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THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

:>^°•
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
NEW YORK

BOSTON CHICAGO DALLAS
SAN FRANCISCO

ATLANTA

MACMILLAN &
LONDON

CO., Limited

BOMBAY CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN

CO. OF
TORONTO

CANADA,

Ltd.

THE
FIRST

YEAR OF GREEK

BY

JAMES TURNEY ALLEN,

Ph.D.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF GREEK
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

"Ntta

gork

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1917
All rights reserved

258

COPTEIGHT, 1917,

THE MACMILLAX COMPANY.
Set up and electrotyped.

Published August, 1917.

Nortoooti ^rees

Berwick & Smith Co.
Norwood. Mass., U.S.A.

J. 8. Gushing Co.

years. These new conditions under which the study of Greek is begun have given rise to a new and serious problem. to begin the study of a language in precisely the same manner as children of fourteen or fifteen. moreover. during the past decade or so Greek has come to be in this country largely Already approximately four thousand a college subject. and should not be expected.^ 1 See my article Classical JotirnaL 2 "College Students Beginning the Study of Greek. my "Old Wine See Chronicle. and even graduates. The course must be more compressed college. subordinate. caption " XV The in pp. pp. For it is clear that students of college age do not desire. 331-332. New (1913). ." . Greek " University of California reprinted in revised form luider the in pp." XII (1917). V The Classical Journal. many are content with but a single year. . that the majority do not continue the study beyond two Indeed.PREFACE However regrettable may it seem. possible in so brief a period the student is must be given the opportunity of reading in their original form choice por- Greek tions of literature of the Hellenic — the finest flower and revealing To mind. this end all other objects are. students each year begin the study of Greek after entering and this number is certain to increase. Nor are many are juniors. X (1915). 262-266. for the majority.^ . the content of the first Just so far as year. richer. all of these freshmen and sophomores Statistics show. 235-242 First Year of Bottles. seniors.

In fact. moreover. which indeed was one of the chief considerations in determining their choice. Many of the lessons. are followed by a supplement which may be treated in one of two intrinsic merit to be read (')^ . and ('). As title its series lessons of indicates. followed in many instances by a quotation to be learned by heart. moreover. The selections have been chosen for their and graded with greatest care. and exercises Part II. annually revised. times a week may who recite in this subject but College classes which meet five complete the work in less than a year. one or more selections for reading. They were used. For in learning a language like Greek there is hardly any exercise more helpful than memorizing and reproducing from memory suitable passages both in prose and verse. notes . it is designed to provide material for an entire year for pupils of high-school age and for college students three times each week. The plan of the book is simple. were used with successive classes until more than three hundred students had been introduced to the study of Greek by their means. Follow- followed (^) ).' and these. (^) ing these in turn are references to the a vocabulary. This book is the fruition of this long-continued experiment. and deserve and re-read many times. Each begins with a numeral. a grammar Qy The scheme of the lessons is fairly uniform. It consists of two parts Part I contains lessons by a vocabulary.PREFACE VI More than eight years have passed since I myself to this problem. A first addressed and exercises was prepared. there are only a few that are not worthy to be memorized. grammar (Part II). by five different teachers both in preparatory school and in college.

and the like may pupil will need until he begins the reading of drama. if treated in this manner. 178. In tion has been admitted. they will be found pansion. But a sincere attempt has been made to state all fundamental principles not only briefly but clearly. coupled with the fact that lessons and grammar have been carefully articulated. that this method in the case of Greek is not very successful with mature students. Occasionally a passage containing a rare word or an unusual construcBut these are exceptional. while forms of infrequent occurrence. 1 See the note prefixed to Exercise II. writing from dictation. however. abundant material for both oral and written work. and similar exercises. These yield themselves more readily to the memorizing of selections.PREFACE ways. the main only common words and standard constructions will be found in these pages. Such exercises cannot be repeated too frequently. The exercises which conclude Part I. others Some may be used may be assigned as Vll as exercises in reading at sight. should make this portion of the book one of invaluable service. The marking of the long vowels in such words as Bevrepa. and this feature of the grammar. p. are intended to accompany the lessons and should be regarded as suggestions admitting of indefinite imitation and exAlthough very incomplete. receive but slight attention. . ^ to provide. selections both in the lessons (^)^ The grammar (Part II) contains practically all that the Homer and have been omitted. such as those of the pluperfect. additional lessons. Non-essentials . even for those teachers who desire to employ the " direct " method. All of the and in these have been taken directly from Greek literature. Experience has demonstrated.

1917.vni PREFACE seem unnecessary. Although few of the selections in this volume are taken from Xenophon. I make grateful acknoAvledgement. University of California. and especially to my students whose good-will and forbearance have made possible its thorough testing. June 1. . the is To all vho have aided in the preparation of this book. and these entirely from his Memorabilia^ pupil who successfully completes these lessons ready for the Anabasis or any similar text. but has been adhered to consistently throughout for the sake of its pedagogical value.

CONTENTS PART I PAGES Lessons I-LXXX Additional Selections for Reading Exercises .... . 1-149 150-176 177-214 • PART II The Grammar 217-339 Vocabulary 341-375 .

.

MEPOX TO PART I THE LESSONS .

.

god. semi. See half. speech. it) icas. and. Cf. () he (she. irpos Cf. PI. erat. ^ The pupil need learn at in this lesson. § 2. Cf. 5 b. . b. -logy. Quantity. . Ace. §§ 8. c . of all (things). § 24 a. half clone. the mathe- this (one) he. §§ 1. Accents. '. § 4 a (Diphthongs: at. Iv in. scholium.i Punctuation Marks. €v ^ in (the) beginning. - loord. logic. est. § 9 a. Lat. a eV. theology. " Well begun. . Breathings. 01. -. § 6 a-e ev. et. . () Cf. the god. rbv to the lesson. ou). €08 Cf. Lat. /txtct. first only so much of the alphabet as occurs . 1 Pronunciation. first. 9 f. the beginning. the. matics. Cf prototype. all. . av. To '^ (The) beginning (is the) — ) half of ). see Part II (TO a. archaic. e (Consonants) For the Alphabet (o . c. € in the presence of God. the note.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK €19 I. . Cf. ''^ — Greek proverb. . he (she. § 3 (Vowels). it) is.

). ivise. and. in the (fertile) plain. 8. iv Eng.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 2 . even. allopathic. plain. even ^ -- Cf. § 4 b. but. like bed. omitted with . § 15. ytup-^/os (0) farmer. (). (/cat iv) even hndly. § 189. ireSCov () it) nourishes. dear. lary of Proper Names. To AcvTcpov Thorough review Lesson I. philosopher. also. () one fond of wisdom. ^v 6 the predicate. For Aristotle and Menander. automaton. These should be studied until they can be reproduced from memory either orally or in writing Improper Diphthongs. Cf. '-'. clever. Cf. Cf. Cf. Pron. rocky hillside. ? of ). rock. . Irene. EN APXHI HN ^ 6 o. and. George. ... in. Cf. (the) rocks. beautifully. sophomore. the friend. « ^» () - See il/aii^ewxvi.. . including a mastery of both quotations. Tbv yewpyov. ill. § 4 b. 171 on time. 6 18. he (she. as in etc. . () § 13 b. because this is in for emphasis. The article is omitted. debs . see § 198. see VocabuCrasis. <£ (before a vowel. self. () peace. well. Ace. Cf. polemic. The \6yos. even - among () war. Peter.pxfj 6 6 iv — ^. another. (see Preface). ^eoj is See put article is first '. rears.

103 a. 2. 4). The wirpais.) and the Exercises . (. in which the sign . Beginning with this lesson each noun is accompanied in the word-list by the appropriate form of the article in parenthesis. from Menander v^^^_:_ I w-i. . is metrical . See § scheme of this line 6 ' — hillsides of and a ^-.. ). I The Greece are very rocky. \. and this the very inscription which stood over the door in his day Note the capital letters (§ 1 c). — > I half v/_i. These should be pronounced and memorized in the reverse order. KU\y-iI \ w_i_ represents a long syllable where the meter strictly calls for a short. Acts perhaps not impossible that this was the synagogue in which Paul preached. ^ MevavBpov. of an It is ! {) 1 For the use of the Supplements see the Preface. Second Lesson) i \rCjrHE^\> 2]^ [^ Fragment Synagogue of the Hebrews inscription from a synagogue at Corinth (c/. xviii. to the .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ] 4 1. thus rj 6 : (Supplement See Exercise 1 (H..

-.. . deed. § 113 d. loise. III. here {they are). viola . skilled. . () parsley. ' — ®€oyvL9. . Accusative of Specification. celery. worse. Cf. each. 191. Bible. {). (fepy-). Agreement. Cf Germ. . 1. anthropology. Cf. ovbiv there 3 and . Cf. PI. . of Proper € Names. megaphone. § 180 § 21 (learn the full declension of each) — . violet. Thorough review ' no one. To ' 6 ov8eU epyop • '.' (- Gf. these.v. large. Gco-yvis. and . better. §§ 190. II. - . For Theognis and the Elegiac couplet see the Vocabulary and U. book. )( 6 . € of Lessons I €. €() Lat. " . great. /. Werk. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 4 . 901-902. work Meya — 2. § 100. els) Rhodes. as ovScis there is nothing. () human being. . is ' before. oiSeis no one poSov () rose. § 10 accented ' c. the use of €. Cf. . s. = () €(() all things. .

>_^ >^wv^ I w . The city Seli'nus was named from the plant.e. Thorough review. ). § Exercise 3 (H ). . § 11. are a fragment of an ancient Flower song. especially phrases. \J /\ \ w Where are my (§ 100). aiWva Exercise 2 beautiful parsley. ( IV. and frequently used them in the making of chaplets.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK The Elegiac couplet quoted above from Theognis has the following metrical form -i_ww l-i-ww I-: -: |_l. Enclitics.€. 10. and quotations. i. the response by the chorus who danced as they sang. 9 f. Proclitics. a so-called pentameter. () oi/5eis The avros no one of verses beginning human kind {is in) himself. Accents. The first verse is an hexameter the second. The metrical form (§ 8. ' To 6 .ww !_: _:_-1-^^ -: I I | -J-^^ |_: w | _i. etc. ^-J- I >-L. 9 e). . ' -.) is as follows: . — ' . § 9 (entire. The latter always has a strongly marked pause in the third foot. I v^ v:y \y\yK^ \ \y-L- I | v^ ]Miere for Supply kari (§ 103 b) roses 9 my vi/ me >_:_ \ w | | w_:_ w vv | <^ v-/ | <^ v:/ w_i_ | (are) the roses? | \^_l. Avith special reference to words. The ancient Greeks greatly admired the feathery leaves of the parsley. which was sung by a chorus of girls and their leader the first verse by the leader.

A-B is 6 .. delphia. except that of the sec. mater. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK -) it I am (ior you are (thou () sumA Cf. sing. ( 4-. ! . Gen. ' To Accents. e 6 Herewith Exercise 4 The () father. — Enclitics (type II) § 10 b. Phila- Cf. Agatha.. See Exercise 3. () good. pater. tion. - brother. § 29 /. -. c. written At that period these words were identical in pronunciaof this verb : . et cetera. esse. () \6. hence ? we •( you es. Lat. () : () sister. § 111 Second Declension. they are. . V/ MeXer?. are. '^. pediatric. All the forms of which appear in this lesson are enclitic. estis. Uses of the Cases.) tomathy. (J)) grief. Cf. 1 sumus. useful. ). ' . 2 Uses of Avtos self. ei. chres- '. b. . . § 9 a. sorrow. (. Xoiiros - born of the same womb. § 106 . the . art). pers. This form never loses its accent. good.'^ Cf. 2 In early Christian times the word was often. $ Cf. mother. remaining. ( root of this verb (to be) . ka-^iv () i<rrL(v) est. through instead as though from a misconception. Cf. sunt. left. (ye) are. 8^. () physician.

§ 195. -^ ^ '. are. e . unequal.). Gen. }. But comi)OMnd &. . £<rov '. F. ^ . . before. }. . Practice (is) away). . (tVos). oXos entire. (( () Cf.''^ The equals of 1 the same (thing) Adjectives (at least those of the first-second declension type) nor- mally have three endings in the nominative. the lohole . lav iav \ ^. isother- greater. "'. perfect. etc. €$ () from. iav y. thus .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -5 wnegwaZi other. the halves (). .. . many if. holocaust. 7) (be (he taken . -o" double. added). § 6 f) (Gen. times (). adjectives usually have only ttvo endings. I. thus: M. ? -(^?).-F. KOINAI ENNOIAI Axioms (Gr. lohole. you and Cf. § 100.. ts «€ 4$. Lat. Notions) of Euclid. ) ' . beautiful. € former. {air\ 7 £ both and. - : M. and. mal each § 26.^ . Common a. " Practice makes (thing). roO ^lari. «ov equal. larger.

dull. by essays the mastery of ancient Greek of the verb.. quotations. 8 . * : ). Learn the present indicative. vyitia § 184.— . unfastening. hygiene. 113.— 1. graphic) . . and the optative. and 144. -1' VI. . § 79 A. taking as the type the verb I am In the loosing. The trouble arises in the main from the multithe scheme of the conjugation is plicity of the forms simple and clear. the chief difficulties encountered The Verb. biology. ^ Thorough review of forms. THE FIRST 8 — . and infinitive of the progressive action-stem of the is found in the inflection conjugational system is . for. — ^ . regular verb (active voice). phrases. . 3• 'Tyieia iv 4- . imperative. . life. words.. 171 (first sentence). . Read carefully §§ 131.-ov () health. understanding. 162. To — I-V (97 . — . 133 (first and last sentences). the () mind. Lessons Exercise 5 One of student when he r 1^. foolish. OF GREEK Alt () $ Cf. vovs . for the Greek more elaborate even than that of Latin. same way conjugate : (c/. . Cf. 6 2.

I . epigram. (both not treasure- Cf. To ^. () loealth. -. see § 78. and the . . « ' Repeat in negative form. thesaurus. custom. am / am . in that place. ? otrov where(ever) PI. . . talking Qcf. (/^) steal tomaniac. believe {cf. () For the thief. . irXovo-ios rich. - telling. nor yet. sky.). The infini(= esse). () 1 Cf. - 9 ? house. ( . treasure. not .'). recognize again (^ava)). as follows € Greek govern the infinitive. Learn by heart the passage from Matthew quoted below. clex3- . urging (^commanding') I hold as customary. . 9 .). Uranus. . diameter. . () heart. heaven. () . Cf. the earth. reading I (lit. Cf. . / am (imper. law}. Hence means Bich may I believe the wise (to be)\ This quofrom the famous prayer of Socrates with which Plato closes his Verbs of thinking regularly tive of the 6 tation ' is verb iu to be'' (eiV) is eJvaL ^ () Phaedrus. there. VII. . oi . ittL upon (Gen. TTjs upon (7/. / . and . Cf. nor not). recessive accent in the imperative of the trisyllabic polysyllabic verbs. (). Cf. I rejoice Xoyo^). . .: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK € •-^ €€' I am I holding. . . have . regard. () %M € through. Herewith Exercise 6 (H --- (( () dig through treasure up €•• (). neither . cardiac. plutocrat.

'OpeaTij. 2. carpology. 5 yap — . bring. to disappear. ^ . ' . " TTOvot^ ' § e. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 10 Mr) 7^?> iv . To ''} The . ' — . 113 fero. Adverb. VIII. 6^ 1. 3. ev Instrumental-Oiitive. having KapTTOs {) fruit. The Accusative as . moth and rust (eating) make{s) will be. § 121. '^^^ tff-Ka' . . winged. ^.<. . .{' e/cet . evayyeKiou - 2.. . oiSe — . /. . $ — 3• « — 6 4• . bear. ' . 6 . . Cf. 694. e^eiv.-6 — ' true. ..

§ 167 A.). En- clitic. microscope. message. -. b) Question of Appeal. and conjugate the verbs in the action-stem of following clauses. <^ ^ €av (. Cf. () one. 165. etc. § 155. Uses of the Optative (§ 161) : a) Wish. § 162. : § GREEK 11 143. ris. Zar<7e (prizes). master. 7. ns any €^ ^\— less.. repeating the full clause each time a) iav /3) iav ) €1 ) el if <. Learn the subjunctive (active voice) of the progressive § 79 A. lord. {would. c) Conditional Clauses. § 168 A. any thing. small. . little. Mou. / might. . (c5) (= etc. if Herewith Exercise 5 I be Cf.F^^i? OF //£: Jf/BSr The Verb Moods. even letter. () ttus evei'y () Voc. epistle. Conditional Clauses. § 156. : letter. could. what? why? . .) seize or grasp. T^v) iav) () and () if. Uses of the Subjunctive (negative always ') : a) Exhortation. labor. () toil. how? who? irovos if. . . i/i'e Eat» - oiJSets. $ 8€($ = all. I. = writing a should. c) . despot. one. or no i/ (Subj. pain. b) Potential. § 163.

things. imperative. 4• ??? TL. ^ do) \ / am ) not / ov this. . 1 Conjugate the following (employing iav (neg. ' IX. . etc. property. . ovSev y 3• 1. €)(€ ^. enjoy. '. ' €)(€ . ?|ets you pray (imperative). . \€%. .2. 2. 174. : Omission of Noun. iav with the subjunctive forms) stealing these (things). ei^€t9 — — . I enjoy writing. . ' . § 6f (end)). " . and participle. 101 The Verb indicative. optative. pi.. . . loosing. review the progressive action-stem subjunctive. will have. we pi. lam). ?. . §§ 100. wealth. am urging €€' ^ The Thus : : ov €€£- my brother to he writing / am not urging him (to " participle ends in -. iav Tis V if one be (subjunctive of 3. — &€(. ive shall have.'. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK ^ 12 . !>- To Koim 6 — — Agreement. -ovres : something. . pi. . " € § : 103 d. . ). ^ . possessions.. present infinitive.

yes! € . c. Cf. () () () comrade. dron. tree. by ' ! €€ ! by Zetis. : shall speak the truth (io-morroio) Herewith Exercise £ ^ (2) (do. commonly means . /. craipos ? -- () geography. by Zeus € certainly ! Zeus no. / ( 8.). () Cf. heliotrope. Cf.'''' often means or ipQ ''tell. selenite. § 61 a. the Fut. etc. tJXlov aeXyjvrj. sea. Cf. can. 54. ). rhododen- 1 sun. . participle) of § 79 a. not I! ! . thalassocracy. () () earth. The Future learn the conjugation of the future active . infinitive.''' moon. thematic and non-thematic §§ 53. Cf. mean " I shall tell. (1) (3) 710 ! NO (can). etc. f. Although " I shall \y speak. optative. : (indicative.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 13 — personal endings Verb-roots and verb-stems. . (do). ^\ (An Ancient Drinking Song) ^\ ^ yrj jLteXatva irivei. Ace. TTLvei 6 '- 0€ oevope ' -L. Master the verbs Conjugate the following cited in these sections.''' . () drink. Formation of the Future. 5 . § 52 formations.

. yri () wrath. XaXtvos () bridle. A the 78. § 121. 117 b. -dative) of Cause. temper. . The poet has here employed an . ] 2. .. . vtvet course § 100. l ^ . etc. Psyche. the earth. Cf. do you contend ing ? (with agree with with . yrj the dark earth. § 12 a. Means.. to be drink- and wishing. § 28 dear this sister. & 4. § {cf. either . (^ (entire). xoisdom. — '<. () mood. () folly ($). . In Attic Greek the plural of (id est). Uses of the Cases. maiden First-Second Declension Adjectives. § is that in spite of the evident inferi- ority of this Anacreontic The rrtvtiv me when I too wish These verses are from the collection Vocabulary. see ToSe .() ( See the sake of the meter. more p^'eciotis. breath. () better. 40 A. coreopsis)). etc. () jwssession. of for of Anacreontics. me myself also ). . .^. Herewith Exercise ^. Genitive with Comparatives. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 14 1. Why. ^$ . -^ . . be learned by heart. . . her. € « () silence. large. To '' First Declension. soul.. Ionic form. .e.) s.v.. 2. Dative (Instrum. comrades. or. it ol . wishing. . § 111. i. €recommended It is self. 9. (.many. () woman. misogynist. my .' . it. Cf.

. rt — . . 208. ... he (she. 15 (her) father Semon set up here (this) monument . ^' ' -^ — . — . Attic Tomb Inscription ^^ ( %^ ^r^ ivOaSe For Lys'ea 552.. § 12 C. . . ). 264. . *H Xeye 7- 8. ^eipov eaTL 5• 6. ^. — — '4.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 1.. . . . . 9. < —'. . . 224. — \ opyfj 5' '.. . . 482. 414. 2. An Early 549. 442.. . try (imperative). 233. it) gives. 3- 4• . — 9• 6. 6 oi/Sev — ... .

. then. . . . . 1. triangle under. 120 d. € aya^ol•'. 28 A. . less.' the (one) abiding. . larger. iv ev 6 2. either (Ace. First Declension and word. 6 6 — 6$ 1. — M. 416. shorter. . (/). . . — . . Cf. angle. . ' (VI. 45). evayyeKiov -'. subtend. (. '8 XI. in '. . !. § Herewith Exercise w) () corjier.. pleurisy. greater. wait. on I say \iy that. () yet. To <. . : € ' § . late love. stretch under.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 16 ). sub that. Cf. § 19 a). The - -. bad. ) smaller. . or. worthless.. - (17) . remain. () 2. B. abide. . la feminine and masculine nouns The Dative with Adjectives (vy if.€vav8po^. . not. iwKXToKrjs TTJs nor side.and : -as. 10. therefore. and polygon. .

nor yet. thus on the other hand. In now on the one hand this instance. .. 17 ' ort .) ywviav (having) say " at ") greater. wliile looks forward to a balancing clause with (§ 190). now then. . : . . 6/ : (loe ( We say "i?i . etc. . every. TOY -. . ^ 6. yap . . ' €<. 5 ^. has been supplanted by the more emphatic 7. . however. € of every triangle. 3. So in line 9 (/ etc. . ties the sentence with the preceding sentence. ^) . . . . on the one hand now. etc. . ^' . having the angle under irXevpa 4. Et " /cat .'''' for etc. ort 1 -.. . €( let there be. ^ nor yet surely. 8e. 1.for ' ? {) if not. . ..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^ " . 4 ^ . . ^ . Note the order ).

: EQUAL is not. hv ^v it 14. ' — MeXea7/30i?. — Translation by Dr. D. heart the sweetly prattling maid. etc. 8. B. evXaXov ' ''^ \^vj(r]V \8 /. . s/ioio (Set|ai). D { }). the very (point) which it-was-necessary («Set) to eSei Q. TOY ^ ? ^'^^7' 5 -^^. hath Love himself portrayed. 10. l^ To €<. E.. ) ' ' he . -not) it 17. The First Declension (entire). C. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 18 7. (entire). soul. ? . The Declension of Adjectives (first-second declension). So in Observe the emphatic position of lines 8. 13. Walter Headlam. loould he {hvLtis. and XII. Within soul of my my 8<. 40 A. (§ 198) in 10. § 28 A. . was shown.

. Svolv 19 (Gen.*? . Eros) fashioned {cf. . .. plastic). base. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . 'E/jws 25 Ivtos imthin Acc. - each €(} each 'rav (of ' {cf. Ti^l•' ' 17 . line.. . . ^.. ivrbs ivrbi ttjs a straight .' is '. 5 es. side. . . iv\a\os -ou sweetly prattling = to prattle). ^. . . . = ddda () two). Dat. -^ ) . . otl . Gen. ' . . €€5 step.). '' . € to each. e^ovTa. . («. ^^ 2 ySao'tl•' () - . . .

have also the angle (of the one) the {angle) inclosed by the .^' ' 8e vneprepov.. ) . § 129 g.. B. — . . XIII. . . €. ' ly To TpCrov *H Xeye rt '< Review The First Second Declension. found on a fragof a marble tombstone.€8. and IkcXvos Uses of the Article. . ^-\ 2. . etc. § 103 Position of Article § 2-4 a Declension. T7]v See equal sides. . . daughter of A 2. § 29 Demonstrative Pronouns The Article cKctvo. .c. 4. ^|ei the]/ loill greater.®04\^3 . ^. C (o ') § '. — Aios. (the) tombstone retrograde inscription of the seventh century b. (/cat 'a ). . 1 ^ Toi in truth.. Spou'dides (the) potter. : . . € . and lohatever is higher than these. £/[]5. 208. Of Eni'alon. § 25 b 24 b.: - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 20 - 3. § 28 A. TOY Zew? i(TTLV tol^ . ment 70 /. ^" .

- . 7. . . ijrei €-€6 . Uses of Cases. 11.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK and Attributive. let there fall has fallen upon) interchangeable. . 12. intersects. ei's (it eSet Set^at." € . . ' /cat 5 evdela - . . Herewith Exercise . 106 § . -^. At 5. \ ecrrt -/^ -£> -^- /.. ' TOY At Ty OTL eial avTTj ... . § 111. .€ yap et? . upon it 15 {intersect) them. 21 Position of Demonstrative Pro- . § 104 Uses of nouns. § 105 .

8€. iv . Et avajKatov aBiKelv. § 180 a. Cf. Double Negatives § 5 e. -. € 8€ — '<. J ' J" t^ ^ € Pronunciation of Top<yia. (^). () shadow.. Cf. procession.). . () stepmother () poverty. Cf.. --. Cf. restrain. rather (). ^. dreadful. also of -€ and Conditional Clauses. is as. choose. hoio ! sober. Cf. the thing learned. -}. 167 A. . 166 A.€8.() conduct. ovSep tS' <. . §§ 165. . 168 A. () hymn. down hold § 6 f () ? -- (the) cause . irovos. pomp. send. F. . - to be loronged. prudent. more. sciagraph. than. § 92. To ? <. ". of more (17) Cf. § 91 . another.. I should -€.: . . €€ (17) - tongue. Sophronia. 469. 557. better. € THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 22 XIV. beautiful. nec- essary. Herewith Exe rcise 12. « - . escort. glossary. Conjugation (entire) of -€. — . the act of learning.. -. discreet. () do wrong treat unjustly 8£to . .. or. more or than.. (Gen. . €I am. either Cf. ovScis there is no one..

. 127. . 637.^. . epya 8. .- -€<.^^. — %. 423. ^' 6. — MevavSpos. .^ ^ . . .COS THE FIRST YEAP OF GREEK 1.— ovoe ev ecrrt ovSev ZeC. . ecrrt 436. e^eiv. 7• . . — .. . ). 220.. ^^ . 408. . 3• 4• 5• . — 5 ". 6 . — Et . .. -wV^^Aci . 9- Mop. OvK €(* ecTTLV 2. .. ovSeu ovSev 23 — — — - 810 2.

press F. ye certainly. hut surely. hasten. in fact. vera. 166 B. 167 B. § 99 .. by no means. in truth. 7ior yet. delay. () €$ . .. § 177 os w^o. . and . tarry.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 24 €^. §§ 165 B. 168 B. 6 ye . harm loait. . injure. on. -ov beneficial. 744. -€8. {there is need) one ought. icell done perity. XV. Subj. § 24 c Pronoun: of te Bel e-Trevheiv MepavBpov^ . nicht = tvy/tgood! ovSi ! cv-irpa-yCa (17) . Sentence Questions with : . — Review the conjugation Interrogative Sentences § 178. § 185. Adv. Opt. ? ye or 8. ' optl §184. < is .. . §178. well-being. of course. pros- not. . infinitive with accusative as subject. ' . II. abide. harmful. one Governs should. srirely.11. ' To ^ . () F. tooYa^os. nor. Verbal in -tcov (XeKreov one must . it not SO ? § 184. (ought to^ speak}. Herewith Exercise . wahr? truly. Alpha-privative. not then? 8. = . § 91 (entire). wait for. tvtoell. V Sec. II . an urge on. § 178. Relative Relative Clauses Avith the Indie.. . (-) iti 13.

6 evil. = 6 deos is good. yap ^' '^ 5 . 1. ^. ye emphasizes as (as contrasted with the false representations of Him in ye eeos 1. 15 . — ] HoXireiqi. ayauov. . (also does it -^. . . . . Socrates contends that God is good and therefore (see the second portion of the extract) is not the cause of usual : GOD ' popular myths) 4. ye indicates that this series begins in 1. ayadoyv ovhev ye . "^ . ^/ . . When is the last of this series of questions. . . 7. 379 2 . TToiel. The answers are made in this particular instance by Adimantus. ye (§ 185). In the dialogue from which this brief passage is taken Socrates (see Vocabulary of Proper Names) is represented as leading the conversation. € . . (). .ewv. For the neg.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 25 Nat. tivos genitive of the verb is omitted. a frequent order. < ovS' . it is usually ^. do any evil? 14. § 120. . 9. 11. 9) see Exercise 13. aya. Partitive genitive. A new 14. 6 ye. . .

. infin. Attic Greek these verbs regularly contract this thematic vowel (including in the preceding the thematic vowel I am making (stem: (§54). active. spirit: (a) Cf. treat hate {cf. 191 § 184 § 185. | . €. ' ye — (-€. Herewith Exercise '•€ : F. In the same manner conjugate love.. thus: etc.. Regularly fol- (§ 115 d). imper.. Learn the conjugation of with the subj. (in . 14.. long for. and partic. § 81 A. life. (b) de- 9 - -ov few. XVI. desire. Review the conjugation of § 91 €'-€. large number of verbs have Verbs in -€. oligarchy. ttokv much. of the progressive action-stem.. () upon. mi- do wrong (to). €. progressive action-stem an e . -. seem. and fut. opt. Lat. . . F. us as. set one''s heart lowed by genitive 8 . Cf. () sire. . sogynist) F. fumus. 7%-). together the future. number). § 92) . polygamy. - kiss. scant. §§ 190. -- € In with the -et)• in the pres.. . F.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 26 ^. For indie. . since. see also § 61 b. . affectionately. treat unjustly token. () F. €. To <. little Cf.

.. 6 . ecrrt.. 27 ' 6 0e6<. 6 .. — 25 . ^ — (4) yap '23.. ings (in life) () )( 6 . recommended that Si - . {). .. .-- . . . . by heart this passage be learned . . . : . Xeyovacv. ot ' /.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . . Tliis is ills. \' -Ky'. 5 6 . the bless- (§ 15) are for us far fewer similar to the old Greek proverb It is 379 . .. 6 than the €. ' ) ' € €.

pliyte. new. olSev.- .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 28 ^. - <••€ look. ding. — 225. II a.. young. Cf. — ). iced- bigamy. () closely. § 172. secret. especially. most (of use one^s wits think. dcC always. ? TToiei . orthodoxy. chrouology.-).2C . ing. certainly *H .. (). have understand- be prudent. a reply : 3. etc. * TE () -)( ) € die. 6 ! only Cf. .. time.. ttoUl. . . mono- -ov -5. . 2. Review Lessons XV-XVI. marriage. - cryptogram. () € — Cf. € () ^.. all). hidden. To 'Of . Cf. . 4. use (voOs). €'. F. () truth. KpviTTOs - -l>v ') 1. see. have sight. U. . vio% hut. Exercise 15. veo^. Cf.-ov alone. marry. -6v upright. Cf. Cf. think. examine Cf. avTod. . 6 -< ». (. — Mevavhpov^ 425. intend. As $ tone. have in mind. Infinitive as a Noun (^Articular Infinitive). "€ XVII. sceptic etc. mind one's (before a vowel. neo- straight. consider.

and compound each of these . e^ei — — 437. § 25 a'^^ ?. 832 outos. . " € €-\ XVIII.' %. iv Cf. oibev he knoivs. ) ayawrj.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 4. 4. ^. 2. Prepositions. . prepositions listed in these sections. •^. — ^\<. rrj 839 — - 1195... ^ ^ aei. 29 '•^. Position Position of Demonand Attributive. § 104 Pronouns^ § 105 Meanings of Demonstrative Pronouns. poetic for 68. §\llO. ^. .. together with their fundamental meanings. 15. . (?). — oe . — 8. . 5- 6. the man loho does not marry. 5. §§ 123-129: learn the of Article strative . Atcr^vXog. *j. . 6 The Demonstrative Pronoun et? ayei.. 9 2S. 7. 6 §§ 101.

. . ' — — aet avTod.. eivaL 6. - "Ayet 5.. 268.. .g.. 268 "^.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 30 -. " . 11. 12. . ' .. . . ^. 75. 3- 4• . II.. . 2. . 250. 328 ^. .. 448 W. heuva — — . 9- . . 592. 391 W. . . . . Et SeiV become (§ 18). — . ovSev ayei. 16. - step. — %. ... before Herewith Exercise 1. . go. 7• 8. -). Mol•». /cet — — — — — . -.. prepositions in turn with the verbs throw {e. observing that the preposition precedes the verb and that ev and .-. Bel. 877 ".

yap. § it) is poor. C. . which no serious student of tlie Classics can afford to neglect. to miss which is to fall short of apprehending the full significance of ancient life and thought. ev-TV)(ovaiv. . 447. ye in 11. . to suffer.. BODY. — . 1 " that laborious study of words. — MevdvSpov. We desire to recreate the world of Plato and Sophocles. TO § ^ijv 12 — . think what they thought. 120. .. as they saw it. Sdv\ 6. MevdvSpov. to see what they saw. however trivial. . To The Formation M€V § . $. § 185. Cf. .evavhpov. as they thought it and in the wonderful language which they spoke." J. . he {she. ' ^ . . Tot. €. '^€ XIX. however delicate. §§ 190-191. The Vitality of Platonism. of 8. . Adam. and idiom. § 187 . § 196. — M. 12. . 219. in which there may not lurk a subtle force. sympathy. rj iSpaaas you did. ivveaKaCBeKa. MevdvSpov. Cf. i). § 99. there is no shade of expression. to he 14.1 184. {the) to live. no particle. and syntax. 113 d. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK nXovTelv 12. 3• 14 31 — TreVecr^at • € 15- 2. able. — Words. 300. 582. . / . .

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 32 The two negatives pounds : (oi)/c. (§ 144) and .) ^ some of their com- .

. / think. .€'. middle-passive. ^aipeiv . tvish . and Like able § 80. be born. and the subjunctive of the progressive actionI release {for mystem. : §54. upon'''' Like willing. ^ . I am of (eVi)). of The Middle Voice. — ^ iav - . " ' — Ancient Oracle. (/ 1 2 / am F. () self^. - XX. '. become.^ Primary Personal Endings. ^. conjugate I F. '. § 140 Learn the conjugation of the present and future indicative.- et • — . one must {ought to) dismiss (permit it to say '^^ Fare- well "). I understand (Greek conjugate says '''Stand . § 79 B. xaipeiv honor). -THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Et 33 . 3 These verses are an apocryphal version of the famous oracular response regarding Socrates. -. : F. €. . -).' • iav oe 6 .

long ago. '.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 34 TE « . Cf. lego.- . ^) hird. -.-' ' .. best. iciser. See below. still in Koivfj Gen. () () man. -in § 121. (. gain. pleasure take with oneself in. here employed as an adjective. is 6. tl — .€. (Dat. -€ () unroll (a scroll). -08. common Dat.). palseography. ornithology. vir. through (a book. Cf. Cf. horses. . (- pick out. I take delight go etc. . sucivis come. .). the pages. pleasant. « furthermore. more. my friend. -- €. sweet. ^ iv KOLvfj 2. {"'. " . (to) profit. a figliting-cock. Lat. .. £Ti longer. 5 . . eav • 6. turii light. ovs . wa-trep just as. ." ? ?. . (koivos). Cf. Dat. loisest. cynic.-ov 5 opvis pi. (6). ayadov^ 1. " Cf. . (. •8 -8. / delight in writing . please and de- choose out. 19).$. rjoeTaL. still. irois he said. -) dog. § 121. feel see .e. hi-ep^op^ai. . go. TL aya^oi'. i.

originally my Lord ! and was employed by slaves and other subordinates In the New Testament the disciples reguin addressing their superiors.4€ -. written (them). middle-passive '-€ : - - - 40 § a . . being able. see. : ( XXI. etc. : . participle ends and is in : ^^•. 6. § 174. Modes of Address . Compare the refrain common in Greek larly address their Lord as Christian hymns Lord. such as Frequently epithet and name are combined Forms of address like Sir ! or Mr. we 7. -^evos declined exactly like first-second-declension adjective. . have mercy I In ancient Greece his given it name. Herewith Exercise 18. To €8 '<€. but belonged to the language of the slave and hireling. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ypa^pavres which they left in books. good sir ! my friend. Mister is a corrupmeant So tlie common address in Modern Greek. - Note that the . . The Participle with the Article (one) saying (i.-4 -). . becoming. such as thus the who says) this. was the custom to addi-ess one's friend either by employ a complimentary epithet. The ancient " book" was a roll. (. having iv i. understanding. ' et?.e. eav aWrfkot^ — ''. Review Lesson XX..-- - - wishing. . tion of Master. were not in use among equals.e. or else to •4. thinking.. 35 in the form ofioriling.

