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Factores de conversin

DIMENSIN

MTRICO

MTRICO/INGLS

Aceleracin

1 m/s2 100 cm/s2

1 m/s2 3.2808 ft/s2


1 ft/s2 0.3048* m/s2

rea

1 m2 104 cm2 106 mm2 106 km2

1 m2 1 550 in2 10.764 ft2


1 ft2 144 in2 0.09290304* m2

Densidad

1 g/cm3 1 kg/L 1 000 kg/m3

1 g/cm3 62.428 lbm/ft3 0.036127 lbm/in3


1 lbm/in3 1 728 lbm/ft3
1 kg/m3 0.062428 lbm/ft3

Energa, calor, trabajo,


energa interna,
entalpa

1
1
1
1
1
1

Fuerza

1 N 1 kg m/s2 105 dina


1 kgf 9.80665 N

1 N 0.22481 lbf
1 lbf 32.174 lbm ft/s2 4.44822 N

Flujo de calor

1 W/cm2 104 W/m2

1 W/m2 0.3171 Btu/h ft2

kJ 1 000 J 1 000 N m 1 kPa m3


kJ/kg 1 000 m2/s2
kWh 3 600 kJ
cal 4.184 J
IT cal 4.1868 J
Cal 4.1868 kJ

W/m2

C 1

W/m2

1 kJ 0.94782 Btu
1 Btu 1.055056 kJ
5.40395 psia ft3 778.169 lbf ft
1 Btu/lbm 25 037 ft2/s2 2.326* kJ/kg
1 kJ/kg 0.430 Btu/lbm
1 kWh 3 412.14 Btu
1 termia 105 Btu 1.055 105 kJ
(gas natural)

1 W/m2 C 0.17612 Btu/h ft2 F

Coeficiente de transferencia de calor

Longitud

1 m 100 cm 1 000 mm 106 mm


1 km 1 000 m

1
1
1
1

m 39.370 in 3.2808 ft 1.0926 yd


ft 12 in 0.3048* m
milla 5 280 ft 1.6093 km
in 2.54* cm

Masa

1 kg 1 000 g
1 tonelada mtrica 1 000 kg

1
1
1
1
1

kg 2.2046226 lbm
lbm 0.45359237* kg
onza 28.3495 g
slug 32.174 lbm 14.5939 kg
ton corta 2 000 lbm 907.1847 kg

Potencia, velocidad
de transferencia
de calor

1 W 1 J/s
1 kW 1 000 W 1.341 hp
1 hp 745.7 W

1 kW 3 412.14 Btu/h
737.56 lbf ft/s
1 hp 550 lbf ft/s 0.7068 Btu/s
42.41 Btu/min 2544.5 Btu/h
0.74570 kW
1 hp de caldera 33 475 Btu/h
1 Btu/h 1.055056 kJ/h
1 ton de refrigeracin 200 Btu/min

Presin

1 Pa 1 N/m2
1 kPa 103 Pa 103 MPa
1 atm 101.325 kPa 1.01325 bars
760 mm Hg a 0C
1.03323 kgf/cm2
1 mm Hg 0.1333 kPa

1 Pa 1.4504 104 psia


0.020886 lbf/ft2
1 psi 144 lbf/ft2 6.894757 kPa
1 atm 14.696 psia 29.92 in Hg a 30F
1 in Hg 3.387 kPa

Calor especfico

1 kJ/kg C 1 kJ/kg K 1 J/g C

1 Btu/lbm F 4.1868 kJ/kg C


1 Btu/lbmol R 4.1868 kJ/kmol K
1 kJ/kg C 0.23885 Btu/lbm F
0.23885 Btu/lbm R

* Factores de conversin exactos entre las unidades mtricas e inglesas.


La

calora se define originalmente como la cantidad de calor requerida para aumentar 1C la temperatura de 1 g de agua, pero sta vara con la temperatura.
La calora de la tabla de vapor internacional (IT), generalmente preferida por los ingenieros, es exactamente 4.1868 J por definicin y corresponde al calor
especfico del agua a 15C. La calora termoqumica, por lo general preferida por los fsicos, es exactamente 4.184 J por definicin y corresponde al calor
especfico del agua a temperatura ambiente. La diferencia entre las dos es aproximadamente 0.06 por ciento, lo cual es despreciable. La Calora con inicial
mayscula utilizada por los nutrilogos en realidad es una kilocalora (1 000 caloras IT).

