of Parime

amounted
lengthscarcely
covered

the

from

"
says this traveller,is incontestably

Amucu,"

the nucleus of the Lake


Sea.

Carlo

rock-crystal,
Ucucuamo, is the Siparuni

near

source

followingremarks

Schomburgk
The

the

Sibarana of my map,

Eupunuri,which

the

but

I gave

of Amucu.

The

"

3" 33' ;

Pontes
geographer
Portuguese

of the

agree

from it to the north,instead of to the

littleto the north of the Cerro

of

We

which
lake,,

the Lake

connects

of

quitein

in 1825.

latitude of the

supposed.The

I had

as

(Tacoto)are

he finds to be

which

which
Pirara,(Pirarara)
the Eio

Tacutu

sound

and its relations

Amucu

of Columbia

map

well respecting
the
equally

3" 35', and

tribes in these

falls
such

252

CATAEACTS

information

as

able to

was

onlyattains a heightof
from
plateau,
Corona.

We

day of

companionsobligedus

Lake

Arnucu.

The

nuri.

is

In the mountains

is about CO

Buroburo

which

the Macusis.

Aprilthe

and present the


to
belonging

united.
may

The

not

Lake

well

valley,as

flowa into the

In

phenomenon of
peculiar

the waters

to the

During the rainyseason

Essequibo,the

groups

Rio

of trees,which

savannahs,assume

Branco, and

rise like oases

storyof

over

In D'AnvihVs

permittedme
of

to

Gran

of Don

which
manuscripts,

Antonio

Para.

Some

the character

theyare,

surgeon

no

Santos/'

his heirs have

examine,I find that the

who
Hildesheim,

between

the sand hillsof the

on

the extensive lake ;

doubt,the Ipomucena Islands

the

there is formed

at the time of the inundation

of islands scattered

and

temporaryinundation

in the interior of the countrya water communication


the

by

flowed,
over-

are

being intermixed

of this

it

of the

inhabited

are
Siparuni,

have givenoccasion
improbably

of Parime.

Hupu-

remarkably

are

whole of the savannahs

extent

near

its way

the banks

as

different river basins


enormous

that of the

its environs

one

coffee-brown

or

it makes

throughwhich

yardsbroad, and

picturesque.This

"black"

rapid than

more

the third

on

the station

to

return

has

Mahu

water, and its current

to

on

the sickness of

to the mountains

of my

are

fine waterfall called

about to visitthis fallwhen

were

excursion

our

in

which

numbers

(in round

of the Malm

sources

it descends

whence

partof

easternmost

Trench

1500

The

English)feet.

1600

the north side

rises on
gather,

mountains, the

of the Pacaraima

ORINOCO.

THE

OF

kindly

Hortsmann,

described these countries with

greatcare,

AND

ANNOTATIONS

saw

Alpinelake,which

second

above

he

two days'
places
journey

the confluence of the Mahu


It is

(Tacutu?)
.

He

mountain.

253

ADDITIONS.

with the Rio Parime

lake of black water

the

on

it clearly
from
distinguishes

Amucu, which he describes


narratives of Hortsmann

"

as

and

top of

the Lake

covered with reeds/'


Santos

are

as

far

of
The

as

the

Portuguese
manuscript
maps of the Bureau de la Marine
Rio Janeiro from indicating
or
a constant
tion
connecadmitting
between the
D'Anville's maps

Rupunuri and

the Lake

the rivers

better drawn

are

of Amucu.

more

widelycirculated edition of 1760.

travels have

in the first

remarks that

Rupunuriarid

are,

as

Schomburgk's

the

Essequibo
; but he
the Rio Waa-Ekuru,

duringthe rainyseason

of the Rupunuri,
is in
tributary

Pirara.

in

established this general


completely
independence

of the basins of the

at

In

edition of his South America,published


in 1748, than
the

Such
it were,

connection with the Cano

is the* state of these river

basins,wlu'ch

stillimperfectly
and
developed,

are

almost

without separating
ridges.
entirely
The

58"

Rupunuri aud

34'),are

between

at

the

Anai

as
presentrecognised

the British and

uncultivated

of
village

the

3" 56',long.
(lat.

boundary
political

the Brazilian territoriesin these

regions.Sir

Robert

Schomburgk makes

his

of the Lake of Amucu


determined longitude
chronologically
of several lunar distances (Eastand
dependon the mean
West) measured by him duringhis stayat Anai, where he
detained some
illness. His longitudes
time by severe
was
for these points
of the Parime are in general
a degree
more
of my map of Columbia.
than the longitudes
I am
easterly
far from throwing
the observations of lunar
any doubt on

254

CATARACTS

THE

OP

ORINOCO.

distances taken at Anai, and would


calculation is

if
important

23' 19" W.

long.68"
We

see,

from
] 60

to

which
Esmeralda,

from Paris

(66"21'

19"

parison
com-

I found

Gr.)

then,the great Mar de la Parima, which

was

"

difficult
to

so

that their

it is desired to carry the

from the Lake of Amucu


in

onlyremark

from
displace

America,it was

our

that,after my

maps

stillset down

return

having a lengthof
miles, reduced by the result of
Englishgeographical
as

"

modern

Lake of Amucu, of two


researches to the little
The illusionscherished for

miles circumference.
centuries

hundred
(several

lives were

or

three

two
nearly

lost in the last Spanish

of el Dorado,in 1775),have
for the discovery
expedition
thus finally
results of geographical
some
terminated,
leaving

knowledgeas

the

in
perished
for

the

undertaken
expedition
the

of
discovery

to exist in

and

which

In 1512, thousands

their fruit.

of the Bahama

one

is not

"Fountain

to

be found

of soldiers

by Ponce
of

de Leon

Youth,"

Islands called Bimini,

on

our

This Expedition

maps.

led to the
of the
issues forth

conquestof Florida,and to the


great current of the Gulf Stream,

throughthe

Bahama

posed
sup-

channel.

The

ledge
knowwhich

thirstfor

and the desire of renovated youth,stimulated with


treasures,

nearly
equalforce
of

the

and cupidity
of
passions

the nations

Europe.

(10)p.

216.""

The

Piriyuao,one
palm

of the

noblest

trees."

Compare Humboldt, Bonpland,and Kunth, Nova


Plant,

T. i. p.
sequinoct.

315.

of

Genera

THE

LIFE

NOCTURNAL

IN

PRIMEVAL

VOL.

1.

OF

THE

FOREST.

ANIMALS

THE

NOCTURNAL

LIFE

PRIMEVAL

IF

vivid

the

differ

character and

nations

now

aspect of the

or
inhabit,

wanderingsor
more

the
vegetation,

long use,

have

men,

thus
as

been

of

of

contact
a

true

to

words

have

lost

from

their

gradually
regardedas
been

the
that

partof

which
fidelity,

shewing how

the

vigourand

they might

with

laborious

much

nature, and

nomade

an

the

life,may

original
mous
synony-

preserveddistinct;and
the grace,

otherwise

of natural
capableof impartingto descriptions

the view

state of

atmosphere,and

and of the characteristic physiognomyof

and

and characteristic

clouds, it is also

such

have been

ought
the

as

the

different languages

mountains,the

of the

many

languageshave

well

of

of their

scene

employment by literary
perhapstheir arbitrary

Terms

which

those

rendered

appearance

diverted

meaning.

countries which

abode, have

grouping of

and

if the

been the

forms

which

descent,and

less rich in well denned

or

and

of nature

have

which

expressions
denotingthe
contour

sentiment

nations of different

natural

earlier

ANIMALS

FOREST.

and
appreciation

greatlyin

so

OF

scenery

landscape. With

intimate
wants

have

acquaintance

and

necessities

increase the riches of

260

NOCTURNAL

I would
language,
which

LIFE

recallthe
be used

may

OF

ANIMALS

characteristicappellations

numerous

in Arabic

(l)and

in Persian to

distinguish
plains,
steppes,and deserts,
accordingas they
are
quitebare,covered with sand,broken by tabular masses
of rock,

with patches
of pasturage,or
interspersed

or

with

less striking
longtracts occupiedby social plants. Scarcely
is it to observe in the old Castilianidiom

afforded for
and
features

which, recurringin every

of the earth's

zone

afar to the attentive beholder

from

by

of

men

the

earth

Antilles and the

where, (with
the

the

Thibetian

,ife of the inhabitants is most


on

the form

which

the

denotingthe
and

forms

even

affected

the mother

are

treasure.

