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SLOSSARY OF LITER fae ARY TERN ea ee Ny ; ~-suatay Jo xapuy or WISE pue aInyeI93"] JO SBHODKLL, WIPO, sesemay, ATEN ** 2pUOY DH) 0} BION anlar Blecrog per) oeacosye UN 3m BF PSHE ‘2890-26 soqu anBoreneD ss912400 Jo Asa 5-2860S0-£0-0:NaSt (epi0u ui) 1000-£69-008-1 20 '62¥¥-78.-008-1 (ace “opuio ‘seia ogre ¥ag £29 ‘ypmouEsof aoe noose, 2710 0 PPV ISL Xu. UON HO “ous sng ans soeuMED T0¢ “p"OuENOf eIG UOTE uspundsenee irucnra ny) sey “29878 14 ‘OpUELO OL Ing SI>USTIDA “PHOUEADL song yncoiey juauniedag suoysjuag 0} NYRR AVS H3ONOd TIVGNAL 3NVE SAVITHM VIEONY AATINUL NOTSH/NOLUIAVD INLLSNIH vaUNaSOU TAVHOIN, ZIOHHONS Gal wanotsaa xoo8 IOVNW NOUDNGOw wouda 1941084 SUONIGH TWINaWOTaAS woulda SNOUISINDOY HINO NIYOUGH, pe This book defines and discusses terms, critical theories, and points of view that are commonly applied to the classification, an pretation, and history of works of literature. The discussions and the further reading are orlented especially toward undergraduate students of English, American, and other literatures; over the decades, however, the book has proved to be a useful reference work for advanced students as well. "The Glossary is organized as a series of succinct essays in the alphabetic order of the title word or phrase. Terms that are related but subsidiary, or that designate subclasses, are discussed under the title heading of the primary or ‘generic term, and words that are commonly used in conjunction or as mutually defining contraries (distance and involvement, empathy and sympathy, narrative and rnarrotology) are discussed in the same essay. The alternative organization—a dic- onary of terms defined singly—makes dull reading and requires excessive repe- tution and cross-referencing; it may also be misleading, because the application discursive way of treating more or less technical terms provides the author with better opportunities to write discussions that are readable as well as useful. In each essay, boldface type indicates the terms for which the essay supplies the principal discussion; italics identify other terms that are used in the essay but are ‘treated more fully elsewhere in the Glossary. the rapid and incessant changes in the literary and critical scene, to take into account new books in literary history and criticism, and to take advantage of the essays have been rewritten, and in the section entitled “Modern Theorles of Liter (pp. 223-286), which describe and date the innovative theories and procedures of the last six or seven decade Sions are designed to make the expositions ss clear and precse as posible nd also to enlarge the range of references and examples, especially of writings by ‘women and by cultural minorities that have recently achieved prominence. In vil -wsPonHD pure ammyes yuapmys parapyaiog wayo yn rao Ue sem | ‘syenpesSiopun ue se ‘dou 2Iqenyea YSour PUNO} 2aey PInOM | yetp oogpuEY 30 Pury ayp aytzm oy :uOTIpa eUIZUO axp uw} PaouNoUUE [eO8 ayy 01 J9s0I> u09 aur padjay aney s339408-09 pure ‘sasjape ‘SpuBHY asauh TY “UoIstAar STI Postaradns pue paeShsur ae) urjeyun yng ssoUUY YIM aaey YDTAOURAOL ssuiag. Jo xapuy ayy Bupnpord pue SuruturEr% dns uewnpef uous, oss2001d piom pue “10Up> payp pue quaned ‘2iqesuadstpur uaaq sey ssuiag at Modes ue Soast ame Suouy uf sine Jo ae peorg yo suonans on oss den payoud sey sou fovea WORDS sal, sjuawi8paymouyoy “Armssopy ayn Jo 1x91 ayy UT Sa2UBzaFAr Pur ‘suOFSsNdsTp SUITE] ay yuouraiddns deur r9sn Uuo}sea00 auy se “Yorum uo peplaord uaag aaey .'SW2], eUORIPPY,, pareqe] ‘aBled Jo LoqUIU e xopUT aU JO PUD au IV TONED pu “Lot ps Teap yeu sesso Aueur ayy pur ‘sank Ase J0 40 afunSuny anyrounSy jo sadAy ssnosip pue auyap yey sajua ayezedas aun 2145 Jo sisdqeue at 0} Jueadpax you SuD atp ‘uspNND AzerAL| Jo sua -2aout pu sodA ser ed iin Teap TEU kes 93 40] “Apis 3 oalqns 20 953 a9 ans 30q Yeo sia] 29630] OJP at 30} Ae 2 Jo oneioidxa Jaq aun yuapmys ath 405 spodaa soouorajax etvaus asauy, "peas sop ave yxy su) andfee 30 apecs Jo as, € pata catddhs are sway aaysnppuy pus [eisus8 avout auf Jo 2W0s “pu au By “su. Joxapuy at yo afd sng ays wo st fapind asain ot At a -sounuoid 0; sopm pays dq pamoyo} are yuapnis ¥ Aq paotinouoid et (who UI UBfoxoy Aurea) aap att sun 230 , Anua ain s9pun pars ae ,aIpored, pu ,soipored, o ti0} paypout e aq feu Anja peje ‘dxepuonst 8 &q 0} pauaja: plow 247 eu) BON “2anDeId [eonND jeMAse UL aun dew amp Sjuep pur Ainduox> 0 anras youn sKessa Jao ut s20uauII20 ‘sioquunu afed axa 4q pasoyioy ssi #09138 UoIS -Snosip jediouud stp jo zaqumnu afed ayn ‘S0eypjoq Ut ‘pul Il s19pea! ‘apy a ul "essa asaif Jo Apo axa urthise passMostp pure paUjap axe sua) 30 J9q -Aunu Jo8se| ape} Aq ‘Stuza-9pH saUA Jo wopIO aHaqeUdye auy Ut are D880! aup uy shesso ayeredas au uSnounty “oumnjos ati jo pua ay 3e suns Jo xopuy aqeydre aq ut dn foo] skeaye‘asesyd 0 puor Arex9}|® puy OL Aavssoyp at) 2S: 0) MOH jruaid an surg so oy ayy ‘uon2y daeyuouncop ‘Sayprys rar “wsyouspeu porno Super sua ‘aut 1aUYO Jo saquINU e ‘UOR ‘ueip rayjo sofenfiugy uy paystand fr dn wgnonq pu paseo uoog sey sure outs Joe ayn dese toes ‘To find a literary word or phase, always look it up in the alpha- betic Index of Terms at the end of this volume. Although the separate essays in the Glossary are in the alphabetic order of their title-terms, by far the larger umber of terms are defined and discussed within the body of these essays. For explanations of the typographical cues utilized in the text, refer to the sec- tion of the Preface entitled “How to Use the Glossary.” Absurd, Literature of the. The term is applied to a number of works in drama and prose fiction which have in common the sense that the human, condition is essentially and ineradicably absurd, and that this condition can bbe adequately represented only in works absurd. Both the mood and dramaturgy of abs early as 1896 ture has its root ity were anticipated as the King). The ltera- in an at least partially-in that they may be capable of heroism and dig re was a widespread ten- dency, esp ilosophy of men of letters, such a3 Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, to view a human being as an iso- to an alien universe, to conceive the universe as th, value, or meaning, and to represent human ‘As Camus said in The Myth of Sisyphus (1942), Im a universe that is suddenly deprived of illusions and of lght, man of Absurdity. Or as Bugdne lonesco, a I ‘ut off from his religious, metaphy lost; all his actions become senseless, absurd, ture of the grotesque, with whom they sometimes think they remember that they may have an appointment; as one of them remarks, “Nothing happens, nobody comes, ¢ play is “absurd” ly of the traditio e, but of the conventions and generic di tional drama, and even of its own inescapable participation in the dramatic If payviouny aansopas y souapezecT wa{qns ay Vo syooq 0} apin ye 0 30URBIBWUD 31 JO SUOR, 961) MsPHDINSEY “YOsUUOL “A jes plug (ZS61) afoul aueuoy ‘apoio queds {(sz61 parundas ‘sp61) aamuoapy suamnsey ayy 4UReD Wet 103 19}94 1040) £104} DUE a2u2pD>2p B95 'sjusTUdOTaAap Pa on aur yo Azoayy Avesayy aup UF se [9M se ONT “SL PUR ‘WIN “a “1 ‘syea, “f°. 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In an essay published in 1946, W. K. Wimsatt and Monroe C. Beardsley defined the affective fallacy as the error of evaluating a poem by its effects—especial ‘emotional effects—upon the reader. AS a in his influential Principles of Literary Criticism (1923), that the val ‘poem can be measured by the psychological responses of its readers. Beardsley trine becomes a claim for objective describe the effects of a work upon himself, but concentrates upon the analy- sis of the features, devices, and form of the work by which such effects are contemporary England. (2) The allegory ral characters represent abstract concepts and the plot ies a doctrine or thesis. Both types of allegory may either be sus- cally as the son born of 1667), sein the second type, the sustained allegory of ideas, i specified by the names given to characters and places. Pilgrim's Progress allegorizes the Christian doctrines of how the character named Christian, warned by Evangel Coles Despair, and passes through places like the Slough of Despond, the Valley of the Shadow of Death, and Vanity Fair. A passage from this work will indicate the nature of an explicit allegorical process as they were erossing the way of each other. The Gentes ‘Mr-Worldly-Wiseman; he dwelt in the Town of Carn hard by from whence Christian came, Works which are primasily nonallegorical may Introduce allegorical imagery (the personification of abstract entitles who perform a brief allego cal action) in short passages. Fam! tances are the openiny Milton’s L’Allegro and II Penseroso (1645). This device was exploited esp in the poetic diction of authors in the mid-eighteenth century. An exampl so brief that it presents an allegoric tableau rather than an action—is the pas- sage in Thomas Gray's “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard” (1751): (Can Honour’s voice provoke the stent dust, (Or Fatty soothe the dull cold ear of Death? Allegory isa narrative strategy which may be employ form ot gente. The Pilgrim's Progress is @ moral and religious allegory narrative; Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene (1590-96) fuses moral, reli- ical, and political allegory in a verse romance; the third boo Jonathan Swift's to Laputa and Lagado (1726), is an allegorical satie directed mainly against philosophical J *Ode on the Poetical Character’ and power of the poet's creative imagination. Jo of allegory throughout his ode “To Autumn” (1826), most explicitly in the magnificent second stanza, which represents autumn personified as @ female figure amid the scenes and activities ofthe harvest season. Sustalned allegory was form in the Mid duced masterpieces especially in the mod: narrator falls asleep and expe fourteenth century, Dante's Di Chaucer's House of Fame, and ‘jneteenth-century po Shelley's Prometheus Unbound, and Thomas Hardy's The Dynasty; in the pre- sent century the stories and novels of Franz Kafka can be considered instances of allegory. Various literary genres may be classified as types of allegory, in that they ig, though in varied one coherent set of circumstances whic ignify a second oder of correlated meanings. 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For a special case of the repetition of vowels and consonants in combi- nation, see rhyme, Allusion in a literary text isa reference, without explicit identification, to a person, place, or event, ot to another literary work or passage. In the Elizabethan Thomas Nashe's “Litany in Time of Plague,” Queens have died young and fair, ust hath closed Helen's eye, Troy. Most lusions serve to burnished throne, mode of echoing Shal icent barge in Antony and Cleopatra ‘The barge’she satin, like a burnlsh’d throne, Burn’d on the water, ussion’of a poet who makes persistent and complex use of this see Reuben A. Brower, Alexander Pope: The Poetry of Allusion (1959); John Hollander, The Figure of Echo: A Mode of Allusion in Milton and knowledge that is shared by an lusions are intended to be recog- nized by the S of the author's time, but some are authors, very spec ence, in the awareness that few if any readers recognize them prior to “Lines fom "The Waste Land!” from Collected Poems 1909-1962 by .S Eliot, copyright 1936 ‘by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc, copyright © 1968, 1963 by Z..Elot. Repeinted by per mission of Harcourt Brace Jovanovich and Faber and Faber Lt % they have the advantage of avoiding the pejo- rative association with the word “ambiguity.” ‘When Shakespeare's Cleopatra, exciting the asp to a frenzy, says (Antony ‘and Cleopatra, V. multiple les of meaning throughout his long regan ‘Wake (1989). An example i is comment on gts wno ate “yung and ex freudened" reudened” fuss “Ightened” and "Bed" while “yung” fost young", nd Sigmund Freud's rival in depth psychology, Carl Jung. (Compe ny *Dirnc «ky tlt em ofthe pire age Jacques Dera, is 4 portmanteau noun jescrbes a5 fusing ro'divene meanings of the Rench werd afr "to difer” and "6 defer." (See deconstruction.) speiteg seindog “(Zz-6s61 04 ¥) spetiya Puyo 247 Jo souny youonposy ay, auIpa sey uosuoNg “} pues}ag “suoIsiaa JueHeA UW} Woy} Jo AUeUI ‘speqteR a ys ang seg apy Jo sandy SPS an fg sro sc ol enum yaaa funy “wt puRY{ PIOT,) AroIs ayy saoueApe IMT nq ‘pareadar Sy ezums 10 oui e y>tqss uy ‘words: yeyuswoxoUT (—) pu (11epUEy POT, «‘PleMpa,) ezUEIS YowD WT wjoHaL e pas-pooig, axry saseryd aanduosap ypois 2a saquiduar rafuls axp padipy Uru) semua tos Aza sperreg Kuey4 agautu 30 diyps “somes pin e128 ‘uu parapnyg ain Buried ‘susor Supojuing uy sis Buy ous, -anfoyep azeds pue ‘worisuen dreys ‘wonoe 6 paypiays Anno ‘uonezreu uosrod-paa ka Rupoa00%0 jo Jour ‘pur puooss ay dquo Ajrensn ‘ogonb e si—ezuers petrea 27) rad Jo woIssoudxo ‘uy Jo sueaut 4q surous Aq éyasia A10%s atp str ‘sposida IP aun YpIM suHBaq Z0VeIIeU axp :leuosiadunE pUe “PasuapuoD ‘>TELL jeq seindod au ‘A1eo1GAL, stn0y were Kueun wy sysrx9 4 ‘SUNY ayy ‘ue 1x9) ain tog ur safueyD aonponuy o4 ade st pejfeg [eso Ue seadax pu Sure] ous JaSUIS YDea adUIS pu ‘uMouyLN ‘up st 37 yates 205 ssaurddey 305 a/88nns wewrne, saonpar yorys aouasaud Surpooug pur asuawust ue asuay ays soystqeiss asedsoyeus ‘snonsesyp 40 Surdsszay ([0sqo ‘umoaq aby Yelp suoissa1dx9 pue spiow Jo aunyesOyl uy 28M aly “UHSyeyDay saidey (66521) smpssmy -kenag prey £10 “ystses 09 3230) 4g “hes 2q) Sovextpaus 24 "UU 0} pentose -2uop 249 ut uogosanie da yuouioNd A -qened aun 1.21 3207 9 Jo ad ay, 40 vonduasap sadog jo auit puoras arp 424 pue ‘unos oy 3 ue s9pio seqrusts e ‘5 ey}—msyaqTered Aq paziseydura st yey sasney> 10 sosenyd snonfiquon jo sSurueaws at ut uonisoddo 10 yseniU0D es} SqSSPRUY 1 285 °5 "4 “Pa onaog pur wsppUD Ateoduaquoy ‘uosdury, wo UE “GEL F maHOY moVONOS ayy, ,'SaIPPN luyor as SonDed pus Aioauy s,uosduag Jo 5 os6D) wonunog Sauung 24 ysumaoun, 2 Ul und pUE UOHRROWP pu uo} ‘afessed 10 prom 2 Jo suoneotdx2 Gsovpenuon sauinawos pure ‘wiaespsaa0 ‘snofu yPeas-r9A0 Ul Ynsar [Is saINS|gwe 40} yDseas aaIsuDIUT aU eu ‘uosduurg Aq payriduraxa satan ye S12 94, ‘ssauypy pue Ayprajdusoo ain Jo siapeas Aq ssauareae 3. Upmue uopeoydxa Jo spout v yuauin> ayeu padjar AOU Woaq pel 1841 UOUSIOUAYA Aresay1| ¥ uodN ndiqme sn2od Suyzkfeue ut ‘oyM) uosdiog us pue paweu on lad, such as those sung by lumberjacks, cowboys, laborers, and socal protest- of recent folk singers, from Woody Guthrie to Bob Dylan and ‘most of these, however, such as “The ous gangster and ‘his m« ‘was printed on one side of a single ‘current event or person or issue, and ‘was sung to a well-known tune. Beginning with the sixteenth century, these broadsides were hawked in the streets or at country fairs in Great Britain. England, some of the greates Period: Coleridge's “Rime of the Ancient Mariner” (which, longer and has a much more elabor ancient Matinee 1 stoppeth one of three. 0 and Allan E. Rodway (1957). jaroque is a term applied by art-historlans (at first derogatorily, but now to a style of architecture, sculpture, and painting that rly in the late-sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and then spread to Germany and other countries in Europe. The style employs the classical forms of the Renaissance, but breaks them up and intermingles them, jeve elaborate, grandiose, energetic, and hi term has been adopted with referen it may signify any elaborately for 3 example, some ature, in various apy ‘magniloquent style in Milton's Paradise Lost taoque + eamHos AND ANTICUMAK (1667) and Thomas De Quincey’s prose descriptions of his dreams in Confessions of an English Opium Eater (1822) have both been called baroque. Occasionally—though oftener on the Continent than in England—it serves poet Richard Crashaw, 1612-49. (See under metaphysical conc ‘The term “baroque” is derived from the Spanish and Portuguese name fora peal that srough and Ieguar inshape. yay tent avea\ 1% Bathos and Anticlimax. Bathos Is Greek for “depth,” ani indispensable term to critics has been an 4. the Greek p07 00 in 1727 an / __the gentle downs pola, the ron plus u The waiter oveshoots the mark and crops USSAMONG his examples Pope records "the lovers" in a contemporary poem: ‘Ye Gods! annihilate but Space and Time, ‘And make two lovers happy- The slogan “Bor God, for Country, and for Yale!” is bathetic because it moves to inlended elimax (that is, an ascending sequence of importance) in its thetorical order and referenceDI2\ se YTS UONDY asoud Jo SOM eaqudesforqoyne ded 243 20 “oset wo) pesias wy pausrand ‘sot paid ) aemaid ML ‘aren Uy AydesBorqoine s,yuomspIoM ae saidurexo ' sod se ang ‘vensuyD & se 204 “uoEDOK PU AIUSPE shy Jo Aza Saouane ap Aq paafosar st sisH> ayy YDIKIM UT SYM IeINDIS ze S1IMIO “(9991) sas JoJo 2p a Suppurogy 29015 sjuekung. uo se ypns UojsseAu0> pule ‘sis JO SUOISSajUOD snopaifar are ‘s,aUASNENY axy ‘Jas 2) Jo seuoysTY fenyLIGs sa] sos "uoRe20a sno‘ pue AAUEPY YEATTID sty slaao>syp a4 Lore Ut Azaso2es © pue sisyo yeiuatn paysmnue szoune au :Audefoigoyne wens um apuauadxs fepnn ay auesoq Tey wo srauao dydesBoxqome jonyds a -s pue punojosd sep jo ufsop ay, arquao ypunoy ayn uy ua ‘ouRSnNy 3830 suowsfuec ayy asoyei8 axn jo 900 osfe s Aydexforqoine podo[ssap Airy 3859 a ‘omsog ssuref Jo sjeusnol Amjuao-puTIYs|O ap pue ‘UsTaag uYof pur sddag janwes Jo saurerp Amnyuao-ypusayuanas ax axe adAy 19Ne atf) 3 sordurexy “uojeoqgnd jo 1y8nowp ou 30 apy uae unseafd pz asm feuOs 2d 20} wasn ‘ap Suosind @ wy siaAa axh Jo plooss Kepor-sep ¥ 9 CDI umo{ 10 Axeyp aieaud aya wou ose UE souedeyy put pueisug 1 yeseuorstiony, Aeyy se tus 8 30 sarudesBorq jo 109 “Wont 0} pal self uawow ajqeious uy sarayUy Jo axearsu yua994 94 SH TOE uo ufiy ann jeorydexBorg suo 3se9] 1k st azaIA Aensn pure ‘StHI0} Averaut Jo rejndod sour at jo 240 ausoeq seq 1H BWA UMO InO Ur -s9IKd -esfoig Te Jo ys9yea:8 ax) 2q 02 ploy suepear AUEUI YDTUN “(1621) womUyoL nuns Jo art sqTemsog saurel jo pue (18-6221) sia0g Ysy Sieg 219 Jo saarT Syuosuyof januwes yo Aanyua> au sem 3 ‘ua Arosa [epads e se Atjdeifoig 30 4ioaus 2tp Jo souaSrours aup Jo ose pur ‘Aydexfouq afeoe-msj aun Jo 208 “eid pansinunsip ayp jo 282 aun st pusjdug ur damuso vuostusie SUL "8291 pue OFOT wadaKog ON ‘(uaqIDH aBloap pu autOG tof sisod aun Jo seqydes¥org uous Susp) 5477 syuoatem weer] sj aue}suy \sane—r8 ary Hoomuss mpuaaquadas otf UT paradde Aydexfoig semns3s paqrelap A116} ou ‘punjfug uy 98} wo teu) spua8a snord uo azour yon paseq uoyo ‘sures ‘Uensu Jo seat pazyAas ath ssorudexforSeq se tase se Fung © Jo spsop 3ty Jo s9}2RuoNp pactferauas sox srowne feaaIpoyy “sWalgns UeLOY uo sKed Or SpIO UP/A wo} pue [2 s;arwadsoyeus Jo aosnos aip sea 31 ‘6/ST UT YRUON sewouLL rs Aq HOHE|sUEN, \d Jom Yaa75 au Aq saiqeiou uEWoY pue 10 SOUT fajeuog aUp st afdurexa Bulajasns paures Sou aU, “sjenpaipUL Jo Saat feWOY “oYs pasnpoid sueWoy pue sy9015 JuapUe at Tog ‘saouayodya pur sont -anoe s,o0(qns amp Jo sine] ayy se fom se ‘noqnuy pur ‘juaureraduo, ‘uMos 395 0} rdurayye 2) Barsqoaut /2yH| s,uosrad v Jo unoD2e P sqjouvon Mou oweU ayy, , sont] sua reIMDqHed Jo AsoNsIY auf, se AEDU Aydesforq pauyap vaphiq “dimjua> yuusaquaaas ayy uy aye] “AqdesBorg (6861) uopmisuay ywag a4) Jo _amyuayT aig uo shossqstog yoougdog a, wosuatdays Asoar5 ‘(o96t) 512g mu “wwiny mnowdag {(6961) suouoqung HoH ayy, ‘wordyy aauaLME] 93s “aumyaszyuna> 205 S061 PUR S096T 3 Jo sioi4M Aueut 30 stwu0y pue sl aman“ woseudar ¥y (Aanuao ypussqourU aye] ax -ap J0 anon at axedusop) “sseis99 sno(zyax pue ‘suoreUD ‘uopuege jenxas jo uoneuiquio> e 4q paivajja sasua aun jo quaweSuerap arp Jo uopevasaidar si ul se ats “sarap 87 [e208 ‘oqppe Bnap jo aanoqns axp pur yno-PU Jo woregaya> paiweyp ‘ssayuyeasq £4 ul IuotIOADy 1 joy sBroqsu15 Seno Yoel pu syBnNOLINg UH SU soUBIMeT puE ‘osI0D Aro¥s1F “Baqsulg “21809 payeanMo srayHas yoy ap Jo AUEW) ,21FMe—q, pue (AUN a4) Jo amy aajssauddo ayy Aq “st yeMn) “uoyssoudxo-gjas pue uonez Tupey suen{ jo away Tee PMI ayy yd smug uossa (x1 ¥e-st81) el Ut UN sy 0} asaae 5,269 yeah sop pol ue> yeay ape} etAA jaaes8—ysypIo$ e ysye> 0} pam ays uy pou sty uy Abi seuroU $n Ty ue aaorpe U3 0} pareaoye PUR snouas ax woy doxp ‘K2oye80r9p-UoU s} puR, 1949601 XeUUY> JEOUOIIYE e SUE KUTAWIOS st xeUNTDUY ayeraqitap s,s] v salouap pue AHERIDOM + WROUNY ONY SOKLYS BL ‘Shumaker, English Autobiography (1954); Roy Pascal, Design and Truth ir “Autobiography (1960); Estelle C. Jellinek, ed., Women's Autobiography: Essays James Olney, Metaphors of Self: The Meaning of 1 Selft Studies in English “Autobiography (1981). John N. Mortis, in Versions ‘autobiography fom John feligious and secular spi ism (1971), nacates the fications of the form in philosophy an ;oblographical gente is Blank Verse consists of lines of lambic pentameter(five-stress iambic verse) ‘which are unshymed—hence the term "blank." Of all English verse forms it losest to the natural rhythms of English speech, yet flexible and adaptive ‘has been more frequently and vari- rer blank verse was Books 2 and 4 of ously used than any other type of ve Surrey in. jee form of blank verse is sti plays