Está en la página 1de 9

Third Meeting of the Regional 3R Forum in Asia

“Technology Transfer for promoting the 3Rs
–Adapting, implementing, and scaling up appropriate technologies”
Singapore, 5-7 October 2011

Country Analysis Paper


------------------------------------This country analysis paper was prepared by India as an input for the Third Meeting of the Regional 3R
Forum in Asia. The views expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations.


agricultural residues and recovered paper as raw materials.I. In India also. India imports around 4. In early 70’s the share of waste paper used as raw material was only 7%. The import bill has increased significantly over the years. According to an estimate. The industry uses wood.0 million tonnes of recycled paper annually. Table-1: Shift in Raw Material Consumption Pattern Year % Share Wood Agro residue Waste Paper 1970 84 9 7 2000 39 31 30 2011 31 22 47 Source: Paper Industry As of date.1 million USD in 1980 to one billion USD in 2011. Due to inadequate availability of indigenous waste paper. USA-49% and Italy-45%. This waste paper when recovered becomes the reclaimed cellulose fibre base suitable for paper making. Use of recycled fibre for paper making has been picking up the world over. Indian mills rely heavily on imported waste paper to meet the raw material demand. Japan-60%. The designing of such mechanisms and interventions lead to three major advantages. 2 . This recovery rate is very low when compared to developed countries like Germany-73%. Therefore. Background Paper. about 550 mills in India use waste paper as primary fibre source for paper. Today the term “recycled fibre” is used to refer to the post consumer paper that has been collected and reused to make paper.0 million tonnes annually. recovered paper today constitutes a major raw material furnish for the paper industry. the import of waste paper has increased from 5. Sweden69%. which translates to recovery of 27% of the total paper and paperboard consumed. it becomes important to put in place effective mechanisms which result in increasing the effective recycling of post consumer paper in to the manufacturing cycle. The present recovery and utilisation of waste paper by paper mills in India is 3. whereas now it constitutes the major raw material base for paper industry with 47% share in total production (Table 1). is made up of cellulosic fibre sourced from plants. This waste paper is sourced indigenously as well as through imports. Western Europe-56%. paperboard and newsprint production. an indispensable commodity of modern age. After consumption it often makes its way to trash bins and thus comes to be termed as “waste paper”.

the industry is expected to meet an annual requirement of 24 million tonnes by 2025. the process of collection of post consumer recovered paper presents an opportunity of income and employment generation.1 million tonnes. a leading paper manufacturer is running a program for waste paper collection called ‘Wealth Out of Waste’ (WOW) Model employing over 4. If the industry has to depend on imports to meet the waste paper requirement. It is estimated that Indian paper industry would require over 16 million tons of waste paper by 2025 to meet out the demand. With paper and paperboard demand growing at an average of 7. a large workforce of semi-skilled & skilled manpower is engaged in a scientific and organised manner to improve the recovery targets for recovered paper. Such programmes offer a huge potential for inclusive growth as setting up of facilities for dry waste management and value addition requires a large workforce of semiskilled and unskilled manpower. It translates in to lesser requirement of land for dumping (it is estimated that as much as 5 million tons of waste paper ends up in landfills today). this will lead to lowering of the import bill of recovered paper. Last. The current mechanism adopted for collection of waste paper in India is shown in Table-2. segregation and baling of dry recyclable. If there was a mechanism to recover this paper. The value chain constitutes the direct collectors from various source points. the foreign exchange outgo could be as high as 6. but not the least. Waste paper collection is an industry in itself.8% per annum.First and foremost. where the material gets collected from small shops and baled for dispatch to the end users. that the major importers of today would be able to meet such high demand). In India M/s ITC Ltd. out of which 8. These households generate around 17 lakh tonnes of dry recyclables per annum. In the developed countries. lowering of formation of greenhouse gases (methane) upon decomposition and corresponding lowering of the requirement of wood based fibre resources. use of recycled fibre in the process leads to lower air emissions and energy use. II. Further. Waste Paper Collection in India . there would have been considerable decrease in the import bill of the industry. The removal of post consumer paper from the garbage cycle would also considerably reduce the environmental load on the eco-system.000 people. which is a quantum leap from the current level of over 11. distributed in various towns and cities.4 billion USD (assuming. It is estimated that 20% of India’s population is residing in urban areas.5 lakh tonnes is contributed by paper only (50% of total dry recyclable composition). 2438 crore per annum for a population cover of 25 crore. Table-2: Current Waste Paper Collection Mechanism in India 3 . which includes newspaper and magazines also.25 crore households. of course.a community constituting of rag pickers and door to door collectors/vendors .. which again lowers the carbon footprint of the paper industry.Problems and Potential In India the collection of waste paper is mainly performed by the informal sector. zonal segregation centres owned by semi wholesalers. small shops where primary sorting of the waste into different categories takes place. covering a total population of around 25 crore equivalent to 6. it is estimated that the gross realization is to the tune of Rs. Based on current data base and actual cost of much as 95% of the collection of waste paper in the country is in their hands.