formed

words

Speech is

as

the

that*teiids to

and

become

enriched

promotes

by

all the

the

of
contemplation

the

the
of

manner

dependent
expressions
for

basaltic,
trachytic,

in those where

schists,

rocks, have
prevailing
Under

part

such influences
of the

and animated
truth

and

to

common

by everything

nature, whether

received through
renderingthe impressions
from

partsof

the

country afforded
in

of mountains

sandstone

are

Highlands),the

in daily
use.
happilypreserved

newly

these

the

all inhabited

perhaps,of
exception,

well
as
districts,
porphyritic

limestones,and
been

as

of the earth's surface,so

language of

partsof

are
Philippines,

Spanishdescent,and

Himalaya and

the

the declivitiesof the Andes, of

As

Peru, Chili,and Mexico,and the mountainous

Canaries,the

tain-masses,
moun-

those
for designating
particularly

of the rock.

nature

sions
expres-

many

the physiognomyof
describing

more

announce
surface,

(2)the

external

the

world,

in

senses
or

in

IN

PRIMEVAL

THE

thoughts,emotions, or
expressing
in the inner depthsof
their sources
of
descriptions

In
the

of

manner

of the

natural

be

ever

will be at

once

in
by simplicity

secured

ourselves

beheld

view

the narration

of

of

science of Induction

relations
picturesque

(as a

fragmentof

small

materials towards
it

advance

to

mind

on

forest

phenomena

the

If the

which

bestowed, is

to

earth, none

regionof

continue to be

description

their local and

surface

of the

earth

Cosmos, and

also tends
the

impulseimpartedto

is

appliedto

phenomena

be
certainly

classed the

must

regionwhich, in

the Amazons.

"Urwald,"

study

or

the

America, fillsthe great connected


and

the

greatscale.

such

Among
vast

the

the stimulus

"

is

terrestrial life)affords

the whole

study of

the

by

varied

the

artistic treatment

when

of nature

to

narrative

but the animated

have

we

to the

ever

and animals)in
(plants

organicforms

of

the

generalresults,
belongrather

to

effectually

most

physicalviews, and

Cosmos/''which, indeed, must

guidingaim

by limitingand

which

of the
us

this truth

of what

experienced,and

or

Generalisation

statement

the

as

in

in the choice

them,

and
easily

most

the locality
with
individualising
connected.

scenery, both

describe

kept in

have

being.

our

viewingthe phenomena, and

must

its attainment

which

sentiments

objectsor

expressions
employed to

nature

to

261

FOREST.

which

can
we

of

name

given to
claim
are

any

it

South

basins of the Orinoco

of late years

has

be

tropical
portionof

primevalforest,or
been

forests

perhaps so

speaking.

The

prodigall

so

faW

of

as
strictly

the

on

term

the

"

Urwald/'

262

NOCTURNAL

LIFE

OF

ANIMALS

well

or
as
primitive
primevalforest,

nation,
primitive
age, primitive
If this
a

is to

name

thick

growth of

be

destroyinghand,

then

belongsto

parts of

But

many

the

if the character of the

so

that
trulyimpenetrable,

an

axe

diameter

for

than

more

to
belongexclusively
means,

any

interlacinglianes"
"

to

become
of

an

zone

has

Urwald"

paces, then

which

cold

zones.

forest

clear with
twelve feet

such

tropical
regions. Nor

forests
is it by

supposed in Europe, only the

climbers which

make

it

impossible

often form

"lianes"

the underwood.

The

all

has
vegetation

long cherished

wish

may

onlyjustlanded

every

tendency

ment
for the fulfil-

sometimes
in

only a

chief obstacle

undergrowthof plantsfilling
up
where

led

have

tropical
country,

perhapsisland,to imagine that althoughstill in

immediate

of
vicinity

of
precincts

one

eightor

impatientdesire

have

is

to
impossible

trees of

few

laid

never

is that of

ligneous. An

travellers who
or

or

portionof

by
presented

interval in
to

the

of rather indefinite

temperateand

it is

penetratethe forest; the

very small
is

is often

as

"

between

passage

any

Man

phenomenon
the

"

every wild forest full of

which

on

Urvolk,

part,onlyrelative import.

most

given to

trees

words

are

"

meaning,and, for the

Urseit and

as

they had

the sea-shore

primevalforest,or

"

the

entered

Urwald,"

such

the

as

impenetrable.In this they deceived


forest which is entitled
themselves ; it is not every tropical
used in the
which I have scarcely
to a$ appellation
ever
narrative of my travels ; althoughI believe that of all
of nature
now
living,
Bonpland,Martius,
investigators

have

described

as

264

LIFE

NOCTURNAL

the wonderful

luxuriance

the combined

Europe

the

particular
genera
social

In

Asia, forests

be

may

named

northern

Birches,and in the

forests of

distinct

Oaks, Pines, and

forests of Limes

eastern

trees, usuallyonly one

Linden

or

speciesof Amentacese, Coniferse,

Tiliaceae,
or is predominant
prevails
; sometimes

of
species

Needle-trees

is

such

with

of
uniformity

of flowers,are

association ; the

strangersto

exceedingvarietyof

their flora renders it vain to ask of what trees the


forest consists.
crowded
of the

same

at

each

to

the

are
species

in

small

of families

are

here

spaces individuals

rarelyassociated.

of trees whose

arrested
previously

The

even

primeval

Each

day, and

change of place,new forms presentthemselves


traveller,
who, however, often finds that he cannot

reach the blossoms


had

countless number

together,and

foliage

the other

Tropicalforests,on

thousands

single

the

with
intermingled

of trees of other classes.

hand, decked

from

which, growing togetheras


species,

or

the

to

in
especially

and

zone,

form separateand
plants,(plantse
sociales)

woods.

or

its trees

perature.
greatmoisture and high tem-

temperate

Northern

and

ANIMALS

growth of

of the

influence of

In

OP

leaves and ramifications

his attention.

with their countless lateral


rivers,

arms,

afford the

onlyroutes by which the countrycan be traversed. Between


the Orinoco,the Cassiquiare,
mical
and the Rio Negro, astronoand where these
observations,

nsbtionsby compass
shewed

onlya

us

few miles

of the

that two

were

wanting,determi-

direction of the rivers,respectively

.mightbe
lonelymission villages

apart,and yet that the monks

when

they

wished

in

half in

onlydo

by spendinga

so

the windingsof
following

small

hollowed out of the trunks of trees.

canoes

evidence

of the

forest is afforded
of the

265

FOKEST.

other could

to visit each

day and

PKIMEVAL

THE

IN

traitrelated

by a

or
tiger,
panther-like
jaguar. While

introduction of

Ayres,the

that

subsistence,so
"

their numbers

the dense

very differentand
the

misfortune of

the

find

first

dant
abun-

an

discoveryof

in
exceedingly

those

steppes, their congeners


"

of the Orinoco

sources

far less easy life. In

with
Cassiquiare

bivouac

the Orinoco

losinga largedog, to

the
as
attached,
our

have increased

forests around

of
junction

since the

treeless grassy

and

Pampas of

horses,
European cattle,

and mules has enabled the beasts of prey to

extended

the

Indian of the habits

by an

in the Llanos of Varinas and the Meta, and in the

America

striking

of particular
impenetrability
parts of

largeAmerican

Buenos

streams,

which

in

lead

the

near

had had the

we

we

much

were

faithful and affectionate companionof

most

wanderings.Being stilluncertain

he had been

whether

killed by the tigers,


him
a faint hope of recovering
actually
induced

us,

throughthe
to

in

returningfrom

swarms

of

the mission

musquitoesby which

spendanother night at the spot where

soughthim

We

in vain.

probablythe very
near
deed, extremely

heard

us

astronomical observations

and

as

it is
had

the cries of the

individual which
to

.we

of Esmeralda

we

infested,

long

so

jaguar,

suspectedof

the clouded

sky

the

made

we
impossible,
passedpartof

the

(lenguaraz)
repeatto us the
nightin making our interpreter
of the tigers
of the
accounts givenby our native boat's crew
country.

NOCTURNAL

The

"black

LIFE

ANIMALS

OF

they said,not unfrequently


found there ; it is the largest
and most bloodthirsty
variety,
with black spotsscarcely
its deep darkon
distinguishable
brown
guaca

skin.

jaguar"was,

It lives at the foot of the mountains

and Unturan.

