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THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

:>^°•
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
NEW YORK

BOSTON CHICAGO DALLAS
SAN FRANCISCO

ATLANTA

MACMILLAN &
LONDON

CO., Limited

BOMBAY CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN

CO. OF
TORONTO

CANADA,

Ltd.

THE
FIRST

YEAR OF GREEK

BY

JAMES TURNEY ALLEN,

Ph.D.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF GREEK
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

"Ntta

gork

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1917
All rights reserved

258

COPTEIGHT, 1917,

THE MACMILLAX COMPANY.
Set up and electrotyped.

Published August, 1917.

Nortoooti ^rees

Berwick & Smith Co.
Norwood. Mass., U.S.A.

J. 8. Gushing Co.

many are content with but a single year. seniors. my "Old Wine See Chronicle." . subordinate. moreover. and should not be expected. 235-242 First Year of Bottles. Greek " University of California reprinted in revised form luider the in pp. New (1913). V The Classical Journal.PREFACE However regrettable may it seem. years.^ . caption " XV The in pp. .^ 1 See my article Classical JotirnaL 2 "College Students Beginning the Study of Greek. students each year begin the study of Greek after entering and this number is certain to increase. pp. for the majority. during the past decade or so Greek has come to be in this country largely Already approximately four thousand a college subject. richer. and even graduates. the content of the first Just so far as year. all of these freshmen and sophomores Statistics show. X (1915). For it is clear that students of college age do not desire. 331-332. possible in so brief a period the student is must be given the opportunity of reading in their original form choice por- Greek tions of literature of the Hellenic — the finest flower and revealing To mind. 262-266. that the majority do not continue the study beyond two Indeed. . to begin the study of a language in precisely the same manner as children of fourteen or fifteen. this end all other objects are. Nor are many are juniors. The course must be more compressed college." XII (1917). These new conditions under which the study of Greek is begun have given rise to a new and serious problem.

A first addressed and exercises was prepared. times a week may who recite in this subject but College classes which meet five complete the work in less than a year.' and these. grammar (Part II). and exercises Part II. there are only a few that are not worthy to be memorized. Many of the lessons. The selections have been chosen for their and graded with greatest care. As title its series lessons of indicates. were used with successive classes until more than three hundred students had been introduced to the study of Greek by their means. are followed by a supplement which may be treated in one of two intrinsic merit to be read (')^ . For in learning a language like Greek there is hardly any exercise more helpful than memorizing and reproducing from memory suitable passages both in prose and verse. it is designed to provide material for an entire year for pupils of high-school age and for college students three times each week. This book is the fruition of this long-continued experiment. Follow- followed (^) ). and deserve and re-read many times. moreover. a grammar Qy The scheme of the lessons is fairly uniform. It consists of two parts Part I contains lessons by a vocabulary. followed in many instances by a quotation to be learned by heart. by five different teachers both in preparatory school and in college. annually revised. notes . moreover. They were used. The plan of the book is simple. which indeed was one of the chief considerations in determining their choice. one or more selections for reading. In fact. and ('). Each begins with a numeral.PREFACE VI More than eight years have passed since I myself to this problem. (^) ing these in turn are references to the a vocabulary.

additional lessons. and similar exercises. Non-essentials . they will be found pansion. Such exercises cannot be repeated too frequently. coupled with the fact that lessons and grammar have been carefully articulated. Occasionally a passage containing a rare word or an unusual construcBut these are exceptional. abundant material for both oral and written work. are intended to accompany the lessons and should be regarded as suggestions admitting of indefinite imitation and exAlthough very incomplete. 178. ^ to provide. Experience has demonstrated. selections both in the lessons (^)^ The grammar (Part II) contains practically all that the Homer and have been omitted. while forms of infrequent occurrence. p. In tion has been admitted. All of the and in these have been taken directly from Greek literature.PREFACE ways. should make this portion of the book one of invaluable service. that this method in the case of Greek is not very successful with mature students. The exercises which conclude Part I. . receive but slight attention. such as those of the pluperfect. writing from dictation. The marking of the long vowels in such words as Bevrepa. These yield themselves more readily to the memorizing of selections. But a sincere attempt has been made to state all fundamental principles not only briefly but clearly. and this feature of the grammar. if treated in this manner. the main only common words and standard constructions will be found in these pages. others Some may be used may be assigned as Vll as exercises in reading at sight. even for those teachers who desire to employ the " direct " method. 1 See the note prefixed to Exercise II. and the like may pupil will need until he begins the reading of drama. however.

. I make grateful acknoAvledgement. but has been adhered to consistently throughout for the sake of its pedagogical value. 1917. University of California. and these entirely from his Memorabilia^ pupil who successfully completes these lessons ready for the Anabasis or any similar text.vni PREFACE seem unnecessary. June 1. Although few of the selections in this volume are taken from Xenophon. the is To all vho have aided in the preparation of this book. and especially to my students whose good-will and forbearance have made possible its thorough testing.

.CONTENTS PART I PAGES Lessons I-LXXX Additional Selections for Reading Exercises . . 1-149 150-176 177-214 • PART II The Grammar 217-339 Vocabulary 341-375 ...

.

MEPOX TO PART I THE LESSONS .

.

see Part II (TO a. it) is. ''^ — Greek proverb. - loord. av. See half. 5 b. Ace. Quantity. §§ 1. Cf. he (she. archaic. § 6 a-e ev. () he (she. est. and. . . ^ The pupil need learn at in this lesson. () Cf. c . ou). -logy. scholium. . § 24 a. €v ^ in (the) beginning. " Well begun. §§ 8. first. the mathe- this (one) he. of all (things). 9 f. Cf. speech. c. 1 Pronunciation. § 4 a (Diphthongs: at. the beginning. '. § 9 a. logic. § 2.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK €19 I. erat. it) icas. all. . § 3 (Vowels). a eV. the. Breathings. /txtct. € in the presence of God. -. et. b. PI. . matics. Accents. e (Consonants) For the Alphabet (o . theology. Iv in. 01. the note. half clone. Lat.i Punctuation Marks. . god. rbv to the lesson. irpos Cf. Cf prototype. To '^ (The) beginning (is the) — ) half of ). . first only so much of the alphabet as occurs . the god. €08 Cf. Cf. Lat. semi.

The \6yos. self. dear. To AcvTcpov Thorough review Lesson I. George.. but. rears. beautifully.. even. 6 18. and. () § 13 b. see VocabuCrasis. like bed. 8. he (she. Cf. . see § 198. '-'. also. (/cat iv) even hndly. including a mastery of both quotations.).. automaton. § 4 b. ytup-^/os (0) farmer. « ^» () - See il/aii^ewxvi. ^eoj is See put article is first '. EN APXHI HN ^ 6 o. debs . ? of ). philosopher. (see Preface). Cf. polemic. Cf. in the (fertile) plain. Irene. Pron. Cf. well. lary of Proper Names. in. . Peter. as in etc. Cf. another. . iv Eng. ill. the friend. § 4 b. and. 171 on time. These should be studied until they can be reproduced from memory either orally or in writing Improper Diphthongs. The article is omitted. . <£ (before a vowel. sophomore. rocky hillside. allopathic. plain.pxfj 6 6 iv — ^. () one fond of wisdom. omitted with . Ace. Cf. Tbv yewpyov. even ^ -- Cf. even - among () war. () peace. ireSCov () it) nourishes.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 2 . § 189. ivise. (the) rocks. § 15. ^v 6 the predicate. For Aristotle and Menander. clever. (). because this is in for emphasis. rock.

xviii. KU\y-iI \ w_i_ represents a long syllable where the meter strictly calls for a short. \. and this the very inscription which stood over the door in his day Note the capital letters (§ 1 c). ). (. — > I half v/_i. 4). thus rj 6 : (Supplement See Exercise 1 (H. is metrical . ^ MevavBpov. Second Lesson) i \rCjrHE^\> 2]^ [^ Fragment Synagogue of the Hebrews inscription from a synagogue at Corinth (c/. 103 a. See § scheme of this line 6 ' — hillsides of and a ^-. from Menander v^^^_:_ I w-i. The wirpais.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ] 4 1. 2... I The Greece are very rocky. Beginning with this lesson each noun is accompanied in the word-list by the appropriate form of the article in parenthesis.) and the Exercises . Acts perhaps not impossible that this was the synagogue in which Paul preached. . of an It is ! {) 1 For the use of the Supplements see the Preface. to the . These should be pronounced and memorized in the reverse order. in which the sign .

" . . § 180 § 21 (learn the full declension of each) — . deed. . 901-902. = () €(() all things. the use of €. ' — ®€oyvL9. these.v. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 4 . better. viola . as ovScis there is nothing. of Proper € Names. III. oiSeis no one poSov () rose. violet. megaphone. worse. Bible. Agreement. each. Cf. skilled. () human being. ovbiv there 3 and . -. Cf. . §§ 190. celery. is ' before. For Theognis and the Elegiac couplet see the Vocabulary and U. here {they are).' (- Gf. . Werk. 1. § 10 accented ' c. - . large. . Gco-yvis. () parsley. book. /. Cf. II. Cf. (fepy-). and . Cf Germ. els) Rhodes. Accusative of Specification. PI. loise. work Meya — 2. Thorough review ' no one. € of Lessons I €. . )( 6 . anthropology. . great. {). 191. To ' 6 ov8eU epyop • '.. €() Lat. s. § 100. . § 113 d.

especially phrases.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK The Elegiac couplet quoted above from Theognis has the following metrical form -i_ww l-i-ww I-: -: |_l. The metrical form (§ 8. are a fragment of an ancient Flower song. 10. I v^ v:y \y\yK^ \ \y-L- I | v^ ]Miere for Supply kari (§ 103 b) roses 9 my vi/ me >_:_ \ w | | w_:_ w vv | <^ v-/ | <^ v:/ w_i_ | (are) the roses? | \^_l. () oi/5eis The avros no one of verses beginning human kind {is in) himself. etc. Enclitics. ' To 6 . Accents. aiWva Exercise 2 beautiful parsley. 9 f. § Exercise 3 (H ). 9 e). >_^ >^wv^ I w . a so-called pentameter. ' -. The latter always has a strongly marked pause in the third foot. ( IV.€.e. The ancient Greeks greatly admired the feathery leaves of the parsley. ). Avith special reference to words. The first verse is an hexameter the second. — ' . The city Seli'nus was named from the plant. Proclitics. and frequently used them in the making of chaplets. § 9 (entire. § 11. and quotations. .) is as follows: . i.ww !_: _:_-1-^^ -: I I | -J-^^ |_: w | _i. ^-J- I >-L. the response by the chorus who danced as they sang. . \J /\ \ w Where are my (§ 100). which was sung by a chorus of girls and their leader the first verse by the leader. Thorough review.

are. delphia. . - brother. ka-^iv () i<rrL(v) est. § 9 a. c. All the forms of which appear in this lesson are enclitic. ( 4-.) tomathy. et cetera. 1 sumus. () good. chres- '. Agatha. § 111 Second Declension. ( root of this verb (to be) . THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK -) it I am (ior you are (thou () sumA Cf. estis. () physician. Lat. A-B is 6 .'^ Cf. mater. () : () sister. ! . pers. See Exercise 3. Xoiiros - born of the same womb. pediatric. written At that period these words were identical in pronunciaof this verb : . ). — Enclitics (type II) § 10 b. ei. § 106 . 2 In early Christian times the word was often. useful. V/ MeXer?. '^. 8^. they are. 2 Uses of Avtos self. sorrow. . art). mother. tion.. Phila- Cf. Cf. -. ' . sing. esse. the . e 6 Herewith Exercise 4 The () father. ' To Accents. sunt. Cf. b. left. § 29 /. through instead as though from a misconception. . (ye) are. $ Cf. good. except that of the sec. hence ? we •( you es. pater. This form never loses its accent. remaining. Gen. Uses of the Cases. () \6.. (J)) grief. (.

"'. larger. before. iav y. .. " Practice makes (thing). I. (tVos). oXos entire. . Common a. adjectives usually have only ttvo endings. -o" double. }. ts «€ 4$. roO ^lari. perfect. beautiful. Lat. £<rov '.). KOINAI ENNOIAI Axioms (Gr. unequal. . mal each § 26.''^ The equals of 1 the same (thing) Adjectives (at least those of the first-second declension type) nor- mally have three endings in the nominative. and. Practice (is) away). thus: M. holocaust. times (). § 195. . added). (( () Cf. €$ () from. § 100. € former. ^ . etc. - : M. ) ' . isother- greater.-F. . thus . .. are. e . But comi)OMnd &. you and Cf. many if. }. Gen. lohole. lav iav \ ^. -^ ^ '. F. the lohole . «ov equal. {air\ 7 £ both and. the halves ().THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -5 wnegwaZi other. Notions) of Euclid. § 6 f) (Gen. ? -(^?).^ . 7) (be (he taken .

. graphic) . . imperative.— 1. the () mind. 162. 3• 'Tyieia iv 4- . 171 (first sentence). 6 2. . the chief difficulties encountered The Verb. § 79 A. . . regular verb (active voice). biology. for. THE FIRST 8 — . taking as the type the verb I am In the loosing. foolish. 8 . -1' VI. understanding. . Read carefully §§ 131.— . — ^ . ^ Thorough review of forms. OF GREEK Alt () $ Cf. life. unfastening. To — I-V (97 . vovs . Lessons Exercise 5 One of student when he r 1^. . and the optative. and infinitive of the progressive action-stem of the is found in the inflection conjugational system is . vyitia § 184. Cf. by essays the mastery of ancient Greek of the verb. quotations.. phrases. 113. and 144. The trouble arises in the main from the multithe scheme of the conjugation is plicity of the forms simple and clear. * : ). 133 (first and last sentences). hygiene. Learn the present indicative. for the Greek more elaborate even than that of Latin.-ov () health. dull. same way conjugate : (c/. words. — .

I . . Hence means Bich may I believe the wise (to be)\ This quofrom the famous prayer of Socrates with which Plato closes his Verbs of thinking regularly tive of the 6 tation ' is verb iu to be'' (eiV) is eJvaL ^ () Phaedrus. . have . talking Qcf. oi . nor yet. The infini(= esse). am / am . . -. in that place. neither . diameter. ( . custom. . . as follows € Greek govern the infinitive. Uranus. () %M € through. Cf. . (). (both not treasure- Cf. irXovo-ios rich. ? otrov where(ever) PI. recognize again (^ava)). nor not). heaven. () For the thief. plutocrat. epigram. not . reading I (lit. sky. Cf. / am (imper. recessive accent in the imperative of the trisyllabic polysyllabic verbs. thesaurus. () 1 Cf. - 9 ? house. . ittL upon (Gen. / . cardiac. « ' Repeat in negative form. () heart. see § 78. . . Cf. urging (^commanding') I hold as customary. there. (/^) steal tomaniac. . . TTjs upon (7/.'). and the .). Herewith Exercise 6 (H --- (( () dig through treasure up €•• (). the earth. . believe {cf. . () loealth. I rejoice Xoyo^). and . VII. regard. To ^.). treasure. law}. - telling.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK € •-^ €€' I am I holding. Cf. 9 . clex3- . () . Learn by heart the passage from Matthew quoted below.

evayyeKiou - 2. /. 694. having KapTTOs {) fruit. .-6 — ' true. ^ . ' . carpology.{' e/cet . ' — . Adverb. . 'OpeaTij. bring. Cf. ev Instrumental-Oiitive. '^^^ tff-Ka' . 6^ 1. § 121. oiSe — . VIII. ' . . 2.. to disappear. 3. bear.. The Accusative as . . . . e^eiv. To ''} The . 6 . ^. . moth and rust (eating) make{s) will be. " TTOvot^ ' § e. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 10 Mr) 7^?> iv . 113 fero. $ — 3• « — 6 4• . winged.<. 5 yap — .

/ might. what? why? . En- clitic. pain. master. how? who? irovos if. T^v) iav) () and () if. 7. etc. () ttus evei'y () Voc. Cf. ris. § 156. labor. b) Question of Appeal. lord. little. : letter. . b) Potential. i/i'e Eat» - oiJSets. Mou. § 162. Uses of the Subjunctive (negative always ') : a) Exhortation. despot. message. () toil. . : § GREEK 11 143. microscope. = writing a should. () one.F^^i? OF //£: Jf/BSr The Verb Moods. § 167 A. any thing. epistle. § 163. (c5) (= etc. $ 8€($ = all.. Zar<7e (prizes). one. Learn the subjunctive (active voice) of the progressive § 79 A. . 165. and conjugate the verbs in the action-stem of following clauses. small. Uses of the Optative (§ 161) : a) Wish. c) Conditional Clauses. if Herewith Exercise 5 I be Cf.) seize or grasp. § 168 A. I. repeating the full clause each time a) iav /3) iav ) €1 ) el if <. c) . or no i/ (Subj. § 155.). -. even letter. <^ ^ €av (. {would. . could. . ns any €^ ^\— less. Conditional Clauses.

. enjoy. 174. . 2. . : Omission of Noun. " € § : 103 d. loosing. possessions. will have. ei^€t9 — — . -ovres : something. . etc. and participle. ' IX. optative. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK ^ 12 . § 6f (end)).'. . ' . €)(€ ^. . we pi. . am urging €€' ^ The Thus : : ov €€£- my brother to he writing / am not urging him (to " participle ends in -. pi. wealth.2. . 1 Conjugate the following (employing iav (neg. pi. I enjoy writing. ive shall have. . ?. review the progressive action-stem subjunctive. lam). . ^ . §§ 100. property. !>- To Koim 6 — — Agreement. \€%.. 4• ??? TL. things.. present infinitive. ovSev y 3• 1. iav with the subjunctive forms) stealing these (things). ' €)(€ . ). . " . iav Tis V if one be (subjunctive of 3. imperative. — &€(. '. ?|ets you pray (imperative). . ^ do) \ / am ) not / ov this. 101 The Verb indicative.

The Future learn the conjugation of the future active . optative. () Cf. tJXlov aeXyjvrj. Formation of the Future. § 61 a. f. the Fut. Ace. can. (1) (3) 710 ! NO (can). not I! ! . yes! € . /.''' moon. ^\ (An Ancient Drinking Song) ^\ ^ yrj jLteXatva irivei. § 52 formations. c. ).'''' often means or ipQ ''tell. TTLvei 6 '- 0€ oevope ' -L. dron. .). Cf. . craipos ? -- () geography. sea. (do). by ' ! €€ ! by Zetis. () () earth. thalassocracy. 5 . heliotrope. rhododen- 1 sun. : shall speak the truth (io-morroio) Herewith Exercise £ ^ (2) (do.''' . () () () comrade. selenite. Master the verbs Conjugate the following cited in these sections. commonly means . participle) of § 79 a. : (indicative.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 13 — personal endings Verb-roots and verb-stems. Cf. / ( 8. mean " I shall tell. by Zeus € certainly ! Zeus no. infinitive. Cf. Although " I shall \y speak. etc. etc. 54. tree. thematic and non-thematic §§ 53. Cf. () drink.

& 4. wishing. Herewith Exercise ^. § 28 dear this sister. soul.e. the earth. . . () folly ($). () jwssession. or. Cf. € « () silence. i. In Attic Greek the plural of (id est). . § 12 a. -dative) of Cause. Uses of the Cases. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 14 1. Why. . . . 2. comrades. breath. etc. Dative (Instrum. -^ . . see ToSe . A the 78.^. XaXtvos () bridle. €recommended It is self. vtvet course § 100. large. yrj the dark earth. The poet has here employed an . (^ (entire). misogynist. of for of Anacreontics. § {cf. her. . To '' First Declension. . etc.' . () better.. me myself also ).. coreopsis)). § 111. Genitive with Comparatives. . it ol . l ^ . be learned by heart.) s.many. do you contend ing ? (with agree with with . 9.() ( See the sake of the meter. 117 b. maiden First-Second Declension Adjectives. more p^'eciotis. Means. . Cf. either . ] 2.. it. yri () wrath. () mood. . xoisdom. ^$ . § is that in spite of the evident inferi- ority of this Anacreontic The rrtvtiv me when I too wish These verses are from the collection Vocabulary.v. (. Psyche. to be drink- and wishing.. 40 A. my . § 121. () woman. — '<. Ionic form. temper.

^' ' -^ — . 233. 442. — \ opyfj 5' '.. . . § 12 C. 15 (her) father Semon set up here (this) monument . . . . . 3- 4• ... 264. . try (imperative). it) gives. *H Xeye 7- 8. . 224. 2. rt — . — 9• 6. 482. 208. 414. ^. — — '4.. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 1. 9. < —'. . he (she... ^eipov eaTL 5• 6. Attic Tomb Inscription ^^ ( %^ ^r^ ivOaSe For Lys'ea 552. An Early 549. ). . . 6 oi/Sev — ... . . . . — .

worthless.€vav8po^. . or. . () yet. . . !. ' (VI. bad. and polygon. Cf. - (17) . wait. triangle under. (. . § 19 a). Cf. less.. 45). . angle. . in '. therefore. abide. not. — M. € aya^ol•'. stretch under. (/). . . pleurisy. () 2. either (Ace. B. : € ' § . . remain. . 10. . 120 d.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 16 ). greater. .' the (one) abiding. iv ev 6 2. 28 A. shorter. — . The - -.and : -as. subtend. . sub that. larger. . la feminine and masculine nouns The Dative with Adjectives (vy if. then. First Declension and word. on I say \iy that. 6 6 — 6$ 1. . late love. § Herewith Exercise w) () corjier. evayyeKiov -'. 416.. iwKXToKrjs TTJs nor side. 1. To <. ) smaller. . '8 XI. .

. € of every triangle.'''' for etc. . on the one hand now. . etc. . . 17 ' ort . 4 ^ . ^ nor yet surely. ties the sentence with the preceding sentence. ^ . : . 3. ^' . . So in line 9 (/ etc. . thus on the other hand. 6/ : (loe ( We say "i?i . In now on the one hand this instance. wliile looks forward to a balancing clause with (§ 190). . .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^ " . 1. etc. however. has been supplanted by the more emphatic 7. having the angle under irXevpa 4. .) ywviav (having) say " at ") greater. . Et " /cat .for ' ? {) if not. now then. Note the order ). .. ^) . ort 1 -. 5 ^. . nor yet. ' €<. 8e. TOY -. . . every. yap .. €( let there be. ^ 6.. .

evXaXov ' ''^ \^vj(r]V \8 /. : EQUAL is not. s/ioio (Set|ai). E. the very (point) which it-was-necessary («Set) to eSei Q. . ? . was shown. § 28 A. ' — MeXea7/30i?. 10. -not) it 17. loould he {hvLtis. heart the sweetly prattling maid. hath Love himself portrayed. The Declension of Adjectives (first-second declension). Within soul of my my 8<. TOY ^ ? ^'^^7' 5 -^^. 40 A. C. and XII. . ) ' ' he . The First Declension (entire). l^ To €<. hv ^v it 14. D { }). Walter Headlam. So in Observe the emphatic position of lines 8. (entire). etc. (§ 198) in 10. — Translation by Dr.. B. 13. 8. soul. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 18 7. D.

' is '. . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . . . . side. . otl . ^. iv\a\os -ou sweetly prattling = to prattle). base. . Svolv 19 (Gen.. 'E/jws 25 Ivtos imthin Acc. . Dat. plastic). '' . ^^ 2 ySao'tl•' () - .. . ' . . €€5 step. -^ ) .. . . line. . e^ovTa.). ^. . («. Gen.*? . - each €(} each 'rav (of ' {cf. Eros) fashioned {cf. . = ddda () two). . 5 es. Ti^l•' ' 17 . ivrbs ivrbi ttjs a straight . € to each.

. T7]v See equal sides. — .€8. ' ly To TpCrov *H Xeye rt '< Review The First Second Declension. § 103 Position of Article § 2-4 a Declension. . § 25 b 24 b. daughter of A 2. . XIII. . have also the angle (of the one) the {angle) inclosed by the . 208. . 1 ^ Toi in truth. C (o ') § '. (the) tombstone retrograde inscription of the seventh century b. . € . €. Of Eni'alon. (/cat 'a ). . . Spou'dides (the) potter. .c. B. ) . ment 70 /. 4.®04\^3 . etc. . — Aios.. and lohatever is higher than these. . § 28 A. ^. TOY Zew? i(TTLV tol^ . found on a fragof a marble tombstone. ^|ei the]/ loill greater. ^" .. § 129 g. and IkcXvos Uses of the Article. ^-\ 2.: - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 20 - 3.^' ' 8e vneprepov. § 29 Demonstrative Pronouns The Article cKctvo. : . £/[]5.

. \ ecrrt -/^ -£> -^- /.€ yap et? . upon it 15 {intersect) them. § 111. § 105 . 7. 106 § .. Herewith Exercise . § 104 Uses of nouns. -^. Uses of Cases. ' TOY At Ty OTL eial avTTj .. . . . ." € . . let there fall has fallen upon) interchangeable. 21 Position of Demonstrative Pro- . At 5. 11.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK and Attributive. .- . ijrei €-€6 . ' /cat 5 evdela - . . intersects. 12. ei's (it eSet Set^at.

€8. choose. . () do wrong treat unjustly 8£to . 557. another. I should -€. the thing learned. — . Et avajKatov aBiKelv. dreadful. To ? <. send. Cf. () shadow. ovSep tS' <. -. Sophronia. more. . . € THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 22 XIV. §§ 165. (Gen. . glossary. .. €€ (17) - tongue. also of -€ and Conditional Clauses. is as. Conjugation (entire) of -€. € 8€ — '<. beautiful. 167 A. -}. 469. 168 A. better. procession. sciagraph. F. --. . of more (17) Cf.. § 92. restrain. prudent. ". 166 A. than. J ' J" t^ ^ € Pronunciation of Top<yia. or. iv . hoio ! sober. rather (). Cf. § 180 a. pomp. escort... down hold § 6 f () ? -- (the) cause . ^.. the act of learning. .. « - . . either Cf. Cf. irovos. () hymn.: . €I am.). nec- essary.. 8€. more or than. Herewith Exe rcise 12. Cf. (^). discreet. -. § 91 . Cf. ovScis there is no one.() conduct. () stepmother () poverty. - to be loronged. Double Negatives § 5 e.

.- -€<.^^. 3• 4• 5• . 220. . . 127. OvK €(* ecTTLV 2. . — MevavSpos. 408.. 637.. e^eiv. — %. . 423. — 5 ".^ ^ .COS THE FIRST YEAP OF GREEK 1.. . ). ^^ . ^' 6. . -wV^^Aci . 6 .— ovoe ev ecrrt ovSev ZeC. . — Et . . 9- Mop. . 7• . .^. — . epya 8. ovSeu ovSev 23 — — — - 810 2.. . ecrrt 436. .

. . Relative Relative Clauses Avith the Indie. harmful. -ov beneficial.. Adv. (-) iti 13. delay. abide. ' . ' optl §184. tooYa^os. § 177 os w^o. 167 B. well-being. II. §178. ? ye or 8. § 99 . by no means. tarry. infinitive with accusative as subject. (ought to^ speak}. . press F. in fact. Alpha-privative. srirely. § 178. § 185. {there is need) one ought. 744. — Review the conjugation Interrogative Sentences § 178. Sentence Questions with : .. § 24 c Pronoun: of te Bel e-Trevheiv MepavBpov^ . icell done perity. nicht = tvy/tgood! ovSi ! cv-irpa-yCa (17) . §§ 165 B. and . () F. nor. II . wahr? truly. -€8. on.11. Subj. ' To ^ . § 91 (entire). vera. . tvtoell. pros- not. 6 ye . V Sec.. Verbal in -tcov (XeKreov one must .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 24 €^. XV. not then? 8. wait for. harm loait. ye certainly. . in truth. hasten. 7ior yet. < is . an urge on. Herewith Exercise . . one Governs should. = . 166 B.. 168 B. hut surely. injure. it not SO ? § 184. Opt. of course. () €$ .

ayauov. . . ye indicates that this series begins in 1. . . tivos genitive of the verb is omitted. . ayadoyv ovhev ye . 6 ye. . — ] HoXireiqi. A new 14. For the neg. The answers are made in this particular instance by Adimantus. "^ . 6 evil.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 25 Nat. 7. TToiel. ye emphasizes as (as contrasted with the false representations of Him in ye eeos 1. a frequent order. . . . 1. yap ^' '^ 5 . do any evil? 14. (also does it -^. 15 . aya. ^. 11. ^/ . Partitive genitive. 379 2 . ye (§ 185). Socrates contends that God is good and therefore (see the second portion of the extract) is not the cause of usual : GOD ' popular myths) 4. § 120. 9. (). In the dialogue from which this brief passage is taken Socrates (see Vocabulary of Proper Names) is represented as leading the conversation. . < ovS' . it is usually ^. .ewv. 9) see Exercise 13. € . = 6 deos is good. When is the last of this series of questions. . .

. desire. Learn the conjugation of with the subj. treat hate {cf. €.. life. number). () upon. XVI. To <. 14. infin. Herewith Exercise '•€ : F. Lat. . long for.. large number of verbs have Verbs in -€. and fut. Cf. oligarchy. Review the conjugation of § 91 €'-€. fumus. affectionately. mi- do wrong (to). €. spirit: (a) Cf. For indie. F. since. 191 § 184 § 185.. §§ 190. . -- € In with the -et)• in the pres. active. sogynist) F. us as. . ' ye — (-€. together the future. | . scant. 7%-). ttokv much. €. § 81 A. . treat unjustly token. imper.. . progressive action-stem an e .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 26 ^. set one''s heart lowed by genitive 8 . § 92) . polygamy. seem.. opt. (in . () F. (b) de- 9 - -ov few.. see also § 61 b. -. Attic Greek these verbs regularly contract this thematic vowel (including in the preceding the thematic vowel I am making (stem: (§54). F. little Cf. of the progressive action-stem. thus: etc. - kiss. . () sire. In the same manner conjugate love. Regularly fol- (§ 115 d). and partic.

. . : . — 25 . Xeyovacv...-- . . ' ) ' € €. by heart this passage be learned . . 27 ' 6 0e6<. .. \' -Ky'. {). . Tliis is ills. 6 . the bless- (§ 15) are for us far fewer similar to the old Greek proverb It is 379 . ecrrt. .. ^ — (4) yap '23.. . .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . . 6 than the €. 6 . . ot ' /. recommended that Si - . 5 6 . ings (in life) () )( 6 .

. young. dcC always.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 28 ^. . (). time. marriage. KpviTTOs - -l>v ') 1. mind one's (before a vowel. () € — Cf. olSev. - <••€ look. € () ^.. marry. have understand- be prudent. . ttoUl.-ov alone. — 225. "€ XVII. Exercise 15. consider. . 2.-). (. hidden. Review Lessons XV-XVI. Infinitive as a Noun (^Articular Infinitive). ? TToiei . 6 -< ». examine Cf. sceptic etc. iced- bigamy. Cf. chrouology. veo^.2C . 4. €'. most (of use one^s wits think. vio% hut. * TE () -)( ) € die. ing. etc. think. all). certainly *H .. . — Mevavhpov^ 425. see. Cf. 6 ! only Cf. - cryptogram. pliyte. F. — ). . avTod. U. II a.. use (voOs). As $ tone..- . () closely. To 'Of . neo- straight. mono- -ov -5. have sight. especially. -6v upright. Cf. have in mind. secret. Cf. a reply : 3. () truth. intend. § 172. Cf. new.. ding. . orthodoxy.

^.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 4. rrj 839 — - 1195. . §§ 123-129: learn the of Article strative . ^ ^ aei. 4. 6 §§ 101. § 104 Pronouns^ § 105 Meanings of Demonstrative Pronouns. 6 The Demonstrative Pronoun et? ayei. •^. .' %. 29 '•^. prepositions listed in these sections. — oe . together with their fundamental meanings. and compound each of these . ) ayawrj. Prepositions. . . " € €-\ XVIII.. 7. 832 outos.. 5- 6. iv Cf. — 8.. Atcr^vXog. (?). 2. — ^\<. .. the man loho does not marry. ^. e^ei — — 437. §\llO. 5. 9 2S. poetic for 68. . oibev he knoivs. 15. *j. § 25 a'^^ ?. Position Position of Demonand Attributive.

before Herewith Exercise 1. Bel. 328 ^.g. — . ... -. - "Ayet 5. . Et SeiV become (§ 18). 11. . 12. . — %. . observing that the preposition precedes the verb and that ev and ... . 448 W. 3- 4• . 268.. ^. ovSev ayei. 391 W. ' . . 250.-. .. 268 "^. 75. 2. . 9- . heuva — — . prepositions in turn with the verbs throw {e. " . . ' — — aet avTod. /cet — — — — — . . 877 "...THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 30 -. . Mol•».. -). . 592. eivaL 6. 16. II.. - step. . 7• 8. .. go.

he {she. 12. . as they saw it. sympathy. § 187 . . — Words. . ev-TV)(ovaiv. . ye in 11. '^€ XIX. however trivial. rj iSpaaas you did. 113 d. BODY. {the) to live. to he 14. i). and idiom. — M. to see what they saw." J. . . which no serious student of tlie Classics can afford to neglect. there is no shade of expression. Sdv\ 6. however delicate. . MevdvSpov. . §§ 190-191. § 196. ivveaKaCBeKa. in which there may not lurk a subtle force. 219. yap. 300. . $. We desire to recreate the world of Plato and Sophocles.evavhpov. of 8. § 185. €. C. . — . 3• 14 31 — TreVecr^at • € 15- 2. able. 1 " that laborious study of words. / . no particle.. . MevdvSpov. TO § ^ijv 12 — . to miss which is to fall short of apprehending the full significance of ancient life and thought. Cf. to suffer.. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK nXovTelv 12. 447. Tot. . § 99. § it) is poor. To The Formation M€V § . 120. — MevdvSpov. and syntax. as they thought it and in the wonderful language which they spoke. The Vitality of Platonism. think what they thought. 582. Adam. Cf.1 184. ' ^ .

) ^ some of their com- .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 32 The two negatives pounds : (oi)/c. (§ 144) and .

one must {ought to) dismiss (permit it to say '^^ Fare- well "). / think. : F. of The Middle Voice. become. middle-passive.' • iav oe 6 . €. .€'. ^aipeiv . () self^.. -). - XX.^ Primary Personal Endings. : §54. 3 These verses are an apocryphal version of the famous oracular response regarding Socrates. ^ . I understand (Greek conjugate says '''Stand . . § 140 Learn the conjugation of the present and future indicative. xaipeiv honor). '. and Like able § 80. — ^ iav - .- et • — . '. and the subjunctive of the progressive actionI release {for mystem. (/ 1 2 / am F. I am of (eVi)). " ' — Ancient Oracle. ^. be born. upon'''' Like willing. § 79 B. tvish . -. conjugate I F. -THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Et 33 .

horses. (koivos). gain. . pleasure take with oneself in.). ^ iv KOLvfj 2. palseography. tl — . I take delight go etc. ovs . . ayadov^ 1." ? ?. pleasant.- . turii light. . -) dog. / delight in writing .). best. loisest. 5 . -08. . (- pick out. go.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 34 TE « . . (6). eav • 6. -in § 121. . " Cf. Lat. please and de- choose out. iciser. •8 -8. ^) hird.-ov 5 opvis pi. common Dat. still. . -€ () unroll (a scroll). irois he said. £Ti longer. wa-trep just as. the pages.. vir. long ago. cynic.€. () () man. Cf.. Dat. hi-ep^op^ai. a figliting-cock. i. " . -- €. my friend. -. See below. '. {"'. . more. feel see . (. « furthermore. still in Koivfj Gen. TL aya^oi'. sweet. ornithology. .$. 19). here employed as an adjective. lego. is 6. sucivis come. through (a book. Cf.-' ' . Cf.e. rjoeTaL. § 121. (Dat. (. (to) profit. Cf.

. . such as Frequently epithet and name are combined Forms of address like Sir ! or Mr. . . The Participle with the Article (one) saying (i.-4 -)..4€ -. were not in use among equals. good sir ! my friend. Review Lesson XX. participle ends and is in : ^^•. etc. having iv i. The ancient " book" was a roll.e. .-- - - wishing. have mercy I In ancient Greece his given it name. was the custom to addi-ess one's friend either by employ a complimentary epithet.e. tion of Master. To €8 '<€. thinking. (. or else to •4. Herewith Exercise 18. understanding. 35 in the form ofioriling. becoming. written (them). we 7. Mister is a corrupmeant So tlie common address in Modern Greek. ' et?. such as thus the who says) this. being able. -^evos declined exactly like first-second-declension adjective. see. middle-passive '-€ : - - - 40 § a . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ypa^pavres which they left in books. but belonged to the language of the slave and hireling. - Note that the . Compare the refrain common in Greek larly address their Lord as Christian hymns Lord. : ( XXI. originally my Lord ! and was employed by slaves and other subordinates In the New Testament the disciples reguin addressing their superiors. Modes of Address . : . § 174. 6. eav aWrfkot^ — ''..

— — — 6 6. tcrao'tt' because. . to (spoken of). . are and strict distinction. ^. hear (oneself) ill () 8 . will. preference. . (in poetry also § 27. €) consent.F. 285. 3- 4- purpose ? ' aSiKelv 6 slight. desire. .. . 2. . 232.. ov^ — & - in '— . 5. volo. thyroid. more as a rational and -ov just. . Cf. lohoever. . BiKaios - () "^ 1. they what they need. plan.. wish. .. prefer. yet. wish. . () door. - and () will. ." — when -ov be wealthy.€.THE FIB ST YEAR OF GREEK 36 . worthless. "^ . Cf. .. expresses more as a feeli7i(j. 6. righteous. 236. hear (oneself) icilling.'''' mean. asked. F. interchanged may the loish or will Cf. ivell to (spoken of) will. be counsel. . p- know . ^ (JTt. be willing.' . ' ^'. . . . desire. . senate. «. and synonymous uearly often be F. (§ 62) acoustic. /tear. 64.

4<. Review §§ 54. : Exhortation. § 163. fade. § 168 A. § 156. b) Potential. § 167 A. . "v. as as is lamp. likely.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 37 . infinitive -. XXII. Learn the conjugation of the present indicative and the subjunctive. as it seems. c) it is TE () and be answering. optative. optative. -\. § 162. — Translation by Dr. and participle of -the progressive action-stem. But she the garland of the garland shines. On Heliodora''s brow the garland pines. § 155. ^ () ' Conditional Glauses. Walter Headlam. Uses of the Subjunctive tive. waste away. Question. and participle of and of § 79 § 80. irepl ' — MeXea7/oo9. .' a) b) Uses of the Optative a) ' v' : WisTi. /cat To A€VT€pov *0 /3<?. shine. infinitive. impera- . ' '. die out (of fire). and of the future indicative. 140. likely. c) Herewith Exercise - 19. Cf. answer. Conditional Clauses.

() wreath. . fj . ^. proper name more. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GRERK 38 . € ^ worse. . certainly not . iroTc'po . \\. e/Aotye. ^ aoLKeiv ] . )(^.-? () shameful.. uter ? ? . €<rTi tivtp if indeed. aya^ov. . eivai. ' ye. ) ' eoLKC.. . is it (of two) ritrum €( very. 469.. . an () whether ? - ! land. . § or? . . by about the head (poetic). 474. " enrep . . .• ^ . ^. ^ . It 5 € aoiKeiv . least. no means. it is yi certainly most. which irOTcpov. 187 TO TO . irepl more shameful. ^ Tt % 15 etrrt . crown. . . . . : gar- Cf. 8 -a . ooKei YloTepov . . %<. . Stephen. €. a as Polus. neither. -jrOTepos § 194. Common colt. ' Kakof re SiJTa... ^— »' if Topylq.

. is studied. Classical Greek regularly employed irbrepov ij... " — 6. {utrxim " Whether 39 . an . . — . . . Mei>avSpo^."" ^. '^ — . ^ .. . Herod or ?). . Compare the that youngling king.or? to introduce the two members of a direct alternative .. -. . — the son of Archida'mus.^. ^^. ) . -^ 164 ^. ap^eiv re 215 D.. usage in archaic English — Beaumont. 6. 5• " iv . 7. . 4• 33. '. for a man. -— . question 1. II. — yiyvov 714. €. . — 32. . . . . 3• elvai 9e\e. is . ^ — ' — — /. . Psyche. 9• ... .. ... avSpl 7• 8. .. 245. ecrrt 479. Agis. .^'' . 2.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Uorepov whether . .. <. Meyiarov 346.. . .. : 161. ' . 366. . ' -^8— . 631. ij .

hold. believe. — ^/?. A'erbs of thinking (see § 179) : hold as customary. ' XXIII. iroLelv. ^. deem. To - TTOielv. F.-. Conjugate in the same way I believe. regard. ) Conjugate the verbs in the following phrases 1) ^ think 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) ovK <. think. Contract Verbs in -€ Learn the conjugation of the : present indicative. suppose. - (first ). . suppose. Herewith Exercise 1 20. (€) {^ regard. infinitive. ^ (or elhevai (X think : to know^ 1 I know. optative. not oCtj. I know. elvai. tive. Xeyetv disgraceful I con- sider the telling of falsehoods. person singular also F. not think I think I am '^ wise. The second person singular. present indicative of /xot is otei. impera- - and participle of the progressive action-stem of I am making for myself § 81 B.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 40 . and the subjunctive. elBevai I think eihevaL I do elvai I do not know.

in which.). § 115. OIMAI ". indicate. do not even permit yourself be suspected. having learned. — do not even be suspected. T€ . . in which way. deliberate. try you will reap the fruit ! {6$.. to .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .. Et " § 113 e. think manner. take care of (Gen.fiS-). - § 115. -. care for. elSevau.-. (). .€. make pl^n^ €-€. ). () rpoiros way . ^. fare (wpay^• pragmatic. suspect. . ' . Aevopos '. foi5. . . .. . . know 41 secretly (fe'S- signs Cf. semaphore. elScvai to . TE () o€oaL F. ol oe • re 5 '. and. -eivai crlyfj — turn. F. -. practical). . KaC both ." €. . ^ " Kat € elSevai eiSevat. -\€. infin. point out. . in the Sv § 195. () everywhere (oD where). to. . ) . do. olSa. way.

' aya^ct. — 9• . ^ ett'at . 3- . '. .^ . another at another. . aStKeiv 2.^. 4• 5- 6. . — '. 7- — — MevavSpo^.^ irepi yap ) .^.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 42 (another says another {thing)) one says one thing. . alius aliud « 1. . .. . ^. 114. — : — 6 . . .. 136. "^ )() . — . dicit. " another another. . . ). one has at one time. — 310. 560 ... 8. . . — — ^. . . .

Love. is possible.. To . 81 . . Avev {) without living wisely.). . .).. for any one. Attic alphabet (date c. 11. . will fly aloft. thou wretch . • \ (6 = -. 80 of . ck it without (Gen. Or she having received . 0€.- Walter Headlam. and written in the old.. to burn so oft She too hath wings. 7. xf)v)(r)v My cr^erXt'.g. Review the forms already learned .^^orA| :• Al ^l . ©Z^Or TOY TO LAXO^ rA ^' . too much. name. alel (del) () I shall always this be called a maiden. ^— soul that swims in fire forbear. ' XXIV. 8. . ! — Translation by Dr. §§ 79 . beware." .^ ? THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK II ^^rA 43 CDP4 ^ lkV>^» A ^ i<fei<t. 600 e. Kairj^. 10. A metrical tomb inscription found in Attica. atet.

: Herewith Exercise 21. () F. €. . pi. . § 116 e). ttovos). . — 315-318. vT^pvyas. the ayaOoi those of good birth . virtue. Cf. ^ set fire (- (--). Ace. -/€///€^ '^ - ' e^et. cruel. To •^ The Third Declension learn the declensions of — : Read carefully goad. and vv| night.^ . . flight. not take-in-exchange Value or Exchange. rrjs apeTrjs rbv loe loill their wealth for our respectability (Gen. (0) Love. and encaustic work (cf. § € 30 A. | XXV. . possessions. $. Tot Cf. ' <^. '€ to. ('? Eros. the soul sioimming in fire. () / flee. ' Cf. of are the vulgar In this quotation the and breeding. 62 (entire). "Epws ? ' ^ aet. . () imng. excellence. €.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 44 Master Formation of the Future §§ 61. TE . lasting. unflinching. be = penury. «yireSov firm. toil. _ (in poetry also () ) . --. many times. fugio. the verbs cited in these sections. poor.) () aUi F. burn.

Tod 4- left- . of 7^p(ov €$ man^ mother. §34. . § 33 31 - . voice. <. — 5• megaphone. () -ovTos old man. F. yap iare . ^\... W. . ' ) 2. ' € — %/. Cf. — )— . ovic — 6. Tt ' 509 ajKvpai '^ 623 €^^^ €<. . 4. () -wTos love. awkward. on the -6v - -oi/ highest {of all). < -. 269 cr/cta . critic.. § Greek. Eros. ^ . 6 irats child. 1. Cf. . () () " 45 22 . distinguish.). /c eariv.)( 52. *< () () dirk. judge. experience ivithout ? - (Gen. father. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK lion. 0eov. deov oiSe 3• left side. handed. - () (§ 61 d) separate. loutish. . . . bo-ns whoever. ). large knife. boy. anchor.€. Cf. 27. \ ^. . divinity. — •% veot . ^. Ace.

164 ... They serve to remind us of "the eternal boyhood of the Greeks " 6. . nrepl — same error. Tpcis. -. .. . . To " . numerals €is Herewith Exercise 22. avSpl / yvvrj. — 634.. XXVI. - W. THE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK 46 " 7. : the e^. (?). -€ •' ^. —) ^. '—— €^. to -. 9• . 10. lesson. 9. 8. . § 51. Review the preceding of the make sweet. giving grace. tioice to perfume (). . ttJ 5 . and add the declensions . 121.it bis perfume - perishes. TtTxapes. 4. Plato tells us that these words were said to have been spoken by an Egyptian priest in the course of a conversation with the Athenian statesman Solon.

