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BIWO-01: Building Materials (Prof.

1 Microstructure and chemical composition of building materials
2 Physical properties, mechanical properties and durability of construction materials
2.1 Timber
2.2 Metallic materials
2.3 Concrete
2.4 Masonry
3 Fracture mechanics of structures made of steel and timber
3.1 Introduction into Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM)
3.2 Introduction into Non-Linear Fracture Mechanics (NLFM)
3.3 Fracture mechanics of steel and steel structures
3.4 Fracture mechanics of timber and timber structures
4 Strength and deformation behaviour of concrete
4.1 Behaviour under tension and compression
4.2 Fracture mechanics
4.3 Size effect
4.4 Shrinkage
4.5 Creep
4.6 Stresses due to temperature changes
5 High-performance cement-based materials
5.1 Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC)
5.2 Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC)
5.3 Strain-hardening Cement-based Composites (SHCC)
5.4 Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC)
5.5 Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC)
6 Numerical simulation of concrete flow: Distinct Element Method
The lessons to the above topics are followed by exercises and demonstrations in the
Prerequisite Knowledge
- Basic knowledge in construction materials and mechanics.
Topics of Project and Master Thesis
- Testing and numerical simulation of the rheological behaviour of fresh
- Self-healing of cracks in modern fibre-reinforced concrete materials
- Strengthening of masonry using strain-hardening cement-based composites
- Durability of structures made of advanced concrete materials
- Material design for specific structural applications
- N. Jackson, R.K. Dhir: Civil Engineering Materials, MACMILLAN, 1997, ISBN:
- J.F. Young, S. Mindess, R.J. Gray, A. Bentur: The Science and Technology of
Civil Engineering Materials, Prentice Hall, New Jersey 1998, ISBN: 0-13659749-1

BIWO-02: Continuum Mechanics, Tensor Calculus (Prof. Zastrau / Dr. Schlebusch)

1 Introduction
2 Mathematical preparation
2.1 Tensor algebra
2.2 Tensor calculus
3 Kinematics of Deformation
3.1 Deformation and motion
3.2 Kinematics of local deformations
3.3 Decomposition of deformations
3.4 Strain measures
3.5 Strain rates
4 Balance Equations
4.1 Conservation of mass
4.2 Conservation of linear momentum
4.3 Conservation of angular momentum
4.4 First law of thermodynamics
4.5 Second law of thermodynamics
5 Constitutive Equations
5.1 Elasticity
5.2 General requirements on the strain-energy function
5.3 Isotropy
5.4 Elastic material models
6 Initial-boundary-value problems
7 Variational principles
Prerequisite Knowledge
- Good knowledge in mathematics.
o Algebraic structures
o Vector spaces and linear transformations
o Finite-dimensional vector spaces and matrices
o Normed spaces and Inner product spaces
o Basics on linear operators
o Functions of real variables
o Differentiation
o Differential operators
o Integration
o Integral theorems
o Differential equations
- Good knowledge in statics and strength of materials
o Kinematical equations of motion
o Analysis of stress and strain states
o Equations of equilibrium
o Equations of compatibility
o Generalized Hookes law
o Strength hypotheses
o Basis energy principle
Topics of Project and Master Thesis
- See topics offered by the Institute of Mechanics and Shell Structures

- A. Bertram: Elasticity and Plasticity of Large Deformations. An Introduction.
Springer, Berlin, 2005
- R. Bowen: Introduction to Continuum Mechanics for Engineers.
( )
- M. Itskov: Tensor Algebra and Tensor Analysis for Engineers, Springer, Berlin,
- G.A. Holzapfel: Nonlinear Solid Mechanics: A Continuum Approach for
Engineering, Wiley, Hoboken, 2000

BIWO-03: Energy Methods, Finite Element Method (Prof. Kaliske)