00front matters.indd 2

3/1/12 14:14:21

DIMENSIN

MTRICO

MTRICO/INGLS

Volumen especfico

1 m3/kg 1 000 L/kg 1 000 cm3/g

1 m3/kg 16.02 ft3/lbm


1 ft3/lbm 0.062428 m3/kg

Temperatura

T(K) T(C) 273.15


T(K) T(C)

T(R) T(F) 459.67 1.8T(K)


T(F) 1.8 T(C) 32
T(F) T(R) 1.8 T(K)

Conductividad
trmica

1 W/m C 1 W/m K

1 W/m C 0.57782 Btu/h ft F

Velocidad

1 m/s 3.60 km/h

1 m/s 3.2808 ft/s 2.237 mi/h


1 mi/h 1.46667 ft/s
1 mi/h 1.6093 km/h

Volumen

1 m3 1 000 L 106 cm3 (cc)

1 m3 6.1024 104 in3 35.315 ft3


264.17 gal (U.S.)
1 U.S. galn 231 in3 3.7854 L
1 fl onza 29.5735 cm3 0.0295735 L
1 U.S. galn 128 fl onzas

1 m3/s 60 000 L/min 106 cm3/s

1 m3/s 15 850 gal/min (gpm) 35.315 ft3/s


2 118.9 ft3/min (cfm)

Tasa de flujo
volumtrico
Caballo

de fuerza mecnico. El caballo de vapor elctrico se toma para que sea exactamente igual a 746 W.

Algunas constantes fsicas


Constante universal de los gases

Ru 8.31447 kJ/kmol K
8.31447 kPa m3/kmol K
0.0831447 bar m3/kmol K
82.05 L atm/kmol K
1.9858 Btu/lbmol R
1 545.37 ft lbf/lbmol R
10.73 psia ft3/lbmol R

Aceleracin de la gravedad estndar

g 9.80665 m/s2
32.174 ft/s2

Presin atmosfrica estndar

1 atm 101.325 kPa


1.01325 bar
14.696 psia
760 mm Hg (0C)
29.9213 in Hg (32F)
10.3323 m H2O (4C)

Constante de Stefan-Boltzmann

5.6704 108 W/m2 K4


0.1714 108 Btu/h ft2 R4

Constante de Boltzmann

k 1.380650 1023 J/K

Velocidad de la luz en el vaco


Velocidad del sonido en aire seco a 0C y 1 atm

00front matters.indd 3

co 2.9979 108 m/s


9.836 108 ft/s
c 331.36 m/s
1089 ft/s

Calor de fusin del agua a 1 atm

hif 333.7 kJ/kg


143.5 Btu/lbm

Entalpa de vaporizacin del agua a 1 atm

hfg 2 256.5 kJ/kg


970.12 Btu/lbm

3/1/12 14:14:21

THERMOCHEMISTRY
H = E + P V = (qP + w) - w = qP
H = Hproducts - Hreactants
Cs =

q
= 4.18 J>g-K
m * T

Water

q = Cs * m * T

Bomb calorimeter

qrxn = - Ccal * T

Hesss law states that if a reaction is carried out in a series of steps, H for the over-all
reaction equals the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual steps.

The standard enthalpy of formation of a compound, Hf, is the change in enthalpy for the reaction that forms one mole of the compound from its elements with all
substances in their standard states:
= nHf(products) - mHf(reactants)
Hrxn

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
At equilibrium, the concentrations of reactants and products no longer change
with time.
For equilibrium to occur, neither reactants nor products can escape from the system.
At equilibrium, a particular ratio of concentration terms equals a constant.
aA + bB dD + eE

If K W 1 (large K):

Kc =

[D]d[E]e
a

[A] [B]

products
reactants

Equilibrium lies to right, products predominate

If K V 1 (small K): Equilibrium lies to left, reactants predominate


A + B C + D K1
C + D A + B K = 1>K1
A + B

C + D
K1
nA + nB nC + nD K = K1 n
A + B C + D K1
C + F G + A K2

B + F D + G K3 = (K1)(K2)
aA + bB dD + eE

Kp =

(PD)d(PE)e
a

(PA) (PB)

Kp = Kc(RT)n

Qc =

[D]d[E]e
[A]a[B]b

Q = K: The reaction quotient equals the equilibrium constant only if the system is
at equilibrium.
Q 7 K: The concentration of products is too large and that of reactants too small.
Substances on the right side of the chemical equation react to form substances on
the left; the reaction proceeds from right to left to approach equilibrium.
Q 6 K: The concentration of products is too small and that of reactants too large.
The reaction achieves equilibrium by forming more products; it proceeds from left
to right.
Le Chateliers Principle

If a system at equilibrium is disturbed by a change in concentration, pressure, or temperature,


the system will shift its equilibrium position so as to counter the effect of the disturbance.

