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ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006

Informatics Computer Institute

Introduction:

Robotics from this generation the 20th century has gone far broad. People widens
their knowledge evolving from simple to digital and to far more advance technology that
man could ever create.

The concept in studying Robotics is to improve human’s way of life the
technology on how people react to what Robots can help in making their life easier,
flexible and reliable to it. Involving a fast pace system without any hassle work saves
more time to other important things in priority to work Robots are a great help to humans
life pressure.

The composition of the project is building a software and hardware using
Microchip Assembly Language, C language and Java language. We will develop a simple
Line Following Robot by assembling its parts and materials, using electronics involving
to its hardware and software. We will control this Line Following Robot through the
software we use, building its behavior through the software, programming its language
using codes loading it to its microchips to let the hardware execute.

The program we create will compile with the PONYPROG and
MPASM/MPLAB. These three software tools are the compiler and loader or editor and
stimulators of the complete program C language of Java. To load the compiled programs
to the PIC microchips controllers it will need hardware with serial ports. This is the
hardware that will become the bridge of the computer and the PIC controllers.

The computer can detect this hardware functionality. The design we develop,
we build dual controller detection in one machine. The aim of the project is to make a
robot which can follow a black strip on a white floor. The robot can be used in many
companies inside their warehouses doing the arrangements or piling the stocks, it can also
be use as transport vehicle inside a warehouse the robot can act as a path guider in normal
works inside an office guides the visitors.

C2006 Thesis II: Page 1

Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan
Daryl Dawn B. Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa

ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006
Informatics Computer Institute

What is Robotics

Robotics is the science and technology of robot, their design, manufacture, and
application. Robotics requires a working knowledge of electronics, mechanics and
software, and is usually accompanied by a large working knowledge of many subjects. A
person working in the field is a robotics.

Although the appearance and capabilities of robots vary vastly, all robots share
the features of a mechanical, movable structure under some form of autonomous control.
The structure of a robot is usually mostly mechanical and can be called a kinematical
chain (its functionality being akin to the skeleton of the human body). The chain is
formed of links (its bones), actuators (its muscles) and joints which can allow one or
more degrees of freedom.

Most contemporary robots use open serial chains in which each link connects the
one before to the one after it. These robots are called serial robots and often resemble the
human arm. Some robots, such as the Stewart platform, use closed parallel kinematical
chains. Other structures such as those that mimic, the mechanical structure of humans,
various animals and insects, are comparatively rare. Robots used as manipulators have an
end effectors mounted on the last link.

C2006 Thesis II: Page 2

Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan
Daryl Dawn B. Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa

ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006 Informatics Computer Institute Fact Finding: Justification Our study and justification of our system involves an important role in the human world. These electronic parts are the ones initiates all the movements. their functions how they react inside and the output of the materials. The will to invent. C2006 Thesis II: Page 3 Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan Daryl Dawn B. Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa . Our goal is to achieve in the success in studying the robotics world to contribute for the Filipinos as well to prove ourselves that we can reach this goal and to be successful in professional in the IT/Programming Industry. discover new things that would improve the system or new applications of the life cycle of humans. group of students. The connectivity of these two applications plays a very important relation between the developers deciding how the robot behaves in a situation programmed to its components. The line following robot runs in a multi task environment both the hardware and the software interacts and reacts to the loaded codes. We ourselves learned that we can probably create it ourselves studying the materials the parts. We can make this system work with critical minds hungry for accomplishment to this project we produce. behaviors of the line following robot system hardware and software. diagrams that explain all each of its parts inside. We the team informatics group of students can create this as well. The system robotics strongly involves electronic circuits. A lot of Great Filipino minds succeed on this journey to study how to produce or create using robotics and the world widespread affects this system We the group students practicing how robotics system works. Due to influences through foreign countries the study of robotics caught the minds of the Filipinos. Our group believes that we can do this as what the previous Filipino geniuses have accomplished. The creative minds. societies and organizations supports the knowledge acquiring robotics not only in this local country.

Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa .ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006 Informatics Computer Institute C2006 Thesis II: Page 4 Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan Daryl Dawn B.

ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006 Informatics Computer Institute C2006 Thesis II: Page 5 Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan Daryl Dawn B. Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa .

ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006 Informatics Computer Institute C2006 Thesis II: Page 6 Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan Daryl Dawn B. Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa .

Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa .ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006 Informatics Computer Institute C2006 Thesis II: Page 7 Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan Daryl Dawn B.

ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006 Informatics Computer Institute C2006 Thesis II: Page 8 Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan Daryl Dawn B. Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa .

ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006 Informatics Computer Institute C2006 Thesis II: Page 9 Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan Daryl Dawn B. Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa .

ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006 Informatics Computer Institute C2006 Thesis II: Page 10 Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan Daryl Dawn B. Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa .

If a white line is present then it will reflect a Lot of IR from our source. Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa . If the line is black then we see the opposite effect. Line follower robot is a mobile machine that can detect and follow line which is drawn on the floor. the control system will create for robot some orders to respect components in purposes of making correct movements of the robot. after that. components and the features revolving to it connecting through the software using the Ponyprog and the MPASM/MPLAB controls the program codes of the system C2006 Thesis II: Page 11 Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan Daryl Dawn B.ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006 Informatics Computer Institute Description of the New System: The line following robot will need to see the line. This hardware involves the electronic circuits. The Robot should read for identifying its position in some time. The weapon of choice here will be Infra Red (IR) light. therefore we require a light detector. To make this easy for ourselves the light only needs to be constant. The path can be a visible black line on a white surface or reverse. PIC Programmer The hardware of the system where the loading of codes takes place applying all the elements needed to make the system work accurately and follows instructions loaded.