1 Elements of Variational Calculus
1.1 Basic Problem
1.2 Approximative Solution
1.2.1 Concept of the Ritz Method
1.2.2 Concept of the Galerkin Method
1.2.3 Comparison of the Methods
2 Principle of Minimum of Total Potential Energy
2.1 Strain Energy
2.2 Work of External Forces
2.3 Principle of Minimum of Potential Energy
2.4 Evaluation of Principle of Minimum of Potential Energy
2.4.1 Extract Solution
2.4.2 Approximate Solution
2.5 Galerkin Method
3 Energy Stability Criteria
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Application of Energetic Stability Criteria
3.2.1 Beam under Compression
3.2.2 Exact Solution
3.2.3 Approximate Solution
3.3 Buckling of a Plate
3.3.1 Energy Method
3.3.2 Solution of Differential Equation
4 Introduction to Finite Element Method
4.1 Literature
4.2 Classification
4.3 Interpretation of Fem
4.4 Direct Stiffness Method
5 Elements of Tensor Calculus
5.1 Literature
5.2 Introduction
5.3 Vector in 3D Space
5.4 2. Order Tensor
5.5 4. Order Tensor
6 Development of FEM
6.1 Derivation via Minimum of Potential Energy
6.2 Derivation via Galerkin Method
7 Shape Functions, Elements
7.1 Truss Element
7.2 Beam Element
7.3 2D, 3D Elements
7.4 Isoparametric Elements
8 Element Vectors, Element Matrices
9 Numerical Integration
10 Global System of Equations
10.1 Assembling
10.2 Solution of Linear Systems of Equations
11 Convergence
12 Physical Nonlinearity
13 Nonlinear FEM

Prerequisite Knowledge
- Basics in structural analysis like beam and plate bending theory
Topics of Project and Master Thesis
- Numerical investigation of fracturing in wooden beams
- Mechanical analysis of polymeric structures
- Investigation of biomechanical components
- G. Holzapfel: Nonlinear Solid Mechanics, Wiley, Chichester, 2000
- J.N. Reddy: Energy Principles and Variational Methods in Applied Mechanics,
Wiley, Hoboken, 2002
- O.C. Zienkiewicz, R.L. Taylor: The Finite Element Method, Butterworth,
Oxford, 2005

BIWO-04: Software Engineering (Prof. Scherer/Dr. Reuter)

Contents of part Numerical Methods (Dr. Reuter)
1 Introduction to Numerical Analysis
- types of algorithm
- stability of algorithm
- condition of problems
2 Programming with Fortran 90/95
- structure of a program
- basic elements
- declaration of variables
- arithmetic and logical operators
- conditional statements and loops
- input and output
3 Linear Algebra
3.1 Vector calculus
3.2 Matrix calculus
3.3 Systems of linear equations
3.4 Specific eigenvalue problem
3.5 Generalized eigenvalue problem
4 Systems of nonlinear equations
4.1 Bisection method
4.2 Secant method
4.3 Regula falsi method
4.4 Newtons method
5 Numerical integration
5.1 Quadrature rules based on interpolating functions
5.2 Monte Carlo integration (simulation)
6 Approximation
- function approximation
- approximation of discrete data
- interpolation vs. regression analysis
- polynomial interpolation vs. spline interpolation
7 Computer graphics
7.1 Coordinate transformation
7.2 Projection
Prerequisite Knowledge
- Basics in differential calculus, integral calculus, and linear algebra
Topics of Project and Master Thesis
- In general: - Efficient meta-model based methods for global sensitivity
analysis of complex non-linear systems
- In particular: - Evaluation of different factors effecting neural networks as
function approximators
- Evaluation of the influence of neural network architecture on
sensitivity measures
- R. Kress: Numerical Analysis, Springer, New York Berlin Heidelberg, 1998

D. V. Griffiths, I. M. Smith: Numerical methods for engineers a programming

approach, Blackwell Scientific, London, 1991

BIWE-01: Design of Concrete Structures

BIWE-02: Design of Masonry Structures (Prof. Jger / Dr. Ortlepp)

1 Introduction - Behaviour of Masonry
2 Codes and Literature for masonry
2.1 Codes and verification methods internationally compared
2.2 Design and verification models
3 Building materials for masonry
3.1 Units
3.1.1 Material
3.1.2 Compression strength
3.1.3 Tensile strength
3.1.4 Dimensions
3.1.5 Density
3.1.6 Denotation of the units
3.1.7 Test methods
3.2 Mortar
3.2.1 Lightweight mortar
3.2.2 Thin layer mortar
3.2.3 Additives
3.2.4 Test methods
3.3 Reinforcement
3.3.1 Steel
3.3.2 Glass, carbon fibre and others
4 Material behaviour
4.1 Load bearing behaviour
4.2 Deformation behaviour
4.3 Material laws for description
5 Modelling and analyses of masonry structures
5.1 Engineering methods
5.2 Numerical analysis
5.2.1 Principle strategies
5.2.2 Smeared modelling
5.2.3 Micro modelling
5.2.4 Modelling with distinct elements
5.3 Static and dynamic analyses
6 Verifications concepts
6.1 Semi-probabilistic safety concept
6.2 Reliability of failure and the verification of the safety index
6.3 Existing structures
6.4 In-situ testing
7 Advanced chapters of structural masonry
7.1 Nonlinear behaviour and stability problems
7.2 Failure mechanism
7.3 Behaviour and verification under earthquake loads
7.4 Fire action and modelling
8 Experimental methods
8.1 Testing of building elements
8.2 Scaled models
8.3 Static and dynamic loading
8.4 Evaluation of test results
9 Assessment and strengthening of existing buildings