as those by Max wn used blank verse for his epic Paradise Lost (1667), James ‘descriptive and philosophical Seasons (1726-30), William {for his autobiographical Prelude (1805), Alfred, Lord Tennyson drama; Wordswor for the narrative Idylls of the King (1891), Robert Browning for The Ring ard many dramatic monologues, lit for much yries, from the k verse, incl “Sunday Morning.” in blank verse poems, used to set off a sustained pass verse paragraphs. See, for example, the great verse par ty-six lines which initiates Milton's Paradise Lost, beginning, wi 's ftst disobedience” and ending with "And justify the ways of God to men,” of the opening verse paragraph of twenty-two lines in Wordsworth’s Tintern Abbey” (1798). ‘See meter, and refer:to Moody Prior's Language of Tragedy (1964). tudy of blank verse in The in that is greatly dispropor- style of even so fine a poet as jppropriate to its sense, as when Faustus 1604 the kingdoms of infernal rule, res (Dr. Faust, [And situation of brightsplendent Rome; oMBAsT + suRLEsQUE ‘Tom Thunb the Great (1731), as in the famous opening of A the diminutive male lover cries: ‘Oh! Huncarnunca, Huncamunea, oh! Fielding points out in a note that this patody was inspired by James ‘Thomeoa's lines in The Tragedy of Sophonisa (1730) Soph hin “Bombast” orig became used as 2 metaphor for an ov stuffing,” and in Elizabethan times orate style Rowdlerize, To expuigate from an edition ofa Iterary work pasages on- silted bythe editor tobe indecent or indeteate The word ceive Reverend Thomas Bowdle, who tied vp his Fal Shakespeare In 1818 by she pu i whatever es” Jonathan Swift's of anthologies for coll elves of Bowdler’s prerogative in editing Chaucer. that is being imitated, incongruously applied, J ;" and “travesty” are sometimes applied inter- changeably; simply to equate these terms, however, critical distinctions. It is better to follow the critics who use “burlesque” as, the generic name ‘and use the other terms to discriminate species of bur- lesque. The application of these terms will be clearer if we make two prelimi- nary distinctions: (1) In a burlesque i tus and dignified but the st ignified, we have “low bi ‘anu aaey opie, oleu, se paxtufoaar APIA aq 0} aus Suey ‘04005 ue ‘sajoyas ‘s9Ry Jo snsuasue> aanemumn w Aa “our SioWRne seOlf on jnbay Sow nq ‘sameray Ueadomng 0 ‘amaes pow ut—aeuisap 0} anos seq oud Azesaqy aseuud aly sepeD9p USI «Teudésode, se pies 10 ayenbapeur aq 03 paipn|souspias wo Yn ite 04 poinquine usaq sours ned ea) 9 arvadsayeys ayy, pue ,toueD Js9ney> aun, Jo smn eOds 99g ousne Bemonued e fq atin A{aunue® se sada Aqpondaaoe Spo» aun Asquais 03 ‘uonesydde Teudipode patapisuo> axe uoue peonigiq SfloueD wewo¥ Sep uy papHpUT ‘u2aq 2ary yates sy0og uaaata ‘eudAsoodu pajte> are ‘uoUeD aqn OvUh 2 JOU Ing ‘samydinng 31 luog Ayoyy auynuad au 8 ara UMM uowEIsAL. MAN BUN PUR aIqIE MaLqaH 21} UI F{OOA y aydde 2q 03 aurea waun ‘anojre9 10 3s1| » aoUap 0} papusyxa sem ‘9[nz € 10 Por Bupnseamr e Huidqusis , WoUry, pioM ysa15 ay, “aaMyE>3F7 30 WOULD (0961) ojouney uy sqpaseg “pa ‘preuocpeN wa HeS61) dpaumg wn samayy raopuy casny aay ayy, “Da ‘TRE “d WOGOH E161) oven pue dpoie, Jo imuag y “spa ‘pseuory "W saW@orouuy “e6l) OSZT-00cT ‘éxsog anbsoume ust $1261) sues Apong pu onbsong Jo doug ‘a {us| sTonsBuosU ue dq eurexp Jo sodAy snowas paysour DIYm shed wos, BOISTY ‘Saaliap WO] Je,EOLN e se ,anbsaTINg, Jo asus LAPOUL IY, + uo} Suyrow pue ‘ues fa Buyin sep, ‘uoum ay uy sdenye ‘suoiuido wg ssuiBoq yoru ‘(comyfupjong Jo ayng aty Ammiodwaquoa s,u2pheq) yuHz Jo woodte, 2assfouaay pause) © sopnppur (T89T) jydompy pus woposay s.xopAact WYO, “sonsuoraesmyp satio 30 sem iyd oanounstp siuosiad e 125, o}ai00 10; ‘suoisip 40 sayeseSexa (ue oiydexS ur se) uondzosap Teqraa e Uy Yoru ‘aameoueo sfoydure Aeoidd 1 “snojnogpts wou sayeustewp fem © Uy Gosed semonzed jo roperey> pue aauemadde stp saquosap yotte om teBu0y & ur afessed 803 0 ‘yz0m feoanes ons e 0; paydde s| woodurey way aL . 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Upryss somuDapestus SupeTUINY pue auepUNUE BuP% aun pul am “raaamoy % 2upDaND aun yo 31098 Paytudip pue spsap Arynop ax Jo peaisu jo sosmuaape auf Buiquosap Aq ws|UE; ‘onbsajang mol yo son=HeA IL run 4 pu “KapypUDG IM UEDTTOMTY (Ns DUE (2161 ‘puro sougsuyd y sty 29s) puefBug UL MYOqarg xeWY UF9q 2424 Ainyuao quasaid axp jo sysiposed payr8 ayy Buoury “anbsaping Jo UHIOy aOR) aun uaeq sey Apo yu XUve9 34) WOH 04 may Ama pay sow peed ‘asied 0) suou aras. “peat shew uoppon nur PATH gTPSUITY YuOMspI0y4 04 sande ay y>ys ,seyq uapponun ayp Buowe YMC, us, suOMspION, WEIL JO wauEIS st} au JO Apored: Supenasaexe (2991) 3s07 aspeuny sox WYO Jo 31s 2482 2x porpored (50Z1) «SumTIUS PIPLTS yBnoupje—soxas ou uaDMI|q, 1a ® ‘Gyys prog uo at remmpeuradns Bu “n> 5,408 aurenb & aappadsiod aida asorpues8 ayy ysnosy saiara adog apseoty “IZ 301 219 Jo adoy au, Jo apaidrayseus & uy “yew yoalans je ang ‘a1ua 243 axp Jo ayAas snow 1 wa0d 210x94-3420UL 10 31d> YOU ¥ anbsojing yfrq Jo sspaueA, ‘anbsoqing Jo sapads Sumo} {day “soyne 40 30m 3 um 0} BuIprOoDe paystNsURSIp aq ose Aewr anbsajsnq, -wol e saie} anbsmune aL 20 canon or ureraruse 185 obscures important differences in the two a 1 canon has been established by church authorities vested with the power to make such a decision, and is enforced by authorities with the power to the canonical list is explicit and closed, permit- consensus; i ject to changes i to, and constantly subjected to, diverse and often con- fequent reference to an author widespread assignment of an author or text in school and col- S ‘and they need (1765) ce to Shakespear sm commonly fixed as a have achieved the prestige, influence, and persistence of referent ther iropean canon; others, including Yeats, ‘Woolf, and Robert Frost seem already secure in their national canons, at least. At any time, the boundaries of a canon remain indefinite, while inside those boundaries some authors are central and others marginal. Occasionally author who was for long on the fringe of the canon, or even out- iets transferred to a position of eminence. A conspicuous recent ‘example was John Donne, who from the eighteenth century on was regarded mainly as an interestingly eccentric poet. T. S. Bliot, followed by Cleanth Brooks and other New Critics 730s and later, made Donne's writings the very paradigm and paradoxical poetry they most admired, and so helped elevate him to prominence in the English canon. (Gee metaphysical poets.) Once firmly established as a central figure, an author le resistance to being disestablished by adverse criticism and changing literary preferences. For example many New Critics, together the place of an author in Discussions of the process of canon formation, and opposition to estab- lished literary canons, have recently become a leading concern in critics of diverse viewpoints, whether deconstructive, feminist, Marxist, or new-his- toricist (see poststructuralism). The debate often focuses on the practical issue of what books to assign in college curricula, especially in required “core courses" in the humanities and in Western civilization. A widespread charge Js that the standard canon of great books, not only in other ethnic of homosexual “to open the ‘working class, of popular culture, civilizations. The frequent demand is multicultural instead of “Eurocentered” the concerns and literary achievements Another demand is “hierarchism"—that ‘opening, but the abolitio - dard canon and its replacement by hitherto marginal and excluded groups and texts. The views of defenders of the standard cano1 range from moderate to extreme. The po: might be summarized as follows. What ‘gender, and other special interests in forming the existing canon, this is from the whole'story. The canon is the result of the concurrence of a great many (often upexpressed) norms and standards, and among these, one cru- lal factor has béen the high intellectual and artistic quality of works themselves and their attested power to appeal to widely shared and lasting human concerns and values. Moderate defenders agree to the desit- ability of enlarging the canon of texts that are required or assigned fre- quently in academic courses in order to make it more broadly representative of diverse ethnic groups, classes, and interests, while pointing out that this ‘would not be a drastic innovation, since the educational canon has con- ly been subject to deletions and additions. 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E. M, Forster, in Aspects of the Novel (1927), introduced popular new 1cy"—the charac- bly grounded in izing detail, and therefore can be fairly adequately described in a single pltase or sentence. A round character is complex in temperament and moti- represented with subtle particularity; such a character therefore any types of narrative, such as in the detective story protagonist usually is two- ‘and Long John Silver do not require, for their ry roles, the roundness of a Hamlet, a Becky Sharp, or “Anatomy of Criticism (1957), Northrop Frye has proposed characters are identifiable variants, more or less indiviewal- ‘zed, of stock types that were inherited from the comic genre are the self-deprecating “eiron, the "senex iratus,” or choleric old father. See stock characters.) A broad distinction is frequently made between alternative methods for characterizing a showing and telling. In showing he author presents the characters talking and acting and leaves ‘and dispositions lle behind what they say and do, In telling, the author intervenes authoritatively il and often to evaluate, the motives and dispositional q ters. For example, in the terse and splendid opening chapter of Pride and Prejudice (1813), Jane Austen first shows us Mr. and Mrs. Bennet as they talk jut the young man who has Just rented Netherfieid Park, then (in the quotation below) tells us about them, and so confirms and expands the inferences that the reader hes already begun to make from what hhas been shown. Mr. Bennet was so odd a mixture of quick parts, sarcastic humour, since the novelistic theory and practice of Flaubert and Henry ritical tendency has been to consider “telling” a violation of artistry and to recommend only the technique of "showing" characters; often said, should totally efface themselves In order to wi » or “dramatically.” Such judgments, hows ‘a modem kind of imitation which is suited to particular n fects, and decry an altemative method of characterization which all, the greatest novelists, until recently, have employed to produce master- Innovative writers in the present century—including novelists from James Joyce to French writers of the new novel, and authors of the dramas and ‘novels of the absurd and other experimental forms—often present the persons in their works in ways which run counter to the earlier way of presenting them so that they will be apprehended by readers as lifelike characters who manifest in what they say and do a consistent substructure of individuality. Recent structuralist critics have undertaken to dissolve even the lifelike char- acters of traditional realistic novels into a system of literary conve and ‘codes which are naturalized by the readers; that i jem to thelr prior conceptions of ind! snceptions, and the resulting interpretations of vincing lfelikenes: rary characters, g structuralist as consisting of nothing more than ‘of cultural stereotypes and conventions. See st Structuralist Poetics (1975), Chapter 9, “Poetics of the Novel.” ‘to plot, On the traditional problems and methods of characteriza- tion, including discussions of showing and telling, see in addition to E. M. Forster (above), Percy Lubbock, The Craft of Fiction (1926); Wayne C. Booth, ic of Fiction (1961), especially Chapters 1-4; W. J. Harvey, Character and the Novel (1966); Robert Scholes and Robert Kellogg, The Nature of ‘Narrative (1966). Chivalric Romance (or medieval romance) is a narrative form which ‘developed in twelith-century France, spread to the literatures of other coun- tries, and displaced the various epic and heroic forms of narrative. (CRomance” originally signified a work written in the French language, hich evolved from a dialect of the Roman language, Latin.) Romances were Bt fitst written in verse, but later in prose as well. The romance is dstin- guished fom the epic in that it represents, not a herolc age of tribal wars, but a courtly and chivalric age, often one of highly developed manners and ts staridard plot is that of a quest undertaken by a single knight in order to gain a lady's favor; frequently tts central interest Is courly love, together with tournaments fought and dragons and monsters sian for the ddamsel's sake; it stresses the chivalric ideals of courage, loyalty, honor, mer- ‘fo an opponent, and exquisite and elaborate manners; and It ‘lights inwonders and marvels. Supernatural events in the epic had theit causes in the will and actions ofthe gods; romance shifts the supernatural to this world, and makes much of the mysterious effect of magic, spels, and enchantments. 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These actor jogue around 2 gi i ‘main characters and the general course of the ical play, a pair of young lovers outwit a rich old father sntaloon"), aided by a clever and intriguing servant (“Harlequin”), in & inch” and other clowns. Wandering alian comedy. See Kathleen M. Lea, Italian Popular Comedy, 1560-1620 (2 vols.; 1934). meaning a concept or image, “con jeech which establish a striking para " came to be the 1" and used it (as we fier of a kind of figurative language. Two types of conceit are inguished by specific names: 1) The Petrarchan conceit is a type of figure used in love poems which had been novel and effective in the Italian poet Petrarch, but became hack- neyed in some of his imitators among the Elizabethan sonneteeis. The figure Consists of detailed, ingenious, and often exaggerated comparisons applied to the disdainful mistress, as cold and cruel as she is beautiful, and to the dis- tresses and despair ofthe worshlpful lover (See cout love) Sit Thomas Wyatt ‘example, in his sonnet “My Galley Charged with Forgetfulness” ted from Petrarch, circumstantially compares the lover's state to ina storm. Another sonnet of Petrarch’s translated by Wyatt liar conceit, an oxymoron describing the simultaneous fever is experienced by a courtly sufferer from the disease of love: 1 find no peace; and all my war is done; | fear and hope: I bum and freeze in ice. Shakespeare (who at times employed this type of conceit himself) parodied some standard comparisons by Petrarchan sonneteers in his Sonnet 130, beginning, 2). The metaphysical conceit is a characteristic figure in John Donne (1572-1631) and other metaphysical poets of the seventeenth century. It was described by Samuel Johnson, in a famed passage in his “Life of Cowley" (1779-81), as “wit” which is 8 kind of disconila concors; a combination of Covery of occult resemblances in things appa heterogeneous ideas are yoked by violen knowledge—commonplace or esoteric, ‘true oF fabulous—for the vehicles of ur Comparisons, whether succinct or expanded, were novel, witty, and at their best startlingly effective. in sharp contrast to both the concepts and figures of conventional Petrarchism is John Donne's "The Flea,” 2 poem that uses a flea who has bitten both lovers as the basic refer- {ts argument against the lady's resistance against an importunate Donne's “The Canonizat the ‘meree and business, through various actual and mythical birds and ax which equates the sexual acts and : Forbidding Mourning”) between the continuing. rel ip of his and his lady's soul, despite their physical parting, and the Coordinated movements of the two feet of @ draftsman’s compass. An ‘Gited instance of the chilly hyperbolic Ingenuity of the metaphysical con: ‘when itis overdtiven is Richard Crashaw’s description, in his mid-seventeent Century poem *Saint Mary Magdalene,” of the tearful eyes of the repentant Magdalene as. Following the great revival of interest in the metaphysical poets during “twentieth century, 2 number of modern poets exploited this type of conceit. Examples are T. 8, Eliot's comparison of the evening to "a patient etherized upon 2 table” in “The Love Song of J. Alfred Pruftock," and the series of startling figurative vehicles in Dyian Thomas’ “In emory of Ann Jones.” The vogue for such concelts extended even to popu- lar love songs, in the 1920s and later, by well-educated composers such as Cole Porter: ‘You're the Cream in My Coffee” and *You're the Top.” ‘Refer to Rosemond Tuve, Elizabethan and Metaphysical Imagery (1947); K.K. 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In drama the confidant provides the playwright with a plau- le device for communicating to the audience the knowedge, racter withoul James also applied he puppeteer manages his puppets. remarks that she is a“ She is, Blackmur, 1934, pp. 321-22). See W. J. Harvey, Character and the Novel (1966). Connotation and Denotation. In literary usage, the denotation of a word its primary significance or reference, such as a dictionary mainly specifies; the range of secondary or associated significances and . Thus “home” denotes the intimacy, and coziness; that is reason real estate agents like to use “home” instead of “house” in their “Horse” and “steed” denote the same quadruped, but nt connotation, deriving from the chivalric or romantic is word was often used. word is only a potential range of sHiared secondary ese connotations are evoked depen which bring into pl ‘meaning of words. In "—a union between human beings—serves lying the word as a metaphor to the union of e which the word occurs also evokes a passage of his “Ode to Charmed magic casements ” to the older form “faery” in order to iquity and of the magic world of Spenser's The Faerie Queene. ‘On connotation and denotation see Isabel C. Hungerland, Poetic (1958), Chapter 1, and Monroe C: Beardsley, Aesthetics: Problems in lasophy of Criticism (1958), Chapter 3. Conventions. 1) In one sense of the term, conventions (derived from the rm for “coming together") are necessary, or at least convenient, between author and audience, for solv: ing the problems in representing reality that are posed by a particular ‘medium. In watching a modem production of a Shakespearean play, for the audience accepts without question the convention by which a stage with three walls (or if it is a theater in the round, with no represents a room with four walls. It also accepts the convention of characters speaking In blank verse instead of prose, and uttering thelr private thoughts in soliloguies and asides, as well as the convention by which actions presented on a single stage in less than three hours may represent events ‘which take place in a great variety of places, and over a span of many years. such a$ the El heroine of Victorian fiction, or the sad young men. novels of the 1920s, smong the conv abrupt reform of the villain at the end of the last act was a common conven- tion of melodrama, Euphuism in prose, and the Petrarchan and metaphysical concets in verse, were conventional devices of style. It is now just as much a lar time and place, are regarded as teal, and character and characterization.) inally a term used in theories of rhetoric, and later in , t0 signify the “finding” of the subject matter by an orator signify innovative elements in a work, contrast to the deliberate * rary models. 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This mode of criticism, jes of literary rgmatic criticism views the work as something which Is con- ‘Sider to achieve certain effects on the audience (effects such as aesthetic pleasure, instruction, or kinds of emotion), and it tends to judge the value of the ts success in achieving that aim. This approech, which largely dominated literary discussion from the vers of Poetry by the Roman Horace (first century 8.c.) through the eighteent Century, has been revived in recent rhetorical criticism, which emphasizes 1 ‘nlistic strategies by which an author engages and Influences af readers to the matters represented in a literary work, as well as by those Sinucturalists who analyze a llterary text as a systematic play of codes which effect the Interpretative responses of the reader. 