• — Ne/u. bloio. -at -a -? -bv Xeaiva opKos 1.• Con- banquet-song.. trast -ov () .. hydrophobia. Orcus. ) . /. ^. 7• Ov/c vale! water. —^ — €1/ 26.•. usu- ally in this sense as a passive €. 25. ot . hy- {). health (vyieia). (?)) {-). growth. 4- 6. () . *^^/ 5- " ^/^'. ^. distinctive ^. he graved or impressed. --.^ . lioness. — MevavSpov. mortal F.. Et? ecrrt ^ bear to. 408. 6 ^. : reproach. drant. . fox. . " 3• () () Cf. 6\. character. breathe. . . TLKTeLv. § 39. 1. 9 -5 47 — — . -i(j fraud € ? (? () () cunning). -e/cos give birth -). ^. - F. F.. 1. mark a en- mark. () () both. stature -ijpos ^ Cf. loithovt . . upbraid.make known F. " 168. .. .FIRST YEAR OF GREEK TE . € ^^ good in ^ . oath. ^." ^. (rsK-. 2. F." — . () immortal.

. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 48 avhpl 'TytaCveLV 8. : - making. by 2. to become beautiful in growth (stature. Herewith Exercise 23. 8. . . and \iyov felling. Learn the declension of A. .. being with. . § 50 - being. Uses of : the ol8a. Sevrepov 8e \ " TO '. Participle ^. Gods and men 7^vos (to) race. '-€$. first aet. — sive action-stem has the suffix ing to the \6<^ : neuter being of the third declension.. To yap Review Lesson The < XXI Participle. § doing. being present. active participle of the progres- - and is declined accordand third declensions the masculine and . the feminine being declined like § 28. . 18. ' iwi are of the for giving birth same race. . ance). rjherat and Exercise The 99 2. Decline . -.. to ^^ \j* f - § 129 g. appearto be young with one's friends. . 5. - being loved. The mother of both is the Earth. §§ 173-176 (especially with .. * XXVII. — one (only).

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 49 TE -/ -. 446. € () \ ( -yvo-. T^ 1.. Cf.. . another. . eariv . oihiv bear apart.. ence. 532. — ^^. . ^^ 405. . ^ . hysteronprote- roii. ). hoio ! that < (= '). he ignorant iyvoia. puint of lime. €T€pov other. 7• nei- . 6 ). makes no differ- eiJwopoi. ear) — Kat — . (71 •€ (of two).-€€ «^. the Cf. in. JliaTeveLv Set ? as.. opportunity. ovScrcpos ovScVcpov turn again. 2. later. — . ^ ther. . Cf heterodoxy. . ? such (a case). (« remember ! trust. 627. thrive. () -6v av ' Papvs heavy.. 354. — . have faith (in). be it all in a (Imperative). appears (so). differ. Cf. muddle. know). — Mevav'^pov. () due measure. 558. Cf. believe (in) (Dat. am / ). TTotet — € § 197. 25 Kaipos endurable. per. cv the right €€ barometer.. . 3- 4- 5- 6. pros- it -. find a tvay (iropos).

. ' ianv yap ev — 398 . . . 6 . . TLva i^rj.» . is a bore (he notice being heavy) rls ^. ovhkv ^-. Tt ' .' 15 . ^. $ .• Tt 6 . escapes his 10. t he fails to observe that he %- (. ovSpov . — . . 6 5 ' — 9• . 6 . . etc. . "E/xot-ye . -. .. . . 1. . ^. ^ . lohich. /. ^^'. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 50 8. who own . . 6 . 6 8. loves not to be loved in return whenever one'loves another {) is it by this one not possible for one whom he loves? . . ^Eo'Ttl•'. . '. 6 Nat. . .. . ? . 7.^ ^^ . . .

.. — 2 — — MeVaz/8/309. .^. * they made.^ — ?. evTv\eiv. ^ .. he had. /cat 51 ^ ypaOs (Ace. - 4• "8 XXVII). .^ ^ 410. .. . ^ . ^ ? - ' • '' ^ .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . ^ he got. — ' ^ .. ^ - • 1 €\< ^. ^. themselves. m . . they observe very accurately. several times the selection (Lesson 1. full of evils {faults). 3• eluoai. ^ from they do not see. ypaOv) an old wovian. To Tliareoetv Bel Copy ) - 701 ^ .. is . pulled out the hairs. ( ? XXVIII.. . 2.'/^ *Avrjp .

. allow. To 'Aei "\ Seovre^ «:09 . employed in Lessons IXXVIII and in Exercises 1-23. 40. Indefinite Relative and Temporal Clauses. both words and phrases. Moreover. 170. of the first and second declensions of nouns and adjectives.. . it (and he and ' said). clearly. ' — . II b (7). § 172. Herewith Exercise 24. a good genius blessed (). §§ 166 B. The Infinitive Avith Verbs of Preventing. up- visible. os . € XXIX. (). os said he braid.5. avTos .-. € €. as presented in Lessons XXV-XXVIII and of the forms of the verb indicated in Lesson XXIV.. Review Lesson XV and Exercise 13. forbid (Infin. he should make himself master of the vocabulary.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 52 Before proceeding to the following lessons the pupil $. . with happy. I said). they permit. - - : €K€ivos -. of the third declension. 29. dear. '}'. €( () manifest. . Ace. should have a thorough mastery of the pronouns -.). 167 B. 168 B. -6 prevent. §§ 21-25. - () he a slave strike at. - TE €. 641. . . is clear. €«•() said I (mid 8 pu7ush. §§ 28.

-lov in every way. ^- Nat ovSev eVt- - ye. ? 5 Xeye. -8 Adv.3* • . . 53 eivai ere 6 ' . thus. (€ yap ^^ sible. MEN ' iyco. IVsis) of Plato extends through Lesson XXXIII.-^^. € ere . as happy as pos- elvai . quam beatissimns. Tiiese particles suggest a certain hesitation in putting the ciuestion. ' ey. . blessed. .•). $ ( (i/iai) (ttiSs () voyage with . - . ere 1. . A'l OY. € . . -. eivai 6 . ourws (oSros). eoye. Cf.) I suppose. i SWvdx^viXi^ %\ TiO^ . 1 This selection from the Lysis (pron. . altogether. AE ye. V very much. desire. happy. (0) Lysis. . () Tpoiros(o).. €. ' . . . and is later repeated and expanded. Socrates is seated with the lad Lysis upon a bench in a gymnasium at Atliens. suppose . . soul. .• €. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK $ = -is «5 ? . ^ of 65e. as follows. ye ^ eVt- €. ]^€ " yeveadai. spirit. 6 . «- Voc. (end. qiiam. methinks. superlative sail). ei ae €€ 5 ere SrjXov yap .

Lat. also of TO chariot. any one. driver . TE () rule. . (they are eager) they eagerly con- . etc. 9. . . § 27. F. to oVoi. b) bring to an end complete. § • : . -- offer () « () q^tid vero 9 coined silver. bridle.. The Third Declension Learn the declension of ris who? what? and tis tl some one. with Verbs of 115 g. () - («). en- trust to. . § 116 e. --- furthermore. cf. § 19 for pay. verily. money {Apyvpos (0) silver). €-« turn (over) to . -ov free. ? () hire. ^' — etc. execute. (). § 32. . .). XXX. . " .. is the indirect form of ttws. Value. . '^. one. vero. () . ('£) . MEN Xeyet? elvaL pay (a debt).. permit. PI. / To . etc. - F. sell. () (for surely. ^' ae 6 . sider how you might Trot €^ ? become.. reins. tcages. sale. - be happy.- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 54 8.• ' from (Gen. . § 35. and Genitive of Price. () hired servant. in truth. Herewith Exercise 25. ^evos race. Ruling.

§ 192. and to take (strictly but . \ - .. 55 then 9 etc. .. (- when he takinrj). fjv 2 . contending (in a race). &v they would permit (cf.. - r^ ' Ecrrt Tt9 ) 19. 6 35 . . . ^ . . upon {some) one. . 3° . 22. if you-cnnceive-a-desire to ride . ^. ^ . etc. : 25 whom . (& is is ifev). is an intensive particle. . ecocrt . §§ 106. e. €^17• . . . .. . . . 20. and . ). . . . . 116 MEN ^. rj . 26.. . employed with great frequency after interrogatives. ^. . ' .. Se' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -) < .

by all . - -ov your {i^eh). The Reflexive Pronouns : : § 23. the 6. c. their affairs.v. The Genitive with Verbs of Touching. in turn. doubtless.& etc. yes.TEE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 56 28. TOUT eVrt.? ^ 178. ^ . . 30. . at- (). furthermore. 34. . -OVTOS ruler ? of course. ^ muleteer. The 6. . . €. 6€.''^ . . XXXI. '. loillingly. € {%). hold in higher esteem. still. whence 9 wherefore no one. €. . 29. think more of. () (). To — An owl to Athens. -ov our surely not () tended a hoy. . again. Herewith Exercise () lead. " Coals to Newcastle. § who many wholly. irXeiovos they Tjyodvrai 33. -- . Cf. . . () 115 26.). II.v is repeated later &v.. ? hoio f (the tone is scornful). 31. The Third Declension §§ 30-35. mule team. : strike. (Gen. handle touch. Cf. intentionally. TE . slave very altogether. iraid-aywyas. means. (to) () 32.

is a familiar figure on Athenian vases. . ^ ). . ". .. ei's . 40. carried his writing-tablet. yap. €. ^ . 7rat3a7w70s 41. 50 . € /.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . . 8. . .• 4° . . /ipxei Ti's . ' ^. A' ap^etv . . . after deivov 44. 45 6 39. . This is the interrogative ris -). for one who ( surely it-is-a-dreadful-thing upon). -.. MEN € €.MEN (5et- Accusative and infinitive construction .• . ^' 57 . ^. SovXov . etc.. ( The slave who conducted the Athenian lad to school. €- ia-Ti) . ' ). . ' . ^l•» oe " . etc.• ]. . . yoip . musical instruments.. 47. . is free. .^ 6 . ' / / < -. . he sets over ' . ^.• '' . § 114.^ ^ eVt .

•7€. all. in this case. . eXerjs . arrange.. . a minute ago. BaSi^e aury 110. station. lacks little. nourish Contrast turn. . fKeiv-q you may ^r when{ever) you return home. {') time of {it § 121. and he said with a laugh. . siirely you havenH wronged XXXII. await (). iireiSav 49.' 48. pray? what in the world? why? here. §§ 165. -- ?. § Subjunctive: 156 . €vi « . (^ for happy hoy in any respect. . . . To Aevrepov ^/ Uses of ^9. . life. . post. - he of age. (-). almost. \ — . 62. <C. now. (c) Modest Assertion. . § her. not yet what. at be her 51.1 OS ^ 75.. 48-56. Tt 52. eg. 54. Tivos () on what account. assign €. § 155.58 . (a) Exhortation. . yet. § 158 ditional Clauses. Tc hvcuA nr^ -TAn^i^pAjflLW OuC^Aw'^^^ 4-P ^^AinwvjCUU) . .- €.• tire day.f . throughout the enin a icord. . . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 'H/act^cXet? el 55 ' €. () wait for. the (b) Question. put in or- der. . 167 Make an ys that § 120 a). "- . Adv. intensive study of the passage contained in the preceding 11.€8. TE -€ . • iyco. . . age. why? 'pray? jitst ieivos . § 160. -^ rear. a task to (one). § 116 b). ^ .. SHE permits. «- \J-^ ^ ' -' . (d) Con- (e) Final Clauses. dreadful.

60. in those matters of iiyoev. Avert. iya. ^7^ ^^7^ 6 6 ' /. ^. 158. -. e\yoev whereas just speaking (iv toutols etc.' . MEN ' TLVo'i AE ^? -\6- ^^ ).' ere ivl "' OY. . 65. 4 • - • . . § 102). ak 72. ] . which we were . %€. 62. fj ^. ere. iv ots 5e & iv ttj you first of those. 66.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 59 . . 65 iv . . 6. . iv 6\iyov you 70 .^-^ . ' J^ . referring to . . SovXevopTa aet ovhev . ye iwei ere. ypa. . . V. /Vvfi/'^ ^ (\ THIS. yap . e^eerrt erot . '^ ye roaovde since such a matter as \. . () 61. iwei 6 . \.3.. . ) - €.r|va^ something either to be read or to he written. "§ . . ^• . doing almost none of the things modifies desire. eivai .^^^-. $ vayvrjva ij /\...

tis.. § 27. . director). .. 26. prevail {-) stand over charge ( of. ' ' . () - inexperience (-. (Gen.. - () master perceive. . () () () 75 () Cf. boundary. crov thrift. § 61. § 115 g) Cf.. standard. . have ?iotise-steward. . trial. limit.. experience {iv). ' — Mevav8po<. £( rule. () £ agement. Review Exercises 21. as a direct. neighbor. of {-). household manadministration. --'. etc.-. '\ 6 . (as TE ' 6 -\\) . Cf. 25. . . The Formation of the Reflexive Pronouns. § 23. horizon.. be Cf. 169. To /7€/[) }? TOi a7reipia<i . hold sway {over). economy. well then! bo-ir€p which very {one). of Declension Future. . experiment) -ojOs very well ! opos () manage manage.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 60 XXXIII. - sufficient. 11. Dictation exercise based The on 48-56. ^see. () might). aesthetic. hear. MEN Ele v.

in these {matters) sagacious) Cf.. . . . . . 85 . .. so. go 95 w\ et$ which we become expert (6$ wise. in ' .'.^. '--- ^ Tpei//et '^ ^ 6 ^^(. . . 75. V' .. I uLcM irorepov otet t7)v 8 cre . . to-believe . ^^ 86.." -.• otet 'E/xot aot ". ' ^. . '^ '"' to be . . this day. MEN ^ . - \$ ^. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . . ' • € . -^ . on on the very day on which he-comes- . Tt8e. . ^.^..

both active and middle. § 135. impede. § 57 Meanings of the Imperfect. § 79. XXXIV. ' . the first As we have of the action-stems. . . () ^. hinder. § 52 Personal-endings Aug(thematic and non-thematic formations). Conjugate in the same way manding. agree with {'). . urging^ com- / ). is the progressive action-stem. row — The Verb. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 62 Stand in one's way. . §§ 53-56 ment. impedio F. 94. TToOs eis .^ all of the forms built upon the progressive action-stem. B. . eh . (-)). 92. 93. The Progressive Action-stem. & .. Verb-roots. Te'rapTOv -^ '^ ^. ^. . In the indicative two tenses: tiie mood this stem. that ichich seems best. . or («) the present indicative.90. son VI). See § 133. . . . . imperative. and upon this stem are formed a subjunctive. . . The pupil should now master moreover. optative. seen (Les- upon which the Greek verb is built. etc. (^iv . (come-to-possess). . . 95. A. forms () the past imper- and () the past imperfect indicative. / 1 I am a7n eating : €€ I am am (Past-Impf. (a) the present tense^ and fect tense .. -/) preventing^ writing^ I am Usually called for the sake of brevity simply imperfect tease or imperfect indicative. and particiconjugational system of ple. using as the type-verb. infinitive. - so fa)• as.

Past-Impf. Past-Impf. (Past-Impf. EN ovre if — 6 ' . . I have /m's/t. et%oy). ---. \/. of - Extent of time.). Cf. Past-Impf. Cf. I am - lam -^. rub. () a groom. erpenov (o)." . | THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK di/ing (Past-Impf. every day (all . taking counsel. -. prevented. " eivaL. . ''^ .). 228 .. Past-Impf." — lying. to. § 113 f. the days. Past-Impf. Impf. € (- truly () turn (over) i-ir-^rpeirov intrust to. () eat. diatribe. curry {ktcLs turn ^^ () barley. Ace. Usually () manger. day. Herewith Exercise 27. €) -. to eat. plural. yiyvo- heiyig I am answering (Past- ^). . lam 63 becoming. -). (Past-Irapf. ephemeral. I am holding. TTjs avTTJs. amivilling. permit. $ . comb). allow (Dat. -. TE . () (). comb. - iw-erpenev- "^-^.

€ . . '. — XXVI. . the strings (veOpa) yesterday. € € XXXV. >}. '. — T7}S 4. and § . .'77^5. the three types of neuter § word 32 {cf. 29 decline . epic) tvall (of a city). -. ^ \iyeiv ok 6 '^^ aoeiv. ". Review Lesson nouns to : §35. vevpa I changed past imperfect of 176. -.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 64 \ /. • rjoov -^&} ' \oirrov . Like TO l^cvYos yoke ^ 2 "Ytvos '.€\\)< 5 ^ vevpa TYjv €. . . . : .

() worthy. however. Scvpo hither. lohence? trvXLs \ in which place.^ ^. the heave alongside. opposite against (Gen. Thermopylae. go.. throw Academy. (rj) = 07it?ide. be on one''s loay. -. () Cf. ^) (' in the place oppo- Iv site. A' Meve^ivos. () 65 -$ a small gate. -. truly. TE rub €. ^ - .).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK - -. ^ev ret^o? • -. without (Gen. ( () tern over youth. fountain. rub away. . () () boat) through. (. spring. to (Gen. . o|ios -. ineLOrj - 5 . € ' () (- straight toward. ). -lov worth lohile. lohere. an enclosure (- noQtv. opposite. () young man. re . . '. the surely. . -.). spend (time). (a come alongside. (6) veavio-Kos here. proceed.) (to). pos- () gate).<. » . pastime.. ?. to. come in. . Cf. ^1 ' -? . in this place. Lyceum. near the postern. «.-)). waste (time).

6 ' 15 1. position of re 6. . . €. XXXVI. ' ?. the These were gymnasia in the suburbs north of the city. 979-980. . ". eyw. . . ) . when I arrived the spring of nacoTTos not known. 10. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 66 evOv Aevpo Xeyet?. i//xas represents us 'F" . (lit. of § 91 (and and learn the conjugation of Review the conjugation €. oe. Panops {). • . became). pointing out. exact location both Hippo' thales. 6. the latter to the east. . .. epyco ' ©€07^9. former of Athens. . 3. § 93. 4. Whom -- seeing (as he saw) do you tovs mean To ^ ' % approaching. €. €^ /cat ^.. '] — '. § 195. I «. deltas 13. fJOL re § 92). a door Standing open. Herewith Exercise 28. I came upon Its etc. . /cat . . with a gesture toward.? (-) --. . and Ctesippus of the deme of Paea'nia.'-€. Aristotle his in the Lyceum. ^-. ' tjv Aevpo. by me /xas. . -^ 2. am going. ' so in line 13. Sij. eiOii 12. is . .. (). . . " (9).. . the son Note the of Hiero'nymus. to the ) Plato established his school in the Academy. along the road OUtside...

sufficient. must part. ( -( () at the £ same time. • ' 6. noielv. ye ^^? eVecr^at. . . tl €. follow (Dat. /caXcDs 20.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 67 TE () am I oi & going . 18. e-ov e 16. worthy. .) Cf. . ' oe uicrrt OTj €. sophist. . € . 24. taking C. ^. professor. . . later than -ov (Gen. . iVa /cat 4. . • . Emphatic.. (TO J 23. €.<. (-. I went in. iCdrjs in order that you may SEE. which we would share loith you (§ 115 a). together () admirer praise). eyoj.). & IS? €-€' ' ye. /. able. ' 25 § 198. -\> . .4 ^ -^.. after. - . () palaestra. () a master (of one's for the gladly {s). /. '. - with. oe ev ' So? oe €. sequor). ? -- . ^. craft). ^]. § 189. recently built. lohat . emphasizes i'Stjj. wrefitling- school wrestle). . ye a comrade of YOURS. 2 . ' ^. used as a future (. recently {vios). K. 19. {acting beautifully) you are very kind.

Part. 33. . Note the position. Pass. charm side by side with you look at his canvas on the laugh and speak and munch alongside of that. . actually moving their mouths to I . 6 and attire. the sacrifices finished 5). play at "Put ' odd and Cf. . {they) Stood around. {- even''). - . -)€% . late - -. .- We found the boys. if sudden. . having sacrificed) - xvith the offerings scarcely ... Part. -^^ 3 ' re )()^ . Observe the free use of the participial construction . 36. )-^ ) ) ) . Trans- the duties at the altar scarcely yet completed.) the {duties) connected completed {having been done) . playing. : . ^\$ (Perf. etc. -- Oil entering we found. 6 35 Si 27. : -- . . selecting. . loilhdrawing. ^ 31. ev ^ avXrj. {having been adorned) dressed in festal .$ iraWas iepe7a (Perf.( (-\€ 27-29. and for life-like Murillo's Beggar-boys (you catch them.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 68 .

and conjugate in like manner (active the past-imperfect of : he at a loss. Mid. so that. €. . 69 There at once) the scene in the Lysis of the dice-players. all the boys are in full dress to take part in a religious ceremony. . others in a corner. gard at. . some just outside the door. noble between. -^)) () (^Stand apart {- (§ 61 (end)). strive. for a time. thereupon. Herewith Exercise 29. . ). ^ - - in the midst of play. . -. for dispute. The Verb Learn the conjugation of the past-imperfect . Intensive. repeatedly. § 19 b). - (Past-Impf. is — Pater. 8 •) well-born. hesitate.." p. . but they are already busy with the knuckle-bones. § 178. . . in the same way. TE (€ -. look (). so as to. £. . -ov {yev-. meanwhile.. ). XXXVII. . \^ To Interrogative Sentences (Direct and Indirect). frequently. then. Plato and Platonism. : and middle-passive) of the contract verbs in -€. . he was clearly. . in the midst. § 81 A-B. turn oneself around. 6. turn (twist) about. 114. hesitate (past-impf.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK their crusts. It scarcely over. re- () - 7£vvatos ' .£) with {epis () -tSos strife). shrink (from doing) (past-impf. vie observe.

-$ ticiple of ^-. jei 46. 54. to approach. . . Future Par- . - he came to sit (loion beside. iyaXaffav they laughed. ' • . 55 43. 40-41. . lohen he saw. --'- -€€. .. Purpose. . ). 4 rjnopei re fxeu -4 coKveL -. ivith more beautiful. . . ) 45 ^ eihev e/xe re /cat 6 emero ^ Meve^evov ' 5 • . ^ ^/> ovu 6 . . a glance toward. 50. .. to come toward. 53. looking at.. . .^ . ask.^-. ep^erai. --. -\. in this respect. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 70 ... 52. ' --. ' eyeXacral•' . . § 175. eireira 6 etcr- . . I shall not they said. ws 44.

hit upon.- ' ) < teacher of wres- gymnasium-master 8l- -. participle to (and Plupf. /. (). / asked. () -- put one\s hand (xeip) to (a work). -•5 88 .. b) Potential § 163. (Past-Impf. c) ^?. etc. B. tl — 72 ev The Participle with the Verb The Four Uses of the Optative § 176 . obtain. § 179.. c. : a) Wish. § 162. 46-55 (Lesson . XXXVIl).. saying.. Meve^evov. '--^ gonr. say (Acc. hit ) . . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK XXXVIII. . < "^. Intensive Study of 11. d) Indirect Discourse. am come. to ask.)• Perf. eSo/cet Tvy^aveLv. chance. the act of learning. tling.. gain. Conditional Clauses. () () ing hack () recollection.) to I have come.-Infin.).). I have € II. declare. happen (constantly used with part. chance upon. a sort of (Gen.. § 168. attempt. am gone. () a etc. () to a call- memory. ~6 . TE -€. To <{ 71 \ OKTO) .

inclusive. . tions of the XXXII. 59. 58. II Avcnv ovv XXXIX. .) should iir-exeipovv § 179. the found in Lessons . •^ ' be read carefully in review. sacrifice {to be in it ' . Yjv (The continuation XXIX-XXX 56. . 30-35. (b) Irregular §§ 46-48. 6 . *?. ' . To SeovTes ' V Comparison of Adjectives: (a) Regular. it ye. 50 11. of this passage is . To . 48. chanced) acting as iepoiroios (a magistrate v:ho officiated at sacrifices). * . 56-68. . . . stand). . approaching he summoned (lit. caused to saying that the gymnasium-master - he appeared to he officiating at the . . review §§ 27.. . .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 72 €€ €u' ^. Read carefully. . " - he was (as charge of the sacrifice). The Third Declension A-B () as in the preceding lesson. €- (). \€ . Intensive Study of Review Lesson XXX porto 30. found in Lessons the point of asking dirorepos . XXXIII and 89-45. vms calling (him). .-- I teas on eSo/cet . Herewith Exercise XL.

§ of Menexenus. back again. : {cf. etc. Past-Impf. honor} yearn (e/aa) desire. () death secretly. Genitive with Verbs of Herewith Exercise 31. - have come. clearly. 115 Desiring. am paying (for eVe- •••- tlvi say kriow well! ev Cf. j)layfully. worth. at this topsis. -). § 82 A. attention. then. \9 . I declare. TAtvt^ivov without the notice have gone. laugh. Cf. {-. it is time to be air-ievai. time. say. ! ws to the best of one^s ability. cf.. I shall say. «. whisper. therefore. moment () = '^ () . ipa. value. tell. . thana- unnoticed by (Gen. same way in the for. () season. going away. I g^o». . airep the very things which. XLI. which however are far less numerous than those in -€. — ^. again. . (} honor . thereupon. 161. ((5/)) see. To MoVo9 '. Similar to these are contract verbs in -. 5. (Wov Isaid. boyishly. The Verb Contract verbs in -€ constitute a very large and important class. and ask {a question). § 194. Cf. know! \/. TE . ().8. love passionately {rf.).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 73 €. (active Learn the conjugation of the verbs in : voice) () : Conjugate - )'€« ()() ask (a question^. § 19 b). iv d. hour.

.. cf. . ^--- from (in the place) X^ets. %.^ 6 65 Meve^evov. ' ). also to Men. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 74 . . ' eiVijs to recall. is . ().. . . - . 72. ' ' . ).. ' - ' 6 . Avert • .. --). etc. ^/. 4 y ipei^. . -^. in order that you may . . . . . • .• '\. Cf. \ 70 .. ) 75 65. . had arisen lohich he The (68) ''also to me mnemonic go) out (whence also he stood up (to go) out)... . .''^ tell. 8 -^. . . idiomatic {to . fxe €9. ]. . dvep 71. . ' 6 iv Meve^evo^ . . - . . .

. -.. pos- session. 6 —^ € TOL $ 77. . To AevTcpov mind any one (have no care for ' 9 ? 78. 11. The Verb Learn the conjugation in - : ^ Like § 82 B. 8 . 64-75 (Lesson XLI). () the (act of) possessing. ' €wi-Kovp^aeis shall. / am 358.). Intensive Study of ^?. () he feasting. .• ('). Cf.^ ovhev rjhlov ipdre 7]^ ?. . or|s you may • reprove see . ' \)<. the chap. stock? 83. croL. 75 that you aid me in order that I {see how you may become a laughing- . 85. you share. TE «- . being asked (a question) getting possession 2. . . etc. banqueting. I am acquiring. . of. § 175 g. paSiov — . ' ^TEE FIRST YEAH OF GREEK . — The Grenitive Absolute. Vesta. . give a share of. fjf. conjugate . the fellow. () possession. XLII. Cf.. 2^ossess. KTfjo-iS --. of the contract verbs (middle voice). Cf. €$ doiiH you any one). )? ear ipdv. 85 . ^ Kara-y^XaffTos 81. () hearth. 84.

. share your conversation. 6. but he says he thinks .. ' . . 5 mildly.. . • .^' ' 95 (). () (such) as. €. .- • ^. ' .. .. . . 90. olos. -(? toioOtos . (rd) . . . Cf. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 76 () () % '. () gold). . . -€ \6yv you . toward these. timocracy. 6 — - -/^. -. 6 go ). ortygan. gently. . . money . . ) . child value. () -ovos cock. . . coined gold. such (as) toiovtos calmly. ortyx. 92. honor Cf. . ' . . tohat () -v7os quail. Cf. . knows. . . 6 .! . . . irpos (-. -^.

103. of Socrates. no . are . c was an fighting-cock espe- .^ la. tachyg- raphy. re veoi ' ^ \ '. cial favorite. ireipa). ' .) Tiixovs. ' () with the Participle. ( /s). whatever I ask you. of. . Quails also were domesticated and used in various sports. easily Cf. 6 S. Cf. § of pets.) (-). : night. rbv A favorite oath to get 104. .V The Athenians were fond 102.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 95.. : (b) far along in •£ so as so that to. 93-106 (Lesson XLIl). (Infin. . A - XLIII. . () quickly ($).te at Indie).) (a) far from {G&n. ^. (if.< . vi] . . ... § 195. Intensive Study of <. or . empiric. (Gen. . 11 11. Herewith Exercise 32. TE £8( ££$ - () consider (one) fortunate experienced in (Gen. possession To «. olos 175 e € § 172. II.8.

^. ^. 11. (. .8' . . 113. . - . 110. SoKOV(Ti \ yap 125 ^'/< . Intensive Study of § : . . Herewith Exercise 113 e). ' - 33. €( XLIV. in lohat way (). ^. 6 ' . . . 6 . Middle (Passive) Participles iroiovp-evos.: THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK 78 ' you acquired. I' 6 Sia } -. ) . . (JvKovv . . To Declension of the Active Participles 50 § . 111. . . . fJLOL ju. iav 20 ?. of the 115 6 ^. 107-113 (Lesson XLIII). ' . €. 6 Tt . : . . . %^ . . €5. . . . . .€ ^. -. . €.

-((. is it ivLore 122.. . To in etc. . § pay heed 115 h) regard (Gen. 137. (Cf. all in am able (to a muddle. -- call to (one). . I am (to do).. kinetic.. § 135. . 124.. -€ accent. ' 120. rj ^^ y^P? eivai . 134. favorites. - cover. find out. move. stir summon. ' .. €• XLV. (. eSo^ev. intensified otherioise. -. be vexed. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK lav re ) . dis- up. %. . drive away. ' -» --- ?. their darlinys. 123. Intensive Study of -. which lovers Cf. . annoyed.. (eviore 135 possible for one-whn-loves. € . lam well off. Cf. deliciae. -€. sometimes I suppose 133. oe. s an re € () . have a way totally at a loss. speak with a foreign speak somewhat () brokenly. set in motion. etc. Sokcl Review the past-imperfect (active and middle) of verbs -. 6 /cat ^€€ 79 130 ev ) . - "EotKei^. . to . differently (it) seemed. €.) the very {experience) ). and Uses of the past-imperfect. TE () feel irritation. s (?). 127-137 (Lesson XLIV). 11. €$). I am do).

^.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 80 () iripi-t^rr&Tts the bystanders. ice I set. yielding to them {becoming less than they). place. . I . in- tercourse. . 145. &- like {evil) spirits. ^. ^ ^ \ . intend. conversation late in the day. 6 " ' - ' 150 . — have become. . . . . brought to an end. ^ -. € € 5 150. have in mind. -^ iv 6 145 a being together. ' . 139. after saying these things. . . ' 140 6i/>e " {-). late. . 8> . . -. -. 153. ice dissolved. . ' -. ^ . € € iv «-. as they tcere going away. -€\€ 148. yeybva^ev ' Slaves were usually foreign-born. . then. i^-evpdv ice were able to discover. count. — 138.. 152.() . 147.

the unfortunate lad becomes more and more confused. to -—. €• question succeeds question and dilemma. vepavai to bring to an end. until at length he exclaims in despair ^ \iyw. 187 K. I . /^ f foi /'. 50 A. l> I. accomplish (irepalvw) = .€ ev — Review the ' irepavai} @€. dilemma. e^ To }. died. adding §§ 36-37: \€'). THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK The Lysis 81 one of the dialogues of Plato in which no definite concluBetween the selection in Lesson XLIV and the closing paragraphs above about ten pages of the dialogue have been omitted.^^ OCD €39 ^ €•. Intensive Study of rA ^/^ "BOLO ^•. -^ he erected. ©/ / Herewith Exercise . 1 11. ^ A %€ having ( 138-147 (Lesson XLV). XLVI. and the third declension (including §§ 48. As sion is is reached. 0$ . B). 34. .. A T-^ J^O X$ /^ .: . ev last four lessons. .

Aor. Verbs form their aorist action-stem in one of several ways. ^ - St. c) Aoristic Prohibition. of the verbs : a) Exhortation. Indie. 7€ do not lengthen the final e or to 57 before the .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 82 £ . Indie. Aor.. Other examples - € -. I did. Indie. § 157. " XLVII. : are: . . Aor. + + +<ra- . 1 e) Conditional Clauses. St. I called. To V-Z The Verb: Action-stems. Aor. the most common formation consisting in the verbaorist-stem stem plus the suffix (§ 64). I made. b) Question. St. Indie. I langhed. . thus aorist indicative / loosed. . and aorist suffix. and decline in the same given above. §§ 131-133. i) Final Clauses. . ' « - I ''. < «' «€( b2trst into Learn the conjugation of the § 79 A. . d) Modest Assertion. Uses of the Subjuncti'e laughter. . € « € Aor. + St. / asked. + -- St. + -- St. . Indie. etc. Indie. aorist active of way each .

-. . - -. as.^ € ^ ''^. €€.. -. (65 . () command. . €. () -ttjtos youth. -. ^^\: -? . . cLyadov einev ' 6 ^. . follow.. • eiTTev. TE () .. ) &. . . () beggar. aeon). €€ (-) €. be hear false witness. acolyte. -. . guard (-). very sad -ov (). '•09 Cf. herit. ..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . -. ().-6 difficult. zoology. (Dat. 83 in- murder () murder). -- Cf. -. much ooros -) -ov as Cf. ^€).). TO ) -'^ — TTJs . ^ • -^ '^ .. 17 ' . fail. . Troie'o). () 8 life. an adidterer - lasting for an age (. . . miss. . \ .. -. 5 . fail of hitting.. ) . it is difficult. -. ' ? '. . . ^. . ^.. €.

see A'Ocabulary. €-/ On the style and language of the he became = . 5.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 84 . 18.V. ? . Subj. .^ €-- ^ "8 -<£ Thermopylae loe lie stranger. the famous epitaph written in honor of the Spartans monians that here (TySe) <S Part. includ- . hevpo 6 — oiSas = S. iyevero. Outline the conjugation of ten or a dozen verbs. iv eiirev . Imper. New Testament.- . Action-stem Future stem Aorist Action-stem XL VIII. -- rrjSe — ^<}. ^«-<» '.-? -- --- 6€ — Infin. iv distribute. . in tlie battle of - Indic. passer-by. according to the Opt. evayyeXiov by doing what 2. . announce to the Lacedae- obedient to their commands . Xi-ttv . -. A) and -. 10. '. XeiVet e^et? • €^€9 . €\ ayyeiXov 1 follow- : : who fell ( ). 9. /'-'. . remains. . having heard. ". -. -$ . This is """ ^^o'i^' - -- --- -< -. lacking.^ ^ ^ ^ -€ "ing contract verbs in ing scheme (§ 79 I ' Progr. is .

? he was biting. bite. make - remain. \ayot)v 6 " Et ei. he xoould vayys. . . TE . indicate to lean. €. (/)$) separate. conquer. -. 85 A. .4€'. () ijyyeiXa announce . . « bite 35. . 229 . () hare. § of inceptive aorist). . Aorists in -a. have potcer point (). out. and decline in the same and without the way : . ( § 135. dis- tingnish. incline. irori St at one time at another time. lick. § 50 C. wag the tail. cf. .. . decline. hated.. . . § 64 (a).€ ^^. slant.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 85 The First Aorist. The Meanings 136 (especially the the Aorist. |9. Herewith Exercise . ayyeXoi messenger). wait for. over. .. . (§ 64 b) ayyiiXas. tail.. he loould caress. eTirev • ei " vei<s . . ( -. hos- trori tile. judge. (77-. €. fawn upon. \ .. aud pursue.. (). () -6 hateful. . Learn the declension of the aorist active participle in -aas. §§ 64 b. kiss. — 2. (-). ^. Ace. show.

" 7. . Ace. (4\). he 5. 6 • 1.? . . of avTTJs. . 6 TTJs $. he found elpov it similar (lit." 5 — deprived. being like). -. ^.. -?.\^ - is eXeye.. \ ^ . 3. . hi — .evSov vds evpov ok evprjaeiv 5 eKeivov. ok he ^^. " ' . 353 . 343 .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 86 "Opvlv avrjp ^ . expecting 4. . -. • el^j^el•» -\.. .. . .

114-119. . -^. T^yetrat. avev 2. — — C. £.". . To . C . )(.. AXTjOeia Xeyovauv.. . %. — 8. 730 195 ^. Syj — 3• 4• 5- 6.. 485 D.. — — — — 7- 9• 176 ^ 362. 52 a.. . .' Sebi^re? -€ ' 87 — . The Uses yap. 8. §§ 111.^^. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK XLIX. . . ^. ^ 2.... 121. — 474 W. . 23 ^. of the Genitive Case. /09.. 365 Review Lessons XLVII-XLVIII. ' . . . .. 1.

Cf. The Verb : .. •79 OVTL . . ^. of (first. ' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 88 10. 3. 6. 521 .. 79 A. (who are) has the construction of rich not in gold. . . 12. . . 6 The sentence is . . come the heights. etc.. Ot 12.8et? — €. Genitive after in Com- position. . Cf. 11. § 116 h. - — -] — -. and see § 137. the Perfect Active Learn the perfect active Herewith Exercise 36. - incomplete those loho are truly rich. 30. acro-polis. KaXeiv. to. § 119 . e{jK\eia . ei. () 1. § 65. To M7. . — .-. . ().^ . § second). L.. : Genitive of Time. \. . 4. : ' -. '. . '' . \byoi. . attain to. . 'E/c 11. .

ing. -. The rate of progress may thereby be somewhat retarded. why have you come so early wios (0) son. iyepQ. to sleep. ^.). strike.() () = despise. Pf ar- arrive. -. Cf. () ijyyeiXa. Cf. on account (Gen. This passage of the ' 8' . . ijyeipa awaken. 8£ € day before yesterday. Cf. dis- .). -6 -. --. Cf.-. and extends through Lesson LXVII. . (et's)• for the sake of ivcKa. - . so early. Vesper. - «-8€. It is therefore recommended that the class each day memorize so far as possible the portion contained in the lesson of the day before. ivtKo. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 89 TE ^. . lie § 57.. trict. - ac-ot'fw." seeking an introduction to the famous sophist Protagoras. deme." or rather "early this morn- Town. -. -((>. on what ac- count f at this time. 2<rir€po (17) evening. < . bacteria. . Socrates relates to a friend how Hippoc'rates. -€. and is of its kind one most beautiful passages in Greek literature. The following selection. Tas at the door. to (^! town walking stick. is . llpuTay6pa% Protagoras is in taken from the Protagoras of Plato. open {02)en up). ). straight. (to) little walking stick. came to see him "last night. down upon (Gen. A' €K en 6 . tiBis straightway. within of. € knock () down Kpoveiv to clap the hands. rive at. be asleep. is written in Plato's noblest style. Sec. iyp-fjyopa . -. epidemic. but the gain in power will more than compensate for any loss of time. be in democracy). into. the son of Apollodo'rus. look I am awake.

. 8. ineihrj 5 OF GREEK THE FIRST TEA 90 (tohile () it ?. before daybreak. . (^rushing). -^. . . have you just heard f \\ a rush .. taking his stand.. . . . & X^yois that were well $ eC ! Cf. $ ^ ' ' aya^ct ye... Cf. dawn.- '^.. ) 09. 7iOi. crow. . Xiyeis. 11. . 1. -44 .? . et ' .s veurepov 9.. icas) still very early. • . anything startling. 12. - eKpove. . . el• news. y'. . . . 7.. . § 163. . . Opdpot he eireifo^evos Came Straight in with recognizing. () cock- early daton.. . . 4.

^ Koi () () sleep. .). to. intend (Infin. -iroSos a pallet. KOTTOs (0) loeariness ^y -? -? (). be about to. desist. ^ -- grope for (Gen. -() (). and learn the middle aorist and perfect. and §§ 67. sleep. iJ - €.TE (a) -(. -^ .-€8 •. iirvos . he ran away. ^. -\\''< '. ^ SciTTVCO) ^ feel for. eXnev.. 6 6 crot ' 5 • ^2 . es- caped. Cf.. then. - -. yap • rot -. --. . 'V^ ^ go to rest. . The Verb va etg.. () excitement. -. relate {-) . ^-^. oxjje .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK LI.(^ point out read. 137. recognize. bed. () manliness a strengthened -. away. run . at that time.). - . supper). § 79 B. tell. €- To Review the active forms : 91 of . hypnotic. avSpcCa €•7€ as soon as.. dine dimmer.

e. returned. -dined). ^ . to tell €\\ you that I loas going € to - pursue. . -€\6 Tivos 7\ I came. § § 94. we were having 6$. 18.e. ^. . ava-ffTas arising (standing up).. 79 . . 21. ye 15. . and learn the conjugation of : Indirect Discourse. . (i. Sedpo yJKevy 25 Tt - ' . . ^-. § 179. § 179. though intending slave (boy) Satyrus. ^ . The Verb Review the middle forms of declare. 17. I a future optative representing after the past tense This is the only use of the future forgot the future indicative is optative. in the night (hours)). § 98. - because of something else I forgot we had dined (^. 19. Herewith Exercise 37. . i. \ ^ ere levai. II B. 17 . 22. -6€ Oivbris having arrived from Oe'noe. a village and the border of Attica. (it). deme northwest from Athens near my 16. LII. \ '. . too late (i.e. say.92 THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . ^^ too far along () 23. it released. To - /cat .

. . . ' . etc. /cat ere . . -. . () would that ! then. F. Aor. vaL Et ydp.. ' €. . § 19 a. money. elwou. ' • . () € but indeed. (). say. above. TO irpOTepov formerly. Aor. partly. ' 6. -. Pf.%. ti . see. house). suade take. declare. good cheer! Pf.€ 93 TE () ). 3° ' -- - 35 . not yet. un- one's -€. Zev . .-8. here. find. there. he of iJKOVffa. irap' he is (. . lodge (at unfasten.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .' .. nunc. -^. . on behalf of (Gen.. . .. veKa praise. . . . ^. . rj . £-€. super. per- (€-). my guest. ert . over- --- yoke. -\ ^. '. -. partly . jiever. ' (too) early. . oil . .). . coined silver. now. (^). really.

might depend upon this I as would leave untouched skilled in speaking. . j THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 94 40 "^ ' . . himself to a arise - it this very purpose.! * .$ () and go out 43. r\^ my own. -. 30 ei if . . life of pleasure -^ = ^. etSe?. . —: US Stand up . iws hv LIII. — 0709 ^.- Lwaev. . 30. US . Z^ ^ C ^ .. of sophists. II c. (-\ . J ^ . would that e'i-q neither amjthing of ^. irapa 44. Sore. V. . 45.forth .^ -N .. . ment - TavTafor speak o^s 38.. in order that converse). To /36/ : <. adverbial TO -- . ^. . -J ' evSov 45 28. 41. of noble family. yau offer. adverbial poni'cus. = you may 35. I let for the most part. 31. who devoted and spent his money lavishly in the entertain- Callias. : (we § 172. yap ws OUT f. yap '. is likely. ' -.. 39. ' ' oevpo avkrjv. evwyyeXiov 6 vy • -'..-. '. . ? "^ .. -\^3 ' . €( as eZicos let (become). '. ^. 32. may find) at the house of Callias. the son of Hip- was a wealthy Athenian. (?ioi) at all. 37. \<. .

its shortest form. cLTT-iQavov F. as the First or Sigmatic Aorist. . «€ ^ .\. but of great frequency. -. The vast majority of verbs in Greek form the aorist stem by adding the and this formation is accordingly known suffix - or -a. went (serves as aorist to or - irregularly retained throughout the moods. -A. . In this lesson See aorists.)^(-. or Of. Pf. iN^ § we shall consider only the thematic second 63 and for the conjugation. The augment is -'). Another group of verbs. €. . •-€ -. or cIttciv €.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK Uses of the Aorist . € came. F. root appear in if the aorists of Second or Root as are either (a) thematic or (b) non-thematic in formation (§ 53). .. fewer in number. § 136.' : The Second Aorist : 95 Grnomio Aorist. F. (-^. Master the following verbs and forms -. throw. €«. €\(€ cvpeiv «. eureka. said (serves as an aorist to (for e-peirov) (/-). Herewith Exercise 38. . -'). Pf. « die A. do not add a suffix to form the aorist. The more than one form). § 57. find. ^ efTTw. . () € « . pelt (/3e\- Pf. § 84. but em- ploy the verb-root (regularly in these known verbs accordingly are They Aorists. air-cGavov.

^. €-€- (\. . F. knoiv^. -) . I (fetS. especially the See Contrary to § 64.<yov. learn Pf. Fact Conditions.-). F. F. « ^ oiSa (^I have seen) qf. receive - leave (Xeirr- .€ .yv-). Review Lesson LIII. -. middle forms : Conditional Clauses Herewith Exercise : .€ . Pf. -. forget Pf. ciri €'•-€5• LIV. .poiZ. .(yev.\-). . (-). . " Observe that the last five verbs accent the aorist imperative (second means behold! But in comperson singular) on the last syllable. . Pf. *€') ?. "- become -. (for or / y . . . § 85. and the first -. ' pounds the accent is regular : iir-eXde go away ! . . . -. -.-. 39. € ^ . (. . § 152. § 82. ^. «. take. F.fiB- Pf. «. yivi- - vB' also the conjugation of verbs in aorists in -a. and €lSov €'. F.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 96 £ I ) saw (serves as aorist to .

'^ . judge Pf. strength. question). examine thoroughly. consummate. * apyvpiov .--. . fee. select. . -). F. decline () (). incline. - . (- intrnd. . -. . and F. . --. . () () statue). . -. .- . . . ^. irepi -.(-. -. . . wages. I "^ A' -)€. . (. d just as if. namesake. -). ']. consider critically..- ». . 55 . (a thing). -Kptvo- answer. attempt. -€.. physician.-. -).. €6 think on. .(-. . have in mind. . cio-irep € hire.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 97 TE . . .. put one's hand § 93). . etc. to re- bring to an end (t^Xos).. sculptor () clearly. of like name. (). ^ hr•^ )> apyvpiov 5° ? . (8 -\>.-- () . (/. (). -. go around examine 4--. tiri and ask ( . pay. pat• .