.. senate. . 285. hear (oneself) icilling. . p- know . . (§ 62) acoustic. interchanged may the loish or will Cf. desire." — when -ov be wealthy. . €) consent.. 232. asked. Cf. plan. . yet. 2. 6..€. «. righteous. . desire. . ov^ — & - in '— . ^. expresses more as a feeli7i(j. will.' . they what they need. prefer. ivell to (spoken of) will. hear (oneself) ill () 8 .F. tcrao'tt' because. worthless. 5. (in poetry also § 27. preference.'''' mean. ^ (JTt. . and synonymous uearly often be F. . Cf. - and () will. F. 3- 4- purpose ? ' aSiKelv 6 slight.THE FIB ST YEAR OF GREEK 36 . more as a rational and -ov just. . .. are and strict distinction. lohoever. . "^ . thyroid. ' ^'. .. wish. be counsel. be willing. to (spoken of). () door. 236. 64. . /tear. wish. BiKaios - () "^ 1. volo. — — — 6 6. . .

' '. infinitive. : Exhortation. shine. "v. likely. Walter Headlam.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 37 . Question. § 167 A. and participle of -the progressive action-stem. 140.4<. answer. § 163. impera- . § 168 A. ^ () ' Conditional Glauses. irepl ' — MeXea7/oo9. c) it is TE () and be answering. . optative. Uses of the Subjunctive tive. infinitive -. . and of the future indicative. But she the garland of the garland shines. waste away. § 156. optative. On Heliodora''s brow the garland pines. § 162. fade. Conditional Clauses. c) Herewith Exercise - 19. likely. as as is lamp. Learn the conjugation of the present indicative and the subjunctive. § 155. die out (of fire). Cf. and participle of and of § 79 § 80. — Translation by Dr.' a) b) Uses of the Optative a) ' v' : WisTi. as it seems. /cat To A€VT€pov *0 /3<?. Review §§ 54. b) Potential. XXII. -\.

. aya^ov. . uter ? ? . § or? . proper name more. €<rTi tivtp if indeed. ^. . ^ . e/Aotye. ^— »' if Topylq. irepl more shameful. least. neither. . 187 TO TO . ooKei YloTepov . ^ Tt % 15 etrrt . by about the head (poetic). no means. %<. . ^ aoLKeiv ] . . certainly not . fj . crown. a as Polus. . () wreath. ' ye. . " enrep . it is yi certainly most.-? () shameful.. )(^... € ^ worse.• ^ . Common colt. 469. is it (of two) ritrum €( very. . which irOTcpov.. . -jrOTepos § 194. . ^. 8 -a . ) ' eoLKC. \\. . . ' Kakof re SiJTa. . . eivai. It 5 € aoiKeiv . 474. an () whether ? - ! land. .. iroTc'po . Stephen.THE FIRST YEAR OF GRERK 38 . €. : gar- Cf.

— the son of Archida'mus. €. avSpl 7• 8. question 1. ^ .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Uorepov whether . . . . Mei>avSpo^. . : 161. -— . — . 3• elvai 9e\e... Classical Greek regularly employed irbrepov ij.. ^^.. . . . . usage in archaic English — Beaumont. ecrrt 479. Meyiarov 346. ... . . ap^eiv re 215 D. is .. ' -^8— . 2. " — 6. -^ 164 ^.^'' ."" ^. II. — 32. ij .. Psyche. . 6. '^ — ..^.. 5• " iv . ^ — ' — — /. 245. . . .or? to introduce the two members of a direct alternative . . ' . . .. — yiyvov 714. -. 366. is studied... Compare the that youngling king. '.. ) . . {utrxim " Whether 39 . <. . 9• . 4• 33. . for a man. . 7. an . Agis. 631. Herod or ?).

iroLelv. regard. ^. suppose. . ' XXIII. elBevai I think eihevaL I do elvai I do not know. ) Conjugate the verbs in the following phrases 1) ^ think 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) ovK <. ^ (or elhevai (X think : to know^ 1 I know. To - TTOielv. think. Conjugate in the same way I believe.-. - (first ). infinitive. Xeyetv disgraceful I con- sider the telling of falsehoods. tive. optative. present indicative of /xot is otei. hold. not oCtj. believe. deem. not think I think I am '^ wise. I know. Herewith Exercise 1 20. suppose. — ^/?. elvai. (€) {^ regard. F.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 40 . impera- - and participle of the progressive action-stem of I am making for myself § 81 B. person singular also F. and the subjunctive. Contract Verbs in -€ Learn the conjugation of the : present indicative. The second person singular. A'erbs of thinking (see § 179) : hold as customary.

). F. ol oe • re 5 '. in which way. and. point out.. elScvai to . § 115. ' . ().€. indicate. make pl^n^ €-€. . try you will reap the fruit ! {6$. in the Sv § 195. ^. TE () o€oaL F. . -. ^ " Kat € elSevai eiSevat. . . . Aevopos '.). to. -eivai crlyfj — turn. think manner..fiS-). infin. — do not even be suspected. do not even permit yourself be suspected. practical). foi5. to .-. in which. having learned. () rpoiros way . fare (wpay^• pragmatic. way. OIMAI ". -. () everywhere (oD where). ) . olSa. Et " § 113 e. deliberate." €. - § 115. take care of (Gen. . know 41 secretly (fe'S- signs Cf. KaC both . . . .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . . -\€. . . care for.. do. semaphore. T€ . suspect. elSevau.

4• 5- 6. 136.. 560 . 114. . . one has at one time.' aya^ct. — — ^. " another another. .. .^. ^ ett'at . . . — 9• . .^ irepi yap ) . ).^ . . aStKeiv 2. 8. . '.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 42 (another says another {thing)) one says one thing. dicit.. — '. .. . . .^. 3- . . — 310. another at another. — . alius aliud « 1. — : — 6 . . . "^ )() . ^. 7- — — MevavSpo^.

. and written in the old. ! — Translation by Dr. 8. . To . Attic alphabet (date c. • \ (6 = -.- Walter Headlam. §§ 79 .). Review the forms already learned . xf)v)(r)v My cr^erXt'. 80 of . Kairj^. Avev {) without living wisely.g. ^— soul that swims in fire forbear. thou wretch ." . 0€. to burn so oft She too hath wings. is possible. . ' XXIV. will fly aloft. . 600 e. 11. Or she having received .^^orA| :• Al ^l . name. 10.. ©Z^Or TOY TO LAXO^ rA ^' . for any one.. A metrical tomb inscription found in Attica. atet. beware. Love. alel (del) () I shall always this be called a maiden.^ ? THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK II ^^rA 43 CDP4 ^ lkV>^» A ^ i<fei<t. too much. 7.). ck it without (Gen. . 81 ..

$. «yireSov firm. many times. lasting. . ' Cf. | XXV. . and vv| night. § € 30 A. not take-in-exchange Value or Exchange. ttovos). the verbs cited in these sections. virtue. '€ to. . poor. €. possessions. -/€///€^ '^ - ' e^et. of are the vulgar In this quotation the and breeding. () imng. (0) Love. be = penury. TE . pi. toil. burn. To •^ The Third Declension learn the declensions of — : Read carefully goad. --. unflinching. cruel. Cf. flight. ' <^. . Tot Cf. and encaustic work (cf. Ace. . fugio. : Herewith Exercise 21. rrjs apeTrjs rbv loe loill their wealth for our respectability (Gen. () / flee. () F. § 116 e).) () aUi F.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 44 Master Formation of the Future §§ 61. 62 (entire). "Epws ? ' ^ aet. — 315-318.^ . _ (in poetry also () ) . excellence. vT^pvyas. the ayaOoi those of good birth . . ^ set fire (- (--). €. the soul sioimming in fire. ('? Eros.

. 0eov. — •% veot .. /c eariv. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK lion. *< () () dirk. ^\. Eros. 6 irats child. deov oiSe 3• left side. . . critic. . . Tod 4- left- .)( 52. §34. () () " 45 22 . awkward. ' ) 2. anchor. ' € — %/. distinguish. voice. bo-ns whoever. - () (§ 61 d) separate. Cf. () -ovTos old man. ). 269 cr/cta . 1. < -. on the -6v - -oi/ highest {of all). Cf. boy. judge. \ ^. 4. . of 7^p(ov €$ man^ mother. Cf. 27. Ace. W. Tt ' 509 ajKvpai '^ 623 €^^^ €<. ^. . experience ivithout ? - (Gen.€. () -wTos love. F. father. § 33 31 - . yap iare . <.). § Greek. large knife. . ovic — 6. divinity.. — 5• megaphone. handed. — )— . . loutish. ^ .

. -€ •' ^. TtTxapes. - W. (?). 9• . —) ^. They serve to remind us of "the eternal boyhood of the Greeks " 6.. § 51. Plato tells us that these words were said to have been spoken by an Egyptian priest in the course of a conversation with the Athenian statesman Solon. . Review the preceding of the make sweet. . 164 . '—— €^. THE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK 46 " 7. and add the declensions . To " . 4. giving grace. 121.it bis perfume - perishes. . 10. ttJ 5 . to -. . Tpcis. avSpl / yvvrj. XXVI.. : the e^.. — 634. lesson. -. nrepl — same error. 8. 9. tioice to perfume (). .. numerals €is Herewith Exercise 22.

upbraid. stature -ijpos ^ Cf. . ^. .. () immortal. TLKTeLv.^ . 408. 1. he graved or impressed. ^. . --. F. 2. Orcus. ) . 25.. 6\. character." — . " 168. loithovt . distinctive ^.FIRST YEAR OF GREEK TE .. § 39. • — Ne/u. F. growth. hydrophobia. ^. bloio. 4- 6. () . . breathe. : reproach. /. .. fox. mark a en- mark. -at -a -? -bv Xeaiva opKos 1.•. 9 -5 47 — — . trast -ov () . " 3• () () Cf. 6 ^. lioness. Et? ecrrt ^ bear to. -e/cos give birth -). € ^^ good in ^ . health (vyieia). 7• Ov/c vale! water. — MevavSpov. (?)) {-).make known F." ^. mortal F. () () both.• Con- banquet-song. drant. ot . . *^^/ 5- " ^/^'. hy- {). usu- ally in this sense as a passive €. -i(j fraud € ? (? () () cunning). 1. . oath. —^ — €1/ 26. (rsK-. ^. - F..

Learn the declension of A. 5. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 48 avhpl 'TytaCveLV 8.. § 50 - being. - being loved. appearto be young with one's friends. § doing. Uses of : the ol8a. Participle ^. Sevrepov 8e \ " TO '. being with. — one (only). and \iyov felling. by 2. to become beautiful in growth (stature. -. . . first aet. Herewith Exercise 23. being present. 18. rjherat and Exercise The 99 2. to ^^ \j* f - § 129 g. ance). . * XXVII.. : - making. Decline . 8. active participle of the progres- - and is declined accordand third declensions the masculine and . '-€$. . ' iwi are of the for giving birth same race. Gods and men 7^vos (to) race.. — sive action-stem has the suffix ing to the \6<^ : neuter being of the third declension. To yap Review Lesson The < XXI Participle. .. The mother of both is the Earth. .. the feminine being declined like § 28. . §§ 173-176 (especially with .

3- 4- 5- 6. another. . . () due measure. thrive. TTotet — € § 197. makes no differ- eiJwopoi. 627. . Cf. am / ). cv the right €€ barometer. hoio ! that < (= '). oihiv bear apart. . € () \ ( -yvo-. ^ . T^ 1. () -6v av ' Papvs heavy. ear) — Kat — . ^^ 405. — . Cf heterodoxy. later. muddle. — Mevav'^pov. 532. . hysteronprote- roii. (71 •€ (of two). . 6 ).. believe (in) (Dat. ovScrcpos ovScVcpov turn again. puint of lime. eariv . Cf. 2.. JliaTeveLv Set ? as. differ..-€€ «^. (« remember ! trust.. in. ? such (a case). .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 49 TE -/ -. per. the Cf. — ^^. have faith (in). €T€pov other. appears (so). ^ ther. — .. 7• nei- . pros- it -. 446.. 25 Kaipos endurable. be it all in a (Imperative). 558. 354. know). opportunity. find a tvay (iropos). Cf. he ignorant iyvoia. ence. ).

. . . 6 . . . 6 8. ^..• Tt 6 . ^ . loves not to be loved in return whenever one'loves another {) is it by this one not possible for one whom he loves? . . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 50 8. escapes his 10. . 7. ^.' 15 . . TLva i^rj. who own . 6 5 ' — 9• . ovhkv ^-. . . . '. 6 Nat. . t he fails to observe that he %- (. ' ianv yap ev — 398 . . "E/xot-ye . . 1. . etc. ? . -. /.^ ^^ . ovSpov . 6 . $ . Tt ' . is a bore (he notice being heavy) rls ^. .» .. . — . ^^'. . 6 . ^Eo'Ttl•'. . lohich.

.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . is . . ^ from they do not see.^ — ?. ^ - • 1 €\< ^. . ^ he got. - 4• "8 XXVII). m . ^ . 2. . they observe very accurately. full of evils {faults). he had.. To Tliareoetv Bel Copy ) - 701 ^ . . * they made. several times the selection (Lesson 1. /cat 51 ^ ypaOs (Ace.^ ^ 410. themselves. ( ? XXVIII. evTv\eiv. pulled out the hairs.. — ' ^ . . ^ . .. 3• eluoai. ^ ? - ' • '' ^ . ^.^.. ypaOv) an old wovian.'/^ *Avrjp . — 2 — — MeVaz/8/309.. .

- - : €K€ivos -. forbid (Infin. Ace. with happy. 40. € XXIX. should have a thorough mastery of the pronouns -. os . both words and phrases. a good genius blessed (). Review Lesson XV and Exercise 13. (). §§ 166 B. I said). 641. Herewith Exercise 24. up- visible. as presented in Lessons XXV-XXVIII and of the forms of the verb indicated in Lesson XXIV. 29. they permit.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 52 Before proceeding to the following lessons the pupil $.).-. Moreover. II b (7). §§ 28. ' — . of the third declension. €«•() said I (mid 8 pu7ush. 168 B. it (and he and ' said). clearly. os said he braid. 170. 167 B. dear. avTos . is clear. Indefinite Relative and Temporal Clauses.5. employed in Lessons IXXVIII and in Exercises 1-23. . .. . -6 prevent. - () he a slave strike at. he should make himself master of the vocabulary. The Infinitive Avith Verbs of Preventing. €( () manifest. . € €. allow. . To 'Aei "\ Seovre^ «:09 . '}'. . - TE €. of the first and second declensions of nouns and adjectives.. §§ 21-25. § 172.

spirit. €. qiiam. ei ae €€ 5 ere SrjXov yap .• €. ^ of 65e. () Tpoiros(o).-^^. € ere . ' . quam beatissimns. . soul. Socrates is seated with the lad Lysis upon a bench in a gymnasium at Atliens. ere 1. . desire. thus. . ourws (oSros). and is later repeated and expanded. superlative sail). eivai 6 . IVsis) of Plato extends through Lesson XXXIII.) I suppose. happy. € . - . . 6 . (0) Lysis.3* • . eoye. ' ey. altogether. Cf. . . . 53 eivai ere 6 ' . blessed. ]^€ " yeveadai. . as follows. 1 This selection from the Lysis (pron. A'l OY. as happy as pos- elvai . ? 5 Xeye. -8 Adv. -. $ ( (i/iai) (ttiSs () voyage with .. «- Voc. (end. (€ yap ^^ sible. AE ye.•). V very much. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK $ = -is «5 ? . MEN ' iyco. Tiiese particles suggest a certain hesitation in putting the ciuestion. suppose . . ^- Nat ovSev eVt- - ye. methinks. -lov in every way. . i SWvdx^viXi^ %\ TiO^ . ye ^ eVt- €. .

F. sell. sale. . bridle. execute. . (). Herewith Exercise 25. ^' — etc. - F. XXX.. money {Apyvpos (0) silver). in truth. any one. reins. MEN Xeyet? elvaL pay (a debt). tcages. § 35. 9. () . Lat. § 27.. The Third Declension Learn the declension of ris who? what? and tis tl some one. ? () hire. €-« turn (over) to . PI. ^evos race.. / To . with Verbs of 115 g. § 32. (they are eager) they eagerly con- . § 19 for pay. . --- furthermore. " . . and Genitive of Price. vero. () - («).). one. TE () rule. permit.• ' from (Gen. Ruling. . . cf. driver . -ov free. is the indirect form of ttws. etc. also of TO chariot. § • : . . to oVoi. () (for surely. ('£) . Value. § 116 e.. - be happy. . verily. sider how you might Trot €^ ? become. () hired servant. en- trust to. -- offer () « () q^tid vero 9 coined silver. etc.- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 54 8. ^' ae 6 . b) bring to an end complete. '^. .

). 55 then 9 etc.. 22. is an intensive particle. . &v they would permit (cf. (& is is ifev). ^ . etc.. ^ .. fjv 2 . e. .. . 3° .. . . § 192. (- when he takinrj). rj . §§ 106. 116 MEN ^. . \ - . - r^ ' Ecrrt Tt9 ) 19. . : 25 whom . . . ecocrt . 20. upon {some) one. . if you-cnnceive-a-desire to ride . employed with great frequency after interrogatives. . . . 6 35 . ^. €^17• . Se' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -) < . ^.. and . 26. . . . . ' . . contending (in a race). and to take (strictly but .

iraid-aywyas. .. ? hoio f (the tone is scornful). -OVTOS ruler ? of course. II. " Coals to Newcastle.v. irXeiovos they Tjyodvrai 33. means. 30. . by all . € {%). the 6. again.? ^ 178. Cf. their affairs.).''^ . in turn. €. furthermore. -- . 6€. mule team. doubtless. Cf. whence 9 wherefore no one. intentionally. TE . slave very altogether. . The Third Declension §§ 30-35. . : strike. - -ov your {i^eh).TEE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 56 28. XXXI. still. To — An owl to Athens. Herewith Exercise () lead. (to) () 32. '. . (Gen. The Genitive with Verbs of Touching. § who many wholly. . . The 6. 34. think more of. . handle touch. The Reflexive Pronouns : : § 23. . yes. at- (). ^ .v is repeated later &v. €. () 115 26. . () (). loillingly. hold in higher esteem. 31.& etc. TOUT eVrt. c. ^ muleteer. -ov our surely not () tended a hoy. 29.

MEN € €.. yoip . ' ^.^ 6 . .MEN (5et- Accusative and infinitive construction .. This is the interrogative ris -). -. is free. ei's . . . ^.• 4° . he sets over ' .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . . /ipxei Ti's ..• . . carried his writing-tablet. 40. €- ia-Ti) . ^ ). . ^ . € /. 7rat3a7w70s 41. § 114. . yap. . musical instruments. ' ). ^. 47. A' ap^etv . etc. ' / / < -. ". ^l•» oe " . after deivov 44.^ ^ eVt . ^' 57 . is a familiar figure on Athenian vases. SovXov . 50 .• '' . .• ]. . ( The slave who conducted the Athenian lad to school.. . . . for one who ( surely it-is-a-dreadful-thing upon). 8. €. . etc. . ' . . 45 6 39.

• tire day. 54. -^ rear. BaSi^e aury 110. arrange. life. put in or- der. nourish Contrast turn. - he of age. (c) Modest Assertion. fKeiv-q you may ^r when{ever) you return home. ^ . . § her.€8. now. at be her 51. To Aevrepov ^/ Uses of ^9. not yet what. . eXerjs . 48-56. {') time of {it § 121. § 160. . almost. •7€. assign €. .58 . . a task to (one).' 48. . SHE permits. yet. \ — . 62. . why? 'pray? jitst ieivos .- €. (-). § 158 ditional Clauses. station. (^ for happy hoy in any respect. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 'H/act^cXet? el 55 ' €. § 155. . () wait for. Tt 52. a minute ago. «- \J-^ ^ ' -' . . iireiSav 49.. .1 OS ^ 75. Adv. 167 Make an ys that § 120 a).f . . dreadful. . (d) Con- (e) Final Clauses. Tc hvcuA nr^ -TAn^i^pAjflLW OuC^Aw'^^^ 4-P ^^AinwvjCUU) . §§ 165. (a) Exhortation. post. siirely you havenH wronged XXXII. await (). eg. intensive study of the passage contained in the preceding 11. . § Subjunctive: 156 . . €vi « . Tivos () on what account. -- ?. TE -€ . . § 116 b). "- . lacks little. <C. the (b) Question. age. • iyco. in this case. and he said with a laugh. . throughout the enin a icord. pray? what in the world? why? here. all.. ..

. /Vvfi/'^ ^ (\ THIS. . .3. § 102). 6. . MEN ' TLVo'i AE ^? -\6- ^^ ). iwei 6 . ye iwei ere. e\yoev whereas just speaking (iv toutols etc. . iya. ) - €. 66. SovXevopTa aet ovhev . . .^-^ . 62.' .. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 59 . iv ots 5e & iv ttj you first of those. in those matters of iiyoev. 60. referring to . iv 6\iyov you 70 . 4 • - • . $ vayvrjva ij /\. .. yap . doing almost none of the things modifies desire. V. ' J^ . ak 72. e^eerrt erot . "§ . Avert. ] . ^7^ ^^7^ 6 6 ' /. -. ere.. ^• .^^^-.' ere ivl "' OY. \. fj ^. 158. . () 61. 65. ^. '^ ye roaovde since such a matter as \. %€. eivai . which we were .r|va^ something either to be read or to he written. ypa. . 65 iv .

experiment) -ojOs very well ! opos () manage manage. ' — Mevav8po<. trial. . experience {iv). director). (as TE ' 6 -\\) .. £( rule. 11.. () - inexperience (-..-. have ?iotise-steward. be Cf. . . --'. as a direct. Cf. . Dictation exercise based The on 48-56. The Formation of the Reflexive Pronouns. of Declension Future. § 23. 26. hold sway {over).. prevail {-) stand over charge ( of. boundary. hear. To /7€/[) }? TOi a7reipia<i .. ' ' . 169.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 60 XXXIII. neighbor. of {-). - () master perceive. Review Exercises 21. household manadministration. . limit. economy. ^see. § 115 g) Cf. . () () () 75 () Cf. () might). . horizon. § 27. etc. § 61. crov thrift. . '\ 6 . () £ agement. 25. aesthetic.. MEN Ele v. well then! bo-ir€p which very {one). standard. (Gen. tis. - sufficient.

'--- ^ Tpei//et '^ ^ 6 ^^(. . ^. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . ^^ 86. ..• otet 'E/xot aot ". I uLcM irorepov otet t7)v 8 cre . go 95 w\ et$ which we become expert (6$ wise. . 85 . to-believe . . MEN ^ . this day. .. ' ^. Tt8e.. . .. ' • € . -^ . on on the very day on which he-comes- . 75. in ' . - \$ ^.^. . '^ '"' to be . . . in these {matters) sagacious) Cf." -. . so.'. V' . .^.. .

is the progressive action-stem. A. . § 79. §§ 53-56 ment. the first As we have of the action-stems. ^.. forms () the past imper- and () the past imperfect indicative. eh . () ^. . (come-to-possess). See § 133. seen (Les- upon which the Greek verb is built. Verb-roots. . infinitive. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 62 Stand in one's way. 93. both active and middle. Conjugate in the same way manding. . . imperative. . B. impede. 94. In the indicative two tenses: tiie mood this stem. using as the type-verb. that ichich seems best.. . row — The Verb.^ all of the forms built upon the progressive action-stem. . 95. and particiconjugational system of ple. TToOs eis . and upon this stem are formed a subjunctive. . § 52 Personal-endings Aug(thematic and non-thematic formations). - so fa)• as. Te'rapTOv -^ '^ ^. . 92. (-)). . ' . -/) preventing^ writing^ I am Usually called for the sake of brevity simply imperfect tease or imperfect indicative. etc. impedio F. (a) the present tense^ and fect tense . urging^ com- / ).90. . . § 135. & . . § 57 Meanings of the Imperfect. son VI). The pupil should now master moreover. / 1 I am a7n eating : €€ I am am (Past-Impf. The Progressive Action-stem. hinder. (^iv . XXXIV. optative. agree with {'). or («) the present indicative. .

''^ . taking counsel. -. et%oy). Past-Impf.. of - Extent of time." . Past-Impf. -. Cf. the days. 228 . () (). . € (- truly () turn (over) i-ir-^rpeirov intrust to. I am holding. . Impf. Past-Impf. TE . every day (all . () a groom. - iw-erpenev- "^-^. § 113 f. I have /m's/t. lam 63 becoming. Past-Impf. diatribe. comb). comb. plural." — lying. Herewith Exercise 27. Usually () manger. Past-Impf. curry {ktcLs turn ^^ () barley. amivilling. . | THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK di/ing (Past-Impf. \/. " eivaL. day. ---. I am - lam -^. -). erpenov (o). $ . to. Ace. prevented. allow (Dat. €) -.). (Past-Impf. EN ovre if — 6 ' .). permit. (Past-Irapf. () eat. rub. TTjs avTTJs. to eat. Cf. yiyvo- heiyig I am answering (Past- ^). ephemeral.

. 29 decline . . — T7}S 4. Like TO l^cvYos yoke ^ 2 "Ytvos '. ^ \iyeiv ok 6 '^^ aoeiv. the strings (veOpa) yesterday. -.'77^5. '. : . and § .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 64 \ /. . -. . ". vevpa I changed past imperfect of 176. € . — XXVI. the three types of neuter § word 32 {cf. . epic) tvall (of a city). Review Lesson nouns to : §35. >}. • rjoov -^&} ' \oirrov . .€\\)< 5 ^ vevpa TYjv €. '. € € XXXV.

fountain..). () 65 -$ a small gate. come in. re . (a come alongside. however.) (to).). . (6) veavio-Kos here. spend (time).-)). opposite against (Gen. lohere. truly. near the postern. pos- () gate). waste (time). proceed. to (Gen. to. go. . '. Cf.^ ^. () worthy. the surely.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK - -. ?. TE rub €. opposite. () Cf. » . € ' () (- straight toward. . ( () tern over youth.. «. (. Lyceum. ^1 ' -? . in this place. . -. rub away. spring. o|ios -. -lov worth lohile. (rj) = 07it?ide. without (Gen.<. ). Thermopylae. () young man. . be on one''s loay. ^) (' in the place oppo- Iv site. -. the heave alongside. ^ev ret^o? • -. an enclosure (- noQtv. Scvpo hither. pastime. -. ^ - . throw Academy. lohence? trvXLs \ in which place. ineLOrj - 5 . A' Meve^ivos. () () boat) through.

a door Standing open. exact location both Hippo' thales. 979-980.. '] — '. oe. is . .. the son Note the of Hiero'nymus. . (). Whom -- seeing (as he saw) do you tovs mean To ^ ' % approaching. eiOii 12... . . . ) . became). epyco ' ©€07^9. Panops {). ' tjv Aevpo. . " (9). . XXXVI. €^ /cat ^. . . . Herewith Exercise 28. . former of Athens. 6 ' 15 1. and Ctesippus of the deme of Paea'nia. (lit. to the ) Plato established his school in the Academy. . . ' ?. 6.'-€. . § 195. with a gesture toward. pointing out. position of re 6. I «. deltas 13.. of § 91 (and and learn the conjugation of Review the conjugation €. Aristotle his in the Lyceum. the latter to the east. • . fJOL re § 92). 3.. /cat . ' so in line 13. 4. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 66 evOv Aevpo Xeyet?. along the road OUtside.? (-) --. €. -^ 2. 10. am going. ". eyw. Sij. when I arrived the spring of nacoTTos not known. ^-. . €. § 93. by me /xas. . I came upon Its etc. i//xas represents us 'F" . the These were gymnasia in the suburbs north of the city.

recently built. emphasizes i'Stjj. . 2 . • ' 6. - with. Emphatic. used as a future (. later than -ov (Gen. . ? -- . § 189. sequor). . professor. . ' 25 § 198. {acting beautifully) you are very kind. .sufficient.). ' oe uicrrt OTj €. ^. follow (Dat. noielv. together () admirer praise). ^. ye ^^? eVecr^at.. after. . recently {vios). e-ov e 16. €. craft). lohat . .4 ^ -^. must part. 18. - . '. worthy. . /.<. I went in. /caXcDs 20. (-.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 67 TE () am I oi & going . () a master (of one's for the gladly {s). taking C. ( -( () at the £ same time. eyoj. • . able. . ' ^. € . tl €. . (TO J 23. & IS? €-€' ' ye. wrefitling- school wrestle). 19.. oe ev ' So? oe €.) Cf. which we would share loith you (§ 115 a). . () palaestra. 24. ^]. sophist. iVa /cat 4. /. K. iCdrjs in order that you may SEE. -\> . ye a comrade of YOURS.

. Observe the free use of the participial construction . Trans- the duties at the altar scarcely yet completed. . {having been adorned) dressed in festal . loilhdrawing. 36. etc. actually moving their mouths to I . . : . playing. 6 35 Si 27. if sudden. Part. ev ^ avXrj.$ iraWas iepe7a (Perf. Pass. play at "Put ' odd and Cf.. 6 and attire. . Part. Note the position. having sacrificed) - xvith the offerings scarcely . {- even''). . selecting. the sacrifices finished 5).- We found the boys. late - -. - . charm side by side with you look at his canvas on the laugh and speak and munch alongside of that. {they) Stood around. 33. .) the {duties) connected completed {having been done) .. and for life-like Murillo's Beggar-boys (you catch them. ^\$ (Perf. ^ 31. . )-^ ) ) ) .( (-\€ 27-29. -- Oil entering we found. -)€% .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 68 . -^^ 3 ' re )()^ . : -- .

for a time. €. shrink (from doing) (past-impf. so as to. all the boys are in full dress to take part in a religious ceremony. -^)) () (^Stand apart {- (§ 61 (end)). 114. ). 69 There at once) the scene in the Lysis of the dice-players. The Verb Learn the conjugation of the past-imperfect . . meanwhile. Mid. strive. ." p. TE (€ -. noble between. Plato and Platonism. .. frequently. gard at. he was clearly. . repeatedly. . § 19 b). Intensive. in the same way. £. thereupon. 8 •) well-born. . and conjugate in like manner (active the past-imperfect of : he at a loss. so that. \^ To Interrogative Sentences (Direct and Indirect). § 178. .£) with {epis () -tSos strife). some just outside the door. -ov {yev-. - (Past-Impf. look (). is — Pater. others in a corner. It scarcely over. re- () - 7£vvatos ' . for dispute. vie observe. § 81 A-B. . ^ - - in the midst of play. then. hesitate (past-impf. : and middle-passive) of the contract verbs in -€. . -. but they are already busy with the knuckle-bones. in the midst.. turn (twist) about. . ). .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK their crusts. hesitate. Herewith Exercise 29. XXXVII. . turn oneself around. 6.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 70 .. 55 43. . to approach. ) 45 ^ eihev e/xe re /cat 6 emero ^ Meve^evov ' 5 • . . ep^erai. -$ ticiple of ^-. iyaXaffav they laughed. --..^-. ivith more beautiful. --'- -€€. 52. eireira 6 etcr- . . ' --. . 4 rjnopei re fxeu -4 coKveL -. ' eyeXacral•' . to come toward. . . ). jei 46. . . I shall not they said. a glance toward. . - he came to sit (loion beside. 53. Purpose. . Future Par- . . ask. lohen he saw. 54. 50. ' • . ws 44. in this respect.^ . -\. § 175. . .. looking at. ^ ^/> ovu 6 . 40-41...

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK XXXVIII. attempt. etc.. tl — 72 ev The Participle with the Verb The Four Uses of the Optative § 176 . . am gone. gain. § 179.. am come. < "^.. the act of learning. (). -•5 88 .).. : a) Wish. ~6 . (Past-Impf. c. Conditional Clauses. hit ) .) to I have come. I have € II. () -- put one\s hand (xeip) to (a work). eSo/cet Tvy^aveLv. chance. / asked. declare. happen (constantly used with part. § 168. /. () () ing hack () recollection.. to ask. tling.- ' ) < teacher of wres- gymnasium-master 8l- -. () to a call- memory. saying. . obtain. XXXVIl). § 162. d) Indirect Discourse.).. say (Acc. Meve^evov. To <{ 71 \ OKTO) . B.-Infin. c) ^?. Intensive Study of 11. b) Potential § 163. TE -€. participle to (and Plupf.)• Perf. chance upon. 46-55 (Lesson . '--^ gonr. () a etc. a sort of (Gen. hit upon.

. . To SeovTes ' V Comparison of Adjectives: (a) Regular. . . . 56-68. ' . . it ye. . 6 . found in Lessons the point of asking dirorepos . . " - he was (as charge of the sacrifice). 48. review §§ 27. \€ . . stand). *?. €- (). Yjv (The continuation XXIX-XXX 56. 59. chanced) acting as iepoiroios (a magistrate v:ho officiated at sacrifices). To . * . inclusive. XXXIII and 89-45. of this passage is .. II Avcnv ovv XXXIX. tions of the XXXII. vms calling (him). 30-35. . Read carefully. caused to saying that the gymnasium-master - he appeared to he officiating at the . 58. approaching he summoned (lit. (b) Irregular §§ 46-48.-- I teas on eSo/cet . the found in Lessons . Herewith Exercise XL. Intensive Study of Review Lesson XXX porto 30.) should iir-exeipovv § 179. . sacrifice {to be in it ' . 50 11. •^ ' be read carefully in review. The Third Declension A-B () as in the preceding lesson. .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 72 €€ €u' ^.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 73 €. § 194. Similar to these are contract verbs in -. . (} honor . know! \/. whisper. : {cf. hour. (). -). () death secretly. \9 .). value. TE . worth. (active Learn the conjugation of the verbs in : voice) () : Conjugate - )'€« ()() ask (a question^. laugh. 115 Desiring. 161. 5. I g^o». . (Wov Isaid. clearly. To MoVo9 '. thana- unnoticed by (Gen. iv d. Past-Impf. XLI. am paying (for eVe- •••- tlvi say kriow well! ev Cf. going away. love passionately {rf. TAtvt^ivov without the notice have gone. () season. at this topsis. — ^.. say. again. Cf. which however are far less numerous than those in -€. airep the very things which. ((5/)) see. {-. thereupon. I shall say. tell. Cf. § 82 A. and ask {a question). then. etc. «. ipa. I declare. - have come. § of Menexenus. same way in the for. honor} yearn (e/aa) desire.8. Genitive with Verbs of Herewith Exercise 31. The Verb Contract verbs in -€ constitute a very large and important class. time. § 19 b). attention. moment () = '^ () . boyishly. j)layfully. it is time to be air-ievai. ! ws to the best of one^s ability. . therefore. back again. cf.

also to Men. ). .''^ tell. . . idiomatic {to . ' - ' 6 . is .. . ' 6 iv Meve^evo^ .. . . fxe €9... ' eiVijs to recall. . - . . 4 y ipei^. . • . . Avert • . ' ).. 8 -^. - . . .^ 6 65 Meve^evov. %.. . -^. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 74 . .. . ^--- from (in the place) X^ets. had arisen lohich he The (68) ''also to me mnemonic go) out (whence also he stood up (to go) out). . . . 72. Cf. ) 75 65. \ 70 . cf. (). ^/. etc. . in order that you may . . ]. --).• '\. ' ' . dvep 71.