3) Expressive criticism treats a literary work primasily in relation ‘author. It defines poetry as an expression, or overflow, of utterance of ings, or as the product of the poet’s imagination o ceptions, thoughts, and fee tends to judge the work by or its adequacy to the poet’ indi tate of mind; a ooks in the work for evidences of the particul ences of the author who, consciously or unconsciously, fn it, Such views were developed mainly by romantic critics nineteenth century and remain current in our own time, espe ‘writings of psychological and psychoanalytic critics and in cites of consciousness such as George Poulet and the Geneva School ature as something the audience, or to the environi 4 selfsufficient and autonomous object, or else a5 a world-in- ‘analyzed and judged solely by "intrinsic" criteria such as im, integrity, and the interrelations of its ‘viewpoint was presented in Kant’s Critique of Aesthetic judgment (1790)—see distance and involvement—veas taken up DY Proponents of art for ars sake in the later part of the nineteenth century, Phd has been elaborated in detailed modes of applied criticism by a number of important critics since the 1920s, inchiding the New Critics, the Chicage ‘School, and proponents of European formalism. ‘An esseitial Iiterary enterprise that the ordinary reader takes for grantec {s textual criticism, whose aim is to establish as accurately as possible wh Jn author actualy wrote, of intended to be the final version of each work ‘The textual critic collates (that is, puts side by side for comparison printed texts of a work, together with any surviving manuscripts, in order Getect variant, to trace the changes made by an author at various stages o ‘Work, and to identify and correct sources of error; a varforum edition of a tex Teprins the variants as well as the author's lat version. For problems an Gurent methods, see Fredson Bowers, Textual and Literary Citcism (1959 pur uonesseu if jo ajdis aun pue Ie pur ‘xaq>eIeYp ‘9) Lay 20 ‘Aratsdoud aq pinoys ‘Ur ID} e se ‘uNI09q £61) Aidesfonaia pormiouny 24nz9[95 y :a>uapooaq pu sustoqoH359¥ St algns 24p uo syooq on apmB aandi>sep yeypsn ar 34) pu douposeg “pa “243 ys ue 6261) Jouiid uo Jo alt auras ayy, ‘souaporeq 9961) 0681 a4 Jo Suspoaaq pup Sainsay "pa "WORE ‘emgouay woubig uy 2uapem0C Jo rapt au £61) AuoSy anumuoy 241 ‘Zerg OnE “sopeap ummazyunoo a3 Ut ue spS6r 2th 305 saad jo9g 3 ue wrapOU tnt ‘parweddeas 5 ‘wondassad pafnup uo aouapedaq ayy Jo saseyduua aq, “wosmocy sou Jo swr90d aun pue “(e6eT) puojs ded sty “(t6g1) dou uoyog Jo 21 4soulg ‘suoWAS inyRsY ‘SPIE s095O se UNS sTOLA Aq sO6BT BW Ut UE ‘ouinquims sey uoUrady Jo sursod ayn ut ‘so9gT aun Uy BurwUTag ‘paIssy -jueur aie s2uape5aq{ Jo sansanoe pur ‘spoous ‘seapr au puefdug up aouapead aun Jo siayam Aueur 4q possoidia inuua pure ‘Arapes ‘spmassey ayy sa}ouuod asexyd au “(Kamua 247 Jo pus) apes ap uy aup se UMOUY osye s} porrad sTUL “NEO 34155, junujed 2y3 Jo awos pue ‘pegE UY suEWSANH "x “f Aq UanHM * eBy,) Sumogas ¥ [asou ayy arm sjanpod awa2xd YUDUIAAOUE St. ,"S9SU98 a4) [T8 JO may yaod ysuaN jo sauexeqnxe pue UDk ‘ep uasaud ut sBurpea parsaiiang “(6961 30 SBHODYL WIBPOK, IN Plaeq pue sojnodorquiey sm 22 Soi] pur suIEpY pEZel (OL61) 2pv2y Luowmponuy uy 2 2 s0fey 341 suspAHD ‘BEE “f ‘M.°D PUP VOQIID “Ht " ) wis WON ayD ay ‘eREDOI AUR ido divi] usry2uiy soaysog Jo Laoysigy ¥ -s19n21 Jo ongndey ‘eg sod won a “o8ON 25 ‘wsponpo Amquao-qnanuosn, Asmquao quasar omeay 24 uy weston Arsayey Jo da "y 983039 “Pa “SIAN 1eD}SSKD Jo daooyy, ‘vase UASNY Pue F9[19M4 PUBY OF oste Jafar ‘saypeoudde | Jo s9d4 Uo “(6961) ony, eonUD pun ws uy skossg “siraL YI ue sadQ1, pue “1 1aideud “(ese as '4esso su uy payuaseidar S9U004y \dde pue uorssnosip payieiap 104 ynq]no wrepour Ut yen. josod& 30 “(€861) wspnsD poraeoL wapon Jo anbauo ¥ ‘uuepsyy awor9f pue “(tg61) ammoHrT Ss0joy2s of uon>nponuy @L6N) wspnUD pores Jo sdoung w 4 shed to one another. The doctrine had Its roots in heory, espe: od essay Art of Poetry by the Roman Horace in the Thus comedy must 1 -agedy, and the highe most serious genres (epic and represent characters ‘and humble narrative deta int indecorum of style. For Wordsworth’s he beginning of the nineteenth the high- inversion of tra tice of some Greék playwrights (especial end a drama with a god who was lowered to the stage by a mech apparatus and, by hi Didactic Literature. The adjective “didact give instruction,” is applied to works of expound a branch of theoretical or practi in imaginative or fictional form, a mor or dheme. Such works are commonly distinguished from essentially imagina-~ tive works (sometimes called “mimetic,” or “representational”) in which the ils ae organized and rendered, not in order to present and to enhance their appeal as knowledge or doctrine, but primarily in order to enhance which means “intended to ature which are designed to jowledge, or else to embody, entry B.- tie poern De Rerum Natura ("On the Nature of Things") to expound and make ‘his naturalistic philosophy and ethics, and in the : subject of how to manage erature was didactic In ber of poets wrote georgies (on !) expounding such utilitarian arts a5 shepherding, run- 3g a sugar ‘ion, and making clder. Alexander Pope's Essay on ism and his Essay on Man are eighteenth-century didactic poems on the ‘subjects of literary criticism and of moral philosophy. Such works for the most part directly expound a branch of knowledge or art, or else argue an explicit doctrine by proofs and examples. Didacti however, may also take on the attributes of ima ‘works, by ‘embodying the doctrine in a narrative or dramat enhance its interest and persuasive force, a3 pleasure in the attistry. In the various forms of allegory, ing Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene and John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's the purpose of enhancing and adding force incorporated di ‘a primary determinant of the choice of chi ind the choice of fictional details, The various forms of satire are same era Vi fourteenth-century Divine Comedy to represent, in the major Christian truths and the way to avoid damnation and Paradise Lost (1667) can also be called in his opening invocation, justify the ways of God to men." It will be seen hhece defined, isa technical ‘on and rlot a derogatory term. Some literary masterpieces are didac- Shakespeare's King Lear, Jane Austen's Ba, James Joyce's plots involve moral concerns and imply criteria ‘works “of pure imagination.” jerm_ propagandist literature is sometimes used as the equivalent terature, but it is much more useful to reserve the term for that species of didactic work which patently is written to move the reader to ic attitude toward, of to take direct action on, a pressing, i, or religious issue of the time at which the work is written. examples of such works are Harriet Beecher Stowe's 352; attacking slavery in the South), Upton Sinclair's ‘The Jungle (on the horrors of the unregulated slaughtering and meat-packing Industry in Chicago In 1906), and Clifford Odets’ Waiting for Lefty (1935; a play directed against the strong-arm tactics used to suppress a taxicab dr vvers! union). ‘pafel pur passe, ‘poles 2q ouikys Kus yBnouy soy {ory wag ur uoReDYISIaA Uo sty PaELdWaXD pL PaquDsep tO aH se ‘sojuoypo4s pale aq 0} aUIOD aaey YDIYA “VaTAW WI afqeuea pure UBMOX ATE 38090 305 ues av s9uomkn Yes Yep ofa any JOU sdeHD “OB6I) 19 uy Jo Aydosopmg ayy pun souaipsoy “ anaupsae Jo pue apmaye anauisae aun Jo seq0IKN. sey Jo sula}gO%d 2) ‘snal) sonaygsey Jo 400g wapoy ¥ “pa “lapeY UIAIIW 1) § B0p0UDhs aBeys au) Uo payuas jee uonde aye) 0 ‘waty asnore 04 1ap10 ue Dau ses "AE iG Jo AE oelgns pu Sayeep aL apuaipne au 10 quawaajGaul 70 WORUHUSDL euoROUTS sun ois fOHWD|Te $e se PAYE|SUEN souMoWOS) Dayo TuaWAs ULSD COR WAI UL}ap, JO 1430U09jsyouul wnysony ax paxdepe DaIg a ui—auawtpeyep, 10 ‘2UeIsIp saapear # Jo dalfap axp onuOD sioYnE u2Ium 4q soayaap Suew ax azdjeue 0} osfe ing ‘Te:9Ua8 U} souLadKa Jo almjeu ay 2uyap 0} A{uo 30U pasn uAyO s] ‘aouE) 10 ‘OURS DAAMASSe wsa} ayy WIAD Ares>3| JUBIDN Up ‘OUEISIP YRS JO ,2018ap 19559] 10 IERIE Teeupésd, 0 aap aq se 30} a BULA ‘ata yo apowspaxsné sup 30} lunosoe ai sat Boy sty JO as pire saumyeay ,aanoa{qo, ath 04 IYSITaP Yala Puayre ase YDTHM UE ‘OUIHE USSR amp Due ‘siaBUEP a[q¥stANT Jo 189) pur ‘ArapKUE ix2 AreUIpIO mmo Us9MIaq 3DURK jo ada TAA OWUT ,22UEISIP, Wh jo 730m 10 algo UB januewts} s2V Jo anbyuD sil ul “WOWaAToau] pue s9uEISC “gunideyp ‘(¢s61) afb apuewioy ‘spomey ues4 pur “es61) z ue 1 ‘usppug uy sdessg yeumnol ayy uy jeas9su0d TeID0s pue ‘App8ie| seo Hye aw uo ‘wspAED Buons 10) UI auOD sey saod ang wappns & jo aupsBOp sao1f ‘Taam ‘punautyong Lamuay ypusnasag a, pur sanyea ueminy 3 p ayniuapss aun yo Aamqua> yiuadyuaaas aup uF sudo|aa9p 243 0} Ape ang ‘seane jo Aqpue e 0} parngune sem pue aun 3q 07 way sean Suoure Atyenad ‘a Anas ps 2DA0U dAEt OM UDI WON “UT 96 AITIqISUES Jo UONeDOSSIP e AmN}uaD YUE.) ubaas aun tt, ang, A4IqISUaS ST Pa} swuog » Jo nowdosec, aia ig dpras ¥ ‘abio99 ysiBieg sup “axTeUD Uyol 04 9491 pure ur} 995 48 rate dog- See meter. yerformance in the theater, Drama, The form of composition designed for pe a i In which actors take the roles of the characters, perform the indicated action, ¢ the wri composition is @ play. vs Manfred (181 athens Unbound (1800), ana Hardy's Te Dyas (1908-08, ms For the types and components of plays, see the Index under drama. Shelley's amatic Monologue. A monologue is a lengthy speech by 2 single pe "tom ina py, when a ers a monologue that expresses his or her in monologues such as “S¢ omits the featur are essential joment, John monologue uttered in an ideale station at Gramatc moment. J Donne "The Canontation” and "The Hex” (613), for example, ae dre though very close to the dramatic monologue, lack one argument, rather than reveals in the course of arguing. And al Abbey” (1798) is spoken by one person to cific situation at a significant moment in his logue proper, both because we are invited to identify the speaker with the poet himself, and because the organizing principle and focus of interest is revelation of the speaker's distinctive temperament so much as the evolution of his observation, memories, and thought toward the resolution of an emotional problem. iamatic monologues, and ‘A. Robinson, Ezra Pound, Robert The best-known modern instance is . 's“The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” (1915). See Benjamin Fuson, Browning and His English Predecessors in the Dramatic ‘Monologue (1948); Robert Langbaum, The Poetry of Experience: The Drama ‘Monologue in Modern Literary Tradition (1957); Ralph W. Rader, "The Dramatic Monologue and Related Lyric Forms,” Critical Inquiry 3 (1976); and Adena Rosmarin, The Power of Genre (1985), Chapter 2, “The Dramatic Monologue.” Dream Vision. A mode of narrative widely employed by medieval poets: the narrator falls asleep, usually landscape, and dreams the events he {goes on to relate; often he is led by a gulde, human or animal, and the events ‘which he dreams are at least in part an allegory. A very influential medieval example is the thirteenth-century French poem Roman de la Rese; the greatest of medieval poems, Dante’s Divine Comedy, 1s also a dream vision. In four- teenth-century Engian: Langland’s Piers vogue of the dream allegory dimin- Bunyan’s prose narr reprinted 197% Elegy. In Greek and legiac meter (ate used to refer to the ian Iiterature, “elegy” denoted any poem written in 18 hexameter and pentameter lines); the term was also jects and moods frequently expressed in the elegiac verse form, especially complaints about love. In Europe and Eny word continued able application through the Renaissance: John Donne's Elegies, for example, are love poems. In the cour enteenth century, however, the term elegy began to be usage: @ formal and sustained lament in verse for the 30 ‘suopy puw snuoy wo0d s1 ajdwrexa uy “saquosap afessed a ue ‘sjuswasow ‘ssod ayy yitm uoI sayoaa Ajsnonoidsuo> yom orpedurs épasuayuy sy Jo aouayadxe [emqey UE BUIqEDSEp seat ay ‘a8p1iq & yoddns oy sizadde ypie pouonzodox ue ‘osea “uSuanys ayy axeys Uaaa pue ‘puLM ay ‘is puag wey e UIA 120s ‘sooURP woITeA & ‘u29s 2m uoRe|durayuo> paqiosge AqyBnozoys Uy “ayeWUEUY UDs9 20 “UeUINY wou Jo ‘weumny aq eur 322{q0 a4, 9aKqo TAINO ayp Jo saynquTye araas Ao SUDS UMO s,auO se paDuapiadxa JOU aze UDIYaR jytueuL yDalqo Ue Jo JoAI9sq0 AUN p Yo ,Axpjusyur sou, we Jo 3Inso4 au se paute|dxa A|UOWUOD 51 pue ,"22a{qo ue Oyu saajasino Jo uonDalo1d ArejUnjoauy Ue, se paqlsap uayo st Ayjedwrg “saajaosad ays 10 ay yey suonesuas pur ‘uonou! ‘am -sod ay ut ayedianzed 0} suaas zaasasgo aun IBY BSOP Os st YD! 3DaLGO 10 5H -Aqnedwr se payejsuen, .Sunjynjurg, yo ydaouo> ax padojaaap Aimuad (UBBIUTE stp UT sysHOIp ueULDD “Ayyedueds pow Ayyedury, swaod s ort jexoysed aouessfeuny pue ‘ods pur isis punoriy2eq syuudos TeanED Wu (9961) 4SePIDAT, 5, Dat Jo JOqUUNU ® Soph pes a :eSEPDAT, SOA “P2 'SBPINTEA " 94 01 sosuads ios ano 2p 1 samp AST ysy uy fojouuy uy :ABaqg youoysed 24, “spa “wor “fH pue WaPo PUD iv ‘sor8aya "p&oyy Auwyy :A89)9 9 (9981) ,P,wro00Iq preAz00. Jo autos ‘ramod ‘UDI Yo squDUHD|D yeIMONAS ej UL 40 wnog paaosddesip oym ‘uosuyor januses (6221) wom Jo af7 51 ‘2yeuoqel9 ue 2p n> Aq, UI WYENOU) s,JoWNOW axp Jo UORInjoAd ax 0% [es8=IUT are , suorssaiiip, pajte> ssuinawos yRnowp ‘safiessed yong “¥e-99 soum) sown umo st ‘aouapInoid 10 ‘aIey JO “CTT-99 53 uo ydnws09 aun anoge suonsanb § suraape pue w & ppraudays peop ap jo su uaa sadsey> rousnou aus (¢ ‘wsogas aq 04 wiEnyNe a4 UL POIP somo 10 sydurdu ai yydut 395 ‘Buds (Gre SOU) tnEap s,praudaus ayy pur ‘z2-st soul) ABojouhwy Jeotssep9 woxy sainBiy rayRO 0} aouarajaa wanboys axeU (0) Uo sa08 pue ‘sasnun ayy 2urYoaut Aq sul2aq iay¥ads uA 94L (I suonuaauos aso © osfe Ajjensn sy oyss—susnow ay au ayp pue sUINOW ayy YIOq SIUDs -ardar yptyss ‘A8ap2 jesoysed ayy s1 ABayo au Jo sappadsqns queyodust uy (0981) «APOUOW Y ‘SISIAUL, ysnoID “H *Y Uo ABay9 sty parte> PlourY MOYEN, PUe ,“puaLs paused} & HaAY AUN, YDIA U4 APOUOI nqns a4 Ut (GEOL) «S°PDA1, Siy soquosap wow, UYos “uostad a[Suls e Jo aoUeANIN amp BuIAg Se ParUDs 18ug PIO Bu) se Yons su wud} au AjTeuOIsE0 Uy S.MOPAY “H “mM pul “wENEH InURIY 30 svosduual pIOT ‘payly are Sojdusexg “uonejosuod e uw Suipua dqensn ‘uosad S52 eweannranosmue the snall, whose tender eng hi, Sheinks backward in his shelly cave with pain. ‘Another is the description of the motion of a wave in Keats’ Endymion when heav'd anew Sympathy, as distinguished fom empathy, denotes fello feetinginto the physical state, but feelingalong-with the mental sate and motions of ancther human being, or of nonhuman beings to whom ve attribute human emotions. We “sympathize” for example, with the emo- tional experience ofa chil in his fist attempt to rele piece i pl tay aso “empataize” ashe falters n hs speaking or makes an awkorard ges. ture. Rober Burns “To a Mouse” (1786) isan engaging expression of his quick sympathy with the terror of the “wee, sleeit,coWtin, izous trast’ whose nest he has turned up with his pio. The engagement and contol ofa readers sympathy with hy” toward others sen King Lear, we sympa same play toward the ‘managed by Shakespea and barbarity, was freeing humanity from its ea ity and unexamined tradition, and had opened the prospect of progress, toward a life in this world of universal peace and happiness. (See the idea of ‘progress. For some thinkers the model for "season" was the Inductive proce- dure of science, which develops by reasoning from the facts of experience to general laws; for others (especially Descartes and his followers), the model reason” was primarily geometrical—the deduction of particular truths from clear and distinct Ideas which are known intuit reason.” Many thinkers relied on reason in both these sen: In England, the thought and the world outlook of the Enlightenment are usually traced from Francis Bacon (1561-1626) through John Locke (1632-1708) to late-eighteenth-century thinkers such as Willlam Godwin; in France, from Descartes (1596-1650) through Voltaire (1694-1778) to Diderot and other editors of the great twenty-volume Encyclopédie (1751-72); in Germany, from Leibniz (1646-1716) to what is often d as the highest product of (1724-1808), Kant defined minority" and the achievement of a state of maturity which is exemplified in his “determination and courage to use {his understanding] without the assistance of another.” by “the light of ins. The thoroughgoing deist, however, “revealed religion" —that is, patticular individual or group. The d which, it was claimed, prove their acco the fact that they are to be found in all religions, everywhere, ‘Therefore the basic tenets of deism—for example, that there is diss coverable by reasoning from the creation to the creator, who deserves our Worship and sanctions all moral values—were, in theory, the common ele- ‘ments of all particular, or “positive,” religions. Alexander Fope, without renouncing his Catholicism, expressed succinctly the basic tenets of deism in Prayer” (1738), which begins heroic or quasi-divine figure on whose actions depends the nation, or (in the instance of John Milton's Paradise Last) the human race. ‘There is a standard distinction between traditional and literary epics, The “traditional epics" were written versions of what had originally been oral es6u) Aqaog 21014) pue “Sb6t) wounyy oF 1894 wouy “eamoR “W “D {Co¥61) iq 2) Jo dsoayy 241 ‘Bs0quapams “1 “H “(8Z61) ‘AoUDIMe] “M °M 01 Japa pue 242 Ypout 295 (spalle pouofungs os) squaseidas deqd ayy wip son, “Ipuod jepos aup ‘3da02e 0} Apoasssed wewp JaxpEH ‘azDNUD oF Warp aBemoDu9 uDwWaAjoAuT [eUOROWD 101 ~enpads atp quaaid 0} sea wye siy ‘aanesseU aida Jo Ayanpa{go ayy adeys ax 2 of duaye siy aida pasn ATapias Osfe a8 313141 “soogado pixe Su8uer-opim pue soureu rs ‘uptga ‘xeqUAs poze “iis pue aresoqera pue uoNDIp siy—aydas pues susp ainpayYDTE aida pue yolqns 2i0m04 ayn Jo AaMjewHz0y pue snapuel8 a1p 01 pauonrodord ue Ypaads Areujpio wos} paruRsip AjayeFOquap st YDiges aAIs TeTUOUT “su30 © Uy payexteu st pure ‘eoueuopiad reyuous39 v sy ued aida uy (¢ as 2169 $z9WoH Jo OEE sIy pur ‘suo sno1ouos -d9 auf Jo sa0ueaynuod Asesoy, arp jo azed axon dou yerp asuas aun uy “auTy>eUr alp payteD a5Y SSePOAN aun uy arom squaie jemmeusadns asayy, 3507 anipeung ut sje au pue SID, ‘yesouaf pue s2wWoH Uy spo8 ueIdWisiQ soumUT Ue aye) sfuroq [emeuzadas sampo pi 3807 asipeang “spo ayy Jo awos yo uonssoddo ayy (01 Y9eq eu SHI UO sNassKPO Jo SBuUDpUEM ayp Se Yons ‘paystidwoa.e Aqpid -anuy Aoumno| snorfuep pue ‘snonpre ‘Buo} e 30 ‘eA welosy a4 UT SIE) ryDy se Kons ‘aNVeG Ul spaap UEUMYZAdNS saqIOAuE UORDE UL (E Sumes ou (2 2un pu pop pur At yey St auoyeq ‘sayerodzoour oye “UOraTY ,tTePY TeszeaTu =U, st 2mm “Sy yeaa sayeyq“ueUs pue pop «0g 5134 stUolejoud ayy se yD peROL due J} 10 30e1 UELInY auRuD up jo sioyuaBoud aun axe ana pue WepY 507 2aqpoung uy oxponydy s52ppo8 2% Uduereas 2m 0 tos oun st ou Uy soueod 31509 UaRd 30 WOH j 4a paarap ‘soanveay Buoy sisod aida uazopsrey & au saxo saendue) Aueut uy -sauuat te (0 dquo puosas se ‘uuny uy 3807 asypoing !