One

tribe then related to


love of

of the Indians of the Durimund

that

us

of Mara-

often

jaguarsare

led,by their

to lose themselves
wanderingand by their rapacity,

such

impenetrable
partsof

hunt

alongthe ground,and

the forest that

longer

no

live instead in the trees,where

the terror of the families of

theyare

theycan

in

monkeys

and

of the

I borrow these
viverra,the Cercoleptes.
prehensile-tailed
notices from journals
written at the time in German, and
which were
exhausted in the Narrative of my
not entirely
which I published
in the French language.They
Travels,
contain
I

detailed description
of the nocturnal

in the forests of the torrid

zone

part of

suited to form
the

of the wild animals


voices,

say the nocturnal

might rather

presentvolumes.

That

or perhaps
life,

which
work

which

appears to

me

bearingthe

ticularl
par-

title of

is written down

on

the

spot,either in the immediate presence of the phenomena,or


after the

soon

produce,may
than

can

be

at

receptionof
least

from
Descending
of whose
were

layclaim

in
expected
West

which
impressions

the
to

lifeand

more

to East the Rio

chapteron

Apure,the

producedby them
It

of low water, and the average breadth of the

littlemore

than twelve hundred

ings
overflow-

Steppesand Deserts, we

with the Orinoco.


arrived at its junction

freshness

recollections.

waters and the inundations

noticed in the

they

was

the

Apure

was

Englishfeet,
yet I

season

only
found

IN

THE

PRIMEVAL

267

FOBEST.

the Orinoco at the confluence of the two


the
a

rock
granite

of

where
Curiquima,

base line,stillupwardsof 11430


Yet this

feet wide.

French

in

watered

the

by

Apure

tribes of the Yaruros

and

and

the

of

of the

Part of the

established by the
villages
rude

plains

called savages

than

in the

their manners,

those of the Indians

who, althoughbaptizedand living


villages,
"

"

the bell"

stillalmost

(baxola compana),are

by

in
theypersist

as

monks

the

inhabited

Pagara are

Achaguas,who,

more
however,are scarcely

is
Curiquima,

line from
straight

their independence,
are
maintaining
mission

measure

(12180 English)

and from the Delta of the Orinoco.

sea

able to

was

the Eock

point,i. e.

miles
geographical

four hundred

not far from


rivers,

under

entirely
untaught

and uninstructed.
On
who
scenes

Island

leavingthe

speak Spanish cultivate


"

of nature

The air was

characterized

other water

wildness

sky like

The

river had here narrowed

and

flowingin

canal enclosed

on

either side

of the forest presents


at this

by

and

and

on

grandeur.

(Phreniflamingoes

and 1000

900

formed

dense wood.

The

feet,

kind

of

of

margin

parta singular
appearance.

wall
impenetrable

Cedrela,
Csesalpinia,
river

to between

line
straight
perfectly

front of the almost

entered

continually
varyingoutlines.

dark cloud with

Zambos

the
birds,which appearedagainst

blue

sandy

by

which
we

sugar-canes,

filledwith countless flocks of

and
copterus)

the

Diamante,in

del

In

gianttrunks

Desmanthus, there rises from

beach, with

the

a
greatestregularity,

of
hedge of Sauso, only four feet high,consisting
which
forms a new
small shrub,Hermesia
castaneifolia,

low

of

268

NOCTURNAL

(4) of

genus

LIFE

ANIMALS

OF

slender

familyof Euphorbiacese.Some

the

thornypalms,called by the SpaniardsPiritu and Coroso


stand next ; and
of Martinezia and Bactris),
(perhaps
species
the

resembles

whole

close,well-pruned
garden hedge,

having only occasional openingsat considerable


from each

other,which

four-footed
larger
the river.
and

at

One

have

sunset,the American

do not

"When

drink.

throughthese openingsto

the river and

paces, until

been

has

the

theyhave

hedge for

reached

on

the Bio

to

the

In

and

Negro,
"

seventy-four
daysto
of the
may

small canoe,

add, alwayswith

to

were

we

with

many

it is here

as

in

and
points,
came

down

of
fish,
groups consisting

coloured

curassow
proudly-stepping
C. Pauxi). "Es
Alector and

and

confined for

enjoyedthe repetition

different classes of animals,the

being associated

almost

and
Cassiquiare,

delight.There

new

an

miles
geographical

we

"

of

several different

to drink,to bathe,or
together,

the most

has

opening,when

the

on

duringwhich

at
spectacle

same

one

five hundred

or

course

1520

its sources,

near

four

the nearest

river navigation
of
uninterrupted
the Orinoco

but
described,

wild animals stalk leisurely


along

through it.
they disappear

on

the

by the passingcanoe, they


forest by breakingforcibly

attempt to regainthe

of seeing
these
pleasure

between

to

access

startled

through the hedge which


the

the

and
the tapir,
tigeror jaguar,

the peccary, lead their young


river to

gain easy

by

in the early
morning
especially

more

sees,

made

doubtless been

beasts of the forest to

distances

and

mammalia,
larger

herons,palamedeas,
cashew

como

Paradise,said,with

en

birds
el

(Crax

Paraiso;"

pious air,our

IN

steersman,
house of

old Indian

an

who

however, far

The

each other.

tiger. It

runs

so

goldenage

the animals

Brazilian

that
indifferently

and

was,

of

this

avoided

four feet long,

or

is
Cavy,Cavia aguti),

and
by the crocodiles,

able to catch individuals from


which

of the

Capybara,a Cavy three

in the river

in the

broughtup

watched
carefully

of the
repetition
(amagnified
devoured

peace

prevailing
among

from

which
paradise,

American

been

had

ecclesiastic. The

an

269

FOREST.

PRIMEVAL

THE

we

shore

on

several times

were

the

among

by the
herds

numerous

themselves.
presented

Below

mission

the

Barbara

of Santa

passedthe night as usual,under


the bank

flat on

of the Rio

forest.
impenetrable
succeeded

in

It

the open

sky,on

we

sandy

bordered
Apure closely

finding
dry wood

by the
that we
difficulty

without

not

was

de Arichuna

to

kindle the firewith which

it is
in

alwayscustomaryin that countryto surround a, bivouac,


order to guard againstthe attacks of the jaguar. The

night was

humid, mild,and moonlight. Several crocodiles

the
approached
to

be

shore

attracted

I think I have observed these animals

by fire,like

inhabitants of the water.

The

driven
uprightand carefully
from

which

our

hammocks

the fresh-water

the Orinoco net- work


to the

in

Ganges as

far

of

oars

into the
could

stillness prevailed
; onlyfrom

blowingof

and
cray-fish

our

time

our

many

boat

ground,to
be
to

time

dolphins
(5)which

Benares),which

placed

form

poles

suspended. Deep
we

are

of rivers (and,according
to
as

were

other

heard

the

to
peculiar

Colebrooke,

followed each other

longlines.
Soon

after 11

o'clock such

disturbance

began to

be

270

NOCTURNAL

heard in the

rage

voices which

throughoutthe

resounded

firstheard

were

howlingof

ANIMALS

for the remainder

impossible.The

forest.

Among the many


Indians

after short pauses

singly.There

the aluates

of the

wild cries of animals

the
together,

those which,
recognise
uproar,

OF

that
forest,
adjoining

nightall sleep
was
appearedto

LIFE

could

in the

only

general

the monotonous

was

(the howlingmonkeys); the plaintive,

and almost flute-liketones of the small sapajous


soft,
;
the

nocturnal monkey (6)


striped

the

snorting
grumblingsof

which
(theNyctipithicus
trivirgatus,
;

the

of

parrots,of

When

the

which

had

parraquas,

came
tigers

our

heard to

was
tiger

near

before barked

refugeunder
tree, and

on

accidental

spreadto
more

and

the

more.

the

our
forest,

seek

the cry of the

highbranches

of

alwaysaccompaniedby the

case

seekingto

were

pursuit.
why

turbance
this incessant noise and dis-

are

in
rejoicing

the

had

with

To

the

it

me

in
probablyoriginated

that hence

light,
brightmoon-

feast'of the full moon."

scene

-dog,

howlingto

nights,,
they answer,
particular

combat, and
other

edge of

monkeys, who

the

keepingthe

appearedthat

the

amidst the

smile,that "the animals


and

birds.
pheasant-like

proceedfrom

asks the Indians


arises

other

Sometimes

escape from the unwonted


one

and

hammocks.

plaintive
piping of
If

the

came
incessantly,

in such

was

the firstto describe)

was

greattiger,the cuguar
lion,the peccary, the sloth,and a host

maneless American

or

cries of
interrupted

disturbance

some

had

animals,and thus the noise had increased


The

jaguarpursues

each
and these,pressing
against
tapirs,

the

and
peccaries

other in their flight,

272

NOCTURNAL

the shores
Aubletia

we

LIFE

only,besides

saw

and
(Apeibatiburba),

few silvery
croton
a
salicifolia),
observed in the shade, but
the

of

toweringmass

old withered

an

shrubs.

objectshad

outlines,the effectof mirage;


and the flood of

lightwhich

and which, from


flashed

rendered

not
sun

a
was

40" Reaumur

breath

the river,

of the waters,
sensible the red

All the naked

rocks

countless number

largethick-scaled iguanas,gecko-lizards,and
spottedsalamanders.
open

ecstacy. At

such times the

the

of the

under the thick


rocks ; but
one

of

and

burningair with

largeranimals

and
forest,

of
foliage

inhale the

and

variously

heads
Motionless,with uplifted

mouths, theyappearedto

recesses

of air

in the zenith,
upon

stillmore

covered with

were

few inches of

wave-like undulating

poureddown

veiled the distance.

boulders around

movement
slight
rippling

back,
sparkling

haze which

The

he

of

thermometer

to above

graniterock, rose

stirred the fine dust-like sand.

stem

Apocinea(Allamanda

new

broughtwithin

All distant

(122"Fah.)