Endothermic:

Reactants + heat products

Exothermic:

Reactants products + heat

When the temperature of a system at equilibrium is increased, the system reacts as if we added
a reactant to an endothermic reaction or a product to an exothermic reaction. The equilibrium
shifts in the direction that consumes the excess reactant (or product), namely heat.
Endothermic:

Increasing T results in higher K value

Exothermic:

Increasing T results in lower K value

A P P E N D I X

THERMODYNAMIC QUANTITIES
FOR SELECTED SUBSTANCES
AT

298.15 K (25 C)
Hf
(kJ/mol)

Gf
(kJ/mol)

S
(J/mol-K )

Aluminum
Al(s)
AlCl3(s)
Al2O3(s)

0
-705.6
-1669.8

0
-630.0
-1576.5

28.32
109.3
51.00

Barium
Ba(s)
BaCO3(s)
BaO(s)

0
-1216.3
-553.5

0
-1137.6
-525.1

63.2
112.1
70.42

Beryllium
Be(s)
BeO(s)
Be(OH)2(s)

0
-608.4
-905.8

0
-579.1
-817.9

9.44
13.77
50.21

Bromine
Br(g)
Br -(aq)
Br2(g)
Br2(l)
HBr(g)

111.8
-120.9
30.71
0
-36.23

82.38
-102.8
3.14
0
-53.22

174.9
80.71
245.3
152.3
198.49

145.5
0
-1128.76
-748.1
-1167.3
-604.17
-898.5
-1321.8

154.8
41.4
92.88
104.6
68.87
39.75
83.4
106.7

672.9
2.84
0
-64.0
-68.6
-635.1
-50.8
209.2

158.0
2.43
5.69
309.4
214.4
262.3
186.3
200.8

Substance

Calcium
Ca(g)
Ca(s)
CaCO3(s, calcite)
CaCl2(s)
CaF2(s)
CaO(s)
Ca(OH)2(s)
CaSO4(s)
Carbon
C(g)
C(s, diamond)
C(s, graphite)
CCl4(g)
CCl4(l)
CF4(g)
CH4(g)
C2H2(g)

179.3
0
-1207.1
-795.8
-1219.6
-635.5
-986.2
-1434.0
718.4
1.88
0
-106.7
-139.3
-679.9
-74.8
226.77

Substance
C2H4(g)
C2H6(g)
C3H8(g)
C4H10(g)
C4H10(l)
C6H6(g)
C6H6(l)
CH3OH(g)
CH3OH(l)
C2H5OH(g)
C2H5OH(l)
C6H12O6(s)
CO(g)
CO2(g)
CH3COOH(l)

Hf
(kJ/mol)

Gf
(kJ/mol)

S
(J/mol-K )

52.30
-84.68
-103.85
-124.73
-147.6
82.9
49.0
-201.2
-238.6
-235.1
-277.7
-1273.02
-110.5
-393.5
-487.0

68.11
-32.89
-23.47
-15.71
-15.0
129.7
124.5
-161.9
-166.23
-168.5
-174.76
-910.4
-137.2
-394.4
-392.4

219.4
229.5
269.9
310.0
231.0
269.2
172.8
237.6
126.8
282.7
160.7
212.1
197.9
213.6
159.8

Cesium
Cs(g)
Cs(l)
Cs(s)
CsCl(s)

76.50
2.09
0
-442.8

49.53
0.03
0
-414.4

175.6
92.07
85.15
101.2

Chlorine
Cl(g)
Cl1aq2
Cl2(g)
HCl(aq)
HCl(g)

121.7
-167.2
0
-167.2
-92.30

105.7
-131.2
0
-131.2
-95.27

165.2
56.5
222.96
56.5
186.69

Chromium
Cr(g)
Cr(s)
Cr2O3(s)