9.1 Principles
9.2 Building pathology
9.3 Analyses
9.4 Evaluation and enhancement of load bearing capacity
Prerequisite Knowledge
- Basics in Building Materials, Continuum Mechanics and Energy Methods,
Finite Element Method
Topics of Project and Master Thesis
- Numerical investigation of basement walls
- Lateral loaded walls and their behaviour
- Testing of initial shear strength - comparison of different methods
- Verification of Wall-Floor-Junction with partially rested floor plates
- Reliability studies
- Jger, W. et al.: Structural Masonry. Manuscript. TU Dresden 2009
- Jger, W.: Historic Masonry. WIT Press Southampton 2011

BIWE-03: Timber and Lightweight Structures (Prof. Stroetmann, Prof. Haller)

1 Steel and membrane structures
1.1 Stability of steel structures
1.1.1 Lateral flexural buckling
1.1.2 Lateral torsional buckling
1.1.3 Plate buckling
1.2 Fatigue design of steel structures
1.2.1 Fatigue straight curves
1.2.2 Fatigue resistance
1.2.3 Miners summation
1.2.4 Equivalent constant amplitude stress range
1.3 Cable and membrane structures
1.3.1 Cable structures and cable types
1.3.2 Calculation of cable structures
1.3.3 Membrane structures and design
2 Timber structures
2.1 Historical structures in Japan
2.1.1 Reconstruction of a Japanese Temple
2.1.2 Rehabilitation of a Japanese Temple
2.2 Building construction in wood
2.2.1 Construction methods
2.2.2 New materials in wood construction
2.2.3 Timber concrete composites
2.2.4 Multistorey buildings
2.2.5 Examples
2.3 Space structures in wood
2.3.1 Formfinding Methods
2.3.2 Construction methods
2.3.3 Examples
2.4 Wood modification
2.4.1 Thermo-hygro-mechanical behaviour
2.4.2 Densified wood
2.4.3 Heat-treated wood
2.4.4 Outlook
2.5 Selected topics of wood research
2.5.1 Moulded wood principles and behaviour
2.5.2 Textile reinforcement in wood construction
Prerequisite Knowledge
- Mechanics, theory of structures, differential equation method, mechanical
behavior of steel, basics in design of steel structures
- Mechanical and physical behavior of wood, basics in design of timber
Topics of Project and Master Thesis
- Stability of steel structures
- Sustainable use of steel
- Construction and design with high strength steels
- Vernacular wooden buildings in your country
- Experimental study on structural timber

- Trahair, N.S.: Flexural-Torsional Buckling of Structures. Publisher: Taylor &
Francis Group (Jun 1993)
- Da Silva L. S., Simoes R. and Gervasio H.: Design of steel structures. ECCS
Eurocode Design Manual, Publication by Ernst & Sohn (1st Edition 2010)
- Nussbaumer A., Borges L. and Davaine L.: Fatigue Design of Steel and
Composite Structures. ECCS Eurocode Design Manual, Publication by Ernst &
- Seidel M.: Tensile Surface Structures. A Practical Guide to Cable and
Membrane Construction: Materials, Design, Assembly and Erection.
Publication by Ernst & Sohn (2009-03)
- J. Natterer, T. Herzog, R. Schweitzer, W. Winter, M. Volz: Timber construction
manual, Birkhuser, 2004

BIWE-04: Advanced Geotechnical Analysis (Prof. Herle)