() he feasting. TE «- . paSiov — . () possession. — The Grenitive Absolute. fjf. . the fellow. To AevTcpov mind any one (have no care for ' 9 ? 78. etc. Intensive Study of ^?. 2^ossess. XLII. The Verb Learn the conjugation in - : ^ Like § 82 B. or|s you may • reprove see . being asked (a question) getting possession 2. )? ear ipdv. 6 —^ € TOL $ 77. ' \)<. 85. . ^ Kara-y^XaffTos 81. / am 358. . Vesta. stock? 83.^ ovhev rjhlov ipdre 7]^ ?. § 175 g. 85 . 75 that you aid me in order that I {see how you may become a laughing- .• ('). the chap. €$ doiiH you any one). . give a share of. -. . . . Cf. 11. () hearth. . ' ^TEE FIRST YEAH OF GREEK . banqueting. pos- session. you share. 64-75 (Lesson XLI). Cf. of. Cf. croL.. 8 .). I am acquiring. KTfjo-iS --. () the (act of) possessing. ' €wi-Kovp^aeis shall. conjugate .. 84. of the contract verbs (middle voice).

- • ^. . child value. timocracy. ortygan. ) .. toward these. . . () gold). . . . . but he says he thinks .. -€ \6yv you . . 6 — - -/^. Cf. .. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 76 () () % '. honor Cf. . knows. . (rd) . -(? toioOtos . . €. 92. money .^' ' 95 (). . coined gold. . 5 mildly. 6 . ' . -^. • . () (such) as. such (as) toiovtos calmly. Cf. .! . 6. . . olos. . . . ' . ' . . 90. irpos (-. 6 go ). .. -. ortyx. share your conversation. tohat () -v7os quail. gently. () -ovos cock. .

103. ireipa). of Socrates. (Gen.^ la.8.) Tiixovs.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 95. or . Cf. TE £8( ££$ - () consider (one) fortunate experienced in (Gen. . Herewith Exercise 32. . (Infin. II. no . vi] .. of. empiric. ' () with the Participle. rbv A favorite oath to get 104. ^. olos 175 e € § 172.) (a) far from {G&n. 6 S. 93-106 (Lesson XLIl). Intensive Study of <..< . . ( /s). () quickly ($). A - XLIII.) (-). tachyg- raphy.V The Athenians were fond 102. c was an fighting-cock espe- . are .. . . possession To «. ' . : night. whatever I ask you. easily Cf. Quails also were domesticated and used in various sports. § 195. re veoi ' ^ \ '. § of pets. cial favorite.te at Indie). (if. : (b) far along in •£ so as so that to. . . 11 11.

110. . . Intensive Study of § : . of the 115 6 ^. . Herewith Exercise 113 e). . - . ^. . . ) . (. . ^. iav 20 ?. in lohat way (). . : . . . Middle (Passive) Participles iroiovp-evos. ^. SoKOV(Ti \ yap 125 ^'/< . €. . ' - 33. . 6 ' . €. 111. €( XLIV. . €5. 6 . . 6 Tt . (JvKovv .8' . 11. .: THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK 78 ' you acquired. fJLOL ju. 113. ' . . . . I' 6 Sia } -. To Declension of the Active Participles 50 § . -. . 107-113 (Lesson XLIII).€ ^. %^ . .

s an re € () . €• XLV. eSo^ev.. lam well off. rj ^^ y^P? eivai . favorites. which lovers Cf. . Cf. . is it ivLore 122. To in etc. have a way totally at a loss. -€ accent. set in motion. dis- up. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK lav re ) . deliciae. 124. Sokcl Review the past-imperfect (active and middle) of verbs -. €. . ' . 137. - "EotKei^.. €$)... 11. stir summon. Intensive Study of -. 123. and Uses of the past-imperfect. . § pay heed 115 h) regard (Gen. find out. (eviore 135 possible for one-whn-loves.) the very {experience) ). sometimes I suppose 133. differently (it) seemed. -((. -- call to (one). be vexed. to . I am (to do). (Cf. (. intensified otherioise. 6 /cat ^€€ 79 130 ev ) . § 135. 127-137 (Lesson XLIV). TE () feel irritation. drive away. . ' -» --- ?.. oe. etc. -. kinetic. their darlinys. . annoyed. - cover. I am do). speak with a foreign speak somewhat () brokenly. 134. all in am able (to a muddle. move. . -€. s (?). ' 120. € . %..

i^-evpdv ice were able to discover. ^. ^ -. brought to an end. . 153. 152. -. -. place. . I . . € € 5 150. &- like {evil) spirits. . as they tcere going away. yeybva^ev ' Slaves were usually foreign-born. . -€\€ 148. . .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 80 () iripi-t^rr&Tts the bystanders. ^. . ice dissolved. . 145. count. . € € iv «-. conversation late in the day. -^ iv 6 145 a being together. ^ ^ \ . intend. . 6 " ' - ' 150 .() . 139. 147. ' -. late. — 138. . then.. 8> . after saying these things. ^ . ' 140 6i/>e " {-). in- tercourse. yielding to them {becoming less than they). — have become. have in mind. ' . ice I set.

B). . accomplish (irepalvw) = . 50 A. 34. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK The Lysis 81 one of the dialogues of Plato in which no definite concluBetween the selection in Lesson XLIV and the closing paragraphs above about ten pages of the dialogue have been omitted. As sion is is reached. -^ he erected. dilemma. Intensive Study of rA ^/^ "BOLO ^•. e^ To }.: . ev last four lessons. €• question succeeds question and dilemma. /^ f foi /'. until at length he exclaims in despair ^ \iyw. vepavai to bring to an end. . 0$ . ^ A %€ having ( 138-147 (Lesson XLV). I . died. 1 11. 187 K. and the third declension (including §§ 48. adding §§ 36-37: \€').^^ OCD €39 ^ €•. A T-^ J^O X$ /^ .. ©/ / Herewith Exercise . to -—. the unfortunate lad becomes more and more confused. XLVI. l> I.€ ev — Review the ' irepavai} @€.

St. Indie. Indie. I made. + St. € « € Aor. of the verbs : a) Exhortation. Indie. 1 e) Conditional Clauses. + -- St. I langhed. § 157. < «' «€( b2trst into Learn the conjugation of the § 79 A. : are: . . Indie. + -- St. Uses of the Subjuncti'e laughter. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 82 £ . I called. b) Question. ' « - I ''. " XLVII. Aor. c) Aoristic Prohibition. thus aorist indicative / loosed. i) Final Clauses. Indie. . Indie. the most common formation consisting in the verbaorist-stem stem plus the suffix (§ 64). d) Modest Assertion. ^ - St. . . and aorist suffix. and decline in the same given above. To V-Z The Verb: Action-stems. Aor. aorist active of way each . Verbs form their aorist action-stem in one of several ways. etc. I did. Aor. . / asked. . St. Aor.. + + +<ra- . 7€ do not lengthen the final e or to 57 before the . Other examples - € -. §§ 131-133.

guard (-). -. . (Dat. -- Cf. . zoology.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . (65 . ^€). fail of hitting. . • eiTTev.. () -ttjtos youth.. () beggar. acolyte. cLyadov einev ' 6 ^. . -. () 8 life. -. ^ • -^ '^ . . herit. €.). '•09 Cf. 5 . as. ) . it is difficult. Troie'o). () command.. fail. ) &. €€. . - -. -. ^^\: -? . . 83 in- murder () murder). miss. very sad -ov (). 17 ' . TO ) -'^ — TTJs . . -.. . ' ? '. TE () . .. follow. -.. \ . -. .. much ooros -) -ov as Cf. ^. €.-6 difficult. . . . an adidterer - lasting for an age (.. -. . (). ^. €€ (-) €. aeon).^ € ^ ''^. be hear false witness.

^ €-- ^ "8 -<£ Thermopylae loe lie stranger. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 84 . ". Action-stem Future stem Aorist Action-stem XL VIII. €\ ayyeiXov 1 follow- : : who fell ( ). Xi-ttv .V. announce to the Lacedae- obedient to their commands . New Testament. €-/ On the style and language of the he became = . -. Imper. ^«-<» '. . XeiVet e^et? • €^€9 . -- rrjSe — ^<}. 5. 18. -. evayyeXiov by doing what 2. . includ- .- . 9. . having heard. /'-'. is . iv distribute. A) and -. passer-by. Outline the conjugation of ten or a dozen verbs. hevpo 6 — oiSas = S. Subj. iv eiirev . -$ . ? . This is """ ^^o'i^' - -- --- -< -. . the famous epitaph written in honor of the Spartans monians that here (TySe) <S Part. according to the Opt. '. lacking. 10. in tlie battle of - Indic. iyevero.-? -- --- 6€ — Infin. see A'Ocabulary.^ ^ ^ ^ -€ "ing contract verbs in ing scheme (§ 79 I ' Progr. remains.

bite. out. §§ 64 b. incline. . . . § 64 (a). eTirev • ei " vei<s . |9. § of inceptive aorist). over. 85 A. ^. aud pursue. hos- trori tile. Aorists in -a. ? he was biting. fawn upon. he loould caress. (/)$) separate.€ ^^. €. () -6 hateful.. 229 . () hare. -..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 85 The First Aorist. and decline in the same and without the way : .. €. Herewith Exercise . cf.. make - remain.4€'. hated. § 50 C. he xoould vayys. (77-. . \ . ( -. . (). tail. . . have potcer point (). TE . . . kiss. The Meanings 136 (especially the the Aorist. () ijyyeiXa announce . . . ayyeXoi messenger). Learn the declension of the aorist active participle in -aas. . — 2. (§ 64 b) ayyiiXas. wait for. judge. Ace. . .. decline. indicate to lean. slant. ( § 135.. (-). conquer. dis- tingnish. wag the tail. irori St at one time at another time. \ayot)v 6 " Et ei. show. « bite 35. lick.

? . . " ' . he found elpov it similar (lit...evSov vds evpov ok evprjaeiv 5 eKeivov. -. (4\). ok he ^^.. . being like). 343 .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 86 "Opvlv avrjp ^ . 353 . 3. ^. hi — . • el^j^el•» -\. \ ^ .. -." 5 — deprived. . . Ace. ." 7. . he 5.\^ - is eXeye. 6 TTJs $. . . of avTTJs. -?. 6 • 1. expecting 4.

§§ 111. . )(. %. . — — C. . .. — 474 W. ^ 2. ' ..^^. Syj — 3• 4• 5- 6. 114-119. To . — 8. 23 ^.. . 730 195 ^. . 1. 121. avev 2.. -^. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK XLIX.' Sebi^re? -€ ' 87 — . ^. . 485 D... C .". . £. 365 Review Lessons XLVII-XLVIII... 8. 52 a. AXTjOeia Xeyovauv.. . T^yetrat.. The Uses yap. — — — — 7- 9• 176 ^ 362. of the Genitive Case. /09. . .

and see § 137. etc. 521 . . acro-polis. Ot 12. •79 OVTL . 3. ^. of (first. 30. the Perfect Active Learn the perfect active Herewith Exercise 36.. . (). KaXeiv. attain to. : ' -. : Genitive of Time. . \byoi. . . '' .. § 116 h. . . ' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 88 10. e{jK\eia . L.. Cf.8et? — €. . to. . (who are) has the construction of rich not in gold. 79 A. 'E/c 11. § second). . '.. § 65. () 1.^ . . 12. ei. 6 The sentence is . come the heights. Genitive after in Com- position. - — -] — -. The Verb : . . . \. Cf. § 119 . .-. — . To M7. 6. - incomplete those loho are truly rich. 11. 4.

Tas at the door. to (^! town walking stick. Pf ar- arrive. (et's)• for the sake of ivcKa. This passage of the ' 8' . to sleep. epidemic. The following selection.). - . on what ac- count f at this time. so early. --. -. ). open {02)en up). -6 -. . came to see him "last night. -. ivtKo. (to) little walking stick. ing." seeking an introduction to the famous sophist Protagoras. be in democracy). and is of its kind one most beautiful passages in Greek literature. € knock () down Kpoveiv to clap the hands. Cf. It is therefore recommended that the class each day memorize so far as possible the portion contained in the lesson of the day before. is .).. into. look I am awake. Vesper. < . 8£ € day before yesterday. Socrates relates to a friend how Hippoc'rates. tiBis straightway. -. -((>. trict. but the gain in power will more than compensate for any loss of time. rive at. down upon (Gen. iyepQ. 2<rir€po (17) evening. the son of Apollodo'rus.() () = despise. The rate of progress may thereby be somewhat retarded. Cf. is written in Plato's noblest style. dis- . - ac-ot'fw." or rather "early this morn- Town. - «-8€. A' €K en 6 . -€. -. iyp-fjyopa .-. and extends through Lesson LXVII. Sec. lie § 57. ijyeipa awaken. within of. why have you come so early wios (0) son. bacteria. on account (Gen. Cf. straight. . strike. be asleep. ^. llpuTay6pa% Protagoras is in taken from the Protagoras of Plato. () ijyyeiXa. Cf. . . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 89 TE ^. deme.

) 09.. icas) still very early. . Xiyeis. . - eKpove. . el• news. -^. 11. anything startling. . . .. • . ineihrj 5 OF GREEK THE FIRST TEA 90 (tohile () it ?. 4. before daybreak. Cf. have you just heard f \\ a rush .. .. et ' . 8.? . . . . . dawn. -44 . . .. ... taking his stand. Opdpot he eireifo^evos Came Straight in with recognizing.s veurepov 9.- '^. y'. . § 163. 7iOi.. $ ^ ' ' aya^ct ye. 7. . . (^rushing). & X^yois that were well $ eC ! Cf. 12. () cock- early daton. crow. 1. . .

-iroSos a pallet. oxjje . ^. €- To Review the active forms : 91 of .TE (a) -(.. relate {-) . - . iJ - €. and learn the middle aorist and perfect.). § 79 B. run . --. ^ SciTTVCO) ^ feel for. -() (). Cf. bed.-€8 •. . and §§ 67. away. () excitement. at that time. supper). eXnev..(^ point out read. sleep. 6 6 crot ' 5 • ^2 .. () manliness a strengthened -. hypnotic. ^ -- grope for (Gen. . . es- caped. desist. to. recognize. 137. iirvos .). 'V^ ^ go to rest. be about to. The Verb va etg. tell. KOTTOs (0) loeariness ^y -? -? (). then.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK LI. he ran away.. yap • rot -. -^ . intend (Infin. - -. dine dimmer. ^-^. -\\''< '. ^ Koi () () sleep. -. avSpcCa €•7€ as soon as.

e. § 179. 17. . ^^ too far along () 23. returned. ^ . I a future optative representing after the past tense This is the only use of the future forgot the future indicative is optative. too late (i. -dined). 79 . i. § § 94.. -6€ Oivbris having arrived from Oe'noe. LII. To - /cat . ^-. say. ^. in the night (hours)). (i. \ ^ ere levai. The Verb Review the middle forms of declare. . ava-ffTas arising (standing up). 17 . and learn the conjugation of : Indirect Discourse. 21. a village and the border of Attica.92 THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . ^ . § 98. 18. 22. ye 15. . we were having 6$. deme northwest from Athens near my 16. Herewith Exercise 37. II B. though intending slave (boy) Satyrus. -€\6 Tivos 7\ I came.e. \ '. (it). . § 179. . Sedpo yJKevy 25 Tt - ' . - because of something else I forgot we had dined (^. it released. 19. to tell €\\ you that I loas going € to - pursue. . .e. .

. () would that ! then. TO irpOTepov formerly. Pf. -^. partly. house). my guest. really. Zev . lodge (at unfasten. . -\ ^. now. he of iJKOVffa. £-€. -. . etc. above. . not yet. declare. ' 6. F. Aor. un- one's -€.. .. . -. . . see. per- (€-).. there. . . coined silver. rj . /cat ere . elwou.-8. . 3° ' -- - 35 . § 19 a. say. . (^).€ 93 TE () ). over- --- yoke. ti . irap' he is (. ' . ' €. good cheer! Pf. . . on behalf of (Gen. here.%. find.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . ^. oil . jiever. -. .. '. () € but indeed. ' (too) early. partly . veKa praise. .). ert . (). nunc.' . ' • . vaL Et ydp. Aor. . super. suade take. . money.

^.forth . . iws hv LIII. 30. Z^ ^ C ^ . -\^3 ' . may find) at the house of Callias.$ () and go out 43. : (we § 172. ment - TavTafor speak o^s 38. . ? "^ . 31... . yap ws OUT f. irapa 44. of sophists. US . To /36/ : <.^ -N . . r\^ my own.. ^.-. who devoted and spent his money lavishly in the entertain- Callias. 30 ei if . adverbial poni'cus. ' ' oevpo avkrjv. 45. evwyyeXiov 6 vy • -'. II c. yau offer. life of pleasure -^ = ^. 41. -J ' evSov 45 28. 32.- Lwaev. .. . ' -. etSe?. j THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 94 40 "^ ' .. . (?ioi) at all.. I let for the most part. '. yap '. 37. the son of Hip- was a wealthy Athenian. = you may 35. of noble family. \<. in order that converse). himself to a arise - it this very purpose. — 0709 ^. (-\ .! * . is likely. adverbial TO -- . 39. might depend upon this I as would leave untouched skilled in speaking. '. would that e'i-q neither amjthing of ^. —: US Stand up . J ^ . Sore. . V. -. . €( as eZicos let (become). .

.. €«. or cIttciv €. but em- ploy the verb-root (regularly in these known verbs accordingly are They Aorists.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK Uses of the Aorist . ^ efTTw. § 84. . eureka. went (serves as aorist to or - irregularly retained throughout the moods.\. iN^ § we shall consider only the thematic second 63 and for the conjugation. Master the following verbs and forms -. Pf. The vast majority of verbs in Greek form the aorist stem by adding the and this formation is accordingly known suffix - or -a. •-€ -. cLTT-iQavov F. (-^. or Of. €\(€ cvpeiv «. said (serves as an aorist to (for e-peirov) (/-). €.' : The Second Aorist : 95 Grnomio Aorist. -. Herewith Exercise 38. F. § 136. find. . € came. as the First or Sigmatic Aorist. () € « . fewer in number. F. § 57. pelt (/3e\- Pf.)^(-. air-cGavov. The more than one form). -'). Another group of verbs. but of great frequency. . « die A. throw. In this lesson See aorists. «€ ^ . do not add a suffix to form the aorist. Pf. -A. root appear in if the aorists of Second or Root as are either (a) thematic or (b) non-thematic in formation (§ 53). . . The augment is -'). its shortest form.

«. 39. « ^ oiSa (^I have seen) qf. . -.yv-). .\-). yivi- - vB' also the conjugation of verbs in aorists in -a.-). especially the See Contrary to § 64. knoiv^.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 96 £ I ) saw (serves as aorist to . . and €lSov €'.€ . -. *€') ?. . take. § 82. F. . Pf. (-). € ^ . " Observe that the last five verbs accent the aorist imperative (second means behold! But in comperson singular) on the last syllable. § 85.<yov. . ^. €-€- (\. ciri €'•-€5• LIV. -) . . forget Pf.€ . F. . «.-. (for or / y . ' pounds the accent is regular : iir-eXde go away ! . F.fiB- Pf. Review Lesson LIII. and the first -. Pf. learn Pf.poiZ. I (fetS. "- become -. § 152. F. (. receive - leave (Xeirr- .(yev. middle forms : Conditional Clauses Herewith Exercise : .^. Fact Conditions. . . F. . -. -.

I "^ A' -)€. () () statue). . 55 . examine thoroughly. . - . -. . decline () (). tiri and ask ( . etc. d just as if.(-. . -).. -. physician. irepi -. . -). '^ .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 97 TE . (). have in mind. . -Kptvo- answer. pat• . .-- () . -€. incline. €6 think on. pay. select. cio-irep € hire. ^ hr•^ )> apyvpiov 5° ? . . (. sculptor () clearly. go around examine 4--.-. -). attempt. . (8 -\>. ^. . . wages. (- intrnd.. F.. . -.- ». -. . and F. (/. to re- bring to an end (t^Xos). . . * apyvpiov . . . of like name. namesake.(-. put one's hand § 93). . (a thing). ']. consider critically. . strength. .- . question).. judge Pf. fee.. ().--. --. consummate.

98 -€. latter half of the fifth century. ^ [7. of Argos. The family of the Asclepiadae 53. 40.. Et 6 re 65 . otl ^"^• . in-evoets TeKelv to GREEK -€. ? ws 51. |)?ii7:»ose . just as if you to . iv . famous sculptors during the and € LV. . . some one had asked 6 Hippoc' rates of Cos. 5. of the family of the Asclepi'adae.. To Herewith Exercise Phid'ias. . translate: intending rt's (as about to Come tO become what). what profession 59.. and 52 . : hv ff. ' . ^^ . To Hippocrates as a representative of ? Polycli'tus. < el " future participle expressing pay. e7r-evoeis et . whom. . . . et . of Athens.' . . ws 56. .• otl . TH^^J'IRST YEAR OF av Wlwop av. Hippocrates of Cos was a famous physician and founder of the science of medicine. 50. - rjpeTO. ris at you were intending (had in mind) v:hat would you have replied ? § 152.' were the most . ^. etc. translate To one of lohat profession do you think that you are going and what do you expect to become yourself that you are now seeking to go to Protagoras.• .s) formed a sort of guild of physicians. if &v - . (descendants of Ascle'piu.

Eiev. m --? . in addition. be earnest. ^ . noun. ( > name. 99 . (be zealous. . -6 {an one). call well then tltv - --€(. . ask further. . " etc. ' Tekeiv ask concerning about. (Gen. () a master of one''s a wise man. . such Sunrep just as. craft. (by name) . €1 €1 epoiTO. already. eyvpoo-Ocv former. word. . (to) name. — re . 75 . mpL A.! THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK TE () it is like. ' ^ ^. . or Ace). (). -. zeal). it seems likely (a second perfect). 6 —^ 8 . avSpa. apyvpiov Tekelv virep . 7° \ iv . a sophist. around. > '^. ' . % .. . -7) -ov ready. .

F. 9^•<. wonder. -). dishonor. and is is added for emphasis. The particle of Protagoras clo. figure. -. red. attend to. LVL To Learn the conjugation The of . toonder ative. little yeviadai SO that he became visible.. Sufficient. § 179. {\ one ought (&. \\ elude -). (). provide. that to which Socrates has been leading. glimmer of daylight. (or gradually). be surprised. there toas a 83. The name 1'/6. eXadov. yvo-). disMid. care for. have in mind. Infinitive with of Thinking. ^ %' SrjXop oTL 85 . . # . disgrace. (- hold. marvel thaumaturgy). . the . . furnish.) = Set. 66. serve. (^ € shoto (or appear) just a 83. . disgrace. -. if OUr mnney he spending besides {in addition). () be ignorant feel - blush). av 68. have. . €<*/'. I . - \. I . Infinitive in Indirect Verbs Herewith Exercise 41... be ashamed got .'. § 9. €- ( Cf. es- (\- . . heal. -. 179. -.4 --4€ / \ -. 70. § a. supply. Cf therapeutic. one's notice. . inlend.ses the series. € TE (- priv- mar. with a bhish 82. ^/ Discourse.. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 100 — Et /^ c. (^«pe .

ay- . xjjv'xrjv . (of one's ttov profession). %v . iroiov. . . . () a master { in the world. )( ) €. .. . I suppose €€ mnsier o/. . ing. penter.'7/9 \iyeiv.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK € -? () - () image. cp^ao-ia 101 (). ] 105 . . architect. of what sort? by the gods irpos () a painter of pictures (enclitic). Otju. business. portrait. .. ••€ what icon. ^. . irepi. • 6 6 . 8ta-voov)u. then. " . .. iro£a. (17) yet.. .. = iripl what about? tCvos.at. a work- -oiOS making. 95 . -.at 'Eyoj go . /-. work. iroios. . therefore. car- Cf. animal).. . ye ' .. . . . avSpi. -ovos ! a builder. ^^ . and Cf. ' ' ot . . ' • \ . " -\ .

lack. at ' able to speak. - run a -. Decline -. Paraclete. ? «l . be in (del). emphasizes. fSti it . clever speaking. is 103.e. ? ( () lyre.v Trpoj . - that he is) master 36. squan- der. of course. or (loould () -(>. -- face peril risk. () lyre-playing. 94. <§ . To /cat Review the declension of spend. to the execiition (i. eivaL. whom you are handing with mocking humor. need of (Gen. = 97. . «5 perhaps. thing 95. LVII. answer. 'iSti () () We say (5). peril. . of .. .. etnoL^eu Adverb of $. heivov keyeiv -. ^ ' €< . . -is (17) question(ing). danger. of the knowledge which air-epyaaiB. -is - () () teacher of the lyre. indirect () form counsel. not even to . cithara. ij of the (art) of making.102 € - THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK av . . pertains here accusative of Specification. . were necessary. risk. Cf. over your soul. . . .was necessary. call to one's side. § 113 d. etc.. ^ . need.) etc. 101. 104. if it . 107. the painting) this {that folloios).

. 6 • ^ 8. . . . xjjd)(yjv )( - . ye. . . 4. ^ -. € ' 103 ' XeyoLfxev. ) ctl 115 ^ ./^> .. . Seivov 6 6 . ^.. . • SrjXov . 6 125 xf)d)(7Jv. . . . ' . ^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 20 ". . 6 • heivov Xeyeiv . &. no • SrJTTov hrj . - Joaj 130 35 '^'^^^ . . 2 Sia-KivSd- yevecr^at . ^. ' ^..

To (5t- Verbal of of. as though you had already fully decided -? 132. sell.. $. ''5. . . hit. 3. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . Perfect of 137. upon which depends your ." Svolv SeovTe? § g.. TE . -. .. ovre . -€ -. 139. . vr\ with Future Indicative. nourish -). you consider of greater value (that which at a higher value). carry. § place under. chance. 7«7<"') -.. for weal (-). vXeiovos ^yei lohat if or woe. Fu. ob- . perfect participle of -. Cf.. ? one ought -- to associate with. irepl you estimate 126. . € . become the pupil - LVIII. eh into lohat sort of rtva 125. Cf. . ... . happen. deceive. ^ with Participle.Te ^laTtici^le oi to expose. . § 176 c Herewith Exercise 42. 120.- .tu. " €. 125. Accusative of Extent of Time. a-Joa. rear. 136. all you took counsel loith coming at daybreak. i. -€ .^ "^817 6 ^^''^"^^eiXe^at 6 140 ".. 129. () . --. 113 f. - a danger.) cheat. Aor. tain (Gen. . § 148. 119.(-. . ayvoQv you are clearly ignorant. €.104 . . ^«) VX^v (). recognize thoroughly). - lead.e. 176 . buy. . convey -. § 16. . -€\€.

. () ad always. . retains its .. retail dealer. -. Ma^r^'/aacrt 145 6 6 6 -. . surely 6 it original sense of surely.^-. . huckster. In such a context yap § 184. xjjd)(yjv. . ' €< 9 .- rjv rj ' . . importer. . 150 55 ' 6 .^. . - .. ". appears. merchant. 144. \ .. \))() yap.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK « . . ' ' '7 . ^ yap .. () () (). etc. . < .. Cf. wares 105 (). .• () perhaps. () wholesale nourishment 6 OVP.

del &•= here 157. have perceive. to. To The Uses (see to it) that he do not deceive . () price. § 177. ' ^. expert knowledge (of a subject).. (). &v 15-5. ^. aid (rb take risks. . hasten. safe. happy. . blessed. con- advice. ' Et may .). etc. . of whosoever. ? LIX. receive €€ xinder stand. etc. ' 158. $. before (Infin. advantage). . us. . necessity. () ttotos drunk urn.146. seek be of benefit help. honor. (() -. secure. purchase ). the one icho knows. . () () receptacle. . )( (- . 149. vessel. § 102. suit loith. (17) buying. especially the Infini- tive Avith irpiv and €. Verbals. = = & § 102. § 172. Beovreq of the Infinitive. " = ayovffiv. . () food (bread. cir -. €€. -^ / TEE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 106 oirws ye § 148. --i's § 42.. Gen. -v -ov that which be anyone. - (). (. value. play at dice start. TE . . for the time being.-). § 27 b. in the same way. sack.).

/cat . YipohiKov § 160 '^ for one who has purchased putting down. 165 /cat -. el /cat Srj ^ . it is possible. /cat . . . -. 172. .. . .-(). ot 8e£a<j^at • 107 . - 6 6 . -\. '. * 6<. . . . \. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK .. /cat -teVat /cat \\\ \ -€ see to jLtera -. (). it lest. having paid. . . iu ayyetot? ot/caSe 164. re /cat . . - 171. ^> ^. -. 168. I having piit down . 176. 17. with ttjc ^/ c.3. . /cat 185 with Subj. . 8 . 170 75 /cat .

€ --.. § 141. «" . ^ - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 108 177. II.pas. and learn the aorist. .. 182..| J" J"' •^ • J ^ '^^ hr (/3eX- \y \- -). 2. Passive Depo- nents. : sive. § 137 . we are (too) young to tvith (koivos). decide veoi {-€<) so xoeighty a matter. ' To The Verb Review the perfect active. 66 the perfect middle (passive). Herewith Exercise 43..€ € ()- Review and master the following verbs 1. . 6. . . 7- 8. 179. The Meanings of the Perfect. § 67. §§ 69 and 79 C. « -. §§ 65. us consult LX. {) cvpc- ^ € ^^y> . and Perfect passive participles of rj respectively. '€'" and and and Qqvpov) (/-). and -•). 3- 4.^' €| | € «. let . 9- . 5.

€ ^ « . (/). 33• 34• (-}.yet-). 21. €€|/ -). yov.-.-€ and 25• «.. ' €. " € . €-). (.-| . 15- 6. kKtkiv- (\- € € . (»- ..€€ € €€ (€7- € (Xenr- j:^^*-"^ -)• 17. €€6 8. ' €6 € €| •€ . € | . and 32. 27• 28. 31. (i/c-). €€€ 109 t^ .^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 12.". .-}. €\|/ (^€7- 23• €' Orpeir- 24• -^. 19• 20. (e'/aew) eiTTOv. €€ - . « . o-t-*^i> ^5>_>-<--«-«-^^-^ and (7/37-)• 22. 29• 30. 3• 4• -). " -^-. 26.*4--• - •w^"*''^ ireirauKa '€ '•€.

go. go to and ( fro. iriae €8 weight. march way). € siep. iv-iiretrov fall in. agree with (Dat. Going See Lesson arrive. €. LX. come. go to school. he . come Used be going. hardly. agree with. reluctantly (- toil). occur bur- . etc. commonly) . . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 110 LXI. (-). noyed . cf. 61 e. Pf.). an- + vah I () eunuch. fall to. - / am Past Impf. () throng. (&3 () den). walk. walk. . )• with a struggle. ^- § (^-. Pf. . . With gone. () vestibule. TecreTv . '). With the force of a perfect. F. () -is incomplete (tAos). come {go) frequently. -. vexed. have the force of a perfect. proceed. agree tireaov. as the future of or (more F. - (o/xos). come. A.: . TE () burdened. go. gone. / am coxiie. yovv at any rate {ye 'ia. go. ef? To Verbs of Coming. - «-. fall ha ! A.. |( -€ €. bah ! () doorkeeper. . fall in with. crowd. upon. go. have come.

/i07is - constantly employed In this idiom the idea of danger -) 6$. {kir ... . at last with reluctance. ^ -. igo ..^. both hands (Dual Dat. . . . 2 6 it is likely. \. -. --) -( THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . . A\K . .. . followed 195 . loith as vigorously as he could he is 199. . . slammed -ov closed the 205 complete). ^ . . ... probable. i^-ayyLov 189.)./ .- yevoLTO. . tol having finished by an (^ infinitive. -. .. I' iv oSop iv-enecrev. in this sense. 8 . y-€\r]vos 204. has wholly faded out. . - ' .. 6 a^^ecr^at 111 door (). . 197.. . yap • -€€ 193.-.

profession. €-$. Cf. -. local. Cf.. ^ ? .- . -(). «irl -- . Herewith Exercise 44. be famous . (). . stranger. in a row.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 112 . €€ . behind (Gen. ?. fession. '? () foreigner. .). ^. 6 . ' () (?) technical.e. mother. loalk. ' ot hi --. friend. tread on. 4 ^•? 220 Cf. -''. . iv 2 .. ^. . . -€ half-brother. of) a locality -ov in (or or country. /^ €€ € 6 215 irpb- portico. guest-friend. -. () be of good repute. bewitch. charm. ^ . 6 6 e^yj'i /xev 6 . LXII. €7€>) irepi- horn of the same -ov . t|fjs € () on the one €-8 epichoric native.---. Cf. McvSaios o/J/e>ifZe (in Thrace). -- i. . art. -5 ^ side. peripatetic. ^ tyj 6 - - -. . colonnade. for a pro- ' €-.

. explain «. chorus. Impf. be « ' Cf. Lat. Lat. - () and on that. sit . future or aorist. in the cf. down. Conditional Clauses. throne. -ov listening to Opovos (0) high-backed chair. -€ Impf (-. verse. sit. . ^- «. -cf. sit : Poetic. impede. F. company. ornament. uni- Cf. €••9 ). on Lat. and F. Temporal Clauses. groio). pleasure (^) F. down. () cautious {-. fo/xat () bench. (Cf. sido'). sedeo^. -. sit sit. (!). THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK LXIII. Attic prose uses the . $ () ( Cf. cf. meteor. -ov this side {-. physics. . Indefinite Relative and Temporal Clauses. () baiid. suavis). . way (of one's feet). - Verbs of Sitting {-}. seat (-. TE -. order. ' /cat Learn the conjugation of sit 113 down. be cv 8-^-€ expound. Lat. () take pleased. and compounds -^ especially § 169 b. F. Attic prose uses the compound: sit § 96. §§ 165-170. Poetic A. ? (9 somehow. ef. Cf. (go through). scindo.: --. No sit. § 96. ttws nature . divide (and pass) around. . split schism). the Cf. raised from heavenly off body. sit down. ground. cosmos.