- rjpeTO. famous sculptors during the and € LV. ? ws 51. e7r-evoeis et . . et . ^. iv . Et 6 re 65 . To Herewith Exercise Phid'ias. ^^ . . . of Argos. . . . |)?ii7:»ose .' . Hippocrates of Cos was a famous physician and founder of the science of medicine. in-evoets TeKelv to GREEK -€.• . of the family of the Asclepi'adae. what profession 59.. ' . < el " future participle expressing pay. 98 -€.s) formed a sort of guild of physicians. latter half of the fifth century. otl ^"^• . some one had asked 6 Hippoc' rates of Cos. whom. . : hv ff.' were the most . just as if you to . To Hippocrates as a representative of ? Polycli'tus. translate: intending rt's (as about to Come tO become what). ris at you were intending (had in mind) v:hat would you have replied ? § 152. etc. if &v - . translate To one of lohat profession do you think that you are going and what do you expect to become yourself that you are now seeking to go to Protagoras. of Athens. (descendants of Ascle'piu. ws 56. 50. . 40. The family of the Asclepiadae 53..• otl . TH^^J'IRST YEAR OF av Wlwop av. and 52 . 5.. ^ [7.

% . 7° \ iv . avSpa. ' Tekeiv ask concerning about. (by name) . mpL A. m --? . . ^ . . -6 {an one). . . -7) -ov ready. in addition. Eiev. 75 . (Gen. noun. . call well then tltv - --€(. it seems likely (a second perfect). (to) name. be earnest. (be zealous. such Sunrep just as. . > '^. eyvpoo-Ocv former. zeal). 6 —^ 8 . already..! THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK TE () it is like. around. . ask further. (). . " etc. ' ^ ^. word. 99 . — re . or Ace). -. €1 €1 epoiTO. apyvpiov Tekelv virep . ' . ( > name. a sophist. craft. () a master of one''s a wise man.

9^•<. . marvel thaumaturgy). es- (\- . have. (or gradually). I .. €<*/'. . toonder ative. 179. €- ( Cf. .'. I . LVL To Learn the conjugation The of . with a bhish 82. inlend. yvo-). (- hold. red.. that to which Socrates has been leading. attend to. F. . 70. -. () be ignorant feel - blush). eXadov. little yeviadai SO that he became visible. glimmer of daylight. serve. -.. provide. furnish. § 179. . there toas a 83.ses the series. if OUr mnney he spending besides {in addition). disgrace. and is is added for emphasis. Cf therapeutic. 66. € TE (- priv- mar. have in mind. {\ one ought (&. . (^«pe . ^ %' SrjXop oTL 85 . ^/ Discourse. wonder. the . -. disgrace. . (). one's notice. - \. § a. supply. -). # .4 --4€ / \ -. (^ € shoto (or appear) just a 83. heal. av 68. disMid. \\ elude -). The particle of Protagoras clo. The name 1'/6. be ashamed got . care for. Infinitive in Indirect Verbs Herewith Exercise 41.) = Set. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 100 — Et /^ c.. be surprised. figure. Infinitive with of Thinking. Sufficient. dishonor. § 9. -.

8ta-voov)u... and Cf. ^^ . . I suppose €€ mnsier o/. ay- . " . . iroios. ••€ what icon. ' • \ . .. . iro£a. .. iroiov. () a master { in the world. . car- Cf. . irepi. portrait. )( ) €.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK € -? () - () image. = iripl what about? tCvos. . 95 . -. penter.. of what sort? by the gods irpos () a painter of pictures (enclitic).. ing. %v .'7/9 \iyeiv. /-. ' ' ot .at 'Eyoj go . -ovos ! a builder. a work- -oiOS making. . animal). (of one's ttov profession). then. work.. cp^ao-ia 101 (). . .at. xjjv'xrjv . ] 105 . . ^. " -\ . . ye ' . . Otju. . . avSpi. architect. (17) yet. . • 6 6 . business. therefore.

. 101.. need. Cf. at ' able to speak. emphasizes. if it . - that he is) master 36. to the execiition (i. 'iSti () () We say (5). Decline -.102 € - THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK av . . ^ ' €< . of course. = 97. clever speaking. -is - () () teacher of the lyre. -is (17) question(ing). ^ . fSti it . etc. answer. pertains here accusative of Specification. peril. 104. need of (Gen. § 113 d. . - run a -.was necessary. ? «l . ? ( () lyre. call to one's side. of . not even to . To /cat Review the declension of spend. thing 95. whom you are handing with mocking humor. . were necessary. indirect () form counsel. . LVII. <§ . squan- der. lack. .v Trpoj . danger.) etc. -- face peril risk.. ij of the (art) of making. heivov keyeiv -. () lyre-playing. etnoL^eu Adverb of $. of the knowledge which air-epyaaiB. over your soul. the painting) this {that folloios). cithara. Paraclete. is 103..e. 94. or (loould () -(>. eivaL. . be in (del). . «5 perhaps. risk. 107. .

6 • heivov Xeyeiv . . . 6 • ^ 8. • SrjXov .. ^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 20 ". . 2 Sia-KivSd- yevecr^at . - Joaj 130 35 '^'^^^ . . ye. . 6 125 xf)d)(7Jv. &. 4. .. ^. ' ^. . € ' 103 ' XeyoLfxev. ^. xjjd)(yjv )( - ./^> . . ' . . ) ctl 115 ^ . . ^ -. . Seivov 6 6 . no • SrJTTov hrj .. . .

. . . €. a-Joa. -€ -.(-.e.. ^ with Participle. carry. . upon which depends your . . Perfect of 137. chance. convey -. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . deceive. - a danger. rear. perfect participle of -. § 16. § 176 c Herewith Exercise 42. nourish -). -€\€. . for weal (-). Accusative of Extent of Time. recognize thoroughly).104 . . as though you had already fully decided -? 132. Fu.tu.. § place under. . . you consider of greater value (that which at a higher value). Cf. ob- . ayvoQv you are clearly ignorant." Svolv SeovTe? § g.^ "^817 6 ^^''^"^^eiXe^at 6 140 ".. -€ . irepl you estimate 126. ? one ought -- to associate with. hit.Te ^laTtici^le oi to expose. 129. -. buy. $. Aor. " €. sell. ovre . 139. 3. § 148. ^«) VX^v (). 7«7<"') -. 176 . .. eh into lohat sort of rtva 125. 136. () . . . --. all you took counsel loith coming at daybreak. € .. - lead. . 120. . vXeiovos ^yei lohat if or woe.) cheat... . To (5t- Verbal of of. TE . become the pupil - LVIII. ''5. vr\ with Future Indicative. tain (Gen. i. 125. Cf. 113 f.- . happen. 119.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK « . appears.• () perhaps. < .. etc. retail dealer. wares 105 (). \ . 150 55 ' 6 . ^ yap . ' ' '7 . .. .- rjv rj ' . () wholesale nourishment 6 OVP. huckster. . .. xjjd)(yjv. . retains its . . .. Ma^r^'/aacrt 145 6 6 6 -. 144. importer. . .^-. . \))() yap. In such a context yap § 184. merchant. () () ().^. - . ". . surely 6 it original sense of surely. ' €< 9 . -. () ad always.. Cf.

play at dice start. con- advice. Beovreq of the Infinitive. .). . § 177. value. .). advantage). for the time being. €€. -^ / TEE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 106 oirws ye § 148. secure. suit loith. Verbals. the one icho knows. --i's § 42. honor. before (Infin.146. To The Uses (see to it) that he do not deceive . § 172. to. - (). seek be of benefit help. ' Et may . TE . del &•= here 157. 149. . . sack. ' 158. &v 15-5. purchase ). especially the Infini- tive Avith irpiv and €. safe. have perceive. hasten. expert knowledge (of a subject).. ? LIX. receive €€ xinder stand.. $. aid (rb take risks. us. () food (bread.-). § 27 b. (. ^. (). (17) buying. . () () receptacle. cir -. in the same way. -v -ov that which be anyone. vessel. (() -. () ttotos drunk urn. necessity. of whosoever. () price. etc. )( (- . = = & § 102. § 102. . Gen. . ' ^. . blessed. happy. " = ayovffiv. etc.

having paid. . . /cat . THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK . -\. ^> ^. -. /cat 185 with Subj. with ttjc ^/ c. . . I having piit down . 165 /cat -. . . (). . .-(). 172. it is possible. - 171. * 6<.. it lest. 176. 168. . YipohiKov § 160 '^ for one who has purchased putting down. el /cat Srj ^ .3. . /cat . . /cat -teVat /cat \\\ \ -€ see to jLtera -.. . - 6 6 . iu ayyetot? ot/caSe 164. ot 8e£a<j^at • 107 . 8 . . re /cat . 170 75 /cat . \. '. -. 17.

decide veoi {-€<) so xoeighty a matter. 6.^' €| | € «. § 67. § 141. Herewith Exercise 43. {) cvpc- ^ € ^^y> . ' To The Verb Review the perfect active. 7- 8. 182. «" . Passive Depo- nents. and learn the aorist. . ^ - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 108 177. 2. « -. we are (too) young to tvith (koivos).| J" J"' •^ • J ^ '^^ hr (/3eX- \y \- -). and -•). us consult LX.€ € ()- Review and master the following verbs 1. 3- 4. 66 the perfect middle (passive).. 5. € --. let . The Meanings of the Perfect.. . II.. and Perfect passive participles of rj respectively.pas. § 137 . 179. . '€'" and and and Qqvpov) (/-). : sive.. 9- . . §§ 65. §§ 69 and 79 C.

(e'/aew) eiTTOv. €\|/ (^€7- 23• €' Orpeir- 24• -^. kKtkiv- (\- € € . 21. 19• 20. €€|/ -).yet-). " € .*4--• - •w^"*''^ ireirauKa '€ '•€. 15- 6.€€ € €€ (€7- € (Xenr- j:^^*-"^ -)• 17. (. € ^ « . €-). (»- .-€ and 25• «. 33• 34• (-}. (/). 3• 4• -). yov. . 31.-| . 29• 30. (i/c-). and 32. € | . €€ - .-}. 26.^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 12.. €€6 8. ' €. 27• 28.".. " -^-. €€€ 109 t^ . ' €6 € €| •€ . « .-. o-t-*^i> ^5>_>-<--«-«-^^-^ and (7/37-)• 22.

. come Used be going. vexed. noyed . A. proceed. Going See Lesson arrive. ^- § (^-. fall in with. -. come. 61 e. agree with. . walk. . cf. () -is incomplete (tAos). () throng. . (-). - «-. )• with a struggle. he . TecreTv . fall ha ! A. gone.. - / am Past Impf. yovv at any rate {ye 'ia. have the force of a perfect. TE () burdened. etc. go.). hardly. go to and ( fro. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 110 LXI. fall to.: . walk. / am coxiie. With the force of a perfect. go. go to school. |( -€ €. an- + vah I () eunuch. () vestibule. go. iriae €8 weight. ef? To Verbs of Coming. Pf. reluctantly (- toil). bah ! () doorkeeper. . '). agree with (Dat. come. Pf. LX. € siep. iv-iiretrov fall in. (&3 () den). come {go) frequently. With gone. go. have come. commonly) . F. - (o/xos). agree tireaov. crowd. march way). €. as the future of or (more F. upon. occur bur- .

. .). -. . 6 a^^ecr^at 111 door (). A\K . both hands (Dual Dat. - ' . . I' iv oSop iv-enecrev. . .. probable. in this sense./ . i^-ayyLov 189. igo .. /i07is - constantly employed In this idiom the idea of danger -) 6$. has wholly faded out. followed 195 . y-€\r]vos 204. ^ -. yap • -€€ 193. loith as vigorously as he could he is 199.. at last with reluctance. 2 6 it is likely. . . \.. . . slammed -ov closed the 205 complete).. {kir .. ..-. . . . .- yevoLTO. -. . ^ . --) -( THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . 8 . 197.^.. . tol having finished by an (^ infinitive.

colonnade. of) a locality -ov in (or or country. . LXII. -- i. . «irl -- . stranger. -. 6 6 e^yj'i /xev 6 .- . ' ot hi --. -. . loalk. ^. ?. . friend. -''.).---. bewitch. ^ tyj 6 - - -. Cf. €-$. €€ . -(). -5 ^ side. peripatetic. in a row. ^ ? . Cf. mother. t|fjs € () on the one €-8 epichoric native. McvSaios o/J/e>ifZe (in Thrace). -€ half-brother.. iv 2 .. Herewith Exercise 44. be famous . guest-friend. (). art. local. tread on. for a pro- ' €-.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 112 . /^ €€ € 6 215 irpb- portico. ^. . behind (Gen. profession. ' () (?) technical. charm. () be of good repute. Cf. . 4 ^•? 220 Cf. €7€>) irepi- horn of the same -ov . ^ . . 6 . fession.e. '? () foreigner.

§ 96. raised from heavenly off body. company. (!). (Cf. divide (and pass) around. $ () ( Cf. . be cv 8-^-€ expound. . be « ' Cf. -ov listening to Opovos (0) high-backed chair. impede. down. Conditional Clauses. Temporal Clauses. Cf. sit . F. throne. verse. seat (-. () baiid. ornament. sido'). split schism). on Lat. sit : Poetic. explain «. -ov this side {-. €••9 ). . () cautious {-. fo/xat () bench. and F. and compounds -^ especially § 169 b. -cf. Poetic A. groio). () take pleased. ^- «. suavis). Attic prose uses the compound: sit § 96. cf. No sit. ? (9 somehow. future or aorist. sedeo^. ' /cat Learn the conjugation of sit 113 down. F. way (of one's feet). Indefinite Relative and Temporal Clauses. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK LXIII. . pleasure (^) F. ef. sit down. Lat. scindo. - () and on that. -. sit sit. meteor. Lat. chorus. - Verbs of Sitting {-}. ttws nature . the Cf. order. Lat. physics. in the cf. down. sit. Attic prose uses the . ground. §§ 165-170. (go through). TE -. -€ Impf (-. Impf.: --. . cosmos. uni- Cf.

^S' : serve oneself with. «. Heracles. . of the deme of Mvppivovs. . from the passage (Odyssey XI. . 228. /)55 LXIV. . iu 6 235 - iv . After this one I perceived.'''' Plato is playfully quoting Homer. €.. . TRE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 114 IB' ? TOVTOV Toz^ ')(opov ') " 230 € -.. '' . . -. . Tantalus. 231.^. The Third Declension Adjectives The Verb § 97. § 42. Odysseus sees Sisyphus." ' ^/^ 6 6 . Hippias of Elis was one of the more prominent of the sophists. 228. 601) which describes Odysseus' visit to the underworld.elvaL 225 < they took (their) positions. * ' -^ . etc. \ 6 --^-^ - ' Si 226. .

ringing. 115 Case.. . bed. in Cf. \. bed-spread. with the Dative. heaviness.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK use.^ . . ding). as --$ -h not clear () 6$ () -8 () -5 () Cf. . () store-room. -. The Dative § 121. . ." - iv 6 240 ert ^/. lodging. loithout appearance. chamber. () (ev).. rare serve with. € () lad. oneself -. («). jieece (used as . () () (^. -. use (Dat. humming.. . 120-122. §§ 111. TE Ca) - -^. prose except in compounds. 245 . from ISi'a wrap up in = () mattress. couch. cover (-) . . () room. . near.Sr) " - etcr-etS 6 6 .^ dissolving. -.).. bed- IF . ' ^ ^^. idea.

thought although eager. theatre. spend time. ' = 700»' Agathon was 251. (/3€- . . delay. ().116 . thoughtful. sceptic. $ e7<^ ?^ 249. Cf. Cf. p. See Lesson LX.>() aicay. iv Prodicus of Ceos was another of the more famous sophists. 4-€$ having emptied (). a viewing^ theory.-). \6yoi). . See Lesson LX. = 247.-^. § ov 113 () an equal little. look sight. -. 70. cf. €V€Ka on v:hat account. a match for -ov on account of (Gen. €v€Ka famous (iv. a short time. (^. TE 8-. in age comrade. — eipai <. a tragic poet.). €-8 contest -ov (). -. e. tvatch.. LXV. see (^opa- (ij) . -\•>/\. engaged in equal with. examine heard. at any rate. (^ Cf. view. 242. /cat Verbs of Seeing: €€ have the eyelids^. yap €' . . Kaiirep 248. . -.- Si-eXeyovTo Trepl he 250 ^€ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Kainep — 239.

The Aorist 8^ - . ' LXVI. ovSev 260 ' -- Tt ovv . § 136. and . . . : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -. .e. § 21 b. - ' . 63.. 270. TOP ' €Tl ' 117 . ^ ' 267. . . . clv . € . to him(self). The Second Aorist a) Thematic second aorists review Lesson LIII. : 270 § 179. privately. . § 86. learn the conjuga- . . ' € TOL ^. ^. ' . 8 . The Verb 265 in Eager Questions. -. 'H/ACt? ovv /3'//^€9 € - 255 Trpoa-rj^ep .. ^-^ ^. . : b) Non-thematic second aorists tion of : see §§ 55. '.'. . . \ -. TTpbs i. I b.

4 make ready (food.-. -. has).( -. a).-ov ^/ {-). 8 8•8 admirer lover. etc. - - .). 6 ^. prepare. - prepare. . . -\ . . el -€ .-. evoov irepX — \oyov re XecrOaL -€ €€ — yap -.). ^. . make ready (what one - glad{ly). . §19 . () p)-epare. procure and prepare. (to) -•€. council {). -). dress. * 28 - - -. ' . 285 () sus- sudvis. imple- ment).. etc. . (Tvv-ehpLOV -^. {. (ff/ceOos -. .. ^ ^. . --. TlpoSiKov . € \4 . pect () €<8 () 89 vessel. . \ .. pleasant. a sitting together in council.-" . Cf. . iv- . €. 275 - under.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 118 TE (. . in the presence of (Gen. .

8 295 ' 3 . -- 275-276. iwel ^ 6 . 284. - . -. -. THE FIRST YEA re OF GEEEK € UpoSiKOf. . § 115 having made (him) get up. . -. without waiting foi' the servants to arrange laying hold of (Gen. . -. ' ^^. rJKOv e/c TlpoSiKov.e. -teVat -)^)6. 119 (--). 271.. cautions. show himself off and make . 283. ... i. 6€ the seats. ^. -.-^ . -. c).. 290 . 287. infinitive of to careful. -] -. . 6 . 6 . . . . 282.. he provident - a display. -. .

&v 296.-dv of drawing. treat. throw iracrxw. wrepaiq. 5-. he will advance. come recognize.v.. . off. -. graphic. . outrage. () € -TOs ? it is -"fj likely. 7670^0x1 having become. ivhat(ever) will result suffer make differently. Infin. (- make mention. -. § 122 a.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 120 -\ 291. to &v represents 299. TTj 301. Lat. TO Review the declensions 48 . (-). Pf. of (a) ris eyvwv. teach () . . . . 295. know {g)nosco. . ". on the next day. (~/ 7 -. . (- thology. ^. ? () -is avXos () flute. natural. -(>v strange. <. § 50 TE know).-. = 298. so old. although (followed by par- ticiple). . mal- outrage.. it of such an age. pa- for is . didactic. § 179. ing. I b. loriting. immediately. - on which{ever) day. A-B. § issue). (to LXVII. § 300. to . step he says he would gladly learn. . just as if . () Cf. for -) cf. . . wonderful. «Ikos the art of paint- Cf. 3. -6$. § 27 . painting. to the better) to make (b) €- ns. progress. €-(€.-. -. cf. progress. . change. () () flute playing. (-- advance (c) thematic active participles. Cf. iirl .

. - 3^5 . eirei et ? . -^ — . .. . since even you 32° would . ( inel : . 325 . €. -€ . 305 BiSa^eLev yevoLO.^ € KoX ovSev elirov. . -. / THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 121 IZ' . . '* .. ^-. -. * . .-. Xeyet?. ---.. . . peated in 306 ) - ei 310 . €-<€. 304. Slv) 7^ . . et - €€ -^. ' . The &v is re- . . . . -.

.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 122 310. . . . Orthagoras of Thebes was a music teacher. 314. in lohat ? - day by day. 3. . 319. Zeiixippus of Heraclea was a painter. €. -. 340 345 . € -\\ - — — ". . ... . again). ' rj / . his specialty being ' . ^-. ^. 6 330 IH' €€ .--. . iiute-playiiig. . eh 316. -- = {eir-av-epwTaw ask. ' 335 4 .. . 315. . . 312. . -.

. especially of the perfect active participle. I a Infinitive with with a Participle. how (^/) the technical subjects. of Fearing: I fear is (perfect used as a present. § 179. Herewith ends this selection from the Protagoras. etc. 345. ff. more common is . c. Svolv € . not common Cf. such as arithmetic Translate: they lead calculations). promise. Herewith Exercise Verbs 45. 123 the special studies which had been re- cently added to the curriculum in Athenian schools. the arts. announce. . they might best administer. back again against-their-will (AKovras) those who have fled from 335.34 (-). Ttts i. except in the singular of the indicative . The Infinitive as a Verbs of § 176 Noun. and.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ( 331. = administer. § 50 SeSios fearing^ (/? '€€'$ C knowing^. €-\ () 337. --- how best to 8irws hv .. ' the declensions « €$ of the active participles. The conversation develops into a discussion of the nature of virtue. -(. F. having fled. - hold oneself under (aji obligation). 342.e. II a .^. § 172. it . LXVIII. - Compare 11. astronomy.--2 . in Attic prose. wise counsel. oilha). 2. prudence. Like decline having made. advertise. etc. promise. of which dialogue constitutes the dramatic introduction. Review: The conjugation of § 95 . Thinking.. geometry. .

— . ^ and others to a searching examination aWovs) summarily suggestion that by renouncing this mode of life he ^ ov elvai. ^. would be conclusive proof that nation.. subject both himself 3ei ( before a court of his fellow-citizens on the twofold trial charge of not believing in the Gods in . God whom the Athenians believed. holding the conviction that he to devote his life to the pursuit of philosophy. TO When on of corrupting the was called of young men. flee in fear. Of. put : infinitive to flight. . () flight.. €€. and Socrates. terrify. -. fear. - . . he afraid. ovoev • ovoels oeoiacTL €6€<. he says. '. '. . eii^at. Cf hydrophobia.' y) SoKeiv eivai. oiSe oiSev... tyJ € 8eSieVat. -. • .. frequently occurring forms are 6€. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 124 I fear The most (second perfect as present). fear. TOL . el aya^oil•' OTL /^ . ^ €$• participle -. elSevai 5 to rejects the eivai yap and might escape condem- This. . .

11. iroXvs Cf. 17. € ( thetic () from = Cf. —. . . . much.. See 16. iv" 14.' evo? h4ovTe<i yXvKV. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK oe aoLKeiv etoevai.. . . Tb^Tcpovthe one {ofttoo). Observe the order of emphasis. .. polygamy. etc. " -^ the b (end). LXIX. this ignorance of thinking. - $ aya^a — 3.. Unseen {one) in this (point) also here . again). 9. Awo\oyiq.) otl ovhe ^ 1. . — The First-Third-Declension Adjectives. sleep. TE € -. 45. 4. 29 the fear of death. than any one.' et peKriovL^ aTreiueiv koll 125 in preference to the evils which 1 § 102. roiros () place. §§ 43. Cf. {-) icondrous. topography.. 15 ecrrtv. know.'.. . (= the {conditions) in {the house) of Hades. in any respect ( + -). -^ lie down to sleep. . whether God or man. {) change - {) change of resi- deuce. because . more. 12. ^. § 4 (= ) irpb See . disobey the oracle. () () perception.). aes- ovop this place. {. dream. -la -ov €-(-$ () most.

according as people say. ^ ' ' ^ . to. 833. € to be nothing rhv 3..THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 126 ^ ^€ Later in the course of his speech before the court Socrates remarks TOL eivaL ecrrt : • . . . ovSev /cat hrj ) death. } . . . firjh' ^'^ } . the one loho is dead. ' — 3- — as 180 a. — 2. . oTSei' ei .€va Te9veo)Ta. ( condition) \-6€ . ^. ^.'. eivai. \.. etc. . 1. \eyop. ' 638. . . ' . ) ivOevSe 5 etre 6 rh 1. 6 ' . ^ '^ . . and to 6 . 1477-8. . § .. it is such have no perception of anything.

127 / '^ '. oi This 3. THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK . 58. 161. = ' ? — it is I am first clear that. . .'''' awois = 5. — • • ipiei. .. : " breathing 's break- beneath the earth. . dead they have a parody of the the ^. . 669... e/xo? — Gazing • § 137.< '> ' 4. ov ecrri .. ( (). you could accomplish. Star of my soul * Ah me 1 .' ' -. ' 4-€^ ipa. -). @ . VII. ^ : . TOL TL ^<. ? = ^. = 1.4< -^. .. -€. Star ? at stars. • 31. — €-€ 5- . . .. ipei.. 2. To . fast \\6€s is and lying down &V01S dv 4. -. quotation above ^. () 7• -€. ' — 6. yrjv LXX. . Prose lost. . 7..a late form for ^v I was. ovpavo'i. e'iOe et? 'Av0oXoyia<. is eider-down.

mistletoe. . (poetic) -aros eye (-). Whom in- . § 153. learn Cf. (). touchest. ? €€ = €l (). to gaze with Those myriad eyes on thee ! all — Translation by Dr. kiss. — Translation by Dr. .. -) - kin- caustic). -ipos star. Timarion.. (). ya (^).. now () (). TEE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK 128 That I were heaven. (). /^. quire (wevd- () Kcpds Cf. bird-lime () bull. () ? that! (). ). 85€€8 twelve years old.{-). (pre- Cf. — nouns and adjectives. mosquito. hum {-. --. ^' " e)(et9 TO • ia-iSyq. Walter Headlam. need. marry bind. already. Thy kiss a limed lure TJiou kindlest tchom thou look''st upon. § 162. (or KaCco -aros horn. Modes of Expressing Wish With a) : Optative. die. . TE KAI . Review: The Third Declension §§ 30-38. hast him sure. pared from the mistletoe berry) I.at F. * . b) With Past Indicative. hope at length. irapos formerly (poetic). (?). €.. . 8€. -aros a Minotaur. A. . by inqui)-y. ' — - Thine eyes are fire. Walter Headlam. fdiyov touch (poetic). aster. gaze () look earnestly at. . .. gnat. 44. . . .

^ - ws = thoti hast $ cLv \ . To press Aesigenes ! was unto thee noio in turn may'' st please not heavily.-. 2. — Translation by Dr. VII. 4» €7 . .. . ^^ • — 6 . — Hail. Man .. . . € 129 Epitaph on Aesigenes . 197. (him) bound. §§ 160 a..-.- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 2. 1>. — '. Walter Headlam. • . .. '. . O. ^ 6 — VII.^ --. may^st thou have {thyself) upon I 235 . 309. . 453. e. -. $ 1. — Epitaph on an Unhappy . Tavpos . . Mother Earth That erst Not heavy. Epitaph on a Boy '..

place for dancing. 3. 6 /cat ^." .) laugh.-. and . -< THE FtRST YEAR OF GREEK 130 he put away. yap ' ^r]Sev €/€€ 2. et . receive having sat upon. (. "ApKTOS 1. sixty years of age. {) (Cf. laid away. (-). (re/c- -). 6 alighting upon. . ' . 5.-). of Tarsus. iScov poSov '. crawl. 4. etc. creep. (Cf. . . Zsiis ' ' . .. €\ (Cf.. live (Infin.) ". -. . -. -.) bring forth.. -- eWe -. {6) animal. smi7e. . . . dance. ). . avrrj . 6- et/xt \ ' "Opvis '. bear {young).

-.( F. () emulation. . agony. abode. . praise ircpdo). . . The was he 1. () - cJiest.. (). 8'. ' iSvvaTO. fatherland. 4. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK ' '^. €.. (to). Cf. LXXI. mantic. (f^Xos deem happy happy (poetic)). pass complete . -aros end (poetic). ita. § 83. TE . ancestor. Verbs in -. seer. § 171. (poetic) set free (eXeudepos - view with -. envy. . ? ' () (wipas end). — Temporal Clauses. 865-866. -ovs. 3. -. etc. 131 170 § Classification of . of one'' s father. -17 - C/". . Verbs according to the Progressive Action-stems. envy. — boasting. Imperative. show free). . through. §§ 59. () make clear. 8 aX-yeivos -cDiOsconiesi. tomb. . () (). . fat. -idos -a -ov () (). admire.). vault. painful.TpL'i (J)). {\$).«. 60. awjcward. seat.

'' etc. The . 4^'—6) ^ ). go. • — ^ 4. irore 6 call to battle as the . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 132 1. Browning's translation in Balaustion'' s Adventure That song of ours which saved at Salamis : " sons of Greece. . . 963-964.. ^. ' . . -. 480 B. .^ . 402-405. yvoivai Ihelv ' ' 6 — \€ . . Greeks entered the battle of Salamis. \6 1529-1530. . ^ avhpa ' : . M17 -. ^ I. ). Free your wives.'. 1417-1419. — (&. . Cf. 1 6vTLva accusative of oWu. set your country free.C. . lSy). '^4 he — . 2. . 3 ^. ® 3. %.

. b) Those with Non-thematic Presents (for (^- place. — 391 ^ '. ("). -^. enter : 19 a) make stand. '^.«" " « ' "- € step. (See §§ 2) Verbs with Non-thematio Second Aorists. Lesson LTII.e-). put give. let go ((- § ". offer send. - ognize or or € go (/3-).) a) Those with TJiematic Presents : - run away (hpa-). .. — 133 €• 979-980.^ . <.' *. LXXII. . €" (/-). (17. ^e-). Verbs with Second Aorists 1) Verbs with Thematic Second Aorists. -?. .--- 63. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 2. € ' '^ ovSev 3• 6)(€. . : -.. rec- set . M>^ /xot elr) re () . 86.. • ovSev etSore? — . . -).

with reduplication 60 b the '. --.. -£. Many instances first I caused 2 23. I to stand. point out to consider oneself. .^ () () . . stand with a specialized meaning. ' 557-558.*€'). . I -.. . -. . . point out. 63 § peculiarities of . point. Cf. -. . Mid.^ . ^ ' KLvSvi'o'. (make) stand upon. . --. at another time.. (-).. § 50 C. The perfect active The stood. and a second aorist. . think. 58... transitive like the first aorist active etc. tol e^ets. appears to be for - . €. edge. . () . . --. --. . (make) stand away. beside. understand (lit. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 134 Learn the conjugation of Personal § 87 A-B. § 77 aorists. the -verbs. . € . -. — Very few verbs have both a instances the first aorist is intransitive.. 187. endings and thematic and non-thematic formations. . : have 287. ' razor. 2d .. iroiipos poetic for . . -(<. . regularly transitive in : - aorist - intransitive -($.. () acme. active participle in -as.. . stand. -. 1st . . thus : middle of this verb is I set up (for myself). €--. . . upon). . (for --. -^ is : of the occurrence of this very important verb already been met in the preceding lessons TTJs $. (make) stand (make) stand up. In such meaning the second. §§ 5356 non-thematic second . § t. at one time ..

First-Second Perfect: 1. ' € . superlative ? = Tois of the use in late Greek yos). . 0--4 ev elnev . . This is a and very ancient proverb. iv . ]. .. €. ^ — — . . .. . -. . 1-isk. uncontracted form of (balanced) tipon the edge of a razor. of the comparative for the . 252.. 2 135 you will not enter. 242. -. 2. an instance (= 309. - ". § 159. . -" eKeivQ 6. -^ — 5• 87 ..THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK . . common here means chance. tois apyo'is. — MevavSpov.$ . 237. 8e 3- ' <. . '. — 4• § . ^. Trj ^ TTj Mop. - 5 iav TTaiSiov 6 — 1 €. ' '-'..

as Up {upon).. lesson and ]3articiples in 50 c). oy LXXIII. lepov I. . Equals lift hv • ^ give back. he iv 6 ' •'.. iv (. -8€ .-.^ . Review the preceding -as. ." '. 6 )(^ 5 ' \ 6 6 4- ^ '^ 3 * -. much raise. <. § 6 ^.-.. \4 — Tats . . Herewith Exercise 46. 5 - Kat 7. I possess.' oirws = - Lva. 6 ets . make return. - (TuaL. . \€ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 136 iv OTL ' iv -^- . . ' . as .< . -^-^.. -' .

. -.. ^ ^. eavrbv uepX — 2 -' . . () (6).. . ". Tijs . '. ^ .\ . . '." THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK lo 2. set So iv fire).. ^^/ 5 — irpbs ^/? SetKvvvra Tot's KayaObv Cf. — '. to extinguish .) —" iwicrroXijs rijs i-iy'. .. .?^^. evayyeXiov $... . eav - — . ly' ' LXXIV. . €( ^1* &-... ).^ ev = T7J \€q. •'.... 1 ^. > (8). 3• 4• ervnre 137 • .

. eVt re /cat re iv acquire.€ . . seize. Master the following verbs -€ € -. take^ etc. narrate.cIXov ^ grasp. -| -| (. -| -| - obtain etc. re ^-.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 138 Review the forms (§ 50 A. . possess. -| -| accomplish (Act. hit.) € .). St-oicretl•' TELV. describe. «) collect. aesthetic. €| €€| § point out. B. (-). ^ ? € 5 . Review Lesson XXVII and Exercise 18. and Mid. perceive. /^ ' -- -^- - ^-4€ - . Cf. Harpy. (take for oneself^ choose.. § 137. C a-e) and uses (§§ 173176) of the participles. show 50 C. (Gen. Of.

^.. € . etc. the subject having. you.. 9. -. i. ^ . . . etc. 6. . " ^^. . ^. 139 rt el y^viOTTOieiov rjei jote^' iavTOv 2." " ovtl. " . how he Tois in the ability. - yaa y4 to he ADMIRE pursuing." ^^ ^ . 6 ^-. . Euthydemus. is Socrates.e." "." " .' ^ . 8. ' ' /. -^ -. " - " 5 ^ ^ " 6 6 20. 25 . 27. . . i. dealt with. 13.e. '^ . with.- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -. $ ( . . .

(^please oneself with). he pleased with. want (Gen. - show ^ fear." '/' ^^ " ^'^ " " . Review the nevTe aorist passive (see Lesson the declension of the participles in decline €$ pleased. {Of appear. Master the following verbs : € -. 6 6 .. proceed. -. feel dis- grace..). he ashamed. need of. ^. he in -€| wish. . refuse." 7? " yevi" crvX-Xeyei . oe LX) and 50 C. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 140 LXXV. . . Se 30 oneself. " 6 " yap " . having of passive form. -eis. /cat 35 " {Of.). he willing. or Part. -^ . § learn Like Bcis persuaded. deny. converse ivith (Dat. delight in (Dat. . aorists §141. ' ^ . go. Middle verbs with appeared.). -. '" ^.} %< .. ^^< -.

." fell into a profound silence. you desire. " ." .. " -€-' -.• ^7." 6 55 .^' . " . for § 179. " y'. . ." ." tol -€•€ 31." THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . ? . ri 4° . " " . " . '. . . " 6 ^." €^17 45 . " . " . ." . ' . II you are seeking." 5° ^."^' €. " 31 f. -.• ' " -." .." .)^. . ^ . '8. " ." " " ' '. -" . 45. " " " 6 6 141 " -. § 98.

. note transpose. €^17. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 142 €. Of. 57. LXXVI. dedicate. § 88. com- pose. Cf. participles in -cis (§ 50 . : . Walter Headlam." "^ /< € Ti ovv Uijaat <7? . Of. '' . set hy the side Cf. lay Of. apothecary.- : . . " 6^17• {-'. Of. " vrjvaL 6 y €. All Life — Review the declension of the and learn the conjugation of is set up. Or bear the smart. place upon. ouSej/os . epithet. put off from. metathesis. Translation by Dr. < . . --. else) ^^ . of. put together. Of. place. a Play . " epya /aeWot. Kar-eipyaffai have 58. posit. you achieved would appear as just as any {one b'lKaios . parenthesis. Traijviov -' • — 'Aveo\oyLd<>.). is but a Stage. add to. Take then your part. set down. compounded with eighteen prepositions the following aside. And put all seriousness away. . de- C) put. anathema.." ' . synthesis. -. .

" .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .' " ^". " " . epyov " " . "" 6 6 143 " "''." ^^ "." " " ^7. ^^ / -^^.^ " «^ ^ .'^ ." ^ " ." "" . . ^. TrJ . ' . €. ^' /. ." .• 7. ' /^ev /. " " ' ^ ." . ." ^. ." ' ^ . " ^.• ^. " " " " . 7° ." " " . /' " .• " . " " ." . . /. ^} ' TA " BouXet ow. " ^ . . ^. . ." €.. '' " ' - 75 - 8 ^^ ^5 ovSkv ' " . " " 65 " ^/. " ev- . . elneVf " (^ 7. . " ^^. " " .• " /cai e^r/. .?." " ." ---? 6 eivai. " 1 ." .• ' ' .

. TA " 88. ow.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 144 66." . " iav " . " ' " i^-eivai .. arpaT-qybs aipedeis having been elected general. also of the drill in Exercise 47." iav iv -." making use / .'^ € 6 ? ." " ." " " . 05 " 6 . €.— Review the conjugation go i. 77." - . "'.^' -. . }) -. " .• . . to be in need of this. " Seiv " . 6 - - ^•> . . ..^' ye Selv 95 that this is necessary. of § . . . ye - .e. LXXVII." €." . . "Aeyet?. €. - ^ ^ . ^-^ '^ . " ' . elvai oe eivai .

/cat eSofcet * . Contract Nouns of the First Declension. prepositions. 91. Tt^eVat. LXXVIII.-. • 94. 88. § 116 e . 93. § 28 D Uses of the Genitive: Avith verbs of earing for. • e^etv is right. . . . ' . § 117 with improper of price. A' '^^.. AI - Se TTore AQIAI. etc. /rots he lest himself destroy § 102. . forcements are coming. . discouraged. "''. €. "^'. yap 5 . § 130. . ' . fearing Seiffds {-).= .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^ rj . etc. with adjectives. subj." 145 . 107.. of ^. yap '* . etc.. ' ." a^tat . - eyoiye ) <5 '. €$ make new distinction (and say) that oh it but that one ought. 99. . § 115 h. falsely declare that reen- aor. . . — -€ .

. LXXIX. — --€\$ . - > . . ' }. '. 11.e. . give. . " . note the following includ- . much. ' . '. tioo Thv . the one icho 8. I am 14 was neglecting to examine himself as in the presence of the : buy 18. minae. ." 6 'Avtl- € ' ' " • eivaL 15 • /cat /ca . Of etc.. 5. '-— .. . . ing the participles in -oOs. \... of the dual and to hoio man c. €. hvolv 4€. eva'yyeKiov Learn the conjugation of the compounds of of el. 6 6 . himself his friend). 2. eivaL. (). iv.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 146 . § 191. (i.. . § 50 Herewith Exercise 48." / " '." yvpeia €. xohether. considering (inquiring. )( 4 ' -. Gen. loondering) ff. this. offer. . . etc.-. § 89.

will fetch." = 27. . whenever to sell. betray.1 - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -. . . - . " B' eivau. eiraywybv . (29-30) lest it eupovros sell for . . give a share of (Gen. -. apodosis. what he it is etc. " ^» -^. . etc. hand over Of.^ AI avrjp. .). antidote.' . - ) ^ -fj . 6 au ecTTt. . 28. . to offer for sale. -^^. possible to get. 24. poSlBo another. €- give in return. .'^. 25 ' . to -" AIQIAI. 20 . 29. ) . give bacJc. 1 6. restore. < .- 3° rj hear one (complaining) that. - ye eavrov. give to. sell. Of. be a temptation." . /. " 147 . 6 €t .

show. ' . together with the declen- sion of the participles in -vs. .. eivai ' — 3- 4. 739 ^. — . . € TOL SiKaiov ovre avSpa iv ...' ^. — '€<. 2. . To ' " . Review the conjugation of . LXXX..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 148 •? . § 90. $. . avepi ' € oySoT] of § 89. — Qeiyvidoi. - oioa . . . . Herewith Exercise 1. .. 149-150. 4.' ' . and learn that point out. • . 222 . § 50 C. 609-615. 49.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK irepi apeTTj^ ^ . . 9 149 ic / ^ I b. 600-500 ^ A/^ [ .-. = 4.c. See Lesson VI. ^ . 3. ^ ^ -€ '» . \ € 5- Trjhe yevecr^at € 8e €17) ) 6 — -% ) . . ( neither . § 164. ^^ ' . ' • eivai €)(. = = . Attic Insckiption. in the inward parts. and bear nor carry. cepts. persuading them by their pre- (sc. An . such outward advantages as I possess. 5. . & =: 8 1. . 5 I .

afterwards = .OF GREEK THE FIRST 150 ADDITIONAL SELECTIONS FOR READING This selection. determined to make ayay with the boy in his infancy. some day supplant him in the kingdom. $ . -) . the Pensian. nepi-w^iT-gs later. e^ by means disregard (lit. the son of his daughter Man'dane and Camby'ses. his chief administrator and the most faithful of his subjects. ). 5. as by Thucydides. (?) (-) throio aside. § 157. king of the Medes and Persians (594-559 b. Accordingly. 6(^ 8. misuse). • " ' Oaxjjov 4. 5 /caXeicra? re ^' ^ avopa. ovv OLKeiov . ( '•/5). eXeyev TOiaSe crot e/xe re . 6 )(). -) {-\\ abuse. summoning the nobleman Har'pagus. It is very common in early Greek. in whatever manner. -. and serves to illustrate the studied cruelty of book oriental torture. employed by Herodotus.. fall foul of yourself. be your oion tindoing. . be put to Asty'ages fearing lest his grandson -would death. ^s ceavTov to your oion (home). Astyages gave orders that the child.c). The Punishment of Harpagus. - --. is taken from the first of Herodotus (108 ff.(-) ^(/7 .. 6. es (= eis) is the form regularly 7. deceive). Attic prose (except Thucydides) regularly employs ets.

-• /THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK - ' ySovXet. 2 - ^-/3^ 9. . . ' . { -) --$ (^) 17. 15. 25 ). 28. . any time in TO 7' 13. rendered {in) the robe for will not give assent to his resolve." -) yiyve- et ' 6 - OLKaSe ' " . ^. ^-. . spoken - rrj childless. dressed () and.^ ' TOl•* ^. . death. . " • J) ' ' 6 . '. my {service) must he have you observed any untowardness in this dutifully. . in myself).e. . 25. etc.e.\ ". 22. . '. . e? . the past man (i.^ € 151 avSpl ovSev. . . -. § 178. .-. ^^~ ' 6 Si 5 ) " • 7} eVt ' shall {is about to) pass to. without a son. i. neither at €(( . 26.• . robed for burial. € -€.^ varepov ere -€ ." ' -.

deliverance. '€ . {-€. . '. 48. 45 . -€). . being with child and daily expecting . -. P.^' 6 \ . . '. . ^. some one of the {servants. . Teray/AaL 5 ^. (that) he Will destroy you. - ' . . 33.6 30 . ^^ ^-. yeveadai . 44. ' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 152 eveKa . . 6v to (one) of the herdsmen whom. 47. (). -. ' 31." eiire 6 35 . household) of Ast. . Sia -^. . 4 " ^. -. ' . -- Ttva ere 51. Sei ' . . . -.

. -. ^. -^ 6 " . '-^^ }- -. (like a 175 vision sleep). tivos could never have guessed whose child . II B. § 145. 8 £. he stood over seen.. appeared. gone carrying) to carry uioay. 57. 63. . . . he {suddenly) (that) which would that I had not § 153 b. • ' for lohat reason. .. . -€\) €€ '^ --^. . . ' . 61. € . § . 65. 7° § 179.. ^ . ^. . . P. -. €-€. etc.etvat )5. it . affwaipbv -^ in e. ' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ' e? 153 eV repoL ttJ? 6 . . not being accustomed (to -\$ (-. ^-/ ^ . 72. ). )(..' ei- eiSov iSeiv € 6 ' ^. 65 ' ota .1 {to he rb astonish). really civ - {-) was. . 68. . gasping and screaming. 6 55 avSpa. do^o).

93. . he said there would come. . . clasping. Part. especially cloak.. wrap. 86. § 175. Fut. c. 87. . you loill be caught () . . (existing openly) prevailing unrepressed. of Purpose. 95. 95 74. THE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK -^ 75 . a still-born child. 88. • ^. Se ^ ^. --$ ' () clothing. -. 85 - ohov \oyov 8 oe ' • ' ' go -. . 75.154 . -\().. }.' - eh) 6 ' -SLKv. 84. ^ - -. -- 6. Tedveos ^/ . (e^Tj) § 115 . ^^ ^ . re .'. .(-/). " . . 92. to see (it). -.

11. 97. giving..5.. mid.. 105 iy 6 ' ' no "5 6 at ('). existing) circumstances. . 115 for the purpose of putting 101.- THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK ..-^8 . ^ .. . to death." 155 - . bestowing {upon). . . .e. . and (noio) TO been buried). ) .. ^ . § in view of the present Trpos (i. --. of . (child) lay buried (had Aor. the one § 138. ^ . 99. 112.. Future participle. . . .^ . ..

KOpos. . 130 him. The without ceremony..-. ) ^ . 131. -$ 8 125 30 6 Sr) ^ ( ( 135 Srj ^. to subject 7€-€ opyy 5e . ^^. surname. '^ € . at once. ^ ) -. ^aaTiyCiv he handled him roughly. merely ws Adverb. . in name. § 98. 1 . . 136. ) .s soon as he tms released. elvaL I20 hrj eivai. i. ' 6 " 121.. 124. ^ . - elvai. .e. in each one is (). -. use of ace. \$. office. . etc. 128. ^ )- he assigned the 125. The King's Eye was confidential adviser to the king. an added in Persia the yipas and name to of a another yipas (rd) a gift of honor.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 156 . loithout delay. anger just as he was. . . . whipping rt. name only. . -.

)(^ eti'at ' 8.' .e.. too independent (i.'8 . . 160.8 -. es S ' 157. 6 -." 142. etc. of themselves ^ refuse to obey. 159. . 150. 14° xpbvos $ es dvayvwaLs {there) came to Astyages recogni- eavTOv to correspond to himself. wishing -. -.^ . for a slave's child to utter).-- " .. ^. ^ . -. -. to 45 ^. . the lapse of time since the exposure. " * 6 ' . '' • "." . punish the 150 55 ' \ 6 6 hoy for the sake of the honor of Artemhares. to be like his own.-^ until. 153. ySacrtXea. -. -. - . 160. tion. 154.^ THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK Se 7€ SeiKvvs ISojv € Tou 157 eVet8r) . ^. . disobey.