ANIMALS.

OF

seek shelter in

the birds hide themselves

the trees,

or

in the cleftsof the

if,in this apparent entire stillness of nature,

listens for the faintest tones

which

an

attentive

ear

can

an
seize,there is perceived
sound, a
all-pervading
rustling

and

humming

in the lower
a

of
fluttering
strata

world

insects close to the

of the

of

ground,and

nounces
atmosphere. Every thing an-

and
organicactivity

life.

In

every

mined
bush, in the cracked bark of the trees,in the earth under-

as

by hymenopterousinsects,life stirs audibly. It is,


it were, one of the many voices of Nature, heard onlyby

the sensitive and reverent

ear

of her true votaries.

AND

ANNOTATIONS

ANNOTATIONS

273

ADDITIONS.

AND

ADDITIONS.
.

(J)p.

"

260.

"

Characteristic

in Arabic

names

and

Persian."
More

by Arabs

than
in

twentydifferentterms

might be

cited as used

of steppes,
to denote
speaking
(tanufah),

deserts

without water, entirely


bare,covered with siliceoussand,or
with spots affording
some
interspersed
pasture: (sahara,
kafr,mikfar,tih, and mehme.) Sahl,is a low plain
; dak-

kah, a desolate elevated plain. In Persian, beyaban"signifies


"

the arid

sandydesert, as
"han-hai,"and

the Chinese

do the

"

"

Mogul

"

gobi,"and

"Yaila"

scha-mo."

is

herbagethan with
also the Mogul
herbaceous plants
are
kiidah,"and
; so
and the Chinese "huang."
the Turkish
or
tala,"
tschol,"
Deshti-reft" is an elevated plaindevoid of vegetation.
(Humboldt,Delation hist.T. ii.p. 158.)

steppe covered rather with grasses

or

"

"

"

"

(2)p.

260.

"
"

In the old Castilian

idiom"

loma tendida,
Pico,picacho,
mogote,cucurucho,espigon,

farallon,
tablon,pefia,penon, pefiasco,
panecillo,
cordilroca
serrania,
laxa,cerro, sierra,
pefioleria,
partida,

mesa,

lera,monte, montafia,montafiuela,cadena de montes, los

altos,
malpais,
reventazon,bufa,"c.
VOL.

i.

274

NOCTURNAL

(3)p.

263.""

OF

LIFE

Where

the map

ANIMALS.

had

Monies

exhibited

de Cacao."

On

the range

Andes
lofty

de

of hillswhich

Cuchao,see

(4)p.
The

had been converted into the


Eel. hist. T. iii.p. 238.

my

"Hermesia."

268."

Hermesia, the Sauso, has been

genus

Bonpland,and figuredin

Plantes

our

described

by

T. i.
equinoxiales,

p. 162, tab. xlvi.

(5)p.
These

269.""

not

are

as
greatdistance,

fish,which
(flat

body);
which

for

'fresh-waterdolphin."

The

the
sea-dolphins,
ascending

rivers for

is done

Pleuronectes

by some

alwayshave

example,the

speciesof

both eyes

Limande

Some

and skates,are repeated


in
as
fish,
dolphins
of both continents.
and the Orinoco
as well
geticus,

The

fresh-water

from all

sea

the

forms of

greatrivers

dolphinof

differsspecifically
from the
as

side of the

one

(Pleuronectes
Limanda),

up the Loire to Orleans.

comes

on

the

Apure

Delphinus
gan-

See
sea-dolphins.

my

Eel. hist.

T. ii.pp. 223, 239, 406-413.

(6)p.

270.""

This is the

The

stripednocturnal

Douroucouli,or

monkey."

Cusi-cusi of the

Cassiquiare,

in my Eecueil d'Obserby me as Simia trivirgata


et d'Anatomic
vations de Zoologie
comparee, T. i. p. 806the platebeing taken from a drawing
311, tab. xxviii.,
made by myselffrom the living
animal.
We
subsequently
described

ANNOTATIONS

des

Jardin

p.

the

nocturnal

this

saw

340.)

at

also

river,

Amazons

Potsdam,

monkey

Plantes

Spix

June

AND

1849.

Paris.
found

and

called

275

ADDITIONS.

living
(See
this
it

in
the

the

work

menagerie
above

remarkable

Nyctipithecus

of

cited,

little

animal

vociferans.

the
T.

ii.

on

HYPSOMETRIC

indebted

AM

have thrown
of

Mr.

to

much

so

ADDENDA.

Pentland

lighton

(whose scientific labours

the

geologyand geography

which he
Bolivia)for the following
determinations,
to

me

in

letter written from

Paris,in October

of his greatmap
1848, after the publication
Nevado

of

Sorata,

Long,

or

Ancohuma.

"

from

Height in
English Feet.

Greenwich.

S. lat.

municated
com-

South

Peak

15" 51' 33"

68" 33' 55"

21286

North

Peak

15" 49' 18"

68" 33' 52"

21043

16" 38' 52''

67" 49' 18"

21145

....16" 38' 26"

67" 49' 17"

21094

16" 37' 50"

67" 49' 39"

21060

Illimani.

South

Peak

Middle
North

Peak
Peak

The

ference
heights(withthe exception.of the unimportantdifof

same

few feet in the South

those

as

sketch

of the

givenin

of

of the Lake

the map

last-named

Peak

mountain

Illimani)are the
of Titicaca.

it shews
as
(Iliimani),

itselfin all its majestyfrom La Paz, has been


Pentland
Vol. V.

in the Journal

(1835),p.

of the

77.

This

of the first measurements


des

Longitudesfor 1830,

givenby

Mr.

Society,
Royal Geographical

was

five years after the


in the Annuaire

p. 323, which

cation
publi-

du Bureau

results I

myself

278

HYPSOMETRIC

hastened to make

known

fin*Erd und
S.

ADDENDA.

Zeitschrift
Germany. (Hertha,

in

Volkerkunde,

xiii. 1829,
of the

the east

Sorata is to

de

3-29.) The Nevado

Berghaus,Bd.

von

guage,
lanSorata,
or Esquibel
: it is called in the Ymarra
village
accordingto Pentland,Ancomani, Itampu, and
the Ymarra word
in
Illimani,"
Ulhampu. We recognise
"

snow.
"illi,"

If, however,in the

longassumed

was

the Illimani 2675


there

are

French, or

3718

in the western

of Arica

which
or

are

20100

and

Englishfeet,and

3952

feet too high,


English,

French, or 2851
chain of the

ing
country,accord-

same

between

lat. 18" 7' and

higherthan Chimborazo,which
Trench

peaksto the
18" 25', all of

of Titicaca (1848),four

to Pentland's map
east

of Bolivia the Sorata

chain

eastern

feet.

These four

English

is 21422

peaksare

Englishfeet,or

"

20360

French

Pomarape

21700

Gualateiri

21960

"

"

20604

"

Parinacota

22030

"

"

20670

"

Bahama

22350

"

"

20971

"

Berghaushas appliedto
of the Andes

of Bolivia the

in the Annales

eastern

and western

chains

investigation
published
by

me

des Sciences

225-253, of the
mountain

the

feet.