. . 228. After this one I perceived. iu 6 235 - iv . of the deme of Mvppivovs. . \ 6 --^-^ - ' Si 226. Odysseus sees Sisyphus." ' ^/^ 6 6 . .elvaL 225 < they took (their) positions. Hippias of Elis was one of the more prominent of the sophists. 231. '' . 228. Tantalus. «. . . . from the passage (Odyssey XI. * ' -^ . €. 601) which describes Odysseus' visit to the underworld. Heracles. The Third Declension Adjectives The Verb § 97.. ^S' : serve oneself with. etc. /)55 LXIV. TRE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 114 IB' ? TOVTOV Toz^ ')(opov ') " 230 € -.. . § 42. -.'''' Plato is playfully quoting Homer.^.

rare serve with. . () store-room.. heaviness." - iv 6 240 ert ^/.. ding). 115 Case. near. 120-122. with the Dative. («). ringing. prose except in compounds. . . oneself -. lodging. () (ev). . () () (^. as --$ -h not clear () 6$ () -8 () -5 () Cf. . §§ 111. € () lad. The Dative § 121. -. from ISi'a wrap up in = () mattress. loithout appearance. couch.^ dissolving. -. () room. TE Ca) - -^. . in Cf. \.. bed- IF . cover (-) . bed-spread. 245 . .. idea. chamber.^ . bed. humming.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK use.Sr) " - etcr-etS 6 6 . use (Dat. ' ^ ^^. jieece (used as . -.). .

-). (^ Cf. — eipai <. LXV.- Si-eXeyovTo Trepl he 250 ^€ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Kainep — 239. Cf. . yap €' . a match for -ov on account of (Gen. Cf. €v€Ka famous (iv. 70. theatre. /cat Verbs of Seeing: €€ have the eyelids^. thoughtful. . €-8 contest -ov (). cf. see (^opa- (ij) . -\•>/\. See Lesson LX. -. See Lesson LX.>() aicay. delay.).. at any rate. a viewing^ theory. (^. examine heard. iv Prodicus of Ceos was another of the more famous sophists. .116 . . a tragic poet. TE 8-. 242. look sight. sceptic. view.-^. tvatch. = 247. a short time. e. \6yoi). ' = 700»' Agathon was 251. thought although eager. 4-€$ having emptied (). (). § ov 113 () an equal little. (/3€- . -. p. €V€Ka on v:hat account. -. in age comrade. spend time. Kaiirep 248. $ e7<^ ?^ 249. engaged in equal with.

. TOP ' €Tl ' 117 . ^. § 136. ' . ' € TOL ^. 8 . . and . § 86. . clv .'. . : 270 § 179.. ^ ' 267. : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -. 270. privately. : b) Non-thematic second aorists tion of : see §§ 55.. I b. . . The Second Aorist a) Thematic second aorists review Lesson LIII. . learn the conjuga- .e. The Aorist 8^ - . . . TTpbs i. § 21 b. ' LXVI. 63. - ' . ^-^ ^. to him(self). \ -. '. ovSev 260 ' -- Tt ovv . € . -. 'H/ACt? ovv /3'//^€9 € - 255 Trpoa-rj^ep . . . The Verb 265 in Eager Questions.

-\ .). () p)-epare. . 6 ^. . ' . . TlpoSiKov . a). procure and prepare.-" . . -). §19 . \ . dress. .. el -€ . . * 28 - - -.-. evoov irepX — \oyov re XecrOaL -€ €€ — yap -. make ready (what one - glad{ly). etc. imple- ment). 4 make ready (food. council {). a sitting together in council. {. - prepare.). 8 8•8 admirer lover.. has). 275 - under. prepare. (to) -•€. 285 () sus- sudvis. Cf. pleasant. pect () €<8 () 89 vessel.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 118 TE (.-ov ^/ {-). . ^ ^.-. - - . iv- . . etc. €. (ff/ceOos -. in the presence of (Gen. . --. (Tvv-ehpLOV -^. . ^.( -. . € \4 . -. ..

e. .. 8 295 ' 3 . 284. without waiting foi' the servants to arrange laying hold of (Gen. 290 . 282. . c). -. -] -. -. . infinitive of to careful. 6 . iwel ^ 6 . -. .. 287. -.. rJKOv e/c TlpoSiKov. -teVat -)^)6. 271. . -- 275-276. cautions. - . . 6 . 6€ the seats. show himself off and make . THE FIRST YEA re OF GEEEK € UpoSiKOf. -.. -.. i. . he provident - a display. 283. ' ^^. -. § 115 having made (him) get up. 119 (--). ^. .-^ . .

v.-. come recognize. treat. () () flute playing. loriting. ivhat(ever) will result suffer make differently. . although (followed by par- ticiple). (to LXVII. Cf. progress.. . throw iracrxw. 7670^0x1 having become. . to . 3. on the next day. § 50 TE know). immediately. -. ing. ". just as if .-dv of drawing. (- make mention. painting. -. 5-. to the better) to make (b) €- ns. know {g)nosco. didactic. . of (a) ris eyvwv. ? () -is avXos () flute. €-(€.. (~/ 7 -. -(>v strange. wrepaiq.-. -. . . to &v represents 299. Pf. - on which{ever) day. pa- for is . cf. TO Review the declensions 48 . 295. Infin. wonderful. mal- outrage. I b. § 300. . -6$. TTj 301.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 120 -\ 291. Lat. § 179. . he will advance. progress. (- thology. . off. () € -TOs ? it is -"fj likely. teach () . . it of such an age. A-B. = 298. ^. § 27 . so old. § issue). . outrage. change. &v 296. (-). for -) cf. iirl . (-- advance (c) thematic active participles. «Ikos the art of paint- Cf. () Cf. step he says he would gladly learn. § 122 a. . graphic. <. natural.

-€ . / THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 121 IZ' . -^ — .^ € KoX ovSev elirov. . peated in 306 ) - ei 310 . . eirei et ? . ( inel : . since even you 32° would . -. et - €€ -^. The &v is re- . * . '* . . -. -. €. . ---. - 3^5 . .. 305 BiSa^eLev yevoLO. . €-<€.. 325 . ' .-. . . . . 304.. Xeyet?. . ^-. . Slv) 7^ .

. .. 6 330 IH' €€ . his specialty being ' . . . Zeiixippus of Heraclea was a painter. . €. -- = {eir-av-epwTaw ask. 314. 319. -. 312. 340 345 .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 122 310. 315. € -\\ - — — ". . -. . ^-. . ' 335 4 . eh 316. . in lohat ? - day by day.--. 3. . ' rj / . Orthagoras of Thebes was a music teacher. . . ^.. .. iiute-playiiig. . again).

. Review: The conjugation of § 95 . in Attic prose. promise. and. 123 the special studies which had been re- cently added to the curriculum in Athenian schools. except in the singular of the indicative . of which dialogue constitutes the dramatic introduction. The conversation develops into a discussion of the nature of virtue. . 342. wise counsel. it . of Fearing: I fear is (perfect used as a present. such as arithmetic Translate: they lead calculations). promise. 345. more common is . etc. § 172.--2 . €-\ () 337. --- how best to 8irws hv . etc. Like decline having made. announce. advertise. I a Infinitive with with a Participle..e. especially of the perfect active participle. Herewith Exercise Verbs 45. Thinking. § 179.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ( 331.^. ff. back again against-their-will (AKovras) those who have fled from 335. 2. Herewith ends this selection from the Protagoras. Ttts i. F. Svolv € . prudence. The Infinitive as a Verbs of § 176 Noun. they might best administer. - hold oneself under (aji obligation). astronomy. c. geometry. the arts. II a . how (^/) the technical subjects. § 50 SeSios fearing^ (/? '€€'$ C knowing^. - Compare 11. LXVIII. -(. oilha). not common Cf.34 (-). ' the declensions « €$ of the active participles.. = administer. having fled. .

put : infinitive to flight. frequently occurring forms are 6€. TO When on of corrupting the was called of young men. flee in fear. €€. - . el aya^oil•' OTL /^ .. • . subject both himself 3ei ( before a court of his fellow-citizens on the twofold trial charge of not believing in the Gods in . . '.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 124 I fear The most (second perfect as present). fear. '. TOL . . tyJ € 8eSieVat. . holding the conviction that he to devote his life to the pursuit of philosophy. Of. () flight. ^.. -.. and Socrates. oiSe oiSev. elSevai 5 to rejects the eivai yap and might escape condem- This. .. fear. .' y) SoKeiv eivai. ^ €$• participle -. — . ovoev • ovoels oeoiacTL €6€<. he says. God whom the Athenians believed. terrify. -. he afraid.. . Cf hydrophobia. eii^at. ^ and others to a searching examination aWovs) summarily suggestion that by renouncing this mode of life he ^ ov elvai. would be conclusive proof that nation.

See 16. more. again). this ignorance of thinking. 9. much. aes- ovop this place. . § 4 (= ) irpb See . 11. LXIX. Cf. . know. iv" 14. {) change - {) change of resi- deuce. .'. ^.' et peKriovL^ aTreiueiv koll 125 in preference to the evils which 1 § 102.) otl ovhe ^ 1. Observe the order of emphasis. because . etc. () () perception. — The First-Third-Declension Adjectives. {. disobey the oracle. 15 ecrrtv. 4. 17. 45. polygamy. 29 the fear of death. {-) icondrous. roiros () place. . in any respect ( + -).. —. -la -ov €-(-$ () most. topography. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK oe aoLKeiv etoevai. . sleep.. . € ( thetic () from = Cf. §§ 43. -^ lie down to sleep. iroXvs Cf. Tb^Tcpovthe one {ofttoo). " -^ the b (end). . - $ aya^a — 3. Unseen {one) in this (point) also here .. than any one.).. .. Awo\oyiq. (= the {conditions) in {the house) of Hades. whether God or man. . TE € -. 12.' evo? h4ovTe<i yXvKV.. dream.

. . the one loho is dead. according as people say. ( condition) \-6€ . and to 6 . . ovSev /cat hrj ) death. ) ivOevSe 5 etre 6 rh 1. 6 ' .€va Te9veo)Ta. it is such have no perception of anything. \. } . ' . . ^ ' ' ^ . firjh' ^'^ } . . ^. ' — 3- — as 180 a. \eyop. to. . 1477-8. .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 126 ^ ^€ Later in the course of his speech before the court Socrates remarks TOL eivaL ecrrt : • ..'. etc. eivai. . . § . € to be nothing rhv 3. — 2. 1. ^.. . 833.. ^ '^ . oTSei' ei . ' 638.

Star ? at stars. = ' ? — it is I am first clear that. 669. ^ : . e/xo? — Gazing • § 137. () 7• -€. quotation above ^.a late form for ^v I was. ipei. 127 / '^ '.. — • • ipiei. Star of my soul * Ah me 1 .4< -^. — €-€ 5- . @ .. . oi This 3. . 58.. VII. 2. fast \\6€s is and lying down &V01S dv 4.'''' awois = 5. • 31.< '> ' 4. ( (). -.. is eider-down. ' — 6. you could accomplish. ' 4-€^ ipa. . THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK .. . . . dead they have a parody of the the ^. . -). To ... 7. ? = ^. . Prose lost. ov ecrri . 161. = 1.. . e'iOe et? 'Av0oXoyia<. : " breathing 's break- beneath the earth. ovpavo'i.' ' -. TOL TL ^<. -€. yrjv LXX. .

. TE KAI . 85€€8 twelve years old. --. ya (^). () ? that! (). now () (). learn Cf. — nouns and adjectives. A. mistletoe. .. €. Modes of Expressing Wish With a) : Optative. hum {-. ? €€ = €l (). Thy kiss a limed lure TJiou kindlest tchom thou look''st upon. (poetic) -aros eye (-). ^' " e)(et9 TO • ia-iSyq. -) - kin- caustic).. . -ipos star. 8€. hast him sure. need. b) With Past Indicative. (or KaCco -aros horn. quire (wevd- () Kcpds Cf. (pre- Cf. Walter Headlam. (). Walter Headlam. Review: The Third Declension §§ 30-38. § 153. bird-lime () bull. die. irapos formerly (poetic). . Timarion. Whom in- . (?). . (). . ' — - Thine eyes are fire. gaze () look earnestly at. * . . mosquito.. .at F. by inqui)-y.. 44. § 162. already. — Translation by Dr. marry bind. hope at length. . gnat. (). -aros a Minotaur. kiss. pared from the mistletoe berry) I. . /^. fdiyov touch (poetic)..{-). aster. ). touchest. to gaze with Those myriad eyes on thee ! all — Translation by Dr. TEE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK 128 That I were heaven.

197. §§ 160 a. $ 1. 453. . .. € 129 Epitaph on Aesigenes . • . . ^ - ws = thoti hast $ cLv \ .-. (him) bound. . '.^ --. . — '. ^^ • — 6 . Man . . 1>. VII. Mother Earth That erst Not heavy. . -. Tavpos . e. may^st thou have {thyself) upon I 235 .-. — Epitaph on an Unhappy . — Translation by Dr. Epitaph on a Boy '. To press Aesigenes ! was unto thee noio in turn may'' st please not heavily. — Hail.. .. Walter Headlam. 2.. 4» €7 .- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 2.. ^ 6 — VII. O. 309.

-.-). -- eWe -. "ApKTOS 1. -. crawl. et . 6 /cat ^. . smi7e.) laugh.. laid away. {) (Cf. ). of Tarsus. and . . -. place for dancing. 4. . (. Zsiis ' ' . dance. €\ (Cf. . 6 alighting upon.) bring forth. live (Infin. (re/c- -). etc. 5.) ". {6) animal. receive having sat upon. yap ' ^r]Sev €/€€ 2. iScov poSov '. 6- et/xt \ ' "Opvis '." .. -< THE FtRST YEAR OF GREEK 130 he put away.. (Cf.-. . . creep. 3. ' . . (-). avrrj . sixty years of age. . . bear {young).

-aros end (poetic). 8'. — Temporal Clauses.). TE . praise ircpdo). -idos -a -ov () (). 4. vault. 60. ? ' () (wipas end). () (). through.TpL'i (J)). . §§ 59..( F. Cf. Imperative.. () make clear. ' iSvvaTO. . -17 - C/". . -ovs. . THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK ' '^. . (f^Xos deem happy happy (poetic)). § 171. 8 aX-yeivos -cDiOsconiesi. . abode. show free). pass complete . .-. ita. (poetic) set free (eXeudepos - view with -. etc. 865-866. painful. (). () - cJiest. 3. LXXI. fatherland. (to). seer. () emulation. envy. § 83. Verbs according to the Progressive Action-stems. 131 170 § Classification of . The was he 1. {\$). ancestor. envy. fat. €. awjcward.«. -. . — boasting. of one'' s father. . seat. agony. admire. mantic. tomb. Verbs in -.

go. Browning's translation in Balaustion'' s Adventure That song of ours which saved at Salamis : " sons of Greece. . \6 1529-1530. 963-964.'. 1 6vTLva accusative of oWu. 402-405. ' . M17 -. . %. 2. '^4 he — . 480 B. irore 6 call to battle as the . — (&. ^ I. ). .C. -. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 132 1. 1417-1419. . . lSy).. 4^'—6) ^ ). Greeks entered the battle of Salamis. Free your wives. set your country free. ® 3. ^. • — ^ 4.'' etc. ^ avhpa ' : . . The . . 3 ^. yvoivai Ihelv ' ' 6 — \€ . .^ . . Cf.

e-).--- 63. enter : 19 a) make stand. b) Those with Non-thematic Presents (for (^- place. <. let go ((- § ". (See §§ 2) Verbs with Non-thematio Second Aorists. rec- set . THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 2. ^e-). -). M>^ /xot elr) re () . -?. - ognize or or € go (/3-). '^. . Verbs with Second Aorists 1) Verbs with Thematic Second Aorists. ("). LXXII.) a) Those with TJiematic Presents : - run away (hpa-). 86.«" " « ' "- € step. — 391 ^ '. put give. .. € ' '^ ovSev 3• 6)(€.. Lesson LTII.' *. .^ . • ovSev etSore? — . — 133 €• 979-980.. €" (/-). : -. (17. . offer send.. . -^.

. point out to consider oneself. .^ () () . 187. --. . ^ ' KLvSvi'o'.. active participle in -as. I -. § t. understand (lit. -. iroiipos poetic for . The perfect active The stood. beside. . point out. ' razor. §§ 5356 non-thematic second . . () acme. . appears to be for - . . stand with a specialized meaning. upon). In such meaning the second. (for --.^ . . -(<. .. €--. -£. . and a second aorist. Many instances first I caused 2 23. (make) stand (make) stand up. tol e^ets. .. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 134 Learn the conjugation of Personal § 87 A-B. -^ is : of the occurrence of this very important verb already been met in the preceding lessons TTJs $. .. €.. -.*€').. 58. thus : middle of this verb is I set up (for myself). I to stand. § 50 C. : have 287. () . — Very few verbs have both a instances the first aorist is intransitive.. . 2d . . at one time . € . (make) stand away. .. Cf. think. stand.. at another time. 1st . Mid. 63 § peculiarities of .. § 77 aorists. -. -. point. --. transitive like the first aorist active etc. . (-). . --. edge. . the -verbs.. with reduplication 60 b the '. --. . regularly transitive in : - aorist - intransitive -($. endings and thematic and non-thematic formations. . ' 557-558. . (make) stand upon.

tois apyo'is. of the comparative for the .. ' € .. -" eKeivQ 6. . 252. . Trj ^ TTj Mop. ]. -. 8e 3- ' <.$ . 1-isk. ' '-'. 237. . § 159.. superlative ? = Tois of the use in late Greek yos)... ^ — — . an instance (= 309. . — MevavSpov. €. . .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK . . - ". 2. . -. - 5 iav TTaiSiov 6 — 1 €. . 2 135 you will not enter. 0--4 ev elnev . 242. -^ — 5• 87 . '. common here means chance. iv . — 4• § . ^. First-Second Perfect: 1. This is a and very ancient proverb. . uncontracted form of (balanced) tipon the edge of a razor.

. make return. as Up {upon). oy LXXIII. - (TuaL. ' . he iv 6 ' •'. -8€ .< . lepov I. . Review the preceding -as." '.. 6 )(^ 5 ' \ 6 6 4- ^ '^ 3 * -. . \4 — Tats . as . 5 - Kat 7.. -' . \€ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 136 iv OTL ' iv -^- . Herewith Exercise 46. I possess. <. lesson and ]3articiples in 50 c).-. . much raise.. -^-^. Equals lift hv • ^ give back..' oirws = - Lva. § 6 ^. iv (. 6 ets .^ .-. .

() (6).. .\ . ^ ^. evayyeXiov $.?^^. ly' ' LXXIV.. to extinguish . Tijs . set So iv fire).. -. .. .. 1 ^. ^^/ 5 — irpbs ^/? SetKvvvra Tot's KayaObv Cf. ^ . . €( ^1* &-. ". •'.. .) —" iwicrroXijs rijs i-iy'. '.. — '.. 3• 4• ervnre 137 • . '. . eavrbv uepX — 2 -' ... . . eav - — . > (8)." THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK lo 2.^ ev = T7J \€q. )..

«) collect. eVt re /cat re iv acquire. aesthetic.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 138 Review the forms (§ 50 A. Harpy. -| -| accomplish (Act. €| €€| § point out. St-oicretl•' TELV.€ . perceive. take^ etc. re ^-. Master the following verbs -€ € -. possess.cIXov ^ grasp.). Of. /^ ' -- -^- - ^-4€ - . B. C a-e) and uses (§§ 173176) of the participles. ^ ? € 5 .. § 137. . seize. describe. (Gen. -| -| - obtain etc. and Mid. hit. Review Lesson XXVII and Exercise 18.. narrate. (take for oneself^ choose.) € . -| -| (. (-). Cf. . show 50 C.

. the subject having. - yaa y4 to he ADMIRE pursuing.. 27.' ^ .- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -." " . i.. etc. 13. you. . 6. ' ' /." ". '^ . how he Tois in the ability. . $ ( . " ^^. . 25 . -^ -.e. . " . etc. 8. 9. ^. dealt with. ^ . € . with. -. Euthydemus. 6 ^-.e. ." " ovtl." ^^ ^ . . ^. 139 rt el y^viOTTOieiov rjei jote^' iavTOv 2. is Socrates. . . i. " - " 5 ^ ^ " 6 6 20.

oe LX) and 50 C. having of passive form. refuse. -. {Of appear. . § learn Like Bcis persuaded. want (Gen." 7? " yevi" crvX-Xeyei . aorists §141. Middle verbs with appeared. 6 6 ." '/' ^^ " ^'^ " " . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 140 LXXV. - show ^ fear.). he ashamed. proceed. '" ^.} %< .).. need of. . ' ^ . ^. -^ . ^^< -. Review the nevTe aorist passive (see Lesson the declension of the participles in decline €$ pleased. he in -€| wish. (^please oneself with).). " 6 " yap " . feel dis- grace. go. /cat 35 " {Of.. he willing.. -. he pleased with. Master the following verbs : € -. Se 30 oneself. delight in (Dat. . converse ivith (Dat. deny. . -eis. or Part.

" ." . '. for § 179. ' . § 98. " . -" . .• ^7." . ri 4° . . " .. -. .^' . ." . " " ." ." tol -€•€ 31. ." 6 55 . " -€-' -. " ." €^17 45 ." THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . 45. " 6 ^. " .)^. ^ .• ' " -. " y'."^' €. II you are seeking. you desire. " " " 6 6 141 " -." 5° ^. " 31 f." fell into a profound silence. '8. ." " " ' '. ? .." . " . .

Of. participles in -cis (§ 50 . . And put all seriousness away. : . . -. €^17. 57. place upon.. metathesis. put together. anathema. Or bear the smart. is but a Stage. Of. Of. of. else) ^^ . note transpose. synthesis. Cf. Kar-eipyaffai have 58. lay Of. " epya /aeWot. " 6^17• {-'." ' . compounded with eighteen prepositions the following aside. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 142 €.). . Walter Headlam. . Translation by Dr. . de- C) put. " vrjvaL 6 y €. parenthesis. add to. --. dedicate. LXXVI. ouSej/os . set down. com- pose. < ." "^ /< € Ti ovv Uijaat <7? . apothecary. Traijviov -' • — 'Aveo\oyLd<>. All Life — Review the declension of the and learn the conjugation of is set up. Of. posit. put off from. '' . § 88. you achieved would appear as just as any {one b'lKaios . place. epithet. Take then your part.- : . a Play . set hy the side Cf.

. " " ." " " ^7.' " ^". " " . ^. " ^^.?. epyov " " . " " ' ^ . " " 65 " ^/. /. . . ' /^ev /.• " ." ' ^ . . " ev- .• ' ' . ^} ' TA " BouXet ow. . ." €." ." ^. " ^ .• 7. " 1 . TrJ ." ^^ "." ." " " . €. " " " " ." ." . /' " ." " . ' . "" 6 6 143 " "''. . . ^^ / -^^.'^ . '' " ' - 75 - 8 ^^ ^5 ovSkv ' " . .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .• ^. ^' /. " " . . ." ---? 6 eivai. ^.^ " «^ ^ . " ^." "" . elneVf " (^ 7..• " /cai e^r/." . 7° ." ^ " .

"Aeyet?. TA " 88. . " ' . 6 - - ^•> . " iav " . . ^-^ '^ . €. LXXVII. . elvai oe eivai ." €. ow.'^ € 6 ? .^' -." - .— Review the conjugation go i. "'. of § .• . also of the drill in Exercise 47.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 144 66." . . " ." " " .^' ye Selv 95 that this is necessary." iav iv -." making use / . ye - .e. 05 " 6 . " ' " i^-eivai . to be in need of this. 77. .. - ^ ^ . €. . }) -." " . " Seiv " . .." .. arpaT-qybs aipedeis having been elected general.

Contract Nouns of the First Declension. etc. /cat eSofcet * . subj. /rots he lest himself destroy § 102. discouraged. 107. 88. § 117 with improper of price. yap 5 ." 145 . - eyoiye ) <5 '. . "^'. § 130. fearing Seiffds {-).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^ rj .-. etc. ' .." a^tat . § 115 h. . . . falsely declare that reen- aor. • e^etv is right. with adjectives. yap '* . €. A' '^^. • 94. § 116 e . . forcements are coming.. . of ^. etc. Tt^eVat. LXXVIII. 93. ' . 91.= . . "''. . . § 28 D Uses of the Genitive: Avith verbs of earing for. prepositions. €$ make new distinction (and say) that oh it but that one ought. 99. — -€ . ' . AI - Se TTore AQIAI..

€. etc. I am 14 was neglecting to examine himself as in the presence of the : buy 18. (i. . 5.. of the dual and to hoio man c. note the following includ- . eivaL. " . '. 11. . much. ing the participles in -oOs. . § 191.-. . hvolv 4€.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 146 . minae. considering (inquiring. )( 4 ' -.. . 6 6 ." 6 'Avtl- € ' ' " • eivaL 15 • /cat /ca . - > . 2." / " '. xohether.. . '. tioo Thv . § 89. the one icho 8. ' }. offer. iv. give. LXXIX. § 50 Herewith Exercise 48. (). ' .. . \.e. this. ." yvpeia €. . loondering) ff. . himself his friend). — --€\$ . eva'yyeKiov Learn the conjugation of the compounds of of el. Gen. '-— . Of etc..

'^. be a temptation. eiraywybv . €- give in return. sell. restore. .^ AI avrjp. -. ) . what he it is etc. " ^» -^. - ) ^ -fj .' . hand over Of. -^^. < .). 25 ' . 6 au ecTTt. - ye eavrov. to -" AIQIAI. . antidote. 1 6. give to. will fetch. . give a share of (Gen. etc. whenever to sell. " B' eivau. . betray. Of. give bacJc. . . " 147 . apodosis. .1 - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -. 28. 24. 6 €t . to offer for sale." = 27." . possible to get. 20 . /. poSlBo another. (29-30) lest it eupovros sell for .- 3° rj hear one (complaining) that. . 29. - . .

LXXX. .. Herewith Exercise 1. To ' " . — '€<. Review the conjugation of . 4. • . - oioa . § 90.. together with the declen- sion of the participles in -vs. . show. avepi ' € oySoT] of § 89. eivai ' — 3- 4.. 49. ' . 609-615. — . . .' ' .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 148 •? . . § 50 C. 2.. 149-150. 222 . $.' ^. . € TOL SiKaiov ovre avSpa iv . . and learn that point out. — Qeiyvidoi. . 739 ^..

^ ^ -€ '» .-. 3. = = . in the inward parts. 5 I . 9 149 ic / ^ I b. § 164. cepts. . and bear nor carry.c. . = 4. . An . ^^ ' . persuading them by their pre- (sc. & =: 8 1. 600-500 ^ A/^ [ . Attic Insckiption. ^ . 5. such outward advantages as I possess. See Lesson VI. ' • eivai €)(. ( neither . \ € 5- Trjhe yevecr^at € 8e €17) ) 6 — -% ) . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK irepi apeTTj^ ^ . .

Astyages gave orders that the child. his chief administrator and the most faithful of his subjects. determined to make ayay with the boy in his infancy.(-) ^(/7 .OF GREEK THE FIRST 150 ADDITIONAL SELECTIONS FOR READING This selection. -) {-\\ abuse. nepi-w^iT-gs later. 5 /caXeicra? re ^' ^ avopa. -. Accordingly. 6(^ 8.c). in whatever manner. § 157. deceive). ( '•/5). ). be put to Asty'ages fearing lest his grandson -would death. es (= eis) is the form regularly 7. and serves to illustrate the studied cruelty of book oriental torture. is taken from the first of Herodotus (108 ff. 6. misuse). $ . the son of his daughter Man'dane and Camby'ses. ^s ceavTov to your oion (home). fall foul of yourself. employed by Herodotus. The Punishment of Harpagus. Attic prose (except Thucydides) regularly employs ets. the Pensian. 6 )(). • " ' Oaxjjov 4. e^ by means disregard (lit. . (?) (-) throio aside. - --.. summoning the nobleman Har'pagus. It is very common in early Greek. -) .. ovv OLKeiov . king of the Medes and Persians (594-559 b. be your oion tindoing. as by Thucydides. some day supplant him in the kingdom. 5. eXeyev TOiaSe crot e/xe re . afterwards = .

^. . . e? . death. dressed () and. { -) --$ (^) 17. -• /THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK - ' ySovXet. " • J) ' ' 6 . ^^~ ' 6 Si 5 ) " • 7} eVt ' shall {is about to) pass to.• . 15. ^-. neither at €(( .^ ' TOl•* ^.^ varepov ere -€ . '. 26. '. . . .-. i. spoken - rrj childless. € -€. robed for burial." -) yiyve- et ' 6 - OLKaSe ' " .e. 25. in myself). without a son.\ ". . . rendered {in) the robe for will not give assent to his resolve. .^ € 151 avSpl ovSev. § 178. -. 25 ). the past man (i. 28. 2 - ^-/3^ 9.e. . any time in TO 7' 13. 22. . ' . my {service) must he have you observed any untowardness in this dutifully. ." ' -. . etc. .

(that) he Will destroy you. ." eiire 6 35 . -- Ttva ere 51. 47. 33. Teray/AaL 5 ^. deliverance. {-€. -. Sei ' . . . - ' . 4 " ^. 6v to (one) of the herdsmen whom. . ^^ ^-. some one of the {servants. ' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 152 eveKa . -. (). '. . yeveadai . ^. household) of Ast. 44. being with child and daily expecting . '€ .^' 6 \ . . . -€). ' . 45 . . 48. -. P. ' 31. . -. . '. .6 30 . Sia -^.

^. not being accustomed (to -\$ (-. ^ . 72. (like a 175 vision sleep). P. . § . affwaipbv -^ in e. . .etvat )5. . gone carrying) to carry uioay. 57. II B. ). he stood over seen. tivos could never have guessed whose child . really civ - {-) was.. )(. . he {suddenly) (that) which would that I had not § 153 b. 63. -. 65 ' ota . -^ 6 " . . 7° § 179.. '-^^ }- -. 8 £. • ' for lohat reason. ' .' ei- eiSov iSeiv € 6 ' ^. -. appeared. gasping and screaming. ^-/ ^ . ^. etc. 61. 65. . do^o). 6 55 avSpa. . 68. -€\) €€ '^ --^.. ' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ' e? 153 eV repoL ttJ? 6 .. . . € . .1 {to he rb astonish). it . . €-€. . § 145.

' - eh) 6 ' -SLKv. Tedveos ^/ .. he said there would come. • ^. 95. clasping. re . . wrap.(-/). 85 - ohov \oyov 8 oe ' • ' ' go -. 88.. . -- 6. § 175. ^^ ^ . 95 74. Fut. THE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK -^ 75 . " . Se ^ ^. }. (existing openly) prevailing unrepressed. 87. c.154 . 93. . -. -. -\(). . 86. a still-born child. Part. especially cloak. --$ ' () clothing. .'. 75. 84. . 92. to see (it). (e^Tj) § 115 . . you loill be caught () . ^ - -. of Purpose. .

the one § 138. . 112. 115 for the purpose of putting 101. ^ ." 155 - . .. . and (noio) TO been buried). ^ . 99. 105 iy 6 ' ' no "5 6 at (').e. .^ .. . of . . (child) lay buried (had Aor.. bestowing {upon)... mid...5. existing) circumstances.. 11. giving. --. .-^8 . . ) . . . to death. § in view of the present Trpos (i. Future participle.- THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK . 97. ^ .

loithout delay. ^ ) -. etc. office. . whipping rt. -. ) ^ . 124. KOpos. at once. ^aaTiyCiv he handled him roughly. ^^. . name only. in name. ^ . ^ )- he assigned the 125.-. i.. ) . 136. surname. 128. merely ws Adverb. . - elvai. ' 6 " 121. an added in Persia the yipas and name to of a another yipas (rd) a gift of honor.e. anger just as he was. elvaL I20 hrj eivai.s soon as he tms released. '^ € . -. 131. . . § 98.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 156 . in each one is (). . 130 him. The King's Eye was confidential adviser to the king. to subject 7€-€ opyy 5e . . use of ace. \$.. . 1 . . The without ceremony. -$ 8 125 30 6 Sr) ^ ( ( 135 Srj ^.

" 142. to be like his own. -. ySacrtXea. tion.' . of themselves ^ refuse to obey. '' • ". too independent (i.. 150. -. punish the 150 55 ' \ 6 6 hoy for the sake of the honor of Artemhares.-- " . . - . -. disobey. 160. to 45 ^. 153. the lapse of time since the exposure. " * 6 ' . wishing -.^ . )(^ eti'at ' 8. .-^ until. for a slave's child to utter). 14° xpbvos $ es dvayvwaLs {there) came to Astyages recogni- eavTOv to correspond to himself. . 6 -.'8 ." . etc.e. -.8 -. 154.. ^ . 159. -. . 160.^ THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK Se 7€ SeiKvvs ISojv € Tou 157 eVet8r) . ^. es S ' 157. ^.

. kill. use to the uttermost.'^ ) - 6 . 175 Sr) -] . . €. ^^ - - " - amazed. ( TTejxxfjaL € -€€^< inl e/c-TrXayei? 65 ^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^ . . 8 -^- Si '^ -^ Sr) 163. -. ^> . -. iva-yKOLS 182. 85 6 4-•9 ^'^^ ^ \ 162.-. 6 '£ 6 ' ' 7/. ^ ^ -. -." . . 186. (necessities) tortures. 70 - elnev.158 . -. ^ " '" . ). -. . -". . make aicay with. dumfounded. - . recovering himself. (-) -€€€! 174. . . Aorist participle.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ' ' e'/c 159 . the which he felt toward him. cross-examine. " . -. igs having the anger . - i\ey6evos 189. . \ 191 put £f. commands (= c3). 179.. . 205 on cross-examination. to this (i...• " ^' . Sttws . - ). following) 208. 2 ' ^.. 198.^ ^ . //€7 '^ 19° . subj. . . (aor. §§ 156. . ^- . ^. . (jiven . to the test. evSov eiSe 4€. .) -! . . .. ^ .) ) ' /.^ -^ . . be convicted . -^ -^. -. .e. ^^ effect.

.. . TO - 6 " " re ) 215 ^) '] ^ - . . . the things that had happened.€- 211.'. . 225 230 ^ . yeyovus about thirteen years of age. ).- /ca . . . it 215.. I did not bear it lightly. { tevat 6 . 222. 6 Si -.) -- " . 221 . (^). ---.. . . . 224. had been repeated (iraXiWoy^w). ? TO. . . ^. - § 120 b. . .2IO . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 160 . = 4.?-. 220 . . ev 216. . -.

the head. -. 6 Each guest had a separate table. ^ - - " 235 240 /cat 6 245 . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 6 rot? € 161 . 2?. . which was when set before him by his kinsman Atreus.-. hands. . at all.. 1587 ff.. iScov /cat ' o/c.5. /cat \ -. 250 which was placed beside him. and feet. . -^ -. . The reason for this is disclosed in the concluding paragraph of the story. ? . 237. See the Agamemnon of Aeschylus. . 240. ' -. he was made to eat the In the famous feast of Thyestes. " . . the same parts of the body. ^•t . ^ -- 'ot ^. the hands.. were kept apart in a basket. if he had enjoyed the dinner. el tQ. .. flesh of his own children..

and attacked and subjugated the Aeolian. that . -\ CroesilS. 238. of Croesus himself crept into their sympathies And the personality — the admirer of Hellenic and wisdom. 546 B. About the time that Cyrus usurped the throne of Persia." ^ art his 1 J. and Dorian Greek cities of Asia Minor. Croesus. which she possessed in such full measure. with jealousy men who enjoy too great prosperity. and for the Halys river. Never more than for the memory of Croesus did Greece put forth the power of that genius. "The capture of Sardis Avas an eventuality of Avhich no one had So great had been the wealth and might of Croesus. 560 b. Kpoitros." His rule extended from 558-529 b. I. Avith his capital kingdom as far east as the Halys river. none deemed his overthrow possible and the sheer and sudden fall into nothingness made perhaps a deeper and more abiding impression on the imagination of Hellas than any other historical event. and conspired with Harpagus and others to overthrow his grandfather. but as events proved he was himself defeated and forced back into Sardis and there taken captive by Cyrus (c. Ionian. succeeded to the rule of at Sardis. . He extended his . so dizzy the height of his power. B. sians. The Astyages was deposed and Cyrus became king . the generous giver out of abundant wealth. if he cross the Croesus believed that "the great empire " would be that of Cyrtis. of Alyat'tes. of weaving round an event of history tales which have a deep and touching import as lessons for the life of man. which was the westernmost boundary of the empire of Astyages. Bury. forasmuch as they had supposed him dead.c. ries of his By revolt of the was successful Medes and Per- vastly enlarging the empire. Croesus determined to attack Cyrus this purpose conducted an expedition across urged forward by the response of the oracle at Delphi fall of and the Persians. the adorer of Hellenic gods. with Persia in the ascendency. p. ~/\ Halys.c). : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 162 II-III After so ferociously wreaking vengeance upon the nobleman Harpagus. will destroy a great empire.). History of Greece. who received him with great rejoicing.. " A\vv -. In course of time the lad grew to manhood.C. Upon the Astyages in 550. son Lydia (c. Astyages sent the boy Cyrus to his parents in Persia. It was the most illustrious example that the Greeks had ever witnessed of their favorite doctrine that the gods visit seriously thought. except Miletus and from the tribute levied upon his subjects and from the gold mines of Asia Minor he became fabulously rich. Cyrus gained for himself the title of "The boundaGreat.