1 Basic soil mechanics and foundation engineering
1.1 Soil investigation, index properties, groundwater flow
1.2 Mechanical properties of soils (compressibility, consolidation, shear strength)
1.3 Theoretical solutions of geotechnical problems (settlement, bearing capacity,
earth pressure, slope stability)
2 Case studies with classical solutions
2.1 Settlement calculations (Mexico City, grain silo, Radbuza embankment)
2.2 Time-dependent settlement (Kansai airport)
2.3 Bearing capacity (Transcona elevator)
2.4 Slope stability (Dykes in Netherlands)
3 Constitutive modelling of soils
3.1 Elasticity (linear, nonlinear), perfect plasticity
3.2 Hardening plasticity (Cam Clay models)
3.3 Drained versus undrained behaviour
4 Macroelement models
5 Role of constitutive models in case studies
5.1 Excavation collapse (Nicoll Highway)
5.2 Settlements due to tunnel excavation
Prerequisite knowledge
- Basics in structural analysis and continuum mechanics
Topics of Project and Master Thesis
- see Annex
- Verruijt, A.: Soil Mechanics. Delft University of Technology, 2010,
- Clayton, C.R.I; Matthews, M.C., Simons, N.E.: Site investigation. Blackwell
Science, 1995, see
- Muir Wood, D.: Geotechnical Modelling. Spon Press, 2004
- Puzrin, A.M., Alonso, E.E. And Pinyol, N.M.: Geomechanics of Failures,
Springer, 2010
- Plaxis: Material models manual, see ( Support

Annex BIWE-04
Topics of Project and Master Thesis
Comparison of different boundary value problems using advanced constitutive
In geotechnical analysis the simple elasto-plastic constitutive model with the failure
condition of Mohr-Coulomb is widly used. However, the use of this constitive model
can only be justified for simplified boundary value problems. Advanced constitutive
models, which provide a much better approximation of soil behaviour, are sparely
used. This project shall provide a contribution to the understanding of the influence
of different constitutive models on numerical results.
The key issue of the project is the analysis of typical geotechnical problems
(excavation of a construction pit, tunnel construction, embankment) with different
constitutive models using the finite-element-method. Prior to this, the influence of
different constitutive
parameters should be assessed in element tests. The calculations will be done for
both fine-grained as well as coarse-grained soils and different initial states (overconsolidation ratio, void ratio).
Residual shear strength of fine grained soils
Shear strength of fine grained soils can dramatically decrease for large shear
displacements. However, it is difficults to observe this effect in traditional laboratory
apparatuses where the shear displacement is limited. A serious of ring shear box
tests will thus be compared with the results from translational shear box apparatus.
Large scale model experiments for the determination of earth pressure due to cyclic
wall movements
Many buildings exhibit lateral cyclical movements with respect to the ground. Typical
examples are lock-chamber walls during cyclical filling and emptying the lock or
bridge abutments due to changing traffic loads and temperature-induced changes in
Investigations should be carried out using an existing large-scale test
apparatus.Based on preliminary investigations, selected factors should studied
systematically. Particle image velocimetry will be used as an optical method for the
observation of deformations.
Simulation of Laboratory Expriments using Discrete Element Method
Discrete element method (DEM) is nowadays increasingly used in geomechanics for
the simulations of granulate materials. This method simulates single grains as stiff
elements with particular models for their contacts. Simulations with the open source
software YADE
( should be performed, focused on following:
Generation of specific initial conditions
Simple simulations with small number of particles

Simulations of laboratory experiments as triaxial test or oedometer test

Parametric study:
- Variation of particle size distribution
- Variation of density
- Variation of element characteristics

BIWE-05: Structural Use of Glass (Prof. Weller)

1 Glass houses
2 Material glass
3 Functional glazing
4 Glass design
5 Material appropriate design process
6 Glass failure and visual effects
7 Built examples
8 Codes and testing
9 Design (e.g. horizontal, vertical, overhead and walk-on glazing)
Prerequisite Knowledge
- Basics in structural analysis and material behavior
Topics of Project and Master Thesis
- Numerical and experimental investigation of fracturing glass panes
- Numerical and experimental investigation of bonded glass fixings
- The Institution of Structural Engineers: Structural use of glass in buildings.
ISBN 1 874 266 5147.
- Schittich et al: Glass construction manual. ISBN 3 764 381 221

BIWE-06: Resilience during Extreme Events (Prof. Graw)

1 Objectives of hazard studies and public acceptance of risks
2 Stochastic methods, failure statistics and risk
3 Physical background, hydraulic and geotechnical properties of models and
application conditions
4 Identification of variables and processes
5 Hazard prognosis, risk deduction, vulnerability reduction and resilience
6 Application to case studies in hydraulic engineering and geotechnics
7 Numerical calculations using hydromechanics and geotechnical software
Prerequisite Knowledge
- Basics in hydraulic engineering and geotechnics.
Topics of Project and Master Thesis
- Numerical investigation using hydromechanics and geotechnical software
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BIWE-07: Computational Building Physics (Prof. Grunewald)