397.5
0
-1139.7

352.6
0
-1058.1

174.2
23.6
81.2

Cobalt
Co(g)
Co(s)

439
0

393
0

179
28.4

Copper
Cu(g)
Cu(s)

338.4
0

298.6
0

166.3
33.30

1059

1060

APPENDIX C Thermodynamic Quantities for Selected Substances at 298.15 K (25 C)

Substance

Hf
(kJ/mol)

Gf
(kJ/mol)

Hf
(kJ/mol)

Gf
(kJ/mol)

CuCl2(s)
CuO(s)
Cu2O(s)

-205.9
-156.1
-170.7

-161.7
-128.3
-147.9

108.1
42.59
92.36

MgO(s)
Mg(OH)2(s)

-601.8
-924.7

-569.6
-833.7

26.8
63.24

158.7
- 13.8
202.7
173.51

Manganese
Mn(g)
Mn(s)
MnO(s)
MnO2(s)
MnO4-1aq2

80.0
-332.6
0
-268.61

61.9
-278.8
0
-270.70

280.7
0
-385.2
-519.6
-541.4

238.5
0
-362.9
-464.8
-447.2

173.6
32.0
59.7
53.14
191.2

217.94
0
1536.2
0

203.26
0
1517.0
0

114.60
0
108.9
130.58

Mercury
Hg(g)
Hg(l)
HgCl2(s)
Hg2Cl2(s)

60.83
0
-230.1
-264.9

31.76
0
-184.0
-210.5

174.89
77.40
144.5
192.5

106.60
-55.19
62.25
0
25.94

70.16
-51.57
19.37
0
1.30

180.66
111.3
260.57
116.73
206.3

Nickel
Ni(g)
Ni(s)
NiCl2(s)
NiO(s)

429.7
0
-305.3
-239.7

384.5
0
-259.0
-211.7

182.1
29.9
97.65
37.99

415.5
0
-87.86
-47.69
-341.8
-400
-271.9
-822.16
-1117.1
-171.5

369.8
0
-84.93
-10.54
-302.3
-334
-255.2
-740.98
-1014.2
-160.1

180.5
27.15
113.4
293.3
117.9
142.3
60.75
89.96
146.4
52.92

Lead
Pb(s)
PbBr2(s)
PbCO3(s)
Pb(NO3)2(aq)
Pb(NO3)2(s)
PbO(s)

0
-277.4
-699.1
-421.3
-451.9
-217.3

0
-260.7
-625.5
-246.9

-187.9

68.85
161
131.0
303.3

68.70

Nitrogen
N(g)
N2(g)
NH3(aq)
NH3(g)
NH4 + 1aq2
N2H4(g)
NH4CN(s)
NH4Cl(s)
NH4NO3(s)
NO(g)
NO2(g)
N2O(g)
N2O4(g)
NOCl(g)
HNO3(aq)
HNO3(g)

472.7
0
-80.29
-46.19
-132.5
95.40
0.0
-314.4
-365.6
90.37
33.84
81.6
9.66
52.6
-206.6
-134.3

455.5
0
-26.50
-16.66
-79.31
159.4

-203.0
-184.0
86.71
51.84
103.59
98.28
66.3
-110.5
-73.94

153.3
191.50
111.3
192.5
113.4
238.5

94.6
151
210.62
240.45
220.0
304.3
264
146
266.4

Lithium
Li(g)
Li(s)
Li + 1aq2
Li + 1g2
LiCl(s)

159.3
0
-278.5
685.7
-408.3

126.6
0
-273.4
648.5
-384.0

138.8
29.09
12.2
133.0
59.30

Magnesium
Mg(g)
Mg(s)
MgCl2(s)

Oxygen
O(g)
O2(g)
O3(g)
OH-1aq2
H2O(g)
H2O(l)
H2O2(g)
H2O2(l)

247.5
0
142.3
-230.0
-241.82
-285.83
-136.10
-187.8

230.1
0
163.4
-157.3
-228.57
-237.13
-105.48
-120.4

161.0
205.0
237.6
- 10.7
188.83
69.91
232.9
109.6

147.1
0
-641.6

112.5
0
-592.1

148.6
32.51
89.6

Phosphorus
P(g)
P2(g)