(¢991) 3807 asypeuvy 21d Are spuya a4 se panies Zaye UDI ‘Pouay aup wB0d Preface to “Paradi Tradition (1965) Lost" (1942); Brian Wilkie, Romantic Poets and Epic for an archetypal conception of the epic, see Northrop Frye, Anatomy of Criticism (1957), pp. 315-26. In which the secondary sub- specific points of close parallel ‘ompared (see figurative lan- ‘guage). This figure was rary epics, who employ Epigram is the term applied to any very short poem—whether amatory, ele- ic—which is polished, yen an epigram ends with a surprising or witty turn of, the Roman epigrammatist, established the enduring mode! ‘The epigram is a speci England in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries by such poets as John Donne, Ben Jonson, and Robert Herrick. The form flourished especially in the teenth century, the time that Austin Dobson described as the age “of wit, of polish, and of Pope.” Matthew Prior is one of the most accomplished English snd many of Alexander Pope's closed couplets are detachable And here is one of Samuel Taylor Coleridge's epigrams, to show that Romanticism did not preclude wit: On a Volunteer Singer Swans sing before they dle—twere no bad thing Should certain people die before they sing! Many of the short poems of Walter Savage Landot examples of the nonsatirial epigram. Bollea and V epigram in France, as did Lessing, Goethe, and Schil form has continued to be cultivated by Robert Fr ‘Campbell, Ogden Nash, and other poets in the Since approximately the end of the eight gram” has come to be applied to neat and witty statement the analysis of prose examples see wit, humor, arid the comic. Refer to ipple, Martial and tite English Epigram (1928); E. B. Osborn, ed. The rarns (1928); Kingsley Amis, ed., The New Oxford Book of Light In Germany. The Ezra Pound, Roy ously udden sense of radiance and revelation that one may ‘2 commonplace object. “By an epiphany [Stephen] Sudden spiritual manifestation.” "Its soul, its whainess, leaps to us from the vestment of its appearance. The soul of the commonest object . . seems to us radiant. The object achieves its epiphany.” Joyce's short stories and novels include a number of epiphanies; Stephen experiences at the sight of the young gitl wading on the shore of the sea in A Portrait ofthe Artist, Chapter 4. Epiphany” has become the standard term for the description, feequent in modern poetry and prose fiction, of the sudden flare into revelation of an ordinary object or scene. ; had merely substituted this word for what earlier authors had called "the moment.” Thus Shelley, in his ‘Defense of Poetry (1821), described the “best and happiest moments ...aris- ing unforeseen and departing unbidden,” “visitations of the divinity” which William Wordsworth was a pre- of in more elaborate cases, “spots of 944), James Joyce adapt sequence of such vi (1850 ed.), Wordswor fagecoach over th , streets" suddenly manifested a profound power ‘And geateful memory, 35a thing. See Irene H. Chayes, “Joyce's Epiphanies,” epeinted in Joye “Porta Cotcsms and Critiques, ed. T. . Connolly (1962); Mortis Bela, Epiphany in 37 -Aesso jeusojut ath 30 stauionnzesd yua2at ajqejou are “1949 mou ‘SIUM “a PUR ‘FaquNILL SOMES "S205 “Py “y “TOMIG 381095 ‘oom, equrBata ‘adA ur yeun0y are wou, Jo SOW "Yaam ATBAD sKUsS9 JO $3 nod sjeorpouad Aureus ayy exe uo, sno UI "UpeAaL ae PUP "Yasor Tessmy soure{ ‘uosrema opreyy udiey ‘Burasy uordurysey4 spniour Ainjuay ust uy aun uy ssikesso ueDjawy soleyq ‘passedins U39q IU $64] 12m) [pas] #0} —Aess2 jeuosiad amp dnepsadsa pue—Kessa ysy8ug oxy wsinoig quiey set) ue ‘Goud aq SewWOUL SaIzeH urea Wales 280 21N sem SIL anyerait Jo wweunzedap sofew e wrain opets pue scessa Jo Supa ayo} styoduut yeast id Apeays sTatR pue ‘saujzeBeur Jo sadAy alot jo Sutpunoy ajauTt Ape> 24 ul “(x00 ur paystignd us0q peYy 2eyke2) jeo}poued Azesay] 3x3 ‘a7>YBA Wapows prEpUEIS say asoud Uy us Aeis9 amp o} aa ‘srossonons Aue sou WIM olmaads pur 420, PUEUPHY AIS pue UOsIPPY Ydasof AmuaD yUaaIYsID djnea aM Uy “AIMjUGS soiysIo atp saye sjusuodxs yueyodum aj pey sey dessa asian auf nq “@EL1) woyt uo dessa au pur (F121) wsPpHUD uo Assy atN ‘asia uy suo -odutioa Azoysodxe sty 203 wway ay pardope adog Japuexary , aj apfurs an Pure a8eI2N 10, 4'AITPAPY 10, «UINL JO, 58 SI9BIgNS Yons to sae Woo Yous are wath Jo ysour ‘éossq MO STU} WHO) DUP JO asn YSHTaUy ayy imjuad UAUaayxYs axp UY are ‘WoDeG sfoueLA ‘\DaIqns aU Sty ipa) PUP [EWLIO} 0} ySeNLOD UT ‘suOIsSNDNTP 5,9UB/E)UOWN JO m Due a4NeUD} ax SHeOIPUT O zea seus pu ,'sIduaHe, nssg YDUaL Weald sauByeruoyy Aq Sureu prep UEIs sy atreDaq JeNHK UAH sem asta® atp a1ojoq Buoy sesso moIM eDaU>y Pur o19915 suewoy ax puE YpreImja pUE smsecydooyy syBaI9 dy YOK MON 2H 30 |ssaDDV “WoTUsey feos GA 5 paxefas & Uy Sone PUP “ souer sBurtp AepAraaa JO A401 & sOUISse JOURN at Avssa peutojty 24 uy "uo os pue dadiey}—aouarpne injysnc pu soidor qu21an9 uo 5: (ue UY puno 2q 03 are sojdurexa urapou ue ‘Aroyeraar unoy ag 111M said spalqns atp spunodxe pue ‘siqeaSpaymoun Srysry st se soyum zousne ayy :[euosiadwiy dqaarieyas 51 94, “Aesso petszoyuy pue feutio} ou UaBaKiag IBM S| wORIUNSIP Ingosm y wade sit uamfne 0} zowny pue ‘uonensnyt Sunytns ‘alopsaue se 90149 pns Jo asm es ‘uayo pur “uoryses reoqUYDa}LOU Ut y>o{qns ‘i Sessnosip Aesso aun ‘2ouanbasuo> e se ‘aouaypne pacijeteds # uetp saen Teiouad e 0) passauppe Su7aq ul xa 2 3q 03 uossuayaid Jo yey UaSsIP, 10 ,asm ULL “Dalqns due uo sisaxp e yd>00e on sn apenszod 1 ‘sanem ssnosip 0} sayeuopun yey 9g0ud Uy we eDIasH Juang “wuoyuBoW ayp ozuBI0} ‘yPatp 219 S>}sEYD, ‘Uy se ‘sammy ALepuada] 30 feauorsty BuLAsHUspr ut syaunida , ieuonuss swo>, 30 ‘paxy asn UayO 344,825 UadsROUS axp, oF adUaHOF—H SM UL eH 2un perpored sassdin s,a0K0f somes ur ueSmTnyy yong ,°eas yop-oum a1, nag Supany-i0q, 4SIlIYay p2}o0)-}4,, ‘Buy awios 40 auOdLOS OF “33504 Uy sejmumo} se pasn swuaod 21d> sty Ut 29} YT asotp 24![—spI0N ‘om Jo punodwoo e Atjensn—suray yeansalpe aze-sisypida syawoH, jwiooun sees a] sey aagoanuy ut saseatd pu s 121) 3007 ay Jo aden 241, 98 am 10} YaUsIda D0r0y pide, ue ano au, 30 uosiad ¥Jo Ajqenb aanmunsip & auyap Teansalpe zo 2anaalpe ue sayousp yarpyda “tu £61 Ut ,uORUEpEK ‘tog s,exueif, ‘SIOH s] aH, Ul SU0S fepLq ath uepetp ida we yn sosop ‘yerouny e UAT ‘uacrcouoyy uy suoskuuay, ‘,unqureyenida, ue pasodurod 4 2 AIL, ‘Buppau ssef>-TaMo} © 0} souidde ou yIyAn UH 30 Apaind posouny-poo$ v s} ,Zuippay4 e uodn ado yBnowne ad led ¥. S2uIpIONg ‘uo sis quoueredu s,a0d at pue souaIpme papudyut at 03 FuIpIODE ‘requ 10 wurajos aram eu sut20d ZuIppam pasodwod siaod ou sompo Aureus pu IH ago “Uo au ‘AyuStp pue acess Suiresun ‘iy Buunp smnoy au jo souanbas au) 'saur) pure sezueys jo siaquinut panto Ajae1oqeps ul ‘SMofjoy ura0d s ,asuadg “3p uppam e se pasod yuidg, 214) 148 14 20)e] sieaK Uoayyy pure ‘OgsT Inoge UI AIUEIsE) YsTBU a Ig “soHensiue] reMoeUFIA 3Up Buf) paustiqeiso OY ‘souessteuDy ain jo stood une T-OON, uy) Euoure paystanoyy Woy ax ‘ajdno> “ano Buns aq 0 suvaU ¥9915) U} WHE aK, ‘ouddes syaaip atp azam sia 0} uaa wood sf, WIN 12D pUF PIA sueWOY a4) PUK smEDOAYL PUE ed Buowy ‘adeureu e aeqaye> 17 aU Wf 10 “wopereTeRRI sz siaidey 2yuowoy ur uormnpoaa, AY “HW 99s Aueydids A: ‘3uR Due aunsNBny Ig seinoas pue paises ut ,aUaWoW, TeUORIpEN stp Jo Lowy at 361) Aupydida Jo sousog ayy ‘slOuDIN uOWUsy {(1Z61) PAON wopORE 249 j 6 ‘See Hugh Walker, The English Essay and Essayits (1915, reprinted 1923); (‘pass away” instead of “die"), bodily nd sex ("to sleep with” Instead Elizabethans used a euphemism when they tions ("comfor of *have intercourse with”) exclaimed “Zour On the extraordinary number and variety of sexual euphemisms see Eric Partridge, Shakespeare’s Bawdy (1960). " 2 term applied to language which an these line fom John Analysis of the passage, however, will show that what seems to be a purely (ory agreeableness is due more to the meaning of the words, and to the ease of uttering the sound combinations, than speech sounds themselves. The American ctl this fact by altering Alfred, Lord Tennyst uphony i destroyed not by the change in two of the speech sounds, but by through a lapse in the writer's ie of Matthew Amold’s fine poem “Dover Beac fol functional: for humor, as in Robert Browning's *Pied Piper” (1842) thomas Hardy's attempt, in his poem as describe, dogged endurance, by the in from each stressed monosyllable to turnony aNo cACORMONY + cxPRESSONM 61 Strength long since fled! For other sound effects see alliteration and onomatopoeia. Refer to G. R. Stewart, The Technique of English Verse (1930), and Noxthrop Frye, ed., Sound ‘and Poetry (1957). Euphuism. A conspicuously formal and elaborate prose style which had a s name from the moralistic prose romance Euphues: The Anatorny of Wit, which John Lyly weote logues of this work and of Euphues ard His England (1880), as wel stage comedies, Lyly exaggerated and used persistently a kind of prose which other writers had developed earlier. The style is sententious {that is, full of moral maxims), relles persistently on syntactical and antithesis, reinforces the struct Tong similes and leamed allusions which are often drawn from my and the habits of legendary animals. Here is a brief exampl Ei the character Philautus is speaking: I see now that as the fis Scholopidus In the flood At the Moon is a5 wh the burnt coal, 0 ity, was very 2ealo Shakespeare good-humoredly parodied this self-consciously elegant style in ‘Love's Labour's Lost and other plays; nonetheless he, like other authors of the day, profited ftom Lyly’s explorations of the formal and rhetorical possibili- John Lyly," English 1962). Literary History 23 (1956), and G. K. Hunter, J Expressionism. A German movement in literature and the other arts (espe- y the visual ars) which was at its height between 1910 and inthe period just before, during, and after World War I Its who had in various ways departed fro depictions of life and the world by expressing in their art vislonazy or erfully emotional states of mind. Among these pr painting, were Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, and the Norwegian Edvard Munch— Munch's lithograph *The Cry" (1894) depicting, against a bleak background, 2 tense figure with dlstorted face uttering a scream of pure hi taken to epitomize what became the expressionist mode. Prominent among the literary precursors of the movement in the nineteenth century were the French poets Charles Baudelaire and Arthur Rimbaud, the Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky, the German philosopher Friedrich Nietsche, and above all the Swedish dramatist August Strindberg. 9 Tesodway pure notpes ‘pue—so .soymuyap pue sandy, ay—saBeur, -3jp auf soaj000 YIU ssa201d TworUEYDAWE w s} AOUE] ath ‘st 1eUA ‘BBPUDIOD, eds pu aun Jo Japi0 ayn woyy paredmueure Atourayy Jo spouse LET sayjo ou paspur sj Aoueg ayy, “sayuyap pu samy Inq ‘eH Aefd 01 s1ayUNOD soujo ou sey *** Zouey,, Aouey 51129 94 |B] AMO] a4} 0} sOBEUN LAOsUDS 24} Jo woRouny 8 ine 98p19]05 “(LT8T) Eueuan'T mrydesforg yo saydeyp wus: iquios MoU OUT WL sxOpIOIs pue sosuas aun Aq paszaozad uaag aaey yeUp sae, soaqsoa WIEN UF , AONE, De oun, tose, oss pousunsp or uu Jo Ao a10U9p 01 AisnotuAuouds pasn wa2q 100 20 Ae, FanureS UY yUDt ASIP aL “uopeuyfemy puw dues surauop,o preyony pur ueumoy weqox ‘sen Ypuai PO a1 ny 3Z6L “D2 WIS) AMHGDY S77 9a udasof 395 . smoqy a AmeLge 359 aN Jo aUOayoU puegsny pidms e jo Burproyono ay s} away) a7170K0; ‘ur Sunysiyap pue siaypexeyp sse]>-raao| 20 sseI> (6961) aesoyusoy xoW Jo aouanyfuyayp paw uur umn ayn uy waspoyssaudxe :uoans paqUNDyY 21, BUSTS MN pure 24) Jo LoysH pooIFo}OIDASA 2 ‘WYoL “(6S61) sume uosuiog Aamag-yaoROML, up My 42IUM, FUL ‘THOS "H TBWCM “(6E6T) HZST-OLST 4AWAYL ays PUB auRDLAIT ssoudg “sewouL “Hd PUe [amuses PIETY 5.4 o2)2p4 URURAS seyuey pue suonda> 2M ‘aunerany pur we ‘ueadosng se jam se ‘ueoHaUy pue YsH2ug UO a>u9 “nyjur 9x9 0} panunuo> sey yf Ing ‘SOREL Aed ayy UI sizeNy auY Aq AurEEIIID tu passarddns Aqreury som pue sz6r Aq Sey ov uniaq deg ‘uy Jo Sfeayaar quasi ur UMoYs Uayo are (9261) sodomy § Bue] ZL ue (2267) mejson s,neusnyy YoUpang se [os se—wun]Ase auESU Ue Jo Peay -da1—(0261) unSy20 1c Jo ougoy ous wy stUO|Ssandxe Kee saU>4N4 YDGOK -wsjuoissoidxo ueiuia9 jo afjaa yueOdu ue 2sm>4d UoRoW 3 ape 19 JO apow sm, “punos pur Sul epads pue ofeys Sujsjoaas oui se s2otaop wrapour ypns payeunsing Lu ‘sisjuojssardxa uews9 Aq pur SioqpuIns q sKefd Jo saquinu e pa}aup ‘quowaow ou UF jaswHTY you YBNoURTe SpuEYUIY xeW JoONpOrd ayL, ‘sI9s afeis Suqmerds pur pap} PENSE pur s{seU! kojdwo o} pue ‘saved 20 seouaquas quaRYooUy AWBUTWDES puE LoyeUIE|xD OWL anfoqeIp am “Hey 0} uayo ‘SoyeIs jeuoNou BuneTDSO Aqpides pue asuayul Jo sBupapual syposida £q 301d aoie(das 0} ‘ssoyoexey> pozrTenpy snowduoue quasaidas 01 papuay siseutesp ‘suononpord say sty ut pie “(unpy ss0yy) ‘s0p) sastey $1095 21am siuSusdeyd ue $1099 pue uuag surpury Ajisse “2 iy & Jo smata ueWdoin paysalord osje 1d ayay ur [eauper 19M OM sysTuOISsaIdxy “soRyD OLE H Jo sunzou aun 04 Burpz099e “haps uewny pue Ajtensn-—uoysta peuosi 2uL ‘214s ur pue soyeus anstue ayy ysuree 3on93 3] "WuowA0U! PauyEp-TTaH Jo payr2UOD & z9A9U Sem jTosHT STUO|SSATE ssoudxa 0} soyeuapur 2 “4 Coleridge's imagination, that is, is able to “create” rather than merely , by dissolving and definites—the mental pictures, or received from the senses—and unifying them into a new whole. And while the fancy is merely mechanical, the imagination is “vital”; that organic faculty which operates not growing plant. As Coleridge says elsewhere, the imagination “generates and produces a form ofits own,” while its rules are “the very powers of growth and luction.” And in the fourteenth chapter of the Biographia Coleridge adds ‘statement that the “synthetic” power which isthe “imagination . ‘The faculty of imaginatio to an organic whole—that is, a newly ing interdependence of parts whose iden- tended to make fancy simply jorous kind of poetry, and to make thet, more serious, and more passionate poetry. Anc ination’ as varlous as the modes of psychology that critics have a Freudian, Jungian), while its processes vary according to the way in whi ic conceives of the nature of a poem (38 essentially realistic or essentially visionary, as “object” or as “myth,” as “pure poetry” of as a work designed to produce effects on an audience) ichards, Coleridge on Imagination (1934); M. H. Abrams, The (1953), Chapter 7; Richard H. Fogle, The Idea of snd Truth. In an inclusive sense, fiction is any literary narrative, invented instead of being an account of narrower sense, however, fiction denotes nin prose (the novel and short story), and some- times is used simply as a synonym for the novel. Literary prose narr which the fiction is to a prominent degree based on biographical l fen referred to by compound names should be regarded ing to a special world, “cre- ated” by the author, which is analogous to the real world, but possesses its ‘own setting, beings, and mode of coherence. (See M. H. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp, 1953, pp. 272-85, “The Poem as Heterocosm"; James Phelan, ition, 1981.) Others, and most composed of pseudostatements; and that whereas a statement in “referen~ tial language” is “justified by its trut ‘correspondence « the fact to which it points,” a pseudostatement "Is justified entirely by its effect in releasing or organizing our attitudes” (1. A. Richards, Science and t theorists, however, present an elaborated logical version ology for Poetry (pub- ary, nonfictional discourse, but that, in accordance with conv implicitly shared by the author and reader of a work of fiction, they are put forward as assertions of fact, and therefore are not subject to the cri tion of truth ot falsity as these apply to sentences in nonfictional discourse. “The Language of Fiction” (1954), reprinted in W. 979). takes the form that a writer of fic- in only "pretends" to make assertions, or “imitates” the making of asser- yns, and so suspends the “normal jonary commitment” of the writer of such utterances to the claim that what he asserts is true. See John R, Seatle, "The Logical Status of Fictional Discourse,” in Expression and Meaning: ‘Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts (1979, reprinted 1986). We find in a num- ber of other theorists the attempt to extend the concept of “fictive utter narratives, and dramas, By speech act theorists, ne ‘only is made up of fictional utterances, butis itself a fictive utterance, in that it “represents the verbal action of a man [L.e., the narrator] reporting, describ- ing, and referring.” See Barbara Hernnstein Smith, "Poetry as Fiction,” in Margins of Discourse (1978), and Richard Ohmann, “Speech Acts and the tute," Philsophy and Rhetoric 4 (1971). heir persuasion, make an important ‘sport with Tess’; or T Peace). Many such asset “implied,” “suggested,” or “inferrab! trol of the fictional characters and plot of the narcative ttse claimed that such generalizations by the narrator within a fictional whether expressed or implled, function as assertions which claim about the world, and that they thereby serve to relate the fictional of actual experience. See John toy’s philosophy of history at the ns, however, are sald to be merely 6s oo rage 9 2998 pot waudans kq 2 ‘sort wopury jo uoisquad 9 panpday sapuads na. 69 vuaydais 9 ‘e971 UlapO} 29 wry "UAC novstry 4q paonponuy ‘uounuso> ysous ayy, sssep> peg diay ont Anos 118] soudewau yo sSunyoH pur amyeu axp jo suoneue|dxe 10 S034, “apeus wail e spew 21991) .uepep au, supaieyy waspuy uy sma20 aansalpe ue yo am opoydew a4} pue f,yueq sn uodn sdzofs iStquooU 20 OMS MOH, “6S 1 °A DHUaA Jo Tumyeuayy SazeadsaqeNs uy s3n900 qrEA 2 30 sn auoyderaur ax, “AqeoHoydereu posn aq ose Aeur y>oads Jo sured saxo nq ‘Sunou una aaty ey os pay ‘sapHUBA 30 Stax sHoHdeaw SKA TY (ors sds soy Jo dadosoya ‘SpreUDT“Y 236) 20ydE.ou 4g 09 Uaaid # UL /UDHYa appa WJ 3 josse VOUWIO 10 ‘san toadse asouL, ,'swo110s, ‘s0U8) pagfoads e jo woadse ue oj ajoTyS4 ann st wos, wenn 3 ay ‘partyin axe pInoM ay 280 pat ‘pay B sf aaoy Aa \dtiexa 10g “uosedwos ¥ Buprasse ynompIM ‘HORS uasaynp ApaunsID 03 paridde s| uonDe 10 Fun Jo PUT Srp woud 0 prom x soma 8m “soquys aud oste 395 ‘pesoura se uaai8 sy “a Suneoy aur ‘yshy-seus ‘= PLY spresoua on seqyuns aze $¥10q304 y>ttas Uy (,u19938,) sina} ayy saypads osje ,s9UNeW TuDPUY au Jo SUNY atLL, 5;29PH9I0 Joye, janes wos a x wing oqou st utp qwareyp A essa i Jo pus 349 ae pay ate ‘son se pays Layo 1nq nssonp aun Jo so/se eRpralput UI paleaN ‘SpLoM yo t9pio woes “BBs prepues aun wor) suowetaap zaqno Jo ZaquuMKY “sent Powys a Bu 3tp ut parotoo ave yaaads o samnBy uounuioD sou 9un pue asa Pyeon ae secon wouruna> sun au ‘TaAaMio4 ‘Uopsodx Jo aountlaaton 104 woryee “dde sy uo 2ai8e sya ie op sou “suo nq 5 ARPES WON amnitedap =u) Yo! Blom 39315 240, wo) samay>s 0 ,'sunly feaHoIoqs, 10 -ypaads 7) sont ©) Coser 'sH§ "x UyOE pa ‘sro pu Loony, 3 ypseds Uy ButaeayA JO Punouiyeg au, pue's mide ‘gzet Suuooy pun volo ‘jseag*y UMOL aoe 3 wud @ 303) Supueatr Posoddo se Suyueaus reyes uy a8ueyD snon “pidsuo> v stag eu) Kem. ea pasn axe sosesyd 10 spuoM Uotyat Ut su0fIon -v09, ,'suam, Buueom) sodozy 10 , yyBaaKA Jo sand, (1) Hossely ou epIAIP usag Loyo sey aBenBue} anes ‘Sl Aamuad 3s1y) doing Jo soamnsuy 5, 90 TERN Sow PUE 389 -emfy jo quaunyean aus uo pa: nate [eaIssep Aq sBenBue] aan ue suOREDYISSEID WapoHy ‘2s1n0951p 30 sopout 1° 0} ood 03 dquo you ayqesuadstpur pur ‘afenSue] jo FuIuON ‘Duns aun 0} fesSanuT are dat ing ,'swwouretHO, ona0d dqpeuAd se paquosap uo] aram samy yong “eyo s0 Supueaur yepads auos aaanyse 01 s9pv0 Ut ‘spuom jo 29p10 prepueys ay) asfo 20 ‘spuom jo urueau prepuers aun se pus, saudde afenuey ax jo siasn yey wor aimuedap e 5) oBunSue] aaerniys “9 saideun ‘(oz61) euog wou d ur uN, feuoRIsodord spuayap yeI9 Pre, pup aSoniupy jueayy Danowsg ynoqe jen] Sanows Jo sa1034 (C861) Stossy 4490 pup aimouayT uo yoo TTR» ATOM 9UOY OF18 295 (61-605 Jo dydosoma ou 1a suiaqqoig Fyn Jo uouayHD ax Jo aoueA3| wapopy 4 aqloq pue aouarszay sxe), amy Bui Hes60 Joyeg puo anos 234 Jo sFatTaq amp Jo ajor ays jo yeun st ‘uoN suonzasse s,soujne ue Jo uonsonb ayy 0} parejas > In the fourth century 8.¢,, maintains that a metaphor involves an implicit object and a metaphoric object; In le. I. A. Richards proposed at the meaning of a metaphor Is the pro ‘meanings of the vehicle and the juential essay, the philosopher Max Black or “associated common- {he metaphor, and so sf recery Joh Seale hs rejected both the comparison and interaction views a nade- (quate, on the gi inds that at best they serve to explain, and thet only in part and in a mi at ‘plain, and that only leading way, how some metaphors come to be produced speech act th goes on to present a set of imp interpreter, to explain how we ai ‘metaphorical utteran may obtain between ance meaning of dive by Black and Searle, see the 3 combines tw ipl le both to produce and to understand to clarify the variety of the relations that sentence meaning and the metaphorical utt je diverse metaphoric vehicles. to the possible incongruity of the chairman plowed through the mountainous agenda” Densely guative poets suc Ser ns capa ne freind ay. amp ae Hamlets expresion of hi feof mind ins slog (59-60), to take ams aginst a ea of trouble And By opposing end them,” andthe Involvement of metaphor within metaphor in Shakespeare's Sonne 6: summer's honey breath id out oo he leg ofa table” or the Reto eee 2 tog acd and econ common tet me have Je aware ofthe discrepancy between vehice and tenor. A dead Ssephor, however, b only morbund and ean realy be Bought back to aaaeaen pee csicd Groucho Notts “ate yous anon 4 mouse? lsd as species sof tht ow SSeconyomy (Grek fora change of mame), the x PRoURATI ANGUAGE contiguity in common experience. Thus “the crown” ised to stand fora king and "the tur!” for horse racing; can be used ify the writings of Milton (“I have read ali of and typical Rene to signify the male and female sexes: “doublet and hose ought to show icoat” (Shakespeare, As You Like It, I. iv. 6). (Por the influential distinction by the linguist Roman Jakobson between the me and the metonymic, or “horizontal,” dimension ma to many aspects of the functioning “the scepter” can be part of something is used ignify a part. We Tee the term "ten hands” for ten workmen, or “a hundred sails’ (lor ships); ‘and Milton refers to the corrupt clergy in “Lycidas" as “blind mouths." ‘Another figure related to metaphor is personification, or in the Greek “which either an inanimate object of an abstract con hough it were endowed with life or with human attr ‘or feelings (compare pathetic fallacy). Milton wrote in Paradise Last (1X, 2-3), as Adam bit into the fatal apple, snd muttering thunde ‘the second stanza of Keats’ "To Autumn” finely personifies the season, ‘Tutumn, as a woman carrying on the rural chores of that time of year. The personification of abstract terms was standard in elghtcenth-century poetic ai Spore it sometimes became a thoughtless formula. Coleridge cited an. ighteenth-century ode celebrating the invention of inoculation agalast Smallpox which began with this apostrophe to the personified poem: Inoculation! heavenly Maid, descend! See Steven Knapp, Personification an "The term Kenning denotes the standard use, .nd poems written in other Old Germanic languages, of ad lace of the ordinary name for something. This type of per times becomes a stereotyped expression, is an indication these poems in oral tradition (see oral formula Instances of metonymy (tthe whale 1020” fo of synecdoche ("the ‘Other deviations from thi tropes, are treated elsewhere epic sills, paradox, periphrasis, pun, understatement. In recent the New Criticism, Russian formalism, deconstruction, an Harold Bloom's theory of the anxiety of influence, there has been a strong revival of interest in the classification and function of figurative language, ‘Which was once thought to be largely the province of pedantic shetoricians. 