1 Indoor climate design
1.1 Basics
1.2 Heat transport and storage
1.3 Radiation and convection
1.4 Environmental and indoor loads
1.5 Human comfort and indoor air quality
1.6 Calculation of thermal indoor climate
1.6.1 Theory
1.6.2 Thermal room climate simulation software
1.7 Indoor air humidity
1.8 Whole building simulation
1.8.1 Building physical model development
1.8.2 Simulation software
2 Coupled heat and moisture transport in building envelopes
2.1 Moisture transport and storage
2.2 Moisture buffering
2.3 Hygrothermal simulation software for building construction
2.4 Durability aspects and assessment of moisture damages
Prerequisite Knowledge
- Sufficient and applicable knowledge in the basics of building physics
- Basic knowledge in numerical methods
Topics of Project and Master Thesis
- Energy optimization of buildings in hot climate zones by use of whole building
simulation software
For program downloads and literatures check:

BIWE-08: Multi-Scale Mechanics (Prof. Zastrau / Dr. Richter)

1 Introduction
2 Some basics in the mechanics of solid continua
2.1 Tensor calculus
2.2 Kinematics of deformations and equilibrium of solid continua
2.3 Generalized Hookes law and material symmetry
3 Fundamental concepts of multiscale mechanics
3.1 Averaging of stresses and strains
3.2 Overall elastic properties
3.3 Stress and strain concentration tensors
3.4 Concept of representative volume elements (RVE)
4 Elastic solids with micro-inclusions
4.1 Prescribed macro-stress
4.2 Prescribed macro-strain
4.3 Elastic bounds
4.4 Eigenstrain and eigenstress tensors
4.5 Overall elastic properties: dilute distribution
4.6 Overall elastic properties: effective field theory (Mori-Tanaka method)
4.7 Overall elastic properties: effective medium theory (self-consistent method)
4.8 Examples
4.9 Concluding remarks
5 Elastic solids with micro-cavities and micro-cracks
6 Outlook, remarks on further developments in multiscale mechanics
6.1 Numerical methods
6.2 Periodic and random microstructures, unit cells
6.3 Inelastic material behavior
Prerequisite Knowledge
- Good knowledge in mathematics, tensor calculus and continuum mechanics.
Successful participation in module BIWO-02
- Basics in finite element methods
Topics of Project and Master Thesis
- see topics offered by the Institute of Mechanics and Shell Structures
- S. Nemat-Nasser, M. Hori: Micromechanics: Overall Properties of
Heterogeneous Materials, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1999
- H.J. Bhm: A Short Introduction to Basic Aspects of Continuum
Micromechanics, Wien, 1998 (3)
( )
- T.I. Zohdi, P. Wriggers: Introduction to Computational Micromechanics,
Springer, Berlin, 2005

BIWE-09: Computational dynamics and safety concepts (Prof. Kaliske/Prof. Graf)

Computer-oriented structural dynamical analysis:
1 Single degree of freedom system in time- and frequency domain
2 Multi degree of freedom system, natural vibrations, continuous systems
3 Numerical simulation in time domain
3.1 Modal Analysis
3.2 Central-difference-method, Newmark-method, time step integration methods
3.3 Integral transform
4 Applications, earthquake analysis, systems identification
Safety of structures, safety forecasting and risk assessment:
1 Limit states and failure of structures
2 Concepts for description of data uncertainty and safety
3 Random based safety analysis
3.1 Level 3-Analysis: random vectors, integral formulas for probability of failure,
relation between failure of system and of elements
3.2 Level 2-Analysis: relation between probability of failure and reliability index, 1st,
2nd order reliability theory
3.3 Level 1-Analysis (semi-probabilistic): kinds of partial coefficients for safety, usual
sizes of partial coefficients of safety in the codes
4 Model-based and model-free forecasting strategies
Prerequisite Knowledge
- Good knowledge from mathematics, continuum mechanics, energy and finite
element methods
Topics of Project and Master Thesis
- Numerical investigation of dynamical structures
- Argyris, Mlejnek: Dynamics of Structures, North-Holland.
- Meskouris: Structural Dynamics, Ernst & Sohn.
- Thoft-Christensen: Reliability and optimization of structural systems, Springer

BIWE-10: Modelling and Simulation in Pavement Engineering