70 - elnev. . (necessities) tortures. ). 186. . . . ( TTejxxfjaL € -€€^< inl e/c-TrXayei? 65 ^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^ . -. €. Aorist participle.'^ ) - 6 . 6 '£ 6 ' ' 7/. recovering himself. use to the uttermost. -. .-. 8 -^- Si '^ -^ Sr) 163. - . (-) -€€€! 174. kill.158 . 85 6 4-•9 ^'^^ ^ \ 162. -. . iva-yKOLS 182. . ^^ - - " - amazed. ^> . dumfounded. 175 Sr) -] . . -". ^ " '" . make aicay with." . -. -. ^ ^ -.

cross-examine. . . 2 ' ^. 179. . to this (i. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ' ' e'/c 159 . (jiven . 205 on cross-examination. commands (= c3). . (aor.^ -^ . . to the test..) -! . following) 208. . -. the which he felt toward him. be convicted .e.^ ^ .. .. -^ -^. . . " .. ^.) ) ' /. 198. -. //€7 '^ 19° . . - i\ey6evos 189.• " ^' . \ 191 put £f. - ). . ^^ effect. ^- . subj. igs having the anger . evSov eiSe 4€.. Sttws . §§ 156. ^ .

= 4.?-. .2IO . .. .- /ca . { tevat 6 . it 215. 224. I did not bear it lightly. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 160 . ---. . 222. . . 6 Si -.'.. ? TO. 221 . ). . ev 216. 225 230 ^ .€- 211. 220 . the things that had happened. yeyovus about thirteen years of age. . TO - 6 " " re ) 215 ^) '] ^ - .) -- " . .. . (^). had been repeated (iraXiWoy^w). . . - § 120 b. -. . . ^.. .

/cat \ -. which was when set before him by his kinsman Atreus. 6 Each guest had a separate table.. hands. . 240.. and feet.-. flesh of his own children. ^ - - " 235 240 /cat 6 245 . . . . 237. 250 which was placed beside him. if he had enjoyed the dinner. 2?. " . The reason for this is disclosed in the concluding paragraph of the story. -^ -.5. 1587 ff. the same parts of the body. el tQ. ^ -- 'ot ^. he was made to eat the In the famous feast of Thyestes. See the Agamemnon of Aeschylus. were kept apart in a basket... . -. the hands. ^•t . at all. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 6 rot? € 161 . iScov /cat ' o/c. . . ' -.. ? . the head.

and Dorian Greek cities of Asia Minor. : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 162 II-III After so ferociously wreaking vengeance upon the nobleman Harpagus. the generous giver out of abundant wealth. of Alyat'tes. Avith his capital kingdom as far east as the Halys river. I. ~/\ Halys.. Kpoitros. Never more than for the memory of Croesus did Greece put forth the power of that genius. with jealousy men who enjoy too great prosperity. which was the westernmost boundary of the empire of Astyages. will destroy a great empire. In course of time the lad grew to manhood. of weaving round an event of history tales which have a deep and touching import as lessons for the life of man. .C. son Lydia (c. and attacked and subjugated the Aeolian. sians. of Croesus himself crept into their sympathies And the personality — the admirer of Hellenic and wisdom. 238. that .). 546 B. Ionian. so dizzy the height of his power. none deemed his overthrow possible and the sheer and sudden fall into nothingness made perhaps a deeper and more abiding impression on the imagination of Hellas than any other historical event. except Miletus and from the tribute levied upon his subjects and from the gold mines of Asia Minor he became fabulously rich. Bury. The Astyages was deposed and Cyrus became king . succeeded to the rule of at Sardis. He extended his . and for the Halys river. with Persia in the ascendency. Croesus. forasmuch as they had supposed him dead. but as events proved he was himself defeated and forced back into Sardis and there taken captive by Cyrus (c. 560 b. if he cross the Croesus believed that "the great empire " would be that of Cyrtis. It was the most illustrious example that the Greeks had ever witnessed of their favorite doctrine that the gods visit seriously thought. p. Upon the Astyages in 550. B. Croesus determined to attack Cyrus this purpose conducted an expedition across urged forward by the response of the oracle at Delphi fall of and the Persians. -\ CroesilS. About the time that Cyrus usurped the throne of Persia." ^ art his 1 J. Cyrus gained for himself the title of "The boundaGreat. ries of his By revolt of the was successful Medes and Per- vastly enlarging the empire. the adorer of Hellenic gods. Astyages sent the boy Cyrus to his parents in Persia. and conspired with Harpagus and others to overthrow his grandfather.c). History of Greece. " A\vv -. which she possessed in such full measure. "The capture of Sardis Avas an eventuality of Avhich no one had So great had been the wealth and might of Croesus.c." His rule extended from 558-529 b. who received him with great rejoicing.

617-560 b.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Some the arch. ^s (c. to the ovs ' § 102. e^-eSe^aro 6 . reXevra. Solon. while Croesas did not ascend the throne until about 560 n. Alyattes was king of Lydia 4. rovs iv ry Awptias. . payment of tribute. 5 . §§ 113 d. But whatever the element of truth in these tales. . . . . . .c.. to the court of the Lydian In view of the fact. . the story of the visit of Solon to Croesus is perhaps apocryphal.g.c). . and revolve about monhowever. for 9. . irSiv 10. being 35 years of age. 5 . II ^ 6 € . \€5. illustrate ? ^ . 13. . 114. % eyeveTO .^ . the Athenian lawgiver. that Solon's archonship fell between of these tales are told in selections II visit of 163 and III. 6 -\. '^ -- - "^ ' . 6 --- 1. although Solon appears not to have died until after Croesus' accession. 594 and 590 e. they admirably the style of Herodotus and his belief in divine nemesis. -.

et^e 2 .( cr^eSot' ' ). $ 35. having . 6 ^ -LKVovvTaL ocXXol '.^ . thinking. had he subdued). 26. 38. made ovoev as he had opportunity. ' 35 6 • " -. . a desire has come upon me. ^ . -. ' /. e. \6yos 33.. . fjv . 30. -\ how through love of knoioledge.^. 37. held § 122 a. .. ot . \. . not resorting to flattery. woXvs frequent report. (he .'^ -. € -€ 6 19. futbjpct aftencard on the third day. ws 32.rpecting.. ". THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 164 . ) ' . ' 3 6 . . - ' 25 -.

54. . . . earnestly . in the () on 56. (45) very frequent in Herodotus for . him (lit.) .. . . . . . -^ 4 the reply ?3 -'^ . 48. 41. turning upon). Xe)(^9ei' " • Sr) • ' -/^ etvai 165 €< - " • fxev. 4° 45 5° 6 6 . . II few miles northwest of Athens. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Trj \\ \ -^ \4yeL ' . 4. . $ § 17!). -. -. \\ . the many blessings (the great pros- siipposing that he woxild at receive second place (carry away any rate the second prize). severely. a iv 51. eiSev in-eyeveTo. . 45.. (youv) certainly he saw children born. perity) of Tellus. 6 ' • " 55 ' 40. TTjs 44.--" . his City being prosperous. . him being loell off (in the means) of . the very spot where. life) to (-).6 - . ." ..3. (to midst of prosperity. -€. . livelihood sufficient (for their needs) teas (theirs).. 52. (). 8 ^ . ) ^. at Eleusis.

dead {-). . being prevented (^excluded) by the {lack of ) time. the divine but iu power ^ 1. ().. . be taken by carriage. iv uipq. "). The masculine is used here of the deity. 61. i.! 166 - 65 . her. 67. the goddess. . i. ' " 75 ^ - . 63. rotdSe ^ . •€ 62. 72. -^ . . wpq. 70 debs {i. - Kleobis. • \eyerai lepeiav eoei -£ . ohe 6 6 THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK . regardless of the sex of the to be 70. ^eos. 7 - 6 yap -^ .. 75. § 86.. \ .. of god in question. 0% to be conveyed by team. 69.-. -- ^.e. that she had been blessed with such children 74. tohat children she had obtained.. . viro-5uvres. € KXeo^et she prayed the goddess to give to etc.e. ^ in season.e. ^ .

'). 6 ^. . ' " " .--\8 -. . ovSl . 6 TO. . etc. has been cast aside ^pwT$s 95 . -^ iv . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^. of the of good- (). re 167 ? ' ". (rrjs tQ Herodotus makes Solon first reckon a year as having 360 days (70 X 360 = 25. He then adds an intercalary month irdv) in order to make the year corHepov each second year 89.200). / -.^ '/.- ." ^ Srj ' ' * 8 "^ ^^ 8$ avSpcov " . 93 $) iv ff. . . oovvai €)(.. -. ( (^ -- . €)( ) {-. 85. The great temple and the precinct of Hera near Argos was one most famous centres of her worship in Greece. 83.) 80. go . 87. ^ . - -. . rrjs eaLo>s the second place {in point) fortune. you ask me (a man) who knoios the divine nature. ^ .

that the seasons may makes 35 extra months in 70 years. '^. ^ ry 102. . (-. '' 105 . 104. ^. ^ . tmtil human I learn life is all uncertainty that you have ended your life in prosperity. ^. altogether.. 109. aorist. . to the Other. ignoring holding him (to be) of no account.. TO %» . year. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK - 8 at Seof.. ^ . 102. /Lie^-eis TrotijffayueiOs ovSevos giving up. .-€ 6 4s respond with the seasons (' ai This falling at the 'proper time). loholly. he overturns them root and branch. -. - .' - ^ . 07 113. €•. . 168 . ' Oe . § 98). 111. . . -• -. . - the one (lay . . 107. 6 .^ 6 \ './ . erepq.^ . and an average of 375 days in each In this reckoning Herodotus is of course in error. .^ . Gnomic § 136.

he got (i. § 172. ayerai . 13. 7. 15. III ' eXa/3e iavTov eivau yap -). . Aty. . etc. brought home) a wife. 12. something hanging (on the walls). . ' ) 6 koyov . as one was --- may conjecture. 8 ). yap (jjv 6 6 ' 5 ". disabled. 5-? (-\\). aXrjdeiav . g. - .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 169 . ivas blighted (-). (i^-eyeipw).^.-. etc..-.e. although he . "^ .^) was accustomed. (/3). 3. . lest (i. 6 -evhovTL . - ^ . -^ . 18.e. 5 -). 11.

The murderer was 25. (). ." . 21. eSeiro. ' ^ '' . need (lack). ) " . ^ .. yoxi loill (). : 34. \. 3 ' )(. The purification consisted in the main in the ceremony of sprinkling the blood of a pig on the hands and head of the guilty person. -. 05 d7il'en into exile to friends." ^^ ' ' 35 . . iv (-). 6 " " 20.? . Cf.• " 6 "^. -\ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 170 €)( 20 ' Iv X^pcrl -LKveLTaL 25 yevea .. marriage (having the marriage in hand for him). ^ . 40. . 33.e. under a ban. who loas guilty of murder.-' ^ -. . ws 38.. . . and could not enter again into social relations until he had been purified by some one who took pity upon him. ^] his son being occupied with the .< ' ' - "'. . c. who was a Victim of a calamity.-. he sought purification. . 5.^ 6 * "'^. i. . The name Adrastus means The Unescapable. § 130. i-f\avo 37.

i-iroiovu 58. epya ' in ' oijSev. § 135. 45 i. ws 62. 6 . refusing (saying^ no ^). 39. -. etc. -.^--. cidtivated fields.. 43.. . 55 - .. . would (were wont they to) do. epya works. ' - . 05 a monster of a boar. . C. -.. . )(^-.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . as zealously as possible. as lightly as possible. - " ' -. ' " ' -\\ . € ^\ ^ .^^ € «^ . 44." . . €\ . .e. -42. 5° ^.' ^-." 6 6 -^fJv. - iv Statrat' iv iv - 171 4° ' yiyverai.

formerly permitted us me) going (i. enjoy the fairest and noblest reputation through going. e. ^ 75 .-^.5(€t9. -. 67. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 172 Trporepov 65 re - . -/- . . it . Sia • " yap oxJjlv -. .• ) eivai. 82. . exets you have shut out. -. . .". have excluded. . etc. ei TTws during 85 my ff. . ) ' . ttjs $^ lifetime. it is pardonable for you.) " -. .e. ayopav rtcrt ^ ^ . ^." .'' -6 64. avTov 6 ^. avhpX ... es . somehov I might if be able. aypa<. to 7-?•5 = 68. etc. . TLvd --. 8 hi 85 " . was wars and on hunting expeditions Heretofore has it been permitted us to to enjoy the noblest reputation. -.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . 6 • ]. /cat .. 106. ya (otherwise) under other circumstances .^ . dWws I would not go.^ ). overpersuaded. . 108.^. . . " -^- . . " *1 ^ /.. as he sets out. . as having been conquered. ^ ^} . ^ ^^. . ' ) . 95 tei^at ' '^. ^. oSov ' . etc. ]. etc.. ^ crot ISovtl y' oxjiiv etjott nepl 173 e/xe ' top St/cato? ' rjv go . etc." 105 " • You say to say. ." ? - '.. that the dream said. ' .-. {. ^... inasmuch as I have been 96. 89.

126.. etc. unharmed on his guardian. so far as depends 118. . 123. {equipped with) attended by waiBos. . . levai. etc.}^€\€>^ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 174 ^. (thrown together in trouble. ^^ -- no dvSpa /catov -. ) --. Srj 6 . ev ^^ yap Se. of hitting. §175. ' 30 6 Srj --/$ § 115 . . expect SO far as his guardian is concerned. missiiig.. 129. hei . men Genitive with. -.-". ) Sr) yyov. confuse. futVLre -paruciTple oi purpose. . . verbS e. ^ -' . { . veaviais re and dogs. rvy^ai/et 6 125 yyv . confusion) greatly dis- . . aya- TTOieiv 115 ' ~ veal•' tat ' 120 eg -).^' -^ ^ . ayyeXQv. - hvooylo payvo 115. . tressed.

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133.

^eovs

134.

di)

it

cared for the murderer.

, \.

he had found.

138.

150.

.

§ 179, II

(he escaped notice feeding) he

137.

ing

()

he had suffered
Zeus (God) of the hearth.

et

)

.

had without knoiih

§ 176 c.
§ 179, II B.

except so far as

you wrought

it,

etc.

176

,,.-,
^
-€ -THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK
eVetS^

iyevero

eivaL,

^,

(quiet

156.

from men)

xohen quiet prevailed

about the tomb.
157.

-'-6($

-

(recognizing with himself) being conscious,

believing.

158.

he knew.

§ 95.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

^

177

I— EXERCISES

1.

(

For additional
baa,
;

To accompany Lesson II)

pronunciation

drill in

baa !

where ?

NO!
ۥ I too,

€ «.

:

bow-woio
iro

ircus

!

whither ?

;

yes

!

how ?

;

ov no !

1.

\alp€ rejoice! good- morning
ttcos

you

you.

et ego.

?

€€9

too, et tu.

hail! farewell!

!

;

how are you (for me)

€' / am ill.
/ am well,
/ am learning, I understand,
am not, etc.
I do not
I knoiv.
/ am speaking (/ speak^ Greek.

?

^

I
know.

.^

Each pupil should make
of all the

classifying

1

2

,

words

at this poiat a complete list
Lessons I-II and the exercise above,

in

them according

mihi,

i.e. I

not, ordinarily

am

to accentuation

interested in your condition.

has no accent, but attaches

and arranging
§ 120.

itself in

pronunciation

word that follows. But when it stands alone (in which case it
means 7io!), and when it is the final word in its clause or sentence, it
receives an acute accent
Why ? See further § f.
In ancient Greece it was not the custom to shake the head as we do
to indicate denial or refusal, but to throw it up and backwards,
and
especially
should therefore be accompanied by a toss of the head.
to the

:

,

.

,

:

:

THE FIE ST TEAR OF GREEK

1(8

each group in alphabetical order.

compared and kept
are as follows

may

lists

be

The groups

acute accent

^

a) on ultima:

b) on penult:
c)

These
and drill.

:

Words with

I.

for reference

KaX6s beautiful.

had.

^^

zvisdom.

on antepenult:
a) penult and ultima both short

:

book.

6€VT€pos

(^ w w)

second,

) penult long, ultima short
Words with

II.

circumflex

a) on ultima: uo^SiS wisely

.

ircos

.

b) on penult (ultima short)

:

( _ w).

:

;

cts-

5.

€€

2.

(

accompany Lesson III)

The Greek language has been spoken
for thousands of years,

lions of people.

to
is

But

aud

is still

as a living tongue
spoken by many mil-

of course the ancient Attic dialect,

which these lessons and exercises are an introduction,
no longer employed in this way. In learning the Attic

dialect,

however, one should constantly emphasize phrases

rather than isolated words.
cise, therefore,

In the accompanying exer-

master each of the type-sentences, copying

and repeating aloud each of the phrases invoh^ed until it
then write the other
veritably becomes a living phrase
sentences in conformity with the model, and repeat each
;

one aloud
I.

,

many

times.

"

understand, you do not.

,

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

€5, -

€09

6

'

understands, the sister does

,

know, you do

I

I.

are not.
(o

'

am

not.

3.

5.

am

§

103 b)

The

2.

II.

not.

brother

{,),^),
I

am

not.

is

writing

my

reading

You

4.

you

brother

are writing, I

speaks Greek, the brother does

sister

^,

not.

You understand, I do
'
The

7iot.

not.

I

179

'

One understands,

the other

does not.

One

6.
ing,"

writing, the other

is

etc.

8.

is

not.

One speaks Greek,

,

(^ol8€v'), etc.

III.

7.

etc.

9,

'

One is readOne knows

have

book,

you

have not.
10.

I

have a friend, you have not.
11. I have roses
12. You have a large book, I a small (one)

(§ 100), etc.

(^^.
IV.

£.


€.

;;

;

Have

Have you a book ?

YOU a

or

.

book?

YOU

Have

Ans.

too

Ans.
a book?

Ans.

14. Have YOU
Have you a friend?
Yes.
15. Have YOU too beautiful roses?
I too.
17. I have both (/cat) a
Have you a brother?

13.

roses?
16.

brother and
books.

V.

(/cai)

a


€$
'

We

18.

sister.

There

There

is

is

have roses and

no one wise.

nothing

evil.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

180
19.

There

There

24.
26.

one

no

is

dear.

21.

bad.

20.

better.

nothing

is

beautiful.

22.

23.

worse.

25.

large.

beautiful.

useful.

€ -)

3.

{
(^

this exercise

proceed as in Exercise II)

Enclitics, § 10 (the four accentual types).


I

€()

€€

amicus sum.
amicus

es.

amicus

est.

amici sumus.
amici

II

'.

Repeat with

.
6.^

fool.

3.

:

estis.

6()

amici sunt.

III

IV

)
^
)
^

(^,
(^,
€().
(^,
€€.
(^,
(^., ), .•.
(^, 8~) €()•
1.

4.

"
,

Grreek (PI.

clpii.

€1.

">€<).

.

f(hid of horses (tTTTro?).

fond of
7.

2.

-

books.

foolish, a

!

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

€,

.
'

kyui

You

8.

,

-

a)

I.

.

)

"ycwp-yos

are a philosopher, I

farmers are wise, we are not.

farmer

?,

.

'

am

b)

a farmer.

Fond

10.

/£/) are wise, some (0?

)

The

9.

Some

11.

beautiful.

'

of horses is the

fond of books, the physician.

;

181

The

12.

(04

roses are

beautiful, the trees are not.

How

II.

How

13.

()

beautiful

beautiful the

book

is

the trees are

How

17.

!

I

know

do not

does not know.

do not,

We

25.

(T(p

,

1

,

C

1

r

the

the farmer

know.

b)

This (one)

19,

He knows that he
know that he knows.

does not

that you know.

that

we

23.

You

are wise.

philosophers.

1

^^^ brother himself.

J

Strictly these differ slightly in emphasis.

BROTHER

I

that

tall

the (self)same brother.

'

,

()

How

€ -)

4.

.

He

How

20.

know
know that we are

do not

is

() (^
We

know

21.

etc.

small

is !

14.

!

15.

that I know.

he knows.

21.

(sm^.)

are!

How

/ know

(olhev) that

You

the roses are

fond of horses

.

knows
22.*

16.

!

a)

III.

18.

((^)

hevhpd)

trees

beautiful the rose

himself; the latter, The brother

The former means The

HIMSELF.

!

.

.

Repeat with :

1.

.

OF GREEK

FEBST

182

2.

8.

is handsome.
5.
The same physician is wise.
7. The father
6. The same f^meis are fond of horses.
himself is wise.
8. The same (one) is both wise and

4.

€ € «»

good.
II.

^Lol

a) ovT«»s
It seem» »o

to

JIE.

c

)

d)

also.

to

€ .€
^

b)

It teem» so to me.

;

10.
to
9. It seeuKS so to the same physician.
11.
to the philosopher
the physicians themselves.
13. Does it
12.
to the same slaves.
himself.

seem so to the
in. a) SOS

Give me the book.

TO

|MH.

Gfive the hook to

TO
14.

Yes

l|rother him.self ?

15. To the
To me myself give

Give the books to the same brother.

brother himself give the rose.

the roees.

17.

IV. a)

«;
18.

b)

ME.

Am

16.

Give them to me.

;

What am I to give yoii ?
6m
To whom am I to give the hookf
I to give

you the same

give you the book itself ?

£

to the farmer?

Am

20.
to the

21.

rose
I

?

b)

19.

Am

I to

to give the books

same friend?

22.

to the same wise physician ?

V.
23.

Call the

cian himself.
26.

the brother.

same brothers.

24.

the physi-

the philosophers themselves.

25.

the fools.

1 «writs, Iftas,

foie

8€

*o

% coBBonaiit.

{ef.

*rm)^

is

often ivmoaiieed and wrinen

be-

to are saying he telling {%aying^ nothing. c) They do not under7. IV. Do not Let him not be urging. 20. . II. 9. 3.) are reading nothing. but not you 14. a) '. Be (ye) learn- etc. Be (ye) not. 4. you are e) 15. May May you not rejoice. May 10. -) €€. learning nothing. Do etc. ( May the farmers rejoice.( €€5. What What are these saying ? well. €. b) - c) 11. TTcos b) am ill. May we be 13. 6. They understand perfectly. writing b) these £ 22. You (j9?. € b) ' ' / €€ cannot have nothing tell {say).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK €' 5. {do not keep') 17. d) c) 18. consider the wise rich. etc. May we we these rejoice. am not. Be (thou) speaking Greek. you. ing these things. 12. €. 2. be urging these things. I stand. (Tip . 19. the physicians May this (one) consider the \vise rich. These {ovtol (rt) -) € be writing nothing. €. €€. III. a) ^. We are a) '. Do c) (thiiigs). We. you are well. etc. 16. wise rich.• understand perfectly. 23. May these rejoice. not. non . 8. a) - not he not Let these not consider the 21. tell ? 5. -). telling you nothing. Let the brother not. 183 24. d) I.

but the brother is fond Not the books. habeo dicere. It is . . fore writing this. handsome. . You I. self) be. (say ' the ') 5. 35. things. These are urging us. man} Not not so. .') you. but also rich. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 184 . We 29. give Be- 36. ii\Li . but foolish. (Lesson VII) 6. as follows. is . I. etc. not only . not only handsome. 7. ill. 6. of horses. Before telling 34. 4. the books. have nothing to have nothing to Xe^eiv Can he tell us this the physician. accompanied by an adverb. ? me me this ? etc. not to be learning.. noli wise. III. us. etc. of horses. mother are well. « is intransitive : {have one- . €€^ so. fare. am 2. . it is € €€ it is as follows. call the same physician. 10. €. but also. I am . these things. 31. . 8. ov but. These 30. but wise but as follows. It is not Not the farmer. but the roses are beautiful. It is not so. not . 1 The man When is . urge (are commanding) you to be learning 26. You are My 3. I well. but the physician is fond Not the sister. tell Can you tell me 32. 9. II. e) irplv before telling. (the 11.? this. . Can you (^pl•)•. is ill. We 25. the philosopher. 27. tell (€9 33. not to be writing these 28.

book. etc. I. 18. also beautiful. for ' them. should speak Greek. to not. are ' €€ 10. 20. What am 9. dv We . 7.'' ). 3. If you have money. 24. 16. I shall have friends. 11. ( these things. book Tlie 13. Let us not. you will have (e|ei9) friends. etc. If they have not money. etc. be writing (Lesson VIII) 7. If we be learning these things. 2. but also learning (them). II.i € I. let ) not only large. If () have money. €. 14. Would you be learning the lesson. Omit the word not be should (might) be writing would not be learning anything (Gk. 17. If I etc. If these. IV. ? We should 22. 15. What we are we to be reading be learning lav III. Let us be writing this.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK We 12. etc. These . What mn I to . are.. () I 19. etc. I. if we have not money. we. but is not only 185 £€. dv Would you speak Greek? learning the lesson this. 23. us be going. they will have friends. etc. 5. ? ? €| |€ you? to tell the physician ? ? give . If 13. ovhkv 1 not. Let us be reading the Let us not be going. 4. 12. etc. 6. Let us not. they will not have friends. Do 14. We should 21. Let us be learning these things. What 8. ? if it lav he so.

. see learning 7. The ace. etc. 6 b) I shall 6. should have friends. € enjoy reading. make you these things. see you (j^?. I do writing (things').V. 8. - I This (one) will 9. 25. If friends. if if should be it el so.) 1 not. sing. ? enjoys reading. you vriting. By these {exercises} I learn is ace. 29. learning the lesson 3. pi. is 14. stealing. I 16. They would rejoice. so. etc. If it should not be 26. ? € a) II. I see 5.^ I see you reading. brothers ('i/i^') learning the lesson. we should have we 27. not. many (PL 7/3^€9. If 28.) III. they would have money. I shall make you stop writing. a) (^through tvriting} 12. things ^j<v'^ ^^"^ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 186 -^^. us stop writing these things. 15. If you should not be we should be learning these should have money. my ^ reading. ^^ ^\^ -\ -€$ / T• We enjoy reading writing these 2. writing. 13. make 11. If these 30. The one These enjoy 4. reading the book. stealing. --i" stop reading. the other (does) not. He 10. ? do -- Do you 1. etc. well. € €1 €€ things. we should not have money. tiot.

poet. .. 1 See pi. many things. . -. . . pi. athlete. you that Having {if I treasures. (say '•having'') friends. Having friends. I have €€^ 187 . this book. (Lesson X) . treasures.^ 10. . 11. . 19. 'yvvaiKaz. 20. Dat. Repeat Exercise IV. . .. . //. I a. 3^ou Though they have 22.? THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK € b) I believe have) friends^ By 17. €. 18. 9. an irregular noun of the third declension Ace. . . (Lesson XIII) € ' € . (Lesson XI) Repeat Exercise IV. we believe that we have reading this he learns . bride. § 179. ' oii. : step-mother. they 21. . these hooks. house-servant. substituting as in the preceding and in the same order the following vords . § 39. $ exercise € € € €€ . etc. . 2 yvv-f) is Nom. . sing. . substituting for '€05. .. these do not believe. .

1. this rose. Give my book. 6. €1 it if be necessary. {'). Give the this to these girls. than those. is wise. 18. if you are ivilling (or if you please). ). poet's if ') 19. If € you are if it wise. it is el etc. making each if should be necessary. your brothers. wreath. etc. that (one). athlete. is not. lov If the words teacher. 16. substituting for plural forms and necessary. This book . 9. . Call 10. Teach ME. this large.. («?) wreath (/ 8. $ If I 3. these philosophers themselves. These ath7. 2. teach will I the farmer's 20. the 14. 13. my books. Repeat. If I am wise. Repeat. .. (or €1 €1 Come. he c. . wife this to brother's book. (^^ than larger is (raSe). . 2. II. . give me. farmer himself. (Lesson XIV) 12. etc. 11. substituting €K€LV0 (-a) for How I. using clause negative. etc. This rose is beauis These roses are small these ! . should be wise. 1 § 61. us. 15. to those poets. $. . tiful. your ^ sister these the 17. you sister. servants. the physician s book. TO €€. the 21. please. That book is larger than letes are handsomer 5. Stephen) to Of. poet's (things). € these sisters. 3. If I be wise. beautiful this rose (one) 4. Give her her (' the 12.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 188 € Repeat.

c) must must to By / must . negative form. repeat. Is the Greek ? labors we could 12. is there than no possession. say a ? do. etc.' are not. 19-22. He c) is is ? 13. 4. Greek? Are you 2. Repeat is in the plural What 1. 189 If 2. ' he 13. believe. ? better possession the tongue not the cause also of ings (a<yaeS)v) I. better in is nothing. 5. If I be speaking the truth. 5.' 11. ? and Is he not. ' () - b) (Lesson .) or b) not. The the tongue is the cause of many There 4. a good friend 3. Repeat with we. ? 3. many bless- XV) Is he speaking (the) truth? . 'they. Is he npt a not achieve greatness. .€€. 15-18. speaking the truth. could a) this. ? 4-9. II. etc. etc. no means. is ? speaking (the) truths not he ? Are you speaking the truth I. If the pupil (o 3. etc. etc. is . (or and . He is man . ills. ? € Repeat a) with must learn. not a Greek. etc. If I should be speaking the truth.{ ). we € ? By Change the pronoun little 14. a) There 2. you are speaking the is truth. etc. in life than good health What poet says that (Xeyei otl) Is 6.') THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK speaking the truth If I ain 1. You 10.

athlete.. this (one'). subject to . these. I hate.$. € 30-41. changing plural. changing . dv <iv . you (ye). €. 23-25. II. (may^ be hurtful. b) I. .). we. changing the subject to the these. 1-4. . . (or dv Repeat. . to €7. III. . Repeat. € . .. ^ ^ . . ivhat(ever) should he hurtful.€. £6 a) . |6. 10-25. 26-29. . . . Repeat the clauses under a) with Repeat the sentences under b). . (things). Repeat b) with kcXcuciv. OS (Lesson XVI) Whomever) does such iroici. you. €. to and making the verbs Repeat in negative form.. € €. dv that which is hurtful. 42-57. 5-9. Repeat c). changing the J.€. €. what(^ever^ .. ..THE 190 FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -€.. 14. €.

my 11. my Call sisters. brother desire such things. mine 6. YO UR eraipos rade. Repeat. Whom brothers. mine. 10. mens. our. farmer. (^).. Let 13. € €05 this girls. () Do 12. €€ €05 your. ). comrades. com- and repeat. beau- (omit sister a poet. €6$ €€ your. mine. changing the subject to we. Our 3. but not are is not. my not desire such things (). 26-29. noster. yours. GOM- your RADE. to love my ? Do 17. vester. €€ in. give the brother's (book). 14. BROTHER. 191 €. is is your . tuus. you. 4. yours a farmer. these same 15. to the Be doing 9. Do other To one () not be doing such things! 16. brothers. €8 6$ a brother of a comrade of yours. 7. () our book. to and a teacher. (Lesson XVII) % my. we are me What to hate we I my ? to be .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK €. (^) repeat each with tiful. we to be Whom doing are ? we 15. friend 5. €09 Change to Your 1. my Call . 8. brother is wise Your father 2. are Whom this! not hate sister. my b MY brother.

etc. irpo in view of this. you. before this. 27. May these never. May this (one) 24. Repeat with to . 25. Trap' hy tvol^ me.. 7. May Let us not be doing these things. . etc. chez moi. etc. . etc. 22.. If etc. € €' €' tions). irpos tovtois in addition to the law.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 192 teaching Be teaching me. €..€ to me. hy you^ etc. at .. you. why? instead of bia this. If I should never. 23. never (/^) (/) 26. house. 28. with you. contrary to concerning to this. our slaves. do such things. 5 . learn this lesson. on this account. TovTO. Repeat Exercise XI. Iirl : froin you. ? my 19. ivith us. I these (things^. irpos according . (Lesson XVIII) 16.. If If we. Tivos on what account ? . . Trap' . substituting € Master the following prepositional phrases from me.. 20. do such things. \. these girls. irapd my for wherefore. I should never 21. on what account? why? La TO on this account. " irpos hy the gods ! ] \ .. with these. . the law. 18. slave. ircpl TovTots on these (^condi- € €..

oi 2) Fem.. where pray f TTS>sbr\. . substituting plural forms 1) Masc: . '€V • . €5. greatest.) Observe that in these two words the accent ye. € and "ye certainly ! € " hk Repeat these phrases. (usually written evye^. € € yi VERY many. -. . ^ (See § (Lesson XXI) 174. 18. VER wise. . Contrast . ye. €5 -ye THIS account. (Lesson XIX) Master the following phrases . .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 17. is recessive. . oStos € € - . 193 veri/ wise. \€ and much tainly the cer- ! very many. . : € . Tivos €€ € come now/ on I. « THESE (con- ^ to ME. § 05 € . on LS ditions').

each . the other (does) not. May 11. The one who does not delisfht in friends does not have friends. 1. etc. you (do) not. we shall have friends. to be rich. etc. 3. these. What pray are we to be replying? 2. take May 13. If we be making 1. Do not be making this reply (say 5e replying this''). we wish ( not in books. (Lesson XXII) 19. 4. In friends 18.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 194 The one who wishes 1. replying that Qort^ ' ' this reply. If you. Let one be replying that he does not knoAV. should we be telling the truth ? 9. etc. 16. ? 7. The The one who 2. 6. etc. the The one who 3.) The one wishes to be rich. 3. 19. 5. If May ve delight. Let the one delight in 14. 2. If these poets should. Are we —) reply. We have nothing to rich. ? 10. 8. phrases 1) with the negative 1) to the plural. we (do) not. 17. pi. to be delight in good Are we to reply that we know or that . 4. and and repeat. etc. etc. Change feminine (both sing. 15. these of 13-48. We delight in friends. wishes to be becoming wise (^ one who understands these (matters). Repeat with 2) 5-12. If I should. etc. is 2) to . If you. yiyveadai). If he should. If we delight in friends. If we should be making this reply. let the other be making no reply (say be replying nothing "). Let us be we do not know. learning this lesson. You wish to become wise. shall we be telling the truth? 6. 5. ? you be making no reply. what must we do ? friends. to delight in friends or in horses 20. horses. the other in books. 4. ? If these. ? 12.

in c) in the optative of the progressive action-stem. May (pi. Repeat each of these sentences. (Lesson XXIII) 20. I '- etc. Do thou. What What are we to be doing ? 4. .). c) TTcpl 1. . these 8. Repeat. (Lesson . etc. 10. hold in highest esteem. consider.( THE FIRST FEAR OF GREEK we do not know reply that 22. 6. in b) in the future indicative . a) TovTO irepl I. 3. May 7. you. etc. . c) TOVTO of greatest value (importance). worth . little worth. Repeat. of shall we do? doing nothing. money ought. Be 1. I 9. XXIV) What are we doing? 2. hold in higher esteem. I — ^) on 195 Am 21. Review Exercises 16-17. 2. of greater value TrXeiovos (importance'). conjugating the verb in •- a) in the present indicative. We he 3. etc. we 5. you Let these. substituting the verb (in which case the meanings given above remain unchanged). ? I to delight in a good friend or in a good horse I might make this reply. substituting in a) Trcpl (importance) in b) ircpl . consider of greater worth than 21. in (^ 4. . of less least. May you 11. should should not ? make By no means. of Friends ^). ? We 23. etc. 24. etc. we this reply. € b) I This great value (or importance or worth) ^ consider of hold in high esteem. etc.

I shall call shall. 3. Vie 9. to . etc. the other standsThe one will flee. and is for a hoy^' etc. wise. We 8. know. some will not. Who 10. farmers. the same boy. iraXs. 7. I shall you 19. 26. etc. will call me ? Consider 13. become 24. ? Who you. (-. etc. substitut- the appropriate forms (both sing. .) of «.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 196 Be calling your (say 5. me about this. . some things we To-morrow 20. Repeat the phrases with ing for pi. the man. 14. 1. -. sider 17. Some 12. ' know. . 15. ? gift to the old 4. the ') brothers. these same 22. you •)? 27. I shall () We 29. We should be becoming wise.- we think we understand The one is fleeing. mother has no possession more precious than a boy. "Ycpiav. is will We. call (^). 31. them. the mother. etc. man ? are we to the to be making these men A ". the Greeks. Do 2. the other will stand- shall reply that (ort) 30. firm (/AeWi). me calling calling 11. firm. . I shall not The 16. the same fathers. them. 22. 21. are calling them. me happy you happy. what shall I reply ? ? these 28. etc.). We. 23. these (things). These friends. What reply to the Greeks ? mother ? boy has no possession more A precious than a mother (say 'there 6. (Lesson XXVI). Some things 18.. . am I 6. Call the boy. If any one ask 25. May we be becoming wise. ? I to give the not keep calling the mothers same boys themselves to the 5. (Exercise 16). Am themselves. the father. I shall con- poet.

in 9-12. 5. examples cited . Fathers always prevent their (' the ') children from doing whatever they wish. 3. Does ^our whatever I wish. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK For boys are anchors of a mother's 7. My ('') ' (Lesson XXIX) 13. but t/ou are wise. 6. as the philosopher says. May we (things). man's character is known from (his) speech. 4. this same hear you reply- ing to the physician that you are well. health is the best (thing) for a man. their father (say be doing'} father prevent you (} will prevent (them). Whenever these children may wish to be reading something. vji_ We (} you always To-morrow reply. I 9. ^. in followed by the genitive (§ 115. the same you making saying these will hear 12. i). father always prevents me from doing 2. . For these ^ . hear that A we 11. If these be able. 8. vent us from doing whatever we may wish. To have 2. and study carefully the in §§ 174 and 176. from doing whatever you wish ? 3. We know that we knows that he is foolish is 7. (Lesson XXVII) Review Exercises 8 and 18. The 1. 4. are mortal men. wise. know are wise. 10. in 5-8. gods. a mother life 197 (say ' of life for ') 23. we are foolish. Review Exercise 1. they will pre6. value nothing niore highly than justice (^ I 5. In the following sentences use the verb 1-4. Whoever We know that we are foolish.. 24.

How much do you ask for this horse ? much is the farmer asking for this chariot ? 10. ? Are we nothing. ?!). ? Whom * do these ? XXXI) 2. XXX) (Lesson Repeat the phrases with ing for (Exercise 16).. they happen not to love us. sing. are are are.. «. 1. ? Whose the child")! What 5. to desire Let us 7. it tis (both . (Gen. Love ^>^ thyself ! 8. we 4.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 198 men do not wish us to be as happy as possible. Who ?) you you are we 8.7. II. etc. How 8. do not know vho (rt? or you (say of whom child are Whose 4. I 2. substitut- . desire nothing. ? (things) these desire 6. Do not love thyself too-much . Know (Lesson QyvSiOC) thyself not love thyself ! ! Do 4. ? . . 3. '• children? are these 6. you 3. . I. (Gen. On what account To whom. 25. 9. ? these ? We desire 5. What offering to sell these (things^ ^ 9. For 7. 1 Ace. . the appropriate forms of and pL). /?). . me Zeus. not seem so also also. For how much do the gods sell to us all the blessings of life ? ' 1. ? he 2. you? to By 9.this reply ? are we to be calling ? are to be Whom permit to do whatever he wishes 26. For how much are you are you asking for etc. we to be replying ? making . What do you I. to Does 8.

(Lesson down XXXVI) (along') the road. XXXIV) you ? ? this slave ? ? we ? Whom 2. you were not. 11. 16. (jt?Z. for he thinks more of the slaves than of me. 8. we 8. to touch these (things). No one was preventing us from making this reply.28. his ('') son. We thought we were dying. . we eating (Lesson saying these ? I I .• What am 7. touching I 10. Do not touch the chariot 14. ? Don't touch this! 12. In the day-time these attendants rule me at night ^ (jjVKTo^ 8e) my mother rules me. 6. near the postern-gate. neither eating nor drinking. these 9. Does your father permit you to govern the mule-team? 15. Who was dying? 12. not have friends. Why was the dog in the manger (say the in manger dog ') not permitting the horse to eat ? 10. ? you w^e I was eating nothing. 6. We were not dying. 13. 14. By no means. we shall not have friends. 9. was ? 3. I ruling ? What was you ? We were was preventing you from doing these (things) ? 7. for the dog was not able to prevent (it). 11.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK (Xidv^ 5. What was 1. this! ! (^ 27. ? ? Touch My Qthe') mother permits me 13. 5. 1 See § 119. We were becoming wise. Who ' ^ {} . ! 199 The one who loves himself too much does If we love ourselves too much.) ? 1. We were not replying. The horse was eating the barley (say of the harley'^.

' XXXVII) 3. Come . in. We. 13. These. €§ €5 €ls TO wall. . 2. These boys. toward. out 5.. etc. is out. etc. the opposite city-wall. etc. etc. <.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 200 according €9 TO to Plato. in. 7. ! — away. 4. preparatory based upon this passage. irepl to a dictation exercise 1. ! lines toward. We were absent. Ap- out. ? 2. I was going away. proach 12. 29. We were. 16. My For they were phiinly eager to approach. ' . (^ for us 7. etc. . kept. these you in 10. in a position opposite the €v wall. out. These. 4. time for me to be going away for 6. 6. father was wont to regard (say was regarding') the slaves as of more value than us his sons. Make an intensive study of 1-15 (Lesson XXXV). What was I doing ? these We (Lesson . 11. I Tliese boys and regarding us (say You you ? was not hesitating. You were. He we You kept turning around turning around he was frequently 5. . the wall. position opposite ! 8. toward. 1 . in. Let us be going. away. I am going away. etc. Come 9. 3. — 14. you were going 15. etc. It -). regarding'').. €K to a position opposite the from a .

You is he. We 4. we shall reply that we do not know. these larger. What 1. Do not keep asking this. If you should ask this. 11. I was hesitatthe happier ? which of these men was the worse. € am able qualified^ both to deliberate and [ \ [ € (Lesson XLIII) Qfit. 13. If you ask this. XXXIX) (Lesson 30. are books are smaller. were saying that we were more beautiful than 6. 12. 2. This boy was hesitating to ask me about this (matter). I. wiser than you. (Lesson XLI) are you asking me to be asking these (?) men ? What 2. These 5. What is smaller than this book ? wiser than you. etc. (questions). ? are than these brothers. ? {) 10. 6. angles 201 is the larger Which 8. I was saying that I was more beautiful than you. we regard nothing more beautiful than a good friend. 11. Which the largest of these Which 9. we should make no reply (say ''he replying nothing''^. you. 4.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK am I 1. My mother was wont of these same boys ing to ask me hold to 13. ? is 7. We have nothing to ask you. We 3. This (one) they were wont to consider (say 'they were considering^) the worse. OLos € € or Olds 32. The one was asking. You were asking which of us was the more beautiful. (fte) ? are these physicians 3. Let them not be asking these 8. . ? 5. 9. 7. 12. What are asking which of us is the wiser. to fight. the other was answering. 10. There is is higher in 31.

. experienced. ?. I. € ) T€ € through- Repeat. - 32. old. ing . ' Repeat (making the necessary changes) with b) Although wise. substituting for (and making the other nec- essary changes. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 202 Repeat . learning is adjective and so has no ^distincti\^e feminine Tovs avSpas. (or a) Since T€ desire. Repeat.. substitut- Repeat with making the necessary changes. Although growing many . observing that . $ II. 33. I am nevertheless (things^. compound forms) "? (Lesson XLIV) Review Exercises 23 and a) . b) Concerning these {matters^ you I shall try to question . conjugating the verb out the present and future indicative. conjugating the verb in the present and future indicative and making the other necessary € changes. etc. know what friendship . is . I do not . still trying to he . a $ $. what in the ivorld Repeat with it is'). -€ this sentence. also as one having experience. Repeat.€ €. . (^friendship .

- 1. substitut- appropriate forms (both sing. €. vas playing in the courtyard... Tas KOpas « a) II. I believe you to be you are not able to dis- (Exercise 16). Was he a 1.. Into 7. . €€ In Around the . yet cover what friendship (^) pi. substituting for ToxiaSe. Toi»s - Xcyovtos ol . . playing. substituting for : . ( are going . the From 4. €€'. 5. 1. And 4. Repeat each of these phrases in the plural. ') XLVI) Repeat the phrases with ing for away (^- is. versing with us. (Lesson 34. Write in Greek each of the following questions together with an appropriate answer. 6. 2. 2. . Come tell me. who was Socrates? young man or an old man ? 3. .^ .) of priest. being a boy. While ^?) was Lysis (Gen. . About what were he . the others will say {epovat) that friends. the words a). THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK c) «. . . and . Before the city. the horseman. b (§ 39). €. 2. irepi the words Repeat. . b) Repeat : 203 this being so. the others were con- As we 3. While we were conversing with one another Lysis. Out Far from ' of 3.

: : THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 204 4. etc. (Lesson XLVIII) Observe carefully the difference between the progresand the aorist forms as illustrated by the following examples sive ..). . Were they out what friendship was? 7. ing. lav T. be doing this TToicL . this ! don' t do this ! to do. etc. Who and the boys cou versing with one another ? was calling the boys and bidding them go home ? ? 6. €1 T. to find than good-health Which 9. (while should do. be . if let us do. . etc. Repeat with Observe further that the aorist participle (having . if I be ^ doing. ? happier than a king is seemed to you of these boys able better is ? more to be the ? 35. etc. TTOLCLV to be doing. do- TTOico^cv. tav should €l I do what are we do ? to let what did '€. ivhat are we to be doing ? us he doetc. do ! . € Aorist Progressive what ivas I «. What Were they going 5. ing f . beautiful into the city Who 8. dont. doing etc. doing doing. done}. I do. TToiet .

etc.) of 36. 66. (Lesson L) dead. €€. Because of an act that « : . thirty years (of age).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK € €$ 205 Indicates an act merely as an occurrence without I. substituting for -YtXaaas into tears. to recognize or asleep ? that I am €"am / am . Repeat. c) '. bursti^ig Repeat each in the feminine. Cf. €. thus / d) e) I have I am € come foolish. laughing. 65. tlius «. etc. Study carefully §§ I. o28a undone ! brother heard him This done he said. II. lost. often refers to in time to that indicated by the lead- ing done.) of iroitLv. . my ^. havthe appropriate forms dKoveiv. and fem.He a) He Contrast said (while^ laughing. / am .$ a fool Exercise b) (/ (hv kiiow that 23). 137. substituting• for a-yyciXas the appropriate forms (both masc. €. Am I awake heard its is 'prior ing verb. .). -? '€. I am a) / fundamental meaning. reference to time or duration. Repeat b). Repeat a). €€ b) € : said with a laugh. thank you for announcing. c) - Contrast laugh.-. and fem. € turn in announcing this Vou did me a-yyeiXas was kind of you (it to a good announce. substituting for (both masc.

those do not. 9. These recognize that they are 7. etc. these. saying that I Observe that in English the perfect is constantly employed where. I am twenty years are undone €. To told all the truth. Greek employs the perfect infrequently. etc. spoken. of age. To have spoken 18. We have 12. is Are 5. They Are you awake These are dead. seen and heard. has broken the peace 16. Have you 19. ! We 6. to be dead. 11. am saying that was saying. (Lesson €'' did not hear the man. be thirty years of age. etc. Greek. pear asleep dead. «- € €€" To be dead. 37. §129. seen the them. ? Ave are foolish. thus Compared with English. I have ' ' c) d) violated the j^^cic^• have neither seen nor heard the man. ? 8. 4.. 10. 3. e) We a) II. fool- We are You are ! € What have I done? ^ b) / have told {spoken') all the truth. I. We To have Study carefully a) I have b) c) 1 20. Who men ? 17. an aorist . 6$ LH) € ( . § 179. To the truth. / am etc. in What has he done ? = be more natural. 2.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 206 He ^') I. have neither seen nor heard be awake. : . 14. d) 15. ish. ? These have not. about lost (vre/ot. 13. 21. ap- or recognize that ten years old.

to learn. if I learn these {things). etc.e. . learning these (thiyigs^. (while) learning.! dont he.! . and means I shall speak. learning. learning. f) g) 207 -uvai oii I refuse to I my go away~). (Lesson LIII) 38. followed by . these things. . . may I learn. etc. Review Exercise second and third in the second. Repeat with €-€. shall say. deny that Iheard the man. : € 1. Repeat each of these sentences persons singular. etc. €€ € may I Aorist I learned. h) that I am « olos away not going €|-€€ (i. etc. ipd is . learn. having learned. 3. plural. don't learn! §157. 4• . : ! THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK e) (or I have that ^) I sai/ (or said^ (or had) spoken. and third persons and study carefully the following examples of progressive and aorist forms 35. etc. etc. ipQ) is {ipiw) is the future in common use meaning / will not common. I was lav learning if I € he €dv he . 5. he learning. and the first. - 2. ovSeva 4. Progressive / am learning. shall forget €€€. 1 Observe that (shall) say.! etc.! to he learning.

-. - «. and making the other necessary changes. 4. irats €. «. If should not be asking the boys these I (questions) (questions) . 152. What will I ask this woman ? man ? 5. conjugating the leading verb in each throughout the indicative of the tense indicated. 2. -.THE FIRST YEAR OF GEEEK 208 . «. I should desire to associate. -€ -- 85. Construc- two accusatives. . 8. - 5. etc. If the hoy had asked me THIS. (Lesson LV) 40. If I be asking her many 4. 2. young. ivere not I should not he asking this man so (questions^.. What was I askWhat am I asking this man ? 3. Repeat each of these sentences. What did I ask her ? 6. c) €L If many V€os - . •3. tion : : question'). Study carefully §§ "* a) €1 I. (Lesson LIV) 39. . If I should not ask them these . 3. If I ask her many (questions) (questions) 1. ing the same . . . Two verbs of asking (Lesson LIV) ask (a 1. 7. I should have made no reply. 1. Repeat with : clirov. b) €1 Even if were ill.

If you.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 209 Repeat. not able to discover what friendship differs 42. etc. 19. ) 13. (Lesson LVI) 41. May knew. 10. . 9.! knew . not. to all we these. Socrates we consider the For he knew that he knew (Lesson LVIII) of telling^ saying. 11. we were To know the. 3. etc. 7. i J is. May I never I knew. Let them. I knows what the sophist is ? 8. Ask me this. favor^. etc. ! are going away. keep asking me this. Don't ask me this (§ 157). We have nothing to ask you. Verbs this. I. well (eu nothing. 37. I this'! 9.. IL tion : ask ( two accusatives. Let them 16. If these boys. men. May we. from seeming to know (say 'from know''^. Know well that these will say. 16. Who Does this man not know what friendship is ? 6. conjugating the verb throughout the mood or tense indicated. 12. 5. thought 1. I do not know. Don't 12. 13. . I Review Exercise « (. 14. 4. as seem wisest of (questions). etc. etc. Be asking me this. Do you knov? I know. 15. Construc- • Repeat the preceding drill. 2. (^) (^) know 11. Let him. . to 15. If I was saying that I should not be asking so many 14. Know that 17. I think I know. etc.! 10. etc. 18.

What say to him this . (§ 175). 3. 17. . etc. 6. . ^:>omi out. (thing). explain. . 2. 15. say that 14. 4. same me (§ 157). . was delighted at seeiyig. 1. Don't say this have nothing to say. to tell. should say this . € Explain what you mean. 16. 43. € 1. . (Lesson LX) was admired (marvelled at) for wisdom. conjugating the Toiixois . Tell 10.. 4. . conjugating the verbs throughout the singular and plural. If 6. conjugating the verb as 3. him I ? What am I telling the boy ? 2. Repeat these sentences. €. What will I 3. What was I telling the man ? 4. . We shall this. This is This what I I (eiirav'). clircv have come declare.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 210 I. Don't keep telling me this this. * verb in the plural. ? I If 7. also chance to be saying also chanced to say tell. If I tell this 5. before. etc. ovSev Repeat 1 and 2. 12.€ Repeat 16 and II.. is \vhat (/) 17. I 11. / 2. tell Repeat. should this tell I 8. (X€Jv^. Say we do not know. did say If I should have said nothing. conjugating the verb throughout the mood or tense indicated. I 9. 5. 13.

Protagoras was called a sophist. By his (' the ') father. By whom ? 10. I 2. lar (Lesson LXXIII) 46. although not knowing that it is an evil. or by a 11. though fear death as is the greatest of I kne\v well (? ev all evils. made 6. Repeat 4. 3. I you? May 7. ''know the death what 4. was If it () men never be called sophists 9. Protagoras called a sophist. Those who fear death many.the first year of greek (Lesson LXII) 44. those who know what (it) is fear death. I arise. 211 ! led home. 6. I am 4. I should should make the . ( 4. I stood up.e. 5. these The boys were was Lysis led home 8. We 12. I 7. 10. but Plato a philosopher. (Lesson LXVIII) 45. i. home. I I 8. ). I stood 1.. the boys arise. He was not persuaded to go ^) ? were delighted at seeing these men con- — slave (irorepov I that. etc. (^. was 2. ^'?) Few know what death is (say 3. should be arising. 5. as above. ) Many 1. both singuand plural. am arising. Repeat 5. 1. I that (it) 2. I stand (). (ot are few. conjugating the verb throughout. versing with one another. If I 5. would it please should be called a sophist. etc. in the act of standing the boy stand am ( ('). 9. . and making the other necessary changes. I made ). saying that Protagoras. For I chance to fear death. 8. (^ii) are is'). (^ said would not please me you. standing. etc.

' the blame for this? ? ? e) lav laois f) el XL LXXVII) b) c) shall . ? (Lesson a) LXXIX) . I ran away. Plato ascribed the good to God. whom pray . 6. Where 1. 3. I Repeat each of these sentences with you. and went home (say Avill arise. Know Do not arise thj'self 19. ! Be coming to know thy- -. () 9. etc. but not the evil. 12. Don't set it dowai. Let him doAvn. Give me the book. T. 11. 13. you. 7. « self ! 20. arising I went home '). we. ' 11. $ -. Set it down (/cara-^e?). you. etc. € hold in honor. d) These a) b) himself . Let the boy himself set it 5. know Let each (one) (Lesson . 8. I myself knew the man. ? These we should hold in dishonor. Let the boys themselves. shall b) make grateful return to these . 47. we. 4. Repeat each of these sentences with you. Those also I held in dishonor. § -. Let them not. etc. a) I. ! ! 16. I arose 14.! THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 212 others arise. they. I ascribe . etc. to place the stool 10. the man. 48. ( 8^ Where are we. ! Let these not 17. this same slave. those in honor. arise 18. those. Arise 15. 2. am I not.

d) -. away. 7.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK for the benefits. ? with my I delight in comrades. Having given the 15. Having Don't. delivered. etc. etc. The just man time alone reveals (say '•shows'^. these If I betray these. '-€ / c) etc. a display of skill. sharing (o 13. would 10. 213 never grant. a) I. share these (things) with you. these (things) with you. Am 5. herdsman went ') the child to the herdsman and went away. 8. b) c) -€| e) Whom pray shall II. 3. ayyo^}. my €-€ I aj^poiyit general? I am making . as above. Repeat. 1. ^. . etc. Are we. sharing 11. 1. etc. Let 6. etc. etc. all my betray friends? 4. ' d) LXXX) -. 49. (Lesson Xe^CL oStos ffe is speaking nonsense. Maf/ II. child to his wife. betray your (' the ') friends. }. ' having given we pleasures etc. Let have friends. e) €$ toIs y . I shall not Don't not. the These gave (say 16. -€. Repeat each of these sentences as before. not have friends (. they. -. Grant me (/xot) the favor. ) } we should If 9. ek he carried (it) into the mountains 14. Having placed the child in the basket. I to us not. delight in The herdsman { gave the child to his wife (sa}^ placed the child in the basket (et? 'woman'^. 2. my We 12.

l'^. These showing off.THE FIBST TEAR OF GREEK 214 2.i). Sophocles the poet said that time alone reveals the just. let the old us depart. . to be skill. eager 6. 5. man not. 4. The man () seem to us is showing off (e7-e^. The young man is to show his Having displayed our skill. 3.

MEPOS TO PART II THE GRAMMAR 216 .

.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 1.. ). The Alphabet ( The standard Greek alphabet has twenty-four Form 217 letters : — .

but note further that represents the long (open) e-sound midway between vowels are short. um eus eus Sophocles. Before this date the Attic alphabet had passed through many changes. — Vowels ). 9 f. I .^ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 218 that was officially adopted at Athens in the year 403 B. ancients used only capital letters the small . Pronunciation 3. See §§ 8. oe evs (final) ei. The most important of these was F digamma {i. Xerxes. Fiov violet when used c) The . p is written viclere. = = ng us. somealways long . Aiyvirros Aegyptus. The primitive Greek alphabets contained three additional letters. was the Ionic alphabet.) and the colon (•). ( • — The Of these € are always e sometimes short.) = : 7. d) The letters were used as numerals. See letters Punctuation 2. = see. punctuation marks used in modern editions of Greek texts that differ from those in use in English are the question-mark (. See further u V Eu-hoe'a. 1 case. double gamma) It = w. J ov (final) €$ S^p|i?s = = = \ eos (final) e Byzantium.e.. Of. 6eos § 8. In transliterating Greek names into English employ the nominative and observe that K = = = /* c 77 X (init. piScLV to as a numeral. The sounds of the vowels are indicated in the table above (§ 1). came into use during the Middle Ages. times long. See 6. § 51. Pro-me'theus. — The only § 51. Ti-mo'theus. i. = rh ot ch Examples are et : = = = = = ps ae OS. which disappeared in early times. Marks.C.

.)IPH.

. the (pronounced Ao) the sign is written over the vowel is called the rough hemisphere. packhorse. $. cf. but like zd. very early became (for € THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 220 to Athens Later. were respectively it in were similar kh hothead. the sounds Later they came to be pronounced topheavy. however. Breathings. the breathing is written before the vowel c) When an entire word is written in capitals. and this was pronounced like modern Greek. or | Avas sounded like ng in sing before e) in the early periods c) (7-nasal) 6. d) Every consonant M^as sounded. This sign half. loch. angel . ' : ' : . and these sounds are retained in modern Greek.. was probably rolled more than r in English. cf. : ( = f) Attic cf. Philip. ' : . the breathing " written over the second vowel of the diphthong This is : is not true. d) If a word begins with a diphthong. breathing') is employed b) If the initial vowel is a capital letter. breathing and accent marks (§ 9) are omitted. If no A-sound is present. was possibly pronounced sphinx.C. . of improper diphthongs (§ 4 b) Hades. a) by a sign initial to indicate . : . the sign . like th ph kh {ch^ in thin. An vowel or diphthong is always accompanied whether it is to be uttered with or without an -sound if with an expulsion of the breath (). as in glaz'd . to th ph that is.) messenger. like sh. it still b) it retains in §6e.was originally pronounced a) -). (smooth breathing. ' . sound dz in adze. perhaps as early as the fourth in glaze.(pronounced ego). See century B.

: . followed by a vowel usually has the long sound : Ionia.. a Grreek oh! . whether with or without a consonant. makes a distinct syllable. note) it is customary to ignore the Greek accent. quantity of the syllable is a factor of great importance in the pronunciation of ancient Greek. ^ So and ir when exposed through elision (§12) become and respectively before a rough vowel or diphthong " =. 8. / do not know . if this be long in Greek. to give the vowels their long or short English . as follows a) A vowel Orion. further.' =. always has the rough breathing in the g) Initial Attic dialect above. elision (§ 12) are divided -^. — 7.: : : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK " When the initial vowel or diphthong 221 accented. the is I accent and breathing are written together: have you are. and to accent the penult of the word. sounds. is : connected with the vowel fol- lowing b) Combinations of consonants which can begin a word are connected with the vowel following : : Compounds formed without c) according to their elements Quantity.' =.^ A syllable may be long 1 In pronouncing Greek proper names in English (see § 1. -?. Every single vowel or diphthong. : cf. cf. : I do not speak Greek. It is usual. hyper. Syllables. See § 9 f. et €. — The : -. f) Before a smooth vowel ov not becomes before a rough vowel. rheumatism. . «-. otherwise the antepenult: Prome'theus (three syllables) io'€os Timo'theus (four syllables). A a) In dividing a word into syllables single consonant --. e) Initial is regularly pronounced and written with a rough breathing a stream.

But in such names as He'siod. ^). plays but a secondary role. Grrave accent as This constitutes the second element of the circumflex accent. The diphthongs ae and oe are sounded like e. a) Accent English : it Greek in is chiefly differs radically from accent in a musical or joiic/i-accent stress . Pausa'nias. 18)) . The two kinds . when vowel (naturally its folloAved by two consonants or a double con- €- (|): sonant 4) 3. of accent are : 1) Acute or sharp. is 9. Soc'rates. where it is perhaps entitled to be called it is called.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 222 By a) nature^ that diphthong (§§ By b) position^ short. : €- Accent. ---^ ). i. wise the short sound : Cha'ron. Duca'lion. ( _ -§ (— v^). indicated by the sign pitch of the voice is raised as the syllable is $• 2) Circumflex^ c) The or the uttered rising-falling tone (") ?. treated as either long or short (^ >^). the The ('). ae. c) A vowel followed by two consonants has the short sound. or y . e. that when is. third accent-sign is (' ). : : €. A 18) short vowel followed by a stop and a liquid (§§ 17. § 3) is ( : is. b) There are two kinds of accent in Greek. or followed by a single consonant (or a stop and a liquid) before e. but three accent-signs. b) A vowel followed by a single consonant (or by a stop and a liquid has the long sound if it stands in an accented penult other- (§§ 17. has a long vowel or a it ( ). a. The consonants c and g are soft before e. ?/. and d) oe. when i. and another vowel has the long sound.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Elsewhere an accent. not upon the accent (pitch). and merges not so pronounced. and may rest upon either the last syllable or the syllable before the last (but only when the is last is short) The : . . syllables of a word. €. like vowel when this is a capital : ".. f ) The rhythm of all classical Greek depends upon the quantity of the syllable (§ 8). but the third the last The is short : of the last three from the end only when the breathing (§ 6). it is 223 merely a sign to indicate that a syllable which Avould normally be pronounced with the rising inflection (acute) the voice a word. 10. acute accent . The accent e) one of the The of Greek word always accompanies a last three syllables. individual accent in that of the word- its group: on the level. a) Some words of one or two syllables attach them- . § 6 d. but before a single initial See accent-sign. or in the words Tis who ? what ? final .. but that monotone regularly sellable is acute accent-sign changed in writing to a grave accent-sign before another word in the same sentence. is written over the second vowel of a diphthong. . d) But a acute is not changed to a grave before an enclitic (§ 10) or an elided syllable (§ 12). . circumflex accent accompanies only a syllable that long hy nature (§8). remains which at the is last This occurs when is incorporated in a sentence. may accompany one . Enclitics. uttered alone has the rising inflection on if the last syllable (eVrtV).

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

224

selves so closely to a preceding

word

become virThese
Examples are

as to

tually a part of that word, as does -que in Latin.

.

are called Enclitics (i.e., leaning-words}.

,

,,

€,

The

b)

an

effect of

an

enclitic:

1) Preserves
acute

to

, () .

accent and never changes a final

a grave (§ 9 d): 8os
it has an acute on the penult

lowed by
3) If

i)

own

5 «, "

2) If

cent:

its

A

it

number
word before

enclitic is to increase the

of syllables of the Avord preceding, hence the

and

is fol-

a dissyllahic enclitic, the latter retains its ac-

€.

has an acute on the antepenult

circumflex on the penult

,

acute on the last syllable

.

(^^.,

,

(),

:

or

adds an

it

€,

c) Enclitics retain their accent:

1) Sometimes for emphasis
it

seem

so to

2) After elision (§ 12)

:

:

evil.

3)

)

)
wise.

is

pronounced and accented

' «',

d)

id

When two

each, except

.

or

€i.

in its clause

does

all things are

«
,, .'

When it stands first
When it is emphatic

7) After ovK.
is not.

€;

TO U too ?

:

:

eVri

;

the

:

man IS

«

:

there

est.

more

of course

syllable an acute accent

the

enclitics
last,

follow one

receives

another,

upon

from the one following

:

its final

.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

225

11. Proclitics.
A few words of one syllable have
no accent of their own, but attach themselves closely to

the

word that

and the
Examples are

are called Proclitics.

.

€K, el, ov,

But
by an

-ye

,

ol,

when

it is

Iv, els,

followed

Beos-

Elision.

12.

-

a) Elision
of a

:

,

,

:

a proclitic receives an accent
enclitic

These

in English.

follows, like a

is

the cutting off of a short vowel at the end

word when the next word begins with

05.

The apostrophe (') marks
pounds

:

*

a vowel:

the omission, except in com-

(for Stay.

and conjunctions accented
on the last syllable lose their accent with the elided syllable, and become in effect proclitics (§ 11):
b) In

()

elision, prepositions

c) Other

words throw, the accent back

but without changing the acute to a grave

The only consonants allowed
word are v, p, and s (| = ks,

a)

()
(for

'

.

to the penult,

=

word

end
and

to stand at the

=

attach themselves closely to the

(§ 11).
of a

:

Final and Movable Consonants.

13.

a

?

'

.

its)•

€K

of

word that follows

All other consonants were dropped at the end

.,

bod^ (for

:

cf.

'), €pe was
') and
he

writing

Lat. scribi-t^.

b) Most forms ending in

(also

all

verb-

forms of the third person singular ending in -e add
before a word beginning with a vowel, and often at the
end of a clause or sentence. This is known as v-movable.
c)

For

0X1 (oy/c,

),

see § 6 f

:

226

?

:

THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK

thus, so may drop the s before a consonant.
becomes
before a consonant.
before
e) The ending -€t of the pluperfect may add

d)

So

ۤ out of

a vowel.

Contraction is the
14. Contraction of Vowels.
term employed to signify the uniting of two successive
vowels, or a vowel and a diphthong, both in the same
Avord, into a single vowel or diphthong
>
of
contraction
learned
The phenomena
are best
by mastering the paradigms of contracted nouns, adjectives, and
verbs, §§28 D, 29 C, 41, 81-83.
But note especially
:

that
€€, €t,

A

and

€CL

>

cl; oo, co, o€,

contracted syllable

is

.

€€

, €>
and

regularly accented

€0l

;

if

>.

either of

the original syllables was accented

A

a)

the

final syllable

(),

with the circumflex accent, unless

? (?).

original

final

syllable

had an acute accent

:

b) Other syllables according to the rules stated in § 9
15.

Crasis.

— Crasis

(^

mixture^

is

the con-

traction of a vowel or diphthong at the end of a

with one at the beginning of the following word
(/cat

),

16.

(/cat ez/)

Vowel-Gradation.

e.

word

:

(/cat eav^.

— In

the same root or suffix

there frequently occurs an interchange of vowels similar

There are
two strong grades and one weak

to that in English, as in dri7ik, drank, drunk.

usually three grades,
grade, as follows

Strong

:

THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK

-

Examples are

-

-

:

carry

a carrying

€--

nourish

--^

know

(Dor.

--

;

Att.

-

I say

I place

€---^

have

-€

-€

voice

-s

was

nourished

I know

--

-s chariot

(two-carrier)

nourished

ciS-evai to

--0

227

a heap

I give

to

see^

we say

-€-€

tve

--€ we

place
give

consonants and their combinations
17.

Stops.

a) Stops (or

Mutes) are those consonants whose pro-

nunciation causes a complete though momentary closing of
the breathing passage.

Stops are of three orders (smooth,

middle, rough or aspirate) and of three classes (labial, palatal,

dental), as follows
Classes

Okders

;

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

228

€€ (-),
€€§ (-^?), €-€".
(^--),

but

c)

IT,

become

,

and

and

, , and

So
vowel
e

>

are

>

Of)

becomes -

When

e)

, , or

a

(

two aspirated stops (,

€- (-^

a,

t

and a

,,

)

/c,

is

would normally

regularly changed

(--,^

:

'•>

;

>

Similarly

or
(/3e-

:

,)

first

>,

>t,

(^--^.

§

;

(%e-

19 a). ^

Liquids and Nasals.

18.

a)

see § 61.

---((--»)
€-,

begin successive syllables, the
to its cognate smooth stop (,

-).

^

normally becomes

remains unchanged)

with

;

and the preceding

(a

short

if

(-/-),

:

d) Before

\-^^.

,

dropped before

(^€7-8~),

, , and

;

are dropped before

then lengthened,

is

et,

become

with

, ,

|;

'

The

and

liquids are

Of

-nasal (§ 5 e).

these

;

the nasals are

, ,,

, ,

and

play a very important

In the parent Indo-European
were frequently vocalic (written 1 m,
n, r), i.e. they served as vowels in the formation of syllables.
Of. fathom, yes'm, heavew, SittZ, brittle, etc. In Greek
or else
these vocalic liquids and nasals either became
developed a short vowel (usually a) to accompany and
or
r > ap or pa
1
became
support them. Thus
from
rn >
> , as follows
(e ---') from
(«jreX-to), § 20)
word-formation.

role in

language

1,

m,

n, r

,

:

:

;

;

€-.

b) Before
(/c?)

1

it

ir,

,,

(?)

becomes Y-nasal

There are exceptions, as

;

€-€--becomes

before

, ,

;

(--/)

;

before
it

-, --, ---.

,,

,|

remains unSee

§ 73.

) --,.
«THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

Thus

changed.

:

;

apparent exceptions

d) V before

€5

f)

Initial

is

>

>

g)

is

a) In

>

-

:

and

,

was lisped

seven (orig.

b) Medial

ev

;

;

after a

-.

Digamma

Greek

dialects

to see (fiS-, cf.

survived as an

qf. septem'), tnrcp

;

20.

;

placed

is

diphthong

:

-sound (§ 6)

=

to disappear
:

:

super.

between two

"y^vous (yevea-ot,

see § 35).

(/r)


?

early disappeared from most of the

cTttov

/

said

(fe-n--,

cf.

Lat. voeo),

Lat. videre).

d) In a few words an
pleasant

(^-^)

was dropped, or

original initial

antl

shows a tendency

Lat. gener-is
c)

is

tovs (tov-^^^

F•

vowels, especially in inflectional forms
cf.

:

(^6\-).

:

many words an

it

)

>

ec,

assimilated

- {)
-

:

There are some

doubled when a simple vowel

is

Omission of

rather

a, e

in composition or inflection

it

not doubled

19.

{-).

(/ueXay-?).^

or

-€ (-).
before

(eV-

dropped and the preceding- vowel

is

e) V before

;

;

see § 67.

;

regularly lengthened (a
els (eV?),

(^-)

>.

before

c)

{-^)

229

(^afdS-., cf.

initial

disappeared

:

Lat. suavis^.

Consonantal

l.

— In

very primitive times

many

Greek words contained a consonantal { = y, cf. pin^n '),
which effected certain important changes in pronunciation
and spelling. Some of these are as follows
'-

:

.

^ There are some exceptions.
Thus in the dative plural
dropped without compensatory lengthening:

before

-

is

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

230

,

,

(from

and sometimes

(^\-,

§

dpi,

>

,.

)

see § 59

d)
§ 59

:

>

a)

b)

59

-,
>

,.
, >

c,

§

59

).

c,

,

(=

§ 5 f)

-

:

c, /3).

€vi, €pi, tvi, ipi,

and

C/^op-) fate,

:

€iv, €ip, Iv,

, , Up

;

see

c, e.

>

e)
see § 59

>

;

1^

, sometimes

or

(see above, b)

;

c, a.

declensions of pronouns

The Persoxal Pronouns.

21.

a)

b) Pronoun

you (thou).

/.

(^Unaccented forms
are unemphatic.)

the

of

person

third

(him,

her,

( usually

if).

an

in-

direct reflexive.)
S.

N.
G.

.

.

/

a~\)

0/

you
of {from) you

of {from) him, her,

{from) me

D.

,€

it

{for)

-,

{for) you

to {for)

him,

etc.

me
A. €,
P. N.

€5

-,

vie

you {ye)

us

D.
A.

$

to

(for) us

22.

to

us

The forms

(for) you

yoic

ol

i

him, her,

•€5

it

they

of {from) yon

of {from)

G.

you

<ri

€9

ive

of {from) them

--

to

(for) them

tr^as them

are usually enclitic.

The Intensive

Pkonoxjn.

— The

intensive pro-

(§ 40 ), except
that the neuter nominative and accusative singular end in

noun

-0 (cf.

self is declined like

TovTo) instead of in -ov, thus

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK
S.

N.

avTOs

G.

.

For the uses of avTos, see
28.

avTTjs

§ 106.

The Reflexive Pronouns. — The

?

231

reflexive pro-

nouns are formed from the stems of the personal pronouns
combined with
They have no nominative
(§ 22).
forms

€. with the a The Demonstrative Pronoun outos this. the old demonstrative This explains the apparent irregulari- . a) demonstrative pronoun. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 232 The article was originally The demonstrative pronoun € ties in accent. is See § 10. as 25. suffix -€. b) The Demonstrative Pronoun €K€LV0S that.

when . as follows: . accented (§ 10 b. Tivi. "5 : whoever Each part is is a compound of os who and tls some declined separately. receive an acute (or grave. 2). except in the genitive plural tivcs.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 233 Indefinite ^•^ YXQ/iJ'^iA'^O N- Ti Tis Tivos. § 9 c) on the last syllable. b) one. Tivis Twri Tivas The dissyllabic forms of the indefinite pronoun.

N. V. THE FIRST YEAH OF GREEK .234 P.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK N. 235 .

. ( The nominative in''tI7e in os is ]\iasc'uline.. nominative singular around. () G. . () G.filiend same physician TO the road 1€ () € ? ? ^ ^» ? ? ? ?? ? G. (^?) () siave slave ? " ^^ ^? () () ? ? Contract Nouns. : gift ? () -. ? ?? V. e) tive so regularly . and Neuter Nouns.. €09 0€0s• vocative Feminine. philosopher . () : sometimes used for the voca- the . . D.. . the triangle € £ () ? . V. So -. .THE FIE ST YEAR OF GBEEE 236 d) The ending nominative plural ot of the is treated as short . . () . contracted a sailing / . see § 28 A. the D. g. S. TrcpiirXou. VOVS (wo?) mind^ hone. D. ' . S. () () V. \. ? ? V. voyage. D.\. C. the has recessive brother €€. accent . irXovs Compounds -. . ? avTos N. the G. ? Tois ovTois Tovs -? "€ -? "? - jlvToiis () . ? child (oareov) {) forms like Trepi-irXovs tlie (/-?) basket. in -oos accent all the €.

p. . e) Most nouns which are monosyllabic in the nomina- . t. d) The dative plural is formed by adding . a) The stems end in a consonant. is usually the same as the and nominative. .and mak- ing the usual euphonic changes.(-). § 50. 30. and are in most cases conveniently determined by dropping the endThe nouns of the third declening -OS of the genitive. § 17 c. § 43. or neuter. b) The nominative singular of feminine nouns making |. sion are masculine. feminine..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 237 Third Declension. is the usual euplionic changes (§ 17 c) But stems ending in v. In neuter nouns the stem final : or s do not add and lengthen drop those in - most masculine and formed by adding s to the stem and is : vocative singular employed as the nominative. lengthen the last vowel. § 13.. § 13. while (Xeovr-). iras. final being dropped. and There are a few excep- tive singular accent the final syllable in the genitive dative. Mute Stems (§ 17). (/^-). and but NoLTNS WITH plural. or . . or as the stem. to : s. > but merely \ > ). : irais. both singular tions 31. . if being dropped The c) short (€>?.

N. opviGas the chariot . sav- 5 ' € •8 • ' " ? € -() )ior (-) 05 •£ x«ip '€5 •() A. 1 very common the daughter '. TO opviGes iroSts Nouns in Xeipes ^ -') •-() •() . (-) ". D. D. the mother N. G. § 17 c) () 6. the father s. 34. A. V. . oj^a G. •() (^-. V. V. S. A.• . G. ". ' G. « (§ 18). TOis () 33. D. - Greek the shepherd the dog the hand (-) (-) (-) P. alternative form is the man . N. ix (() Plural Singular N. € () <() 5 5 (5 D. Xeovres vvkt€s . € (-) the pre- server. D. -.OF GREEK THE FIRST 238 P. Tip ' Nouxs Stems in the divinity the - or G.with Variable Stems (Synco- pated NOUNS). .V.<() Xcovrds TraiSes •••() 'Traicri(v) iroSds iraiSas Neuter Nouns with Stems 32.

239 . V.THE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK P. N.

toiis or 068 V. however. 05 D. 1. (^) water () and the p was . : spear €. -. -. -€$ ship are thus declined Sing. ol -€<() (-X^t) The nouns . woman. wife ^5. ?Plural Singular son or €(). . 1. {) knee more impor- -. . ($ •€ PacriXcvs the king N. " - (to) milk . N. . 3 () -. -£$ or cow. -€ G. .-. vaOs SiXG. Of.. (-) () G.-. ". .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 240 This not true. -. is Nouns with Stems 37. The stems (() became respectively and (cf. . and (ySou-) then dropped. -€9. leaving merely 4. . () . € tant irregular nouns are 7. -. Pl. V. 39.and -. ndv-is) Irkegular Nouns. Zcvs () Zeus 6. 38. . bov-is. -. Lat. 2. () or €. .. of nouns of the type of the principal noun in -. . -|(). 1. gen. {€'8 () vap before a vowel >•3. —A few of the . in -€. D. -. -.. . -€$• is . . . €.

) dea7% (.) adjectives small. A. The adjectives of the first-second declensions have normally three sets of endings. the others to the the feminine ending of the nomiAfter e. tive plural all the genders have tive feminine endings (. tlie (.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 241 declensions of adjectives 40. . .) - beautiful. F. In the geni- § same form and accent.) (. new. equal. and few others. of Adjectives the Fikst-Second Declen- sions. and : F. have no distinca Compound adjectives. native singular is after other letters. vtos largest^ . or second. just. . are thus declined : un- beneficial. Tlie young. of which the feminine endings belong to the first declension. unequal. t.

D. F. except in the nominative. . V. accusative. pi. and N. D. «€ £5 € ?€ « ( ' € £€ € €( £ M. -? -. ?). THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 242 Contract Adjectives. See also 43. (r^o'. '-. — The masculine and neuter forms of these adjectives are . (-009) - . G. as follows D. larly circumflexed on the last syllable (/". -fj So (?) of : disposed. . €€ € « . golden. better. G. . V. (st. • €() . and — Most adjectives in -€os The contracted forms are regu- -oos are contracted. § 48. Other types are represented by fatherless. G. . § 29 C as those given above (B). declined: Adjectives of the Third Declension. 41. S. V.') €05 : N. — The § 35) happy fortunate are declined . § 28 D) and are the same . M. G. \. «- -^ -) (st. vocative. Adjectives of the First-Third Declensions. is simiile and But compounds have no silver. adjectives S. . eii-voa true (cf well- (not ev-va). <( •() ciJcXin hopeful. G. D. distinctive feminine forms 42. Neut. masculine and neuter singular. . . -. €-. of gold G. N... N. F.

-') : . €. V. eupev- iracri Q>eupe-) evpv-^ graceful are declined . S. long here. G. 243 the feminine forms of the first. .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK of the third declension . broad as follows ^. ( iratrai <() The wide. . iratri (st. . D. This all. (st. true also of participles (§ 50). ^ A. N. G. D. £$ €( ^ < F. V. . adjectives and ^apicis •( •() -) cvpOs (st. -) is every are declined as follows ? €5 M. which strictly beblack and irds (st. F. . 44. .

244 THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .

:

.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK
r\his

(-)

-yas

.

shamfful

(-) large
{-) sioift

-$

-<08

(for

more or

£(

good

-KrTOS

less irregular

better

best
best

better

KpeCrTwv better

-TOs best

evil

small
1

much
easy

,

Comparatives in

48.

«--8

^-')

beautiful

iroXvis

-\-<08

--)

(for

Tlie following are

05

--

pleasant

-05 (-)

245

(for

-

^-/)
more

-

most

are declined as follows (c/.

§§33,42):
M.
S. N.

N.

F.

better

G.

D
A.
V.
P.

or

. V.

or

or

G.

So

,, ', .
£(()

D.

.

or

€, ,€^,€,
(.

sive in the forms:

\.

or

The accent

is

reces-

ADVERBS
49. Most adverbs end in -, the majority being formed
from adjectives with the accent of the genitive plural

beautifully (/caXo?),

pleasantly

(^8),

formed by means

thus

justly (St/cato?),

(^<;^.

Many, however, are

of other suffixes, such as -a

:

very ;

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

246

«
-aKLS

:

TToWaiKis mani/ times
within ;

-

;

-: ^^\

homewards ;

:

-

secretli/ ;

-:
from

:

home.

The comparative
adjectives

is

of

the comparative of the

(

adverbs which are derived from

regularly the neuter accusative singular of
adjective

;

the

neuter accusative plural of the superlative
wisely

(€

beautifully

So

-

superlative, the
:

more

very

most
least

less

DECLENSIONS OF PARTICIPLES (ACTIVE VOICE)
50.
-o-vT-^

A. Thematic Formation (Participles
§§ 75, 43).

The type

is

being (etVO

in
^

-,

st.

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK
B.

The

(§ 83),

and

participles of contract verbs in

-

(§ 82)

making, doing,

and

(-')

may

(-^)

-€

247
(§ 81),

be represented by

showing (declined like

asking {a question^.

follows
Singular

-

{-)

),

The forms

are as

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

?AS

, §,

?
,

Tn the same manner are declined

G.

•$

taking (ones) standi G.

«.,

-

having done^

having selected^ judged,

\.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

249

THE VERB
STEMS AND ENDINGS
Every verb-form consists of at least two elements,
and an ending: €-€; most verb-forms contain
€•--€ (rt.
st.
three or more elements
Each verb nor(rt. yvo-, st.
mally forms several action- and tense-stems; see §§ 131,
52.

a root

-,

:

-----

''-}.

-),

59-70.

Verb-endings are of three sorts, a) personal endings,
b) infinitive endings, and c) participle endings.

Personal Endings; Thematic and Non-the-

53.

matic Formations.
son

they are

;

employed

:

— Personal endings indicate the per-

a) primary personal endings,

in the present

subjunctives

;

When

the formation

when

the

is

are

vowel, the formation

54.

;

it is

%

is

not preceded

and

in the

in the imperative.

preceded by the
and
elsewhere

(o before

said to be thematic

endings

--, -.
stem

employed

the various verb-endings are

variable or thematic vowel
e),

of the indicative

c) personal endings

;

in all

b) secondary personal endings, or those

employed in the past tenses
optative

those

or

and future indicative and

-, €-€
i',

:

;

by the thematic

called non-thematic:

-, €-€,

The thematic vowel belongs

one of the elements mentioned in

§ 52.

to the

For non-thematic formations
§ 80.

,

,

THE FIEST TEAR OF GREEK

250

The thematic formation

see
is

€,

,-

§ 91;

by

illustrated

§ 79.

55.

Secondary Personal Endings.
Active

'

Middle Voice

S. 1.

-V

2.

-<r

or

3.

(orig. -T, § 13)

P.

-p•''!*'

--

1.

-€

2.

-T€

3.

-V or -<rav

^

56.

-TO
-jieGa

^

For thematic formations see
thematic formations,

-<ro

,

,

§ 91,

--

,,
,

§

(or -de)

79

;

for non-

§§ 86, 87.

Personal Endings of the Imperative.

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

251

b) Temporal Augment, which consists in the lengthening of the first vowel of verb-stems beginning with a vowel
€ becoming , and i, o, and
/ heard
becoming respectively , , and
I was wishing
A long initial vowel (except a) is not changed of the
remains undiphthongs ai and ei > ,
>,
>
(rare) remains unchanged
changed or >
or
I found
/ demanded
I was gone
Verbs compounded with a preposition regularly take
there are a few exthe augment after the preposition
but
I was dying
ceptions
/ sat down
I was
Again, a few verbs have two augments

(or diphthong), a, a, and

:

().
,€

(),

,

(),

£

---

;

:

(^),

().

;

:

{.-.).

(--)

;

:

seeing

(), -€| I opened (-).

few verbs which originally began with
With an e of the
have
the syllabic augment.
or F (§ 19)
/
verb-stem this is then contracted to €l
Finally, a

:

had

,

(,
rt.

58.

-),

rt.

-), €-|

broke

Reduplication.

completed action, or in
action,

and

is

(--)
(^<,

I
rt.

(--)

as following

— Reduplication

is

some verbs merely

the
of

sign

all

of

intensive

a part of the perfect action-stem.

found therefore in

(-

fay-).

It

is

forms made from the perfect stem.

It is of several sorts

-

a) Verbs beginning with a consonant usually prefix that

(, t; see
I have fled,
/c,

a rough stop

(,
/
,€am
€- I

consonant with
§

€,

%,

)

becoming smooth

have learned,

17 e):

have died,

dead,

b) Verbs beginning with a double consonant (", , ),
usually merely prefix an € (/o being
two consonants, or

:

«-,

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

252
doubled):

t

have thrown,

I

/ have

Verbs beginning

c)

the regular temporal

/
,),
()
have

I

heard

6- /

know,

lied.

diphthong) have

Avith a vowel (or

augment

reduplication:

in lion of

(),

led

I

have recognized,

/

have perceived (^-

().

have seen

/

have

irregular.

is

CLASSES OF VERBS

The

conveniently classified according to the

A'erbs are

progressive action-stem, which

The

Thematic Stems

59.

a)

appears in

many

forms.

following are the most important groups
(§ 53):

Verbs with no element added

^ €

to the verbrstem (or

--

in man}^ instances to the verb-root) except the• thematic

-%:

Three common

become,

b) Verbs Avhich add -T%-

c)

[

(§ 17)
steal

-

sit

down

(apiraj-).

\^erbs in

rarely,

-

or -^

7) Verbs in

(-).

(-

-, -,

(/-),

-

-Class],

dip

:

(-).

The stem regu-

20) [ioia-Class)

^^
§

for

(or

-,

§

19),

:

row (e/aer-).
from stems in

-,

-8,

a

few from

(-), -€grasp, seize

-), from stems in - or - (or,

§ 20 b)

;

:

beget, bear

(-),

(§ 20 e), from stems in
hope
(or by analog}):

a) A^erbs in

do

or

Verbs which add -i% (see

stems in

)

,

(-), €'

injure

it,

)

(for

fall,

young.

larly ends in

-).

persuade (7reL0-%-, rts.
verbs have stems reduplicated with

dig

-

(-},

(§ 20 a):

-

) (§ 20 c): -. a) The present future give. -ep. . -. sit -). F. -. a) A^erbs witli (Ik-'). corrupt (^€/?-). in -€v. -. is same endings as the thematic Thus the preceded by the suffix --. -€. -ip. destroy. -iv. (§ 59 d) -\--). av%-^ - --- unreduplicated stems: be . -. with a nasal in- take find (eup-}. (^-').THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ) Verbs e) Verbs stems in -.-set (-. -%- : c) (v%-. - call to witness - (§ 20 d): judge --. (-. Verbs with ^.- [iVw-Class] : (-). -%-. in the majority of cases the prin- cipal parts must be learned separately. -. cut. -.- drinks from stretch (^-). formation of tense-stems and action-stems The Future. F. -. future has the (§ 53). always thematic: -. 253 While verbs are regular. of the progressive action-stem does not neces- determine the forms of the other stems. lose (for The form come (§ 53): {-'). . 61. - (XayS-). sarily to ^e-). ^-). give suffix - and : many (-). -€. - stop. NoN-THEMATiG Stems 60. d) Verbs which add a suffix containing etc. from in (^-)^ show stems in (^^-}. and. - Verbs which add (^-. (rey-). e) know --arrive perceive^ serted in the stem. b) Verbs with reduplicated stems: show.

See Lesson LIII and § 84. F.. These are known as hear. . do. F. F. are identical with the progressive action-stem forms of IT. . (-)^ . : leave. - regularly have -. and also those mentioned under e). have futures in persuade. F.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 254 b) Verbs in future exceptions a /. - have . . F. - -€ and verbs in . . : ask. after teach few- TeXcoj /a). in the (^ (^. etc. call. €. . F. gation these futures. : F. syllables few verbs are wholly irregular see. €' — flee. : -€ . knoiv. F. : 62.. forms middle) is of three action-stem (active and 1) Thematic. F. : -^ of . Verbs e) - future in . F. € be. €. or |. F. Some verbs having active forms in the present have middle forms in the future. €|. F. or : '€. form the bear. ') is then dropped form the future by adding In point of conju(§ 19 b) and the vowels contracted. . But there are a > F. vowel % 63. . F. or have futures in d) Verbs whose stems end in a liquid or nasal (. . : . F. : €--- or . see. c) K. The Second . . F. . being the verb-root plus the thematic (-%-'). Examples are verbs wath deponent futures. take. -€ verbs in (§ 81) lean (/cXty-). The aorist Root Aorist. F. Verbs whose stems end in have futures in | y. F. learn. F. more than two consider. A f) in throw (/3-). end.

regularly form their aorist stems in -a omitted). For the aorist passive stems. See Lesson LXXII and § 86. to after judge {-^. has both and is i. see § 69. -. but like those above are of great importance. (or : the perfect in -a ^).-'). {-'). and the last vowel of the stem. 66. The First Perfect 65. 3) Non-thematic. . Three verbs in active. €i. - > . . 98. e (^-). in the first aorist -. c Verbs whose stems end in a liquid or a nasal (. active €. B. : ( lengthened t > > . . being § 18). — Active. (77€-). is 64. .<yvo-). />. «--. ^^.have - See §§ 88. The first perfect and is formed by adding - / : have loosed (). 89. with the suffix Formations 1) and 2) together constitute what is known for convenience as the second aorist. the perfect in -. The second perfect active is I have written cf.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK the verb-root without suffix 2) Non-thematic. (/cpiv-). if short. being €-- / stood 255 {. See § 64. . shoiv for the reduplicated stem (§ 58) I have seen (--). stain €-. . — The Most verbs First or Sigmatic Aorist. These aorists are very few in number. €-. - --. . > : e./ came to recognize (jyvw. . I have fled : yi- (). - (or -a). ivard off . a) § 28). form their aorist stem (active and middle) by adding the suffix See Lesson XLVII and § 79 A. Second Perfect Active. .

or and in . If the vowel preceding the final become .(-).-^. - — The Perfect Middle (and 67.€€-€$. €-€. Part. Part. €-€§. before the endings others. -|. (-).. -). €€'-. Pf. I Pf.. have injured (. elai(v). : judge -. the . .-. receive Some verbs ending to before in Infin. and have done. : (/-) has two perfects / have : fared. . absence of the Normally.(. J rt. arid vice versa. or form second perfects. change €-. above). €€-. Examples are aspirated called are These . -. view Infin. - carefulbf -. -. ir. there are the usual euplionic changes (§§ 17. st. The formed by adding the endings directly to the reduplicated verb-stem myself. . perfects. €€-. -'). again. a perfect does not have a which has a second \^erb first perfect. € / have guarded ^- c) If however a long vowel precedes the final consonant. and and y become and consonant is short. € . Pf. . -. 18) PF. .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 256 perfect differs from the first only in the The second . -. So I in a consonant. -. : €. I (/. €€-€9• others drop the have loosed for injure : (--). have cut rt. . (-). b) Verb-stems ending in . perfect middle is Passive). (see the latter ordinarily remains unchanged do There are some exceptions.drop only before (-). If - the stem ends -.

--/ was active . meaning was written : €--- ^.-. €--- The formation that in in -c. "€•€-.. Pf. . Observe that the aorist passive employs only endings. §§ 17. €€- : €€€-. was left (/-). of the infinitive and The Future Pf. was done rt. before endings not beginning with a short vowel at the end of the stem is regularly lengthened and finally in some verbs a vowel is added command. complete. (-). / shall € / : remember. is -^. See § --- -.-.-. participle. sJiall have been / shall — The Aorist Passive. 18). . - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . The stem of the aorist formed by adding the sufhx -Qe {-) or -€ (-V. in called the first aorist passive the second aorist passive.«-: They do not harmed appeared 79 C. (-). For the accent is (/3-). differ (). and with the necessary euphonic changes. 257 Pf. and 68.) to the verb-stem as it appears in the perfect middle (omitting the reduplication. ^ This tense to . infinitive. ('-). ". ivas made 69. — Perfect Mii)dle(-Passive).€€€-. Pf. -. is generally passive in sense loosed. In the indicative. passive is --(-. to form the stem . Pf. formed by adding the future middle endings the perfect middle stem. appear Infill. ((<-). This formation is rare. and imperative (except before -vr) Ge becomes / was loosed. and (forms in Some vowel stems add do not occur). see § 78.

of Mi-verbs . of all (§ 53) with the action-stems has the primary endings lengthened thematic vowel "/?: shall he loosed^ -t|S -t). or adding the future middle endings to the stem (in -77) of the aorist passiA'e : shall be done. Thematic progressive a) Thematic stems (§ 53) action-stems and aorist action-stems.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 258 "— This tense is formed by 70. — The optative adds to the action- stem the secondary endings (§ 55) preceded by the moodExcept in certain cases (see below) the or suffix . In the first person singular active the secondary ending after the long form of the mood-V is used (not -) suffix -. contract verbs in and is -€ he is (for usual -- always employed in the €--. form i€ : -€. Xvo-t-s suffix - appears before active endings only (and so occurs reguIt is always used in larly in the aorist passive. . - / shall be written. The Imperative. § 79 C. — The Etc.may they he loosing. (. the -- singular active --'). ^. § 89). The Subjunctive. The Future Passive. of the imperative after the thematic . § : -The 79. in the singular aorist passive: may I be giving active of : € may I ('/. Before the ending -v of the third person plural the suffix appears in the 73. form the imperative by adding the personal endings vowel (§ 56). 71. primary ending -. FORMATION OF THE MOODS. - is used instead of -v --. The Optative. .. see § 69). both active and mid: dle. «. subjunctive - 72. €--.