316.4
144.3

280.0
103.7

163.2
218.1

Fluorine
F(g)
F1aq2
F2(g)
HF(g)
Hydrogen
H(g)
H + 1aq2
H + 1g2
H2(g)
Iodine
I(g)
I -1aq2
I2(g)
I2(s)
HI(g)
Iron
Fe(g)
Fe(s)
Fe 2 + 1aq2
Fe 3 + 1aq2
FeCl2(s)
FeCl3(s)
FeO(s)
Fe2O3(s)
Fe3O4(s)
FeS2(s)

S
(J/mol-K )

Substance

S
(J/mol-K )

APPENDIX C Thermodynamic Quantities for Selected Substances at 298.15 K 25 C

Substance
P4(g)
P4(s, red)
P4(s, white)
PCl3(g)
PCl3(l)
PF5(g)
PH3(g)
P4O6(s)
P4O10(s)
POCl3(g)
POCl3(l)
H3PO4(aq)

Hf
(kJ/mol)

Gf
(kJ/mol)

S
(J/mol-K )

58.9
-17.46
0
- 288.07
-319.6
-1594.4
5.4
-1640.1
-2940.1
-542.2
-597.0
-1288.3

24.4
-12.03
0
-269.6
-272.4
-1520.7
13.4

-2675.2
-502.5
-520.9
-1142.6

280
22.85
41.08
311.7
217
300.8
210.2

228.9
325
222
158.2

Potassium
K(g)
K(s)
KCl(s)
KClO3(s)
KClO3(aq)
K2CO3(s)
KNO3(s)
K2O(s)
KO2(s)
K2O2(s)
KOH(s)
KOH(aq)

89.99
0
-435.9
-391.2
-349.5
-1150.18
-492.70
-363.2
-284.5
-495.8
-424.7
-482.4

61.17
0
-408.3
-289.9
-284.9
-1064.58
-393.13
-322.1
-240.6
-429.8
-378.9
-440.5

160.2
64.67
82.7
143.0
265.7
155.44
132.9
94.14
122.5
113.0
78.91
91.6

Rubidium
Rb(g)
Rb(s)
RbCl(s)
RbClO3(s)

85.8
0
-430.5
-392.4

55.8
0
-412.0
-292.0

170.0
76.78
92
152

377.8
0

336.1
0

Scandium
Sc(g)
Sc(s)
Selenium
H2Se(g)
Silicon
Si(g)
Si(s)
SiC(s)
SiCl4(l)
SiO2(s, quartz)
Silver
Ag(s)
Ag + 1aq2
AgCl(s)
Ag2O(s)

29.7
368.2
0
-73.22
-640.1
-910.9
0
105.90
-127.0
-31.05

15.9
323.9
0
-70.85
-572.8
-856.5
0
77.11
-109.70
-11.20

174.7
34.6
219.0
167.8
18.7
16.61
239.3
41.84
42.55
73.93
96.11
121.3

Gf
(kJ/mol)

1061

Substance

Hf
(kJ/mol)

AgNO3(s)

-124.4

Sodium
Na(g)
Na(s)
Na + 1aq2
Na + 1g2
NaBr(aq)
NaBr(s)
Na2CO3(s)
NaCl(aq)
NaCl(g)
NaCl(s)
NaHCO3(s)
NaNO3(aq)
NaNO3(s)
NaOH(aq)
NaOH(s)
Na2SO4(s)

107.7
0
-240.1
609.3
-360.6
-361.4
-1130.9
-407.1
-181.4
-410.9
-947.7
-446.2
-467.9
-469.6
-425.6
-1387.1

77.3
0
-261.9
574.3
-364.7
-349.3
-1047.7
-393.0
-201.3
-384.0
-851.8
-372.4
-367.0
-419.2
-379.5
-1270.2

153.7
51.45
59.0
148.0
141.00
86.82
136.0
115.5
229.8
72.33
102.1
207
116.5
49.8
64.46
149.6

Strontium
SrO(s)
Sr(g)

-592.0
164.4

-561.9
110.0

54.9
164.6

Sulfur
S(s, rhombic)
S8(g)
SO2(g)
SO3(g)
SO42-1aq2
SOCl2(l)
H2S(g)
H2SO4(aq)
H2SO4(l)

0
102.3
-296.9
-395.2
-909.3
-245.6
-20.17
-909.3
-814.0

0
49.7
-300.4
-370.4
-744.5

-33.01
-744.5
-689.9

31.88
430.9
248.5
256.2
20.1

205.6
20.1
156.1

Titanium
Ti(g)
Ti(s)
TiCl4(g)
TiCl4(l)
TiO2(s)