6 a at Jo BuO sje 3nq ‘wsI>HHD AresayH i Sow DYN JO BUO S} , OY, "DAMOMIS pue wIO (£2261) amocar yoy Jo opur-Jnow s,uosdwouy wpNs $1 pos axp ynoysnosp sayED|LO} Uy -anoai atp Jo anoyee> prepuers ax, (0Z61) arog ayn Jo ABojoydiow ‘Adora RUIPELA PUC “EEL HOPIOY umr{cuy Jo Amnsvexy y ‘upg “y WrUTelLIg In} aABY SOHOYS exO “TeTTUNS éas0}> 30 ‘aUES DL, ye2a1Su0o ajdoad renarauym ‘auey>rx2 je;os Aresoduay 109 ‘s3x0{ plo AraA Jo suoysIOA a2U 30 ‘Sa qesueag arp pue ype{, puE L2H MOUS, aze sordurexo ‘sjaateur J0 spUnY smOWes JO Ing SOLUTE] JO SOHOIS Jou aze (afenf{o} 30 9644 stup oy past Apuanbayy st uDYDIBY PIO WeULIED 2p) ,s2rer Aare, parieo-os Aueyy ~sayey Astes pue ‘(uedung jneg ayy] AsepuaB3] 40 ‘poasalddy Auuyor ayy eoLONstE ZayROYeA) soOsOY JO SOpeD ‘SHIQn) ‘sind tL, ‘POM au UT arDyAKATaAa sojdoad Suowe punoy are s2yerx]OI ovoid uaog aaey ypiqor—sam Aan 4) pur woIFuTyseyy 3095 Jo Ao sed Bue (E9-FLL1 AauAMOG Y9GOU Aa. 709G 231 Bid, $e yons—soupne MoU e Aq Partaul sofsoIs apnIoa 01 papuErXS ayo 51 Saaanoy wz au Ate: ‘unouyun yo as01d uy aaneieu Hous © t‘POUYp ANSENE OTERO} SL (0961) seu spon Jo sug jos g) pong Jo sBuog fog ‘€x0Us eg 241 “two way pue 41-806 ‘uons uy puelSug ut aajains seuresp yjo4 “snsduoig po8 reuoneazaa ap Jo Uugar pur “peep ‘OI oN parerqeya> yorya ‘Sarl Yons wos padoaap pa8oq 32015) EWA UreyUTeUE SIeTOUDS aWOs “AIINI9} Jo Sassappo8 pue SAI 989A UO para}ua> YIU 1adsa ‘2>uep pu BUOS Jo $2 ‘oq a3e (ozat) seuy as Jo ang e mnoge woriszadns auf pul ‘uy sjayseo aantp atp Suu aotoy> ay ‘af dwere 04 “anne dos owur parayus sour ye ye aney S.opyoj Jo Nuawara“sHuUaYped [eu “nmtuo> ye 0 sKepijox, uo patizoyiad are Ystyn PWEIP 5 41 "2M 10 peat ued ajdoad Aue 3 0} Mou wo4a sonupuod pur ‘padop ajdurexa £q pue yynow Jo prom Aq 4 uaag aaey 1eup sfenaus [eos pue ‘suonsodus ‘ureu aanatios ayy Uaaq sey “Gnyua> yuae}aur (L461) opr pu dydoufongg payorouny wy aoydeay ‘sorarys "y wasess s| woneDyand si Jo awn ain 01 da soyde=Us Jo Ssuotssnasip Jo dydes#orqi 3 ‘sumesay "HA. "Ws ein ssoydenour aa sapeig souyar pue saezoqep ‘(¢96t) 2umonas 2nsp oyderey ui ‘Kean r9pay waa “sonUD reray £q se ue ‘naosry pele Aq sdessa yuadar sapmPDUT UwopreUs “(161) soyder2yy uo saxpzadsing pooqydos po “YSHowL pun soydemapy UT ,"rOdeIa ogy AION, PLE ‘(7 pup s}2poyt UL , soudeI, *4>2Iq XE 248 ‘soge passnds Jo suy 21g Jo 250 sats ‘wopopt a4) dof U0; 1021 ‘woyy pansant Samay Jo U eye: -soyoud 4q ‘sishteue pue yp jo Aseusuins se [am se sraqdos NOMS + OVROM AALAND oz 2 31 concept. In this af Jon, the form of a work is the princ- je. All agree that “form” is not simply a fixed con- rent” or “subject matter” of a work ics, for example, thought of the form of a work as a ed to each other according to the diverse words and images In an orga- of "meanings." Various exponents of archetypal theory regard the form ofa literary work as one of. shares with myths tic way that a language is structured. the Greek term) the “dynamis,” the ™ that the composition is designed to and parts—into "a beautiful and ‘of a determinate kind.” See R. S. Crane, The Languages of Criticism and the Structure of Pe ypters 1 and 4; also Wayne C. Booth, "Between Two Genera tures of a book. The printer begins with a large "sheet tance so as to form two “leaves” of four pages, the bool inter’s sheets, A sheet folded twice into four leaves makes a quarto; a sheet folded at ¢ Into eight leaves makes an octavo, In a duodeci so as to make twelve leaves. The more leave: quarto is the next the octavo, Is the most freque printing. ‘As this book is open in front of you, the page on the right is called a recto, and the page on the left is called a verso. ‘The colophon in older books e at the end stating such fa tle, author, printer, and dat ordinarily in the front, on the ora ship the singular Is “Incunabulum”) signifies books published In the infancy of printing. The terminal date is 1500, about fifty ‘yeats after the German printer Johann Gutenberg invented movable printing. type. (The word “incunabula” is Latin for "swa jothes.") ‘The word edition now designates the cing of type. The various “printings” or “reprints” of an edition—sometimes with a few minor changes in the text—may be spaced over a period of years. We now identify as a “new in which substantial changes have been made in the revised and reprinted in this way many times, hence the tion,” “third edition,” etc. ‘A variorum edition designates either (1) an edition of a work that all the textual variants in an author's manuscripts and printed revisi Russell K. Alspach (1957); or (2) an ec of annotations and comme ‘The New Variorum Edition of Shakespeare, in both senses of See textual Fredson Bowers, Prnci A New Introduction t0 nis not org 1gstressed syllables. (See meter) Most in the measures form occurs in B se “suouiy + -¥ 4a 0661 @ wtkdo9 uy ‘Kuedui0D UOHON AAA 40 worsswiad dq suounuy y "y Jo sucoy wos digeey 24, wry prude $y ,8U0$ [UIs « Jo syrom wry oyuy sosua8 ayy, , twH0} Arera ‘oanyerout Jo adAy Sumansos © smouap 3 2 F112 tayo mou ai se 10 juo uy ypuaiy ‘wiai y “2x95 sv2a jeeaUE OV uIMyDE e 430} sanBze ous raya w £q as134 399530 AvosTY © 24 pun daaog wiapopy isoinsoay, Susy 5.919035 1861) Aposotd uo deseg uy ‘asiog saxg ‘ueureH “Q sopeYD L(6z61"*A91) WLIO In904 pul 2200 Hod "essN Tes {(LZ61) FBMelg “Y waqnay “pa “padsasoy ut azmesoyrT Aimuag-wpanuany, Wy , 98194 9934 10 Soyposoig aULL, ‘Bursa Prevod *0S61) daoog ypuals wopoy Jo punayong 21 ‘suol (esuEyy Ao%ag 395 “gg puis aun anid puy) eeueys puioaas a3) ) Aor aai8, ox Bureaus Jo ays 9uy 3e asd iesed at jo stem Aq “osye yng ‘sseatid-qrda at ‘ora Jo smuds papundsns ouy ui dearer pue UorsUR anaqt>e G) AWUO jot ‘ani8, plow ates arp wp spud ezueys yoea Jo du, sy) UL “orden ‘3 oY poplatp se pie “yoto spiom Samu Jo sau fenbo sno} Jo Suns -uoo se 1 peau oy aue aus seu souls uisod payumld sip yo wroned fensia Su, ene pon an Dai? pu po aun oi fem ‘an8 spon au, sra}9UW UE SWIO} EZUEIS [eUORIpEN ‘yojdxa pur jas ued aod asian-aayjv ‘wiayy Wor) syredap 34 se UaAd “yDTuaA ‘Ur Aem aatsnqoun aus soyriduaxa suouny °y -y Aq wood yoYs éraa y ue 3 sonst uepquooteg a1oo}- 1808 on pur ador dun! pue yoroos-doy wro3y S461 ‘test owRakdon Yeu, SunUND 3-29 widen “suranga 3 49 eset iodioo Fusion 2 hq soma don ip supa Supuep swoo jaqupuesiag pue 32m pur 3 14M ueusLoTEA PIO saab 243 napuomappnd s1 pom aap aK Suds + ahuapouuy wosury, “xequAs Jo syum axp so aims SUTERE 20M spua-dUt| at) se ADUEPIOSIe U ‘2a2qepe OF osje pure Sumpeas aip Ul Aseydua pure ‘asned ‘aed jonue> 0}—s2u] pu ‘saseryd ‘spiom jo Sta] pue Bu : ‘aiqeues atn—sano yensia snonoedsuoo sasn sBurwstung ‘pears aapezaypar pue au remax w woyy paseayar st 28194 2¢N OLIN aqQerTEAe etn say ann au rua aI en Aq ajqeaatuse 2uos pur “eaq ‘aarp fai Jo Aapofew aup dq paXojdurs sasso} ep ‘sasesyd padar otf, Uo pue sun paouaper luo ane 499} 24s.2UE auaHINDaI UO jou saya druNIAYE 10} papuadsp Yorum wpa Budten Jo sauyy asian Buisn Aq ssmus Jo Soave ve ent times are very numerous, and the ications have been based ate highly variable, however, there has been an endur- shteenth and early nineteenth centuries, was echoed by Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916), Chapter S, and nizable in general critical discourse and in the wides sion of college courses, and of anthologies of is overarching "of tragedy and comedy), structure, sty, ‘commonly ranked in a hi from royalty and the no! epic and tragedy philosophy, and narrative (James Thomson's Seasons, ‘weaken confidence in cof genres, And in th orientation, effected a drast trary genres, with the lyric replacing epic and 1¢ Romantic Period on, a “organic unity,” and “high seriousness.” In the New Criticism of the mid-twen- tieth century, with its ruling concept of the uniqueness of each genre ceased to play more than a subordinate role in critica a ‘genres, see M. H. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp (1953), espe- 4, and 6; on the continuance, as well as changes, of writings in the traditional genres during the Romantic Period, see Stuart Curran, Poetic Form and British Romanticism (1986). inction among genres, based on the principles of cl les Poets; see Crane, ed Cris and Crd (1952), pp, 12-24, 546-63, and refer to ‘by the human imagination, as represented in the archetypal myths th the four seasons (Anatomy of Criticism, 1957, pp. 158-239). expectations, which may be controverted rather than satis the reader to make the work intelligible—that is, to natural classes the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein’s concept of family-resemblances. That is, they propose that, in the loosely grouped family of works that make up a genre, there are no essential defining features, but only a set of family resemblance shares some of these resemblances with some, but not bets of the genre. (For a description and discussion of Maurice Mandeibaum, "Family Resemblances and Generalization Concerning. the Arts," American Philosophical Quartery, Vol. 2, 1965, pp. 219-28, There has also been interest, ia recent discussions, have played both in shaping the work that an author compos lishing expectations that alter the way that a reader will interpret and res to a particular work. Whatever the present skepticism, however, about the old belief that genres constitute inherent classes in the realm of literature, the fact that genetic distinctions remain indispensable in literary discourse is attested. by the unceasing pi ff books whose titles announce that they deal with tragedy, pastoral, the novel, or another of the many types into ‘which literature has for centuries been classified. “pazyteasun sujewos Buraq Jo sopsads ajqearsoucn ou fat Jo AiatzeA ue puny ayqissod Asana Jo tiny Apeanyosqe sf assaaqun ay, apmqua|d (r seouanbasuoo aos paonpap afau asturaid sp Worg “s8uf2q, 10d saying ay ou) FUjaq UNO si} JO MoYJaA0 BUNUN ot 1a Jo UeUD yeDHD tp “twI0} ArmAUD -yiusaiySip aasuoypudwoo sy uy wuouuaruéyug ath Jo sioquIN Jo Taquinu © 4 paidope unin pur “Kuno ypu af wt ee mug pauog sud nmap uj Aq padopaap éreax8 pue paws sem ing SDUessTeuTy 19 2Up Uy ‘asneD 3S31J ap 40 “Pog Jo auMeU ax yioge Seapr Uy popUt 8] Bujag Jo rey ye2sD axp jo uondaouos ayy “Buy Jo wyEAD yeaIy, sou) aunuua 7274. wo. 1 org pUeWoy ayy USAOIY aston AfOHDUEToU TOWO pue puesaavsd po VOR NTOA ayy SMOTIOS “(ZEST) IOS AwoopO ayL Ut ‘STRANS "W uPH “i261) Aare $,Ao19 Jo punouByp0q 24, “pany esinoT Aw 29§ -fanyoo ap Jo sed puobos ax ur ames [enwoUTUOD oF puersua wx peaudssus0d predonest jo SunaN 2uLL “(ESZ1) abreAy>anUD 421Un0.) wane ABaqg, 54019 sewMouy ‘2024 61) my ayn uy uowonpopy LL MOD uray IH, “pO OUDA| ‘aimyino Paywunop-apew v Jo san -Tea pure Axpuemay jemds au paBuayretD wonDG stu AeM ayn pazAqeur ancy 8 uy Aajjensas apes; jo uoyssarddns ayy yo snsax Buy puEonnop Wesiuy, WO (S860 ‘950c pu deg Jo Son ay) uy 'Kaq, YOU Jung uy stossy uonoufousy ann05 24, 961) UlOourT “1 10uearg “Pa ‘DuTUoY pu jpioised UI wed wy payulidas (E961) Zs EMD IPA «TRAN IMOD ay UO SYRNOYL RIN, “3f ‘vosjan AIMOT (BEGL) 389 omyiod ayy, ‘Siauung nBequoy {(/261) 10D payunody 244, ‘ey UNE 29 ue yesD9A0T “A "HE Yan WOHDY JOMOY jo SIAIUM £4 idx aq 0} sanujto> jaaou artnoD amp Aq pauddo Arjan pue ‘aaU2[O14 >» AuueDUN Jo wear YstHEURUsA ay “soda UeEUNA] JO LORD aus Jo 20s pue puosay ‘wopsqy puE Kempung sraURINeX WHI 01 204 UeIIY ea oe JOD 8 pu (OLR) tar Wopypo¥g EID jo nod 2a1ns9y Gag sey "OUDWY W "(aporida weusiri, Sau) suonoedey due 1 set] ,21000,, ‘A IUBWIBOH “Vy “Lg UeULIDD ath Aq 10123) Jo § euras $,Aa|faUs A1Byy “CH6L1) 5 0} payidde uaaq sey ,omj0, Wid ay) 1x SIU Ul “se12IS [e>qFO}OU -eunu @ Jo spayspous amp “Ps Lea ayqesapIsu0 2 ume “(6E1) wopt ayy suas Ai0$S1 May pu ‘sADUELIOS aTOD IassSI5NS Arata sou pue (5.21) oudionn Jo sounsdyx 241 sapped UuY—onsIDES Bue anor whoa wala amp ue Tea pueIesipats meg st wotum Jo UM S28 Saaou 21tR0H Jo sajdwexg Jo Augyy suou0y Jo Aya}iea e pure 01 sem sjasou ypns Jo use ted ppausny sjaaou Jo soquinu e uy jadns pur ~tsuDs J24}0 pur ‘saouereaddesip snouayséur ‘<\sou4# jo asn yjnunog 9pew! i4 InASNy pu jans> e Aq aulossy yuaDoUUT Ue UO pasodun sBuy § aU UO pasndoy ‘sjaued 8 fueo ap ynomp pausjinoly pue—seBe ayppius oy ul Rules St sID}os GOEL) Lois anpoo y sawed Jo an50> 24 satodiea 29810} wewel 21400), Sea YoryM oRDY asord 30 ad4y e 5 20 "Taaow aMHOD au “sapsmU: woysoa wBnouya peasds piu ‘yiMes pue Use paquiod 949 Jo ash oui Aa Pazuapesem ‘aimioaypie Jo adAy jexafpam aun SsIouap wou ,ozmDDII4 IE onnop, «fTeasypaut, uodp ,>queMuas, A5UHIs 0} auteD uauh ‘ogi 3ueU) F fsui05 ays oF pauiajar AjjeurB 0 214205, p10 3uL “TRAON DITION (9R61) an Jo s9mog ays, "uyrewsoy ¢z61) woneoyssei9 dsou nj 295 suatwdoyasap yUa5B1 104 oys aiqepess tn pur ‘71 Jaded, lupsny pue y2q[344 guay aze 21NaH Jo 80 2) Continuity. Each species xs from the next by the least possible degree, and so merges al wat imperceptibly into the species most 3) a hierarchy of status, and so On these concepts doctrine of philosophical optimism—the view that thi possible worlds’; but only in the special sense the logically possible. The reasoning under ‘bountifulniess consists in His creation of the great- jat which to a limited human point of Pr make up the Great Chain of Being iets, in Epistle I of his Essay on Man (1732-34): pressed the dozen or so ierotc No glas can each! from Infinite to thee, From thee to nothing. sm is one form of what is known as a theodicy. This Greek words for “God” and “right,” designates any reconcile the assumption that God is exists, Milton's “great argument” in ise Lost, by which he undertakes to “assert Eternal Providence /And jus- the ways of God to men" (I, 24-26) is an example of a traditional ry of ideas, The Great Chain sbethan World Picture nce of the concept in of Being (1943), Chapters 4-5, which deals with the Shakespeare's lifetime. The pre Heroic Couplet. Lines of iambic pentameter (see meter) which thyme in bb, ce, and so on. The adjective “heroic” was applied in the later wenteenth century because of the frequent use of such couy “her ple) poems and plays. This verse form was introduced into Enj tfeey Chaucer (in The Legend of Good Women and most of The Canterbury Tales), and has been used constantly ever since. From the age of Joha Dryden through that of Samuel Johnson, the heroic couplet was the ‘predominant English measure for al the poetic Kinds; some poe, including Alexander Pope, used it almost to the exclusion of other meters. that era, usually called the Neoclassic Period, the poets wrote in closed. tends to coincide with the end unit of syntax, The sustained something tions of the component parts of the coup! cend-stopped first line (that is, made the end of the line coincide with a pause fn the syntax), and also broke many single lines into subunits by balancing the line around a strong caesura, or medial pause in the syntax. "3 cooper’ by the use of rhet Detween the two halves within a single line, and by the var of the adjectives in the second couplet. Note also the fra emphasis gained by inverting the lambic foot that begins thi the last line, and by manipulating similar and contr rant sounds. The poet is addressing the River Thames: (© could I flow like thee, and male thy strearn strong without rage, without o'eflowing full ‘And here is a passage from Alexander ‘al, syntactical, and thetorical pos the Characters of Women,” 1735 ype, the greatest mast es of the closed heroic couplet (“Of es 243-48); Atop at the ‘Alive, ridiculous, and dead, org Compare these closed neoclassic couplets with the “open couplets” quoted from Keats’ Endymion in the entry on meter. In the latter, the pattern Of stresses varies often from the jambic norm, the syntax is unsymmetrical, a1 ee vuor|dumsse pue , ‘plow axp uF wySnoW nS] EUS 189q dU, BULMOLN| Uo syseydwa Sy ‘,auNIeU UeLENY jo ‘yyom pus 4 YEW Yon siamo ay ip Jo Uo|suedxa snoquoUey 8, JO stssu0d pue ,"AanfeuUe ano wou paysiMuns(p se ‘sadord Aarueuny ano jo, uonpajad & st rein ‘adurexs 40} ‘maja siy—wsyreuiny 2990 idepe ate seapr Buipeat s.piouly yo Aue “uone> Ipmys aUeWNY Jo afor TeNUAD axp papUaFap A/BuONNS ‘pone isuodoud aqqziou au} “ploy MOEN 8 op 01 moy ‘sem us -uayppy Jo a7 si, Uy B}0%M ‘sayseUNOOYDS © 92g aauo pey oy yslueuny Ammjuad-yjuaarysie aun ‘UosUYos fanuTes sy “sie Teondeid auy pue saouaps at Jo siuauyseomua stp ysureBe uoREONp [819 ie Ur SanyEuNY ayy Jo 2]0u 24 pud}ap 0} pad aUN ‘UonIPeN DAsTUEWNY, 94) Jo sey zayef ut ‘pauadreys aauessteuay ayQ zaise ABojoUYDD) pue s39U9 jermeu ayy jo ansaid pue syuawaaarype up ut aoueape pides ayy "usTUEUIY TEASED se ‘voy UyOl pue asueds punwpa ‘ASupIS Md 34g $8 Yons sioyise 30 [eoIdAy “saiala UeHSIN PUP TEDISSEDD Jo sisoUN SIM} 0} Japa 0} woUMOD auso9aq ApyUadEN sey ay Taypeaxay plsoM Bya YpTON Uuonednososid e Uy poss stu Woy} eMespLAHK JO PUP LISNRDSE Jo STEED at ue wondniio> apewryy Uo sjsey dura MEHSUD JoqeS aup SzTUNTUTA OF PUE Jom SIN Ut SBujaq UELANY Aq a|qeastUDe sanfea axp aziseyduTa 0} papuDy 1M ajdoad wo ‘amy]no pue sinzeu ueWny Uo sanjea s9seq pus souaadxa uewnt] 8 satouuoD UDYo ,asuEUINY, aU) sno UL ujuren pazyepads xo esyuysay Afaiaus 0} pasoddo se “euour pue 1uDU pe [e>Is4uyd ‘SsoMod asiaaIp s,[enpIafpuF Ue Jo yuDULdojanap 20} paau ath passans oste si ‘Aueyy “suoissed (2 aun pue saynadde yempunsur a nowy weuaNY 49K ‘au parapysuon) uosear 30 ' n ‘doeumud a1p UO ue ‘sonpen snayysae jeonaeid pue [esour sip uo stset ui ynoyyre ‘amen eoIyCosoryd pue aaneuteuy peoqsseR> Jo APMIS 2p jo soueuoduy xn paziseydma ‘asianqun ayy uy sfulaq uewnyy jo uOR “Isod yenuap pue &quBp aun paumsse wspuewng souessjeuTy ‘SqeoIdAL, 24) UT siayM saye| Jo JaquINU v OF se [DM se ‘IsTUBUINY BouEssIEUDAy AEE (0) uowwoo seapy jeuoneonpa ay pue ‘sanzea TerauDg yp ‘asmreu veMINYy JO maya ayy 0} paridde aq 0} aure> ‘wsyueuy ‘pos sau e Amiua9 yO vo AtaBse] paseq ‘StD} ‘sxiom Kuru 2020 os[e sit [PUP sqeuaeU! Jo ax01s a4 OY (S961) puumucr 0H Soper aodprety (6261) aun Uy SUONIE BsOUm JOLIE 9]eD8- ‘yejnura oy pardur ay ,uisod sjor4,, Aq “(2z91 ‘opouns ‘01 140 anojea pu 240] ‘panuuod soDueRsut ‘usoj © ses wUMeSG] 20394 (6961) 1dn09 20.95 24, ‘oadig uewmog ws (0) awAuy Jo VON ‘IM TEDISSEPDORNL JO. UID ‘woswpennia 981035 395 “assan ath do3s 0} ueuy souyer Jojoo 01 Zujaras aude auf UAL ‘Ajoasy UO uns siajdnoD ayy pure In our own century the Ame: movement of 1910-33 known as the wul Elmer ication, and J, and the practical arts, the broad ‘education has been gi the focus on the human being, or “sub- the major object of study and the major agency in effecting scientific, ind lterary achievements. "Man," as Michel Foucault has put it in a ‘widely quoted alfirmation, “isa simple fold in our language” soon as that knowledge has found a new form. “How to Do Things with Texts,” Levin, "Bashing the Bourgeois Sut Battersby, Paradigms Regan ly twentieth century: Claes Babbitt and the Problem of Reality (1986) a song that celebrates God or expresses reli ging of Fi «HYPERBOLE AND UNDERSTATIMENT hhymns as part of the liturgy; some of these consisted of the texts or phrases of Old Testament psalms, but others were composed as songs Ehip by churchly authors of the time. The writing of original religious lyric poems set to music continued through the Middle Ages and into the Protestant Reformation; Martin Luther himself (1483-1546) composed both the words and music of hymns, including “A Mighty Fortress Is Our God,” which is now sung by almost all Christian denominati ns, some of them mé sh the Renaissance and was sup- jects—a classical type which had been kept alive through the Middle Ages by {number of neo-Latin poets, and was now composed to be read rather than sung, Edmund Spenser's Fawre Hymns (1596) are distinguished examples of such literary hymns; the first two celebrate easthly love and beauty, and the ‘second two celebrate heavenly (that i, Christian) love and beauty. The tradi tion of writing hymns on secular subjects continued century, and produced such notable examples as James Thomson’ Hymn to Apollo," and Shelley's “Hymn of he last three of these hymns, it should be hymns, are addressed to pagan gods. hymns were often long and elaborate compositions which vverged closely upon another form of versified praise, the ode. These hymns, {ous instances such as the great “Hymn” that constitutes roduction of Milton’s “On the Morning of Christ's Nativity” (1629), were formal compositions that were Intended only to be read. The short religious lyric waitten for public singing was revived, and developed into its modern form, during the eighteenth century by the great ‘hymnists of personal religious emotions, including Isaac Watts, Charles and Jolin Wesley, and William Cowper; a successor in the riext century was John thor of "Lead, Kindly Light.” In America the poets John +, Oliver Wendell Holmes, and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote hysans, but the greatest American devotional songs are the anonymous African-American type that we call spirituals. See the New Oxford Book of Christian Verse, ed. Donald Davie (1982), and refer to: C. S. Phillipe, Hymmnody Past and Present (1937); Louis F. Benson, The English Hymn (1962); P. 8. Diehl, The Medieval European Religious Lyric (1983); and the article “Hymn” in The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (ev., 1974). Hyperbole and Understatement. The figure of speech, or trope, called hyperbole (Greek for “overshooting” Is bold overstatement ‘gant exaggeration of fact or of possibi {ronic or comic effect. Iago says gior ‘Which thou ow’dst yesterday. a “S61 Z1 wsPHUD UY pun sonayasay Jo ound ,toquids 01 UORESUIg wosg shrafeam, “uetspaiig urmnON ‘(6r6i) Aaous pun syeay Jo Lato, MHL ‘21803 “H PIEUDAT (6261) uoRMUISoUy aanvas ‘Koumog ‘a aunt (8261) sae am het) dat ng ‘ag yi su “weno a vegoy pe eID Cast) uN ron teak 24, g2q20X Wo SyooKg LAURDID YBTE wos °D 30 sBoNIM [ERED aK ‘a|durexa 10} ‘sag “sjanou pur ‘sursod ‘sked Kugut eu em 919 294 @} Pay sR “0 120 20\pn au Aq sua auf Jo woRDWa}U} yDiTduM at SOABD MON autos Aq “auNyEIIH| JO SYZOM UL Arafeu opewyp, pue ‘swayyed aBeun 'sa8eu 20) ysrEDs 3th Pauiol sapeoop w3j 7x9u ayy uy sonUD AuEyy “dejd ¥ 50 Ai 3p pousgenso swuawaye asain ety PSTD aus “Gopuny WH WAeDp UR ‘von nuso> 9 “pay pue ‘aumanns Surueaut 9nPod ut 20¥>"5 role & se pue ‘Anzod uy yuouoduloo reruassa arp se ‘9su9s itp \qziou pur ‘soE6T n jepadso ‘aon judis Asasewy ‘@Besn yuadar ut A{UOUOD ISO (E ponraupean Apes aL ssounuoqi uy padoais ayaquoow aut ‘3901 ayy a40qe spurs eu, ‘s9] ou my ayn Yylig auos P01 LL oy annoy xg620) oRULEYY JUD>UY 1p Jo BURY oUL, SABPHR[OD soLAey Jones Uy se ‘pat wed pue plata st uonduosep xp yt Aqjepadso ‘sousos pue 129/G0 214 “Ista Jo suorduosep Aquo Amuats 0} “AyosreU aiows ‘pasn s} AaBeus] (2 se Suqusuany aqp aoidssauawMe tN as] Uojieuse>-af0r © Aue pry “umoug sayped ya yo29q Yeu ‘PaROIUA syauzes jo ,"rauruns, 247 pue yeau) yeuraun Aen soumpord amp Jo sap [pue ‘jou op autos pue saBeust 1 ue soydeyau ain jo ,2UoIs, pUe , mse “Canes, "Piet, sheus,) 0} srappr waod aun s72=1q0. asuds peoig sity UL ‘ante 2p (08t) .S4eM WOpPORUN atp SuOUIE EHC YS, S,MONSPION uf “svoudeiow pur § se “ga.ouo9 Anjgod ayeus 07 pres s1 Axaeust sasuas asoun -3ds9 ane “iaa2Moy ‘prom Up JO sasn 2q iu! © wos} pasodwo afew Ue tuisod e dn ayeur ypiyss suauoduio> ay jo ‘aup 4q paouatradxe axe ‘pouwyey> sousnaos st ‘wos Kem axp [fe a8uer suonesydde sy Suyueaut u 20e46 yUese.y spisuows aug arate a1our 4 2a sou a, sno aq ana veo uonaare “ams, 10 uted, 30} 4321) savO¥n $1 UaUWayeIsFIpuN Jo mHOF [EDA “ “auois aus e dn pa aHD autos (duos 995) ,"pareTaBiexs juDUIWIOD s,UTeAL AEWA UE DqUON Lj[e>rUOD pur ,9s10m ax) JO} UosIAd 134, pare 3 yn Moy BaaHINg AIpREN, set, ‘qn » Jo amy ¥ SAMs UEEUOL UT >TUON ApaBeaes—Diu0N] ATeNsT 1 38]p8 a4, 29 0} paapisuD AyeUpIO sf 20 ‘S| S1j9as yf UeLA aruE}Fodust 30 Je pareor ay 4220 -nsou wa}s@9 Ue Jo UI0g © S} ISOM WeDUOUTY 9UN JO I ‘yBnoua pHOM Inq, PeY et J, MOIS PINOY ano} sisone (1RAsEWY MOIPUY USE Aq ,saNsIWY MoD SHH OL, ut Sofoquaday 21 23tn pue , Sado auth thes Ato at oy yuLG,, ul Apel sty or SuBUIT|dOD >}0q “raday Ajyuerre s,uosuof uog a1e Aamuia> yuaaruanas ayy Uy sajdusexs pawe 98 Imagism was a poetic vogue tha ished in England, and even more vig orously in America, between e years 1912 and 1917. It was planned and ther blurry, messy. ruin of the century. Pound, t ‘voiced by Amy Lot Some Imagist Poets were for a poetry which, abend ation, i fee to choose any subject and to jon speech, and presents an image that is fen in fice verse and undertakes to ren- ,,and without comment or generaliza- mn, the writer's response te scene; often the impression is rendered by means of metaphor, or by juxtaposing a description of one ‘object with that of a second and diverse object. This famed example by Ezra Pound exceeds other Imagist poems in the degree of Its concentration: Ina Station of the Metro* In this poet e Japanese haiku impression of a natural object or scene, viewed at a exactly seventeen syllables. See Earl R. Miner, The Japanese yng as a concerted movement, modern poetry. Almost every luding W. B. Yeats, T. S ence of the Imagist experimer ions, ed. Herbert Read (1924); Stanley K. 1 by Eora Pound. Copyright 1926 by ms Publishing Corporation and Faber ms. By “ ‘he poem imitates by taking an instanceof ‘or material—that of it concept of the nature of the mimetic fhe kinds of things in the external world that works of of ought to imitate, With the emergence in the early nineteenth the romantic view that poetry is essentially an expression of the ‘imaginative process, imitation tended to be displaced from its central position in literary theory (see criticism). In the last half-century, the use of the term has been revived, especially by R. S. Crane and itis, who ground their theory on the analytic method and 's Poetics. Many Marxist critics also hold a view of Literature as an n, or, in their preferred term, “reflection,” of reality. 2) Ancient thetoricians and critics often recommended that a poet should “imitate” the established models in a particular literary gente. The notion that the proper procedure for poets, with the rare exception of an “original genius,” was to imitate the normative forms and styles of the Greek and Roman masters continued to be influentlal through the eighteenth cen tury; all the major critics, however, also insisted that mere copying wa ‘enough—that a good literary work must imitate the form and spirit rather than the deal of the cassie model and that canbe achieved ony by 2 ppoet who possesses an innate poetic Ta spectlled use of the term in this seco the poems that '33 and following), for example, an important part of the intended jepend on the teader's recognition of the resourcefulness, wit, and which Pope accommodated to contemporary circumstances ‘and even the wording of one or another of Horace’s, term used to define literature see R. S. Crane, ed., ‘Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp other ancient (Geriture). Among modern defenses in the broad sense that it has reference beyond the text to the ous OM uaaq aAsy SI9NL, “sUoREaI=—}N 315) pue sBuRTEaU [eqioa > Jo sey Areusnd ayy aeUR aiata atp 0} pu 222/G0 uy pue saouaiuas ay8u 3H Te Uaaseag SuORaNzAyK OF [bse ‘OUR E se anuayuos ain pue apuaTuss Aue ura splom agus aia uooncog SUT uy 2 0 sridde ssoo0ud aanaudiaiu av Jo Speman st sed 300 20> si Jo sfurueeur ayn Smo Aa. Aqwo sjoqs atN Jo FuTueDW 3K mow ue am 36 fajoue axa Jo Bureaus ain yo asuas Jond e yale Ky Y>roudde ssn am ‘a)0¥o anism Aue Jo syed feqion aun Jo sSurueous ayeurLaIoeD Duy pueisapun oF J9px0 UI ‘| FULL “PaQUDSp Jolte» pey saUDeUAIDET OS ainpaooid e o} ajar apmnauaussayy qn sureu auf 9a08 Aas “x9) © 0 Surueous ayn puesiopun o} aao> aa Yonie Ut en 2xp RuneIMOy Uy {UOISDIAX 0 $2109 a Jour Jo amxa) oun DTU UT SyoOH “0K Jo NOR rDIEIONUT a jo RuIpUsrapuN at, FuIpuEIOpI, JO 430 UBUHOY Jo we sun ‘sop.ORaIED aatonpay (xa, aaa14>e oF S15 leap Jo sem sv soouaps ueuny a aun Woxy paysinBupsip se ‘soouarss [et pasodord oss ranyur ayy Aq so6sT au | Araad Jo syx9} ,RUIpU jo yUDSTaUTU aT 2x91 ain ut passeud 40 ‘sisa8axa pure "12) jujusaao8 saqns atp oq paetodsoout ast iqeaupeds Audde yexp uoneraidmauy jo sad “bund jo uopejnuszoj amp paeusop éqjeuiSHo sopnauanuoy 9 24, “(uisppuo 995) ay pue ‘aumaK ‘oanpnn ‘swuawae weuoduo> ‘anua s,y80m au se SiayeM Uns yo siKjeue qq sepnpuy asues step uF uonerardsayuT ‘ummpaur aur s] adenfuey yorqas me Kraay tfex940 aU 30 odnd pure samnyeay ansTze aM seay> axe 01 aadrayuy 0} ‘asuas peosa aun uy “sessed annesnBiy 40 ‘snonyqure ‘ain>sqo jeivods9 wo sosnsoy woneazdiayuT Yns Atyensn :Krewuauswo9 pue ‘send ~ered ‘sishyeue hq afenduy 30 sSujueaty ayy Aslo0ds 01 st azntelot Jo 10m ‘ josdroqul 0} ‘asuas mowiew ayy ul “soRMauOMEIDA pul uorverosds>\UL ‘MP2 “uonmadinutJo sopyeg ayy 'uoreaid ids04uy Arexa}) pue uoH 18 ur pBONC PreuoY “(9Z61) vor 9 wy >1doy sian Jo suois PA SY 0} xIptiadde Ue “aa st Aesso reurzuo aampalfo ose azedwioo seoejud saurey Suit ur idaoxa aun ut yewp st “(astiooMn Teuonipen Avet of Od BL DUE “19-LSh “dd “986 ‘9461 ‘piedoot 240 Jo doa Wt ,'pouiney iuoUsy 335) “nuauodoid earaiz0 sy Jo wioq Aa paremazojss Udaq set pe Asnonuans uaaq Fey tuneyne) aoy Dut Tena fem (en ees 24 Jo 2 uonminsuo> ,teusoiuy, aq) epi wIs2U09 jeon> iodo ns a ta Ssa201d aatea! 20 tONIpLoD feoHolOu saougne aup se sion “yeas yyy © 2 10 ‘Kydesio1q, jeurayxa, ns 0} voRUARe Ino suAAKp yf asneD3q 5 St 82} e HUN UF pur! 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The author's verbal intention is not the author's state of consciousness at the time of ‘but only the inten- tion to mean something which, by making use of the potentialities of pre- existing linguistic conventions and norms, gets actualized in words, and so may be shared by readers who are competent norms and know is read independently of referen« concerning “relevant aspects in the auth external references outlook” or “hor jeu and personal prepos- and generic conventions that were available to the work was composed. irsch reformulates Dilthey’s concept of the hermeneutic circle as fo- toms: competent reader forms an hypothesis” as tothe metning of part the hypothesis can be either is replaced by an alternative hypothesis which conforms more che components of the text, Since the interpreted meanings of the components of a text are to some degree constituted by the hypotheses cone brings to their interpretation, such a procedure can never achieve der can do is of highest ditional hermeneutics in making an essential ttn between verbal meaning and sigmfcance The sigficance of ex fo 2 reer Is the relation of ls verbal meaning to other malts, suchas aero the pre- set of concepts sch asserts—ine Significant however what makes the text alive and resonant for dives feaders i diverse times—is indeterminate and ever-changing. Verbal meaning is the particular concern of hermeneutics; textual significance, in its many aspects, of literary criticism. ‘of development in recent her in the re-experiencing by the reader o this development is Mati Heidegger, whose Being incorporated the act of Interpretation into an existential philosophy—that is, a philosophy cen- tered on "Dasein,” |. Heidegger's student Hans Georg Gadamer adapted Heldegge’spilosopiy textual interpretation, Truth and Method (1960, trans. 1975). ng enact of interp ‘but in all aspects of human experience; and the pecvades all aspects of that experien: assumptions to the understanding of a literary text, Gadamer translates the traditional hermeneutic circle into the metaphors of dialogue and fusion. A reader brings to a text a “pre-understanding” which is constituted by his He should not, as a “subject,” attempt to analyze and diss questions to the text as a "Thou," but with a imply allows the matter of the text—by means of snguage—to speak in responsive dialogue with the its own questions to him. The understood meaning of ich is always the product of a *fusion of the horizons" sto the text and which the text brings to the reader, that (unlike many theories of interpretation, including sch’s) this hermeneutics is not an attempt to establish norms or rules for 3 correct interpretation, but an attempt simply to describe how we in fact suc- ceed in understanding texts. Nonet sequence that the search for a determinate meaning of a text which remains stable through the passage of time becomes a will-o'-the-wisp. Since the ‘meaning of a text “Is always codetermined” by the particular temporal and personal orizon of the Individual reader, there cannot be one sabe “sight on"; the meaning of a te ys to an important ex ns fen aee forme To Gaderer’ ew tate historical and personal relativity of meaning ‘Hirsch replies that a reader le gap between ring to the ever-alt me and per- le verbal meaning. 5 ‘uanas se Auvur se paypods sroyadiayut aos ‘sfaaay 2101 10 sypqns wana ut ayo sem Surueaur pesaiy $39) -@o 1 ka somrudis vet Surueaur ,suo8oHe, 20 eons, 10 remmnds, resuaworddns uy ana repos Bia) a Jo BuTLeaME tA uBaMNg SI aaIg BtA Jo woneiasd teisawepuny tL “Aamu9> ps ue 42999 Uf wuowpa(yse] pue Bujwog puodag sasHYD Jo Sep sey BHR, UI POITIMJ 2q 0} WOD qT eK suuaaa ayy Supnyaud winy ‘you uj se payuasoaday alone AloysIy UIUES9] ay Jo siuaUia} idraqut auros Ag "quauTeysay, man ay JO wapesnIaf ‘Ajuaaeay ayy pue JULIE PIO 2 Jo dup uaaaiaq ‘aun Jo ueds ® 4q parezedas suonjaaas emnyduss omy aun ur dquo sBuraq weusny 0} sasw sysoyrueUE Ing pod Jo puIUE uaue sa] PIO aU) sodAyUE poleD axe UOUWEYsD], NY aKY LI > Bye] BUA pu saddy pay ave sandy uaUNEISDy, PIO a4} UBO, 5 ave YeKR aUoUIEISOY, MON ax UY SiUaAD puke ‘SONI ‘suOSiIG sat Teas AyTeOHORS ave YIU (ysaHn ‘pub ‘suon3e ‘suosiad 434 aun wawWeIsL PIO {uOWERSOL, MON] Uf Ut ;payeoDUOD st AKIRA] HON a IWAMWEIE PIO ud sj passaudxe aunsnny "ig sy UOUIEWSAL. sayy 24) 30 SHU jeu auf Use SoIMdUDG HaLgDHY 3th 30 suse] pu ‘Aaydoxd “Aioysty ayy BuyoUEDDS Jo Kem e se SsOUVeE YosNUD Aue 943 Aq’ pado -Tpop pure neg ¥g Aq payeanSneus sem ajaig ax Sunaudsoyut jo opows (rein “By 40) peorBopodAs ay), -TeoPORITY pure yerxFoqodAy, cuopwwioadsoyuy Sopnouauay shesse Jo ABo|OMyUE 3 ipumasiopun, puv Supavepy Auosanr] Jo Asoay y sdsqond pun vy “vanny sapreyD ‘Inz0>ny neg soYdosojryd puasg uy Aq (661) Sopmauauudyy wy shossg OU) S.zatmEpeD 0} yuaraype UP jo soaip Sunaiyuon pue Gorsiy aif pun “aSSapiap “dougie ‘say2ouuata|yog up duoay "] PIEYDIY 01 s9Jou ‘nage payst oypnastoxyp 296) "13 aanardiaiy zeqmonred 4q eid ous aysinoig st eu) 48a IUD aye sBujueoUt yeUp 957 30 sBuptiom Supsyzuos-ys aun Aq ,2|qeppepun, paiapuar aze 2 Jo sBurcreaus au yeu asisuy ‘uon aur 224 20 sy pu “Dalqns 20 “rome Ue 0 souaijas 4q jonuo> Aue Bun2a[ax ‘ssi20au wos “saLONTY pemnassod ue jommongs quar jo saqlunu e ur sin>oo HurueaU! papuayuT aeUIWIDIID © Jo sata paquatio-soqane [euonIpeN ax wos} ssmzedap TeDIPe) Y “9 saidat soreay v 0} Suueaus yeup ayeoununWOD OF UK ypoods ® 30 81 230x9 3tn se 2ejosur Aruo wonUayuy sty ‘azyuov94 a} sare=y axp aqgeua os pue ‘ssardxo luvo sayeads ayy vein uonedijenb ayy ys ‘uodUDKap 5 10 suvaU Aq ‘iareay v Ur }94F9 9WOs aonpOId ‘aoyeads v se Sutueaus peqraa JO yuNO3>2 [en IS6I ata UI pasodoud ‘ajdurexa 304 ‘209 “4 " 2 S09 BA NSH up Jo a¥ensuy oe aay, 31f 0 ,[eeraPeS, 23e YoTuie UoRUDTUT szoMTne UE SuTURDUOD son Mojdiua jo 'xay & Suinasdsonut uy ‘sour pasoddns amp saweulisop dso SD] aso Jo aus Yeyie“papuatuy HOME a 40 Burrow oun rex popes 20) yoor sn wane sop 20 “yOWOOMW any WOIDOOUAL NOUV suunanaraat any NOUWnNaAAN INTEPRETATIONS TYPOLOGICALANDALECORCAL © ONY 97 by & passage inthe Old Testament; (3) the topologies isthe mora ith or ectine signed by the suse pose tises passage to Chasan na number ical Imagery (1966); J. H. Hagstrum, J. Alpers, The Poetry of *The Faerie ‘authors in Paul Miner, ed., Literary Uses of Typology (1977) are to come in “the last days" of Christ's For the extension of typological and allegoric methods to the analysis of sec- Robertson, Jr., "Historical ism," in 1950, ed. A. S. Downer (1951), and A Preface to English Institute Essa) Chaucer: Studies in Medieval Perspectives (1962). The validity of such an exten sion is debated by several scholars in Critical Approaches to Medieval Literature, ‘Bethurum (1960), and by R. S. Crane, “On Hypotheses in “Historical Criticism,'" in The Idea of the Humtat 57, Vol. 25 PP. 236-60). On the relating of biblical allegorlzation to later literary forms see, {in addition to Kermode (above), Northrop Frye, The Great Code: The Bible and Literature (1982); and Stephen Prickett, ed, Reading tte Text: Biblical Criticism cand Literary Theory (1991). -m. The two interpretive met jowever, Wi folio Dr thods, however, were often Irony. In Greck comedy the character called the elron was 2 “dissembler; ly spoke in understatement and deliberately pretended fan he was, yet triumphed over the alazon—the self- on religious s 1319 to his friend and patron Can Grand Comedy has a double subject, literal and alle- ical subject can be subdivided into allegorical, end a ings. Scholars have analyzed the adaptation of and allegorical procedures by many later poets who wrote on reli- mes, including Edmund Spenser, George Herbert, John Milton, and ate and highly individual revival of the mode) William Blake. . cent st half-century, the American scholar D, W. Raberson and o SE REV propre that ns only relus wets bu many serine ic poems of the Mile Ager incing the oman ee Rs the mek of ‘and often opposite, attitude or evaluation. Thus in Canto 1V of 2, and meleva ove re iets—ere expressly, ander Pope's The Rape of the Lock (1714) after Sir Plume, egged on by the el modes of theoogea a ladies, has stammered out his incoherent request for the return of the stolen of ex se interpretive Jock of hair, the Baron answers: ature is strongly disputed; see the su ings below. In The Genesis of Secrecy: On tie Interpretation eas sn nte Frank Kermode adapted the ancient interpretive distinction nd spiritual meanings to his analysis of recent works of ‘This is a straightforward case ofan ironic reversal ofthe surface statement (of which one effe to give pleasut i ‘because there are patent Clues, in the circumstances established by the preceding narrative, that the pny” there rem: the case; not, however, in order to deceive, but to achieve spe Involves the expli 's in the overall speech-situation that the speaker intends a very differ. jeves me much," replied the Peer again, ‘speaks so well should ever speak in vain.” (the various modes of i ation terran 1886), and Bey Smalley, The Sty of te BL 35 Acide of pol ce Fee oti th es agi nd oe ot nk a Pe PI a Drama of European with which Jane Austen opens Pride and Prejudice (1813) Theories of Allegory and sally acknowledged that a single man_ jon of a g tap oft oi oe at el 2 SR ea a a Edwards’ Images or Shadows of Divine (1948). For uses of typological and allegoric materials by vatious authors, see Rosemund Tuve, A Reading of George Herbert (19: ac te RaN NSN EH KTGSTPA. im ‘Saxe! 3 -ou8t soffeafen, Aq abuaypne aun 10] pala fe € uo PREG Hf sMOUy a>uaIpNe 4) YHA auNIiO ‘susoid ple SARE Of iN 08 aan aun “Kuosy alen Jo aDUTesU Xa} jpoudos “Bor49p stn Jo asn yuan i 0} UnoUy APEDIT Sei8 BUIODINO asou we spuasa] Uo sIojdaIaN ‘koaen soo19 Jo SHavLM SPUDTUL say “Sosyno [enise ams pasodaid suoruido asraape wreyayus o} ssaupeat jsopour ® pure ‘paiannsu aq OF ssourasea Ue ‘2oueIOU Jo asod e saWINssE fjrensn sayenos 1oydosoyigd ayy ‘(ox Aimua> yuino}) sanBoreip s,0Veid nyeads au) Jo uonDayur payeraexa ue s| anf pappe ue DIYs OY ye nod "USWOM OF sedde jo asn 3ujrumey pue apn> aut 40} quaqeatnbo ue se posn soumawios st aoueysed Areutpio uy wiswores —~ afequenpe ay suyevureus 3 aanaaut WaLTp UBzeiaq ‘UMop-nd e $e “COLDS uaphig (¢691) as Bustuaouod asinoosic SMU ayy ur Sumeo-sureu 410) sonjuerens auowepun ‘SDUBIaYIP at paqisap P2 © h uy UD). 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A rance, spoken of written. The langue elements, of distinctions and oppositions, and of hin a language produce and the auditor to understand a partic- imary concer, in Saussure's view, is to establish inguistic system, the langue. Noam Chomsky distinction between, 9f native speakers who have conventions and rules of a language system which make possible the production and understanding of well- formed and meaningful sentences) and performance (the actual utterance of particular sentences). Competent speakers know how to produce such sen- j for a speal ular parole. The linguists the nature of the unde hhas substituted for Sat to Identify and make exp! he speaker unknowingly Modern linguists commonly distinguish three aspects which together the grammar—the components and principles of order—in any guage’ French, Japanese, and so on): (1) Phonol- lementary speech sounds; (2) morphology, the study he smallest meaningful groups fe study of the way that lauses, and sentences, paced ting, although on successively higher land more complex levels of organization. A fourth aspect of language some. ‘included within the area of linguistics is semantics, the study of the ing of words and of word combinations in phrases and sentences. In rca, Saussure introduced the terminology of the sign (a single word) ituted by an inseparable union of signifier (the speech sounds or ‘marks composing the sign) and signified (the conceptual meaning sign). 