Alyattes was king of Lydia 4. 617-560 b. .c.g. But whatever the element of truth in these tales. reXevra. the story of the visit of Solon to Croesus is perhaps apocryphal. irSiv 10. 6 --- 1. they admirably the style of Herodotus and his belief in divine nemesis. to the court of the Lydian In view of the fact. for 9. being 35 years of age. . -.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Some the arch. . 594 and 590 e. 5 . although Solon appears not to have died until after Croesus' accession.. 6 -\.c). the Athenian lawgiver. §§ 113 d. \€5. Solon. . and revolve about monhowever. . to the ovs ' § 102. . . rovs iv ry Awptias. . that Solon's archonship fell between of these tales are told in selections II visit of 163 and III. while Croesas did not ascend the throne until about 560 n. . 5 . 13. e^-eSe^aro 6 . illustrate ? ^ .^ . . . % eyeveTO . 114. '^ -- - "^ ' . ^s (c. payment of tribute. II ^ 6 € .

held § 122 a. ws 32. ^ . . € -€ 6 19. ) ' . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 164 . ' 35 6 • " -. fjv . ". woXvs frequent report. made ovoev as he had opportunity.^. 30. ' /..( cr^eSot' ' ). 26..rpecting. e. -. ' 3 6 . a desire has come upon me. futbjpct aftencard on the third day.. \6yos 33. 37. (he . 6 ^ -LKVovvTaL ocXXol '. . et^e 2 . 38. . $ 35. having . -\ how through love of knoioledge.'^ -. . \. had he subdued). thinking. ot .^ . - ' 25 -. not resorting to flattery. .

. the very spot where. 54. (45) very frequent in Herodotus for . .. -. his City being prosperous.3. 45. 6 ' • " 55 ' 40. (to midst of prosperity.--" . him being loell off (in the means) of . -. . . . TTjs 44. -€. . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Trj \\ \ -^ \4yeL ' . (youv) certainly he saw children born. (). severely. earnestly . 8 ^ . life) to (-). ) ^. at Eleusis. 41. a iv 51.) . ." . . -^ 4 the reply ?3 -'^ . perity) of Tellus... II few miles northwest of Athens. turning upon). \\ . $ § 17!). in the () on 56.. Xe)(^9ei' " • Sr) • ' -/^ etvai 165 €< - " • fxev. 4. . . the many blessings (the great pros- siipposing that he woxild at receive second place (carry away any rate the second prize). .6 - . . 52. 4° 45 5° 6 6 . eiSev in-eyeveTo. . . 48. livelihood sufficient (for their needs) teas (theirs). him (lit.

.. 70 debs {i. i.e.-. . 7 - 6 yap -^ . 63. ohe 6 6 THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK . her. \ ... . 72. ' " 75 ^ - . 0% to be conveyed by team. € KXeo^et she prayed the goddess to give to etc. • \eyerai lepeiav eoei -£ . wpq. dead {-). ^ in season. the divine but iu power ^ 1. being prevented (^excluded) by the {lack of ) time. -^ .. that she had been blessed with such children 74. 61. . tohat children she had obtained. - Kleobis. rotdSe ^ .e. (). iv uipq. . § 86. ^eos. "). i.! 166 - 65 . ^ . regardless of the sex of the to be 70. 75. the goddess. The masculine is used here of the deity.e. be taken by carriage. -- ^. •€ 62. 69. of god in question.. viro-5uvres. 67.

. re 167 ? ' ". (rrjs tQ Herodotus makes Solon first reckon a year as having 360 days (70 X 360 = 25. ( (^ -- . ^ . ^ . -^ iv . go .) 80.^ '/. The great temple and the precinct of Hera near Argos was one most famous centres of her worship in Greece." ^ Srj ' ' * 8 "^ ^^ 8$ avSpcov " . oovvai €)(. you ask me (a man) who knoios the divine nature. 6 ^. ovSl . 83. etc.- . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^. ').200). 85. 6 TO. .. ' " " . has been cast aside ^pwT$s 95 . . . . €)( ) {-. / -. of the of good- (). 87. . 93 $) iv ff. -. He then adds an intercalary month irdv) in order to make the year corHepov each second year 89. - -.--\8 -. rrjs eaLo>s the second place {in point) fortune.

102. ^. (-. to the Other. ' Oe . tmtil human I learn life is all uncertainty that you have ended your life in prosperity. altogether. TO %» . 168 . 6 . erepq. -. ^ ry 102. . -• -. . . aorist. .^ . - the one (lay . ^ . § 98). Gnomic § 136. ^.-€ 6 4s respond with the seasons (' ai This falling at the 'proper time). 104. he overturns them root and branch. ignoring holding him (to be) of no account. .. ^ . loholly. year.. .^ . 111. 07 113.^ 6 \ '. /Lie^-eis TrotijffayueiOs ovSevos giving up.. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK - 8 at Seof. '' 105 ./ . . . '^. . 107. 109.' - ^ . - . €•. that the seasons may makes 35 extra months in 70 years. and an average of 375 days in each In this reckoning Herodotus is of course in error.

- . -^ . 3. - ^ .. lest (i. he got (i. 12. . aXrjdeiav . ayerai . . . 5-? (-\\). Aty. disabled. (/3). brought home) a wife. 11. g. as one was --- may conjecture. 7. 6 -evhovTL .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 169 . 18. something hanging (on the walls). . yap (jjv 6 6 ' 5 ".-. 8 ). § 172. ' ) 6 koyov . III ' eXa/3e iavTov eivau yap -). (i^-eyeipw).e. 15.-. ivas blighted (-). 5 -).^) was accustomed. although he . etc. etc. 13.^. "^ .e.

3 ' )(. -\ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 170 €)( 20 ' Iv X^pcrl -LKveLTaL 25 yevea . ." ^^ ' ' 35 . § 130. eSeiro." . i. ws 38. 6 " " 20.-. he sought purification. -. 33.^ 6 * "'^. and could not enter again into social relations until he had been purified by some one who took pity upon him.. . ' ^ '' . The purification consisted in the main in the ceremony of sprinkling the blood of a pig on the hands and head of the guilty person. .e.-' ^ -. 40. : 34. yoxi loill (). who loas guilty of murder. . marriage (having the marriage in hand for him). ^ . ().• " 6 "^. c. need (lack). . 05 d7il'en into exile to friends. who was a Victim of a calamity.. under a ban.? . The name Adrastus means The Unescapable. .. ^ . ^] his son being occupied with the . 5. iv (-). . . ) " . The murderer was 25. \. Cf. i-f\avo 37. 21.< ' ' - "'. .

39. -42.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . 5° ^. ' " ' -\\ . C. . -.. - iv Statrat' iv iv - 171 4° ' yiyverai. -. .^--. - " ' -. cidtivated fields. 44. ws 62." 6 6 -^fJv. €\ . 45 i. . )(^-. 55 - ." . etc.. epya works. as lightly as possible.' ^-. would (were wont they to) do. . epya ' in ' oijSev. 43.e. § 135. ' - .^^ € «^ . € ^\ ^ .. 6 . 05 a monster of a boar. . refusing (saying^ no ^). i-iroiovu 58.. -. as zealously as possible. .

. ^ 75 .-^. e.e. . ttjs $^ lifetime. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 172 Trporepov 65 re - . 8 hi 85 " . etc. . 82.. -.) " -.5(€t9. es . . avTov 6 ^. ^. -/- . -. avhpX . was wars and on hunting expeditions Heretofore has it been permitted us to to enjoy the noblest reputation. .• ) eivai. ei TTws during 85 my ff. TLvd --. ." . etc. formerly permitted us me) going (i.'' -6 64. exets you have shut out. to 7-?•5 = 68. 67. ) ' . enjoy the fairest and noblest reputation through going. somehov I might if be able. . Sia • " yap oxJjlv -. it . have excluded. -.". . . it is pardonable for you. aypa<. ayopav rtcrt ^ ^ ..

. " *1 ^ /. /cat . 108. . ^. etc.^ ). " -^- . ." ? - '.-. overpersuaded.. 106.^ .. 89. ' .. 95 tei^at ' '^.^. etc. ^ crot ISovtl y' oxjiiv etjott nepl 173 e/xe ' top St/cato? ' rjv go . that the dream said. . . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . . . as having been conquered. dWws I would not go. ]. . ^ ^} . oSov ' . etc. as he sets out. ^ ^^. ^. ya (otherwise) under other circumstances . inasmuch as I have been 96. {.. ' ) .. 6 • ]." 105 " • You say to say.

. ayyeXQv.}^€\€>^ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 174 ^.-". . §175. .^' -^ ^ . veaviais re and dogs. levai. etc. aya- TTOieiv 115 ' ~ veal•' tat ' 120 eg -). tressed. so far as depends 118. Srj 6 . ) Sr) yyov. { . hei . expect SO far as his guardian is concerned. ^^ -- no dvSpa /catov -. ' 30 6 Srj --/$ § 115 . (thrown together in trouble. men Genitive with. of hitting. 126. . confusion) greatly dis- . futVLre -paruciTple oi purpose. ev ^^ yap Se. ) --. unharmed on his guardian. . ^ -' . 123. -. . . - hvooylo payvo 115. missiiig. verbS e.. 129. rvy^ai/et 6 125 yyv .. confuse. {equipped with) attended by waiBos. etc. .

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eVetS^

iyevero

eivaL,

^,

(quiet

156.

from men)

xohen quiet prevailed

about the tomb.
157.

-'-6($

-

(recognizing with himself) being conscious,

believing.

158.

he knew.

§ 95.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

^

177

I— EXERCISES

1.

(

For additional
baa,
;

To accompany Lesson II)

pronunciation

drill in

baa !

where ?

NO!
ۥ I too,

€ «.

:

bow-woio
iro

ircus

!

whither ?

;

yes

!

how ?

;

ov no !

1.

\alp€ rejoice! good- morning
ttcos

you

you.

et ego.

?

€€9

too, et tu.

hail! farewell!

!

;

how are you (for me)

€' / am ill.
/ am well,
/ am learning, I understand,
am not, etc.
I do not
I knoiv.
/ am speaking (/ speak^ Greek.

?

^

I
know.

.^

Each pupil should make
of all the

classifying

1

2

,

words

at this poiat a complete list
Lessons I-II and the exercise above,

in

them according

mihi,

i.e. I

not, ordinarily

am

to accentuation

interested in your condition.

has no accent, but attaches

and arranging
§ 120.

itself in

pronunciation

word that follows. But when it stands alone (in which case it
means 7io!), and when it is the final word in its clause or sentence, it
receives an acute accent
Why ? See further § f.
In ancient Greece it was not the custom to shake the head as we do
to indicate denial or refusal, but to throw it up and backwards,
and
especially
should therefore be accompanied by a toss of the head.
to the

:

,

.

,

:

:

THE FIE ST TEAR OF GREEK

1(8

each group in alphabetical order.

compared and kept
are as follows

may

lists

be

The groups

acute accent

^

a) on ultima:

b) on penult:
c)

These
and drill.

:

Words with

I.

for reference

KaX6s beautiful.

had.

^^

zvisdom.

on antepenult:
a) penult and ultima both short

:

book.

6€VT€pos

(^ w w)

second,

) penult long, ultima short
Words with

II.

circumflex

a) on ultima: uo^SiS wisely

.

ircos

.

b) on penult (ultima short)

:

( _ w).

:

;

cts-

5.

€€

2.

(

accompany Lesson III)

The Greek language has been spoken
for thousands of years,

lions of people.

to
is

But

aud

is still

as a living tongue
spoken by many mil-

of course the ancient Attic dialect,

which these lessons and exercises are an introduction,
no longer employed in this way. In learning the Attic

dialect,

however, one should constantly emphasize phrases

rather than isolated words.
cise, therefore,

In the accompanying exer-

master each of the type-sentences, copying

and repeating aloud each of the phrases invoh^ed until it
then write the other
veritably becomes a living phrase
sentences in conformity with the model, and repeat each
;

one aloud
I.

,

many

times.

"

understand, you do not.

,

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

€5, -

€09

6

'

understands, the sister does

,

know, you do

I

I.

are not.
(o

'

am

not.

3.

5.

am

§

103 b)

The

2.

II.

not.

brother

{,),^),
I

am

not.

is

writing

my

reading

You

4.

you

brother

are writing, I

speaks Greek, the brother does

sister

^,

not.

You understand, I do
'
The

7iot.

not.

I

179

'

One understands,

the other

does not.

One

6.
ing,"

writing, the other

is

etc.

8.

is

not.

One speaks Greek,

,

(^ol8€v'), etc.

III.

7.

etc.

9,

'

One is readOne knows

have

book,

you

have not.
10.

I

have a friend, you have not.
11. I have roses
12. You have a large book, I a small (one)

(§ 100), etc.

(^^.
IV.

£.


€.

;;

;

Have

Have you a book ?

YOU a

or

.

book?

YOU

Have

Ans.

too

Ans.
a book?

Ans.

14. Have YOU
Have you a friend?
Yes.
15. Have YOU too beautiful roses?
I too.
17. I have both (/cat) a
Have you a brother?

13.

roses?
16.

brother and
books.

V.

(/cai)

a


€$
'

We

18.

sister.

There

There

is

is

have roses and

no one wise.

nothing

evil.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

180
19.

There

There

24.
26.

one

no

is

dear.

21.

bad.

20.

better.

nothing

is

beautiful.

22.

23.

worse.

25.

large.

beautiful.

useful.

€ -)

3.

{
(^

this exercise

proceed as in Exercise II)

Enclitics, § 10 (the four accentual types).


I

€()

€€

amicus sum.
amicus

es.

amicus

est.

amici sumus.
amici

II

'.

Repeat with

.
6.^

fool.

3.

:

estis.

6()

amici sunt.

III

IV

)
^
)
^

(^,
(^,
€().
(^,
€€.
(^,
(^., ), .•.
(^, 8~) €()•
1.

4.

"
,

Grreek (PI.

clpii.

€1.

">€<).

.

f(hid of horses (tTTTro?).

fond of
7.

2.

-

books.

foolish, a

!

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

€,

.
'

kyui

You

8.

,

-

a)

I.

.

)

"ycwp-yos

are a philosopher, I

farmers are wise, we are not.

farmer

?,

.

'

am

b)

a farmer.

Fond

10.

/£/) are wise, some (0?

)

The

9.

Some

11.

beautiful.

'

of horses is the

fond of books, the physician.

;

181

The

12.

(04

roses are

beautiful, the trees are not.

How

II.

How

13.

()

beautiful

beautiful the

book

is

the trees are

How

17.

!

I

know

do not

does not know.

do not,

We

25.

(T(p

,

1

,

C

1

r

the

the farmer

know.

b)

This (one)

19,

He knows that he
know that he knows.

does not

that you know.

that

we

23.

You

are wise.

philosophers.

1

^^^ brother himself.

J

Strictly these differ slightly in emphasis.

BROTHER

I

that

tall

the (self)same brother.

'

,

()

How

€ -)

4.

.

He

How

20.

know
know that we are

do not

is

() (^
We

know

21.

etc.

small

is !

14.

!

15.

that I know.

he knows.

21.

(sm^.)

are!

How

/ know

(olhev) that

You

the roses are

fond of horses

.

knows
22.*

16.

!

a)

III.

18.

((^)

hevhpd)

trees

beautiful the rose

himself; the latter, The brother

The former means The

HIMSELF.

!

.

.

Repeat with :

1.

.

OF GREEK

FEBST

182

2.

8.

is handsome.
5.
The same physician is wise.
7. The father
6. The same f^meis are fond of horses.
himself is wise.
8. The same (one) is both wise and

4.

€ € «»

good.
II.

^Lol

a) ovT«»s
It seem» »o

to

JIE.

c

)

d)

also.

to

€ .€
^

b)

It teem» so to me.

;

10.
to
9. It seeuKS so to the same physician.
11.
to the philosopher
the physicians themselves.
13. Does it
12.
to the same slaves.
himself.

seem so to the
in. a) SOS

Give me the book.

TO

|MH.

Gfive the hook to

TO
14.

Yes

l|rother him.self ?

15. To the
To me myself give

Give the books to the same brother.

brother himself give the rose.

the roees.

17.

IV. a)

«;
18.

b)

ME.

Am

16.

Give them to me.

;

What am I to give yoii ?
6m
To whom am I to give the hookf
I to give

you the same

give you the book itself ?

£

to the farmer?

Am

20.
to the

21.

rose
I

?

b)

19.

Am

I to

to give the books

same friend?

22.

to the same wise physician ?

V.
23.

Call the

cian himself.
26.

the brother.

same brothers.

24.

the physi-

the philosophers themselves.

25.

the fools.

1 «writs, Iftas,

foie

8€

*o

% coBBonaiit.

{ef.

*rm)^

is

often ivmoaiieed and wrinen

be-

Do not Let him not be urging. learning nothing. €. you are e) 15. 16. a) - not he not Let these not consider the 21. These {ovtol (rt) -) € be writing nothing. a) '. not. (Tip . be urging these things. Do c) (thiiigs).• understand perfectly. b) - c) 11. ing these things. They understand perfectly. 183 24. € b) ' ' / €€ cannot have nothing tell {say). 3. May 10. We. but not you 14. tell ? 5. €€. am not. May May you not rejoice. etc. 6. 23. Be (thou) speaking Greek. What What are these saying ? well.( €€5. I stand. the physicians May this (one) consider the \vise rich. -). II. May we we these rejoice. €. 4. Let the brother not. d) I. writing b) these £ 22.) are reading nothing. wise rich. You (j9?. telling you nothing. TTcos b) am ill. you are well. consider the wise rich. Be (ye) learn- etc. We are a) '. 12. a) ^. 9. -) €€. Be (ye) not. III. {do not keep') 17. Do etc. 2. May these rejoice.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK €' 5. c) They do not under7. . d) c) 18. 8. 19. to are saying he telling {%aying^ nothing. May we be 13. IV. non . 20. etc. ( May the farmers rejoice. you. €.

etc. I well. 6. Before telling 34. these things. You are My 3. the philosopher. but the brother is fond Not the books. . mother are well. etc. tell Can you tell me 32. am 2. self) be. 1 The man When is . It is not so. These 30. but also rich. €. You I. of horses. but the physician is fond Not the sister. but wise but as follows. not to be learning.. . . e) irplv before telling. is . (Lesson VII) 6. man} Not not so. urge (are commanding) you to be learning 26. us. but also. is ill. 7. We 25. it is € €€ it is as follows. €€^ so. 4. the books. 10. . 31. but foolish. I am . . not only . ov but. noli wise. . handsome. 8. Can you (^pl•)•. It is . « is intransitive : {have one- .') you. 9.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 184 . things. as follows. We 29. I. give Be- 36. have nothing to have nothing to Xe^eiv Can he tell us this the physician. tell (€9 33. It is not Not the farmer. II. not to be writing these 28. . habeo dicere. not . 35. fore writing this. fare. call the same physician. accompanied by an adverb. ii\Li . but the roses are beautiful. ill. (say ' the ') 5. III. not only handsome. (the 11. These are urging us. ? me me this ? etc.? this. 27. of horses.

? if it lav he so. () I 19. etc. Omit the word not be should (might) be writing would not be learning anything (Gk. 15. etc.. 20.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK We 12. Do 14. What we are we to be reading be learning lav III. 24. Let us be writing this. should speak Greek. I. Would you be learning the lesson. be writing (Lesson VIII) 7. What mn I to . What 8. 7. 14. ? We should 22. 23. 2. Let us not. If I etc.'' ). dv Would you speak Greek? learning the lesson this.i € I. if we have not money. they will not have friends. If these. etc. €. ( these things. Let us be reading the Let us not be going. 11. for ' them. 5. 6. let ) not only large. If () have money. ovhkv 1 not. Let us be learning these things. book. 16. If you have money. to not. ? ? €| |€ you? to tell the physician ? ? give . us be going. they will have friends. 18. dv We . II. If we be learning these things. book Tlie 13. 4. etc. 17. etc. Let us not. If they have not money. etc. I shall have friends. but is not only 185 £€. We should 21. but also learning (them). are ' €€ 10. What am 9. These . 12. If 13. IV. we. etc. 3. also beautiful. I. you will have (e|ei9) friends. are.

brothers ('i/i^') learning the lesson. If friends. learning the lesson 3. pi. not.) III. make you these things. He 10. make 11. . if if should be it el so. should have friends. see you (j^?. I do writing (things'). If 28. 15. - I This (one) will 9. you vriting. well. many (PL 7/3^€9. I shall make you stop writing.^ I see you reading.) 1 not. 8. things ^j<v'^ ^^"^ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 186 -^^. I 16. If these 30. so. ? enjoys reading. sing. etc. etc. 29. They would rejoice. € enjoy reading.V. ? € a) II. us stop writing these things. 25. By these {exercises} I learn is ace. is 14. 13. reading the book. see learning 7. € €1 €€ things. my ^ reading. we should not have money. we should have we 27. --i" stop reading. stealing. If you should not be we should be learning these should have money. tiot. a) (^through tvriting} 12. stealing. I see 5. 6 b) I shall 6. The one These enjoy 4. ? do -- Do you 1. writing. If it should not be 26. etc. they would have money. the other (does) not. The ace. ^^ ^\^ -\ -€$ / T• We enjoy reading writing these 2.

(say '•having'') friends. 9. treasures. . substituting as in the preceding and in the same order the following vords . 19. bride. //. . . (Lesson X) .. this book. $ exercise € € € €€ . an irregular noun of the third declension Ace. they 21. sing. athlete. . . § 39. . many things. we believe that we have reading this he learns . . 18.. ' oii. (Lesson XI) Repeat Exercise IV. . 11. poet. -. . Dat. .^ 10. 1 See pi. . . Having friends. . 'yvvaiKaz. Repeat Exercise IV. €. . substituting for '€05. these hooks. (Lesson XIII) € ' € . I have €€^ 187 . pi. house-servant. 20.. these do not believe. 3^ou Though they have 22. etc. § 179.? THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK € b) I believe have) friends^ By 17. 2 yvv-f) is Nom. : step-mother. . you that Having {if I treasures. . . I a.

. teach will I the farmer's 20. 16. these philosophers themselves. your brothers. TO €€. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 188 € Repeat. substituting €K€LV0 (-a) for How I. . Repeat. to those poets. Give her her (' the 12. your ^ sister these the 17. please. he c. you sister. € these sisters. farmer himself. poet's (things). than those. This book . poet's if ') 19.. This rose is beauis These roses are small these ! . the physician s book. substituting for plural forms and necessary. give me. II. 1 § 61. €1 it if be necessary. . this rose. the 14. wife this to brother's book. Call 10. If € you are if it wise. . etc.. 9. the 21. 18. («?) wreath (/ 8. These ath7. Give the this to these girls. etc. athlete. using clause negative. 1. (^^ than larger is (raSe). 2. making each if should be necessary. should be wise. Stephen) to Of. If I be wise. $. us. $ If I 3. it is el etc. beautiful this rose (one) 4. that (one). Repeat. 3. wreath. tiful. is wise. servants. Teach ME. etc. my books. if you are ivilling (or if you please). ). 11. 13. 2. If I am wise. {'). is not. That book is larger than letes are handsomer 5. . 6. 15. this large. lov If the words teacher. Give my book. (or €1 €1 Come. (Lesson XIV) 12.

' () - b) (Lesson . many bless- XV) Is he speaking (the) truth? . c) must must to By / must . etc. etc. If the pupil (o 3.€€. in life than good health What poet says that (Xeyei otl) Is 6. negative form. not a Greek. Greek? Are you 2. etc. ? 3. 5. we € ? By Change the pronoun little 14. is there than no possession. better in is nothing.') THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK speaking the truth If I ain 1. ? and Is he not.{ ). If I should be speaking the truth. (or and . If I be speaking the truth.' are not. a good friend 3. etc. say a ? do. Repeat with we. He is man . is . Is the Greek ? labors we could 12.) or b) not. ? 4-9. is ? speaking (the) truths not he ? Are you speaking the truth I. could a) this. The the tongue is the cause of many There 4. 'they. II. 15-18.' 11. ills. etc. Is he npt a not achieve greatness. ' he 13. ? € Repeat a) with must learn. ? better possession the tongue not the cause also of ings (a<yaeS)v) I. He c) is is ? 13. believe. . a) There 2. 19-22. etc. 5. Repeat is in the plural What 1. repeat. no means. etc. you are speaking the is truth. 4. speaking the truth. 189 If 2. You 10.

(may^ be hurtful. I hate. . to €7. to and making the verbs Repeat in negative form. these. . € 30-41.. ^ ^ . Repeat. . you (ye). b) I. € €. this (one').).THE 190 FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -€. changing the subject to the these.. 26-29.. (things). |6. 10-25. subject to . changing plural.€. . dv <iv . . ivhat(ever) should he hurtful. 1-4.. €. III. athlete. €. Repeat b) with kcXcuciv. 23-25.$. . . we. £6 a) . . (or dv Repeat.. €. 14. €. . € . changing the J. changing . OS (Lesson XVI) Whomever) does such iroici. . Repeat c). dv that which is hurtful. you.. . II.€. what(^ever^ . Repeat the clauses under a) with Repeat the sentences under b). . 5-9. 42-57.

but not are is not. (^) repeat each with tiful. Repeat. brother desire such things. €€ €05 your. 7. to the Be doing 9. Let 13. 8. my 11. my b MY brother. €6$ €€ your.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK €. noster. are Whom this! not hate sister. mens. we are me What to hate we I my ? to be . Whom brothers. vester. is is your . () our book.. tuus. Do other To one () not be doing such things! 16. Our 3. BROTHER. yours. beau- (omit sister a poet. 26-29. €8 6$ a brother of a comrade of yours. (Lesson XVII) % my. brother is wise Your father 2. mine 6. 191 €. €€ in. changing the subject to we. 4. we to be Whom doing are ? we 15. farmer. these same 15. mine. YO UR eraipos rade. comrades. my Call . mine. my Call sisters. € €05 this girls. 14. (^). friend 5. my not desire such things (). ). €09 Change to Your 1. to love my ? Do 17. our. brothers. to and a teacher. GOM- your RADE. com- and repeat. () Do 12. give the brother's (book). yours a farmer. you. 10.

.. irapd my for wherefore. I these (things^. . 23. you. (Lesson XVIII) 16.. on this account. substituting € Master the following prepositional phrases from me. irpos according . never (/^) (/) 26. " irpos hy the gods ! ] \ . 18. why? instead of bia this. 7.. hy you^ etc. chez moi. these girls. 27. on what account? why? La TO on this account. May Let us not be doing these things. 28. 22. at . learn this lesson. May this (one) 24. If etc. etc. . etc. etc. our slaves. irpo in view of this. before this. I should never 21. \. house. slave. do such things. 5 .. you. 25. . €. Iirl : froin you. Repeat Exercise XI. May these never. TovTO.. etc.. ivith us. Tivos on what account ? . ? my 19. the law. If I should never. irpos tovtois in addition to the law. with you.€ to me. € €' €' tions). contrary to concerning to this.. Trap' hy tvol^ me. If If we.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 192 teaching Be teaching me. ircpl TovTots on these (^condi- € €. Repeat with to . Trap' . do such things. with these. . 20.

on LS ditions').) Observe that in these two words the accent ye. (Lesson XIX) Master the following phrases . 193 veri/ wise. oStos € € - . greatest. € and "ye certainly ! € " hk Repeat these phrases. § 05 € . (usually written evye^. : € . . . € € yi VERY many. is recessive. €5 -ye THIS account. . \€ and much tainly the cer- ! very many. ye. . oi 2) Fem.. '€V • . ^ (See § (Lesson XXI) 174. Tivos €€ € come now/ on I.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 17. . 18. Contrast . substituting plural forms 1) Masc: . VER wise. « THESE (con- ^ to ME. where pray f TTS>sbr\. €5. . -.

You wish to become wise. May 11. these. etc. 4. the other in books. learning this lesson. etc.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 194 The one who wishes 1. If we be making 1. If you.) The one wishes to be rich. these of 13-48. horses. ? 12. 2. 4. the other (does) not. What pray are we to be replying? 2. to be delight in good Are we to reply that we know or that . The one who does not delisfht in friends does not have friends. etc. 5. ? If these. Do not be making this reply (say 5e replying this''). each . 4. If May ve delight. should we be telling the truth ? 9. Let us be we do not know. 6. the The one who 3. phrases 1) with the negative 1) to the plural. We delight in friends. replying that Qort^ ' ' this reply. yiyveadai). wishes to be becoming wise (^ one who understands these (matters). to be rich. 8. etc. ? 7. 16. The The one who 2. let the other be making no reply (say be replying nothing "). you (do) not. If we delight in friends. etc. Repeat with 2) 5-12. take May 13. what must we do ? friends. 15. etc. shall we be telling the truth? 6. ? you be making no reply. 19. 3. and and repeat. is 2) to . we shall have friends. If you. If he should. If we should be making this reply. Let one be replying that he does not knoAV. If these poets should. etc. pi. we wish ( not in books. Let the one delight in 14. If I should. 17. 1. (Lesson XXII) 19. to delight in friends or in horses 20. 5. Change feminine (both sing. ? 10. In friends 18. we (do) not. We have nothing to rich. Are we —) reply. 3.

worth . 2. 10. etc. May 7. I 9. should should not ? make By no means. . . substituting in a) Trcpl (importance) in b) ircpl . XXIV) What are we doing? 2. we 5. we this reply. of shall we do? doing nothing. etc. Repeat. little worth. ? I to delight in a good friend or in a good horse I might make this reply. of greater value TrXeiovos (importance'). etc. (Lesson XXIII) 20. a) TovTO irepl I. etc. c) TOVTO of greatest value (importance). you. 3. consider of greater worth than 21. conjugating the verb in •- a) in the present indicative. substituting the verb (in which case the meanings given above remain unchanged).). in c) in the optative of the progressive action-stem. etc. May you 11. in b) in the future indicative . Be 1. these 8. c) TTcpl 1. . money ought. consider. Review Exercises 16-17. What What are we to be doing ? 4.( THE FIRST FEAR OF GREEK we do not know reply that 22. etc. We he 3. 6. Do thou. ? We 23. I — ^) on 195 Am 21. (Lesson . I '- etc. May (pi. you Let these. . Repeat. of Friends ^). in (^ 4. hold in highest esteem. hold in higher esteem. € b) I This great value (or importance or worth) ^ consider of hold in high esteem. Repeat each of these sentences. 24. of less least.

3. some things we To-morrow 20. 22. firm. 14.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 196 Be calling your (say 5. ? gift to the old 4. etc. . (-. If any one ask 25. them. I shall you 19. Am themselves. I shall () We 29. -. the man. Call the boy. iraXs. (Exercise 16). Repeat the phrases with ing for pi. the other will stand- shall reply that (ort) 30. . These friends. We. Some 12. We should be becoming wise.). sider 17. 7. are calling them. you •)? 27. these same 22. the ') brothers. the mother. is will We. the same boy. some will not. Vie 9. etc. 1. call (^). them. the father. what shall I reply ? ? these 28. Some things 18.- we think we understand The one is fleeing. substitut- the appropriate forms (both sing. to . 23. . Do 2. me calling calling 11. these (things). and is for a hoy^' etc. . the same fathers. Who 10. man ? are we to the to be making these men A ". (Lesson XXVI). etc. know. . me happy you happy.) of «. will call me ? Consider 13. 21. I shall not The 16. 26. 15. ' know. become 24. I shall call shall. ? I to give the not keep calling the mothers same boys themselves to the 5. the other standsThe one will flee. me about this. etc. farmers. We 8.. the Greeks. "Ycpiav. mother has no possession more precious than a boy. What reply to the Greeks ? mother ? boy has no possession more A precious than a mother (say 'there 6. am I 6. wise. 31. ? Who you. I shall con- poet. etc. firm (/AeWi). May we be becoming wise.

4. Does ^our whatever I wish. 4. and study carefully the in §§ 174 and 176. Review Exercise 1. (Lesson XXVII) Review Exercises 8 and 18. Whenever these children may wish to be reading something. a mother life 197 (say ' of life for ') 23. 5. If these be able. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK For boys are anchors of a mother's 7. In the following sentences use the verb 1-4. as the philosopher says. health is the best (thing) for a man.. hear that A we 11. My ('') ' (Lesson XXIX) 13. i). 3. their father (say be doing'} father prevent you (} will prevent (them). but t/ou are wise. examples cited . this same hear you reply- ing to the physician that you are well. wise. ^. they will pre6. May we (things). vji_ We (} you always To-morrow reply. 10. the same you making saying these will hear 12. in 5-8. The 1. 24. I 9. know are wise. are mortal men. in followed by the genitive (§ 115. For these ^ . father always prevents me from doing 2. Whoever We know that we are foolish. we are foolish. gods. 6. . To have 2. 8. Fathers always prevent their (' the ') children from doing whatever they wish. vent us from doing whatever we may wish. We know that we knows that he is foolish is 7. from doing whatever you wish ? 3. value nothing niore highly than justice (^ I 5. man's character is known from (his) speech. in 9-12.

substitut- . are are are.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 198 men do not wish us to be as happy as possible. ? (things) these desire 6. sing. they happen not to love us. 25. . to desire Let us 7. What offering to sell these (things^ ^ 9. we to be replying ? making . Love ^>^ thyself ! 8. XXX) (Lesson Repeat the phrases with ing for (Exercise 16). desire nothing. . Who ?) you you are we 8. 1. ? Whom * do these ? XXXI) 2. ? Are we nothing.. For 7. me Zeus. etc.. you? to By 9. we 4. How 8. '• children? are these 6. II. How much do you ask for this horse ? much is the farmer asking for this chariot ? 10. /?). Know (Lesson QyvSiOC) thyself not love thyself ! ! Do 4. you 3. Do not love thyself too-much . ? Whose the child")! What 5.7. ? these ? We desire 5. to Does 8. not seem so also also. 1 Ace. ? he 2. . For how much are you are you asking for etc. do not know vho (rt? or you (say of whom child are Whose 4. the appropriate forms of and pL). ?!). I. «. ? . What do you I. it tis (both . (Gen. 9. On what account To whom.this reply ? are we to be calling ? are to be Whom permit to do whatever he wishes 26. . For how much do the gods sell to us all the blessings of life ? ' 1. I 2. 3. (Gen.

for the dog was not able to prevent (it). 14. ? ? Touch My Qthe') mother permits me 13. 5. Why was the dog in the manger (say the in manger dog ') not permitting the horse to eat ? 10. touching I 10. you were not. ? Don't touch this! 12. 6. 8. We thought we were dying. What was 1. 6. . (jt?Z.• What am 7. his ('') son. Does your father permit you to govern the mule-team? 15. 16. neither eating nor drinking. XXXIV) you ? ? this slave ? ? we ? Whom 2. (Lesson down XXXVI) (along') the road. we shall not have friends. this! ! (^ 27. 11. Do not touch the chariot 14. to touch these (things). 9. By no means. ! 199 The one who loves himself too much does If we love ourselves too much. for he thinks more of the slaves than of me. Who ' ^ {} . not have friends. these 9. 11. we eating (Lesson saying these ? I I . We were not replying. Who was dying? 12. I ruling ? What was you ? We were was preventing you from doing these (things) ? 7. ? you w^e I was eating nothing. No one was preventing us from making this reply. we 8.28. 13. was ? 3. In the day-time these attendants rule me at night ^ (jjVKTo^ 8e) my mother rules me. 1 See § 119. We were becoming wise. The horse was eating the barley (say of the harley'^.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK (Xidv^ 5.) ? 1. near the postern-gate. We were not dying.