T. iv. 1825, p.
Naturelles,
proportion(verydifferent in different

which the general


the
chains),
heightof the ridge,

crest,or kamm

(themean

summits
highest

or

Pentland's map,

the

chain 12672

heightof

the

bears
passes),

to the

culminating
points. He finds,
following
mean

French,

or

heightof
13502

the passes in the eastern

Englishfeet;and

in the

280

HYPSOMETRIC

Mountains
most

ADDENDA.

arid the Sierra Nevada

of

has
California,

received

hypsoimportantadditions,geologically,
botanically,

and geographically
metrically,
by
of

from
position,

the excellent works

Memoir
(Geographical

tions
determina-

astronomical

of Charles Fremont

an
Upper California,

upon

1848) ; of
Map of Oregon and California,
(Memoir of a Tour to Northern Mexico,

illustrationof his
Dr. Wislizenus

connected with Col.


Abert

Lieutenants

1848) ;
Doniphan'sExpedition,

and

Peck

1845; and Examination


and

There

1847.)

North

American

four

in 1846

prevailsthroughoutthese

works

plain,which

five thousand

or

kansas,
Upper Ar-

Mexico

of New

different

which
true scientificspirit,

of the greatestcommendation.
elevated

the

on
(Expedition

rises to
French

an

and of

serving
is de-

remarkable

The

heightof
uninterrupted

(4260 and

5330

feet,
English)

.RockyMountains and the Sierra Nevada


of wliich I have spoken in p. 44, and which
California,
called the Great Basin, forms
and has hot
Bear

and
springs

way to the

sea.

The

by me

gos, is the

greatSalt Lake

miles longfrom
geographical
with

it communicates

which

is situated at

nogos

or

the

"

led

was

by

of Lake

name

of Fremont's

the fresh water

higherlevel,and
The

Map

tions
combina-

of Mexico

Timpano:

it is

sixty

north to south,and ten broad

TimpanaozuRiver,which

in lat. 40" 13'.

"

River, find their

Humboldt

which

of its rivers,

None

in the greatMap
represent,

in 1804, under

is

inland closed river basin

salt lakes.

Lake,

and inferences to

and

an

Eiver,Carson River,and

drawn

of

the

between

lake of Utah,

receives the

enters

circumstance

Timpa-

it from the eastward,


of the

Timpano-

HYPSOMh/TRIC

Lake

gos

of my

havingbeen placedby

not

map

far to the north and


entire

of
position

of the

Santa

minutes

of

if
surprising,

latitude

for which

on

was

127-136.) These
my

from

Paris

to

the

as

determinations

The

relative

"thick
studded

of

true

106"

who

made

the

was

found

in the

to

the

de

107" 58'

to

me

the

to

Greenwich.

of

found

in

of the island-

and the Utah

in my

as

Timpanogos),and

largemap

Lake-

of Mexico.

latest evidence of the traveller

first well-assured

positionin
geographical
rock salt,of which

Friesen, and

longitude
appears

00' W.

(my Laguna

point

i. pp.

actual astronomical

the south east

clay,"on

correctness
givenwith perfect

this

Espagne, T.

"

was

on

de Rivera.

beds of fossil salt

the

far from the presentFort Mormon

refer

Pedro

Accordingto

Paris,or

Salt Lake

tions,
direc-

compass

Fe, and

Santa

obtained,the

strata of red

for 1 5

combined
being differently

not

I may

based

Herr
fellow-labourer,

positionof

Great

Don

la Nouvelle

of
longitude

since

22' W.

or

that my

the result of his combinations

as

The

which
longitude

only be

indebted

result of mine, 107" 13'.

be 108"

could

directions

him

myself,gave

Mexico.

it is remembered

surveys,

earlydeceased

tions
determina-

the lake,to almost

compass

sur
(Humboldt,Essai polit.

by

margin of

of Guanaxuato

itinerary
map

astronomical

difference of absolute

less

will appear

degreesof

arc

ciently
suffi-

me

be attributed to the

to

TC, in New

amounts, for the western

error

50

west, is

that time, of any

at

want,

281

ADDENDA.

that district:

determinations
if

"

The

mineral

of
or

specimenis placedin CongressLibrary,

placemarked

by

Humboldt

in his map

of

282

HYPSOMETRIC

ADDENDA..

as
halt'),
Spain (northern

New

derived from

Father Escalante, who


missionary

the

penetratethe
Mexico

to

unknown

the

and in this,at the

of

Geogr. Mem.

chain of the Wha-satch


Humboldt

placewhere

Upper California,
1848,

great historicalinterest attaches

highland,and

tains
Moun-

has written

pp.

(Fremont,
and

67 ;

this

to

part of the

Lake

of

to the countryround
particularly
Timpanogos, which is perhapsthe same with

Lake

of

Teguayo,the

of

Tula,and

to the

(Mexico), this people made

three

The

seen.

Teguayo,the

far from
on

the

the banks
of

over

ancestral seat of the Aztecs.

Aztlan

at which
stations,

be

to

the ruins of the Casas

first

sojournof

second

on

Rio

of the Gila the

considerable tract of

locality.These

remains

of the

now

their houses of

seven

Abert

number

and
painting,

and

Pedro

productsof
a

found
of

ments
frag-

scattered

Fonte

human

former

in that
skill are

sation
higherciviliof

buildings

architecture of the Aztecs, and

stories,are

also found

not

had astonished

solitary
regions. Remains

of
singular
style

at the Lake

Gila, and the third

indicate the existence of

in these

was

ground, which

Garces

stillto

grandesare

Lieutenant

with

Tenoch-

haltingplacesor

immense

same

the

In their

Valleyof

the Aztecs

Presidio de Llanos.

the missionaries Francisco

ia the

the

pottery ornamented

supposedto

the

more

migrationfrom
titlan

of

T. ii.p. 261.)
Humboldt, Essai politique,

compare
A

South-east

this mineral isfound."

de sel gemme,

Montagues

of New

Fe

Santa

Pacific Ocean.

Timpanogos is the

the Lake

attempted(1777) to

country from

Monterey of

journalof

the

of

far to the east-

HYPSOMETRIC

ward

of the Eio Grande

of
Essai

my

pol.T.

ii.pp. 241

to the
parallel

latitudes of 34" and

the

and the
Sierra

Bay

of

Taos.

581

The

605, with

"

Sierra Nevada

of

Coast of the Pacific ; but between

41", between

San

of the

the West

on

runs,

Buenaventura

coast chain,of which Monte


Nevada, another (smaller)

French, 3674
In

culminatingpoint.

the

Joaquin,and

Sacramento,on

the banks

the rich

English feet high, is


between
valley,

narrow

of

washingsnow
gold-

from

the

and to barometric

much

so

with

the

from

the

junctionof

to

the

Pacific,or

Missouri
of 28

degreesof longitude.

immense

extent

Dr. Wislizenus

has

continued
successfully

began by
Zone,

to

me

from

the

the

North

as

in lat. 35" 38'.

Andes

to
supposed,

an

plainwhich

is far from

Santa Fe

as

It will be

that the elevated


Mexican

cityof Mexico, in
far

seen,

forms

the

the

Equinoctial
Mexico,

perhaps,with surprise,
the

height.

firsttime,according
to the measurements

broad

as

crest

had

givehere

which

we

at

points,forming a

from
levelling

to Santa

cityof

Mexico

of the

long been

possess, the elevations of several


the

levelling

del Nuevo

sinkingdown,

inconsiderable

Eio del

hypsometric
levelling,

throughoutthe

now

the

north

resorted to.

made

measurements

Eiver

Kanzas

this

which,in rich alluvial soil,are

alreadyreferred,
p. 43, to

I have

the

greatSierra Nevada, flow from the south

chain and the

the Eio de San

the

and

244.)

"

example, in

cuments
Mexico, in the Do-

pp. 489

Trinidad,there

Diablo, 3448

coast

for

of New

Congress,No. 41,

California is

del

del Norte

Examination

(Compare Abert's

283

ADDENDA.

Fe, which

for the

present
line of
latter

284;

HYPSOMETRIC

ADDENDA.

islessthan four German

town

(sixteen
English)
geographical

miles from the Bio del Norte.

French

Mexico

..........

Tula
San

...........

del Bio

Juan

Queretaro

Celaya.

.........

Salamanca

........

.........

Guanaxuato

.........

Silao
.

Villa de Leon

Lagos

......

........

...........

.......

Luis Potosi

Zacatecas

Durango

..........

..........

Parras.
.

Saltillo

.......

..........

Fresnillo

Eng. Feet.

...;..

%.

...

.....

Observer.

7008

7490

Ht.

6318

6733

Ht.

6090

6490

Ht.