Source Items Collected Collection from Old newspaper households magazines Notebooks & textbooks Collected by Quantity Collected Million tonnes/Annum Weekend hawkers 1. particularly for copier and creamwove paper from offices and newspaper & packaging from households.50 Annual scrap Paper trimmings. library records. offices. examination answer sheets. indicates sizeable recovery potential. old office and library records etc.50 Old corrugated cartons. libraries Contractors 0.75 The existing institutional set up leads to a lot of leakages.25 Scrap contracts with industries. TOTAL 2. Table-3: Recovery Potential for Waste Paper Grades of paper Potential Source Generation of Generation/ Type Consumption waste % of Collection Rate % Writing/Printing Copier Paper Cream wove Packaging Paper Offices Business Establishment Others Printing House Paper Traders Households Schools/Colleges Offices Business Establishment Others Converting House 50 40 10 20 5 20 10 25 10 10 15 Households Offices Business Establishment 20 5 50 Post Consumer 20 Pre Consumer Post Consumer 100 Pre Consumer Post Consumer 100 20 50 4 .50 & 0. sheets and other waste publishers & converters Contractors 0. overprint/misprint printers. The life cycle analysis of different grades of paper. print contracts of rejects. shown in Table-3.

the service is poorly performed. therefore. Realising the potential of WOW. pursuant to the EPA and has made it mandatory for all municipal authorities in the country to implement these rules within a prescribed time frame. under its provisions.Newspaper III. The scope includes setting up and Management of Dry Waste Collection Centre (DWCC). Paper manufacturers ITC and an infrastructure development company RAMKY have joined hands together to spread the programme across the country over the next ten years. The Wealth out of Waste (WOW) programme of M/s ITC provides a model for such engagements in India. The Hyderabad venture is a project 5 . One viable option is to involve the private sector more extensively in providing services. etc. the Central Government has powers to enact laws and frame rules for environmental protection. Experience in many countries shows that in certain circumstances. The Government of India has. IV. However. Over 3 million citizens. In the year 2007. the municipality of Bangalore and Hyderabad have come forward to develop a waste collection ventures for Bangalore and Hyderabad. 500. now spread across 6 cities in South India with an average monthly collection of 3000 tonnes of waste paper. Management of municipal solid waste is covered under state laws pertaining to municipal governance. involving the private sector can significantly improve solid waste management service quality. ITC started waste paper collection scheme under the WOW programme. Others Publishing House Distributors Households Offices Business Establishment Others 10 20 5 40 10 15 10 Pre Consumer Post Consumer 100 30 Existing Legal Framework in India for Solid Waste Management (SWM) In India solid waste management is a state function. the Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000. but all the issues relating to Solid Waste Management (SWM) are not adequately addressed therein. ITC. The Bangalore venture is a joint endeavour of Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BBMP). 350 corporates. biomedical waste.000 school children. with treatment and disposal getting the least attention. 1000 commercial establishments and about 200 industries support WOW. Engagement of Private Players through a Public Private Partnership Model Though solid waste management is mandatory for all municipal authorities in the country and a significant budget is allocated for this purpose. Accordingly. hazardous waste. Bangalore. for managing and handling municipal solid waste. and has framed rules. Thus private sector participation should be considered in India also for collection of waste paper. with the municipal authority moving from being a service provider to being a regulator and service facilitator. framed uniform rules. the Government of India has enacted the Environment Protection Act (EPA) 1986. RAMKY Group and Solid Waste Management Round Table.