These. out. He we You kept turning around turning around he was frequently 5. etc. I Tliese boys and regarding us (say You you ? was not hesitating. 4.. ? 2. What was I doing ? these We (Lesson . Come 9. proach 12. — 14. out 5. irepl to a dictation exercise 1. These. kept. etc. in. in. Ap- out. My For they were phiinly eager to approach. preparatory based upon this passage. <. the wall. I was going away. in a position opposite the €v wall. Let us be going. We were. You were. etc. these you in 10. ' XXXVII) 3. in. you were going 15. 29. . etc. the opposite city-wall. etc. . 7. father was wont to regard (say was regarding') the slaves as of more value than us his sons. 13. We. . Come . regarding''). 2. time for me to be going away for 6. position opposite ! 8. €§ €5 €ls TO wall. ! lines toward. toward. toward. I am going away.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 200 according €9 TO to Plato. (^ for us 7. These boys. €K to a position opposite the from a . etc.. It -). 1 . Make an intensive study of 1-15 (Lesson XXXV). 3. 4. is out. 16. ' . etc. ! — away. away. We were absent. 11. 6.

4. (fte) ? are these physicians 3. XXXIX) (Lesson 30. I was hesitatthe happier ? which of these men was the worse. 7. This boy was hesitating to ask me about this (matter). 2. What is smaller than this book ? wiser than you. 11. 12. etc. 6. These 5. € am able qualified^ both to deliberate and [ \ [ € (Lesson XLIII) Qfit. My mother was wont of these same boys ing to ask me hold to 13. ? are than these brothers. 10. 12. If you should ask this. Which the largest of these Which 9. (Lesson XLI) are you asking me to be asking these (?) men ? What 2. are books are smaller. This (one) they were wont to consider (say 'they were considering^) the worse. We have nothing to ask you. . We 3. ? {) 10. ? is 7. I was saying that I was more beautiful than you. Let them not be asking these 8. I. 9. We 4. What 1. You were asking which of us was the more beautiful. OLos € € or Olds 32. There is is higher in 31. we should make no reply (say ''he replying nothing''^. we shall reply that we do not know. to fight. these larger. Do not keep asking this. (questions). If you ask this. you.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK am I 1. wiser than you. were saying that we were more beautiful than 6. You is he. 11. The one was asking. What are asking which of us is the wiser. we regard nothing more beautiful than a good friend. angles 201 is the larger Which 8. 13. the other was answering. ? 5.

a $ $. conjugating the verb in the present and future indicative and making the other necessary € changes.€ €. substitut- Repeat with making the necessary changes. € ) T€ € through- Repeat. old. substituting for (and making the other nec- essary changes. ?.. observing that . . I am nevertheless (things^.. know what friendship . experienced. (or a) Since T€ desire. also as one having experience. Repeat. . I do not . etc. $ II. ' Repeat (making the necessary changes) with b) Although wise. I. - 32. 33. learning is adjective and so has no ^distincti\^e feminine Tovs avSpas.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 202 Repeat . what in the ivorld Repeat with it is'). Although growing many . -€ this sentence. compound forms) "? (Lesson XLIV) Review Exercises 23 and a) . conjugating the verb out the present and future indicative. Repeat. ing . is . still trying to he . b) Concerning these {matters^ you I shall try to question . (^friendship .

I believe you to be you are not able to dis- (Exercise 16). . ') XLVI) Repeat the phrases with ing for away (^- is. Write in Greek each of the following questions together with an appropriate answer. . . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK c) «. b) Repeat : 203 this being so. vas playing in the courtyard. 5. . 6.) of priest. Into 7. Come tell me. the horseman. €€ In Around the . 2. the words a). €. 1. . €€'. . b (§ 39). .^ . About what were he . the others were con- As we 3. ( are going . the From 4. And 4. yet cover what friendship (^) pi. While we were conversing with one another Lysis. the others will say {epovat) that friends.. Before the city. - 1. (Lesson 34. Toi»s - Xcyovtos ol .. substituting for ToxiaSe. . being a boy.. and . €. Tas KOpas « a) II. substitut- appropriate forms (both sing. Was he a 1. playing. substituting for : . Out Far from ' of 3. versing with us. who was Socrates? young man or an old man ? 3. While ^?) was Lysis (Gen. 2. irepi the words Repeat. Repeat each of these phrases in the plural. 2.

etc. do- TTOico^cv. (while should do. tav should €l I do what are we do ? to let what did '€. be doing this TToicL . Repeat with Observe further that the aorist participle (having . . doing etc. if I be ^ doing. € Aorist Progressive what ivas I «. doing doing. do ! . ing. etc. done}. €1 T. ing f . etc. be . I do. ivhat are we to be doing ? us he doetc. Were they out what friendship was? 7.).: : THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 204 4. (Lesson XLVIII) Observe carefully the difference between the progresand the aorist forms as illustrated by the following examples sive . Who and the boys cou versing with one another ? was calling the boys and bidding them go home ? ? 6. TToiet . . lav T. What Were they going 5. to find than good-health Which 9. beautiful into the city Who 8.. if let us do. etc. ? happier than a king is seemed to you of these boys able better is ? more to be the ? 35. this ! don' t do this ! to do. dont. TTOLCLV to be doing.

lost. . -? '€. / am . c) '. Cf. (Lesson L) dead. etc. Am I awake heard its is 'prior ing verb. Repeat b). my ^.) of iroitLv. €€ b) € : said with a laugh. . etc. € turn in announcing this Vou did me a-yyeiXas was kind of you (it to a good announce. substituting for (both masc. thirty years (of age). reference to time or duration. substituting for -YtXaaas into tears. laughing. thank you for announcing.$ a fool Exercise b) (/ (hv kiiow that 23). 66. Because of an act that « : . substituting• for a-yyciXas the appropriate forms (both masc.).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK € €$ 205 Indicates an act merely as an occurrence without I. c) - Contrast laugh. o28a undone ! brother heard him This done he said.) of 36.-. 65. thus / d) e) I have I am € come foolish. and fem. €.He a) He Contrast said (while^ laughing. €€. II. and fem. to recognize or asleep ? that I am €"am / am . Repeat. Repeat a). Study carefully §§ I. often refers to in time to that indicated by the lead- ing done. 137. bursti^ig Repeat each in the feminine. tlius «. €. havthe appropriate forms dKoveiv. I am a) / fundamental meaning.

Greek. spoken. to be dead. I have ' ' c) d) violated the j^^cic^• have neither seen nor heard the man. §129. § 179. 4. 2. Greek employs the perfect infrequently. be thirty years of age. etc. those do not. We To have Study carefully a) I have b) c) 1 20.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 206 He ^') I. thus Compared with English. 14.. am saying that was saying. / am etc. seen the them. etc. ! We 6. I. 9. Have you 19. e) We a) II. 3. fool- We are You are ! € What have I done? ^ b) / have told {spoken') all the truth. We have 12. seen and heard. These recognize that they are 7. 10. 21. They Are you awake These are dead. pear asleep dead. etc. d) 15. «- € €€" To be dead. 11. has broken the peace 16. ish. in What has he done ? = be more natural. saying that I Observe that in English the perfect is constantly employed where. To told all the truth. To the truth. about lost (vre/ot. I am twenty years are undone €. 6$ LH) € ( . of age. have neither seen nor heard be awake. these. ? Ave are foolish. To have spoken 18. ap- or recognize that ten years old. 37. an aorist . 13. ? 8. ? These have not. : . Who men ? 17. is Are 5. (Lesson €'' did not hear the man.

and third persons and study carefully the following examples of progressive and aorist forms 35.e. - 2. these things.! . Progressive / am learning.! etc. . . I was lav learning if I € he €dv he . ipd is . plural. and the first. shall say. learning these (thiyigs^. etc. may I learn. €€ € may I Aorist I learned. shall forget €€€. ovSeva 4. to learn. . having learned. and means I shall speak. Repeat with €-€. if I learn these {things). etc. he learning. followed by . 5.! to he learning. : ! THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK e) (or I have that ^) I sai/ (or said^ (or had) spoken. learning. 1 Observe that (shall) say. 3. Repeat each of these sentences persons singular. (Lesson LIII) 38.! dont he. etc. 4• . learn. (while) learning. etc. f) g) 207 -uvai oii I refuse to I my go away~). h) that I am « olos away not going €|-€€ (i. ipQ) is {ipiw) is the future in common use meaning / will not common. learning. etc. etc. deny that Iheard the man. : € 1. Review Exercise second and third in the second. don't learn! §157.

«. What will I ask this woman ? man ? 5. If I ask her many (questions) (questions) 1. ing the same . Study carefully §§ "* a) €1 I. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GEEEK 208 . Repeat each of these sentences. . and making the other necessary changes. 1. tion : : question'). . If I should not ask them these . -€ -- 85. If should not be asking the boys these I (questions) (questions) . - «. If I be asking her many 4. c) €L If many V€os - . .. 3. conjugating the leading verb in each throughout the indicative of the tense indicated. b) €1 Even if were ill. «. 7. -. 2. (Lesson LIV) 39. What was I askWhat am I asking this man ? 3. (Lesson LV) 40. 4. irats €. Repeat with : clirov. etc.-. 152. - 5. What did I ask her ? 6. •3. 2. 8. If the hoy had asked me THIS. I should have made no reply. Construc- two accusatives. ivere not I should not he asking this man so (questions^. young. Two verbs of asking (Lesson LIV) ask (a 1. I should desire to associate.

to all we these. etc. I this'! 9. 16. I Review Exercise « (. I do not know. from seeming to know (say 'from know''^. etc. Be asking me this. 18. well (eu nothing. Know that 17. 12. favor^. Let them. ) 13. May we. Let them 16. etc. I. If these boys. 9. 14. (^) (^) know 11. . If I was saying that I should not be asking so many 14. . ! are going away. etc. (Lesson LVI) 41. 15. etc. IL tion : ask ( two accusatives. 19.! 10. I knows what the sophist is ? 8. May knew. conjugating the verb throughout the mood or tense indicated. Do you knov? I know. etc. keep asking me this. Let him. . I think I know. Who Does this man not know what friendship is ? 6. i J is.. 10. May I never I knew. to 15. If you. Don't ask me this (§ 157). Verbs this. Know well that these will say. as seem wisest of (questions). 37. 2. 11.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 209 Repeat. we were To know the. men.! knew . Construc- • Repeat the preceding drill. We have nothing to ask you. etc. not. not able to discover what friendship differs 42. 3. Socrates we consider the For he knew that he knew (Lesson LVIII) of telling^ saying. Don't 12. 5. 4. 7. thought 1. Ask me this. 13.

was delighted at seeiyig. € Explain what you mean. before. 6. same me (§ 157).€ Repeat 16 and II.. conjugating the verb throughout the mood or tense indicated. Tell 10. him I ? What am I telling the boy ? 2. 1. . If I tell this 5. * verb in the plural. should this tell I 8. etc. / 2. This is This what I I (eiirav'). (thing). € 1. 43. 12. 5. €. ^:>omi out. (X€Jv^. We shall this. 17. I 11. Say we do not know. 4. is \vhat (/) 17. Don't keep telling me this this. conjugating the Toiixois . Repeat these sentences. What will I 3. . ovSev Repeat 1 and 2. 3. 16. to tell. . tell Repeat. did say If I should have said nothing. should say this .. . 15. What say to him this . I 9. Don't say this have nothing to say. say that 14.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 210 I. (§ 175). 2. conjugating the verb as 3. . ? I If 7. . also chance to be saying also chanced to say tell. 13. clircv have come declare. 4. . conjugating the verbs throughout the singular and plural. explain. etc. What was I telling the man ? 4. If 6. (Lesson LX) was admired (marvelled at) for wisdom.

If I 5. 3. or by a 11. I stand ().e. By whom ? 10.the first year of greek (Lesson LXII) 44. lar (Lesson LXXIII) 46. . 5. 5. am arising. 8. etc. etc. By his (' the ') father. ). I should should make the . ( 4. Repeat 5. I you? May 7. Those who fear death many. I stood up. 10. I stood 1. was 2. Repeat 4. both singuand plural. etc. Protagoras called a sophist. made 6. although not knowing that it is an evil. versing with one another. I arise. I that (it) 2. I am 4. should be arising. saying that Protagoras. He was not persuaded to go ^) ? were delighted at seeing these men con- — slave (irorepov I that. I 2. (^ii) are is'). i. conjugating the verb throughout. those who know what (it) is fear death. in the act of standing the boy stand am ( ('). I I 8. 1. 6. the boys arise. (^ said would not please me you. but Plato a philosopher. (^. was If it () men never be called sophists 9.. 9. ^'?) Few know what death is (say 3. standing. ''know the death what 4. Protagoras was called a sophist. though fear death as is the greatest of I kne\v well (? ev all evils. and making the other necessary changes. I 7. I made ). as above. For I chance to fear death. (Lesson LXVIII) 45. these The boys were was Lysis led home 8. home. We 12. (ot are few. 211 ! led home. ) Many 1. would it please should be called a sophist.

Repeat each of these sentences with you. a) I. $ -. 2. know Let each (one) (Lesson . you. I arose 14. those. ? (Lesson a) LXXIX) . Let the boy himself set it 5. I ran away. 4. ( 8^ Where are we. 47. am I not. ! Be coming to know thy- -. 48. Arise 15. the man. Let the boys themselves. we. ! Let these not 17. d) These a) b) himself . Those also I held in dishonor. you. ! ! 16. to place the stool 10.! THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 212 others arise. () 9. whom pray . Know Do not arise thj'self 19. 11. I myself knew the man. « self ! 20. and went home (say Avill arise. ? These we should hold in dishonor. etc. Plato ascribed the good to God. Let him doAvn. Give me the book. 12. ' 11. Let them not. 6. but not the evil. arise 18. 3. T. etc. etc. those in honor. shall b) make grateful return to these . arising I went home '). Don't set it dowai. I Repeat each of these sentences with you. Where 1. we. € hold in honor. 8. they. etc. ' the blame for this? ? ? e) lav laois f) el XL LXXVII) b) c) shall . 7. I ascribe . 13. Set it down (/cara-^e?). § -. this same slave.

3. 1. Grant me (/xot) the favor. away. Let have friends. ^. the These gave (say 16. etc. 7. ek he carried (it) into the mountains 14. -. herdsman went ') the child to the herdsman and went away. Having Don't. 1. ' d) LXXX) -. as above. -€. ? with my I delight in comrades. delivered. (Lesson Xe^CL oStos ffe is speaking nonsense. a) I. these If I betray these. share these (things) with you. 2. would 10. etc. Are we. I shall not Don't not. ayyo^}. 8. 213 never grant. b) c) -€| e) Whom pray shall II. ' having given we pleasures etc. etc. these (things) with you.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK for the benefits. all my betray friends? 4. my We 12. ) } we should If 9. }. etc. sharing 11. Am 5. Having placed the child in the basket. Maf/ II. they. Repeat each of these sentences as before. d) -. not have friends (. a display of skill. my €-€ I aj^poiyit general? I am making . I to us not. etc. etc. Having given the 15. The just man time alone reveals (say '•shows'^. sharing (o 13. delight in The herdsman { gave the child to his wife (sa}^ placed the child in the basket (et? 'woman'^. child to his wife. Repeat. e) €$ toIs y . Let 6. betray your (' the ') friends. '-€ / c) etc. . 49.

THE FIBST TEAR OF GREEK 214 2. Sophocles the poet said that time alone reveals the just. eager 6. The man () seem to us is showing off (e7-e^.l'^. 5. 3. These showing off. . 4.i). to be skill. The young man is to show his Having displayed our skill. man not. let the old us depart.

MEPOS TO PART II THE GRAMMAR 216 .

.

).. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 1. The Alphabet ( The standard Greek alphabet has twenty-four Form 217 letters : — .

= rh ot ch Examples are et : = = = = = ps ae OS. 1 case. — Vowels ). oe evs (final) ei. Of. p is written viclere. 6eos § 8. d) The letters were used as numerals. Marks. Pronunciation 3.. 9 f.) = : 7.^ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 218 that was officially adopted at Athens in the year 403 B. = = ng us. See §§ 8. The primitive Greek alphabets contained three additional letters. Pro-me'theus. piScLV to as a numeral. I . somealways long . See 6.) and the colon (•). came into use during the Middle Ages. Xerxes. J ov (final) €$ S^p|i?s = = = \ eos (final) e Byzantium. but note further that represents the long (open) e-sound midway between vowels are short.C. The sounds of the vowels are indicated in the table above (§ 1). punctuation marks used in modern editions of Greek texts that differ from those in use in English are the question-mark (. See letters Punctuation 2. um eus eus Sophocles. Fiov violet when used c) The . Before this date the Attic alphabet had passed through many changes. i. which disappeared in early times.e. was the Ionic alphabet. = see. double gamma) It = w. Aiyvirros Aegyptus. § 51. ancients used only capital letters the small . See further u V Eu-hoe'a. Ti-mo'theus. In transliterating Greek names into English employ the nominative and observe that K = = = /* c 77 X (init. ( • — The Of these € are always e sometimes short. The most important of these was F digamma {i. times long. — The only § 51.

)IPH. .

(smooth breathing. the breathing " written over the second vowel of the diphthong This is : is not true.. of improper diphthongs (§ 4 b) Hades. breathing') is employed b) If the initial vowel is a capital letter. . d) If a word begins with a diphthong. ' . to th ph that is. Breathings. sound dz in adze. cf.was originally pronounced a) -). d) Every consonant M^as sounded.) messenger. $. a) by a sign initial to indicate . loch. breathing and accent marks (§ 9) are omitted. and these sounds are retained in modern Greek. it still b) it retains in §6e. very early became (for € THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 220 to Athens Later. . the (pronounced Ao) the sign is written over the vowel is called the rough hemisphere. : ( = f) Attic cf. If no A-sound is present. was possibly pronounced sphinx. See century B. like th ph kh {ch^ in thin. : . the sounds Later they came to be pronounced topheavy. was probably rolled more than r in English. as in glaz'd . angel . Philip. and this was pronounced like modern Greek. the sign . were respectively it in were similar kh hothead. the breathing is written before the vowel c) When an entire word is written in capitals. An vowel or diphthong is always accompanied whether it is to be uttered with or without an -sound if with an expulsion of the breath (). ' : . packhorse. however.(pronounced ego). but like zd. perhaps as early as the fourth in glaze. like sh. cf.C. This sign half. ' : ' : . or | Avas sounded like ng in sing before e) in the early periods c) (7-nasal) 6.

a Grreek oh! . et €. if this be long in Greek. Syllables. makes a distinct syllable. See § 9 f. : cf. — 7. the is I accent and breathing are written together: have you are. to give the vowels their long or short English . : I do not speak Greek. ^ So and ir when exposed through elision (§12) become and respectively before a rough vowel or diphthong " =. e) Initial is regularly pronounced and written with a rough breathing a stream. as follows a) A vowel Orion. sounds. / do not know . further. elision (§ 12) are divided -^. A a) In dividing a word into syllables single consonant --. : . . «-. followed by a vowel usually has the long sound : Ionia. Every single vowel or diphthong. rheumatism..' =. otherwise the antepenult: Prome'theus (three syllables) io'€os Timo'theus (four syllables).' =. — The : -. -?. is : connected with the vowel fol- lowing b) Combinations of consonants which can begin a word are connected with the vowel following : : Compounds formed without c) according to their elements Quantity. and to accent the penult of the word. hyper. f) Before a smooth vowel ov not becomes before a rough vowel. quantity of the syllable is a factor of great importance in the pronunciation of ancient Greek. always has the rough breathing in the g) Initial Attic dialect above. 8. note) it is customary to ignore the Greek accent. whether with or without a consonant. It is usual.^ A syllable may be long 1 In pronouncing Greek proper names in English (see § 1. cf.: : : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK " When the initial vowel or diphthong 221 accented.

---^ ). A 18) short vowel followed by a stop and a liquid (§§ 17. and another vowel has the long sound. and d) oe. or followed by a single consonant (or a stop and a liquid) before e. ^). Soc'rates. The two kinds . ( _ -§ (— v^). wise the short sound : Cha'ron. where it is perhaps entitled to be called it is called. treated as either long or short (^ >^). : €- Accent. 18)) . but three accent-signs.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 222 By a) nature^ that diphthong (§§ By b) position^ short. c) A vowel followed by two consonants has the short sound. e. indicated by the sign pitch of the voice is raised as the syllable is $• 2) Circumflex^ c) The or the uttered rising-falling tone (") ?. But in such names as He'siod. third accent-sign is (' ). the The ('). or y . that when is. ae. i. The diphthongs ae and oe are sounded like e. Pausa'nias. ?/. when vowel (naturally its folloAved by two consonants or a double con- €- (|): sonant 4) 3. of accent are : 1) Acute or sharp. The consonants c and g are soft before e. is 9. b) A vowel followed by a single consonant (or by a stop and a liquid has the long sound if it stands in an accented penult other- (§§ 17. a. Grrave accent as This constitutes the second element of the circumflex accent. b) There are two kinds of accent in Greek. a) Accent English : it Greek in is chiefly differs radically from accent in a musical or joiic/i-accent stress . : : €. § 3) is ( : is. has a long vowel or a it ( ). plays but a secondary role. when i. Duca'lion.

and may rest upon either the last syllable or the syllable before the last (but only when the is last is short) The : . Enclitics. syllables of a word. § 6 d. uttered alone has the rising inflection on if the last syllable (eVrtV). a) Some words of one or two syllables attach them- . not upon the accent (pitch). like vowel when this is a capital : ". f ) The rhythm of all classical Greek depends upon the quantity of the syllable (§ 8). but that monotone regularly sellable is acute accent-sign changed in writing to a grave accent-sign before another word in the same sentence. . and merges not so pronounced. 10. individual accent in that of the word- its group: on the level. may accompany one . remains which at the is last This occurs when is incorporated in a sentence.. circumflex accent accompanies only a syllable that long hy nature (§8). . but before a single initial See accent-sign. or in the words Tis who ? what ? final . is written over the second vowel of a diphthong. €. acute accent . d) But a acute is not changed to a grave before an enclitic (§ 10) or an elided syllable (§ 12). The accent e) one of the The of Greek word always accompanies a last three syllables.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Elsewhere an accent. it is 223 merely a sign to indicate that a syllable which Avould normally be pronounced with the rising inflection (acute) the voice a word. but the third the last The is short : of the last three from the end only when the breathing (§ 6). ..

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

224

selves so closely to a preceding

word

become virThese
Examples are

as to

tually a part of that word, as does -que in Latin.

.

are called Enclitics (i.e., leaning-words}.

,

,,

€,

The

b)

an

effect of

an

enclitic:

1) Preserves
acute

to

, () .

accent and never changes a final

a grave (§ 9 d): 8os
it has an acute on the penult

lowed by
3) If

i)

own

5 «, "

2) If

cent:

its

A

it

number
word before

enclitic is to increase the

of syllables of the Avord preceding, hence the

and

is fol-

a dissyllahic enclitic, the latter retains its ac-

€.

has an acute on the antepenult

circumflex on the penult

,

acute on the last syllable

.

(^^.,

,

(),

:

or

adds an

it

€,

c) Enclitics retain their accent:

1) Sometimes for emphasis
it

seem

so to

2) After elision (§ 12)

:

:

evil.

3)

)

)
wise.

is

pronounced and accented

' «',

d)

id

When two

each, except

.

or

€i.

in its clause

does

all things are

«
,, .'

When it stands first
When it is emphatic

7) After ovK.
is not.

€;

TO U too ?

:

:

eVri

;

the

:

man IS

«

:

there

est.

more

of course

syllable an acute accent

the

enclitics
last,

follow one

receives

another,

upon

from the one following

:

its final

.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

225

11. Proclitics.
A few words of one syllable have
no accent of their own, but attach themselves closely to

the

word that

and the
Examples are

are called Proclitics.

.

€K, el, ov,

But
by an

-ye

,

ol,

when

it is

Iv, els,

followed

Beos-

Elision.

12.

-

a) Elision
of a

:

,

,

:

a proclitic receives an accent
enclitic

These

in English.

follows, like a

is

the cutting off of a short vowel at the end

word when the next word begins with

05.

The apostrophe (') marks
pounds

:

*

a vowel:

the omission, except in com-

(for Stay.

and conjunctions accented
on the last syllable lose their accent with the elided syllable, and become in effect proclitics (§ 11):
b) In

()

elision, prepositions

c) Other

words throw, the accent back

but without changing the acute to a grave

The only consonants allowed
word are v, p, and s (| = ks,

a)

()
(for

'

.

to the penult,

=

word

end
and

to stand at the

=

attach themselves closely to the

(§ 11).
of a

:

Final and Movable Consonants.

13.

a

?

'

.

its)•

€K

of

word that follows

All other consonants were dropped at the end

.,

bod^ (for

:

cf.

'), €pe was
') and
he

writing

Lat. scribi-t^.

b) Most forms ending in

(also

all

verb-

forms of the third person singular ending in -e add
before a word beginning with a vowel, and often at the
end of a clause or sentence. This is known as v-movable.
c)

For

0X1 (oy/c,

),

see § 6 f

:

226

?

:

THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK

thus, so may drop the s before a consonant.
becomes
before a consonant.
before
e) The ending -€t of the pluperfect may add

d)

So

ۤ out of

a vowel.

Contraction is the
14. Contraction of Vowels.
term employed to signify the uniting of two successive
vowels, or a vowel and a diphthong, both in the same
Avord, into a single vowel or diphthong
>
of
contraction
learned
The phenomena
are best
by mastering the paradigms of contracted nouns, adjectives, and
verbs, §§28 D, 29 C, 41, 81-83.
But note especially
:

that
€€, €t,

A

and

€CL

>

cl; oo, co, o€,

contracted syllable

is

.

€€

, €>
and

regularly accented

€0l

;

if

>.

either of

the original syllables was accented

A

a)

the

final syllable

(),

with the circumflex accent, unless

? (?).

original

final

syllable

had an acute accent

:

b) Other syllables according to the rules stated in § 9
15.

Crasis.

— Crasis

(^

mixture^

is

the con-

traction of a vowel or diphthong at the end of a

with one at the beginning of the following word
(/cat

),

16.

(/cat ez/)

Vowel-Gradation.

e.

word

:

(/cat eav^.

— In

the same root or suffix

there frequently occurs an interchange of vowels similar

There are
two strong grades and one weak

to that in English, as in dri7ik, drank, drunk.

usually three grades,
grade, as follows

Strong

:

THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK

-

Examples are

-

-

:

carry

a carrying

€--

nourish

--^

know

(Dor.

--

;

Att.

-

I say

I place

€---^

have

-€

-€

voice

-s

was

nourished

I know

--

-s chariot

(two-carrier)

nourished

ciS-evai to

--0

227

a heap

I give

to

see^

we say

-€-€

tve

--€ we

place
give

consonants and their combinations
17.

Stops.

a) Stops (or

Mutes) are those consonants whose pro-

nunciation causes a complete though momentary closing of
the breathing passage.

Stops are of three orders (smooth,

middle, rough or aspirate) and of three classes (labial, palatal,

dental), as follows
Classes

Okders

;

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

228

€€ (-),
€€§ (-^?), €-€".
(^--),

but

c)

IT,

become

,

and

and

, , and

So
vowel
e

>

are

>

Of)

becomes -

When

e)

, , or

a

(

two aspirated stops (,

€- (-^

a,

t

and a

,,

)

/c,

is

would normally

regularly changed

(--,^

:

'•>

;

>

Similarly

or
(/3e-

:

,)

first

>,

>t,

(^--^.

§

;

(%e-

19 a). ^

Liquids and Nasals.

18.

a)

see § 61.

---((--»)
€-,

begin successive syllables, the
to its cognate smooth stop (,

-).

^

normally becomes

remains unchanged)

with

;

and the preceding

(a

short

if

(-/-),

:

d) Before

\-^^.

,

dropped before

(^€7-8~),

, , and

;

are dropped before

then lengthened,

is

et,

become

with

, ,

|;

'

The

and

liquids are

Of

-nasal (§ 5 e).

these

;

the nasals are

, ,,

, ,

and

play a very important

In the parent Indo-European
were frequently vocalic (written 1 m,
n, r), i.e. they served as vowels in the formation of syllables.
Of. fathom, yes'm, heavew, SittZ, brittle, etc. In Greek
or else
these vocalic liquids and nasals either became
developed a short vowel (usually a) to accompany and
or
r > ap or pa
1
became
support them. Thus
from
rn >
> , as follows
(e ---') from
(«jreX-to), § 20)
word-formation.

role in

language

1,

m,

n, r

,

:

:

;

;

€-.

b) Before
(/c?)

1

it

ir,

,,

(?)

becomes Y-nasal

There are exceptions, as

;

€-€--becomes

before

, ,

;

(--/)

;

before
it

-, --, ---.

,,

,|

remains unSee

§ 73.

) --,.
«THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

Thus

changed.

:

;

apparent exceptions

d) V before

€5

f)

Initial

is

>

>

g)

is

a) In

>

-

:

and

,

was lisped

seven (orig.

b) Medial

ev

;

;

after a

-.

Digamma

Greek

dialects

to see (fiS-, cf.

survived as an

qf. septem'), tnrcp

;

20.

;

placed

is

diphthong

:

-sound (§ 6)

=

to disappear
:

:

super.

between two

"y^vous (yevea-ot,

see § 35).

(/r)


?

early disappeared from most of the

cTttov

/

said

(fe-n--,

cf.

Lat. voeo),

Lat. videre).

d) In a few words an
pleasant

(^-^)

was dropped, or

original initial

antl

shows a tendency

Lat. gener-is
c)

is

tovs (tov-^^^

F•

vowels, especially in inflectional forms
cf.

:

(^6\-).

:

many words an

it

)

>

ec,

assimilated

- {)
-

:

There are some

doubled when a simple vowel

is

Omission of

rather

a, e

in composition or inflection

it

not doubled

19.

{-).

(/ueXay-?).^

or

-€ (-).
before

(eV-

dropped and the preceding- vowel

is

e) V before

;

;

see § 67.

;

regularly lengthened (a
els (eV?),

(^-)

>.

before

c)

{-^)

229

(^afdS-., cf.

initial

disappeared

:

Lat. suavis^.

Consonantal

l.

— In

very primitive times

many

Greek words contained a consonantal { = y, cf. pin^n '),
which effected certain important changes in pronunciation
and spelling. Some of these are as follows
'-

:

.

^ There are some exceptions.
Thus in the dative plural
dropped without compensatory lengthening:

before

-

is

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

230

,

,

(from

and sometimes

(^\-,

§

dpi,

>

,.

)

see § 59

d)
§ 59

:

>

a)

b)

59

-,
>

,.
, >

c,

§

59

).

c,

,

(=

§ 5 f)

-

:

c, /3).

€vi, €pi, tvi, ipi,

and

C/^op-) fate,

:

€iv, €ip, Iv,

, , Up

;

see

c, e.

>

e)
see § 59

>

;

1^

, sometimes

or

(see above, b)

;

c, a.

declensions of pronouns

The Persoxal Pronouns.

21.

a)

b) Pronoun

you (thou).

/.

(^Unaccented forms
are unemphatic.)

the

of

person

third

(him,

her,

( usually

if).

an

in-

direct reflexive.)
S.

N.
G.

.

.

/

a~\)

0/

you
of {from) you

of {from) him, her,

{from) me

D.

,€

it

{for)

-,

{for) you

to {for)

him,

etc.

me
A. €,
P. N.

€5

-,

vie

you {ye)

us

D.
A.

$

to

(for) us

22.

to

us

The forms

(for) you

yoic

ol

i

him, her,

•€5

it

they

of {from) yon

of {from)

G.

you

<ri

€9

ive

of {from) them

--

to

(for) them

tr^as them

are usually enclitic.

The Intensive

Pkonoxjn.

— The

intensive pro-

(§ 40 ), except
that the neuter nominative and accusative singular end in

noun

-0 (cf.

self is declined like

TovTo) instead of in -ov, thus

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK
S.

N.

avTOs

G.

.

For the uses of avTos, see
28.

avTTjs

§ 106.

The Reflexive Pronouns. — The

?

231

reflexive pro-

nouns are formed from the stems of the personal pronouns
combined with
They have no nominative
(§ 22).
forms

suffix -€. the old demonstrative This explains the apparent irregulari- . . b) The Demonstrative Pronoun €K€LV0S that.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 232 The article was originally The demonstrative pronoun € ties in accent. a) demonstrative pronoun. as 25. with the a The Demonstrative Pronoun outos this. is See § 10. €.

"5 : whoever Each part is is a compound of os who and tls some declined separately. b) one. Tivis Twri Tivas The dissyllabic forms of the indefinite pronoun. receive an acute (or grave. when . § 9 c) on the last syllable.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 233 Indefinite ^•^ YXQ/iJ'^iA'^O N- Ti Tis Tivos. except in the genitive plural tivcs. 2). accented (§ 10 b. Tivi. as follows: .

N.234 P. V. THE FIRST YEAH OF GREEK .

235 .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK N.

g. . So -. V. S. voyage. in -oos accent all the €. () G.. contracted a sailing / . €09 0€0s• vocative Feminine. . () () V.. philosopher .filiend same physician TO the road 1€ () € ? ? ^ ^» ? ? ? ?? ? G. TrcpiirXou. D. and Neuter Nouns. e) tive so regularly . .. C. \. the D. the G. the has recessive brother €€. ( The nominative in''tI7e in os is ]\iasc'uline. nominative singular around. (^?) () siave slave ? " ^^ ^? () () ? ? Contract Nouns. accent . ? child (oareov) {) forms like Trepi-irXovs tlie (/-?) basket. () : sometimes used for the voca- the .. : gift ? () -. the triangle € £ () ? . ? Tois ovTois Tovs -? "€ -? "? - jlvToiis () . D. VOVS (wo?) mind^ hone. ? ?? V. irXovs Compounds -. see § 28 A. . ' . S. . () . D. ? avTos N. () G. ? ? V.THE FIE ST YEAR OF GBEEE 236 d) The ending nominative plural ot of the is treated as short . .\.

t. (/^-). § 50. and are in most cases conveniently determined by dropping the endThe nouns of the third declening -OS of the genitive.and mak- ing the usual euphonic changes. sion are masculine. § 17 c. final being dropped. e) Most nouns which are monosyllabic in the nomina- .(-). . while (Xeovr-). In neuter nouns the stem final : or s do not add and lengthen drop those in - most masculine and formed by adding s to the stem and is : vocative singular employed as the nominative. : irais. . or neuter. § 13. 30. § 13. . or . iras.. is usually the same as the and nominative. d) The dative plural is formed by adding . . feminine. b) The nominative singular of feminine nouns making |. lengthen the last vowel. Mute Stems (§ 17). and There are a few excep- tive singular accent the final syllable in the genitive dative. p. or as the stem. both singular tions 31. and but NoLTNS WITH plural..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 237 Third Declension. § 43. to : s. > but merely \ > ). is the usual euplionic changes (§ 17 c) But stems ending in v. if being dropped The c) short (€>?. a) The stems end in a consonant.