5970

6363

Ht.

5646

6017

Ht.

5406

5761

Ht.

6414

6836

Ht.

5546

5910

Br.

5755

6133

Br.

5983

6376

Br.

5875

6261

Br.

5714

6090

Br.

7544

.8040

Br.

6797

7244

Br.

6426

6848

4678

4985

Ws.

4917

5240

Ws.

4352

4638

Ws.

5886

6273

Ws.

35 -^

ogio

-ry

6612

7047

Ws.

.......

Aguas Calientes
San

Feet.

(Oteiza)

ElBolsondeMapimi
Chihuahua

.........

Cosiquiriachi

........

Passo del Norte, on


JN OlTtG

"

del ")

the Rio Grande

""""""""""i)

Santa Fe del Nuevo

Mexico

The lettersWs., Br.,and Ht., are


barometric measurements

Burkart, and
valuable memoir

ground:

one

own.

my

of Dr.

the
placedto distinguish
Wislizenus,Oberbergrath

"Wislizenus has

appendedto

his

three vertical sections of the surface of the


from

Santa

Fe

to Chihuahua

by

Passo del

HYPSOMETRIC

Norte;
from

one

from

one

Fort

Chihuahua

of the Missouri

3?e.

calculation

The

and

(apartfrom

distance

in the north

miles, we
geographical

960

be in any

Earth, equal in

of the
and

5000

French,

7000

the level of the

above

travel

formed
chain

by

the

valleybetween

two

the

Rocky

5330

and

7460

of

between

of

Bolivia,
"

the

and

Andes,

mountain

and

Himalaya

just

waggons
Ee.

crest

It is
of

the

swellingof

the

is the

as

the "Great

the Sierra Nevada


in the

case

and

Basin"
of

in

western

some

"

between

California,

high plain of

in Asia, in the
and

I have

feet

plainor undulating suface

of

the eastern
and

is not

chains,

Hemisphere,

Titicaca,between

Andes

Santa

to

(between

English

four-wheeled

Mexico

there

similar conformation
elevation

Hemisphere, in

Mountains

in the Southern

inquirewhether

and

from

elevations

other remarkable
in the Northern

direction is above

globe a

which

is

straight

extent

or

that

Mexico

from

broad, undulating, flattened

Mexican

of the

and

sea)to the highlandof which

do

they

as

south

led to

and yet over


giventhe levelling,
can

Ee

St.

at

consider

we

Santa

and

part of the whole

other

If

deviations

are

Santa

to

by Engelmann

between

thus

16", and that

of the

east

River)

and

daily corresponding

on

Orleans.

of latitude

difference

the

the Kanzas

is founded

Louis, and by Lillyat New

line)the

little to

of the barometer, made

observations

the

Reynosa by Parras;

to

Independence (a

Confluence

285

ADDENDA.

chains

"

the

lake

of the

highlandsof Thibet,

the Kuen-ltin.

SUMMARY

GENERAL

OF

CONTENTS

Prefaceto
Prefaceto

the First Edition

the Second and

Note

by the

Steppesand
Coast chain and mountain
Contrast in

Translator

Deserts

XT.

p. xvii.

"

p. 1 to p. 26.

"

of
valleys

Lake

Caraccas.

Tacarigua.

of

as the bottom
stepperegarded

Sea ; broken strata

plaincalled

plains
; the

p. xi. to p.

"

between those
respectto the luxuriance of vegetation

Mediterranean

of the

p. vii.to p. ix.

"

Editions

Third

districtsand the treeless plains.The


of

VOL.

"banks."

Heaths

of

littlehigherthan the rest

General

of

extensive

Llanos

of South

phenomena
and

Europe, the Pampas

America, the African Deserts,and the Steppesof Northern

Asia.

Different characters

of the

Animal

1"6
and their invasive migrations.
nations,

life. Pastoral

of
Description
and climate
on

the

the South

vegetablecoveringof

with the

absence
Original
Mauritia
VOL.

of

palm ;
I.

"

the latter dependenton

and
plains

surface.

and prairies
their extent
plains

American

conformation
hypsometric

the

and
the outline of the coasts,

of the New

Continent.

deserts of Africa

lifein
pastoral

Food

America.

the Guaranis' huts raised


U

on

trees

Comparison
7

furnished

by

13
.

"

"

13

the

17

290

OF

SUMMART

Since the

of America
discovery

increase
Extraordinary

rainyseason.

the

sky.
of

power

endowed.

of wild cattle,horses,asses,
of

Appearance of the surface of the ground and

of

Life of the

the

animals

with
adaptation

glanceat
Retrospective

of extreme

season

their

"

which

their conflicts;
sufferings,

certain animals

17

the countries

has

now

were

disappeared

Elucidations
Scientific

and

the Amazons.

hardships,and frequent

their

once

and

of their languages
diversity

the different tribes.

that these solitudes


which

Figuresgraven
the seat of

and of

chains.

23"26

Additions

"

p. 27 to p. 204.

"Banks"

or

broken

Subsidences

Tabular

of

Cacao

tropics

the

27

of the
horizontality

the
respecting

south-west

33

steppe to the

ocean.

Naked

mountain systems of North

most

recent

information.

"

33

surface.
"

35

stonycrust.

to health
syenite
prejudicial
; whether

the
America, embracing
in

cultivation

of the surface

masses

General views

soil associated within

General

strata.

of the distant

Resemblance

neighbouring

Varieties of the sugar-cane.

Great fertility
of
plantations.
of atmosphere
with insalubrity

sation
civili-

....

Geological
description.
Progressof

European civilisation.

the rocks

on

degreeof

The island-studded lake of Tacarigua; itsrelations to the


mountain

23

"

surroundingthe Steppesand

of the Orinoco

differences of their habits

show

plantsare

horses

.Forest wildernesses

variance between

and

electric fishes. Unequal conflict

Indian tribes separated


by the wonderful
and

habitable.

more

and
dryness,

Gymnoti and

Deserts.

I.

VOL.

have become

in the number

and
Jaguars,crocodiles,

between

OF

the Llanos

of
Description

and mules.
the

CONTENTS

THE

36

and

Chains

and north-east direction in Brazil and

"

37

South

running
in the

SUMMARY

Atlantic

OF

the United

portionof

provinceof Chiquitos
;

small

the Kio

Continuation

of the

291

I.

America.

the

The low

ground constitute

Guapore and Aguapehi in

the river basins

of the

Orinoco

in 2" and 3" N. lat.

Negro

of the chain of the Andes

(throughthe

very

north of the isthmus of Panama

French,or

been againascended by
recently

the Sierra de las Grullas and the

Captain Stone) in

37"39

16626
country,where Popocatepetl,

Aztec

Englishfeet high,has

17720

swellingsof

17" S. lat, and between

15" and

VOL.

OF

States of North

the waters

the division between

and

CONTENTS

THE

tains.
Moun-

Rocky

of CaptainFremont.
Excellent scientificinvestigations

made, showing a profile


or vertical

barometric levelling
ever
longest
section of the earth's surface

Culminatingpoint of
the Pacific.

Swellingof
existence
or

the

of the

Sierra Nevada

througha

the route

space

of 28" of

in the

ground

Great

Timpanogos Lake.
of California.

longitude.

the coast of the Atlantic to

from

Pass," south of the Wind

South

"

The

River Mountains.

Basin.

Coast

Yolcanic

Long

contested

Chain,Maritime

Alps,

eruptions.Falls

Columbia

of the

39"50
"

General

considerations

between
chains
of

the contrasts shown

on

the central chain


on

the east and

or

and
(theAlleghanies

California)
; hypsometriccharacters

above

to 600

of the

French,

or

426

the

(5330

to

the Great Basin.

accordingto

6400

Sources

Nicollet's

countryj Gomara's

of the

low

in
Mississipi

partof

of buffaloes

diverging

eastern

same

plain5000
level,called

the Lake

researches.

having been

Mexico

space,

Englishfeet

to 639

above the

highly meritorious

assertion

in the northern

view
Retrospective

English)feet

included

the Sierra Nevada

the level of the sea, and of the arid uninhabited

6000

tamed

spaces

(theRocky Mountains)and

west

which is onlyfrom 400

by the

of Istaca
Buffalo

formerly
50

"

55

....

of the chain of the Andes

from

the Rocks

of

292

SUMMARY

Ramirez

Diego

the
of

OF

to

THE

CONTENTS

OF

VOL.

I.