-. - (with . replaced by is (-') in the (-at).. "-^. The aorist passive (see § 69. fect active imperative is very rare.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK - Of 259 - is regularly omitted. . The Participles. See Infinitives. b) Non-thematic stems In the : first aorist and middle the imperative endings are added in - -- -- (§ 64) active to the stem (or -a). The 74. All middle and future passive infinitives have the ending § 67). There is no imperative of the future stem. active The first aorist has the ending -ai (a of the stem being omitted) The : : perfect has the ending -c-vai (a of the stem being omitted) : €-€. See § 50 C. eiirciv € to eiv: (aee>a)). -. {eiTre-ev}. The The declensions are given in § 50. vidiich is : ond (. supplanted by For Mi-verbs see §§ 86-98. and the per- (- its . etc. is and (-oy). secaorist and future stems add the ending -ev. B. and these endings loses and the vowels are contracted > eo > § 19 b). (-. 75. — All active participles (except the perfect) and the aorist passive participle have the suffix -VT. perfect active participle has the suffix -via in the feminine).- then contracted with the thematic vowel (Xeye-ev'). . except that in the second person singular (^-) active middle § 79 A. For the - infinitives of end) has the ending Mi-verbs see - : § 77. b) Non-thematic stems. a) Thematic stems (§ 53). active The progressive.

76. Other exceptions are b) The accent never precedes an augment tion. become! e) But the latter sell! § 89. : (a/cou -). The Verbals. \€K-T€OS 18) (-). § 88. the accented as far from the end as possible (see § 9). Final -ai is usually treated as a short syllable X-ucxai. c) The second . Accent of Verb-forms. word and be (eV-) {-}. is : i\Iany of the contracted forms are apparent exceptions. -09. aorist active infinitive circumflex on the final syllable - : or reduplica- in -€lv has the d) So also the second aorist middle imperative in put in! § 88. aorists in - All Mi-verbs have vowel stems. 77. which are best learned by mastering the forms They differ from -verbs only themselves (§§ 86-98). — The The Mt-verbs have many pecuMi. In the last example a is inserted.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 260 All middle and future passive participles end in -^€VOS . - when compounded with prepositions have recessive accent: -: dissyllabic put down! . liarities.e. in the progressive and second aorist action-stem systems. {irpay-). a) Verb-forms generally have recessive accent.Verbs. except €. The Mi-verbs had a tendency to become i2-verbs. cf. first i. with the necessary euphonic changes (§§ 17. end).-ov. except for the irregular sit (§ 64. — The verbals in -t€os and -tos - by adding these (see § 177) are formed - suffixes to the rerb-stem. €€5 for 78. .

. . -ous -us have the acute on the nominative singular masculine : . (and passive) infinitives and participles i) and .. 5. -€5 of Bts.... give back and ! 261 accent the provide ! come! go! ivpi find! ! vhen uncompounded accent dTT-cnre speak out ! the . all participles in final syllable in the $. : : . give take! final ihi syllable. All participles.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK g) : €€ behold! But - Compoiinds f) penult say . up ! h) The following regularly accent the penult: (1) first aorist active infinitives KeXevaai (2) second aorist middle infinitives perfect middle (3) . €S. . (4) : all infinitives in - All second aorist participles in -§ : - . .

1. -<. Impeb. •<- 1 (-€ <-€8 (No subjunctive) <- -<() 1 Very rare. €--£() 1.. - S. 1. 3. Opt. (stem Conjugation of -) / loose. 1. 1. -€ -€€ 3.-€ -£ SrBj Indio. etc. (- . .() 1. -€ 2. 2. Active Voice. €--€ 3. . €-Future Tense-stem Future Tense S. P.. A. -- 2. [•<(•-€ "-£ (-] and only -eiv (No imperative) in indirect discourse. €--68 3. unbind. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 262 CONJUGATION OF THE VERB -VERBS 79.-< - - §60 -€ -•() Past-Imperfect Tense S. - Present Tense -€ Infin. Progkessive Action-stem . 2. 2. -- 2. P. set free. . 3. Xv-£is 3.

- <€ -€ Perfect Action-stem Present Perfect (Subjunctive. \v<ras §50 . Paet-Aorist S. optative. 3.' Opt. 2.<. and 263 Partic.. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK AoRisT Action-stem SUB.I. -- Teitf^e *- -as €-(€() <-| €-(€ (-€ €-. 3. 2.(-€ €-• (-() . . 1. 1. P. Indic.

.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 264 Progressive Action-stem Indio.

^ ' . 1. Present Perfect Tenise S. Indio. 3. as follows 1 There are no forms of the perfect middle (passive) imperative common use except that of the third person singular been loosed. 265 Perfect Action-stem Opt.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . aorist passive. 2. SUBJ. . 1. P. Past Perfect {Plu- €-'- . €5 € «5 €4$ . 2. 2.2. 1. The middle forms of the progressive action-stem and of the perfect action-stem are either middle or passive in But in the and future systems there are separate forms for the sense. - " or (No •< - subjunctive) - [< (No imper- -<] C. 1. £8 €£5 £€' € € €€ (() €i€V € ^ (€ € £-' Future Perfect Tense S. ^ Paktic. 3. 1. : let it in have . The Passive Voice. 1. according to the verb or the context. 1. 2 Very rare . perfect) Tense S. 3. S. . 8. 3. - -' 3. 2. only in indirect discourse. 3. 3. 1. 2. 2. 2.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 266 L First Aorist and Future Passive (§§69. . AoRiST Action-stem Indic. 70).

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Progressive Action-stem 267 .

1 : eiroiow -es) ( 6€ -ov) '. P. . 2. -e) itroUi ( -) ( -«'f) 3. -. conjugated like Middle (^Passive) A'^oice: making {doing ) for myself. ( 3. Progressive Actiox-stem lam . 1. ( 2. (iwoie-op) 2.fect IxmcATivB S. ( . FtnrEE AoEisT . P.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 268 S. -. €••-. : : Peefect «iroiiis ( 2. ( € Lmpekativk -") -ere) Ivfixitite iroiei /e-e) -) (^iroie-eiv) Pabticiple (-) iroitL• § iroieiTt 50 Past-Impep. (^) conjugated like conjugated like -. 3. ( 3. lam being made.

THU FIBST YEAR OF GREEK « ( € Past-Imperfect Indicative S. ( -01') 3. {(-6) 2. . ( -€) 1. . 3. 269 . ( conjugated like in -.€ -) £-€ -) -. conjugated like conjugated like Perfect: AoR. ( -) €7. Contract Verbs A. Active Voice: -. ( 2. -. : €•. (^') I ask Progressive Action-stem a question. 1. -. conjugated like : 82. P. Pass. FtTTiTRE : .

Pbogkessive Action-stem § 84 . try. conjugated like Middle (Passive) Voice : - . ( -ere) 3. -. ( -) 2. ( -ov) €-. .€ € THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 270 P. . Future: 1. -. conjugated like conjugated like or . -. conjugated like or Aorist: . make . (^^ trial of.

^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK P. 8 -. €€ eiriipoo-ee conjugated like conjugated like (^) : <. . ( -6) S. 2. ( -ei) P.l. CoNTKACT Verbs in Active Voice £6€ -6) -) -) 271 make clear. ( -es) 3. : «. Optative Subjunctive § 50 .l. ( -overt) ( $ \6-) -T)s) € ( -() . 2.) Imperative S. ( -us) 3. ( -ere) 3. 1. ( €€. ( -(>) --) --{) --) -) -) -y]Te) -otre) -) -»») (/-/) €€ Past-Impj)rfect Indicative (\•) P. 3. ( 1 -0J') Declined like . 1. £. €. 1. € € € Participle Infinitive (-) -e) 3. ( -) 2. ( « -) 2. : AoKisT 83. . (\6-) 2. ( 2. . ( -. -. ( -e) 3. Progrkssive Action-stem Present Indicative S. 2. ( -ere) 3.

( € -ourai) - Imperative (-) S. ( -ei. together Avith the Thematic Progressive Forms. ( 2. B. 3. ( -6€) -) 2. 1. » / am £$ learning 2. ( 1. for the sake of comparison. ( -erat) -ijrai) 1. ( 2- ( 3. ( -) -^ Optative {-•) ) (^-) € (-£/^) € -) {7]\6-€) -) (-/) - Infinitive \6-() Participle (-!) -) Past-Imperfect Indicative S. 1. 2.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 272 Middle (Passive) Voice. r?) -) 3. A. Active Voice. - Progressive Action-stem Subjunctive Pkbsent Indicative (-) S. . ( 3. 1 . ( -ecrSe) 3. 2. Past-Imperfect Indicative I was Aorist Action-stem ' AoRTST I learned learning €() ££() . 84. 2. . Progressive Action-stem Present Indicative S. 3. P. (-) -) ( 3. ( The Thematic -ero) « -) -) «-) Aorist.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 273 .

274 THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .

-)..--- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK : replied. cAoose (one's 275 •--€ -€ -€€ air-e 86. See Intake (something) stand (§ 87). answer.. P. 6 : Optative Imperative - ••-•€ '-€ -. 1. to (lit.. 2. - Middle Voice words) /or owese^). 3. . : / -. reply Aor.-Indicative S. Sec.- ••-€ Infinitive Subjunctive (.Participle : Non-thematic Second Aorists. B. . 3. 1. Aor. I stood -(> . 2. § 63.

Sec. Aor. . : € I entered.276 r C. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK and I enter.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Progressive Action-stem 277 .

) THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 278 P. FuTCEE : : (first 3. second aorist. 2. aorist . Indic. . See § 64. 1. (ending in €£€ €£< -) in the singular of the indicative elsewhere. «€5 <£.

Active Voice. Indic. Progressive Action-stem Pkes. 279 .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK A.

. : as Impek. compounds Opt. I sold) Infix. ---. (only in : Subj. point Active Voice. out. . €6. . 1. P. . \. S.€ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 280 Past-Imperfect : Future and perfect are regular 2. '-€$ 78 e . - -€€ . £8€ «SCSooO ISCSoto F. F. 90. compare . -€6 -£' 3. eSiSocrOc cSCSovto. .... . c8ci|a.Second Aokist Indic. show. 1. . - § -€ .

1. . -' 2. 1. Indic. Paktio. (rt. €crei 3. Opt. € lam Scikvvt) Past. - or § 55 3.Imperfect 8£- .i. Sun. 1. «- 3. el. €l«r£(v) - ? € . - : 91. P.0 €< €<roiTO -(€ 'itrtfrQt 92. Indicative 1 Subjunctive Optative Imperative (- S. except 2 Very rare . Infinitive Participle ovcra 50 § (€ {-) <() «( €£ Past-Imperfect Indicative S. 1. (-) 2. thus - / am absent are 1 All forms of the present indicative are enclitic. SciKwoOai 8€£$ . . 3. . P. 2. 3. e?). (I 3. 1. Future Indicative S. [ « 3. € -€ € £<] / am conjugated like present and (§ 91). £<£() 1. 2. 1. Impkh. Inkin. only in indirect discourse. P. 8£' €( . 2. - - Optative Infinitive Participlb 6<- <-£$ 6(0. S. €'- 2. .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 8 281 Progressive Action-stem 8( 8€ 8€ Pres. 2.

- Participlb .T^£ FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 282 -€ -- - Optative Indicative Subjunctive S. irap-fi Past-Imperfect So 93. -. 2. Cf.1 '-€8 irap-fjs -€<() -. \. 3. : going (rt. -. 1. : -(.-] --- . . Lat. S. el- Infinitive Fi-ti:re 1-. am Imperative . -ci \. ire).. '-€. .l.

283 . 1.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK '.

. 2. . 3. (rt. --£ -(€ Past-Imperfect: 97.« .« -. . . frequently com2)ounded with . Like thus s. 2. thus Subjunctive Optative Impbeative Infinitive Participle . \. : (rt.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 284 96. -€. and in prose (as frequently also in poetry) -( -€ -. -^ sit. kcl- is €-) lie. . found only in the progressive action-stem. 1. . down. 3. 1. F. € regularly compounded with Indicative S.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 285 .

(. -lov: 10. smell -( hardihood -eid) - (oi/CO-9)• . -9 nom. unsdom. nom. nom. . self-control omitted) soundness of a thing {-. final vowel lengtliened made. j^our plough : Place cup pot : drink (^. NoUNS the suffixes employed to of indicate: Agent. . etc. or simply the person concerned in the action €. becoming . -09 nom. The following some are A. quality.: ^ -- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 286 often modified. I. : : - truth.-)). . nom. -: -$ . : giver : speaker {pe. : : housemaid (-)). Muses come from nouns seat of the -ciov: in . nom. .-)). bringing. \- €-05 earthquake {. (-^. -05 . -/ -: €05 youthfulness . "yeve-ais act of justice. nom. : odor -id: {cf. sta- - Ablaut or vowel-gradation (§ 16) plays here an important role carry. -lov: Hence c-io.( nom. FOKMATION OF SlMPLE WORDS. -: nom. nom. nom.yov-). ( : nom. {Bo-). : suffixes are queen. -- -«Os : horseinan linr-eijs {-^. p>lough). pupil nom. > -epia oIk£-tls -tis: Action. shake).speak). Feminine -6 - tl8. : carrying. : nom. a tion added). nom. means: -. --€-{ {-(-€ { Instrument. mind. : . tlius : (^-. forge Those coppersmith). (jev. poem - ) . endure). bring. muse). (-. (veo-?). > - .

girl. = young hoy . anaemic without hlood. daddy .): 10. little child. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -: . y\f6vh-r\s false. -:. - -ivos genuine. €-(- €S. nom. (). nom. maidens apartment. II. -lov: -lov -. nom. : }: -09 . contest living on consisting : ( of five -9 -. .. : a d) an inseparable prefix -. nom. a. The first part a) adverb: is «^-^« often an well-horn. young -.Xoltt- nom. -: thenon (-^^. - nat- (/co.-. num. ural lo. senate-house in 287 (^^. (\enr. These are divided according to the nature (1) of the first element. -. b) preposition (see §§ 123-129): hoth sides (of the shore-line). - A. -5 nature}. apathy. a-iraGeia cf. ivo ta -ios heavenly. an ahsence of suffering. : . etc. : mindful. (2) of the second element.-: -)). Some of the more o. or -a: Xonr-os remaining important are: (. Adjectives There are many adjectival suffixes. nom. Par- Diminution (often implying affection. warm. Formation of Compound Words The Greek language formed and still forms innumerable compounds. amphibious c) numeral events . contempt. : ivarlike. ('). -os. nom. -lov: - . expressing negation {A-privative') hlood). : --.

one who throiving-stones. 101.-§ -5 latter case the €- noun (. AGREEMENT 100. pelted with stones. A - neuter predicate-adjective is very often used as the substantive-predicate of a masculine or feminine subject : 102. killing one" 8 slain by one's father. brother . evrepa the in- ( dyspepsia testines). >. (). merry dishonored or adjective usually changes its form diaphragm. element of compound nouns or adjectives regularly consists of a verb-stem or noun-stem. A relative the accusative case the antecedent. if wealth is (a) blind (thing). : leads a boy (to school. The last womb'). denoting uyiion (^A-copulative^ of the same tvomh. a one born : hemisphere ripen. whom we know (about) (= .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 288 ((-? ( -- -. Compounds generally have recessive But there are many exceptions Cf. etc. : cf.-€€ ill: dysentery soften).(Latin semi-): B. pronoun which Avould normally be in is regularly assimilated to the case of the latter is a genitive or a dative: b Croesus the first irpiuTos of the foreigners €). accent. cf. hall). § 78 a. . In the -$ -$ .). mind). father. A neuter plural subject regularly has the singular the trees are : its verb in (Greek is) beautiful.

as or article being repeated: This position of the modifier (for the two a) and b) are really one) is known as the attributive position. generally : speak- ing.. i. a friend) is another self.e. was originally a in Attic Greek it has article.THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK 289 USES OF THE ARTICLE AND OF THE FRONOUNS 103. often omitted supplied from the context : when it Cf also of friends. the or wisdom. c) A third attributive position 2i. either . the can easily be common the many. oi ...e. reference the friend (i. a) before the noun. . the €.iiv\h\\te is when the article follow the noun (the afterthought position) : and . .e. 1) When a noun is preceded by the article any modifying word or phrase usually stands immediately after the article. in English : b) after the noun. b) The article €€ ' we use a very c) weak is frequently employed where in English possessive Qcf. and even the force of a demonstrative in certain uses a) The article . frequently (jenerie in is dXXos see § 191. demonstrative pronoun. the German usage) : does the father (i. your father) love you much ? €5 With proper names and with abstract nouns may be used or may be omitted: article d) The noun is are the (possessions') beautiful. The to the (§ 24). or Aristotle. between the article and noun. 104.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 290 ^. the very the 3) : the teacher himself. 105. Socrates here.^ stand in the predicative position The of personal genitive <. espeLesson XI. the same. noun is the when So 106. him. 2) or 2) (the') When it is itself preceded hy the article self(same). Demonstrative pronouns (§§ 24. When the modifying word or phrase is not preceded 2. oblique cases (genitive. the article avr\p : may he omitted: or this Socrates. . son : . - tive position : pronouns (. The demonstrative may precede or this - '). 25) regularly stand in the predicative position (§ 104.. and attribute is rare. But with the names of persons or follow . and means self: accompanied by the article. dative. .. either before or after the noun. accusative) when used alone serve as the personal pronoun of the third perthem. regularly stands in the predica- : '.'). 2): ? . (never 6 (§ 106). this book (not man. The same (one') means itself: brother. by the article. : - being in the predicative position (§ 104. her. it is said to This position of the article cially in prose (but see .. The intensive pronoun (§ 22) is used in and Exercise Lesson V three ways (see 4) 1) In apposition with a noun or pronoun it emphasizes I (my)self.

that (one). those. . here he or you there ! what are you that is! thafs it ! is to say . each (of two). etc. «. 3) .e. (i. of myself. (see §§ 104. '' . SHE. both. and 110. 2 my. etc. . etc. see § 120 a. and in some indirect reflexives: | knoiv thyself! stances refer not to a subject but to a dependent Avord '" 109. by my own cise 15). ship or possession article. the following exactly reversed. Possession is etc. 2). (§ 108): child (or. toOt' that too.): . the Greeks said this (one). SHE permits you Note also : doing? (§ 10 c) and to do these things. 103 b. each day The pronouns but .' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 107. that. of you. THEY. with the accompanying noun or €5 each (of § . § : from yourself I shall instruct you. . (§ 23) are generally But sometimes they serve as indirect reflexives. Of usually refers to what precedes (so the former - manner). may Even refer forward in are : answer this! These pronouns are often used in lieu of our emphatic RU. expressed by 106. these. simply. of me. Relation- very frequently suggested by the For the dative. €5 : (^) 108. to what follows (so But sometimes these relations in the preceding manner) . « 291 many) generally stand in the predicate position With the article is often omitted (§ 104. is both mean this. your. by the pronominal adjectives your (see Exer- our. . my child).

" " among "). three of the original ca. Greek nominative." in. as Greek developed into a separate language. hj the dative. dative." was thus absorbed by the the instrumental (" with ") and the locative genitive " (" ow.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 292 USES OF THE CASES 111. genitive. etc. Latin Nominative : Geeek Vocative Vocative (address) Accusative -Accusative (object) Genitive From > Acciisative ^ .^^ " in. . five cases distinguishes : and vocative. tive-ablative Q'on. -. In the declension of nouns. pronouns..se-form8 were discarded and their functions or meanings were assumed and expressed The ablative." " among'''') Dative C^for. These correspond to the six cases in Latin and to tlie eight cases in the parent language from which both Greek and Latin were descended.Dative meanings and Greek divided the pure ablative this table it is at once clear that the constructions of the Latin between the genitive and ablative are the dative. thus accusative. in the Latin Q'-from ") being expressed by the genitive instrumental-2i\Adit\\Q {''with" "?/") and the Latin loca.-Genitive Genitive ("o/") " Ablative ( from " ) . In Greek." ") ..'' '' among'''). which by one of the other case-forms." "?/"')"-^ ^^-Zl~~Instnimental ^'Locative (" on.^-^^ SsS.'^ " ' Ablative -z~w Dative Nominative Vocative Nominative (subject) ' (". by the dative.'' " in. expressed the idea "/roTW. In other Avords. therefore. the meanings and constructions of the those of the genitive case fall into two broad classes : pure genitive ("o/") and those of the ablatival-gQmiivQ .

The nominative vocative 113. wise an Athenian in the quickest why ? Accusative of Extent of Time or Space : there he remained five days. €€€ ^ (or yes by. tive ("(>/'") prepositions. way. (^Qognate accusative. and the meanings and constructions of the those of the pure dative must be divided into three sets dative ( '"for.. by birth. e) Adverbial accusative: .) battle. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 293 Q'-from"}. with f) way. .. The is sometimes used for the uses of the accusative are virtually identical with those in Latin : / a) Object: fighting a case so regularly Beds Qnever 0ee). 112. (sc. See p. . 13. - : a sophist.. see § 126 ff. c) Object and predicate-accusative we call the d) Accusative Xshilled') of man Specification in all things. of the instrumental-dfitiye. : - . much. For the accusative with prepositions. in what way? greatly first . ohov^ . in every all speed . ov g) Accusative in Oaths with no by."'' " to "). b) Double object I am : teaching the hoy geometry. see / am you. The which prepositions may be employed But the piire geniand the pure dative ("/or") never employ cases w^ith are indicated in the table by italics. and of : the locative-diitive.

With - the following groups of believed to be of partitive origin - a) Share: : verbs the genitive is with verbs meaning -. 114. exactly as in English: love of friends.. possession^ subject. make trial of: ov she does not prevent you these things. governed by a preposition €ts " doctors (sc. some A few of its uses are difficult to classify. The genitive is in Greek a compound case (§ 111).€-€ why dont you share your conversation with us ? b) Enjoy. etc. taste enjoy c) all the Touch. h. 115. : to els house'). taJce hold of. etc. some abla- of its uses being genitival in origin (" o/"'). cause. Iv The genitive with a noun is frequently employed in the predicate in any of the foregoing relations - : for it is €€€ " (the nature) of the free-born to speak the truth. measure. § 116 f). school. accusative absolute.g. . - we -uci ae from handling . part. cup of water. material. In certain phrases the noun upon ) which the genitive depends is omitted. to in (the house) of Hades.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 294 as subject of § 175 an iufinitive. object. § 172 . piece of advice. so that the genitive appears to be to the (sc. the teachers. such as tival ("-from "). (^Adnominal Genitive) the geninouns When used with tive may express a large number of relationships. : good things. worship of Grod. With verbs the genitive is either the object of the verb or serves as an adverbial modifier thereto (e.

be leader of: Love is king of the gods (Plato).. € e) Reach. he lack. a sound. lacks little). : clearly of ablatival - it is employed with verbs meaning: Cease from. nearly all. 295 rot : Ipd of (all the^ gods Death alone yearneth not ov - after gifts (i. them. lead. laiv (Antiplion). surpass. a) etc. it (i. care for. f the island being not far distant from the mainland. genitive used with verbs also to express is other relations. c) Differ from. etc. become filled with pride (Plato).6\iyov) almost - almost nothing.) PaaiXeiici neglect: : -. any one I I hear : •€€ you of : I whenever one praises the beautiful.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK d) Aim desire at. some of which are Thus origin (§ 111). . etc. -. forget. remove from. smell. The 116. : . (Jiear. . it . dont heed.e. be inferior to. obtain. empty: who does no wrong needs no Note especially the phrases lacks much) (lit. strive after. li) Memember. release from. b) Want. Fill. it is : far from (or simplj. be full j) he began his speech as "§ Perceive i) €-|€ will never attain the heights without g) Mule.e. hit (and miss) (Sophocles). bribes') (Aesch3'lus). toils Begin: f) follows. be distant from.

With adverbs also the genitive is very frequent. value : € at the price of toils the gods sell to us all blessings (Eijicharmus) . 117. from the majority of people (Socrates). - -. having no from . The genitive with verbs often denotes the cl) . and these are fol- than be better (= quani) : than silence 118. € : praise. •€ . g) Crime (with verbs denoting a judicial action') - : am prosecuting for slan- der and ami on trial for murder (Lysias).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 296 but gentlemen. let no one used also with many adjectives. different b) adjectives of the comparative degree lowed either by the genitive or by let your talk Tt (Menander). €€ Source: ME you shall hear all the truth from ' (Socrates). for how much irevxe does he teach? for five minae. wonder blame. (^down) compounded with especially those against : despise thy youth! (Paul). f) Cause (with verbs meaning admire. €€ . Such are a) aiTios cause of accountable for part in. . note h) The genitive often follows compound verbs down upon. but detest thee for thy cowardice (Sophocles). meaning the verbs -- especially with those that parallel in mentioned in §§ 115-116.) . at. e) Price. be angry. . See especially the so-called improper prepositions. d|ios worthy of. § 130. etc. the like. The genitive is . here also in this respect differ I. €$ J envy thee for thy wisdom.

sometimes " . also and similar is for ms have a brother {there a brother). serve. employed the possessor with a) of verbs ethical dative. of interest is «. rich for another true dative commonly means " better suits the English idiom to man such a itXoutcl and not for himself.e. c) of the indirect object : give 8os me the book. is not personal be benefited : €€ by you the (strictly for tuhen preparations you) . and with the passive perfect (and pluperfect) when the subject city must avTOis (i. ing § ivitkin is used adverbially to itself which un action takes place during the day . please. . : € .. Like the genitive. 9 fication "/or " is The present. b) of the agent Avith verbals in -tos and -reos (§ 177). what shall I learn for what would you have me you?) The last sentence illustrates what is commonly learn ? known as the The dative : €$ - / -. genitive absolute^ § 175 g. meet. personi- 120. mer . The true dative (§ 111). denote the time by day . : is . e. the dative is a compound case is used properly of persons and when used of things. obey. Ocpous in sum- vuKTos at night. So the dative is used with a large number of verbs vhich in English are usually transitive. expresses personal interest . verbs meaning help. for the . 297 during five years. (lit. irevxe For the genitive with prepositions see § 124 ff. be like.g.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Finally the genitive 119. €9 : in the even- in winter . etc. had been made by for) them.

serve oneself ivith) folloiv and - follow . vaiois at the Panathenaea. night. etc. 07i ctcl in the tenth year. The in strumental-(\. found only with proper names The dative is used with many compound verbs and with prepositions see § 125 ff. THE PREPOSITIONS 123. etc. little friends. month. adverbs. the third on the same day on the preceding day. cause. year. Note especially (i. fact. is : . in which (ivay^ I in labors. (ivay') . and nouns which are of kindred derivation or meaning with verbs that govern the dative hostile to : equal to - freedom . manner. . The ' Zgca^ip-flflt. b) Place. by a head") equal in temper. : - on the folloiving . . 1l22. The prepositions were originally adverbs and only gradually became stereotyped as prepositions governing .'dX\\e (§ 111) expresses instrument^ means. . This is more common in poetry in prose it at Marathon. each other. month.121.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ? . respect. festival.) day. 5? in KOLxnj this ttovois by : common.e.e. ? 9 298 help me! rots €€ if it irciGou obey the laivs «- €l tois ! resembles the preceding (instances). take delight in (please myself with) good « and use (i. $ he me ! had formerly used the room as a store-room. association. in . d) with adjectives. a head shorter in silence . accompani- € ment.ive expresses a) Time (the day.

e) out c) €| (before a consonant e'/c out from the city . tlvos. to and accusative cases (§ 111). the beginning . before : out. a preposition with its cases. from childhood. as in and next. ex-] €5 before this . ant-] § (. Lat. The 124. in return. : : ills. against. ex. too. . ap-. in return. ' only are a) against): § 6) instead of (original what account f why? In compounds [anti-. the first element (or elements) of innumerable compound words see § 99. original adverbial force € instances. to be utterly coivardly. before the town . [ec-. give meaning. ' from^ awag from: air' from which ah") (sc. afterward. learn by heart. in opposition. dative. case is repeated after the compound : The - leap off from the horse. . exhaustion. prepositions are used with the genitive. aph-] Lat. formerly. etc. € voias from set purpose. irpo € out irpo- design. ivith In compounds: tion: d) irpo (sc. since. ^') time. . - In compounds back). b) from : in return for ' § 6. ) ^~) ^ of. on instead of peace. instead. from. [apo-. away. prepositions which govern the genitive case « (. from. Frequently. €| from : Ik tt]S '"€9 from what you say ..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK The 299 was retained in some which abounds Prepositions are employed as in the pages of Herodotus. often implying comple- etc. hack (-^ and often suggesting completion.

c. kv on a stately chair. el-. quently also poetry) employs - with fre- with. to ten . a) ^amounting') for speaking . iravTos constantly . together. to. ' me . sym-.e.. a) Genitive di-. b) old form ) $ -. c. God. [syn-. e friends. Lat. through. Is (orig. Compounds are frequent in prose as well as in poetry. Prepositions with the dative only 125. With the accusative only €LS. els what (^end) on the until. €S €is used is ? Of. [pro-] enee. Lat. €V In compounds m. sy-] 126. episode into. on account on what account? . In compounds: 127. in. to. : . = . § 18 my b. this reason through (i. = ^ . Is into the city. e\-. on. in with accusative) into. at. -. (--). b. altogether. ttoXcws through the city . Prepositions with the genitive and accusative only: (hi . a) €V 18 €7. avy-. ') Accusative : of^ wickedness. : (-. among. morroiv . = Lat. send in . OF GREEK THE FIRST YEA 300 . Is tl els to . on: kv in. with: tols the aid of ivith 0€c3 em-] [en-. for In compounds through (i. € Prose usually (and with the genitive. in the beginning . in with ablative) among us .e. dis-') 5 : through: .§ (€At-. In compounds in behalf before^ forth^ : in prefer- of. sys-. also apart (- why? because. by) after a long time. -. In compounds : syl-.

me . super) over: above. the against us. beyond. day by day . : over. in defence of ex- [liyper-] With 128. c) virtp (for both by land along the road. above. [dia-. [cata-] Lat.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK -€ {\ ' different directions^ sugs^esting often . by sea. . In compounds against^ down-stream. . etc. In compounds ceedingly. up the every . on the ? €€ toOs . di-] destroy utterly. back. down § 6) to. among. : over. down 301 : over xiirep on behalf of the city. on behalf of ? (the) head.): § $ €§ "' a) Genitive completion. completely : the rock head. and way according down. according down (doionfrom. by hundreds. to the ? to laws. upon a ) upon (only poetry) : sceptre. yond {one's) power. be- the dative and accusative only is used (^av) up: a) Dative . against.. according a) Genitive : § 19 . b) along. through. motion . Accusative: ' etc. of € through the army . Accusative : horizontal river in up along. ) beyond Sicily Accusative: beyond: virkp more than half. Trerpas : down from ' {down) upon beneath the earth /S) .

eirl . mounting hri Btipas to the doors. ol Croesus and those with him. lifetime .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 302 day. $ sick- be learning lirl tovtois on these conditions. 7) Accusative through: horse. up. [ana-] hack. In compounds with the Prepositions 129. € ttjs ' 7 our upon the couches . ambi-}. a) Genitive used prose - quarrel- in fear about about Miletus : the . four deep. Attic In about. around. Not common Xenophon. upo7i.. 7) Accusative with cliietty « -€€ accusative. : eirl for a time.. upon (in addition to^ €Trl something the earth. : €§ what they had. originally on both sides. against. again. ling about /8) Dative: his wife. ac- cusative : (' a) hence = . about. Lat. for the sake : [amphi-] of. his . In compounds on both sides. b) ' § 6) upon. towards. up to. Dative my to make -§ it to a profession .. and dative. cirl '€ for one's hurt. : in Attic prose except in genitive. to. for five years. (eV. on: €? "? a) Genitive: during time ) rats : sickness €irl ness.

In compounds alongside. after (in time or rank) search (i. about: concerning: ircpi^. . after : of). by. : 7) Accusative into the midst. by. what about ? 1 Trepi syllable. toward. after share with : seiid for. . cf. a) Genitive: with: ol .€' Dative m addition. | along the coast of the mainland. in which case it is accented on the first . amid (Homeric). motion to (in prose only of permotion along. trary to expectation. : Dative : . ' : at my with house. from (most frequent with from me. amiss con- (- [para-. : contrary ' to : ' . among: § 6) with. c) upon. /3) 303 those with us. eph-] [epi-. past (a place) along- Accusative side beside. in after : this. to me . near: a) Genitive ) it [meta-. give a share summon) . meth-] () d) . carry over. change notes change or reversal metaphor). often follows its noun. (/^er. (^-(^-(€-88 In compounds of). : misunderstand). past. with. par-] e) TTcpi around (on a) Genitive: all sides). € ' against. among. about. beside. at the house of (usually : persons) sons) " from persons) ) also de- alongside. : at.e. by. to.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK In compounds for. ep-. met-. trap' in each deed.

hyp-. tlie ' agent or cause): viro by me. sub) under: § 6. : In compounds g) \»1 ] . s to the light. viro the side subtends the angle. secretly. In compounds vive'). hyph-] 130. to staiid : : to [pros-] § 19. gradually. * : under. : (. beyond (-^ (^- very glad). agreed by all. € irpos at.Tots KuPetiCLV irepl xois to take risks with one's dearest possessions. towards or during (of time) 0-€€ : under a tree. (along) under. Examples are . a) Genitive toward. irpos iroXet TOts in addition excel. in addition. behind. f) : exceedingly around. ol TTCpl lowers. [peri-] - to these thiiigs. by (^fronting).: ?? THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 304 /3) Dative: about their necks. against. In addition to the prepositions proper (§§ 128129) are the improper prepositions. for (a place) under. characteristic of the irpos ) it is Dative: irpos sur- irpos "6 near the city . also during the night. ) Accusative around the PeloKvpov Cyrus and his fol- ircpl : ponnesus. irpos 7) Accusative irpos in view of these considerations. to. by (of under Dative 7) Accusative "YTJS ) the earth. ! -? irpos way of Cyrus . ircpl . at nightfall. near: a) Genitive : irpos talcing by the gods your side. Lat. In compounds : under. besides. [hypo-. or prepositions which are never used in composition.

as it proceeds from step to step (" to or again. Action-stems. can be thought of as being in progress. but incorrectly. . against . or. To express these three different ways of regarding action the majority of verbs in Greek form stems which are known this and as action-stems. same time similar to). being for the time ignored (" shot] . (usually follows to eveKa y account. or brief. so adverb cept to ME) except . it to write ") [snap- can be thought of as completed (" to have written""). (cf. €V€K€V on account with regard within to . after verbs of he es THE VERB — Ways of regarding Action. called the present stem. apart from. except: tival its of of for the sake of eveKa on which far as concerns beyond (of time) straight) 305\ : to. motion: -€ $? came Perdiccas and into Chalcidice. apart from. book The first is the progressive action-stem. thirdly. ivithout.^ as the in consequence all forms built 1 of these upon it called in stem itself invite one to Usually. it can be regarded be writing ") [time-exposure] merely as an occurrence. at the : together with. . Every action can be regarded in one of three ways: 131. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK With a) the genitive: € without. whether long first. close to (cf 6<. before.irpoa0ev in front of. . €p. of persons only. can be visualized. c) Accusative : .. its actual duration. i-yyvs in the presence near. to YOU) straight toward. evcKa. it . : b) With the dative with. noun between. as it were. € €| out of. Ivros behind ME (often also a conjuncclear to every one ex- € together tvith.

thus . the future and the future-perfect timeAll of the forms built upon these stems (or tense-stems). § — of regaeding Action and Position in As there are three ways of regarding action (§ 131). the time-distinctions are superimposed upon the actiondistinctions (see § 133). undefined) "^- - are both forms of the progressive action-stem (see §§ 52. are obtained the tenses. two stems (indicative. 53). %- to he are writing. etc.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 306 regard the action as -. so there are three time relations or j)ositions in These two sets of relations time: present.Perfect (Pluperfect) Future-Perfect . The § 136. aorist action-stem see Lesson (^- XL\"II and the unlimited. The 133. future. participle) refer to future time. namely. as follows Present Past-Aorist Past-Imperfect Present-Perfect Future : Past.|€ beiJig in process. mood I was ivriting. or both. see 133. --. be writing. being in the act of The stem which merely names holding (having^. etc. That is to say. These are seven in number. Ways 132. each other cross . and : " ive being in the act of learning. thus I shall : I am writing. So act is called the . In addition to these three action-stems there are two time-stems . — The action-stems in themselves express position in time. €- from the stem from the stem writing. is (§ 131) do not indicative The the realm of time-distinctions. and here by add- ing certain prefixes or suffixes. they are not parallel. third stem is the perfect action-stem. infinitive. Time. optative. past. Tenses.

(woidd not. which is regularly a presentand the past-imperfect (or past-progressive). any other expression of past time. they woidd not be persuaded. The scheme of stems. future-tense stem. and moods is set forth in § 79.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 307 Of these the present. are both formed on the progressive action-stem. usually called merely the imperfect. is The formed is The future formed on a is also the future-perfect (§ 131. Uses of the Action-stems and the Tenses 134. but the historical present in is far : expressed thei/ : With long ago. With a negative the past-imperfect often denotes resist- ance. past-imperfect tense denotes a continued or customary or repeated or attempted action in the past. refusal. wrote. tenses. Theoretically there should have been formed also a presPerhaps such ent-aorist corresponding to our ''I write. say. The particle dv sometimes accompanies the past-imperwhen it denotes customary action (see § 145) ciroC- fect : they would (were accustomed to) dv do the hoar no harm. For the tenses a form is found in - of the perfect action-stem see §§ 137. usually termed merely the on the aorist action-stem : '. The present tetise (§ 133) is in general employed Greek he sends more common in Greek (for he sent^ heralds. 138. Sometimes an attempted action is exactly as in English. past-aorist. or are trying to persuade you. a verb in the present has the force of a present and perfect combined been (and 135.• could not) : . etc.'" I declare./ aorist. progressive. still The we have long : are) learning these (things'). as end).

of the aorist action-stem. as stated in to refer to an action merely as an occurrence.i § 84. \|. present to denote a fact of experience or a general truth €$. past-aorist indicative an action as occurring in past time but other forms built upon the aorist stem do not refer to past time. like the past-imperfect. This : 38. with a laugh let this? (i. Opt. you behold. its is The actual duration being ignored.€ Subj. become to bursting into laughter^. employed with dv to to express repetition : ctircv is dv he used say. . -€9 • you come (in^. called the inceptive aorist. See further etc. refers to I thus: Indie. do and and do not affect the general correctness of the statement For the use of the aorist participle with reference to a prior action see Exercise 35. and - beginning of an action or became king. three tenses (§ 133). the past-aorist indicative is eager questions (where English ov : call used in imemploys a why . then Prodieus also? Occasionally the past-aorist.e. The perfect action-stem invites one to regard the action as completed (§ 131). but these are secondary special usages made above. Lessons and aorist often denotes the €8 is .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 308 The function 136. 137. 1 c). 1 In the indicative In indirect discourse the aorist optative and the aorist it forms infinitive refer to past occurrences (see § 179. Not infrequently the past-aorist indicative is used as a ?. Sometimes. may I not write XLVII and LIII. {gnomic aorist) : €€5. especially Exercises 35 The state king. . the world's a stage. - wrote us write this . § 131. life's the entrance.. patient or present^) dont we too. you depart.

I am awake (^iye lam accustomed.pLK-')^. lose^. I remember. (^ forget (. acquire'). ^« I is I have waked In a great rather upon up. . like the present In English the is constantly used where Greek employs an hence in Greek the pluperfect tense is comparaaorist. I know . to he ((^^ effect Note the following (see §§ 65-67): €- I perish. perfect (pluperfect). I am I am -)). Greek perfect instances. see Exercise 36.-^). the English perfect : made . § 95 (fetSIforget I have. emphasis dead. lost ( /rei- hpoi- to recognize. § 87. « € € -^ (^ € (and destroy. The past poth./?-)). remind). awaken Ceyep.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 309 -. I likely resemble . (^yev- /rt-).iyop. many . pluperfect tively infrequent. eoiKC it is (ei'/cw resemble (/ret/c- pOLK. etc. ing^ hawling {ivitensive perfect). have € of hawl- whereas in English the the completion of the action corresponds closely to the / lam shudder . perfect.fiS-). emphasizes the enduring result.- «" In Greek the perfect emphasizes the enduring result of to he / am awake . (^<^^ I know recog- 7^0-)). (by birth) Ifear nize I have come ()- become he horn. I stand . but usually even here the enduring the action is still more or less prominent. to be sure. possess I remember 138. action the : awake. I am dead.

) In some instances the original difference between the shine. carry show appear (A. (or active and middle has faded : be bright. to express a €. himself. voices : active. / copy for myself made (A. or in affects It represents the subject as acting some manner that directly or indirectly himself I make 1) I make Tpeiro^at myself stop. / (A.). it is formed used familiarly is you yourself will So with ov in questions: judge will you not pelt (him') ? For with the future indicative. I show myself. bring). middle. or / write). of the Greek verb includes three and passive. Of these the active and passive require no explanation. . command The future time . forth). 68 § . I cease {cf active (another) stop). The middle voice lies between the other two atid is essentially a reflexive {cf I teach myself I make myself stop. -other. je upon me doute). . 2) ^ I write for myself {A. (off) for hear. is upon a time-stem tense refers to future (§ 133). myself win (a prize) . I turn (an- turn myself. the future extremely rare. etc. see § 149. : (7/:). have a copy copy). turn (A. The Voices The conjugation 140.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 310 For the future perfect middle see perfect active The future 139.

verbs have only middle forms in the pres- ent (including action-stem). The passive voice is Greek has no expressed by middle endings mi/self stop or few re- received. and imperative (see Accompanying these indicative. A. but / wished (passive deponent). sequor): in classical Greek). optative. optatives. active or intransitive. 142. A. Lat. passive in A : I am made / make : to stop.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Many 141. the meanings are self). and perfect the passive endings. . Deponent verbs usually have middle forms also in the future and perfect but in the aorist some have middle forms (known therefore as middle deponents). 311 - all forms built upon the progressive These are known as deponent verba (cf. are the infinitive (a verbal noun in origin) and the participle (originally a verbal adjective). and In there are seven tenses (see § 133 and §§ 134-139). Lesson VI). see §§ 69. I was I received and See § 142 and Lesson LX. see also § 62. and imperatives : those . €| have both middle and passive aorist forms ceive. wish. others have passive forms (passive deponents): /avor. - I favored (middle deponent). contrast with the seven tenses of the indicative. The moods in ancient Greek are the subjunctive. there are only three subjunctives. future. 79 C. The Moods and Theih Uses 143. morior. The indicative is the realm of tense-distinctions. be willing (never receive (take to one's Although the forms are middle. wish. In the aorist the passive employs active endings. A. distinctive In the present.

us be let tl let us write something (aorist). meaninors of these moods. and future optatives are rare and are employed only in indirect discourse to represent a future indicative after a past tense (see § 179. Lat. and See §§ 172. and perfect action-stems. ) : progressive. also and For compounds of 144. II B). 160 c. There are two negatives (see Lesson VI) ot» These are used in and (c/. (. optative of ivish (§ 162) and also with the infinitive see § 159. 173. for and participle (§§ 172. : . 146.. a. with the indicative and potential general as follows optative (§ 163). differ- ences in meaning between these three sets of forms grow out of the fundamental meanings of the action-stems They do not (§ 131). respectively (but the perfect forms are not common. Future stems never form subjunctives or imperatives. aorist. See further § 84 and Exercises 35 and 38. 158. aorist. or imperative. . sometimes also with the infinitive with the subjunc(§ 172) and the participle (§ 173} tive. 173). The adverbial particle dv is employed with the and the subjunctive to limit the indicative. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 312 formed. namely. optative. no7i. 180 b.and tense-stems form both infinitives and participles future perfect. are no This is a fact of cardinal importance in Greek syntax. : . writing something (progressive) ^ something (progressive) ivrititig be write something . future. see Lesson XIX. upon the progressive. All of the action. § 180 . It is used in . perfect. For ox» §§ 150. ne). the imperative being even The rare). (aorist). thus: differ in tense. TJiere tenses of the subjunctive. the optative.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Independent clauses I. 136 (end)). and temporal (sometimes also final) clauses with the subjunctive. the like. € OS dv and dv} and (= et is av. (or ) it was neces- . so that the subjunctive in such clauses € regularly introduced by tav or . with the optative (never future optative) to express B. whenever. questions. 1 - Unreality sary. See further § 163. past probability.^ a) to denote unreality: the angle also € b) to denote past potentiality. Uses of the Indicative 146. relative.) = ( if. c) with the and past-imperfect indicative to aorist express repeated or customary past action (§§ 135. they could not have thought. . Here dv attaches itself to the subordinating conjunction. (= } dv wherever. 313 : •- with the past tenses of the indicative: A. The indicative mood tions of fact. the opinion of $ speaker (or writer) as an opinion the [potential optative] : dv it may be so. potential] : dv I might etc. etc. 170. See further § 179. eSet. it may is employed in simple declaraand exclamations also in simple be indicated also by xcas permitted. '€ ctires. but it is not. often contracted to dv whoever. : in conditional. dv what would you have said? See further § 152. I b. Dependent clauses II. [past dv have said . ' dv would be equal. and See §§ 167.

not able to oios ' sag what = indicative. el € : indignant that I am surprise. 151. 148. tive is normally ov. € a) Clauses introduced by otl. and temporal Other uses are (§ 170) clauses. of the indicative command and let " infinitive ) so fear. ). Verbs signifying care for. are followed by the futu7-e indicative (rarely the subjunctive) (how) that (neg. have the The nega- indicative (or the potential optative. am I mean. see § 148) to express a €|-'€ 150.. etc. 6s. because. etc. with the present and past tenses are present or past (see further § 160 c) eXeyev beware lest he was speaking in jest. €. that. indignation. introduced by see to it that you aid me. delight. as. is ^ refer to objects of fear so that is or the indicative. These verbs are sometimes followed by otl or as that. effect. . strive for. § 163). treated in §§ 147-153. or a prohibition: him not deceive : which followed by either the With the €€ infinitive presented as a tendency: (neg. relative (§ 166 B). " and : with the future indicative are frequently used in Attic Greek (without an introductory verb. that. b) Some verbs expressing by a clause with the pity. 147. by Verbs expressing lest ) (neg. are followed when they as to. (how') since...THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 314 conditional (§ 166 A). cautio7i. English that 6 €€ if (if not). are followed introduced by (that 7iot) «I (neg. ?) €€5 149. and with dv (§ 145). etc. . the result us.

would be. or of an act or state conceived as continuing in the past (prot. The uses of the subjunctive (§ 143) in standard Attic Greek are seven in number. would have^ . el . the aorist. attained: 152. as an end so I saw nothing. of an act completed in past time Qivould have had'). had. in the apodosis a past tense of the indicative (§ 145). as follows > . were. The past-imperfect is with dv used of unreality in the present. would have been") . apod. the same as above (§ 152) would that you were in the habit of eating b) is is followed by an dv or simply I should like dv would that they) were speaking the truth. €€8 ! the living I ought (aorist of €€ : ? ! owe). apod. I should tell you. of a simple occurrence in the past (prot. € V€Kpox)S / infinitive: doing this c) infinitive: it if they (= dead and not bodies. : Hopeless Wishes are expressed by by €€ or el and the distinction be- a) a past tense of the indicative preceded The negative oh that! tween the tenses €5. SO as to see. etuov dv I should have told you. with the would that I were not would that you had « iroietv ! not done this . the pluperfect (yeri/ rare). ou). Thus cl dv if this were true. a. had been. '. Unreal or Contr ary/ have in the protasis €l with C onditional Fact to Sentences past tense of the indicative.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 315 with the indicative (neg. Uses of the Subjunctive 154. 153.