V. Xeovres vvkt€s . - Greek the shepherd the dog the hand (-) (-) (-) P. sav- 5 ' € •8 • ' " ? € -() )ior (-) 05 •£ x«ip '€5 •() A. S. N.<() Xcovrds TraiSes •••() 'Traicri(v) iroSds iraiSas Neuter Nouns with Stems 32. Tip ' Nouxs Stems in the divinity the - or G. A. the mother N. oj^a G. G. -. D. ix (() Plural Singular N.V. V. ' G. § 17 c) () 6. V.• . TO opviGes iroSts Nouns in Xeipes ^ -') •-() •() . opviGas the chariot . € (-) the pre- server. D. (-) ". « (§ 18). . D. ". N. D. A. G.with Variable Stems (Synco- pated NOUNS). 34. TOis () 33. •() (^-. € () <() 5 5 (5 D. 1 very common the daughter '.OF GREEK THE FIRST 238 P. the father s. . alternative form is the man .

N.THE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK P. V. 239 .

?Plural Singular son or €(). . Lat. -. Of. -. -|(). . vaOs SiXG. 1. () . . -€$ ship are thus declined Sing. -. -€9. -. (^) water () and the p was . gen.-. -. of nouns of the type of the principal noun in -. and (ySou-) then dropped. " - (to) milk . -£$ or cow. . € tant irregular nouns are 7. ($ •€ PacriXcvs the king N. {€'8 () vap before a vowel >•3. toiis or 068 V. €. 2. 3 () -. -€$• is . 39. -. woman. D.and -. ndv-is) Irkegular Nouns. however. . -€ G. Zcvs () Zeus 6. The stems (() became respectively and (cf.-.. wife ^5. N. Pl. . ". ol -€<() (-X^t) The nouns . (-) () G. () or €. —A few of the ... -. in -€. 1. . is Nouns with Stems 37.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 240 This not true. : spear €. V. bov-is. . . 1. . . 38. 05 D. . {) knee more impor- -. . leaving merely 4.

native singular is after other letters. The adjectives of the first-second declensions have normally three sets of endings. F. of which the feminine endings belong to the first declension. t.) dea7% (. equal. and few others. just.) adjectives small. tive plural all the genders have tive feminine endings (. .) (. unequal. vtos largest^ . Tlie young. of Adjectives the Fikst-Second Declen- sions. or second.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 241 declensions of adjectives 40. . new. are thus declined : un- beneficial. In the geni- § same form and accent. the others to the the feminine ending of the nomiAfter e.) - beautiful. have no distinca Compound adjectives. . A. tlie (. and : F.

G. G. «- -^ -) (st. M. masculine and neuter singular. adjectives S. and — Most adjectives in -€os The contracted forms are regu- -oos are contracted. declined: Adjectives of the Third Declension. . and N. eii-voa true (cf well- (not ev-va). \. «€ £5 € ?€ « ( ' € £€ € €( £ M. See also 43. D. . . § 48. § 29 C as those given above (B). . as follows D. better. (-009) - . Other types are represented by fatherless. accusative. pi. F. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 242 Contract Adjectives. G. — The § 35) happy fortunate are declined . V. (st. V. €€ € « . vocative. G. distinctive feminine forms 42. of gold G. F. N. <( •() ciJcXin hopeful. S. larly circumflexed on the last syllable (/". . except in the nominative. . golden.. Neut..') €05 : N. Adjectives of the First-Third Declensions. • €() . — The masculine and neuter forms of these adjectives are . is simiile and But compounds have no silver. D. . -. '-. 41. V. § 28 D) and are the same . G. -? -. N. -fj So (?) of : disposed. (r^o'. D. ?). €-.

. . £$ €( ^ < F. F. V. true also of participles (§ 50).: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK of the third declension . This all. -) is every are declined as follows ? €5 M. . -') : . ^ A. G. long here. . . €. ( iratrai <() The wide. iratri (st. N. eupev- iracri Q>eupe-) evpv-^ graceful are declined . (st. S. D. which strictly beblack and irds (st. . V. G. D. 243 the feminine forms of the first. adjectives and ^apicis •( •() -) cvpOs (st. broad as follows ^. 44.

244 THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .

:

.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK
r\his

(-)

-yas

.

shamfful

(-) large
{-) sioift

-$

-<08

(for

more or

£(

good

-KrTOS

less irregular

better

best
best

better

KpeCrTwv better

-TOs best

evil

small
1

much
easy

,

Comparatives in

48.

«--8

^-')

beautiful

iroXvis

-\-<08

--)

(for

Tlie following are

05

--

pleasant

-05 (-)

245

(for

-

^-/)
more

-

most

are declined as follows (c/.

§§33,42):
M.
S. N.

N.

F.

better

G.

D
A.
V.
P.

or

. V.

or

or

G.

So

,, ', .
£(()

D.

.

or

€, ,€^,€,
(.

sive in the forms:

\.

or

The accent

is

reces-

ADVERBS
49. Most adverbs end in -, the majority being formed
from adjectives with the accent of the genitive plural

beautifully (/caXo?),

pleasantly

(^8),

formed by means

thus

justly (St/cato?),

(^<;^.

Many, however, are

of other suffixes, such as -a

:

very ;

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

246

«
-aKLS

:

TToWaiKis mani/ times
within ;

-

;

-: ^^\

homewards ;

:

-

secretli/ ;

-:
from

:

home.

The comparative
adjectives

is

of

the comparative of the

(

adverbs which are derived from

regularly the neuter accusative singular of
adjective

;

the

neuter accusative plural of the superlative
wisely

(€

beautifully

So

-

superlative, the
:

more

very

most
least

less

DECLENSIONS OF PARTICIPLES (ACTIVE VOICE)
50.
-o-vT-^

A. Thematic Formation (Participles
§§ 75, 43).

The type

is

being (etVO

in
^

-,

st.

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK
B.

The

(§ 83),

and

participles of contract verbs in

-

(§ 82)

making, doing,

and

(-')

may

(-^)

-€

247
(§ 81),

be represented by

showing (declined like

asking {a question^.

follows
Singular

-

{-)

),

The forms

are as

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

?AS

, §,

?
,

Tn the same manner are declined

G.

•$

taking (ones) standi G.

«.,

-

having done^

having selected^ judged,

\.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

249

THE VERB
STEMS AND ENDINGS
Every verb-form consists of at least two elements,
and an ending: €-€; most verb-forms contain
€•--€ (rt.
st.
three or more elements
Each verb nor(rt. yvo-, st.
mally forms several action- and tense-stems; see §§ 131,
52.

a root

-,

:

-----

''-}.

-),

59-70.

Verb-endings are of three sorts, a) personal endings,
b) infinitive endings, and c) participle endings.

Personal Endings; Thematic and Non-the-

53.

matic Formations.
son

they are

;

employed

:

— Personal endings indicate the per-

a) primary personal endings,

in the present

subjunctives

;

When

the formation

when

the

is

are

vowel, the formation

54.

;

it is

%

is

not preceded

and

in the

in the imperative.

preceded by the
and
elsewhere

(o before

said to be thematic

endings

--, -.
stem

employed

the various verb-endings are

variable or thematic vowel
e),

of the indicative

c) personal endings

;

in all

b) secondary personal endings, or those

employed in the past tenses
optative

those

or

and future indicative and

-, €-€
i',

:

;

by the thematic

called non-thematic:

-, €-€,

The thematic vowel belongs

one of the elements mentioned in

§ 52.

to the

For non-thematic formations
§ 80.

,

,

THE FIEST TEAR OF GREEK

250

The thematic formation

see
is

€,

,-

§ 91;

by

illustrated

§ 79.

55.

Secondary Personal Endings.
Active

'

Middle Voice

S. 1.

-V

2.

-<r

or

3.

(orig. -T, § 13)

P.

-p•''!*'

--

1.

-€

2.

-T€

3.

-V or -<rav

^

56.

-TO
-jieGa

^

For thematic formations see
thematic formations,

-<ro

,

,

§ 91,

--

,,
,

§

(or -de)

79

;

for non-

§§ 86, 87.

Personal Endings of the Imperative.

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

251

b) Temporal Augment, which consists in the lengthening of the first vowel of verb-stems beginning with a vowel
€ becoming , and i, o, and
/ heard
becoming respectively , , and
I was wishing
A long initial vowel (except a) is not changed of the
remains undiphthongs ai and ei > ,
>,
>
(rare) remains unchanged
changed or >
or
I found
/ demanded
I was gone
Verbs compounded with a preposition regularly take
there are a few exthe augment after the preposition
but
I was dying
ceptions
/ sat down
I was
Again, a few verbs have two augments

(or diphthong), a, a, and

:

().
,€

(),

,

(),

£

---

;

:

(^),

().

;

:

{.-.).

(--)

;

:

seeing

(), -€| I opened (-).

few verbs which originally began with
With an e of the
have
the syllabic augment.
or F (§ 19)
/
verb-stem this is then contracted to €l
Finally, a

:

had

,

(,
rt.

58.

-),

rt.

-), €-|

broke

Reduplication.

completed action, or in
action,

and

is

(--)
(^<,

I
rt.

(--)

as following

— Reduplication

is

some verbs merely

the
of

sign

all

of

intensive

a part of the perfect action-stem.

found therefore in

(-

fay-).

It

is

forms made from the perfect stem.

It is of several sorts

-

a) Verbs beginning with a consonant usually prefix that

(, t; see
I have fled,
/c,

a rough stop

(,
/
,€am
€- I

consonant with
§

€,

%,

)

becoming smooth

have learned,

17 e):

have died,

dead,

b) Verbs beginning with a double consonant (", , ),
usually merely prefix an € (/o being
two consonants, or

:

«-,

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

252
doubled):

t

have thrown,

I

/ have

Verbs beginning

c)

the regular temporal

/
,),
()
have

I

heard

6- /

know,

lied.

diphthong) have

Avith a vowel (or

augment

reduplication:

in lion of

(),

led

I

have recognized,

/

have perceived (^-

().

have seen

/

have

irregular.

is

CLASSES OF VERBS

The

conveniently classified according to the

A'erbs are

progressive action-stem, which

The

Thematic Stems

59.

a)

appears in

many

forms.

following are the most important groups
(§ 53):

Verbs with no element added

^ €

to the verbrstem (or

--

in man}^ instances to the verb-root) except the• thematic

-%:

Three common

become,

b) Verbs Avhich add -T%-

c)

[

(§ 17)
steal

-

sit

down

(apiraj-).

\^erbs in

rarely,

-

or -^

7) Verbs in

(-).

(-

-, -,

(/-),

-

-Class],

dip

:

(-).

The stem regu-

20) [ioia-Class)

^^
§

for

(or

-,

§

19),

:

row (e/aer-).
from stems in

-,

-8,

a

few from

(-), -€grasp, seize

-), from stems in - or - (or,

§ 20 b)

;

:

beget, bear

(-),

(§ 20 e), from stems in
hope
(or by analog}):

a) A^erbs in

do

or

Verbs which add -i% (see

stems in

)

,

(-), €'

injure

it,

)

(for

fall,

young.

larly ends in

-).

persuade (7reL0-%-, rts.
verbs have stems reduplicated with

dig

-

(-},

(§ 20 a):

-

destroy. - call to witness - (§ 20 d): judge --. in the majority of cases the prin- cipal parts must be learned separately. corrupt (^€/?-). F. -. -. -ep.) (§ 20 c): -. (§ 59 d) -\--). (^-'). - stop. from in (^-)^ show stems in (^^-}. -€. - (XayS-). av%-^ - --- unreduplicated stems: be . e) know --arrive perceive^ serted in the stem. d) Verbs which add a suffix containing etc.-set (-. formation of tense-stems and action-stems The Future. b) Verbs with reduplicated stems: show. with a nasal in- take find (eup-}. future has the (§ 53). 61. lose (for The form come (§ 53): {-').THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ) Verbs e) Verbs stems in -. -ip. Verbs with ^. (-. give suffix - and : many (-). -.- [iVw-Class] : (-). a) A^erbs witli (Ik-').- drinks from stretch (^-). -. -iv. -. sarily to ^e-). 253 While verbs are regular. a) The present future give. in -€v. F. sit -). . NoN-THEMATiG Stems 60. -%- : c) (v%-. -. is same endings as the thematic Thus the preceded by the suffix --. ^-). always thematic: -. . -. and. -€. cut. of the progressive action-stem does not neces- determine the forms of the other stems. (rey-). -%-. - Verbs which add (^-.

But there are a > F. . F. : . F. : F. These are known as hear. - -€ and verbs in . : -^ of . The Second . F. learn. € be. after teach few- TeXcoj /a). Verbs whose stems end in have futures in | y. or : '€. . and also those mentioned under e). (-)^ . knoiv. or |. . being the verb-root plus the thematic (-%-'). : ask. €|. The aorist Root Aorist. . : -€ . €. have futures in persuade. are identical with the progressive action-stem forms of IT. . . - regularly have -. in the (^ (^.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 254 b) Verbs in future exceptions a /. F. F. €.. ') is then dropped form the future by adding In point of conju(§ 19 b) and the vowels contracted. : leave. do. or have futures in d) Verbs whose stems end in a liquid or nasal (. see. syllables few verbs are wholly irregular see. A f) in throw (/3-). c) K. F. Verbs e) - future in . call. vowel % 63. : €--- or . more than two consider. . take. See Lesson LIII and § 84. etc. gation these futures. . F. F. €' — flee. F. F. end. - have . . : 62. .. -€ verbs in (§ 81) lean (/cXty-). form the bear. forms middle) is of three action-stem (active and 1) Thematic. F. F. Some verbs having active forms in the present have middle forms in the future. Examples are verbs wath deponent futures. F. F. F. F. F.

^^. (77€-). 66. Three verbs in active. The first perfect and is formed by adding - / : have loosed (). is 64. ivard off . 98. stain €-. . (or : the perfect in -a ^)./ came to recognize (jyvw. active €. c Verbs whose stems end in a liquid or a nasal (. see § 69. and the last vowel of the stem. but like those above are of great importance. e (^-). For the aorist passive stems. . — Active. 3) Non-thematic. -. . Second Perfect Active. The second perfect active is I have written cf. . The First Perfect 65.have - See §§ 88. the perfect in -. shoiv for the reduplicated stem (§ 58) I have seen (--). B. . {-'). a) § 28). - > . has both and is i. «--. €i.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK the verb-root without suffix 2) Non-thematic. See Lesson LXXII and § 86. . - (or -a). in the first aorist -. €-. > : e. . : ( lengthened t > > . regularly form their aorist stems in -a omitted). form their aorist stem (active and middle) by adding the suffix See Lesson XLVII and § 79 A. being €-- / stood 255 {. to after judge {-^. . being § 18). . These aorists are very few in number. if short. />. See § 64. with the suffix Formations 1) and 2) together constitute what is known for convenience as the second aorist.-'). I have fled : yi- ().<yvo-). — The Most verbs First or Sigmatic Aorist. - --. (/cpiv-). 89.

So I in a consonant. a perfect does not have a which has a second \^erb first perfect. €€-. receive Some verbs ending to before in Infin. view Infin. € . there are the usual euplionic changes (§§ 17.(-).: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 256 perfect differs from the first only in the The second . €-€. change €-.. Part. . - — The Perfect Middle (and 67. €€-. absence of the Normally. . (-). .-. or form second perfects. -. Pf.-^. before the endings others. above). (-). If the vowel preceding the final become . -. €€-€9• others drop the have loosed for injure : (--). have cut rt. € / have guarded ^- c) If however a long vowel precedes the final consonant. again. -. perfects. or and in . If - the stem ends -. -. Examples are aspirated called are These . 18) PF. Pf. I Pf. elai(v). Part.. J rt. €€'-. (see the latter ordinarily remains unchanged do There are some exceptions. -. The formed by adding the endings directly to the reduplicated verb-stem myself. b) Verb-stems ending in . ir. €-€§. perfect middle is Passive).€€-€$. arid vice versa. : judge -. have injured (. and have done. I (/. : €. -').(. : (/-) has two perfects / have : fared. and and y become and consonant is short.drop only before (-). - carefulbf -. . -). -|. st. the . . .

-. -. and (forms in Some vowel stems add do not occur). (-). appear Infill. ". and with the necessary euphonic changes. 257 Pf. ('-). This formation is rare. In the indicative. Pf. Pf. For the accent is (/3-). and 68. §§ 17. differ (). passive is --(-. --/ was active .-. Observe that the aorist passive employs only endings. is -^. ^ This tense to .«-: They do not harmed appeared 79 C. of the infinitive and The Future Pf. meaning was written : €--- ^. and imperative (except before -vr) Ge becomes / was loosed. sJiall have been / shall — The Aorist Passive. / shall € / : remember. to form the stem . . See § --- -.. "€•€-. was done rt. €--- The formation that in in -c.) to the verb-stem as it appears in the perfect middle (omitting the reduplication. in called the first aorist passive the second aorist passive. formed by adding the future middle endings the perfect middle stem. see § 78. (-). infinitive. before endings not beginning with a short vowel at the end of the stem is regularly lengthened and finally in some verbs a vowel is added command. is generally passive in sense loosed.€€€-. ivas made 69. Pf. complete. - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .-. €€- : €€€-. was left (/-). ((<-). The stem of the aorist formed by adding the sufhx -Qe {-) or -€ (-V. 18). . participle. — Perfect Mii)dle(-Passive).

§ : -The 79. of the imperative after the thematic . both active and mid: dle. . subjunctive - 72. or adding the future middle endings to the stem (in -77) of the aorist passiA'e : shall be done. FORMATION OF THE MOODS. (. contract verbs in and is -€ he is (for usual -- always employed in the €--. The Optative. — The optative adds to the action- stem the secondary endings (§ 55) preceded by the moodExcept in certain cases (see below) the or suffix . see § 69). form i€ : -€. The Imperative.may they he loosing. . - is used instead of -v --. In the first person singular active the secondary ending after the long form of the mood-V is used (not -) suffix -. «. of all (§ 53) with the action-stems has the primary endings lengthened thematic vowel "/?: shall he loosed^ -t|S -t). Xvo-t-s suffix - appears before active endings only (and so occurs reguIt is always used in larly in the aorist passive. of Mi-verbs . 71.. — The Etc. - / shall be written. § 79 C. ^. The Subjunctive. in the singular aorist passive: may I be giving active of : € may I ('/. primary ending -.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 258 "— This tense is formed by 70. Thematic progressive a) Thematic stems (§ 53) action-stems and aorist action-stems. €--. § 89). Before the ending -v of the third person plural the suffix appears in the 73. the -- singular active --'). The Future Passive. form the imperative by adding the personal endings vowel (§ 56).

- then contracted with the thematic vowel (Xeye-ev'). supplanted by For Mi-verbs see §§ 86-98.. active The progressive. -. For the - infinitives of end) has the ending Mi-verbs see - : § 77. replaced by is (-') in the (-at). active The first aorist has the ending -ai (a of the stem being omitted) The : : perfect has the ending -c-vai (a of the stem being omitted) : €-€. The 74. See § 50 C. The aorist passive (see § 69. B. 75. "-^. (-. is and (-oy). . a) Thematic stems (§ 53). fect active imperative is very rare. secaorist and future stems add the ending -ev. b) Non-thematic stems. . vidiich is : ond (. See Infinitives. perfect active participle has the suffix -via in the feminine). The Participles. eiirciv € to eiv: (aee>a)). - (with . -. {eiTre-ev}. There is no imperative of the future stem.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK - Of 259 - is regularly omitted. except that in the second person singular (^-) active middle § 79 A. and these endings loses and the vowels are contracted > eo > § 19 b). etc. and the per- (- its . All middle and future passive infinitives have the ending § 67). The The declensions are given in § 50. b) Non-thematic stems In the : first aorist and middle the imperative endings are added in - -- -- (§ 64) active to the stem (or -a). — All active participles (except the perfect) and the aorist passive participle have the suffix -VT.

e. § 88. 76. except €. become! e) But the latter sell! § 89.-ov. - when compounded with prepositions have recessive accent: -: dissyllabic put down! . c) The second . with the necessary euphonic changes (§§ 17. Final -ai is usually treated as a short syllable X-ucxai. — The The Mt-verbs have many pecuMi. -09. in the progressive and second aorist action-stem systems. \€K-T€OS 18) (-). aorists in - All Mi-verbs have vowel stems. cf. €€5 for 78. — The verbals in -t€os and -tos - by adding these (see § 177) are formed - suffixes to the rerb-stem. {irpay-). In the last example a is inserted. first i.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 260 All middle and future passive participles end in -^€VOS . which are best learned by mastering the forms They differ from -verbs only themselves (§§ 86-98). the accented as far from the end as possible (see § 9). except for the irregular sit (§ 64.Verbs. Accent of Verb-forms. end). 77. a) Verb-forms generally have recessive accent. . word and be (eV-) {-}. liarities. The Verbals. aorist active infinitive circumflex on the final syllable - : or reduplica- in -€lv has the d) So also the second aorist middle imperative in put in! § 88. The Mi-verbs had a tendency to become i2-verbs. : (a/cou -). is : i\Iany of the contracted forms are apparent exceptions. Other exceptions are b) The accent never precedes an augment tion.

(4) : all infinitives in - All second aorist participles in -§ : - . .. -ous -us have the acute on the nominative singular masculine : . -€5 of Bts. : : . €S. .. 5. give take! final ihi syllable. give back and ! 261 accent the provide ! come! go! ivpi find! ! vhen uncompounded accent dTT-cnre speak out ! the . All participles.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK g) : €€ behold! But - Compoiinds f) penult say .. up ! h) The following regularly accent the penult: (1) first aorist active infinitives KeXevaai (2) second aorist middle infinitives perfect middle (3) .. (and passive) infinitives and participles i) and . all participles in final syllable in the $. . .

A. (stem Conjugation of -) / loose. - S. P. 3.() 1. [•<(•-€ "-£ (-] and only -eiv (No imperative) in indirect discourse. . etc. -€ 2. . Xv-£is 3. unbind.-€ -£ SrBj Indio.-< - - §60 -€ -•() Past-Imperfect Tense S. Progkessive Action-stem . 1. 2. €--€ 3.. -€ -€€ 3. . 1. 3. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 262 CONJUGATION OF THE VERB -VERBS 79.. P. €--68 3. Opt. set free. 1. - Present Tense -€ Infin. Active Voice. -- 2. 2. €-Future Tense-stem Future Tense S. 2. -<. (- . Impeb. €--£() 1. 1. •<- 1 (-€ <-€8 (No subjunctive) <- -<() 1 Very rare. -- 2.

.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK AoRisT Action-stem SUB. Paet-Aorist S. 3. - <€ -€ Perfect Action-stem Present Perfect (Subjunctive.. P. and 263 Partic.I. 1. 1. .(-€ €-• (-() . Indic.<. optative. 3. 2. -- Teitf^e *- -as €-(€() <-| €-(€ (-€ €-. \v<ras §50 .' Opt. 2.

.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 264 Progressive Action-stem Indio.

according to the verb or the context. - " or (No •< - subjunctive) - [< (No imper- -<] C. 2. as follows 1 There are no forms of the perfect middle (passive) imperative common use except that of the third person singular been loosed. 2. The Passive Voice. only in indirect discourse. 1. aorist passive. 3. 1. 2. : let it in have . 2.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . Indio. The middle forms of the progressive action-stem and of the perfect action-stem are either middle or passive in But in the and future systems there are separate forms for the sense. 1. 2. £8 €£5 £€' € € €€ (() €i€V € ^ (€ € £-' Future Perfect Tense S. 2. 3. 1. ^ Paktic.2. ^ ' . . . 3. 3. Past Perfect {Plu- €-'- . 8. Present Perfect Tenise S. 2 Very rare . S. perfect) Tense S. SUBJ. 265 Perfect Action-stem Opt. 3. 2. - -' 3. 1. 1. 3. 1. €5 € «5 €4$ . 1. P.

70).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 266 L First Aorist and Future Passive (§§69. . AoRiST Action-stem Indic.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Progressive Action-stem 267 .

( € Lmpekativk -") -ere) Ivfixitite iroiei /e-e) -) (^iroie-eiv) Pabticiple (-) iroitL• § iroieiTt 50 Past-Impep. ( . ( 3. -. Progressive Actiox-stem lam . lam being made. ( 3. -e) itroUi ( -) ( -«'f) 3. FtnrEE AoEisT . : : Peefect «iroiiis ( 2. 3.fect IxmcATivB S.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 268 S. ( 2. P. (iwoie-op) 2. -. 1 : eiroiow -es) ( 6€ -ov) '. . 2. conjugated like Middle (^Passive) A'^oice: making {doing ) for myself. P. 1. (^) conjugated like conjugated like -. €••-.

. ( -) €7. 1. conjugated like conjugated like Perfect: AoR. Pass. : €•.THU FIBST YEAR OF GREEK « ( € Past-Imperfect Indicative S. 269 . ( -€) 1. ( conjugated like in -. ( 2. . -. FtTTiTRE : . (^') I ask Progressive Action-stem a question.€ -) £-€ -) -. {(-6) 2. conjugated like : 82. ( -01') 3. -. 3. P. Active Voice: -. Contract Verbs A.

( -) 2. ( -ere) 3. Pbogkessive Action-stem § 84 . (^^ trial of. -. make . -. try. Future: 1.€ € THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 270 P. conjugated like Middle (Passive) Voice : - . conjugated like conjugated like or . . conjugated like or Aorist: . . -. ( -ov) €-.

( -ere) 3. ( €€. ( « -) 2.l. 2. ( -. € € € Participle Infinitive (-) -e) 3. -. €€ eiriipoo-ee conjugated like conjugated like (^) : <. 3. ( -us) 3.^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK P. . ( -(>) --) --{) --) -) -) -y]Te) -otre) -) -»») (/-/) €€ Past-Impj)rfect Indicative (\•) P. . ( -6) S. ( -ei) P. 2. : AoKisT 83. ( -) 2. ( -e) 3. 1. ( -overt) ( $ \6-) -T)s) € ( -() . (\6-) 2. Optative Subjunctive § 50 . ( -es) 3. 2.) Imperative S. ( -ere) 3. €. 1. : «. Progrkssive Action-stem Present Indicative S. CoNTKACT Verbs in Active Voice £6€ -6) -) -) 271 make clear. ( 2. . ( 1 -0J') Declined like . 8 -.l. £. 1.

B. 84. 1. . Active Voice. Progressive Action-stem Present Indicative S. ( 2. 2. P. for the sake of comparison. 3. 1. ( 3. A. 1 .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 272 Middle (Passive) Voice. ( € -ourai) - Imperative (-) S. 3. Past-Imperfect Indicative I was Aorist Action-stem ' AoRTST I learned learning €() ££() . (-) -) ( 3. r?) -) 3. ( The Thematic -ero) « -) -) «-) Aorist. ( 2- ( 3. together Avith the Thematic Progressive Forms. ( -erat) -ijrai) 1. ( -) -^ Optative {-•) ) (^-) € (-£/^) € -) {7]\6-€) -) (-/) - Infinitive \6-() Participle (-!) -) Past-Imperfect Indicative S. . ( -6€) -) 2. » / am £$ learning 2. - Progressive Action-stem Subjunctive Pkbsent Indicative (-) S. 2. ( -ecrSe) 3. ( -ei. ( 1. 2.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 273 .

274 THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .

Sec..-). § 63. . B.Participle : Non-thematic Second Aorists. answer. Aor. 1. 2. - Middle Voice words) /or owese^).--- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK : replied. 1.- ••-€ Infinitive Subjunctive (.. 6 : Optative Imperative - ••-•€ '-€ -. 3.. P. reply Aor. : / -. 3. See Intake (something) stand (§ 87). 2. I stood -(> .-Indicative S. cAoose (one's 275 •--€ -€ -€€ air-e 86. . to (lit.

.276 r C. Aor. : € I entered. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK and I enter. Sec.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Progressive Action-stem 277 .

) THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 278 P. second aorist. . 1. FuTCEE : : (first 3. «€5 <£. Indic. See § 64. 2. aorist . (ending in €£€ €£< -) in the singular of the indicative elsewhere.

Indic. Progressive Action-stem Pkes. 279 . Active Voice.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK A.

. . €6.. eSiSocrOc cSCSovto. - -€€ . : as Impek. 1. point Active Voice. . out. I sold) Infix. F. P. show. 1. . -€6 -£' 3.Second Aokist Indic.. compare . £8€ «SCSooO ISCSoto F. . (only in : Subj. 90.€ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 280 Past-Imperfect : Future and perfect are regular 2. . - § -€ . . c8ci|a. compounds Opt. \. S. '-€$ 78 e .. ---.

3. 1. . (I 3. SciKwoOai 8€£$ .0 €< €<roiTO -(€ 'itrtfrQt 92. . except 2 Very rare . (rt. Inkin. 8£' €( . e?). - : 91.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 8 281 Progressive Action-stem 8( 8€ 8€ Pres. 1. thus - / am absent are 1 All forms of the present indicative are enclitic.i. £<£() 1.Imperfect 8£- . P. only in indirect discourse. 2. Future Indicative S. . 1. Opt. 1. «- 3. - or § 55 3. €crei 3. el. P. 1. Indicative 1 Subjunctive Optative Imperative (- S. € -€ € £<] / am conjugated like present and (§ 91). (-) 2. Indic. 2. €'- 2. [ « 3. Sun. €l«r£(v) - ? € . S. P. -' 2. . - - Optative Infinitive Participlb 6<- <-£$ 6(0. Impkh. 3. Paktio. € lam Scikvvt) Past. 2. 1. 2. Infinitive Participle ovcra 50 § (€ {-) <() «( €£ Past-Imperfect Indicative S.

Cf. : -(. S. '-€. -. \. - Participlb . Lat. : going (rt. -ci \. . -. 2.1 '-€8 irap-fjs -€<() -. irap-fi Past-Imperfect So 93. . el- Infinitive Fi-ti:re 1-. am Imperative . 1.l. ire). 3..-] --- .T^£ FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 282 -€ -- - Optative Indicative Subjunctive S.

283 . 1.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK '.

. . thus Subjunctive Optative Impbeative Infinitive Participle . . down. .« -.« . F. -€. and in prose (as frequently also in poetry) -( -€ -.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 284 96. : (rt. 3. 2. € regularly compounded with Indicative S. 1. --£ -(€ Past-Imperfect: 97. kcl- is €-) lie. 1. frequently com2)ounded with . (rt. -^ sit. \. 3. 2. . found only in the progressive action-stem. Like thus s. .

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 285 .

etc. nom. : nom. nom. poem - ) . . . unsdom. -- -«Os : horseinan linr-eijs {-^. > - . smell -( hardihood -eid) - (oi/CO-9)• . (jev. a tion added). -05 . -: nom. --€-{ {-(-€ { Instrument. nom. quality. : suffixes are queen. nom. . forge Those coppersmith). (-. nom.( nom. NoUNS the suffixes employed to of indicate: Agent.-)). mind. -lov: Hence c-io. (-^. j^our plough : Place cup pot : drink (^. \- €-05 earthquake {. I. nom. -9 nom. or simply the person concerned in the action €. -: -$ . -lov: 10. FOKMATION OF SlMPLE WORDS. -09 nom. means: -. nom.: ^ -- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 286 often modified. pupil nom. sta- - Ablaut or vowel-gradation (§ 16) plays here an important role carry. nom. becoming . : carrying. self-control omitted) soundness of a thing {-. p>lough). (veo-?). . ( : nom. Muses come from nouns seat of the -ciov: in . > -epia oIk£-tls -tis: Action. shake). tlius : (^-.-)). (. endure). bringing. Feminine -6 - tl8. : : - truth.speak). : : housemaid (-)). bring. The following some are A. "yeve-ais act of justice. {Bo-). final vowel lengtliened made.yov-). : giver : speaker {pe. : odor -id: {cf. muse). -/ -: €05 youthfulness . : .

-. nom. nom. an ahsence of suffering. These are divided according to the nature (1) of the first element. = young hoy . (2) of the second element. : ivarlike. : --. Adjectives There are many adjectival suffixes. ivo ta -ios heavenly. . anaemic without hlood. -lov: -lov -. girl. num. nom. Formation of Compound Words The Greek language formed and still forms innumerable compounds. Par- Diminution (often implying affection. (). apathy. nom. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -: . contest living on consisting : ( of five -9 -. -lov: - . (\enr. warm. ('). y\f6vh-r\s false. Some of the more o. b) preposition (see §§ 123-129): hoth sides (of the shore-line). expressing negation {A-privative') hlood). senate-house in 287 (^^. nom. : a d) an inseparable prefix -.-: -)). maidens apartment. -:. The first part a) adverb: is «^-^« often an well-horn. II.. -5 nature}.Xoltt- nom. - -ivos genuine. -: thenon (-^^. a.-. nom. - A. ural lo. a-iraGeia cf. : mindful. daddy . young -. : . -os. amphibious c) numeral events . contempt. : }: -09 . €-(- €S. - nat- (/co. little child.): 10. etc. or -a: Xonr-os remaining important are: (.

accent. mind). : leads a boy (to school. >. pronoun which Avould normally be in is regularly assimilated to the case of the latter is a genitive or a dative: b Croesus the first irpiuTos of the foreigners €).-§ -5 latter case the €- noun (.-€€ ill: dysentery soften). . father. In the -$ -$ . brother . A relative the accusative case the antecedent. merry dishonored or adjective usually changes its form diaphragm. denoting uyiion (^A-copulative^ of the same tvomh.). hall). Compounds generally have recessive But there are many exceptions Cf. killing one" 8 slain by one's father.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 288 ((-? ( -- -. 101. AGREEMENT 100. whom we know (about) (= . one who throiving-stones. evrepa the in- ( dyspepsia testines). element of compound nouns or adjectives regularly consists of a verb-stem or noun-stem. a one born : hemisphere ripen. if wealth is (a) blind (thing).(Latin semi-): B. etc. (). pelted with stones. § 78 a. A - neuter predicate-adjective is very often used as the substantive-predicate of a masculine or feminine subject : 102. cf. The last womb'). A neuter plural subject regularly has the singular the trees are : its verb in (Greek is) beautiful. : cf.

. 1) When a noun is preceded by the article any modifying word or phrase usually stands immediately after the article. a friend) is another self. oi . the German usage) : does the father (i.e. often omitted supplied from the context : when it Cf also of friends.iiv\h\\te is when the article follow the noun (the afterthought position) : and .e. the can easily be common the many. The to the (§ 24). frequently (jenerie in is dXXos see § 191. the €. the or wisdom. in English : b) after the noun. either . was originally a in Attic Greek it has article.THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK 289 USES OF THE ARTICLE AND OF THE FRONOUNS 103. demonstrative pronoun. between the article and noun.. as or article being repeated: This position of the modifier (for the two a) and b) are really one) is known as the attributive position. reference the friend (i. c) A third attributive position 2i. . a) before the noun.. i. b) The article €€ ' we use a very c) weak is frequently employed where in English possessive Qcf. generally : speak- ing.e.. or Aristotle. your father) love you much ? €5 With proper names and with abstract nouns may be used or may be omitted: article d) The noun is are the (possessions') beautiful. and even the force of a demonstrative in certain uses a) The article . 104.