Bekring'sStrait. Long circulated

heightsof

mountains

chain

of

latest determinations,are

equalin heightto

Four

summits

Bolivia,which, accordingto Pentland's

higherthan

Chimborazo, but

the

the stillactive volcano

of

not

are

Acongagua measured

byEitz-Roy
The

specting
re-

in the eastern chain of the Andes

the Sorata and the Illimani.


Bolivia,especially*

of the western

errors

55"58

African mountains

of Harudsch-el-Abiad.

Oases

58

60

"

West

winds

the coast of the Sahara.

on

of
position

the

Caryanda to
Tibbos

greatbank of Eucus

that of

and Tuaricks.

Columbus, and

The

Accumulation
from

the

to the

time

of

sea-

of

Scylax of

presentday

60

camel and its distribution

systems of the interior of Asia between

and

India.

elevated

Chinese

belief in the existence of

Erroneous

plaincalled

literature a rich

Northern

"

Plateau

of

source

de la Tartarie"

Review

runningin
the low
two

Siberia

71"75

Series of

Probable

mean

75"85

mountain

systems of the interior of Asia.

the direction of the meridian

part of Europe from

the low

the

Chains

Ural,which separates

part of Asia,or divides into

portionsthe Scythian"Europeof Pherecydesof Syros and

Herodotus
the

Thibet.

of the

71

"

singlegreat

orographicknowledge.

elevations of different highlands. Desert of Gobi.

heightof

67

Bolor

great bend

Burmese

Khingan

in the

and the Chinese

north

66" and 77" E.

direction of meridians from

and south.

and

Assamo-

The elevations

long,from Greenwich, follow

Cape

Comorin

of

chains,which,near

direction of the Thibetian

river Dzangbo-tschu,
run

which, between

67

"

Mountain

weed

to the

the

Icy Sea, alternate

SUMMARY

like veins
the

be

Agathodsemonsupposedto

miles from the Icy Sea


geographical
miles from the
of 1512 geograpliical

Ganges

the

the

The

be traced from
somewhat

the wall

of China

chains
northerly

throughthe

mountain

throughthe

Hindu-Coosh

the

knot

Taurus

to

in

whereas

Himalaya.

changes to

is

south-east

Greenwich).

Next

the
supposed,

Jawahir

Dr.

called the

the western

summit

StarrySea,"

"

and the Persian

the direction of the

and

and north-west

north-west)shows

of the Kuen-liin,and

east

from

from
longitude

summit
highest

in the

to

meridian

of this

the most
a

of

mountain

not

Himalaya

havingbeen

it is not, as
Dhawalagiri,

which is the

axes

Hindu-Coosh,

the direction of the

pointwhere

of

the intersection of the Kuen-

Near

Joseph Hooker,

Nepaul

and Kilian-schan,

of Nan-schan

continuation

to the

and

Boutan

Lung-tscheuthroughthe

near

belonging,
accordingto

received from

Dicearchus.

axis of elevation,may

chain of Demawend

west, is about the 79th degreeof

that rank

an

Himalaya is south-east
The

the

35^" and

between

runs

in the Kuen-liin and the

west

that the Hindu-Coosh


of the

as

of
correspondence

(eastand

that of the

Obi,

and Indian Caucasus


(theParapanisus

Lycia.

liiiiand the Bolor the


of elevation

of the

as
Indicopleustes,

the Lake

near

and throughthe
ancients),

Elbourz,

distance of

diaphragm of

Kuen-liin,considered

more

and west

Indian Sea at the mouth

Cosmas

36" of latitude in the direction of the

Himalaya.

at

at the mouth

of elevation in the Old World,

longestaxis

gave

Kuen-liin, recognisedby Eratosthenes,

Tyre, Ptolemy, and

of

Marinus

runningeast

Thian-schan, with its active volcanoes

1528

of

the Bolor

the north into the low

chains

Altai

and

displacements
; thus

or

prolongedto

the

293

I.

idea of the Imaus, which

to the

Irtysch. Parallel

basin of the lower

VOL.

to north:

south

ancients

the

among

faults

are

from

other

each

Ural, succeed

OF

Chain, the Paralasa,the Bolor, and the

Soliman

Ghauts, the

occasion

there

dikes in which

or

CONTENTS

THE

OF

east

Paris

and

(81" 22'

has been hitherto


of the

recent

Himalaya;
intelligence

situated between

Sikkim, the Kinchinjinga


:

mountain, which

has been

measured

294

SUMMARY

by

Colonel

is 28178

THE

OF

director of the

Waugh,

feet,and its eastern

is

which is now

Hooker
"

the

figuredon

entitled

The Rhododendrons

1848

3620

face.

data

New

distribution of

atmosphere,the

its

Dhawalagiri

the northern

on

subjectfrom

temperature in the

to the millions of human

Western

Huns,

rather to have

appear

and
been

tribes of the Turks of the Altai and

Huns, whose
noticed

name

known

was

by Ptolemy

Johannes

been

of the

one

the

sun

Sierra

of
Description

by

the

as

tered
widelyscat-

Tang-nu mountains.

The

who

are

of
(whence the later appellation

country!),are

"Finnish

of the Ural

race

101"102

and

Parime,

supposedto

13000

now

Miiller

mountains

in the

Thibet

beingswho

and
DionysiusPerigetes,

to

Chuns

as

Chunigard givento

Eigures of

upper

85"101

Hiong-nu, regardedby Deguignes

tribe of

an

Hodgson.

dwell there.

The

Joseph

heightbeingon

plainsof

mountain

of

Englishfeet higher

to 4900
the

on

The

:"

1849."
Sikkim-Himalaya,

of

Himalaya ;

Erench, or

be uninhabitable

would

high,according
the

higherthan

India,

of

work
of the magnificent
frontispiece

this remarkable

strata of the

be

supposedto

to 4600

the northern

Without

feet

27826

Societyof Bengal,Nov.

declivities of the

3400

average

I.

of the lower limits of the snow-line

Determination

and southern

on

"

VOL.

trigonometrical
survey

summit

to the Journal of the Asiatic

mountain

OF

CONTENTS

the

be

of

animals,and other signscarved

as

well

writing

of
appellation

America, have often


102

elevations between

English)feet,which

Paramos

"

.....

cold mountain

(or 11720 and 13850

in North

.as

rocks

on

character

are

11000

104

and

distinguished

of their

vegetation.
104"106

Notices of the two

groups

of mountains

(PacaraimaMountains,

and

296

SUMMARY

OF

relative numbers

of the

that of the

domain

of

either with

the

thick

the snow-white

of the isothermal

soil,which

plants. The

is

and other

and Stereocaulon

American

Continents.

America

the Northern

123"136

emerged later than

and Southern

136

139

"

Hemispheresin
139"143

of the African

sea

of sand with those of

traditions.
geographical

of the Gorilla

of

of
Apes." Singulardescription

the

Atlas" from the Dialexes of Marinus

Mountains

The

Hiippell,almost

ancient notice of

snow

Tyrius

of the Moon

by Reinaud, Beke,

instructive notice of the second


Ali.

igneouseruptions.
of

"hollow

the interior of Africa

purelymythicalideas
south
locality

"

the
respecting

Persia,

the western

On

Indistinct allusions to

Crater-like forms

Lake.

of

Hanno's

to

watery covering?

Atlas,and the connection

Bay

temperaturein

Direction and curvature

Kerman, Beloochistan,and the interior of Asia.

Triton

123

"

Apparent connection
Mount

120

with

or

mosses,

paschale

summer

from the chaotic

comparisonof

of Mehemet

the

frozen, is covered
perpetually

that
groundsfor believing

highlatitudes

Notices

Admiral

for the entire


lines,
or lines of equaltemperature,

the Old Continent

with

by

plains

Coniferse and Amentacese, are

coatingof Sphagnum

winter,and for the

year, for the

part of

1.

of the limit determined

growth of

Cenomyce

European and

Thermic

north

of

VOL.

of the very different distribution of

causes
Principal

Are there any

OF

cryptogamous plants. Aspect and physiognomyof the

Tundras, where

the

CONTENTS

families
prevailing

the Icy Sea,


adjoining

Wrangel as

THE

and

143"149
.

(Djebelal-Komr) in
Ayrton.

Werne's

undertaken by the
expedition

orders

mountains,which rise,according
Abyssinian
to

the

height of

between the

Mont

Blanc.

contained
tropics

The

in the

most

Inscrip-

SUMMARY

is somewhat

tion of Adulis,which

to

more

the
to

modern

4" of north

Line

Goschop.

of

those which

Carl Zimmermann's

Juba.

and still
latitude,
A

considerable

the waters

Lupata

map.