Power Supply Connect a 15V DC or AC adapter to the DC input of the PIC programmer C2006 Thesis II: Page 12 Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan Daryl Dawn B. The advantage of this programmer is that it uses the serial RS232 COM port which is freely accessible in NT 2000 and XP.ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006 Informatics Computer Institute The PIC programmer needs to connect to a COM port of a pc to be able to rub and use its components and features. Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa .

Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa .ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006 Informatics Computer Institute The PIC programmer Diagram C2006 Thesis II: Page 13 Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan Daryl Dawn B.

MPLAB IDE also serves as a single. Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa . is easy to use for the components for fast application development and super-charged debugging. unified graphical user interface for additional Microchip and third party software and hardware development tools. Moving between tools and upgrading from the software simulator to hardware debug is easy. Integrated toolset for the development of embedded applications employing Microchip's PIC and dsPIC microcontrollers.ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006 Informatics Computer Institute MPLAB Integrated Development Environment What is MPLAB IDE? MPLAB Integrated Development Environment. MPLAB IDE runs as a 32-bit application on MS Windows. Below is an illustration of the MPLAB IDE Software Environment C2006 Thesis II: Page 14 Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan Daryl Dawn B.

C and BASIC code readability • Mouse over variable to instantly evaluate the contents of variables and registers • Set breakpoints and tracepoints directly in editor to instantly make changes and evaluate their effects • Graphical project manager • Version control support for MS Source Safe. Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa .ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006 Informatics Computer Institute MPLAB IDE features: Flexible customizable programmer's text editor • Fully integrated debugging with right mouse click menus for breakpoints. Subversion Free components C2006 Thesis II: Page 15 Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan Daryl Dawn B. trace and editor functions • Tabbed editor option or separate source windows • Recordable macros • Context sensitive color highlighting for assembly. PVCS. CVS.

high speed software simulator for PIC and dsPIC devices with peripheral simulation.ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006 Informatics Computer Institute • Programmer’s text editor • MPLAB SIM. complex stimulus injection and register logging • Full featured debugger • MPASM™ and MPLINK for PIC MCUs and dsPIC DSC devices • HI-TECH C PRO for PIC10/12/16 MCU Families running in lite mode • CCS PCB C Compiler • Labcenter Electronic’s Proteus VSM spice simulator • Many Powerful Plug-Ins including • ○ AN851 Bootloader programmer • ○ AN901 BLDC Motor Control Interface • ○ AN908 ACIM Tuning Interface Cereberes Scheme C2006 Thesis II: Page 16 Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan Daryl Dawn B. Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa .

Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa .ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006 Informatics Computer Institute Materials Requirement C2006 Thesis II: Page 17 Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan Daryl Dawn B.

ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006 Informatics Computer Institute The components list of the line following robot Transistor Diode Resistor Capacitor 847 – 4pcs. 100n – 10pcs. Zener Diode LED IC Socket Voltage & Regulator 6V – 3pcs. 1N4007 – 4pcs. 4148 – 3pcs. 10k – 10pcs. 4k – 10pcs. Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa . 1k – 10pcs. Non-Polarized: 2k2 – 5pcs. PIC16F84A Socket 78L05 or +5volts DC 13V – 3pcs Red – 1pc. Green – 1pc. 18pins Regulator VGA Female socket 220 AC->12v/15v DC step-down transformer List of Symbols V – Volts R – Resistors D – Diodes C – Capacitors DC – Direct Current IC – Integrated Chip T – Transistors Ohms - C2006 Thesis II: Page 18 Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan Daryl Dawn B. Polarized: 857 – 2pcs. 47u – 5pcs. 1n – 5pcs.

makes it hard to debug a faulty sensor.  Calibration is difficult.  Lack of a four wheel drive.  Lack of speed control makes the robot unstable.ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006 Informatics Computer Institute Process Flows Problems and Limitation of the System  Choice of the line is made in the hardware abstraction and can be change by software. and it is not easy to set a perfect value.  The Steering mechanism is not easily implemented in huge vehicles and impossible for non-electric vehicles (petrol powered).  Few curves are not made efficiently. Scopes and Constrains C2006 Thesis II: Page 19 Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan Daryl Dawn B. and must be avoided.  Use of IR even though solves a lot of problems pertaining to interference. Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa . makes it not suitable for a rough terrain.

Hardware and Software Selection C2006 Thesis II: Page 20 Khalil Vanz A Quilab 0526-0608i3264 Dwight Tan Daryl Dawn B.1: Able to create a running and working line following robot. Desquitado 0526-0607i3227 Ralph Roa .ROBOTICS: Line Following Robot Thesis II C2006 Informatics Computer Institute Requirement Specification Module 1: Database Administration 1. 1.4: Able to detect the designated colors. 1. 1.3: Able to initiate the language programmed.2: Able to follow command inputs loads and development.