1) One branch of phonology is phonetics, the elementary speech sound: physical descr f all known languages and the way they are he “phonetic alphabet” is a standardized tten form these speech sounds. Another branch is “phonemics,” which deals with phonemes: tie smallest units of speech sound which, within any one natural language, are functional that which cannot vary wi changing the word of which they are a part into a different word. Thus in the English word represented by the spelling speech sound, we get three different if we change o1 such changes, we determine that such as German, manifests in adapting his habitual pronunciations to the phonemic system of a different language, such as English, isa major feature 38a "forelgn accent.” et a native speaker, wi e proposed the princi social groups. seme phoneme” within» guage ot determined by te phyial features Of the speech sound ise, bat by Is difference fom al ote phonemes in are infact constituted by networks of differences, has been adopted a tral feature in stuctualism, semiotics, and deconstruction) rhe next level of analysis, after phonology, is morphology—the that recurs in a language with the same, or at leas si such a5 “man,” open,” and “run” word that Is single morpheme. If we prefs fo f becomes a diferent word with erent meaning: disgrace’ we add to the rot the morphemic Suir tute nun nc van tec gael we a to morphemes “ye the resulting word functions an adver ito ths form either the mowphemie rds, each composed o ing set of phoneme combinations which do mes, yet are experienced by speakers of 1ough very loose-boundaried, area of mean- -ounds represented by “fl.” ly, flip, flap, flop, a kind of movement in air. The sounds repre- crash, clash, dash, flash, Sureay pure 8 1 asoad UF UW ‘ssaup ‘swoysno “39[eIp ICO UL “FOI [e907 (261) aemymsayr wiapoyy Jo ASO}0dA 24) pu ‘duutuojayy ‘soyderoyA Suni wapoyt Jo sepoyi 244, '98p07 piaea uy a¥enSue] 40 suo) pue sopsinguyy sU0H) wivON UO4"| Sonsuv7 Jo aang ways PaI22|95 ‘ASWOUD “o961) unjsea apeny ‘Suen ‘sopsmfur] joauen ‘amnssnes ap PuELTpIeY 03 IoJou soBODY Saunssneg 404 “ONSTEGS pue rugs ‘Soyonws “usyrouuy uo}ssiny“uossruysuozap 29s ‘22n3e291 japow Jo spowett pure sdaoue> a 0 sayeyapun 9! yeqn ut aanessud8 payre> st sonsinFUy Jo apour sr “sans wuonewoysuen pue aanerauad je ‘Asayseur 313th, ss}sU09 39U3} ‘aouapedxo opsinuy zine szayeads a1 up ou sey y>iyat souayuas (nyButueoM e aonpord ED saxeads pasendun ut Avaneam, se 94 ame Te apa: new yuayed (S61) sammy aazemedS ut AysEIOND WON, ‘aon sannBy Burst -eue uy suonepe: (TeuOzLOU) afUAUOJaUE pue (fer;IBA) sHOYdeoUS taaMI2q jouayd 2 UT plow affuys due uaawyaq suo! , [e ‘SurUoAo8 sopnu ayy vasetaq tern “sp pasn Ajapias y (1st 01 paUsisSp pjooqpun ep ne u3 somnueyntarsteasas aferue) Aue ut (Sosed) seauousoped wesc jeuy “ssou01U95 pue‘sasne}> Sosesud Ur spon Jo nom pus Satadious ove Sa utd Jo jay “9d 21n Aq painyasue> soustuss 8 jo sue re} eases -23eeudns yoru ot 0a} ay) [eat ou “ssned ue summTed Uoneeorn io ‘ures © jon aus suse ay) pu “pateyp sen aul sans jo) ath 2uvonin“uorranb ese Inq sp1om jo aouanbas aanyasse au i aun pue :,2104 2uI08 ay s],, wonsanb aun © Ue ,atoy Bu 1 ‘Apofaur-aaj03 4 saumaumn| Jo sass sdnox8 uaamtaq 10 ia ayy OUT ,w>IAUOD, UNOU aX pI now 24 spaAuo a]qellds puodds axfs 0} IsI1y a4 WHOI}—301 quawapa yUaUodurod e Jo ‘ssaupno} 10 “ss9tITJaD:0) aane}>} jo 1 Ue Uy SyURMIBDE 24H Jo a9 nuraydiom woRIUTY UY x sU00 ‘aBenSun] ssmury ‘ouesann ue armnsuo> yoiuie Spunos ypaods aun yo wean aif we He SPIOM pUE “souaydioUs ‘sousuOUG 61) onary Jo dydosoqya 24 ‘spreYDNS *y “1 raywIO9| sans ruals pue Aanuapy amp zayfe ad& aun ty quauod Su} as[2 20 ,‘saaisuayuy ‘waUIDAoW 901 108 icular region, such as Thomas Hardy's “Wessex” or Rudyard India, After the Civil War a number of American writers exploited cal resentation of the surface p: cral human charac the most common use of the term, ati is any fairly short poem, tng ofthe utterance by & single speaker, who enpreses@ sate of 2 process of pet aught, an feling. Many Iyi speakers tosing in solitude. In dramatic ij resented as addesig ces are John Donne's “Canon ‘Clear that we are to ead the poem asa personal m. Even in such persone rt c pes of 1yi invented figure remote from the poet persona, confessional poetry, and dramat personal and invented lyric speakers.) ‘The lyric genre comprehends a great vatiety of utterances. Some, Ii 's "To the Memory o iam Shakespeare” and Ws iain, My Captain," are ceremonial poems uttered in a occasion. Among the lyrics uttered in a more p ‘monologue for ley's “To Night,” or Emily Dickinson's “Wild Nights, ended expressions of a complex evol the meditative ode, And within a the vnc + mascue process of observation, thought, memory, and feeling may be organized in a variety of ways. For example, in “love lyrics” the speaker may simply his state of mind in an ordered form, as in Robert Burns’ "O my love time," in Milton’s Paradise Lost, 1V. 639-56. ‘See genre for the broad distinction between the three major gent ‘drama, narrative, and lyric, and also for the sudden elevation of lyric, Romantic period, to the status of the quintessentially poetic mode. For sub- see aubade, dramatic monolo ,epitinalamian, hymn, , Lyric Poetry: Beyond New Critleism (19 David Lindley, Lyric (1985). In the present century the lyric has become by far the preponderant poetic mode; see, for example, M. L. Rosenthal, The ‘Modern Poets (1960), and The New Poets (1967). sm. is a type of solecism in a language) th Rivals (1775), who in the attempt to display a c such as “a progeny of learning,” “as headstrong as an allegory on the banks of the Nile,” and “he is the very pineapple of politeness.” Masque. The masque (a variant spelling of “mask") was inaugurated in Renaissance Italy and flourished in England during the reigns of Eli 1, James I, and Charles I. in its full development, it was an elaborate form of court entertainment that combined poetic drama, m splendid costuming, and stage spectacle. 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A foot is trong stress and the associated weak stress or stresses fecutzent metric unit of a line. The relatively stronger: syllables are called “ig "The four standard feet distinguished in English are: 1e noun is “iamb"); a light syllable followed by a stressed Meter. In all sustained spoken English we sense a rhythy inglish we a rhythm, that is, a recog: ‘lzabie though variable patern inthe beat of the stresses inthe stream 0 sound. of stresses is structured into a recurrence equivalent—units of stress pattern, we cal ‘meter are known as ve dispute about the best way to analyze and classi “THE Ke sfliin cme down iike woit'in thé fa! oa (Lord Byron, "The Destruction of sent day. Some major departuces from this stress-and-syllable me Seanachesth") sent day, Some major dep s tress-and-sylable meter will be 2) Toate he noun obs: see jowed by alight sy We attend, in reading verse, to the in He tend, in reading verse, to the individual line, which is a sequence “Te wn, my! “Most trochal such lines are catalecti the noun “Accent” itself, for example, the stress ) There are also many monosyllable words in a sentence or a phrase—the st wuage, and on which of fall depends on the grammatical function of the wor stronger stress on nouns, verbs, and adjectives, for exami ives, ple, than on articles or prepositions), and depends also on the “rhetorical accent,” or the empha- and anapests, since the strong *;trochees and dactyls, with the strong st fambs and trochees, having two syllables, are called “duple meter"; su 4 queysaur puoace you [Te Bujpear [ITDAS v st 31 JT “wRod e Jo Furpeas jaa & 30 aouanbas a1qei{As axp Uy sassans s2BU: eu) fuojajays pia fewURSsD ayy a7eq Aey 0} J9pI0 WL jap Yong ‘aBessed oa0d pauyeysns v unyI saznjonns jeseryd ‘patiea atp jo sumpdty aun ayeorpur 2} s90p 40u Sau] Dnv0d asoKN JO 199}}9 eryoe we saA0a10W "2 2p 30 Ie Jamon YOYs Uo {fey SossDI8 Hu 10 sploss Yous ase aU 9UY_UE @ UF sprom WauOdUED ‘aya saypiaue ‘ojdusexa ‘uoyssasduy jeioy-pue “unpAys ‘yuawaaour sy 07 ayngmyuo> yeu urgod e yo Suypeas renype atp Jo syoadse Aue Jo voReoU WO A[ayEIDqIOP YSIUA auDY>s 192NSGe Ue S| VOISUEDS ety azyear ysnux ami ‘sjsAfeue Ue Yons Jo UORDUNy ay PUEISIEpUN OL dxa Buypraosd 305 pue 4 Surars 20} yueoduay sf sasned jeusoqur asaup Jo quawaeuew ay °// “104, -tués [euoRUBAUOD aun Aq aBessed pajonb au} Ul paye>IpUI—eInsaeD e payed ue “¢ ‘2 soul] Ur se ‘aUy e uIUpIM sips asned yesezyd SuoNs © BKM (2) ‘atyf-asian ay Jo pu ayy Ja40 UO soUseD ainsoy> prema) yun INDeUAS porojdwioout ayp jo ainssaid ayy asneoaq ‘(2s0-Ruyprns &,—qouraqure|ua ‘quips Aayy “wro) youd14 © ul 30) sSUTT TO-UME pal[e> axe ‘pueY sOIRO aT uo “> ysnouyy z soury paddoys-pua pojje> aze sau Yons four au ‘yyss saprouto>—yrun apaequds J9U0 40 ‘asm -mygu sina50 worua—Sunpesr any Uy asned [sitay Jo WaU9AOUr DIU auf UT WELOduNT axe s|uDWa,D J9Y omy, ouSmost aIquie! | uoNDYSaA sey Jo as{nd Zunreassd ayy eu ‘aufe sysdqeue ayy ‘SoueNU UF Aiuo SeDuDIaWIP aye asoUp BY 79A9H10Y ‘SHON, spupoya. ajo idurexa 10}) 1993 sayRO ‘say [fe s2Ur OF 1299 AIT e JO YBNOUE [39y -aduro> y>qua ynoge mnpaooud e st sTuy,“yuawasour prdes sau Sans USI] Ona) SHULAG se '} aut] pUE oy ,payaAul, Uaaq aaey 1995 21qUUE) UL pue ¢ un u] -siiuypua auytnaseus aaey (1 pes aze pue aqqenids passans e unis pua ‘squsey prepueys axe Moxy asne9q “Huypua aupuyay e aaey 0} ples are pue spur 'z pay BuNsOp aL (T " usos axe asaup DUE 00} aiqusey 21seq 2x Uodn suoReLES are a9) ‘raaaMoy ‘asIaa yUONY Te UI SY spyourequad 31quse} are soul] a4} pure ‘2}que Aseaq> sf aqaUE Suyreaand au, mn G o € sme, @ ee a ‘wsoned yeoqaus sepnfiay Aquyy © ueys sayyes ayqeuer pur ajqnrayy e saydwaxd ‘upsoup sum aBessed aun { pug sey uyof wos} sau 40 ‘sjoquids jeuopuaaucs Aq paytudis “oysueds e s} 2191] ‘Suyseayd oun ur sasned soleus Aue ars Supearpuy oste pue au Suredjeue ‘aug Aq aut yf ySnosyy 8 0% 598 8s} SUEpUEXATY UP) ¥99} xIE wey any maureyuad yeaysnoy—saaureay 439) 9a saawn 399} om uaiaunp 300} 40 -spurouow joaquin au 0} Bumproose paurew: BUNT tu) Ut 295 thNdy pue po “bas ot uy se ‘sossons 18H fenbo Apprewsyoidde ik so ~-$229N5 OA4 JO pasodwed 309} z +(, 9142740, ose st uNOU atn) THEA (9 ‘Caton i pio dow 018) (5124 9 32943 Sup POD ¥99y om ‘UWI saIqeIIds aapss929Ns oma :(,20puOds, st UMOU at) 2¥epUods (5 "pay prepueys Woy sjUeHEA [eUOIS n reads 4q paysinunstp ‘Y39} sao om], jug tsauourtmos ax se) Aq st qurey 249 YeYR parou 9q Pinoys i» PaqTeD axe ‘Sajqeylds aay Suraey ‘s|AIDep pur ssodeue #290 se Ajwo anoD0 ‘ ‘300; a ew vu 116 with the scansion. That is, there is a difference between the scansion, as an and a skilled and expressive oral reading, of perfor- ind in fact, no two competent readers will perform the the same way. But in a performance the metric norm i understructure of pulses; in ss type already described: and other which vary in number, are recess “dual presence: marked in a manuscript by Hopkins decisions may seem ai METER © MIRACLE LAYS, MORALFY Pus, AND INTERLUDES 2) Quantitative meters in English. are written in Im and Latin versifcation, in which the metrical pattern is not, the stress but by the “quantity” (durati ‘and the foot consists of a combination of “long” and "shi Philip Sidney, Edmund ; and other Elizabethan poets expe 6 did Coleridge, theories see George R. Stewa ‘A Theory of Meter (1965); Hateful Contrares (1 ;6)—an anthology whi op Frye, “The Rhythm of Recurrence," and Yv W. K Wimsatt, ed., Versifiation: Major inguage Types (1972); Paul Fussell, Poetic Meter and Poetic Form (rev., 19% shn Hollander, Rhyme’s Reason: A Guide to English Verse (1981). Morality Plays, and Interludes are types of late- ither a story from the Bible, or else ‘the usage of some historians, however, "Miracle play” denotes only dramas based on saints’ lives, and the term mys- tery play—"mystery” in the archaic sense of the “trade” conducted by each. of the medieval guilds who sponsored these plays—is applied to dramas ‘based on the Old and New Testaments. Latin, produced under the auspices of the various {guilds, and acted on stages set outside the church. The miracle plays written, in England are of unknown authorship. In the fourteenth century there developed in. on the feast of 3t “cycles” of such Creation and Fall of man, through the Nativity, Crucifixion, and Resurrection n ‘1aMo|[o}[8>1pe1 Tou pue Bioqua0yrs pue AysuLaeNs s19s0dwO9 fe> yuasaid amp jo saperop ue “AuOUEY 189 ath UF sue FaIO ayy PuE amMEIaYH Jo sais jaws jo suonuaauoD prep Due ‘sidaou09 ‘suo ‘sisalqns uy ul saumyeay aaf!UHisIp pue sau AIUDpL Or ue “wsynyng “wsiang pasn Afapioa s] wspu9poUr Wa} ay] “MSyUAaPOUTISOg PUL WSO} 3 PUE usquorssaude> Ut ied snorago aaey Kaun S61) dona Aaron yoy ay, ‘sot04 290% 100 pw jon Stossg zoumicr Bu (eepaN "spa "UOSIN IV PUE 2OiAeL amIONRS (Ze61) shy danshye usUSUT 241 ‘OOM A1EUESOY 961) HUH sndioo Pere Ao aut ‘OMIox “Y “A (2961) apnuaU 49pm 95) “uoh|eseU Jo Sapour BAN} -PAOUUL 1aiRo pue ssausnopsUOD Jo woays Jo 9sn ayy q aBenBUE| aaNeIeU JO ‘souareyoo pue xeuds yeuonIpen amp Funejowa pue ‘sia}resey9 SunUasoxdar yo sem prepueys KL, “pungsngy 249 woo/ woyo pur ue “Aredatog, 34} “Fauople, yepadsa “Asmua> tnuaayxis amp JO :261) PUD] as PHL, UI 1 ay) Ho paseg Usdq PEY JY WorexBayu; pue I9pi0 ys0] O} If Bupseuod vayo ‘aprosip Aseiodwayuoo repuai pinom yeip a}das MOU pu ‘suiioj w9u yy payuauadxo you ‘Sou s4u UE PURO wizg PuUe ar yUSDIxIs dtyee pue YIUDR eI ay 20S a|qeIs pUE URIaYOD AToanepeT € 8 us sonore dri pue saoiey rendas se yo ‘poulnsse yDIues “f10m AresoUt e BUHapIO Jo apow PavOYeT BUA eu EZEL UT 30 Apes e 0} paydde wos 2 st (,Aojd ayy usaanag, “sneT) apmyssiuy Sessfin s.a0Ko{ Jo aiajaas © Ui 210586 1OMTA“S “L."PHOM JeANsod auf Jo SONTEDT ‘spuaioasing Jo 39500 ay) ‘AanguD das 0} sapour Aresay feuonipen jo doenbape ‘tues ac uy Aprea uaTM ‘ofdivexs auy iaypoUe Huowdarg LinyuaryEdyy 2 51 Ao1d ATe10m UMoUY-s9q aUL BErsTes SaLEadsSyeYs BurpNpUT ‘eu uetpaqeziig uj sammy aju0 ax} Jo aus Jo pure uyetfa 21u0. sanoaad v se suuoysty Aresoy[ awios Aq papseias 5] ay ‘1WoD pu 33351 32) © up anda} ayy JO ajor BUR Pad uayo 994A a4p se UCL id ys2quU03 o4M suoUTap SAO °S “1 ‘s9s84in s,a0X0f sauef se UONeAoUMT ystwIOPOUL lupns jo aoueseadde snoaueyinuns au dq paztjeudis sem uote 226 “ren pHON 3sIY aun saye aure> ‘aBueYD Jo ue Aq pose ,ustuzapour usr, yeUp 9918e SoU Inq “SOBRT AUN SE A>EG 32) se yonas yturapour atp jo SuruuBaq aun ayedo| sueuOIsTY Arezany auI0s em pue auoxg oun pure ,/4eta s;praydays puoda PON, PIAvDAEMA aun . ‘Searerp asatp jo senod pue “Ayeia “Aouen aup Jo seydWEND 104 “UoRtaNUL {wo 34h Jo ‘SOL Ds se Bm Sead “saUDDs pappe SoU Ne Uanou{UM a4) PUE onb peu ous sraquin are ‘Ssuas sup Ut “ustusapour ‘shad asoun ut popuedse }5994 30 KUO atp Jo sued autos yoru 30 ped 3e ‘AD e UT 3 aUOs thi Wo1q TeDIPer pur a1eIaqHRD ¥ 59% 2340 01 ‘aouanbas uy Tusienp sen prs , soe ues ety 2018 SD uewt yng “saIN ay) CuI LEA ,wwsUZApoLE, Aq pagrus seis ataos wpe ety paasBe AIppIa S14 Ing ‘SuegaP smeay aypods 943, (BL6I-FT6T) 120M PHOM JOWE Ae!Dads9 ynq “kNyUaD St pads azom shed ayn yeu Mem asroad sy “yuan; ‘snadorUusod an MeNBAON ‘snaaaoHusod aN WsINACON S00 ON ‘SANA ALTON SAVE TOMA BLL 120 ry metaphor: “advance-gus phenomenon called the avant- forms and style ibject matters. Frequently avai ‘of overpopul sometimes carried to an extreme, of the countertraditional experiments of modernism, but also diverse attempts to break away from modernist forms tably, become in their turn conventional, as well as to over- ism of modernist “high art” by recourse to the models of "mass ure” in film, television, newspaper cartoons, and popular music. Many of inother as by phenomena compos John Cage, andthe films of Jean-tue Godard and other directors ‘An ndevtakng in some postmodernist writngs i to subvert the accepted modes of thought ane intence and the unde nest" on which any supposed secur pene. Postmodernism in an For some postmodernist developments in absurd, antihero, antinovel, Beat writers, concrete poetry, On modernism and postmodernism refer to Richat Feidelson, eds., The Modem Tradition: Backgrounds of Modern Literature (1968); Robert M. Adams, Nil: Episodes in the Literary Conquest of Votd during the Nineteenth Century (1966); Irving Howe, ed., The Idea of the Modern in Literature and the Arts (1967); Lionel Tiling, Beyond Culture (1968); Walter jamin, “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction,” in Gerald Graff, Literature Against (1979); Clement Greenberg, The Notion of Post-Modern (1980); Sanford Schwartz, The Matrix of Modernism (1985); Andreas Huyssen, After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism (1986). lement, such as a type (Where are the snows of yesterye also the carpe diem motif, whose nature is sufficiently indicated by Robert Herrick's title "To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time.” An aubade—from the Old French “alba,” meaning dawn—is an early-morning song whose usual motif is an urgent request to a beloved to wake up. A familiar example is Shakespeare's “Hark, hark, the lark at heaven's gate sings.” ‘An older term for recurrent poetic concepts or formulas is the topos (Greek for "a commonplace"); Ernst R. Curtius, European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages (1953), treats many of the ancient term “motif,” or else to the frequent rep ‘musical phrase, or set description, or complex of images, as, Richard Wagner or i 3y Thomas Mann, James Joy ina mythology—a system of hereditary stories which were once believed to 121 ez 2auop you smpsooid ondteus pur idsouon wan ot sds mq “t961) ng Jo 2uoIaNY 24, §,4}O0g auEMA 0} SoHOg SANOISTAY WOH} ‘S2A\ {euo(by jo sustiean [euontpen wr sides Auets uodn Saeroges pue én syoid As0a st, poy sta aaryesseu w ystym £q asinodstp JO'spury auf Jo SIS -Ayeue ax trys pure ‘sao}aap aafyerreu yuouanDas YHA ‘woReLIqWIOD Jo sopoU uy pure quaa} im Aqpeipedsa erua’ uj aaneseu tnim wou jojoyesteN, sanunwoo wa aida ayy pur 'asord ut ‘op pue Avs siayoereup 2) zo agoud uy sauaya “A103 jon e set 40559 stu (¢961) adiou, sawel “pa “épmis wy tak pue eWOINT, PUR “(ZS6T) wsPAUD Jo AumpuY ‘day dostpHOS a "d UYOf 40961) [AON UEIpaUY a4 sal som ‘a8e4 preUPRA C6¥61) 27041» Jo wap] ayy “UossnBag SURI, “SP “riup tndur jo somDeid pure Atoaig up jo S2OUeISUE 0} pue (S261) amEAT “wostneH “g auef “(0z61) sunuoy oy tong yfnog wopj09 ay ‘197043 “9 soweL ae WS dss supa Jo sa4pn Ind Yous ¥ “PooMALTY " “D PUE ‘asoy '[H 298 Aoorpur peotsseI> UO. jo 20m Hort Gupur ssaoons uesroury aun, ,'sax800d jo uikws a43,) 3) Kem auf) 11@ ABE Sen sy ‘paqUDs9p yuoD UH «AAA, WHO) a4 '3q 07 sp90u s9peas Vy Jo suoneotidde Jo Saues Suuapraag an 0 (anual pue uspr weddsaawo 398) jo apis reuoseas aun wai pareposse an auf Jo sepour ,paneidsip, 2 ‘souewor ‘dpawioo—sdiua# aanexseU UYeUE Ino} axe x9UY “0a yo sor pue suonuasuos amp auosaq dts 50 suuuoj [eid i, moa) $ 'SH10M PUL ‘aanyesa aun mars—a4sg doruon (leavanguy ysour aun) pue ‘aseyD puey>ry “UpoE neyy ‘uossn8ioq siouexy ‘Saaei5 yogoy SuIpnpUR—soAUD yu aun ‘SIUM Jo dnoss a83e] y “sisAyeue Avesoiy uy w5) YuauTUIOId w awsOD9q SEK IAAI “wnnue2dg, pue ,2UIWIOD puard~ ayy, SE y>NE sumaod 21h ajqeyseuras jo Jaquinu v ul parpoquis puE (9Z6T) UOISIA ¥ Ut popunodxa 24 yates “20joxp dus undies st Sin pokag ‘ tans posn “> roune Apversqnap ote 1>tte jowop 01 papunxa woo 0 sey UAW, Ws} IYI, ,'S9U PURSUT PIO ay) IOP ‘ples afpyafoD se ‘suoysnjje 10 ‘sapostda ‘syojd say} 10} yeuof pur ‘a4q pur Hepy ‘ueiogy snaxgouiolg ‘sua soqdnf yo squdw auf Bun ut paysiad aed “woun Ut anayoq oy paseo Sutaey sje 2U0]“san3u0y "8 75800] ou am yore ty uoriys © st AZojonnsun e ABojodosynuy poumonag UL ,"GAAIX JO APMIS | aag “aunssneg ap pueuipial Jo 41031 au Fug jeinyewiadns e uewn pareroua’ styiur so suxdus payerouad sfenyu oyouA re NG—soquouTara9 pases UF samp PUP SULIOS 195—sT 105 0} payepay axe sYAU ISOWY “s94I] 11911) JoNPUOD a[doad youyss £q aun jo jdxo oy paaras yoru pue ‘dnox® yeamyn> seinayised e Aq anni 34 maw zz 124 Nasnarve AND NARRATOLOGY + NEGATIVE CAPABILITY NEGATWE CAPABRIY + NEOCLASIC AND ROMANE from recent development in Russian formalism and espec ional way, as a ‘The elusive term has entered critical circulation and has accumulated a large body of commentary. When conjoined to observations in other letters, of Keats, “negative capability” can be taken (1) to characterize an imper- sonal, of objective, author who maintains aesthetic the ordinary standards of evidence, tru standards in the course of our practical expetience. efer to distance and involvement and objective and subj sou Japp ‘soEMU~D yUBBaUTE Aya ue tnuseiysjo aye] at Suunp siasa daqyenouUr pure yuuTWo:d ysour 94) ‘uy ‘S}UOWOAaIUDe PUR SUE 2UEUIOX Y>ry uy siaadse aWOs aze ar—H sonua Aue UNOD [eUaHHUOD eds N63 pu tuoax9 9g ot xe oo: sath 9 ou wiapow vi ppoRuse “pasted ORD Au 'oodond ara -sduataoN HoH Pesead Sey ms But aol som (ese puto ‘pagent ada se yo "Aso ut ram god Jo aun paved in Sutego ue >ureoBU au “Ae jasoa AryBrY puze jeUOI 3e “yDIUM Upta a6eD pUre WOPRay yonb uayo ase “soss3opord usiiug pin aug apy dain spam Dut ama ur deseo 247 se YDns sto) HupueLIAp sso pe 22 {hy sontdiayeem mano sory atone 1nq “ApaBeD pu aida 30 ‘ouarnx> poriupe aod 3, -Wopads} Sauo vodn si 30 sDueadenDe jue unseat yo sey arp em postr aed Sous 34a 20] Seu EU 40 359q 94f) U9A2 0} EUR pul “sed ax Jo BU alwadsoyeus 10 raWoH Se Yons snjuad yex TLL ‘usin wo dessg uy soydioutd Wes adog Japuexaty se “saaitpre pue ‘wopaay3 Buyzaun ay) 20} peu UayO afam ssDUEMO} mie pure 'UOAD—LOD “ys! uy Suypuewrap ‘teopy suet ( iW) w>qaag Sty UeWOY sadeio}y uo sijeipadsa papunoy ‘jeapy a1sseppoats ay, “siapeas Jo aouaypne aq wodn spus uaasaio} 30 juawasary>e a4 0} suEaUI parsar pue UMOL, uoD pue soq2ed pus épnis Sno oy syuaBe pow ofeur aun ayy ‘S=NH (Cusp axeduop)‘sanyea snaqysoe Jo se Tam Se 1 pure yesou 3 $99) 350q aun st 'SAemye pue aFayMAsoAD “YIOUT sayin Jo 120} at et feuiny Jo sanfea poreys pue ainjeu yesaua8 oxy exp uoWEDTE yaissanae dquo. [pomata ‘au aun Jo sro ysosoy EBL 2unWNoL cn >xs20N 128 2) In his Preface to Lyrical Ballads Wordsworth repeatedly declared that good poetry fs “the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings.” According view poetry is not primarily a mirror of men in action; on ent is the poet's own feel ce iti “spontaneous,” Is the oppos means to foreseen ent while the of the art- essed by the eoclassic critics qualified this radical doctrine ty,” and by process of deep ind revisions. But the yntanelty is the reflection and may be followed by second Immediate internal principles i 3) To a remarkat h its flora and fauna—became described wi pot an accuracy and sensuous nuance unprecedent is a mistake, hower fe poets.” Whi to an aspect or change of aspect in the landscape, the outer scene is not presented for its own sake but only as a stimulus for the poet to engage in the most characteristic human ac hat of thinking. Representative romantic Poems are in fact poems of feelingful meditation which, though often stimu. lated by a natural phenomenon, are concerned with central human experi- fences and problems. Wordsworth asserted that it is “the Mind of Man” “my haunt, and the main region of my song.” Neocl th the poets them- Prelude (1805; revised 1850) and a ic poems (see lyric), or in altered but recognizable form, ide Harold (1812-18) In prose we fi Charles Lamb and a parallel vogue in ecs were the pots themscves or oer pe presented spat of an onaiand Soy ts Wee solitary figures engaged In a long, and sometimes infini es they were ao social nonconfomiss oe rs viewed a human being as endowed wi the infinite good envisioned by the faculty Wordsworth says in a visionary moment in The Prelude, “our being’s heat and home,/Is with infinitude, and only there,” and our desire is for "some- thing evermore about to be.” “Less than everything,” Blake announced, fy man.” Humanity’s undaunted as assigned, the at epic length ‘themes of John ic epics; Shelley's sxacting genres: Wordsworth’s Prelude (a rerendi raphy, of the ce jonary and proph See Enlightenment, and refer to RS. Crane, “Neoclassical Critics Dictionary of World Literature, ed. Joseph T. Shipley (rev., 1970); Lovejoy, £3says in the Histor of Ideas (1948); James Sutherland, A Preface to ate, From Classic to Romantic (1948); Harold Bloom, The Vislonary Company: A Reading of English Romantic Poetry (1961); René Wellek, “The Concept of Roma "Romanticism Re-examined,” in Concept of Cri ed., Romanticism Reconsidered (1963), and Study of English Romanticism (1968); M. H. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition (1983), and Natural Supematuraltam: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature (1971 af Ruin (1981); Marilyn Butler, Romantics, Rebels and Reactionaries: English Literature and Its Background 1760-1830 (1982), Jerome McGann, The Romantic 1d Marilyn Ga Romanticism: The Human Context (198 The Crooked Timber of Humanity: Chapters fn the Fistor of ideas (1990), Hugh Honour, in his books on Neo‘lasscsm (1969) ppaou aun 231 au) woRDY 260d Jo sodA 4 om uaowtog yin s!—fND yURDaF Jo Taquinu v 4q papundxo pue paxdope ua9q yeep ut “a}étueN@ 10}~pantsan ang “ppereyp ap8us Zaqnoue 10 3U0 0F S2ola9p aaneuye pausjaud aney Ajpmua pakaauoo 51 ssqin/9 $,uospse4y>r (Bes) pue 3998913 541 241 1 eaSopoyodsy wapony 996 s2]DBUBUP JO fPAOU aI {Its wosind e se ysjuofevord ax soy uo pu ‘saop ays sastuo8eoxd a uo Dooisur vewanuas SunoK pli & JO aia au paianfieajaq 194 Suyprensayes xBojoUDKsd, 430 ,NB,DeIEYD JO TaAO oy WH WOE BUrAEY 205 34PO a4, (UBPIOUT Jo FRAOU, ys1y ayy BAI UK panpaD UayO st I0}eC Ie ‘puom © pazieas Aipajreyap pue pllos oF uy 19s “a}DeTeEP jenuad e RuPUTA -tiop 05 wwasaid soqso%s tnod arTuM ‘PUST panIgeyUTUN we LO BuAlasNs JO wo] -aord ayy ‘£4 one 30 nH se ,/eIUIBitA Ur Wopey payodsuEsL, jato1g UMO J94] 0} aDU0 jo>rays) jamy,—oseo1d plo ayy ‘auo 0} pavaddey dau asmea: pe 20513 uosuigox ayy uy pueiug uy pUF—sraIno Auews puE SIU ‘uewny uy ATeas pure wos {eas smjuearag “fusnoy TeuORDY PazT[eapl Jo IAUeWOS ayeyap OF UNE a7aM *Kaois snbsareD{d 2¢7 BMT “yPIYM 440% asoud 0} YOM SAMO [BAOU DIP JO yUDU doraap aut (eset) 410 atiny Jo somuaapy ay s,morfed mes pUE ‘(pS61) Imo apy smueyY SewONL "(OcBt) Hdnos wo Jo SeuMueAPY 24I, S,UTEAL ATEN, 2m (e6S1) saeAm4L aaoumo}un “spoaqy A294 pue sty aU "WHE st uonoy onbsoseatd so uoneiaye Aue juaMyjUl ‘SSoUEWWO! ¥a915 > y ale ‘sadens9 ype somyuoape snojiad saye ‘oys sia40} yeredas yum ayeap Aayy AUpeo1dAy, “av saumuad pulp PUE puODs a4 Aiea se siaqiim yaain Aq uaa as3M asord ur saaueuior aanenieu $407 (4aoys yous rapun aya We Pa 295) 2mMaq_u MAvAC s,uUEWY seWOYL, 10 sseuynq Jo Roy s;peIUED Ydasof Se ypns ‘y28ua ajppruz Jo UoNDY asoud v -aHDIAAOU Jo} yUDTeAINba UP se asn way st (nao “Hoy WENN a Ut us “upurar sy selenite, wad ‘opAy 40 BBY §,A0OQRN. uo sia8unas sanous “a “D ‘ova, sunSouuly ue S2ssKin ‘uyof pus ‘1asuads puniups 23 WOH} Pasta ' sy ‘Sopot parenusouo> auou “ZyOUS aIp OP WANA s9Anow Jo toneroydxa paureysos s1our pue ‘nama Jo yuauidopanap soidure 40) 301d 30 uone>ydusoo sayeai8 “ssoioese4p 40 Aouen s9year8 w stusiod 9p =yuBew si ‘nrzyaou axp paqte> pu} arpprur jo 90M axp wor pue duos nos 2uy Woy paysingunsip sf aaou ayy ‘2aneeU popuaya ue sy “25030 UI Ur 14 uo2y 30 S4l0m papuarx9 Bufaq jo ainaimie ax duo LoUWOD wy 2aey yeU SBup jo Aaaisea veax8 w or paridde MOU St ,[eAOU, WIE 24, “TRAON, ed as the Magit Mountait (1924), An important subtype of the Bildungsromas complex stist-novel"), which represents the growth of a novel ee operate in a other artist into the stage of maturity that signalizes the recognition Nght developed soil struc, int ch many other characters, and. protagonist’ artistic destiny and mastery of an artistic craft. Instances of this {ype include some of the major twentleth-century novels: Marcel Proust's rooted in such eighteenth-century Remembrance of Things Past (1913-27), James Joyce's A Portrait ofthe Artist as ‘Thomas Mann's Tonio Kroger (190: e's The Counterfeters (1926). See Susanne Howe, Meister and His English Kinsmen (1 jonel Tulling, "The Princess fassima," in The Liberal imagination (1950); Maurice Beebe, Ivory Towers (1968); Jerome H. Buckley, ‘Season of Youth: The Bildungsroman from Dickens to Gol 74); Martin Swales, The German Blldungsroman from Wieland to Hesse (1 ‘The social novel emphasizes the influence of the social and economic often snd Dr. Faustus sO AH ise te Gor ee ee inl i Et ee ee ace tml of omar a ee re eee ay is me Duma he Ts ihrer 4-45, Se ee es pac oer and an important mode of Amé ‘and issues crucial for the central characters and narrative. Some of the great- a a ec ease ere er neeete Se ee aot sf aeomae a ma Geode irri a ee rch Seca Tokers a on A a a eee ae Reconstruction. A highly influential treatment of the form was by the ‘scholar and critic Georg Lukécs, The Historical Novel (1937; trans. Se Te ee Se om Eee ee Ge. Examples ‘One twentieth-century variant of the historical novel is known as docu- mentary fiction, which incorporates into a novel not only historical charac- ters and events, but also contemporary journalistic reports: John Dos Passos, ‘L. Doctorow, Ragtime (1975) and Billy Bathgate (1989). Another recent offshoot is the form that one of its innovators, Truman Capote, named. the nonfiction novel. This uses a variety of novelistic techniques to give @ ‘graphic rendering of recent characters and happenings, and is based not only ‘on historical records but often on personal interviews with the chief agents. ‘Truman Capote's In Cold Blood (1965) and Norman Mailers The Executioner’s both these books offer a detailed ren- ed itz’s Anton Reiser (1785-90) and 795-96) and includes George Blo Th Chae Dickens rat Expects CE Somerset Maugham Of Human Bondage (1918), and Thomas Mann's The set jawreu—sueppysdydejaur Jo ssauawsosayqnon ayy 4q pauton sane asm ayy sn uowe padn “nun tou je] Jo aaey voneDayse ysif3ua pue {Uy paurejduoo urysmy uyof 2nVD [eDOS auLL “aaRDa{qns Pu aan22/40 suasaud aun 9961) aria apstmunyy 1961) uonD1g Jo 2uo.atpy 211, "400K “ jwanyguy raze Oma pus {(ZZ60) JON 241 Jo Spadsy ‘391830 ry Jo wos ayy, "y20qqny Adiad :[esou ayy Jo Ue ays pou! aajranns fowny 00}q DUE pursqo DUR Jo aan eIy| BU tuo davssory sryy wy sesso aun 0} ose Jajou “(FR6D) wouoalmapt “UBM, PDE ue (O61) BueUY uF [a40N ISTUNDPON a4, og papoIdey UL “PICHON. 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Ua} | WrBpoU! Jo ssoyseut ySayz238 a1p Jo aUsOs Jo uot sey we ansiaaou ayy, “Gqueqndod uy swis0y sex sey Janou auf Aamua0 yUAD|UTE pantgaas “byunod eydmeyedeuyo,, pi | Sunaerayur pue uaweroduray ax Su yu yeuoraa au. ‘AsonsTy UM HOH, 40 u guotsdoaap arn sims CU) soto ta 1s BulusND oa ‘on wet the spate i oro Duchess nay Moming) A suective novel Than rae the na er judgments sbout the chaaces and sbjetive fore one In mich the author theetec that he story tll Many ferent tweens subjective and objective terry work na sou but cr af dgre Seefeld ond imohenent, eee it, poo ow he introduction of Ue tems “objective” and “subject” Into lng ican and in varus ofthe applation see. H. Abrams ‘The Mirror and the Lamp (1953), pp. 235~44. For their ag n sm of the novel, see Wayne C. Booth, i Chapter 3. yr oth, The Rhetoric of Fl finding an ‘objective ion, a chain of events composes, since no object or si it depends for ‘was due in par vagueness of d ed example was Shelley's “Indian Serenade”: fall’ renade’ tT fail”—an In vor of defintenes,impesonaly, and deseiptive concreteness See Eliseo Vivas, "The Objective Courelative of T. S. Eliot," reprinted in Grtiques and Essays in Criticism, ed. Robert W. Stallman (1949). ‘Occasional Poems are written to celebrate or memorialize a specific occa such as a birthday, a marriage, a death, a engagement ” the dedication of a public building, or the opening performance of a ‘mund Spenser's “Epithalamion,” John Milton's “Lycidas," Andsew jan Ode upon land,” and fod, Lord Tennyson's “The Charge of the Light Brigade” are all poe ig survived theie original occasions, and W. B. Yeats’ “Eas mE. Auden's “September 1, 1939” are notable modern x3 England's poet laureate is often called on to meet the emergency of anniversaries and important public events with an appropriate literary effort, ‘de. A long lyric poem that is serious in subject and treatment, elevated ‘and elaborate in its stanzalc structure. As Norman Maclean has s which is Cri J. fet Pindar, whose odes were modeled or in Greek drama. His comp ed in in a dance rhythm to the the tight, the antistrophe; then, of Pindaric ode the Greek tation of Pindar’s za patter, and ‘and thyme scheme. This type of irregular stanzale fer in accordance with shifts in subject and mood, ‘the English ode ever since; Wordsworth’s {807) is representative. ic that is, they were waitten to praise and the ode celebrated a victorious English odes, and many ‘of day (Collins’ "Ode to Evening”), {Gray's “Hymn to Adversity” and Wordsworth's “Ode to Duty”). Romantic poets perfected the personal ode of description and passionate me ‘rhich is stimulated by (and sometimes at its close rever Suter scene and urns on the attempt to solve either a personal emotional problem or a generally human one (Wordsworth’s “Intimations Coleridge’s."Dejection: An Ode," St examples of this latter type are Allen Tat ‘and Wallace Stevens’ “The Idee of Order at Key Wes Structure and Style in the Greater Romantic Lyr Breeze, 1984. 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Pantomime is acting on the stage without osture, gesture, bodily movement, and exaggerated to mime (‘mimic’) a actions and to express a to the present in French 5! Marceau in the theater and aces Tat the Gi tains the institution of the Christmas pantomime "a and many other countries, a . and miming has rece ema, and England In Ame inary episod lay in Hamlet tory or absurd yet Out to make good sense. An instances the cn clusion to John Dor be " “ a sonnet "Death, Be Not Proud’: days that are no more." The oxymoron was a faa type than love poetry, in please frequent figure in devo: the Christian myst ton describes appearance of God, in Paradise Los Dark with excessive bught thy skicts appear. Paradox wat a prominent concern of many New Ci cern of man} es, who, however, exceed the ter rom Ks imiedappliation to pe of faa language s0 5 to make Wt encompass all surprising deviations from, ot qual of, common perceptions of commonplace opinions. ts only in this gealy PARADOK + PASTORAL ith some 1 language of paradox,” in The ‘theory called deconstruction for 5 Into the untesolv- expanded sense chat "the stor of the pastoral was the Greek poet Theocritus, who in the third century Bc. wrote poems representing the life of Sicilian shep: Latin for “shepherd.") Virgil ted Theocritus in ter poets i shepherd reclining under a spreading beech tree and med muse, or piping as though he would ne’er grow old, or engagi singing contest, or expr ‘good or bad grieving over the death of a inich persi the mythical tivism that was propounded i tury ac) and by many later ‘humanity, regarded , was age of gold; the continuous decline through time was expressed by the Sequence "the age of silver” and "the brazen age” to the present sad condition the Ison age-" Christian pastoralists combined the golden age the Garden of Eden in the Bible, and also exploited the the ecclesiastical or parish "pa Good Shepherd) to give many pastoral poems a Christian range of reference. (ee Harry Levin, The Myth of the Golden Age in the Renaissance, 1969.) In the Renaissance the traditional pastoral was also diverse satitical and allegorical uses. Edmund Spenser's Shepherd's ‘the mode in English poetry, included ‘Such was th incorporated it into various other literary forms. Sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia (1581-84) was a long pastoral romance written in an elaborately artful prose. (Areadia vas @ mountainous region of Greece which Virgil substituted ‘Theocritus’ Sicily as his idealized pastoral milieu.) There was also the pastoral lytic (Christopher Marlowe's “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love"), and the pastoral drama. 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A ent tendency, however importance of major wars in marking significant changes tendency, as the American scholar Cushing is to recognize the don, or a prominent intellectual or ry form. founding ‘merican Revolut the most pa often cal practical, or hi journals and na ig the founding and of the colonies john Winthrop, and the theologian Cotton Mather. Jonathan Edwards was a major philosopher as well in Franklin an early American master of lucid and cogent prose. Not until 1937, when Edward Taylor's writings were first pub- ‘was he discovered to have been an able religious poet in the metaphysical style of the English devotional poets Herbert and Crashaw. Anne Bradstreet was the chief Colonial poet of secular and domes- ticas well as religious subjects. ‘in 1773 of Poems on Various Subjects by Phillis Wheatley, then a nineteen-year-old slave who had been born in Arica, fished, but until recently neglected, line of Black writers come to be a unique com; unique contribution Redding, To Make a Black Literatu and Is Tradition ‘The period between the Stamp Act the Revolutionary Age. It was the time of Thomas Paine’s folutionary tracts; of Thomas Jefferson's "Statute of Virginia for 75-1865. The years "75-1828, the Eatly National Period ending ed the emer- with gence of joyall Ty! pwn’ The Power of Sympathy, 171 che eateer of James Fenimore Cooper, the fi well launched; and William Cullen Bryant and ly independent of Engl t of a long series of slave nar- Frederick Dougle Harriet Jacobs’ Ici he Life ofa Slave Girl (1861). ‘The span 1828-1865 from the Jacksonian era to the Civil Ws tified as the Romantic Period in America (see neoclass the full coming of age of a native Americar known also as the American Renaissance, th {influential book (1941) about i Henry David Thoreau, Edgar Hawthome (see also symbol after the pl dominant ‘genes except not exceeded in nist Margaret Fuller shaped the ideas, ideals, and ‘was the age not only of continuing ington Irving, and James Fenimore Poe, Hawthorne, Melville, ‘that was ginning of distin the essays of Poe, Simims, and James Russell Lowell. The tradition of African- ‘American publications of poetry by women was continued by Francis Ellen. ‘Watkins Harper, and the African-American novel was inaugurated by Wells Brown's $53) and by Harriet E. Wilson's Our Nig (1858). 1865-1914. The cataclysm of the bloody Civil War and of the Recon- struction, followed by a burgeoning industrialism and urbanization in the Noxth, profoundly altered the American sense of itself, and also American lit- rary modes. 1865-1900 is often known as the Realistic Period, by reference to the novels by Mark Twain, William Dean Howells, and Henry James, as ‘well as by John W. DeForest, Harold Frederic, and the Black novelist Charles 'W. Chesnutt, These works, though diverse, are often labeled “red contrast to the “romances” of their predecessors in prose fiction, Poe, liam 145 vw aimperayt] Jo 720M & UIT [2a 01 SO9GL BU YBNos panunUOD—aMoH uray pur “ IV ‘atex dyiya Suypayour ,'syemyD—qlaIUT AOA MON ayy, se wom spIfo $e [fam Se—FoAaMoY ‘BUM, [PUOTT UC wostiM pUNWPZ sn pue quaurws ayy (S961 ‘sumuossy uo sangng ty, ous Jo uapung ay, "weMars “1 Wyo 998) AyAUD snowoUo\Ne pur 1ue8s0 ue se saj20U0> 01 pus ue soujne aun jo amt ua ‘ouppuay 12> jeaand atp payid—Kwouore JEM PHOM “popad ArerodusquOD au; ‘yUas>Iq ‘uosiapu 4.0 auafing ‘ewesp ayy uF pue 922qu 1eq “, saumel ‘Sossed soq. UyoL “9UyINe: 1oos Suissaid 1p amp ‘SOE, Te pe ‘pooi aqh warn yep sya 3 Sosy ony ung a, sAenBusaoyt SOL aR £3105 WOOTEN 5 9 FN 319 5] s9pUDL, S,PI eauaury 01 39g BED ‘(FEST 2, ABUL 943 JO ‘usue pue Arerayt] 39x # 204 ysanb oth Uy Sued 0} 10 UopUCT 0} J2UTTS BulAoUT ,‘sayeMnedD, owED2q s1231a asalp Jo JAqUIME Y “UOREIDUEH YS07] axp se (aU ayy Jo UaWNDUALY Sunk 01 upg apna Aq paride jssy) wuDy v ui) pee) Uayo are ‘suoyssaxdar “TP ‘pus alnmyjno uesjoW'y Jo ssausses> ax jaouad Aau Jeyas Aq poreuayfe pue ssouayiodxa ea stour Aq pat eM BLOM, Jo pua ayy BuImoyo} apedap ayp Jo siaym UeDTOWY cus “upmpreg sowes (s9pe>0p 8m oys—sysidessa pue ‘aouep pue ‘31snuz Wu aq aule2aq PUR "PeIg A[oalsn [axe ysourle neque; sadn Jo ware ay JO UO} feuay WOLRH 21N Jo pouad qns uso ae B19 sity JO SIAM IU, ‘URDU “TH HSMED Due quasaaaai{ at pue “UOsTIM PURLIPY OME °S “L MaIMoD WOOLEY ‘SOO 1agoy "WOSUIGOY jou dy) SOY jeals ouaujUD Ue payrees St 1eym jo aouaBiowa 34 uotssaidap 2{WOU0D9 yeo18 49 Jo eWNED eoUAMY UF YEH ‘up Jo yeu Sem '6z6T UT Buy ‘aun Aq ose payreur ‘sie pyom Omi ay) uad%IDG e19 ILL “6E6I-PIGT “usyeampou 225 '59910} 1e2180|00s TeussNe Jo PUR SALI TeRIDUNsUT IEYR Jo SUINDIA yUIO! aIe OYA sIOIDeIEYD yuosordar AypeatdAa yoru ‘Tasjaxg axopoau, pue ‘uopUOT *ef 44g sjaaou 1y2noym 4lapn.o saunauos YBAOY? [nys2MOd au JO ‘pouag ansiremmen 34 stp are Bune ys annenouny Jo Swuauuadya ayy a1 ‘pap ay wat auto M doy ate PUE a1qe “M 284099 pue IM Are ‘aULeyy UE HaMEl BUI YEIes “el ldississqjy 94) UO SIoAOU SULA) yLBWY 0} UOR “}ppe UD apnypUy asaup ‘uoR2y anstead Jo stwHO} “0102 7] 10 ‘feUorBax DOW Somme 19430 “(ust}oau pue 22un1W04 asoud 298) >]IIATW PUR ‘UONMEH ove 148 humanistically and ‘ment, and social mi ‘qualities and its consequences for society. Since of American critics have adopted various forms of pi red in large part from French and European thinkers, roughs, ané counterculture of the 1960s and eatly “70s contin- jus youth movement and the vehement and somet ‘opposition to the war in Vietnam; for an approving treatme: ce Theodote Roszak, The Making of Courter Culture (1969), and for later retrospect, Morris Dickstein, Gates of Eden: American Culture in the Sixties (1978). Important American writ Vladimir Nabokov (who emi Robert Penn Warren, Bernard Malamud, James Gould Cozzen: Mary McCarthy, Norman Mai sanegut, Jr, Thomas Pynchon, john Barth, and E. L. Doctoro: ‘Theodore Roethke len Ginsberg, Ashbery; and i and Edward such as Ralph jwendolyn Brooks, Zora Neale Hurst les, and names of these periods vary, ‘widespread practice. The list is followed by a in chronological order. 450-1066 Anglo-Saxon) Period 1066-1500 1500-1660 ‘The Renaissance 1558-1603 Elizabethan Age 1603-1625 Jacobean Age 1625-1649 Caroline Age 1649-1660 Commonwealth Period (or Puritan Interregnum) 1660-1785 The Neoclassical Period 1660-1700 The Restoration 1700-1745 The Augustan Age (or Age of Pope) 1745-1785 _ The Age of Sensibility (or Age of Johnson) 1785-1830 The Romantic Period 1832-1901 The Victorian Period 1848-1860 The Pre-Raphaelites 1880-1901 _Aestheticism and Decadence 1901-1914 The Edwardian Period 1910-1936 The Georgian Period 1914- The Modern Period 1945-Postmodernism or the Anglo-Saxon Period, extended from the es (the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes) in the first half of the st of England in 1066 by the Norman French under the lea¢ im the Conqueror. Only after they had been converted to Christianity in the seventh century did the Degin to develop a writ- high level of culture and learning Anglo-Saxon, known also as Old English, the greatest of Germanic epic poems, and Cynewulf were poets who wrote on there survive a number of Old English phrases of books of the Bi ‘was no less important asa patron of literature than as a wa inslated into Old English various books of Latin prose, supervised translations by other hands, and instituted the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a continuous record, year by year, of important ‘events in England. ‘See H. M. Chadwick, The Heroic Age (1912); S. B. Greenfield, A Critical History of Old English Literature (1965); C. L. 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