468
0
-763.2
-804.2
-944.7

422
0
-726.8
-728.1
-889.4

180.3
30.76
354.9
221.9
50.29

Vanadium
V(g)
V(s)

514.2
0

453.1
0

Zinc
Zn(g)
Zn(s)
ZnCl2(s)
ZnO(s)

130.7
0
-415.1
-348.0

95.2
0
-369.4
-318.2

-33.41

S
(J/mol-K )
140.9

182.2
28.9

160.9
41.63
111.5
43.9

A P P E N D I X

AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS

TABLE D.1 Dissociation Constants for Acids at 25 C


Name

Formula

Ka1

Acetic acid
Arsenic acid
Arsenous acid
Ascorbic acid
Benzoic acid
Boric acid
Butanoic acid
Carbonic acid
Chloroacetic acid

CH3COOH (or HC2H3O2)


H3AsO4
H3AsO3
H2C6H6O6
C6H5COOH (or HC7H5O2)
H3BO3
C3H7COOH (or HC4H7O2)
H2CO3
CH2ClCOOH (or HC2H2O2Cl)
HClO2
HOOCC(OH) (CH2COOH)2 (or H3C6H5O7)
HCNO
HCOOH (or HCHO2)
HN3
HCN
HF
HCrO4 -

1.8 * 10-5
5.6 * 10-3
5.1 * 10-10
8.0 * 10-5
6.3 * 10-5
5.8 * 10-10
1.5 * 10-5
4.3 * 10-7
1.4 * 10-3
1.1 * 10-2
7.4 * 10-4
3.5 * 10-4
1.8 * 10-4
1.9 * 10-5
4.9 * 10-10
6.8 * 10-4
3.0 * 10-7
2.4 * 10-12
2.2 * 10-2
9.5 * 10-8
2.5 * 10-9
3.0 * 10-8
2.3 * 10-11
1.7 * 10-1
1.4 * 10-4
1.5 * 10-3
4.5 * 10-4
5.9 * 10-2
2.8 * 10-2
1.3 * 10-10
7.5 * 10-3
1.3 * 10-5
3.0 * 10-2
2.3 * 10-3
Strong acid
1.7 * 10-2
1.0 * 10-3

Chlorous acid
Citric acid
Cyanic acid
Formic acid
Hydroazoic acid
Hydrocyanic acid
Hydrofluoric acid
Hydrogen chromate ion
Hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen selenate ion
Hydrogen sulfide
Hypobromous acid
Hypochlorous acid
Hypoiodous acid
Iodic acid
Lactic acid
Malonic acid
Nitrous acid
Oxalic acid
Paraperiodic acid
Phenol
Phosphoric acid
Propionic acid
Pyrophosphoric acid
Selenous acid
Sulfuric acid
Sulfurous acid
Tartaric acid

1062

H2O2
HSeO4 H2S
HBrO
HClO
HIO
HIO3
CH3CH(OH)COOH (or HC3H5O3)
CH2(COOH)2 (or H2C3H2O4)
HNO2
(COOH)2 (or H2C2O4)
H5IO6
C6H5OH (or HC6H5O)
H3PO4
C2H5COOH (or HC3H5O2)
H4P2O7
H2SeO3
H2SO4
H2SO3
HOOC(CHOH)2COOH (or H2C4H4O6)

Ka2

Ka3

1.0 * 10-7

3.0 * 10-12

1.6 * 10-12

5.6 * 10-11

1.7 * 10-5

4.0 * 10-7

1 * 10-19

2.0 * 10-6
6.4 * 10-5
5.3 * 10-9
6.2 * 10-8
4.4
5.3
1.2
6.4

*
*
*
*

10-3
10-9
10-2
10-8

4.2 * 10-13
2.1 * 10-7

APPENDIX D Aqueous Equilibrium Constants

TABLE D.2 Dissociation Constants for Bases at 25 C


Name

Formula

Kb

Ammonia
Aniline
Dimethylamine
Ethylamine
Hydrazine
Hydroxylamine
Methylamine
Pyridine
Trimethylamine