155. § 160. ( 5. constantly employed to express exhorta- The negative tion. ( first . B. as in Latin. with aorist subjunctive). Conditional and relative clauses 7. . Emphatic Future ( § 155. . ov. junctive always expect an answer in imperative form. or : (or or shall ive say this ? 157. 2. Prohihitioii 4. neg. thus is us be writing! ne scribdmus ! us say ! In Greek. § ). Final and object clauses . to / what am I to The be writing f say ? a) Questions \vith the subjunctive are often introduced by € . (rare) 3. we). Modest Assertion. neg. Dependent Clauses: 6. person plural of € . as in Latin. neg. . In Greek. Question of Appeal . €€ negative (rare) ) € . 167. (compare Lat. neg. §159. or b) the subjunctive of the aorist action-stem: . Exhortation. 1.: : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 316 Independent Clauses A. let neg. the the subjunctive is let €€ scrlbdmus 156. with aorist subjunctive). Negative command is expressed by with a) the imperative of the progressive action-stem. the junctive (singular or plural) first person of the sub- eraploj'ed in questions of is Questions with the sub- appeal or deliberative questions. is : what are we . § 156. § 158. ^) - PovXci do you wish? (pi. § 157.

they do not § 170. that. : be true (ah.! : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK a) 5 do not be learning ) '€ |$ 317 ). may SiKaios ). The subjunctive (generally 159. aircOSc to be rich. may forget lest the € ") way home. to and in final object clauses a) Pure final clauses (expressing purpose) introduced by Lva. into The subjunctive introduced 158. etc. final clauses introduced by not before. €9 wait until you become of age. c) Object clauses introduced €. ing verbs and expressions oifear. caution. - path. do not learn! (not women never take €ls (your) counsel (Menander). ^ hasten not quickly you become poor. : this shall The subju nctiv e is NOT employed come pass. or the like. until (neg. may b}'^ express a cautious or modest assertion^ a suspicion that something may ' hut ' suspect that this true !) lest this he ) The negative is may be true. § follow- fear lest we . $. may this not he true. 3. that you b) Temporal — order that (neg. ). 5 keep to the straight he honest. in €€. ) (neg. by « €$ See also until. € of the aorist action- stem) preceded by is sometimes employed as the equivalent of an emphatic future indicative with ' 160.

. The he ! € I " 6 Iv accompanied by the particle dv (§ 145) corresponds to the English potential forms with may. ^^ 1) Wish (neg. . 3) Conditional and relative clauses (neg. . The optative is frequently employed as a repre- sentative of an original subjunctive or indicative 1. to be The optative of wish is frequentl}^ preceded by optative is or cl €i'0€ § 168. 164. dicas.: : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 318 Uses of the Optative 161. as follows: Independent Clauses A. and to the Latin potential subjunctive: credas. can. could. in indirect discourse after a joasf tense 2. The uses of the optative mood (§ 143) in standard Attic Greek nvefour in number. in questions of appeal and see § 179. € is known optative The negative as the Potential Optative. assimilation to anotlier optative (neg. 164. ^ : may I believe the wise to may only depend on this ! rich it if — a wish whose however extravagantly. by §§ 179. and object clauses commonly) when such in final (§ 160) after a past tense. 4) In indirect discourse. § 163. etc. 2) Potential (optative with Dependent Clauses ^. II . might. 2-3 realization expresses a wish conceived. possible. or (less . § 162. av (neg. €' dv I might cXol tis dv not he wise. € or ). after a past tense or etc. . II The 162. is : irovois with small labors how could one . would.. putes. oh that! (neg. )). This use 163. etc. achieve great deeds? (Euripides).

regularly . . in indefinite relative and temporal clauses when these are dependent upon another clause containing a potential See the last selection optative or an optative of wish. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK a clause is 319 dependent upon another clause containing a ' potential optative or an optative of wisli Thus he : was at a how he should deal ivith the matter (orig. many instances accompanies the subordinating conjunction when the subjunctive follows (§ 145). disapwhich in pears. (= sion A. Conditional clauses are regularly introduced by followed by the indicative or the optative. ) any form may of the verb. loss ( . the dv. is permitted provided only that the combination of the two clauses intelligible. €1 if. 3. Conditional and Relative Sentences 165. etc. etc. how am I to dea:l. these cases the use of the optative not obligatory. €5 ov ) becomes el dv becomes €$ dv becomes dv becomes $ irpiv becomes circi becomes €. where the When the optative is employed in optative is normal. or by lav In the concluel if. The negative of the conditional clause is is . ? § 156). hvvaiTO^ in Lesson LXXX. . that modifiers constitute a complete in itself or with its sentence. . In all of . except in those clauses mentioned under 3). frequently retained. and (af. way this as a representative of the subjunctive. followed by the subjunctive.. and the original mood is is optional.

under three heads and and that (e'ai^) those with (a) the indicative (§ 166). such as : os who. The like. bans whither. Hence conditional clauses with €1 indefinite relative clauses are treated together. Many temporal clauses have the same modal construc: tions as indefinite relative clauses. The negative is regularly . or b) indefinite. and the modal types are in general the same as those employed in conditional clauses (see above). b) is When the antecedent general or indefinite in are known according to the char- employed oiSev (matter») : may is indefinite. § .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 320 B. its' this not come to the relative clause and such clauses as indefinite or conditional relative clauses. pass! (§ 162). hut if you prefer. be either a) definite. the conclusion may be of . and (c) the optative (§ 168). or the like . oiroBcv lohence. but for convenience their treatment is deferred to § 170. €€ a) '. a) When the antecedent may take any form definite the relative clause is that occurs in an independent sentence. reference. Relative clauses are introduced by relative pronouns or adverbs. - the negatiA'e being either ov or acter of the construction which he does not know. Conditional clauses (§ 165 A) have €l with any tense The apodosis may be of any form that of the indicative. A. where. (b) the subjunctive (§ 167). . Conditional axd Relatr^e Clauses with THE Indicative. 166. €i makes sense when combined with the protasis: €. may antecedent of the relative whoever. a indicative with el generally expresses a warning. The future threat. remain. and the as.

167. « or (b) the future indicative. €|€i if a man be . tive being main clause may have any reasonable form ov I Gcol veos tohom the gods love dies young . A. you will have trouble.€ (Men. € if you won't hold your tongue. : if one have friends. For unreal conditions €l.. § 147 see § 152 . B. Conditional clauses with the subjunctive are intro= €l dv. or $ some other form of expres- sion referring to the future (sirmple future conditions) a) eav tis he is €). the negain the latter. Relative clauses (§ 165 B) with the indicative may have either a definite or an indefinite antecedent. : . The apodosis most frequently has either (a) the present indicative. b) cav Tis . see § 143. fortunate.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK any form . he will never have wealth. does that tvhich is not injurious injure ? Conditional and Relative Clauses with When the subjunctive is employed THE Subjunctive. The subjunctives of the progressive and the aorist action-stems are most com- mon .. or equivalent (universal or general conditions).). for object clauses with b. The subjunctive correduced by kav (di/. sponds exactly to the subjunctive in similar clauses in English (but 7iot in Latin) kav if these } : things be true. — in conditional tory word is and indefinite relative clauses. the introduc- in standard classical Greek regularly accom- panied by the adverb dv (§ 145). honest. -€|€5 el : 321 -. The in the former case.

to to be dv : € € The subjunctive ^:)asi. the introductory if word the indicative were used.. — When the optative is employed in con168. should hesitate the vessels that 169. The optative corresponds to the English would.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 322 $. are general or universal in their reference. \. (b) to the tive. Avould be it §. do wrong (Plato). should. not a subjunc- . uni- and are usually known in conditions in Latin is an as optative.. €. same of clause-combinations are the as . it I us.e. i. the same as is §. . Conditional and Relative Clauses with THE Optative. . ^ in condi- of apodosis in optative the potential optative (§ 163) exactly as should See further would. to be to €l do ivrong or wronged rather than Indefinite relative clauses €-€ Many Cyrus might give classes : 1 «Is to embai'k in conditional and indefinite relative sentences These are of those which refer (a) to the present versal present. etc. ditional and indefinite relative clauses (definite relative clauses do not have either the optative or the subjunctive). cl. and to the Latin present and perfect subjunctive The most frequent form tions. A. Relative clauses Avith the subjunctive are introduced B. {i. Conditional clauses: should be necessary either should choose B. € The types (see § 145). above (A) : - do they prevent you from doing whatever you wish ? See also § 169 a.e. in the English sequence conditions is — € : § 169 b. by OS €. two if wronged.

Temporal clauses refer to a time that . . it is possible ei toil. or relative clause : e'i •€-•€ if he rode out anywhere. introduced by . (when =) after. past-imperfect with (§ 135). s after that. temporal clauses of indefinite frequency § 170. he would take Cyrus about on a horse with a golden bridle. in the conditional i. if one shun not the «. b) Past general conditional and indefinite relative sentences have the past-imperfect indicative (or equivalent.) € or the 167: uavx' § tls find out all things.. os. ^ clause. cav os . they are not gods (Euripides). or aorist with dv (§ 136)) in the main clause. (pres.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 323 present (or past^ geiieral conditional (or indefinite relative) sentences. os. such clauses are introduced by cirel the like lireC. and the optative introduced by el. subjunctive with to . as soon as. ind. to See further. ' \. situation as a vague supposition: supposing the one thing happen. a) Present general conditional and indefinite relative sentences have the present indicative (or equivalent) in the main ' i\\Q present indicative with .e. The meaning of the optative in such a sentence is the same as that discussed in § 168 the protasis presents the . . the other always hapjiened. «. €1. while the conditional or relative clause has either €|-€€.. . if gods do any- thing disgraceful. -. eirel . Temporal Sentences 170. . - gnomic aorist (§ 136). is either 1) prior to that of the main clause. oaxis. and or 2) the same as that of the main clause ..

the temporal sentence of indefinite last illustrates the . Subjunctive (regularly with av): - ivhenever you return home to your mother. 6. -. U7itil . like '. All other temporal clauses have the construction of ordinary conditional and relative clauses (§§ 165-169): Indicative irals when the boy was ten years old. either €$ a) to thQ past: they ol u'aited until the generals arrived . 3) subsequent to that of the €ws. 164. again. c).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 324 0T€. ? -. they did not - : . In conclusion be it observed that means before and . 2. or b) to let th. The temporal clauses in sentences of the last class (3 b) have the construction of final clauses (§§ 160. while. . all meaning . = until. these loho were listening on this side and on The is would open ranks that. 179. whenever she Optative : SHE per- weaving. and the . II B. when. mits you to do whatever you wish. depart until they (Jiad^ said ' '. example temporal sentence of the example indefinite frequency in the joasi (cf. woi sooner Sentences of the last type (3) refer. § 169 b) under the subjunctive.irpoxcpov until.Q €$ future: ol us wait until the generals arrive. €ws. ov irpiv not before = 4s main clause introduced by . cv or . tvhenever he (himself) oi would turn back. frequency in \h\Q present (§ 169 a). this. and the like. €€. than € as long as.

(a) as : is lo7ig '. d'ye is commands and prohibi- There and perfect (not or one of its compounds. Uses of the Infinitive The infinitive was originally a verbal noun. come In prohibitions the aorist imperative used. I. in the latter case. Infinitive not in indirect discourse (negative usu- ). . We may 172.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK is € before seeing followed by the infinitive : irplv =) 325 . aorist. many whose uses are exactly like those in English. duced by 0T€. ^. imperative expresses tions. .. When " is regu- to die is sweetest (Bac- the infinitive has a subject expressed. of note the following Infinitive in indirect discourse (negative usually I. ally ).. and the like have two meanIn the former case their (b) until. it larly in the accusative case. frequently preceded by . etc. followed by the indicative when the reference is to past time (see above). II. The imperative . a-yc. as. etc. €€. a) as a noun: chylides). with : progressive. the latter are three imperatives common). the construc- Uses of the Imperative The 171. but the subjunctive when the reference is to future time or to the universal before present ings until and that . come 7iow ! not ordinarily instead (§ 157). irpCv {not but that before asking this. . but the aorist subjunctive with is . by tions introduced . § 1T9. clauses have the constructions allowed in clauses intro- €€.

we have come d) to express 2^urpose: to learn. to find ^ e) with f) with €€- out. ). § TTpiv before: irplv end. to. or noun good in a manner most beautiful to skilled in speech. command it almost (§ 116 b). . § 151. to have a good under- greatest gift (Aeschylus).. 7) verbs oi preventing. complement c) as a - of etc. am (^destinedy to. etc. with the future or progressive to (rarely aorist) infinitive. y8) verbs of hoping. b) as a complement of a verb: / am ashamed you to tell eLiretv the trutJi. an adjective. etc. g) in an absolute construction ciros seems €€ to 80 to speak. me. : (i. adverb. 170 before hearing. €|-€€ tve time it is Note especially oios and to be oios re were not able going away. I may €= h) in exclamations: suffer this i) (^absolute infinitive'^ € : as say. € €( behold. Note especially I am a) am about likely intend to.e. promising. to think that I should ! to express a § or wish (chiefly in poetry). with the future (also with the aorist or the progressive) infinitive.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 326 In this use the infinitive forms of the article (. € by the neuter and when so used is often preceded .. fit. ' able: to express result. with the infinitive. . at riding. expecting. known is as the articular infinitive sound mind standing) is heaven s .

plays a most important role in participle In origin an adjective. they who. Lessons XLVII. a the expert. The negative regnlarly is . - its attributive : -€•€ an Supplementary/. etc. § 103 d). open door is not always abso- use the participle has the funcIt is used either Avith or without the present blessings . {Attributive Participle^.e. : . noun being omitted (/". . The distinctions lute. the article more nearly approxi- verb A. Greek syntax. (i.. uses of the particij)le are those in which the adjectival character of the par- ticiple is II. Exercise 18) €€ who understands.- standing open). In its circumstantial use the participle is added to noun or pronoun and expresses circumstance. The three action-s|iems and the two timestems (§§'131-133) all form participles and there are eleven in all. See § 143. is and in certain special . he who. but when the participle has a general or conditional force cases the negative The I. between these uses tions of an adjective. and Exercises 35 and 38. . In B. it combines in its uses adjective and verb. (cf. manner. LIII. exactly as the infinitive combines verb and noun. more prominent those in which the participle mates a finite Circumstantial. b the one whoever does no the things that ivere said. wrong.. 175. 174.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 327 Uses or the Participle The 173. the The corresponding expressions in English are the one who. Note especially the use of the participle with the article.

Note especially a) Certain participles of time and manner are often used with an adverbial force ginning.€5 ^ . The young. he said ivith a laugh (see Exeror concession: YeXaaas v€OS cise 35). etc. c) €| in : . condition. €. (Men. be translated with.. This shows that the participle sets forth a ground of belief entertained by the subject of the main verb or of some other person mentioned prominently in the sentence the belief) that g) A : tls you are going to with the thought (in become what? circumstantial participle in the genitive agreeing . purpose (usnally future participle). the . straightway. at the hastily. midst. young (wheyi young.) he willing to he BeXe as you are heed your elders came to sit down beside us. € d) A concessive participle e) In like manner preceded by are. such are finally continually . are often preceded by as.€$ means. at first.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 328 € '--. same ' in the be- may time. participles expressing cause are often ota. purpose. since f) is frequently preceded by although. or participle is : € €€ since she is sometimes omitted : are you are experienced. although grammatically they belong Avith the finite verb: €-6€ }X€Ta|i) he came in in the midst of his play {while playing).. cause. often €ti6vs and similar expressions often attach them- selves to a participle. .). " Participles expressing cause. €. etc. TJ€i etc. b) Similarly . etc.

: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 329 with a noun or a pronoun is used as a genitive absolute. ap- begin. -€€§ observation. The subcorresponding to the ablative absolute in Latin. grieve. or with the 2. anticipate. and tlie in answering questions. and the like : cease. since when 176. ject may be omitted when it can be easily supplied from while we tvere saying the context on the ground these things. be.it being permitted. do escape chance. In it its it is permitted. -€ they are contirt- ually learning. € object: I know that you f) below. € : § (see f) above) that Croesus was being besieged. - h) Instead of the genitive absolute an accusative absolute is used when the verb is impersonal: €|. ivas possible for him to €- become king. supplementary use the participle completes It agrees either $ the idea of the main verb of the clause. main idea -€§ we had just he was un- consciously supporting the slayer of his son. to be sitting. continue. Note especially the supplementary participle with a) verbs -- meaning pear. See are wise. with the subject: 1. d) 05 € common than / am plainly with a participle it is clear that. b) verbs meaning like : do rejoice. ill. ?€ was just saying. endure. c) with / delight ivell. the participle containing the I I chanced departed. I know that I am wise. is more .

telling a falsehood Uses of the Verbals Many' verbs in Greek form a verbal adjective in -T€OV which denotes necessity or duty. to tell.. negative of each being : a) Personal (passive) construction. ) OF GREEK THE FIRST (or I am with myself^ are followed by the participle either in the nominative or in the dative (or I am ovtl) -- : conscious of being foolish. forget. etc. }/€€ / am plainly I appear to be. expressing the agent. f) verbs meaning know. if it The and verbal agrees case. the word occurs. It is -T€os sometimes accompanied by the copula but more frequently this is omitted. he ignorant of remember. I a7n ashamed by telling . : 330 e) - (or € conscious -''^ / know (lit. finite usually a difference of meaning. tion are frequently followed by a participle (progressive.. hear. Xc^civ learning . and similar verbs of percep- show. with its subject in gender. the 177. etc. by a clause with as when ". number. -€ €.) instead of in English : he learned that Cyrus was doing these things. being in the dative case . aorist.. There are two constructions." future. g) vith certain verbs which is may by on and a the infinitive (some also /) be followed also by There verb). perceive. thus )- (or (or 18) I begin I am ashamed at telling . ^ Iknoio that V€iv I know how I am to tell. / begin - to learn. announce.

a) by- who f where ? irtos Frequently two or more interroga- interrogative pronouns. (for tl ^'). . - The b) Impersonal (active) construction. all of .: : THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK $ 331 1€05 man -ye (§ 120 b): should not be honored before the truth (Plato). questions. or or or or €. . and do not imply either an affirmative or a negative answer or do you speak Grreek? €€$ ' . and which accordingly admit the answer ^es ! or no ! Such questions are and . which imply the answer yes: do you not speak Greek f € in truth? . : tis tives are used with a single verb € : .. ? Indirect word questions (see § 179. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES two kinds Interrogative sentences are of 178. the neuter forms or -€ The word with the infinitive. or etc. those which are not introduced by an interrogative pronoun. - a) Direct sentence questions are often introduced 1) ov. etc.e. whom then and b^ whom would we find. Sentence questions. . i. ing verbal has (eVrt) and equals in mean- € for the agent stands in either the dative or the accusative: Xcktcov in fact God is GrOOD and one should speak so about Hiin (Plato)... . etc. .e. how? and the those which are introduced like. xivas ovv viro cvpoi- \. i.' . etc. is not by GOD good then . II) are intro- dv. . the corresponding indefinite relatives: . II. duced either by the interrogatives indicated above or by . Word I. often introduced by the emotional particles which merely heighten the tone of the question.

etc. 179. After I. etc. which {of or?: iroTcpov . often omitted in the direct form of an alter- native question. or? (whether) <€ . € c) Alternative sentence questions are introduced a) in the direct form by irorepov € the two) . or. it is subject of the infinitive but is of ).. . €€§ . telling.. . II. and sometimes even in the indirect form: -€€5 . . . / declare. . the main verb the assertion stands in the infinitive (negative usually The case. (For the use of the participle in a manner that approximates indirect discourse see § 176 f ). or is ) « iroTcpov worse. 6€ ivhetlier . to be . . . II) €t : €65 I know not whether. to do wrong. . do not rule over you? these also b) Indirect sentence questions are regularly introduced by €1 if. tvhether (§ 179. which wronged? in the indirect form by the same particles as are employed in the direct form. . 2) which deprecate an affirmative reply do not speak Greek. and and sometimes after I said.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 332 . i/ou . say. . I. followed by a with or that. or €'€ is . or by €l . . In indirect discourse two constructions are allowed: with the infinitive .. saying. el whether. Etc. . are you aicake or asleep? INDIRECT DISCOURSE. : do you ? surely . . regularly in the accusative the same as the subject of the leading verb regularly omitted and a predicate noun or adjective if it is stands in the nominative : € the man . / am finite verb.

In like manner most verbs of knoiving.. The verbs € I am telling. the person alone being if necessary.g. when an infinitive always of the same it is action-stem or tense-stem as that of the original verb-form (see § 131). often allow the construction with on and ?• The negative is regularly the same as that which or "). II.. manner verbs a) In like finitive. not know. When b) said that ) is it is would not Finally employed 8 the infinitive represents a potential (optative or indicative). per- such as ceiving.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK he sai/s that is wise... after eav. remembering. .). After OTt or changed. The subjunctive is never employed in indirect discourse in Greek unless it would have appeared in the direct of the statement or question Qe. etc. form etc.. 'a primary tense (§ 53) the verbs that follow retain their original form. etc.. remember. exactly as in English. are regularly followed by or saying and ciirov ? that and a I said finite verb. dv it retained he right « : (= should be observed that in indirect discourse he €^. / I / knotv. . would be employed in the direct form ( A. 333 we declare our- clScvai he said he did (^). The same rule applies also to indirect questions (§ 178). in . clSevai I thought 1 heard. -. learn. of thinking: by the are regularly followed in- the subject and predicate being treated as above I think I know. eivai € selves to be philosophers. questions of appeal (§ 156). vrhich frequently are followed by a participle (§ 176 f).

if he should be in a subjunctive with dv dv disappears was going that . When tive. indicative with dv never changed to the opta- is a past-iraperfect or pluperfect indicative. may be changed from indicative or subjunctive to optative after secondary tenses. : .stem: € OTTOxcpos them the point of asking tvhich of | ' (the € (^ -"€ € ?? person alone being changed. command. 170. clauses with '. (§§ 160. B). report that he would come sooner than Astyages himself would (( wish An a) . but which contain or imply the thoughts of a person other than the speaker or writer. if they were Such clauses final irplv dv. verbs in subordinate clauses may the optative form after secondary tenses. as frequently happens.€ . 'past rect statement or question tense verbs in an indi- all maj remain unchanged « ). if necessar}-). 3 b).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 334 After a secondary or B. b) When the leading verb becomes an infinitive (see above). clauses depending on an infinitive which is introduced by a verb meaning advise. seldom. an indicative or a subjunctive may be shifted to the optative of the same action-stem or tense. plan. etc. or. etc. An aorist indicative in a subordinate clause remains un- changed. be changed to Occasionally a attracted into the infinitive. exactly as really in indirect discourse (II. . subordinate verb c) The verbs is I. and the like. . tive .. in various dependent clauses which are not strictly in indirect discourse. is thus changed to an opta- I might aid him. € dv. . 6-€€- was just on tvas the tviser d-yyeXov he hade the messenger ).

commands . nevertheless. II. b) infinitive . negatives. marks a especially com- other) (jif. § § also cf. It is frequent in hut also.. 2. ov. .. questions. . the negative € there strengthened is was no one who : ovBels ivas not suffering something. it . II) tive CONJUNCTIONS. i. there is no one tvise. yet mon after a negative : . iav tl 335 See also § 164. tive. nay. PARTICIPLES. first in its clause. especially: When a negative (simple or compound) is followed same clause by a simple negative. (§ 190) and stronger contrast than Etc. well hut. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK / (^. hut come. regularly stands 182. ). '€ objections. . (ap") then. An which \vould ordinarily have the negais usually negatived by if the verb upon which it depends is accompanied by a negative or is in a question with a negative idea implied. (') 181. abrupt transitions (well. accordingly . The uses compounds see two negatives of the ( and and their 144) have been generously illustrated in the foregoing paragraphs (§§ 146-179). THE NEGATIVES 180. need tW. For is not only . Frequently two or more negatives are employed in the same clause. hut indeed (§ 184). let really. hut. etc.e. . never stands see § 178. § 160 Note c. but. each retains its own force but when followed by one or more compound a) in the '^ . always post-posi- first in its clause. . ' us he going! : nay .. so.) : yap hut nothing except. as 159. (§ 172.

. even. .' un- derstand perfectly. .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 336 183. wahrP nicht € word In .€5 € WU. regularly emphasizes the . means or . . also certainly. enclitic. or do .. always post-positive. II. For also. . (for . When word . so f . how (why^ not ? truly. hack again. indeed. . el is T€ So emphasizing par- (y'j a post-positive. (for apa) sure. os only a strengthened form of ircos ! irov : . what (or ) Questions are often l>egun with . and. . always -/e (or post-positive. . : you not know? see § ITS. ircus ircos 'yap) hut indeed^ ydp) aye surely. see § 195. . if indeed. turn iyi always post-positive. also. at : translate not not is it of course. €. but € many instances €€ I. even. \ . . it expression which it . 189. again. . hoth . it to reproduce its force €6 : regularly emphasizes the It etc. For . . 187. either or. hence for. to best not to is by an emphatic . . and. . . for truly. . the very one who. ticle . . .. . least. and indeed. often repeated: or. surely. 184. . 185. 186. hack. it pronunciation certainly/ ' ) The at any rate. particle is a post-positive parti- which regularly emphasizes the word it follows where? where pray? what? cle . how surely : in truth ? than. again. pray? 188. (or hut surely (§ 181}. in turn. follows.

. one of the most characteristic is in classical Greek. but sometimes and. ?. the to In translation left. but some- is may it be rendered on the one hand. Sometimes the clause or phrase for which conjunction (a weak ' and or ' is ' calls does frequently employed as a but ') when no -clause may be followed by more regularly stand between Both and and its noun. than one : speak Greek. . this answering phrase or clause regularly contains in the same position as that occupied by \i4v in the first phrase or clause (regularly the word. and . . ' in the right {hand) . phrase. clause or phrase in which . § 196.. it and indicates that the stands preceding clause or phrase containing it may coordinate with a . : in particular also. 337 same way as. always calls for a which it is itself connected. ' may be rendered be sure. but. I have teacher pupil learns. etc. Moreover. while. I too. you do not. . precedes. § 190. 175 although.€ particles . . etc. is often be omitted. . the not follow.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK precedes . yet. . or clause which is Thus to follow. to balance that with second word). while. you have a friend. is a post-positive conjunction. . yet. and. in the d. a preposition and its case. | the article in the not. conversely. on the other hand.. and § 184. times usually not translatable. € . . etc. ivhereas. etc. Furthermore. It is always post-positive (§ 182) and is used to distinguish the word or phrase or clause with or in which it stands from a word. . ' teaches.

. . therefore. or. irtp. never said ''you and € . In this usage the article retains its original demonstrative force (§ 103). and . verily . whosoever. . . € . considerable distance from the second tc (or -€ often 175 d).kv and hi are frequently employed with forms of the article Avithout an accompanying noun. €. 195. oii ' 192. the very if indeed. I know. ' some things . some the one is learning. . it : €LT€ . . 191. just as. nor.. oxiv at . and further. always postany rate.. . not therefore? noiv (as I ' positive. II). . therefore not. . «€ and. =Lat. . often written with an accent €. €€ € ' whether .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 338 . is word one who. .. verily. I do others not knoiv. yet yet. . . it € . . both (the ancient Greek € often stands at a ^. others. . . always post-positive. .e. i. (§ 178. . . ' € € . . . see the end of Lesson XXXV. . indeed. as in pronunciation. even as.. attached to the emphasizes : eiircp T€ and. . oi shows a marked tendency to be the second word in its group met both Hippothales the son of Hieronymus and Ctesippus. . . enclitic particle. surely not. neither . ivhat then ? of course. the other. the other is not. was saying). 193. . / and you The /"')• tirst €. . and the forms ol are accordingly . 191. . . ov truly. an intensive. . Kaiirep although (§ que. b hi the one : . .. which in writing. For other examples.

therefore. So and if to EQUALS sums are equal. There are many uses: that. that. : Final many speak. : in the the mind is thought. €' word was GOD. . . = '. yet. TOi surely. II. general word-sequence follows which uppermost is in the sentence €. a negative to precede the word emphasizes. infinitive. for. as. e) the as as beautiful as possible. § 147 160 a. OEDER OF WORDS 198. a) Comparative and however. § 175 b) Causal (usually - ol : celerrime. g.g. 339 § with the a.sequence expressed . there it is a far greater freedom or elasticity in the arrangement of words in Greek than in any of the less highly inflected There are many disturbing elements. quam €0 tt€VT€ about five. proclitic. when. § 170. EQUALS be : and added. in 147 as. etc. eiireiv so to as. say. g) Prepositional: €|€ f. The subject of the order of vi^ords in Greek of very great importance. §§ 179. § 151. first. as though to receive. = = € 130 to. so that.-.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 196. the new. ? 5 enclitic surel•/. the . takes precedence the that .). idea. II order that. the \vord . ful! post-positive. § a. inasmuch as. § 172. but in languages. although there is one is a certain normal order for many of the parts of speech {e. doubtless. Thus containing -. the adjective shows a marked tendency to follow its noun. and post-positive) and 197. hence the emphatic. : Temporal c) : d) Declarative f) Consecutive: : how beauti- that. c.

.

cof- hear nounce. chest. a Prin. statue.). field. adjectives. etc. to the cultivated fields. pts. -5 () a place of contest. message. and adverbs. pts. €( Prin. See § 47 . ? € € messenger. preposi- vaC.. $ fer. in other instances a type-word heads the group. tions reference to the section in Part the alphabetical order position is at length. too. nouns. As a result the arrangement of the words in the first part of the vocabulary is not strictly alphabetical. LVIII. in which its slightly disturbed in order to bring into juxta- words which belong Sometimes these are placed under together. etc. Neither of these is complete. other nouns have the gender indicated. 341 an- Lat.VOCABULARY The following vocabulary contains the common is divided into tvro parts. . very much. -). agony. gether.g. there being instead a reference to the lesson in which these have been presented. but with each there is a meanings and uses are Following each preposition are given 1) the verbs comexplained. of which the the proper names and proper adjectives. All masculine and neuter nouns of the second declension and all feminine nouns of the first declension are printed without the article all . . a. words which are for all first the second part. and are ade- of rare occurrence in the lessons quately explained in the word-lists or the notes are omitted. ayep- The principal parts of verbs are usually omitted. pronouns. -? () ornament. as well as some of very frequent occurrence. and KaXos. urn. . lead. xvithout weight (^). a root {e. a struggle. etc. -? () -€ € assembly. market. L. ager. Moreover. Less. gather. contest. pounded with it. see good. hring home a wife for oneself (or for another). and 2) the compound nouns. Less.v. -- s. acre. Cf (opp. In cases of extreme displacement cross-references are given. see os. . adjectives. II. Eng. hring to- market-place. In many other instances. too much. town) vessel (jar. like and particles are not treated . €- message. hunting-expedition. country pi.

. ing . see . the heights. ) discourage- topmost.) -?) a-8oXos -ov (Adv. -5) €- a at.). of. . take Prin. (^ ) shameful. . Past-Impf.- do lorong . haematology. LX. () truth. Less. II a. Cf. €£. () athlete. 117 a). desires. the one for (Geu. ). wrong. another (of many). accurate. to culminating point. « satis). etc. unjust d-SiKeu -) {-$ a-SiKOS -ov -. without (). the other. to Prin. . respect. ait always. oneself. mic. €. listen mortal. hlame-worthy -ov sible (Ace).. Cf (. - ill) -- (aldws awe. LXXIV. act of hearing . )€ common). 342 cL-Slkos . insult. -ov impossible song. point (of a spear. -ov bear- away the prize.. ment. true. pts. - -' sicy. 42. -. forever. yet. enough in Cf. in plenty. -ov loithout respon- . -- unwill- crowds. be at the highest hear. Less. have enorigh of the to a taking. report. M. hut. or ) or P. pts. saying (or contest (for a prize). -9 . LXXV. -.-. outrage. be ashamed. Lessons ) speak the truth. food. -^ - ether. to be (p^s) exact. be captured (used as the pass. . () seize. Prin. . (§ 42 (Lat.-). § 178. javelin. etc.. 6 ael who for im- -$ (). . -ov at the furthest point. hit with dart. -^ most (Gen. blood. sense of hearing. shame). disfigure. . Adv. spirit. . -- -) -ov (for ing. -- the time being death. sing. the cause. under- outermost. injustice. without -- be ashamed the upper air. choice. deceit. -€ () an-ae- for pts. spirit. aim javelin. -5 § point (of prosperity. acme. task. dishonor. exact. throw a javelin. . . well (or discouraged. . -< follow (Dat.-ov in heaps. otherwise. stand thoroughly. spoken make LX.. want of -ov (Adv. in crowds. of (.- § 181. injure -8 €-5 - doing (). prize. -ov garrulous. choose.

. § 2. phrases. . force. -4 do in turn. up. set LXXVI. . ignorance. § 115 h). : § 145. - compel. failure. ignorant -is . -ov unerring. { '). in oppo- sition. - - -os -ov loithout sickness. read. Less. . : of. LX. - up. wait for. . over- offer. -. -ov human. endure. () -. . instead In comp. again) LXXII. necessity. undeserved. . 42. and Less. back. - change. miss. . chap. Semitic word. partly. instead. human being (homo). exchange. two). up. (r/) same turn hack. see -o-Ttts. --. . : sive force) step up. back.. aor. -irfCe» Less. partly . error. - manliness. In comp. M. . Less. sinful. time. = § 194. = €. - upset. LXXII.. § 124 a. Gen. hold out. LI II. . ivind. err (§ 115 e). see have no care for (Gen. carry carry away. «s open. Neiit. fellow. F. - both. - § 28 . -. - (recognize Less.) - each or both (of -ov Usu. hi at at another time. F. blame- -ov unworthy. tvagon. in return. - be it. . refer. 2 a. M. ' ---<(8. LXXIV. of with. show forth. repay (Ace). on pi. . . go up. () fox. -.-ov other^ strange. belonging to an- stranger.-£. sin. § 130. § 176. .- - -5 (). against. -. -£ --. 6. re- throw. {-). . carry make away -€. Less. again (with inten- -( -( - A. c. 343 €. up. § 88. ment. & $ -€ one time See p. -01S -oDs at . -£KOS at the 130 b. take up. refer. 8 -8 () persuade. man. vir. north wind. erring. avSpos () man. pi. take -. (A amen. Less. common two hold back. take captive § 128. in up. appear. . with appos. 6$ tip.. etc. . hold up. carriage. §§ 175 . A. both sides. and slavery. each other. turn. husband. LXXII. fail. to up and take less so verily. € . another time (fire). -. tiirn ascribe. sell into the men's apart- Bopeas without. words. be led to the torture. ovei) .

pay. ap- LXXIV and titterly cow- ardly. -ov. ---F. -' -). tithe). LIV. LIII. back. (). ^inharmed (). § 93. issue. .). from. -€. deceit.-- be going away. sell. -- = "rras. am to. Less. stand away from. LXXII. G. airas give back. . a|ios -a -ov worth. § 79. I. 124 Com- = single. back. make thorough of trial 82 B. lose.ktov- trick. pletely surprised. Aor. shut out. § Prin. § 88.(^\$ greediness -raros) behave simply. have or receive in full.{ keep away from. -£ -€ . . per- lam lost. -€€ he piit aioay. Less. M. - . etc. LXXIX.-. threat. shoic (forth). worthy of (Gen. LIII. from.-- -' : result. (Dat.disobey (Dat. value. against. drive away. €. ish.). vnthout harm. .-- pts. -' -)- set free shut away Less. and § 194. carry pay (tribute. --. . . -€ say in return. ^ : -\• Less. throio away.. in reply. away from. reply. go aioay. -----. point. . see oo-rrep ttirXois -- .-- lose. look tou-ard. -• ••€• threaten boast. M. § ask in stand LXXII. -. completely. simjile (§ 41). uncover. In comp. 117 a). sound turn. Less. be from) show. -€ -€ . LIIL fail to hit. went away. - § 90. from.. fail. die. {away Less. Less. Less. ar- undone. repay. A. destroy. M. Less. carry away. Less.{ be away.--- 344 d|ios give in return. -- § -•7€ send Compound - step away. of frankly.-- -'- kill {kt€V. - worth. once. come from (a place) -rive. -T)'ei he v:as going aioay -. otit. LII. laid away. A. complain loudly. (from). be destroyed. answer. deal ') -- b. jjoint -- LXV. -ovos .). give a tenth of (as a make one stand aioay from.

archon. city (§ 36). -5 mes- be at a loss.. revolt.-? toIs content be refuse. aristocracy. deny.- (€ on the left side. . lazy. superl. a -€ <---- ago. to. M. ancient. -9 and Less. goodness. pi. vertebra made --(orig. an -? --. -"(-88 . ber. of <o-voC skilled in as- tronomy. sovereignty. - welcome. J excellence. from dice knuckle- bones). -(8(-). . () chief- (Gen. census. begin. - €- (§41) of silver. (un)dressing- -€5 () an uncover- ' apKTos (v) bear. § 115 g). -(.: 345 d-TTopos § 87. satisfy. . builder. carry senger - Cf.-ov -ov imexpected. set Cf. moment office. on fire. £ () a plunderer. LXXII. . -'•£ F. () snatch off. € ) --. harpy. . a way. -€5 () . a writing off. impas- -iropos -ov toithout it Arc- arctic. . M. just now. - - -£ () . one loho neighbor. off. to deal with. architect. be strong loith one''s blessings. astronomy.-? then. cling to (§ 115 c). fasten be etc. / room. silver. sable. -' () a bright star {cf. -€ - § 182. gladly. gasp. sufficient. 1 gastronomer. satisfied. ment. left. virtue. unexpectedly.. pant. - -ov inextinguishable. silver mines (sc. ansvjer. Pf. £08 . a seising. gleaming. beginning. of. § 178. please. Compound Nouns. ing. II. lay hold idle. -ov glad. on the Cf. Up. €. rule. . xeip). - -ov best . the stars). just. pleases me. etc. money. . am register. F. () ruler. a a small coin. F. apio-Tos rob- begin. €05 . turus. lives near one's () city. ride pass. pleasing. "^ play with dice. . he without a way.-•- (sc. -- II. toion. () frag- one who hard -- is sent. usually with -- the force of the adverb. greet. the left hand -Tcpas xeipos €| 8. apKeVb) loard enough.- accepta- ble. .

icalk. . -- go. 7iot € - accomplishing icithout plete. step. rule (§ to-morrow. ) bar- foreign. - withoiit Cf. go. (cf. . morrow. Le. . . dart.-9 (^?) --- -4s (). live. manner of life. pts. Prin. -<ci>s rub upon the touch- () see out grace. (to) burden. heavy. hand - ) = (. Less. to trip -5- ^ 346 not liable throw. without an end. the living. '- missile See etc. $ king. hit. . better. tor- stone. harm. test.. LX. -<ra queen. - Pf.. (17) stability. of eat (-. () in turn. at.. Lat. meat). hurt.. () = -- kingdom. ^] Less I stand to be lived. troublesomeness. . of «. 071 the () -- (6$). (arroio.SS. Prin.. foreign. pts. () murderer. () loith- - be king. (sc. living. ugly. -. (-). firm. diphthong. one who commits a deed with his oion court-yard.). see. misshapen. pass. from scot-free. . § (-wrepos down by Tos) iceighed ture. -. -. it is ov - not meet to . a touch-stone. -9 - -$ speechless. Is immediately. back again. ). the lyre. free 5 €5 -. vexed. best. pass. 47 palace. § 28. 05 . pts. -tax. - self. § kingly. Less. baric. icithout form (). LXI. (/3a-). be burdened. nevertheless. one's purpose. Adv. look. --€ . mischief. . are since^ § 175 LX pts. dishonor Prin. aor. -€9 - e. § 183. throiB - security. court. § 106.-). Prin.- 44 ill-luck. harm. morrow. unpleasant. (/SeX- - but. incom- -i's at. pass. Greek. safe. speech. royal. cious.-. make unseen heaviness. § 183. Hog). ungra- 8 - test. an- noyed.-. §44. liveli- Pf. {-). fut.harmful. deep LXXII hood. ) (. () -. infiu. torture. again.

(. Gen. loiter delay. Mid. 7<) (or gence. --- wed'ding. naked.- cowherd. § 28 D. §186. . at least. (17) oiol. . . -. speech. writings. book. 7^01^5). § 44. () woman. Dat.€- see 347 * when called) aid. to knoio. shout. . Adv. ox-Stall. the elders. family. wish. Gen.• Prin. a writ- PI.). () earth. sloio. --« €'^. a school for gymnastic -?1 . cow. assist (Dat. (Infin. . hy birth. .-- liberate. ' €. --. alphabet). ''. (jyev- () picture.ya-). LXXV. . skilled in gym- nastid exercises. Less. -- take counsel xoith oneself. ( Less. § 38. he - see - scratch. de- Mid. take counsel. Part. § 185. laugh. Pf. geometry. () (. etc. x>aint. ten character. {tor y - unarmed. the epistle. of old age (yipwv). race. intelli- {y. corner. yvCodi. LX become. Boreas. wi^. be willing. Voc. LXX. pts.yv). altar. yvQ)vai. a land-measurer. ptc.() see ) ox. be full of (Geu. resolve = LXVII. letter. -ov (yevvaiorepos -6- Tos) well-horn. § 35. yov. yeyovos -via -os).($. judgment. sel. come gxiage.). § 39. '. race. man. Poetic mortal {-). any knee.. family. . (yvd. -. herdsman. horn. angle. old . Less. at lan- . birth. he will. marriage. draw. Prin.() - write.'. groio old. noble. Less. . pts. : give (of § 184. letters . by race. recognize. coun- determination. yvoiT}v. marry. . (). exercise.-) .training.{ . Frill. Prin. Pts. see () Gen. lightly clad. G6n. deliberate. aor. ) {ye tongue. A. . also a lesson. . PI. -€ - (). for a short time. etc. thought. . -. . . geometer. pts. brief. slow). the north wind. also oneself (or one's child) in marriage. rate. (o2) sllOUt.

out. part. § 187. § 190. . -U. desire . -ovtos needful. use up. Less. aevae.- ought one need. exchange. con- -€- (one) must converse. €. is (Infin. (') through. coioardice. § 83. Past-Impf. bursting into tears.make publicly. Prin. £-8 - state. ten. pass.-« destroy pass. vos accused by a daughter.€ . § 187. '. Less.verse xoith ) '? €• Prin. pts. thoroughly. ivos certainly. €€ skilled in speaking. need (Gen. distinguish.). €. . In comp. € . master. hind. (it). LX.). show. 6€ -.-. of course. district. § 193. lord. differ. Le. -|« -|a appoint. LXXIV and point pts. . '€€9 clear. that which is need.«. traduce.- - - directions. (to) Mid. by chance. ?. lack. -«s - slander. country. stealing. wonderful. spirit.cowardly. (or devrepa) then. Voc. terrible. () - belonging to the clearly. €68 .). hr[\Lo<i exj)ense. Compound Verbs : throio across. LXXV. dispose. people. (or tico).- - people or €€. -€. : (Gen. part. destroy. skilled. - loeep. etc. Prin.. through. keep alive by stealth.-?. Adv. etc.: I. (Dat.. -€€\ 6 second. € . next. dissolve. --- -€€- -«€ show - succeed in -- -- carry through. § 90. (or twenty lacking one there € far from almost. tenth. fearing. ' o5v. decide. heg. A. request. differ from utterly.-. Pf. arrest. (Gen. See LXVIII. § 127.). carry.: 348 8 () -ovos () -ovos guest. . pts. break up. ten years old. -oraros. . dinner. aor. .?- divinity. indifferent (-orepoi. receive. clear. Less. hither. arrange. deivws) - -.ss.). -« seize.- public. complain loudly. dine. -6 -€€$.