Chain

waters

impelledin

are

impulsewhich

149

revolvingcurrent.

true

the Gulf

causes

Stream

Scandinavia.
Instances

How

of

the

Pomponius

the

to

aided

the

by

Europe.
Mela

Such

case

Cardinal Bembo.
Greenland

appearedin

Operationof
zones

in

and of Frederic

Again, in
the

preparingthe

the

way

of the

New

this

1682

years

climate

for the

America.

by north-west
related

Cornelius

by
a

winds

king of

and 1684

and of

natives of
159

the

cold and

the

in the

Gaul) ; others

165

"

....

more

of

returningeastward

Cryptogamiain the

largerphsenogamousplants. Within
in
replaced

of

the

Humphry

Barbarossa,of Columbus

Orkneys

lichens and other

the

(of Indians givenby

Boii to Quintus Metellus Celer,Proconsul


time of the Othos

sought at
to Sir

on

the

That the first

discoveryof

Gulf Stream, and

warm

the coasts of

and

be

known
already

it contributed

Esquimaux who,

flowingportionof
on

is to

Influence of the Gulf Stream

Gilbert in 1560.

Nepos

158

"

part of the Atlantic Ocean

extremityof Africa,was

southern

arrived

the northern

according

Peters
.

In

which flow

flow to the Indian Ocean

to the instructive researches of Wilhelm

Oceanic currents.

High

Nile from the basin of

between
separation
and

the Mediterranean

accordingto

the White

ground divides

the

297

I.

than

south, approachthe Bahr el-Abiad.

the

swellingof

VOL.

OF

more

6" and

which, between

mountains

CONTENTS

THE

OK

temperate

rapidestablishment
lichens
tropics

of

often

are

animals
respectby succulent plants.Milk-yielding

Continent; the Lama,

the

Alpaca,the

Guanaco.
165"169

169

Cultivation of farinaceous grasses


On

the earliestpopulation
of America

....

173

"

"

173

174

298

SUMMARY

CONTENTS

THE

OF

The coast nation of the Guaranis

OF

Richard

givenby Bembo

Hillhouse,and
Raleigh,

which

tortoises from

winds

(Mirage); awakening of
sleep

longsummer

General

Otomacs.

182

the

tribes.

or

190

"

practiceof earth-eating

Claysand

earths

containing
190"196

Figuresgraven

rocks

on

extendingfrom

Earliest notice

the

and
Rupunuri,Essequibo,

of these

west,

the Pacaraima

Cassiquiare.

traces of former civilization

of the travels of the

Hildesheim, found

of

east to

the wildernesses of the

(April1749)

manuscriptaccount

Hortsmann

runningfrom

a zone
throughout

Mountains, to Caycara and

in the

Steppe;

crocodiles and

....

considerations on

nations
particular

the

Infusoria

and

and

174"182

long-continued
droughtproducesin

hot
sand-spouts,

in the

Robert

Schomburgk

Phenomena

among

I.

(Warraus),and the Mauritia palm

of the coasts,accordingto the accounts


Histories Venetae,and those of

VOL.

among

surgeon

Nicolas

D'Anville's

papers.

196"203

The

poisonCurare
vegetable
Cataracts

The
on

Orinoco

view
general

of Duida

203

"

204

....

of the Orinoco-^.207
of its course.

seeingits embouchure.

Mountain

Ourari

or

Ideas excited in Columbus

Its unknown

and the groves

to p. 231.

sources

are

of Bertholletia.

east

of the

Causes of the

"

bends
principal

The

falls or

of the river

rapids
;

Raudal

state of the

Former
and Oco.

Grandeur

Manimi, where
itselfat

a
once

of

207"219

Maypures enclosed by four

streams.

district. Island-like form of the rocks


of the view obtained

foamingriver-surface of
to the eye.

on

the
descending

Keri
hillof

four miles in extent presents

Iron-black

masses

of rock riselike

SUMMARY

castles from the bed

Raudal

of Atures

CONTENTS

of the

piercethroughthe

trees

THE

OF

islands

visited the rocks

by

passage

the

of

in
closing

of

cave

subterranean
of

nightand duringstorm

springsof

and

Additions"

manati) lives in
(Trichecus
of

in the Gulf

226
.

fresh water

-p. 233

the

of

long from
myth

or

The Nocturnal

Difference
defined

to

p. 255.

at the

sea

placewhere,
of

Cuba,

233"234
....

on

the

organization.Stem

sources

of the Orinoco

236"241
.

of

an

loped
example of highlydeve-

Arundinarea

sixteen to seventeen

knot to knot

241"243

fable of the Lake

of Parime
.

LifeofAnimals

between

in the Primeval

Forest

languagesin respect to

"

p. 259

243"254

to p. 272.

their richness in well-

for characterising
natural phenomena, such
expressions

the state of
of

227

"

extinct

an

break forth

Bertholletia,
a Lecythidea,
a remarkable

the

and

the south coast of the Island

Xagua, on

discussion
Geographical

On

We

227"231

river-cow

feet

the

channels.

Ataruipe,the sepulchralvault

Elucidations
Scientific

The

219"226

dry,from

are

nation

The

loftypalm

pugnaciousgolden Pipras.

Unsuspected proximityof crocodiles

heavy rain.
Celebrated

at

the

rocky dikes connectingone

river at the cataracts

of the

having found

waters

of

299

I.

cloud of spray and vapour

; numerous

bed

of the

VOL.

river ; the summits

island with another, and the resort


Parts

OF

the
vegetation,

forms of

clouds,the appearance

forms of rocks and mountains.


disuse of such

the
plants,

outlines and grouping

of the surface of the


Loss

which

as

ground,and

the

languagessuffer by the

words, or by their signification


becomingimpaired.

300

OP

SILUMAKY

The

CONTENTS

THE

OF

of a Spanishword,
misinterpretation

undue

extension

Forest

producedby
the

forests between

the association of the

forests.
tropical

characteristic of

Causes

Primeval

of the

uniformity

kinds

same

of the

of trees,

of
impenetrability

Lianes,often form
tropics
; the twiningplants,
the Underwood.

portionof

small

in maps.

Absence

term.

I.

Monte," has caused the

"

of mountains

of the

frequentabuse

"which is

onlya

introduction

or

VOL.

259

Appearance of the Rio Apure in the lower part of its course.


of the forest fenced like

river

of

animals

Cavies

cries of animals resound

Contrast

days

of the

of

more

this

hedge.

of
fluttering

insects.

Flocks of

throughoutthe

usual

forest.

heat in the torrid

Orinoco

at

Elucidations an$
Scientific

Characteristicterms
of the

in Arabic

continents

skates
some

and

Additions"

Description
and

and furrowed
271
.

"$- 273

dolphins. In
are

the

272

"

to p. 275.

form

the surface
Richness

of

of mountains.

great rivers of both

repeated. American

Douroucouli
monkeys, the three-striped

by

of
descriptive

of the
expressive

organicsea-forms

269"271

noon-tide hours

deserts,
"c.)
ground (Steppes,
grassy plains,

Fresh-water

of the

bush, in the clefts

and Persian

the old Castilian idiom in words

269

"

Baraguan. Humming

of the bark of trees, and 'in.the earth undermined


.

Cause

zone.

Life stirs audibly


in every

Hymenopterous insects

266

reignsduringthe

to the

(Her-

largewater-

dolphins

than

Sauso

forest lead their young

of the

narrows

hedge of

Margin

the

the stillness which

with

low

(Capybara). Fresh-water

nocturnal uproar.

on

gardenby

throughsmall openingsin

hogs or
Wild

wild

The

mesia).

266

"

of the

turnal
noc-

Cassiquiare.
273"275

SUMMARY

OF

THE

CONTENTS

OF

HypsometricAddendc^"^.277
Pentland's

Height
Darwin.

in the eastern

measurements

of the volcano

of

mountain

Western

VOL.

to p. 285.

mountain

chain of Bolivia.

Aconcagua accordingto Fitzroyand


chain of Bolivia

Mountain

Snowy

systems of North
Chain

801

I.

America.

Rocky

Mountains

277

"

279

and the

Nevada) of California. Laguna de Timpanogos.


(Sierra
279-283

of
Hypsometricalprofile
Mexico

to Santa

Ee

the

and

Mexico

from the

cityof

283"285
.

END

Wilson

Highland of

OF

VOL.

Ogilvy,Printers,57, Skinner

I.

Street,Rnowhill, Londat,