Waste paper collected by ITC’s franchisees from other segments will also be deposited at the nearest hub. 20 Crore Five DWCC will make one cluster. The scope includes setting up and Management of Dry Waste Collection Center (DWCC). It is the duty of BBMP to educate the public at large to adopt the concept of source segregation. broadly covering door to door collection and transportation of waste to integrated waste management facility where it is processed and disposed in a scientific manner. On its part. It carries out the secondary segregation of the DW and sends the same for recycling. Area of DWCC 1500 sq ft. The activities are likely to commence from September 2011. It makes the necessary arrangements for delivery of Dry Waste (DW) to the DWCC. There are two Hub management options that are open for adoption. Bangalore. It will be obligation of the franchisee to place necessary staff / workers for operating the hub. The DW will be graded by the franchisee and a fair price will be provided to them grade wise. which will be managed by common staff. ITC.of GHMC Hyderabad based on Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management principles. there shall be one manager and accountant assisted by receiving staff. of DWCC proposed to be set up 50 (Across various part of Bangalore) Cost of 1 DWCC Rs. The same are detailed hereunder. BBMP conservancy workers shall bring segregated wastes from households and deliver the same to the nearest hub. At the hub level. The consortium receives the dry waste from the conservancy workers as well as the public and makes the required payments to them. The BBMP provides rent free storage space for the waste. RAMKY Group and Solid Waste Management Round table. HUB MANAGEMENT – Option 2 This option is proposed for the Hubs operated by Franchisees. HUB MANAGEMENT – Option 1 These options are put in place for the hubs operated by RAMKY. WASTE COLLECTION MODELS FOR BANGALORE AND HYDERABAD BANGALORE MODEL It is a joint venture for green initiative by Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BBMP). It integrates processing of waste as per Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) rules. Each cluster of five hubs will be managed by an Area manager and an Accountant. six sorters. Some details of the DWCC are summarised hereunder. No. ITC/RAMKY manages the DWCC with required manpower. vehicles and other expenses. including providing expenses for all day to day working. V. The price will be cheaper by at least 50 paise per kg as 6 . two bailers and two security personnel. 40 Lakh Total Cost Rs.

Huge capital is required to install state of the art equipment to process the municipal solid waste. For example a city of 70 lakh population like Hyderabad. Here. It requires capital investment of about Rs. BBMP workers and ITC franchisees will bring the segregated wastes to the nearest hub. Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management is possible. These wastes are collected and transported to designated collection points. There are huge costs in handling Municipal Solid Waste starting from the source points to disposal. four integrated waste management facilities are planned across Hyderabad. 900 Crore for Phase I & II Cost of Phase I Rs. Reasonable tipping fee to be paid to the contractor in the range of Rs. wood. The residual silt and civil construction debris is disposed in secured landfills. 1000 Crore. metal. these wastes are taken to the transfer stations.compared to the market price.2000 per tonnes to cover the cost of source segregation. the dry recyclables are sorted out employing mechanized technology in to paper.1600 to Rs. recycling complex. movement of waste from collection points to the transfer stations and from there to dumping yards. glass. compost yards. iv. must have 2 waste management facilities. each of 500 Acres area minimum. HYDERABAD MODEL The Hyderabad model is based on separate primary collection of dry and wet solid wastes. As a part of the project. Therefore. The wet waste is treated to convert it to compost /biogas. landfills and instillations. 500 Crore Financial Assistance by AP Government Rs. textiles etc. Government to provide 100% grants for capital investment. Capital Investment Rs. 250 Crore (50% grant) 7 . plastic. provided Government extend financial and infrastructure support as below: i. From the collection points. iii. Government should allocate land of about 500 Acres to handle the municipal solid waste and create infrastructure like segregation and sorting system. ii. power plants (waste energy). primary collections.

8 .