. xtenalty. pts. . SiaKOcrioi -ai -a Prin. of aor. € - near (Gen. seem. nation. two.. seventy. LXXIX. SkSdo-Ko) power. he be able. to re- - (-orepos ^ ----- just. oh that liken. Adv. - (). hoard and etc.-• (out) through. spear.. lawsuit. . . etc. fore. § 88. give. -4. see = -. () band. LXXIV. Justice. unless. § 80.. justice. seven -. right for me to twice. . compare. . of honest. do. 8-« Less. tribe. ought (^). gift. etc. of trial. -. two hundred. § 91. See to give. 50 C). see . tell. Compound Nouns. . satisfaction. § 21 b. be XXI. teacher. or. custom. if. if not. . txoenty thousand. - ( (Gen. 162) aor.. . of -opilm separate. el whether . Verbal allow. (- destruction . subj. () § 89. him. think. . aor. freely. § 130). . of justice. § 39. lated. describe.be willing. it was necessary. re- tolcl.-- guess. . - aor. right. . . cli- vide into parts. - LXVII. that! . slave. . to receive . Dat. - lodg- of himself . as adv. Ace. -(-. = : for the reason that ceive ) . -« -- narrate. See . suppose. {--€) -£|-€ . II. define. (to). . spear-bearer. of notable. punishment. aor. if. give. able. '. See Less. § 177. 8((>. Gen. aor. about Less. ' ---. teach. shaft. loish. pursue. ' . see (§§ 05. -- : aor. of aor. imagine. § 23. 8). () whether. lohere- mode of life. it is -(). ?). you are opinion. think. . (17) -'€ Less.! -€. twelve. (§§ 153. powerful. part. - ing. of Si - 349 e -€-€ go -. see -.

rear. completely. choice. of look into.) miss. garment. lie § 194. ex- .05 € €8 -OTOS () {) as likelihood. of. see from. aor. you xorought. (more going .) things the |.(. In § 126.---' --- dress. I said. A. €•05 . of. ^v one.) be {it) fulfilled. into. of oiSa. or therefore).- etc. view. I am accus- ^) ont : of - aor. pass. -. of -<. subj. peace. do wrong. els aor. A. aor. § 91. . -. -.. -fj. . etc. 1€ exposed. ) tomed eK (before a vowel. expel. € () likeness.e. look upon. send out.). pxit out.-| that away. : child. awoke. urns -- etc. part. lead out. F. § 93. test. see cto of infin. to. err. pass. of €<-€ he entered. in : €•-€. ^s) comp. past-impf. '-8 --? - - etc. at --- (Ace). € carry out. : nonnce. (aor. LIU. uncover. find out. go (-^. to.-' -. €( tip. fut. not possible. (i. have been said. () -aros I am €( he. going. A. -. A. €-> = take utterly enslave.-. of permitted. - clvai to be. it is of a river. aor. -era ^'. (or deceive utterly. common in. '. -. § 95. throio § 93. -€8 lead out. -« -- 350 «Ikos Compound Verbs I. likely. out from. is likely. into. come . Compound Nouns. expose. (-idys -€. in.twentieth € see LXXIV. --". it is examine. image. next. discover. reveal. «?i- javelins awaken. strike out. is it --' -. re- -. also Infin. if really. -(() in. show. () a putting posure. bring . selection. of (part. -{- -). out. go out. Less. e|- astonished. cIkos <!>s II. -' . In comp. to. Less. I have said. . elxov. succeed ceive (ef/cotri). § 94. empty. -•. § 124.-. € . e'er then . -ovos : throio out.

- -. fall In «-•-. expect.). for the sake of. there. my. see - etc. see tls. «- (-orepos etc. '^. in the presence here. - within. -. (also TO ivTeOOev) hence. etc. subj. etc. 'ivtKa iV€K€v -? of myself. least. enjoin. she. henceforth. of (Gen.. six thou- . in. '. holiday. convict. - «'- -. also ^7-.. - «. cherish. - ' . comp. six. $) command (-\).€. Past-Impf.). « see £K. among. (= iv II. ip-) Aor. . at. €v-TOs this side of (Gen. display oneself. thereupon. {ivos. cross-question. Compound Nouns. -. -ovos sensible. cXcvOcpos -) ev 48. hither. in a row. €-$ sixteen (^0• €-> see ( inten- willingly. there.) for a freeman. «. iv-xiirvtov 'iv dream (inrvos). since. -. hope. theretipon.). whenever. A-. §§ 47 -| ?. e/-. on aC' count of (Gen. . Compound Verbs throw in. there. sixty.- in the rational. § 25.- earlier of. here. it is like. .-€• . eviavTos year. €€5 . --) -- £-€ in. on within. 7 of (Gen. command. toay. each (of many). en- put on. there. it is likely. next. free.iKtlv () i\iris -iSos see « .). « front thence. § 130.(8 -€€ cKaTcpos 351 from €- -- that (one). drag. at home. festival. -is clear. fvL). comp.). -. tionally. in this case. on. tv less. €5 . within (Gen. here. . iv. - sand. thence. there. in. : ) (Gen. €- hope. : €£ outside upon.). see have iirei lohen. CKctOev €6(. § 125. refute. fit ^ Past-Iinpf. eiraOov. display. ter into. opposite. where^ ««€-€£ see see A. § 130. fall €() € . .: €€§ . draio. iv (in I. Gen. €<08 . unrestrained. sixth. he. expectation. yonder. mine. § 23. believe. (part. -€€ each (of two).

to -ov (-orepos -ototos. . - eir-aivos praise. () : promise. €-£ display. etc. infin. -Tpi'irw Verbal : entrust to (Dat.). admirer. of close a slam. •-€ into being after. -( --» -< -< listen country. Adv. -.). towards. §80. praise. --. have charge care of. aor. vated fields. profession. etc. . Past-Impf. I. -« Compound Verbs A. against. § 129 b. ). over. §177. -( '5 --A. bring to completion. -. work. ser- viceable (deriv.). •-•7€. desire. obtain. €-. obscure). come come upon. . for (Gen. a dream appeared - «ir- upon (or or place set him.--. an end. etc. lover. go back. visit. -o«s (to) word. call. master. -. town. --) () overseer. slay upon. potir a libation upon. €€ -8 () cattle-shed. tion to). -. on.). return.). : toioards. - brought - place Upon. verse. - -. blame. -€\ - pf. of summon. aor. -Tpoiros trustee. suitable. aor. §88.--. HTTos come see. -. ---. of to. tcith -•( understand.). come to town. ---.- «iri- -' Past-Impf. -8€. . ask. 7. -'2 .-. aor. desire (Gen. the commands. bliy. observe. administrator. etc. see command. fat.<8 .€€ see ') (iir'. . thereupon. -. come in (in addi- -. ---' «. () etc. of . --5 «--. receive (Gen. see culti- . of to. to over- II. on. then. 352 In comp. attempt.-• be in - - ---€ -. hear (Gen. love passionately. chief. -•<. hut. as time passed. deed. upon. view.). of () -ov belonging to the folloio (Dat. meet with (Dat. -aTos •7-5 - () -yov set foot mount upon (Gen. -•- over) middle part.: €€•. Compound Nouns. -. -. fault find (with). Past-Impf. Aor.

con- (). - see €< = eat. the prayer. of pf. having a goodrepute. « (- a questioning. LXI. ! Gen. -ovos blessed a good genius. (). wiith pass. § 130). see -. . €-( strife. £((. (07€. -€-€ €-. <-. () Love. €( €•• -. be happy. (Dat. iTos -ovs (to) year. pf.-.e. garment. renown. eat €(€. «T. Ziiis calm. straight road (66). etc.thank tunate en- (straight) ioioard (Gen. (Dat. £« €€ sumptuously straight line CTaipcios -a -ov pertaining to see easy €-€ -•« (iOvs not a lawful wife). -. praise. -ov. eii-iropos -ov pass. be esteemed. see itri. readiness. of sexual passion). pray. a woman who panions. . passionately desire. good wool. () €<8 -? {) -? -5 () €-€5 Prin. -with gen. -ov -«Tos (0) love (esp. be p)rosperous . pts. well done. within (§ 130). pts. tented with one's food prive of. . -ov well-made be -- be for- (). tertain () comrade. () straight. furthermore. of a-rtpiu» de- pass. -- famous. pf• (§ 87). 6. of cpia - €- -ov {-orepos -oraros) desolate. (. said. happy. -«tos. deem happy. be having a beautiful -€'s clothing. €-8 cottieniiOMs. c'ri -ov ready. comZeus who presides over fellowship. (§ 91). aor. famous. happiness. « '. (Adv. ask (a question).-6 was come. { €' «- cvpov €- £ (-). Less. still. €-u-Ko\os -ov -arcs -wraros) (-urepos appearance.). ei)-KO\ajs) full of resources. epis -iSos (17) ipois - 353 « find. « . ( {5 shall say. . of two. rich.). -tDs) erotic. () companion (i. -•« €-8 to pass through . preparedness. . -«- "? - cpcoTiKOs - (Adv. straightioay. amoI € LIV. a question. of fut. gfo. €€. F. '£(). of Prin. € -(). able (to do). fut. deserted. Less. forms of €-«. «. roris. find a ivay. . CTaipos is satisfied. ^Tcpos see - -ov one other. of.. pray to . () (V well. eunuch.

-- have. €' yoke-strap. ' . or. etc. - suppose. by no § 93). delight oneself icith. vie loith. «* heed. -tia = «. (Past-Impf. € by this time. animal. xire painter. I have seen <() (). at one''s hearth. half (an insep. () comrade. ( /5. already €() life. (infin. pitality.tame. forthwith. take pleas- so long as (see § 170). = (= semi). 188. (.e. . F.-ous of. --'€ (§ 96). companion. (. every on each - . lohich place. - {). (infin. § 184. sit day. with pleasure. pleasure. ws just as he loas in wrath without de- (i.. live. / am being dis- loell. € J5ar(?0n. seek. -ous I. in o's) (. ^. lay). -. (). iois until. who paints from €€ (to) yoke or team (of mules. LVI. Less.. - and he loent least. hold in Adv. . c. lohere. day. £. . lead he paid no I cannot €€ tell. of hostile. high esteem. Zeus who presides over hos- 1] « (fem.). ') the loay. .). I said . be one''s (Dat. of have come. in- tend. a hnlf-mina - half. . {. II. €€ (v €€ it is « «£€ so. . either §§ 178. -- stupid. than. see have in mind. or. emulation. couraged.« 354 «-. be of age. deem happy. . in which loay. $9). (Ace). II. Aor. he jeal- day. € / suppose. . prefix. -. day.our. think. See § 178.. it § 93). means! past-impf. they allow life. youth). . dat. one § 179. sweet.) leader in something (Gen. rivalry. - § 47 . ) « '« ' ? part.). - hold. ijdews) pleasant. prime of life.. £5 lead I. €v . -- - in (Dat. each twice a day. Adv. surely. -(8 see . truly. II . ) one of the same age. age. get. is well. I went be young €< eJxov) (. A. -.

S

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355

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()

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driver

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see

choose.

see

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see

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they went
they were

,
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door-keeper

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bury.

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imperative of

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gaze

sur-

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pts.

view.

LXV.
see

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§ 88.

oblong

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sacrifice, offer sac-

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LX.

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at,

be

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be of good cheer.
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daughter.

shield.

death.

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door.

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take courage

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hair.

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by sea.



,

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mortal

{). Gen.

death.

€, €8,

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(), and

Gen.

treasure, treasure-chamber,

chamber, store-room.

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run.

prey.

sou7id, ring, peal.

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take

fested with wild beasts.

see

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court,

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treat medically.

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worsted.

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a viewing, contemplation.

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oihkv

€€ -€€
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warrior., hero.

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by the gods

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§ 171.

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gracious

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purify.

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heart.

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§ 93.

(,

the

gen-

beauty.

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to,

I.

etc.

In

comp.
down, against, etc.
often merely intensive. § 127 b.
In Compound Verbs
come down.
he ended by
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just as

to

conceal.

.
()

(-orepoj

strong.

£ (>,

-

qualities

labor, be loeary, suffer.

be strong.

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tisually

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tleman.

make a thing stand.
LXXII.
they made me king.

loom, etc.

()

noble.

well,

well-born and well-bred,

loTOs anything set upright; mast,

t<rxis -vos

LX.

beautiful,

possessing

perhaps, probably.

See Less.

-

most nobly,
see

§9.
-os

( ?,ill.

/ am

groom.

-<(),

doing harm (pepy-).

?)

Adv.

ill.

worse.

Prin. pts. Less.

call.

See

in order that.

it is

do

yearning, desire.

Adv.

craven,

ill-born,

I am

a late aor.

pease.

€$

kindle, burn.

LXX.

Less.

cient, able, worthy.

be

§ 196.

-

and

Less. LXIII.

- !

-

§194.
yet.

of time, opportunity.

Upctov animal for sacrifice.

come

§ 189.

due measure, the right point

itpivs -t(os (0) priest.

see

purification.

-ov purifying.

although (reg. with part.,

offerings.

, -.
(,

()

-€«s

and, even, also.

93).

§

Upos -a -ov divine, holy.

clean, clear, free

from pollution.

one

;

loho has no professional knowl-

edge

-

-

private.

private citizen

;

:

-

-

-8

.

beseeching,

go (or come) down,

thrown doion, put down,
render judgment against

(gen. of the person

ace. of

;

the penalty).


-

--.
-

suppose, guess.

=

poetic,

pass.

Pf.

cover up.

-

-€
-8

pity.

Less. LXIII.

doion.

sit

--

-€8<

-$

II.

asleep.

lie

Compound Nouns,

etc.

through.

sleep

).

Opposite (Gen. §130).

dowmoards, beneath, in
Kol

§ 97

leave, leave

break down, put

dissolve, end, etc.

yoke,

€£ -- - --<ra

hence

lodge,

-ovs

()

be

a

make

head.

-5 ()

-<ra

-( -,

-

Pf. pass,

-'--

---

turn down, overturn, sub-

-- --

dare, take a

hence

risk,

it

possibly.

weeping, wailing

due.

put down.

§ 88.

-- -€<
--

despise

(Gen.

116 h).

(older

hear and obey, overhear (Gen.).

-€. -- -{achieve.

Impf.

-€, .

form

'()
- ()€£XLVIII.

is likely,

().

/cXt/'w)

^-

(eKXrjo-a) shut.

report,

--

use up, destroy.

-€|,

().

danger, risk.

observe care-

fully, consider.

herald.

one loho plays and sings

to the lyre

curately), perceive.

-€ --

occupy.

gain,

profit.

learn thoroughly, observe {ac-

--'-

urge, com-

gain, profit.

un-

;

guest.

§

-€,.

see

mand.

-

-<

down,

;

see

seize upon, catch, find.

behind.

the

world below.
lie.

-€ -

(-

spy, inspector

).
=;

fell asleep.

:

-ov ridiculous {ye-

- -- - €, ..
€€ €
- -- - €
§ 97.

doxon.

lie

re-

LXI.

Less.

turn.

scatter (seed, etc.).

-,

-

he ended

by saying.

--,

-

357

fame, glory.

inherit.

,().

lean.

Less.

couch, bed.

Gen.

-

hold down, restrain,

- shared

()
in

the State,

mon.

thief

common,
in

com-

$
€-

(5

-

in disorder.

-- -- order, arrange,

escape one^s notice.

strength, power,

(to)

have poicer, be master of (Gen. § Hog).
(), PI.
(), Gen.

€€
flesh, meat.

.

§ 47

better.

-

knock.

()

acquire,

-

come

Prin.

-

()

to

pts.

()

lion.

?)

much, too much.
(Adv.
perse-

-<

vering, earnest.

()

pilot.

in a circle.

circle,

(, ) dog, bitch.
pack of hounds, ken-

(--).
- -ov having authority

;

wolf.

--

mas-

distress, grieve.

Pass.

be grieved.

mistress.

-

(-).

pain, grief.

lyre.

sheepskin, fleece.

-- -•

Poetic

beseech.

entreaty, prayer.

nel

ter,

()

-

possessiOJi,

rest,

henceforth.

very, very

property.

Gen.

remnant.
remaining, the

-

hidden, secret.

possess.

collect.

leave.

conceal.

LXXIV.

,€-

reckon-

- ---€ - £€
-and

distinguish, de-

-- -- Strike,

)€8

reason,

account,

report,

tale,

ing.

cide, judge.

Less.

Speak well of one.
word,
sjjeech,

.

say.

tell,

--

possess,

§ 170, 2 c.

see

rule.

----

Less.

-,
-.
,
-- .
LVI.

fem. of

deck, adorn.
-ovs

$

358

ornament, universe.

order,

lamp.

--

prevent.

loose.

§ 79.

village.

-

-

dull,

dumb, deaf, deaf

«
, -€
-

obtain by

lot,

obtain

(- -).

Ace.

()

Less.

-

(-orepos

bright, brilliant

see § 113 g.

-€

()

hare.

grasp, receive.

,

-

and dumb.

LX.
-oraros)

lesson.

act of learning.

pupil.

learn.

take,

().

()
()

§

84 and Less.

LIII.

-

-ov blessed, happy.

my friend.

- deem

happy.

»

$

359


,

-

by

long, far.

far.

from

afar, afar.

more,

very,

and

most, especially,

...

certainly

!

-

rather than,

much

as

as

possible.

3().
-8

,

$

()

mad

be

rage,

-

()

one

call

-5 ()

''

see §§ 190, 191.

8

however.

siirely,

loait,

() part.
- - middle, medium,

?

midnight.

middle

to witness.

in

life.

whip, flog.
xmthout rea-

(),

mid-day

south.

- - filled

- -.
with, laden with

§ 117).

comp.

with,

share

:

change

one''s

In

after.

with,

§ 129

differently.

goad, whip.

the

midst.

()

loitness.

§ 196.

await.

-ovs

(Gen.

seer.

oracular response.

Gen.

,

after,

c.

mind, repent.

-.
^ ' €€
.
.. €€8
-,

-,
-(
$ (
' 8
in vain,

idly,

son.

-

give a share of, share.

Verbal

§ 89.

§ 45.

large.

and

Adv.

greatly.

Comp.

Super.

€-

-Otis,

lad.

-

have a share

dark, black.

aor. part,

certain, be destined) to do (In-

limb by

limb.

from) limb.

()

song,

tune,

often witli a part.

these things are
yoti

).

see Less.

my

have

not, see §§ 144, 180, 178 II
§ 160 c.

unless,

;

lest,

,

§ 159.
§ 67.

blame

against

;

XXXVII.

object of care,

.
-{

(Pf.

for the better.
between (Gen.), meanwhile;

lyric

lyric poet.

a care for this.
remember.

§ 87.

part.) fortxine being changed

verse.

care,

let

§ 98.

change.

-? ()

tive

re-

of.

of

loose, give up.

fin.).

an

§ 88.

change,

:

tract.

intend {be about, be

-oDs

after,

transpose, change.

Mid.

smile.

be

se7ld

summon.

§47.

'$

:

see

Impera-

(rivi),

charge

by no means.
ing.

at

all.

§ 51.

no one, nothNeut. as adv. not

.

|

360

€•€

£'

,

longer.

€.

.

.

'-

manage; tend

never.

710

.

.

what

nor.

.

.

see

-$

month.

jealousy,

-8(

hate.

reward.

ire, loages,

laio.

c. 818).
§ 28 D.
remembrance.
-<rw remember, remind.
make mention ! imperawhich serves as
of

€€-€.
tive

aorist to

with

-yis

difficulty.,

reluctantly,

£

.

.

not only

.

-

.

.

hut

.

also.

fate,

doom, death.
sung

lyric poetry

music,

€--

.

- one

- ()

,€-€ €£
-a

recently married.

youth.

cloud.

island.

-- -• ,
()

ship, § 38.

§

vcKpos

()

%.

conquer.

-.

sickness.

29 C.

mind,

corpse.

see s.v.

()

•€ -- --

dead.

childhood.

icho has just

() islander.
{v^js () fasting).

sea-fight.

vcKpos

() one

() mind,

()

young, new,

from

(\( (-)).

see s.v.

-(-

I.

victory.

tale,

myth,

vavs, Gen.

§ 179

/asi

labor, be weary.

word, speech, proverb,
see § 178

the

-$. Adv.

and

()

to

literature, music, etc.

,

)
-

i-ites)

(

vea veov [veurepos

come

alone, only,

^
of

customary

the

fresh,

commit adultery.

-

ven-

use; acknowledge, believe in;

deem, regard, believe.

veov

adulterer.

-

of

observe as a custom, pjractise,

scarcely.

portion, fate.

teacher

«-

law.

() mina (=

=

distribution

anything assigned, hence,

custom,

§ 51.

-•

<€(>

()

pasture.

68 ()

els,

due, hence, righteous

geance.

sheep.

of

see § 192.

Gen.

is

indignation,

sheep.

€05 - -

,
,
,

tend flocks in pastures.

€€-5

not yet.

.

neither

.

^

flocks.

to

he

ill.

thought, purpose.

€'€

€v

have in

vovv in accordance

€ -- - loith (one's) wishes.

perceive,

think, suppose, plan.

€-

vvv

dis-

tribute, assign, dwell in, occupy,

.

now;
Gen.

just now.

()
midnight.

night.

€->

.

)0

361

|€vos

(^ -)

happiness,

^5

nected with another by
hospitality, hence,

ties of

guest

(less

«(> --

(

entertain as a guest.

-ows (to) sword.

5
€€8

mass, bulk.

'

§§ 24, 105, 110.

this.

way, road,
along
the road, on the loay.
oSovs, Gen.
() tooth.

()

happy, prosperous.

,,

deem happy.

€, §

?)

ola (see

know.

^ --

with partic,

§

175

e.

-ov pertaining

to

the

house, belonging to the family.

()

--

house-servant.
inhabit, dwell.

()

household,

house,

family.

() plural of oIkCov = oIkos.

-{ --aros

()

-

()

suppose.

-

skilled in

manthink,

§ 179, I a.

{

I

-

--

am

qualified,

am

.
-, -, .

one and the same.

(,

)

of the same

age.

- -ov like, similar,
manner, equally.

€€()

same, nevertheless.

dream.

gone.

()

reproach.

reproach, charge against

,
,,
one.

()

name, noun.

Aor. pass.

, <,-., €,
•€
name,

call.

see

in-

forms

direct

;

respectively
;

J

-€
-

how

of
;

that,

in order that.

§§ 148, 149, 160.
behind, after (Gen.)

back,

back

again,

after

(Gen.).

'-

see.

temper, mood, wrath, anger.

reach

after (Gen.).

see

have

Epic

in anger.

see

LXI.

(-).

adj.

roast.

as, lohat sort of.

able.

-,

-.

see

eye

(see ttcDs;) how, as,

estate, etc.

such

oios

(^).

household management.

aging an

olos

room, chamber.
administer a

manage

household,

116 b.

dream.

§ 95.

-a

(

()

all the

oIkos house, room, household.
oIkcios

-

before.

little

-ov short-lived.

in like

§ 21 b.

a

irpoTcpov

j^ain, grief.

whence.
ot to him.

bliss.

- -ov scant, few, small,

frequently host).

oSos

- -ov

Stranger, foreigner, one con-

See

Less.

-

-ov (Adv.

oxit,

)

straightforward, right.

reach

upright,

!

362

OpBpLOS

--

at day-break.

-

opKos oath.

-hasten; Mid.
-8 (, )

motion,

in

set

start, hasten.

opvls

cock,

bird,

boundary,

limit,

(0)

hen,

rule,

standard.

-'

'

opiKOs


8

and

-rrep

oo-Tis

•- -=

.

many

how

great

! etc.

see oo-tis.
§

21

,)
II,

,

late.

see

-,

see

irais.

Gen.

710

(-).

(,

as adverb.

j'lciy thing ,

child, boy,

from

no

one.,

-

educate.
child, baby.

chant the paean

noth-

(as adv.) not at all.

never yet.

),

honor

See

long ago.

--

vjith

(iraLUv,

paeans.

§ 134.

ancient.

back, again.

-ov neither.

§ 46.

(ert).

= \£.

cordingly, not then

game.

'play.

not, nor, not even.

longer

)

training, education.

not,

never.

vision

little

ovSeis

•7£
€€8 -

serpent.

boyhood.

by no means.

ing,

.

-€8 ()

XIX.

and

()

be borne, hence, ride.

no ! §§ 144,
180, and Lessons VI,

8€
178

eye.

see

girl; servant.

§ 27.

b.

lohere, gen. of

(,

see

see

, see <8.
of him.

ovtws

thus, so.

it is.

, ,.8 -.

whenever.

oTi that, because.

,,

§§ 25, 105,

in this respect,

-ovs (t6) advantage, profit.

ivhat-

loin, loins.

lohen.

nor.

- ,

,

o»|/is

how many

as,

()

-vos

this.

08 .
68
8,

-€

whoever,

as great as,

.

.

see

Gen.

see § 194.

oircp,

102.

until.

Is

.

153 b.

€8

§§ 24,

§§ 27, 178, la.

ever.

as

he.

.

§ 196.

owe.

§

quail.

which.

loho,

-

8
,8

of a mule.

-8 ()

-os

see § 193.

thus

--

OS

neither

meanwhile.

() mountain-animal,

-- fear, dread.

OS

not yet.

.

.

.

,
-, ((),

mxile.

i.e.

.

.

110.

opos -ovs (to) mountain.
opevs

.

never.

surely not.

etc.

opos


,

then, ac.

.

.

?

-, -,

see iras.

()

alongside,

In comp.
amiss.

§

:

beside,

129

d.

by,

near.

by, beyond,

over. -.-).^ - by. pts. see -ov resembling. -$8. -. Gen. trust in (Dat. -ov titterly bad. take. -' all. - survive. be at hand. () mother of all. throw beside. iravTOs. . -8 -- Compound Nouns. Compound Verbs lead around. trance. .-. go around. -.. -- ••(-5 -. handle. make -. irap-o8os § fut. the side. \. pass. prepare. -' -- Less. excel. furnish. call to one. etc. provide. altogether. jwe- sent. proverb. stop / ). -. trust - - see A. . observe. LXVII. . escort. -- 363 iras irept Compound Verbs everywhere. Past-Irapf. -ov parallel. 4. every.) . five thousand. . § all.- -- obey (Dat. around. (. II. •irCo-Tis -€8 () bring to one. -. beside. iravToios -a -ov of every sort. -. II. take not at 6 iropa- to. 8.-- stiffer. - -oraros) (-orepos ----. faithful. § 96. be at hand. the very. -. § 91.-. trial. pass p)ersuade . be beside oneself. surround. ? --' -- give over - -' down sit summon. pass to cease. . -- XXIV. sit beside. of () poverty. -? -? - try. In about. see -. comp. one loho gave. put beside.(^-. in every way. I. trust. I. see see § 194. certainly. 129 e. Mid. full suit of armor. § 93. faith. § I..: : I. -€5 () assembly -epos (ayep-). the whole. be present. attemj)t. fut. - --. II. iras 82 -- like.-( beside.'].: -. fifty. look at from . See Less. 7€- remain Prin. cease. . en- end. - treat. -. : around. about.• from another. of send. exceeding. see in. bring to an side-entrance. Mid. -. -ov wholly wise. -. to. hold beside. throw altogether.

gray. () see •€<. . loith. see citizen.(. 10 depraved. . -. .more «s irX€i<rTov Pf. adv. . •- . eirXivcra sail. on which where? sonieiohere. speech.€ " . irio-Tus. . . -rrpiap-UTcpos numerals). one time - . § 45. much? ever. preserve. . make a some time. two) iroiel- U. «08. irXoCs (0) voyage. 29 C. -. take of. . except. (- toil / § 130. way. loar. Comp.- . go. 47 § citi- many. ? Less. about (with what. - - pertaining to zens. strait. XLIII. () -- foot. () - do. fall. () poem. €. for the most part. loalk about. once. hitter. (of account - flock. device.be at -- -- consider carefully. drink. -- ' '7£ sharp. at length. irXio) Superl. -i's of what sort? loar. - times. see <. . overjoyed. . J river. see gird (oneself) II. bad. proceed. .-9. republic. . § . . see Less. hostile. etc. lohither? I. -. much. . weigh dnion. quantity. at an- lohich XXII.-€. older. travels. be rich. government. £-. - . See most. --- Strike. . shape. much-learning. Gen. PI. . badness. someI suppose. poet. quam maxime. when? . '. . the evil one. . . - -d (to) multitude. . loandering. . . many-colored. 364 ireaciv €-. wallet. ford. harsh. fight with. . () irepi-XuTros -ov very sad. other. iToUa ) . at in the loorld ? 8' at whence? how? make. much. -- ' . --. -€ : city. see '€€8. i-ich. irov- sea. II. irXovTos wealth. street. side? . political. citizenship.-) why . ' hoio . . Compound Nouns. press. as = many mould.

eager. oiSt• . first. do previously. (-. . by. beg 129 f. fare LX. sooner. . zealous. -ov former. 170. c. in preference -» f comp. -•€5 standing near('aa). pts. ---$-) at- call to oneself. proposition irpOTcpos -a See '-- dear (-orepos Stretching (). affair. be placed by. . never LXX. --. thing. inquire. beggar. in addition to. learn by inquiry. F. as adv. with reference to. Compound Verbs -'. § 130). see irpo (end). -ov belong - -- sance stretch forth. () come §97. to. sooner. wpos toxoard. - () -ov first. expose. belong to. II irp£v 6e/ore. person (in a dia- •-- in front of (Gen. etc. assistant -is obei- attach to oneself. -<« . -^. she^therd. () forward. toward. propose.:. -' honor. go toward. ancestor (yev. before. 172. hear. I. assign etc. yet. -'. put (). bring before one. not yet.. A. II. etc. by. and Less. choose {in preference). -€ tention. J. - see () be zealous -. to. value. -£ -€ § 124 d. to. Less. Adv. do. A. » : . forth. In comp. require besides. : to. toward. send forth. hold pay see -€. --(. before. supplement (). pts. •-8 rare. -' indicate in advance. (-acTTepos -is : -) to. event. expect. : § to. Trpo<r-€Ti -. present. (to) irporepov be- his add furthermore. Compound Nouns. sheep -?• € make to. logue. II. -- - - place before. -- Compound Verbs §§ IGO b. see § %% (ro) I. 365 (-). Past-Impf. yet. irpoo•- irpOT€pos. be laid out lie jrray Past-Impf. Compound Nouns. root).yov-). face. wife asked before (he could speak). -ov by the roots (pi^a. (like a corpse) -. -Oes. set forth. the assigned task. to to. -arcs : Prin. fire.). Prin. (6) -irvpos oi ••••€ . from - one. before. prior. formerly. In --. . fore. Gen. ? former. besides. irpo lead toward. Very to.

play with. - § 87. 08 deprive clear. -' = equip. examine careLess. stage. Compound Verbs - A. zeal. come -- together. cppcvcra floio (pev. hasten. be advantageous.<- -os pass. fully. (-. be eager.'•€ - -irws offer how? . : com- with. stade = length. rhapsodist do be earnest. stage-building. be gen- be soldier. feet)). <5 see spatch. gether 8 to- rhythm. pts. -- ( -(? () -aros Semitic indicate by a XLVIII. your. iro7i. tomb. Aor. ?. . §41. . yours.- A less cor- is o-kotivos. be useful. loalk about loith. temper. easy. .pu-)• () saying. Prin. €05 . sign. word. race-course. Pf. 200yard dash. rect (late) spelling -«-.ark. 582 army. . see eral of (Gen. Less. ? (Adv. (. € €€ €8. - - comp. disposition. €-. a reciter of epic poems.e. collect. LXV. 600 Gk. m. earnestly. army. feet Eng. stitch a measure of {i. by chance. target. In loith. § 125 b. sit : doion -- as- icith. -. -ovs (to) darkness. song). sign. --- sit down beside loith. -arcs . . (). send with. thoughtful. somehow. « § 87. -) -. -ovs strength. general. •'£- tirge - if ye turn not.o-KOT€ivos () -aTos . earnestness. € 05 ' silence. () ( --= ($ - expedition. . c. pass. - A -) Sabbath. twist. = point out. . spy - general () scene. dark. o-Koiros xi:atchman. agree. shadow. - 366 for sale. verb. agree with. of. consider. -. LX. sell. -is £€ -. I. ( -5 () mouth. stadium. 5. pjletely.) ( paSios -a -ov (Adv. -. sociate with. haste. turn. gather together. phrase. -. bring together.-. - tent. de- breast.). of iron.

event. (€. course. etc. -. vigor- near. Tc'Xos -ovs (to) end. a helper in xoork. •-8 -•8 a balance. slave.- .-£< of sound mind.: -. -- inter- very much. see tCktw. c. drinking-bout. ' see «. an end. ? . quick. thank-offering for deliverance. assign. loeight. be with. ously. arrange. x)ay (a debt. € €€ T€\os as adv. meet happen with. good sense. talent store-room. (-^ -- -€(> live xoith. €€ bring to an Te'Xcos -a -ov completed. pardon. = ). finally. .). save. «- chance. etc. leisure.-. sober.. closet.- soundness of mind. end. collect. . very.. Superl. -€ .-8 (--5 etc. issue. to. die. € €5. orvv-8ov\os a see € € iVeKOv felloio- - beget. accom- plished. a bringing together. body. . «- €- synagogue. humble. § 21 b. fulfilment. akin -^s to. almost.. $1080). nearly. •8. . discreet. (Comp. posium. 07'der. together.completion.- - bring -. -5 () carpenter. -€05 (-- being a --. % sympathetic sym- ) (for -- (or soon as ) as. «-? --. () () end. bear (young). €£ €€ . £€8 tune. . pile together. . () 6 (= -- -- ally -«s ). . experiences. bring to . €€ to lay eggs. misfor- T£ and. with. burial counsel. -£ - counsellor. (). company. § 195. complete. TOKOS child. at once. (- perhaps. Compound Nouns. (). quickly book. and AdV. born with. () a tax-collector. - (bbbv) with all speed. (. an -« make lower. (. self-control. II. = -ovos cut the throat. -€ €| 367 assist in driving out. as quickly as pos- sible. a writing.

- Less. so long. some one. concern- . then.. honor. nurture. so great. 6 € See LX. table. vester. surely. kv - § tomb. put. chance (with hit.-.. food. . .368 T€p\|ilS . any thing.). at that time. so bad. turn. )€ m this place (). Less. Toi in truth. or why? any one. \. third. . so () Gen. -- undertake. () vu€p . somewhat.() despotic rule. nourish. profession. -. -< . see art.-. Toiros place. a sort of. turn trim. in ivhat manner. surely. . « LVIII. -< (uphold honor) as- Less. -€. . § 127 c. luay. See place. see — fourth. vengeance. see ovtos.-. § 39. See Less. nourishment. etc. a. . see TOKOS. make by devise. — <€. . tIs tI &. § 39. moreover. absolute sovereign. such. then. of. see so 176 fortune. ' €€ €. son. -. - . . - - €'. Mid. . . en- dure. c). manner. honored. etc. tKtyi -. = see . -705 . ) nurse. much. <() ToaovTOS Strike. . dare.. -) (^-orepos in ivhat way? way. \. ToiovTOs case.- participle.hold in honor. § 196. three times. LX. one who has suffered wrong. . water. so tall. art. therefore. for -. see T€K-. sleep. enjoyment.. - . precious. some thing. value. . in every . (oneself). above. tyrant. great. § 120 c). § 88 and LXXVI.. tvhat? §27. value. see see - €. €- he spoke as follows. §27. see manner. avenge (Dat. a turning. etc. chance. on behalf ing. obtain (Gen. writer of tragedies. who? Tis.your. at all. means. rear. sist (. in such a . run. price.

--' are 176 see -€( secretly.jealous. boar. and dvov declare. () {an under-rower) underling. answerer. -- friendly. ••-€5 - bear. .: 369 tiiro { ') -. under. Mid.-- In comp.- show. as (-)) -'--- tm- derstand. on the next day. under. load. . carry off for a carrying. get he loas - - remaining.(Adv. remaining. endure. hypocrite. under.). --now ! : secretary.. medicine. wages.. vs. behind. •' . saying.see as receive rades. re- -ov iJo-Tepos Mid. somewhaty under.-. reply. - () -ov beloved. {serve. Gen. Compound Verbs show a glimpse . be . actor. -- see it flee. later than.. ^) friendship. bring. love.. come win. receive fasten on. by. ignorant clearly g. cure. fame. voice. left. .)• II. by. -ov . €. give ! : - be- fitting a friend. -- see of. take up (under) leave bald. A. €€' ---^ -' - a roioer serve. fond of literature. oh! ah! alas - -. - under. flight. Compound Nouns. after (Gen. - and §§ 94. -. fond of argument. ios (. I. prophetic voice. - bind under. kiss. --- -«'? () etc. carry lead. fond of words. of account. put on. off.-. drug. minister to (Dat. -a -ov latter. wont. dear. § 129 g. § 80. friend. 179. servant. motion. com- -ov loving one^s appears. () a a)i oneself. . secretly.. I. a small basket. next.-'- you § - go under. ) swine. say. expose. on the day -€( after. vo-Tcpaios -a -ov next day. no -ov slight. weave. paltry. 2b - - port. -ov loving mankind.-. is treat affectionately. - (show oneself) appear. sow.. left.

. etc.. less correct (late) - coined gold. terrify. hand. A is - (serve need. -- -. •- Mid. . Gen. see € Gen.. -€5 () -» char- features. pride. .. made ointment). () thing. Less. -ov loving loisdom. (17) - think. tell. see -- rejoice. -ov grace. $) . -Kos. € Dat. or point out (to) point out to oneself) ponder. . - of gut. possessio7i. in <( a for good. x€p<ri(v). mind. -. rubbed on (as time. bitterness. one''s () an instrument a mark engraved . money. prudence. go to and fro. he (Adv. tion. gut.- () worse. -£ {) care. () guard. a guarding. proud. have understand- -aros favor pi. gratitude. being on the loatch. anger.). gore.-- intention. intend.-€ - -$ -€ --€S eager for knowledge. € €( 4)ov€vs -' Mid. - . ])ainful. vjidow. . have a care for (Gen.-ov useful. be a philosopher.serviceable. guard. natural bent. taking --- string chord. €5 370 full of light. inten- (ro) ception. for a short time. per- right mind. - fear. - - to be () the - Anointed One. § thousand.). . (Infin. prudent. Xiip. laying -ov golden . - one ought. favor. ( seek to (Dat. matter. -0 -TOKos eggs. there is Infin. €-. see of gold.murder. pAan. anointed. for marking €-.. - Gen. murder. go (or come) frequently. gold. -.consider. pursue knoiol- edge. reflect . () murderer. impressed. ety. {) nature. see bright. ing. - . character. please. heed.). See bile. precautions. LXVIII. time. in thoughtful.difficult. oneself with) use (Dat. enjoy. .). kindness. acter. anxi- 47 B. spelling () - light. -. time.

. just 5 . -. Gen. ovtos. so as to Indie. € . hour. € - -. breath of see season. see (). 371 space. see bear false witness. good 9.. as follows. ! — so so. -ovs {t6) falsehood. (. station. loriting. -ov serviceable. ! being. country. life. life. apart apart. -is lying. falsely.() fitting time. prime of lie. thus time is to be § 197. shoulder. §130. false. liar.). egg. by sir it life. 5€ . - •. or Infin. XiapCs from (Gen. () -. in the - (ixriTtp jtist as. §194. . place. one''s see -^: \^ . beneficial. (followed § 151). « springtime. that. . soul. in truth. oh . -. same way.-( speak €.

brilliant. Alcibiades. a7i Aeolian. Anthology quarter last of to ($ MeXea-ypos. namely. 'ApYiios Artem'bares. a of Pericles. A'treus. 372 . preserved a large collec. the most brilliant representative of the Old Comedy. a Medan. son of Croesus. €$ See but and Aristotle. father of Char- Androu. and epigrams ranging from the seventh century b. Aeschylus. tion of inferior imitations known as Anacreontics. an Athenian. reon's there " Polycrates. son of Andro'tion.e. to son of Sparta collection later authorship. Aristophanes. pupil of a philoso- Socrates and founder of the hedonistic school of philosophy. an Athe- Apollodo'rus. Glaucon. AloXcvs -€§ () is elegies. of Mende. a lyric poet of at Antimoe'rus 'Apio-TMTiros Aristippus. an Athenian tragic poet.v. s. " Uncle the Aesop. a king of Archida'riuis. of are extant. odes. Agis. but very immoral and utterly unscrupulous. philosopher scientist (384-822 b. Atri'dae. -ov Athenian. Remus" of ancient Greece. kinsman He was handsome. Athe- nian comic poet (445-385 b. nosegay). known as Aesop's Fables includes many stories of The the twelfth century a. 'AvrC^oipos £ ' -' the sixth century. i. pher. '€5- -ov Argive. during the 'AveoXoyia. a collection of Greek idyls. mides. Anacreon. nian."Atds A'tys. *8 - Athens.c. () Athens. sons of Agamemnon and Menela'us. who said to have lived duiing the first half the sixth of centuiy.e. the century. father of Hippocrates. '•€5 <8 Only fragments of Anacverses is of Antisthenes.d.II Proper Nouns and Adjectives ' *8 ' '€ fifth (i. 525-456. and rich. poet laureate the court Samos.c). a sophist and a pupil of Protagoras.c).

i. Greece. who flourished B. '.c). a comic poet of Sicily and a contemporary of Aeschylus.8 373 rop5ios TopSios ? € Gurdius.e. Epicu'rus. sists ( The New Tes- documents. a king of Persia. He end of the third century b. .. )' . a philosopher the most Crorgias.c. the lives of the philosophers. the elsewhere New Greek the Testa- innocent of literary re- finements. Theog'nis. -€ () a Dorian.. of Laerte). Epicure'an the of school of philosophy. father of Lysis. physician at Athens. a famous mathe- matician part of original Greek in sional ac- flourished at the Menexenus. The New Testament is the most important representa- in the The Euxine Sea. a famous oracle of ? Apollo in Phocis. Dni'i'us. cele- the fifth century. Epichar'mus. Testament. Her most important temple was at Argos. a quaintance of Socrates. about SOO tius (i. Demo' crates. a king of famous Midas. and wrote numerous mathematical treatises. loves of Meleager. as or pher of Ephesus. century A. tragic poet (480-406 b.e. a philoso- form of the known Heliodo'ra. tive of the colloquial post-classical Euripides.C. an is main that of the common people. probably Zeus. in part con- of With the exception of the book of Hebrews and an occasentence of ment is of Alexandria. Athenian transla- tions. an early elegiac and perhaps the best repre- . machus. Demophon.D. Diogenes Laerin the He third wrote. father of the the of named one '- () Hellas. Heracles. of which the most celebrated is his " Elements of Geometry " in thirteen books. brated philosopher of . son of Phrygia and Midas. 5 EryxV- son of Acu'menus. Gen. style Euclid. and founder of his dialogues after him. a Demo'critus. one of famous 0€O"YVIS Plato sophists. ' poet. one of the He'ra. . father /) of see Zevs. tament an Euthijde'mus. ' He was the first great comic poet of Greece. Heracli'tus. Delphi. while the language dialect ( the Common dialect. Gen.

Orpheus. .c. - - sophist. the one of Plutarch's essays. tician. He Syria. of Media and vastly enlarging the boundaries of his empire. each consisttury. Cyrus gained for himself the title of " The Great. By single- Mithrada'tes. Callias. an Athenian Hippo'crates. MCkkos Miccus. McvavSpos Menander. a (ot) the Cilicians. his friend Cyrnus. philologist. . comic poet of the late fourth cen- and the best known representative of the New Comedy. more than seven hundred of which. the elegiac couplet III). Median. ? -ov Lacedae- - ? " -ios -a -ov Nicias. 310240 B. Mysian. son of Apollodo'rus. said to Laconisms. € € '. "€5 () . 'IiriroviKOs the lonians. father of Hipponi'cits. ing of a single verse. LII. Kvpvos. son of Xicer'atus.C. an Athenian general. the reputed founder of Thebes. a Mysian. in his verses. See Less. Olympus. His plays abounded in sententious sayings. (ot) the €£$ lyric noble. literary critic. a friend of Calli'machus (c. born at Gadara lived in the first and was the first make a noteworthy anthology of Socrates. as £5 Homer.). see from 558-529 ? -08 Clibu'lus. libra- Lysis. Mcvc^cvos Menex'enus." His rule extended €3 monian. rian of the great library at Alexandria. Many commonly verses the of attributed €$ young Dorian Theodo'rus. 3Iede. Kvpos Cyms. the bibliographer. Lycians. to Theognis were written by other He frequently mentions poets. king (i.e. poet.. a mathema- have been a teacher title AvSos a Lydian. a late Greek poet. Persia.374 ' () sentative of the sententious style.C. b. a of Melea'ger. a Persian name. verse quotations) of -apos (0) Caesar. a mountain in Mysia. Nico' teles. a friend of Socrates. He employed (see Less. have been ' preserved in a collection Cadmus. tury B. in cento of Greek poets. known Menander.

Pericles.). an Athenian states- - man of the sixth century. Xenophon. and innumerable essays Lives ing is known about these.() Sardes or Sardis. Protag'oras. Phrygian.C. . pupil of Soc- and teacher one of Aristotle - friend of Plato.C. 0£5 Pericles.C. a famous - pides. capital of Lydia. Par'aliis. who named one of his dialogues after him. -€Ovs Persians Terpander.C. (428-347 B.c).. first great phi- losopher of Greece. Phile'mon. soldier. .D. One () a Persian.Sav6nnros $ 375 Pythag'oras. a rural god. Printed in the United States of America. a celebrated Greek philosopher of the son of Xanthippus. Phaedrus. wrote first cen- Parallel of famous Greeks and Romans. a son of Pericles. the father of Plato's mother.-ov Syrian. Timothy. sophist of the fifth century. () Phason. -ovos « () a Paphlago- an Athenian statesman (died 429 b. of the nCvSapos Pindar. of loves of Meleager. -? Socrates. nian. the lyric poets. plays of Aeschylus is called the (^). Plato. one of the earliest of the nian. poet an (497-405 B. Solon. of whom he was a great admirer. an Athenian and B. one of the chief lyric poets of Greece (518-442 rates Greek Timar'ion. () Athenian tragic Sophocles. and author (born 0. Xenophantus.). a ^ sixth century. tury A. Noth- either of () a X on miscellaneous subjects. the brother of Hippocrates.430 B. Athenian phi- losopher (469-399 B. a Greek au- thor and lecturer of the He the Timo'theiis. one of the rivals of Menander. - Pan. Philip- Plutarch. son of Philome'lus. an Athe- Pausa'nias. Phrygia.C.). The quotations in the Lessons are from his Memorabilia or Memoirs of Socrates.). . country gentleman.). a comic poet. Char'mides.

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