NH3
C6H5NH2
(CH3)2NH
C2H5NH2
H2NNH2
HONH2
CH3NH2
C5H5N
(CH3)3N

1.8
4.3
5.4
6.4
1.3
1.1
4.4
1.7
6.4

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

10-5
10-10
10-4
10-4
10-6
10-8
10-4
10-9
10-5

TABLE D.3 Solubility-Product Constants for Compounds at 25 C


Name

Formula

Ksp

Name

Formula

Ksp

Barium carbonate
Barium chromate
Barium fluoride
Barium oxalate
Barium sulfate
Cadmium carbonate
Cadmium hydroxide
Cadmium sulfide*
Calcium carbonate (calcite)
Calcium chromate
Calcium fluoride
Calcium hydroxide
Calcium phosphate
Calcium sulfate
Chromium(III) hydroxide
Cobalt(II) carbonate
Cobalt(II) hydroxide
Cobalt(II) sulfide*
Copper(I) bromide
Copper(II) carbonate
Copper(II) hydroxide
Copper(II) sulfide*
Iron(II) carbonate
Iron(II) hydroxide
Lanthanum fluoride
Lanthanum iodate
Lead(II) carbonate
Lead(II) chloride
Lead(II) chromate

BaCO3
BaCrO4
BaF2
BaC2O4
BaSO4
CdCO3
Cd(OH)2
CdS
CaCO3
CaCrO4
CaF2
Ca(OH)2
Ca3(PO4)2
CaSO4
Cr(OH)3
CoCO3
Co(OH)2
CoS
CuBr
CuCO3
Cu(OH)2
CuS
FeCO3
Fe(OH)2
LaF3
La(IO3)3
PbCO3
PbCl2
PbCrO4

5.0 * 10-9
2.1 * 10-10
1.7 * 10-6
1.6 * 10-6
1.1 * 10-10
1.8 * 10-14
2.5 * 10-14
8 * 10-28
4.5 * 10-9
4.5 * 10-9
3.9 * 10-11
6.5 * 10-6
2.0 * 10-29
2.4 * 10-5
1.6 * 10-30
1.0 * 10-10
1.3 * 10-15
5 * 10-22
5.3 * 10-9
2.3 * 10-10
4.8 * 10-20
6 * 10-37
2.1 * 10-11
7.9 * 10-16
2 * 10-19
7.4 * 10-14
7.4 * 10-14
1.7 * 10-5
2.8 * 10-13

Lead(II) fluoride
Lead(II) sulfate
Lead(II) sulfide*
Magnesium hydroxide
Magnesium carbonate
Magnesium oxalate
Manganese(II) carbonate
Manganese(II) hydroxide
Manganese(II) sulfide*
Mercury(I) chloride
Mercury(I) iodide
Mercury(II) sulfide*
Nickel(II) carbonate
Nickel(II) hydroxide
Nickel(II) sulfide*
Silver bromate
Silver bromide
Silver carbonate
Silver chloride
Silver chromate
Silver iodide
Silver sulfate
Silver sulfide*
Strontium carbonate
Tin(II) sulfide*
Zinc carbonate
Zinc hydroxide
Zinc oxalate
Zinc sulfide*

PbF2
PbSO4
PbS
Mg(OH)2
MgCO3
MgC2O4
MnCO3
Mn(OH)2
MnS
Hg2Cl2
Hg2I2
HgS
NiCO3
Ni(OH)2
NiS
AgBrO3
AgBr
Ag2CO3
AgCl
Ag2CrO4
AgI
Ag2SO4
Ag2S
SrCO3
SnS
ZnCO3
Zn(OH)2
ZnC2O4
ZnS

3.6 * 10-8
6.3 * 10-7
3 * 10-28
1.8 * 10-11
3.5 * 10-8
8.6 * 10-5
5.0 * 10-10
1.6 * 10-13
2 * 10-53
1.2 * 10-18
1.1 * 10-1.1
2 * 10-53
1.3 * 10-7
6.0 * 10-16
3 * 10-20
5.5 * 10-13
5.0 * 10-13
8.1 * 10-12
1.8 * 10-10
1.2 * 10-12
8.3 * 10-17
1.5 * 10-5
6 * 10-51
9.3 * 10-10
1 * 10-26
1.0 * 10-10
3.0 * 10-16
2.7 * 10-8
2 * 10-25

*For a solubility equilibrium of the type MS(s) + H2O(l) M2 + (aq) + HS-(aq) + OH-(aq)

1063