2) or 2) (the') When it is itself preceded hy the article self(same). Socrates here. espeLesson XI. - tive position : pronouns (. Demonstrative pronouns (§§ 24. . him.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 290 ^. by the article. accusative) when used alone serve as the personal pronoun of the third perthem. The demonstrative may precede or this - ').'). 25) regularly stand in the predicative position (§ 104. either before or after the noun.. : - being in the predicative position (§ 104. 2): ? . . But with the names of persons or follow . the same. her.. and attribute is rare. and means self: accompanied by the article. it is said to This position of the article cially in prose (but see . regularly stands in the predica- : '. When the modifying word or phrase is not preceded 2. the article avr\p : may he omitted: or this Socrates. (never 6 (§ 106). the very the 3) : the teacher himself.. oblique cases (genitive. The intensive pronoun (§ 22) is used in and Exercise Lesson V three ways (see 4) 1) In apposition with a noun or pronoun it emphasizes I (my)self. 105. dative. The same (one') means itself: brother. noun is the when So 106.^ stand in the predicative position The of personal genitive <. this book (not man. son : .

3) . Relation- very frequently suggested by the For the dative. Possession is etc. both. by the pronominal adjectives your (see Exer- our. '' . the following exactly reversed. and in some indirect reflexives: | knoiv thyself! stances refer not to a subject but to a dependent Avord '" 109. of me. (§ 108): child (or. simply. and 110. these. . expressed by 106. that. see § 120 a. those. SHE. of myself. ship or possession article. 2 my. may Even refer forward in are : answer this! These pronouns are often used in lieu of our emphatic RU.e. etc. 2). . etc. with the accompanying noun or €5 each (of § . is both mean this. your. each (of two). toOt' that too. « 291 many) generally stand in the predicate position With the article is often omitted (§ 104. (§ 23) are generally But sometimes they serve as indirect reflexives. 103 b. . by my own cise 15). (i. Of usually refers to what precedes (so the former - manner).): . the Greeks said this (one). SHE permits you Note also : doing? (§ 10 c) and to do these things. €5 : (^) 108. my child). . here he or you there ! what are you that is! thafs it ! is to say .' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 107. «. of you. (see §§ 104. etc. that (one). each day The pronouns but . § : from yourself I shall instruct you. to what follows (so But sometimes these relations in the preceding manner) . THEY.

therefore." was thus absorbed by the the instrumental (" with ") and the locative genitive " (" ow.. as Greek developed into a separate language.Dative meanings and Greek divided the pure ablative this table it is at once clear that the constructions of the Latin between the genitive and ablative are the dative." " among ")." "?/"')"-^ ^^-Zl~~Instnimental ^'Locative (" on.. . hj the dative. These correspond to the six cases in Latin and to tlie eight cases in the parent language from which both Greek and Latin were descended. by the dative. the meanings and constructions of the those of the genitive case fall into two broad classes : pure genitive ("o/") and those of the ablatival-gQmiivQ . dative.-Genitive Genitive ("o/") " Ablative ( from " ) . expressed the idea "/roTW. pronouns. thus accusative. three of the original ca. In other Avords.'^ " ' Ablative -z~w Dative Nominative Vocative Nominative (subject) ' ("." ") . In the declension of nouns. tive-ablative Q'on." " among'''') Dative C^for. Latin Nominative : Geeek Vocative Vocative (address) Accusative -Accusative (object) Genitive From > Acciisative ^ .^-^^ SsS. in the Latin Q'-from ") being expressed by the genitive instrumental-2i\Adit\\Q {''with" "?/") and the Latin loca. In Greek.'' '' among'''). etc. five cases distinguishes : and vocative. -. genitive.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 292 USES OF THE CASES 111." in.se-form8 were discarded and their functions or meanings were assumed and expressed The ablative. Greek nominative.^^ " in. which by one of the other case-forms.'' " in.

way. (^Qognate accusative. The which prepositions may be employed But the piire geniand the pure dative ("/or") never employ cases w^ith are indicated in the table by italics. with f) way. €€€ ^ (or yes by. : - .. e) Adverbial accusative: . See p. much. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 293 Q'-from"}. c) Object and predicate-accusative we call the d) Accusative Xshilled') of man Specification in all things. 112. in every all speed .) battle. ohov^ . and of : the locative-diitive. by birth. . see § 126 ff. The nominative vocative 113. tive ("(>/'") prepositions.. 13. in what way? greatly first ."'' " to "). ov g) Accusative in Oaths with no by. wise an Athenian in the quickest why ? Accusative of Extent of Time or Space : there he remained five days. (sc. and the meanings and constructions of the those of the pure dative must be divided into three sets dative ( '"for. see / am you. . - : a sophist.. b) Double object I am : teaching the hoy geometry. of the instrumental-dfitiye. The is sometimes used for the uses of the accusative are virtually identical with those in Latin : / a) Object: fighting a case so regularly Beds Qnever 0ee). For the accusative with prepositions.

etc. object. : good things. material. cause. accusative absolute.g.€-€ why dont you share your conversation with us ? b) Enjoy. exactly as in English: love of friends. some A few of its uses are difficult to classify. etc. so that the genitive appears to be to the (sc. governed by a preposition €ts " doctors (sc. worship of Grod. possession^ subject. cup of water. § 172 . In certain phrases the noun upon ) which the genitive depends is omitted. With - the following groups of believed to be of partitive origin - a) Share: : verbs the genitive is with verbs meaning -. taJce hold of. measure. Iv The genitive with a noun is frequently employed in the predicate in any of the foregoing relations - : for it is €€€ " (the nature) of the free-born to speak the truth. some abla- of its uses being genitival in origin (" o/"'). h. - we -uci ae from handling . part. the teachers. . § 116 f).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 294 as subject of § 175 an iufinitive. such as tival ("-from "). With verbs the genitive is either the object of the verb or serves as an adverbial modifier thereto (e. 114. make trial of: ov she does not prevent you these things. : to els house'). (^Adnominal Genitive) the geninouns When used with tive may express a large number of relationships. school. The genitive is in Greek a compound case (§ 111). 115.. piece of advice. to in (the house) of Hades. taste enjoy c) all the Touch.

laiv (Antiplion). hit (and miss) (Sophocles). them. smell. become filled with pride (Plato). lead. dont heed. be full j) he began his speech as "§ Perceive i) €-|€ will never attain the heights without g) Mule. be inferior to. c) Differ from. it is : far from (or simplj. (Jiear. 295 rot : Ipd of (all the^ gods Death alone yearneth not ov - after gifts (i. it . : .. Fill. remove from. genitive used with verbs also to express is other relations. € e) Reach. bribes') (Aesch3'lus). he lack. any one I I hear : •€€ you of : I whenever one praises the beautiful. release from. etc. a) etc. . . be leader of: Love is king of the gods (Plato). : clearly of ablatival - it is employed with verbs meaning: Cease from. strive after. etc.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK d) Aim desire at.e. some of which are Thus origin (§ 111). nearly all. toils Begin: f) follows. forget. care for. obtain. The 116. it (i. empty: who does no wrong needs no Note especially the phrases lacks much) (lit. surpass.6\iyov) almost - almost nothing.e.) PaaiXeiici neglect: : -. a sound. -. b) Want. lacks little). be distant from. li) Memember. f the island being not far distant from the mainland.

€ : praise.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 296 but gentlemen. e) Price. and these are fol- than be better (= quani) : than silence 118. See especially the so-called improper prepositions. for how much irevxe does he teach? for five minae. at. (^down) compounded with especially those against : despise thy youth! (Paul). With adverbs also the genitive is very frequent. meaning the verbs -- especially with those that parallel in mentioned in §§ 115-116. f) Cause (with verbs meaning admire. different b) adjectives of the comparative degree lowed either by the genitive or by let your talk Tt (Menander). from the majority of people (Socrates). Such are a) aiTios cause of accountable for part in. €$ J envy thee for thy wisdom. 117.) . § 130. note h) The genitive often follows compound verbs down upon. be angry. the like. let no one used also with many adjectives. but detest thee for thy cowardice (Sophocles). The genitive is . €€ . having no from . d|ios worthy of. . etc. value : € at the price of toils the gods sell to us all blessings (Eijicharmus) . The genitive with verbs often denotes the cl) . g) Crime (with verbs denoting a judicial action') - : am prosecuting for slan- der and ami on trial for murder (Lysias). here also in this respect differ I. . wonder blame. •€ . €€ Source: ME you shall hear all the truth from ' (Socrates). - -.

b) of the agent Avith verbals in -tos and -reos (§ 177). mer . genitive absolute^ § 175 g. also and similar is for ms have a brother {there a brother). 9 fication "/or " is The present. c) of the indirect object : give 8os me the book. and with the passive perfect (and pluperfect) when the subject city must avTOis (i.e. . had been made by for) them. etc. be like.g. So the dative is used with a large number of verbs vhich in English are usually transitive. (lit. ing § ivitkin is used adverbially to itself which un action takes place during the day . meet.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Finally the genitive 119. €9 : in the even- in winter . denote the time by day . verbs meaning help. is not personal be benefited : €€ by you the (strictly for tuhen preparations you) . please. serve. personi- 120. expresses personal interest . of interest is «. the dative is a compound case is used properly of persons and when used of things. what shall I learn for what would you have me you?) The last sentence illustrates what is commonly learn ? known as the The dative : €$ - / -. sometimes " . The true dative (§ 111). for the . irevxe For the genitive with prepositions see § 124 ff. 297 during five years. Like the genitive. Ocpous in sum- vuKTos at night. e. : € . obey. employed the possessor with a) of verbs ethical dative. rich for another true dative commonly means " better suits the English idiom to man such a itXoutcl and not for himself.. : is .

association. by a head") equal in temper. : - on the folloiving . The prepositions were originally adverbs and only gradually became stereotyped as prepositions governing . etc. month. take delight in (please myself with) good « and use (i.ive expresses a) Time (the day. $ he me ! had formerly used the room as a store-room. etc. a head shorter in silence . month. found only with proper names The dative is used with many compound verbs and with prepositions see § 125 ff. is : . year. and nouns which are of kindred derivation or meaning with verbs that govern the dative hostile to : equal to - freedom . 1l22. the third on the same day on the preceding day. ? 9 298 help me! rots €€ if it irciGou obey the laivs «- €l tois ! resembles the preceding (instances). vaiois at the Panathenaea. d) with adjectives. cause.e. . THE PREPOSITIONS 123. fact.) day. in which (ivay^ I in labors. each other. (ivay') .e. Note especially (i. . adverbs. respect. accompani- € ment. festival. 5? in KOLxnj this ttovois by : common. The in strumental-(\. b) Place. The ' Zgca^ip-flflt. . little friends. manner. This is more common in poetry in prose it at Marathon.'dX\\e (§ 111) expresses instrument^ means. serve oneself ivith) folloiv and - follow . night.121.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ? . 07i ctcl in the tenth year. in .

as in and next. instead. [apo-. against. in return. to and accusative cases (§ 111). Lat. the beginning . afterward. . - In compounds back). exhaustion. b) from : in return for ' § 6. The 124. learn by heart. prepositions are used with the genitive. from childhood. from. : : ills. before the town . ex. a preposition with its cases. before : out. ivith In compounds: tion: d) irpo (sc. in opposition. € voias from set purpose. case is repeated after the compound : The - leap off from the horse.. e) out c) €| (before a consonant e'/c out from the city . since. dative. often implying comple- etc. ) ^~) ^ of. . Frequently. . formerly. prepositions which govern the genitive case « (. on instead of peace. from. ex-] €5 before this . in return. the first element (or elements) of innumerable compound words see § 99. tlvos. ^') time. ap-. give meaning. etc. [ec-. ant-] § (. irpo € out irpo- design. €| from : Ik tt]S '"€9 from what you say . hack (-^ and often suggesting completion. ' from^ awag from: air' from which ah") (sc.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK The 299 was retained in some which abounds Prepositions are employed as in the pages of Herodotus. aph-] Lat. to be utterly coivardly. away. original adverbial force € instances. too. ' only are a) against): § 6) instead of (original what account f why? In compounds [anti-.

In compounds: 127. through. In compounds in behalf before^ forth^ : in prefer- of. at. Is into the city. els what (^end) on the until. Lat. -. [syn-.e. [pro-] enee.e.§ (€At-. also apart (- why? because. this reason through (i. to ten . e friends. on. With the accusative only €LS. c. €S €is used is ? Of. Prepositions with the dative only 125. episode into. in. Lat. a) Genitive di-. by) after a long time. Is (orig. among. sys-. c. send in . = Lat. In compounds : syl-. : (-. ttoXcws through the city . in with accusative) into. iravTos constantly . (--). morroiv . OF GREEK THE FIRST YEA 300 . Prepositions with the genitive and accusative only: (hi . on account on what account? . God. sym-. ') Accusative : of^ wickedness. avy-. -. sy-] 126. kv on a stately chair.. : . with: tols the aid of ivith 0€c3 em-] [en-. b. el-. dis-') 5 : through: . in with ablative) among us . Compounds are frequent in prose as well as in poetry. § 18 my b. in the beginning . €V In compounds m. Is tl els to . together. a) ^amounting') for speaking . e\-. b) old form ) $ -. on: kv in. a) €V 18 €7. ' me . for In compounds through (i. altogether. € Prose usually (and with the genitive. to. = ^ . to. = . quently also poetry) employs - with fre- with.

in defence of ex- [liyper-] With 128. completely : the rock head. by sea. super) over: above. motion . above. and way according down. Accusative: ' etc.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK -€ {\ ' different directions^ sugs^esting often . Accusative : horizontal river in up along. through. among. the against us. by hundreds. etc. yond {one's) power. be- the dative and accusative only is used (^av) up: a) Dative . . down § 6) to. [dia-. according a) Genitive : § 19 . di-] destroy utterly. [cata-] Lat.): § $ €§ "' a) Genitive completion. on behalf of ? (the) head. back. day by day . c) virtp (for both by land along the road. ) beyond Sicily Accusative: beyond: virkp more than half. upon a ) upon (only poetry) : sceptre. b) along. up the every . In compounds ceedingly. according down (doionfrom. me . on the ? €€ toOs . against. Trerpas : down from ' {down) upon beneath the earth /S) . to the ? to laws. beyond. : over. : over.. . In compounds against^ down-stream. of € through the army . down 301 : over xiirep on behalf of the city.

against. ac- cusative : (' a) hence = . cirl '€ for one's hurt. to.. [ana-] hack. originally on both sides.. upon (in addition to^ €Trl something the earth. lifetime . In compounds with the Prepositions 129. (eV. eirl . a) Genitive used prose - quarrel- in fear about about Miletus : the . around. Dative my to make -§ it to a profession . upo7i. again. Not common Xenophon. 7) Accusative through: horse. up to. ol Croesus and those with him. : €§ what they had. : in Attic prose except in genitive. on: €? "? a) Genitive: during time ) rats : sickness €irl ness. ling about /8) Dative: his wife. his . ambi-}. : eirl for a time. Lat. about. Attic In about. In compounds on both sides. b) ' § 6) upon. € ttjs ' 7 our upon the couches . up. 7) Accusative with cliietty « -€€ accusative. four deep.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 302 day. for the sake : [amphi-] of. towards. for five years. and dative. $ sick- be learning lirl tovtois on these conditions.. mounting hri Btipas to the doors.

€' Dative m addition. : contrary ' to : ' . by. € ' against. met-. often follows its noun. by. in which case it is accented on the first . beside. : Dative : . c) upon. : 7) Accusative into the midst. change notes change or reversal metaphor). carry over. In compounds alongside. among: § 6) with. (^-(^-(€-88 In compounds of). motion to (in prose only of permotion along. with. (/^er. past. at the house of (usually : persons) sons) " from persons) ) also de- alongside.e. a) Genitive: with: ol . after share with : seiid for. cf. past (a place) along- Accusative side beside. . ' : at my with house. par-] e) TTcpi around (on a) Genitive: all sides). . : at. near: a) Genitive ) it [meta-. : misunderstand). in after : this. trap' in each deed. amiss con- (- [para-. eph-] [epi-.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK In compounds for. among. after : of). trary to expectation. to. by. ep-. after (in time or rank) search (i. toward. amid (Homeric). from (most frequent with from me. meth-] () d) . to me . about: concerning: ircpi^. give a share summon) . | along the coast of the mainland. what about ? 1 Trepi syllable. /3) 303 those with us. about.

to. [hypo-. * : under. or prepositions which are never used in composition. to staiid : : to [pros-] § 19. irpos 7) Accusative irpos in view of these considerations. near: a) Genitive : irpos talcing by the gods your side. : In compounds g) \»1 ] . tlie ' agent or cause): viro by me. In compounds : under.: ?? THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 304 /3) Dative: about their necks. In compounds vive'). f) : exceedingly around. In addition to the prepositions proper (§§ 128129) are the improper prepositions. [peri-] - to these thiiigs. ircpl . € irpos at. at nightfall. against. also during the night. Examples are . ! -? irpos way of Cyrus . ) Accusative around the PeloKvpov Cyrus and his fol- ircpl : ponnesus. a) Genitive toward. besides. (along) under. gradually. irpos iroXet TOts in addition excel. s to the light. hyp-. ol TTCpl lowers. by (^fronting). agreed by all. in addition. by (of under Dative 7) Accusative "YTJS ) the earth. hyph-] 130. : (. viro the side subtends the angle. behind.Tots KuPetiCLV irepl xois to take risks with one's dearest possessions. characteristic of the irpos ) it is Dative: irpos sur- irpos "6 near the city . secretly. for (a place) under. Lat. beyond (-^ (^- very glad). towards or during (of time) 0-€€ : under a tree. sub) under: § 6.

can be visualized. called the present stem. . motion: -€ $? came Perdiccas and into Chalcidice. can be thought of as being in progress. evcKa. or brief. it to write ") [snap- can be thought of as completed (" to have written""). or.. as it were. (cf. it can be regarded be writing ") [time-exposure] merely as an occurrence. noun between. apart from. against . except: tival its of of for the sake of eveKa on which far as concerns beyond (of time) straight) 305\ : to. at the : together with. (usually follows to eveKa y account. whether long first. €p. but incorrectly. To express these three different ways of regarding action the majority of verbs in Greek form stems which are known this and as action-stems. Action-stems. . after verbs of he es THE VERB — Ways of regarding Action. €V€K€V on account with regard within to . i-yyvs in the presence near. it . same time similar to). its actual duration. apart from. thirdly. being for the time ignored (" shot] . . of persons only. so adverb cept to ME) except . Ivros behind ME (often also a conjuncclear to every one ex- € together tvith. as it proceeds from step to step (" to or again.^ as the in consequence all forms built 1 of these upon it called in stem itself invite one to Usually. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK With a) the genitive: € without.irpoa0ev in front of. to YOU) straight toward. € €| out of. Every action can be regarded in one of three ways: 131. before. c) Accusative : . : b) With the dative with. ivithout. close to (cf 6<. book The first is the progressive action-stem.

being in the act of The stem which merely names holding (having^. etc. — The action-stems in themselves express position in time. infinitive. €- from the stem from the stem writing. thus . is (§ 131) do not indicative The the realm of time-distinctions. are obtained the tenses. or both. be writing. 53). § — of regaeding Action and Position in As there are three ways of regarding action (§ 131). two stems (indicative. they are not parallel. thus I shall : I am writing. aorist action-stem see Lesson (^- XL\"II and the unlimited. In addition to these three action-stems there are two time-stems . so there are three time relations or j)ositions in These two sets of relations time: present. namely.|€ beiJig in process. participle) refer to future time. third stem is the perfect action-stem.Perfect (Pluperfect) Future-Perfect . optative. each other cross . future. mood I was ivriting. --. the future and the future-perfect timeAll of the forms built upon these stems (or tense-stems). The 133. the time-distinctions are superimposed upon the actiondistinctions (see § 133). and : " ive being in the act of learning. Tenses. past. Ways 132. etc. These are seven in number. see 133. The § 136. Time. %- to he are writing. That is to say. undefined) "^- - are both forms of the progressive action-stem (see §§ 52. So act is called the .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 306 regard the action as -. and here by add- ing certain prefixes or suffixes. as follows Present Past-Aorist Past-Imperfect Present-Perfect Future : Past.

etc.'" I declare. Uses of the Action-stems and the Tenses 134. refusal. future-tense stem. For the tenses a form is found in - of the perfect action-stem see §§ 137. past-imperfect tense denotes a continued or customary or repeated or attempted action in the past. 138. progressive.• could not) : . say. The particle dv sometimes accompanies the past-imperwhen it denotes customary action (see § 145) ciroC- fect : they would (were accustomed to) dv do the hoar no harm. usually called merely the imperfect. any other expression of past time. or are trying to persuade you./ aorist. which is regularly a presentand the past-imperfect (or past-progressive). but the historical present in is far : expressed thei/ : With long ago. as end). (woidd not. they woidd not be persuaded. Theoretically there should have been formed also a presPerhaps such ent-aorist corresponding to our ''I write. and moods is set forth in § 79. Sometimes an attempted action is exactly as in English. With a negative the past-imperfect often denotes resist- ance. wrote. is The formed is The future formed on a is also the future-perfect (§ 131. are both formed on the progressive action-stem. tenses. still The we have long : are) learning these (things'). usually termed merely the on the aorist action-stem : '. The scheme of stems. The present tetise (§ 133) is in general employed Greek he sends more common in Greek (for he sent^ heralds. a verb in the present has the force of a present and perfect combined been (and 135.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 307 Of these the present. past-aorist.

may I not write XLVII and LIII. employed with dv to to express repetition : ctircv is dv he used say.e. refers to I thus: Indie. -€9 • you come (in^. Lessons and aorist often denotes the €8 is . called the inceptive aorist.. Not infrequently the past-aorist indicative is used as a ?. patient or present^) dont we too. 1 c). . its is The actual duration being ignored. \|. This : 38. but these are secondary special usages made above.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 308 The function 136. - wrote us write this . and - beginning of an action or became king. Opt. {gnomic aorist) : €€5. then Prodieus also? Occasionally the past-aorist. you depart. 1 In the indicative In indirect discourse the aorist optative and the aorist it forms infinitive refer to past occurrences (see § 179. the past-aorist indicative is eager questions (where English ov : call used in imemploys a why .i § 84. The perfect action-stem invites one to regard the action as completed (§ 131). do and and do not affect the general correctness of the statement For the use of the aorist participle with reference to a prior action see Exercise 35. § 131. of the aorist action-stem. three tenses (§ 133). past-aorist indicative an action as occurring in past time but other forms built upon the aorist stem do not refer to past time. present to denote a fact of experience or a general truth €$. with a laugh let this? (i. as stated in to refer to an action merely as an occurrence. See further etc. . 137. life's the entrance. become to bursting into laughter^. you behold.€ Subj. Sometimes. the world's a stage. like the past-imperfect. especially Exercises 35 The state king.

action the : awake. . perfect.fiS-). I remember. ^« I is I have waked In a great rather upon up.iyop. eoiKC it is (ei'/cw resemble (/ret/c- pOLK. I am dead. but usually even here the enduring the action is still more or less prominent. awaken Ceyep. (^ forget (. like the present In English the is constantly used where Greek employs an hence in Greek the pluperfect tense is comparaaorist. « € € -^ (^ € (and destroy. emphasizes the enduring result. Greek perfect instances. acquire'). lose^.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 309 -. The past poth.pLK-')^. possess I remember 138. I know . to be sure. § 95 (fetSIforget I have. (^yev- /rt-)./?-)). emphasis dead. etc. pluperfect tively infrequent. ing^ hawling {ivitensive perfect). I am I am -)). remind). lost ( /rei- hpoi- to recognize. to he ((^^ effect Note the following (see §§ 65-67): €- I perish. perfect (pluperfect). see Exercise 36.-^). I stand . the English perfect : made . (by birth) Ifear nize I have come ()- become he horn. I likely resemble . have € of hawl- whereas in English the the completion of the action corresponds closely to the / lam shudder . I am awake (^iye lam accustomed. many .- «" In Greek the perfect emphasizes the enduring result of to he / am awake . (^<^^ I know recog- 7^0-)). § 87.

the future extremely rare. Of these the active and passive require no explanation. myself win (a prize) . (or active and middle has faded : be bright. middle. (off) for hear. I cease {cf active (another) stop). 68 § .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 310 For the future perfect middle see perfect active The future 139. is upon a time-stem tense refers to future (§ 133). or / write). turn (A. . / (A. je upon me doute). voices : active. have a copy copy). 2) ^ I write for myself {A. The middle voice lies between the other two atid is essentially a reflexive {cf I teach myself I make myself stop.) In some instances the original difference between the shine. himself. command The future time . I show myself. to express a €. or in affects It represents the subject as acting some manner that directly or indirectly himself I make 1) I make Tpeiro^at myself stop. bring). The Voices The conjugation 140. see § 149. : (7/:). etc. . it is formed used familiarly is you yourself will So with ov in questions: judge will you not pelt (him') ? For with the future indicative. I turn (an- turn myself. / copy for myself made (A. carry show appear (A.). of the Greek verb includes three and passive. -other. forth).

- I favored (middle deponent). and In there are seven tenses (see § 133 and §§ 134-139). optative. wish. see §§ 69. A. Deponent verbs usually have middle forms also in the future and perfect but in the aorist some have middle forms (known therefore as middle deponents). verbs have only middle forms in the pres- ent (including action-stem). The moods in ancient Greek are the subjunctive. future. active or intransitive. The Moods and Theih Uses 143. A. I was I received and See § 142 and Lesson LX. The passive voice is Greek has no expressed by middle endings mi/self stop or few re- received. sequor): in classical Greek). €| have both middle and passive aorist forms ceive. be willing (never receive (take to one's Although the forms are middle. Lesson VI). A. morior. passive in A : I am made / make : to stop. distinctive In the present. optatives. but / wished (passive deponent). 79 C. the meanings are self). The indicative is the realm of tense-distinctions. wish. In the aorist the passive employs active endings. 142. and imperatives : those . . are the infinitive (a verbal noun in origin) and the participle (originally a verbal adjective). contrast with the seven tenses of the indicative. see also § 62. there are only three subjunctives.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Many 141. others have passive forms (passive deponents): /avor. 311 - all forms built upon the progressive These are known as deponent verba (cf. and imperative (see Accompanying these indicative. and perfect the passive endings. Lat.

thus: differ in tense. 173). and perfect action-stems. namely. and future optatives are rare and are employed only in indirect discourse to represent a future indicative after a past tense (see § 179. differ- ences in meaning between these three sets of forms grow out of the fundamental meanings of the action-stems They do not (§ 131). 180 b. 146.and tense-stems form both infinitives and participles future perfect. § 180 . ) : progressive. with the indicative and potential general as follows optative (§ 163). upon the progressive. see Lesson XIX. also and For compounds of 144. a. respectively (but the perfect forms are not common. (aorist). future. Future stems never form subjunctives or imperatives. 158. are no This is a fact of cardinal importance in Greek syntax. and See §§ 172. : . aorist. perfect. us be let tl let us write something (aorist). optative of ivish (§ 162) and also with the infinitive see § 159. aorist. All of the action. TJiere tenses of the subjunctive. Lat. For ox» §§ 150. 173. : . There are two negatives (see Lesson VI) ot» These are used in and (c/. for and participle (§§ 172. no7i. sometimes also with the infinitive with the subjunc(§ 172) and the participle (§ 173} tive. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 312 formed. the optative. optative. meaninors of these moods. the imperative being even The rare). II B). ne). . writing something (progressive) ^ something (progressive) ivrititig be write something .. 160 c. It is used in . (. See further § 84 and Exercises 35 and 38. or imperative. The adverbial particle dv is employed with the and the subjunctive to limit the indicative.

with the optative (never future optative) to express B. so that the subjunctive in such clauses € regularly introduced by tav or . : in conditional. 313 : •- with the past tenses of the indicative: A. and temporal (sometimes also final) clauses with the subjunctive. I b. potential] : dv I might etc. Uses of the Indicative 146. 136 (end)). 170. often contracted to dv whoever. the like. questions. it may is employed in simple declaraand exclamations also in simple be indicated also by xcas permitted. relative. '€ ctires. ' dv would be equal.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Independent clauses I. they could not have thought. . 1 - Unreality sary. the opinion of $ speaker (or writer) as an opinion the [potential optative] : dv it may be so. The indicative mood tions of fact.^ a) to denote unreality: the angle also € b) to denote past potentiality. (= } dv wherever. but it is not. (or ) it was neces- . and See §§ 167. etc. Here dv attaches itself to the subordinating conjunction. Dependent clauses II. € OS dv and dv} and (= et is av. See further § 179. c) with the and past-imperfect indicative to aorist express repeated or customary past action (§§ 135. past probability. See further § 163. dv what would you have said? See further § 152.) = ( if. whenever. eSet. [past dv have said .

am I mean. are followed when they as to. These verbs are sometimes followed by otl or as that. etc. introduced by see to it that you aid me. indignation. because. (how') since. by Verbs expressing lest ) (neg. strive for. effect. 151. see § 148) to express a €|-'€ 150. and temporal Other uses are (§ 170) clauses. 6s. tive is normally ov. cautio7i. delight. . as. of the indicative command and let " infinitive ) so fear. the result us.. are followed by the futu7-e indicative (rarely the subjunctive) (how) that (neg. and with dv (§ 145). is ^ refer to objects of fear so that is or the indicative. . 148. that. €. etc.. or a prohibition: him not deceive : which followed by either the With the €€ infinitive presented as a tendency: (neg. € a) Clauses introduced by otl.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 314 conditional (§ 166 A). with the present and past tenses are present or past (see further § 160 c) eXeyev beware lest he was speaking in jest. Verbs signifying care for. that. ). relative (§ 166 B). el € : indignant that I am surprise. have the The nega- indicative (or the potential optative. etc. English that 6 €€ if (if not).. are followed introduced by (that 7iot) «I (neg. 147. § 163). b) Some verbs expressing by a clause with the pity. treated in §§ 147-153. ?) €€5 149. not able to oios ' sag what = indicative. " and : with the future indicative are frequently used in Attic Greek (without an introductory verb.

had been. Uses of the Subjunctive 154. € V€Kpox)S / infinitive: doing this c) infinitive: it if they (= dead and not bodies. as an end so I saw nothing. The past-imperfect is with dv used of unreality in the present. Unreal or Contr ary/ have in the protasis €l with C onditional Fact to Sentences past tense of the indicative. apod. the same as above (§ 152) would that you were in the habit of eating b) is is followed by an dv or simply I should like dv would that they) were speaking the truth. of a simple occurrence in the past (prot. would be. of an act completed in past time Qivould have had'). The uses of the subjunctive (§ 143) in standard Attic Greek are seven in number. I should tell you. : Hopeless Wishes are expressed by by €€ or el and the distinction be- a) a past tense of the indicative preceded The negative oh that! tween the tenses €5. a. SO as to see. el . '. ou). Thus cl dv if this were true. the pluperfect (yeri/ rare). would have^ . in the apodosis a past tense of the indicative (§ 145).: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 315 with the indicative (neg. attained: 152. apod. etuov dv I should have told you. 153. or of an act or state conceived as continuing in the past (prot. with the would that I were not would that you had « iroietv ! not done this . €€8 ! the living I ought (aorist of €€ : ? ! owe). would have been") . had. as follows > . were. the aorist.

Conditional and relative clauses 7. the junctive (singular or plural) first person of the sub- eraploj'ed in questions of is Questions with the sub- appeal or deliberative questions. the the subjunctive is let €€ scrlbdmus 156. (rare) 3. 167.: : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 316 Independent Clauses A. Modest Assertion. In Greek. neg. as in Latin. neg. Emphatic Future ( § 155. Prohihitioii 4. 1. person plural of € . ( 5. we). B. Question of Appeal . with aorist subjunctive). neg. § ). § 157. ^) - PovXci do you wish? (pi. 155. ov. Exhortation. (compare Lat. Final and object clauses . constantly employed to express exhorta- The negative tion. . § 156. . Negative command is expressed by with a) the imperative of the progressive action-stem. is : what are we . as in Latin. thus is us be writing! ne scribdmus ! us say ! In Greek. with aorist subjunctive). ( first . § 158. €€ negative (rare) ) € . junctive always expect an answer in imperative form. §159. to / what am I to The be writing f say ? a) Questions \vith the subjunctive are often introduced by € . or : (or or shall ive say this ? 157. . Dependent Clauses: 6. § 160. or b) the subjunctive of the aorist action-stem: . let neg. 2. neg.

into The subjunctive introduced 158. that you b) Temporal — order that (neg. caution. 5 keep to the straight he honest. ^ hasten not quickly you become poor. § follow- fear lest we . until (neg. €9 wait until you become of age. or the like. - path. aircOSc to be rich. that. may b}'^ express a cautious or modest assertion^ a suspicion that something may ' hut ' suspect that this true !) lest this he ) The negative is may be true. may this not he true. c) Object clauses introduced €. do not learn! (not women never take €ls (your) counsel (Menander). in €€. ing verbs and expressions oifear. may forget lest the € ") way home. by « €$ See also until. they do not § 170. etc. : this shall The subju nctiv e is NOT employed come pass. The subjunctive (generally 159. final clauses introduced by not before. ) (neg. : be true (ah. 3.! : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK a) 5 do not be learning ) '€ |$ 317 ). € of the aorist action- stem) preceded by is sometimes employed as the equivalent of an emphatic future indicative with ' 160. to and in final object clauses a) Pure final clauses (expressing purpose) introduced by Lva. $. may SiKaios ). ).

The uses of the optative mood (§ 143) in standard Attic Greek nvefour in number. 164. ^^ 1) Wish (neg. The he ! € I " 6 Iv accompanied by the particle dv (§ 145) corresponds to the English potential forms with may. and to the Latin potential subjunctive: credas. etc. )). 2-3 realization expresses a wish conceived. €' dv I might cXol tis dv not he wise. in indirect discourse after a joasf tense 2. § 162. assimilation to anotlier optative (neg. § 163. would. 3) Conditional and relative clauses (neg. This use 163. oh that! (neg. € is known optative The negative as the Potential Optative. can.. by §§ 179. might. 4) In indirect discourse.: : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 318 Uses of the Optative 161. .. ^ : may I believe the wise to may only depend on this ! rich it if — a wish whose however extravagantly. could. possible. 164. after a past tense or etc. . The optative is frequently employed as a repre- sentative of an original subjunctive or indicative 1. . etc. dicas. achieve great deeds? (Euripides). 2) Potential (optative with Dependent Clauses ^. as follows: Independent Clauses A. putes. av (neg. to be The optative of wish is frequentl}^ preceded by optative is or cl €i'0€ § 168. € or ). or (less . and object clauses commonly) when such in final (§ 160) after a past tense. in questions of appeal and see § 179. is : irovois with small labors how could one . II The 162. II .

is permitted provided only that the combination of the two clauses intelligible. in indefinite relative and temporal clauses when these are dependent upon another clause containing a potential See the last selection optative or an optative of wish. Conditional and Relative Sentences 165. 3. how am I to dea:l. €1 if. regularly . hvvaiTO^ in Lesson LXXX. and (af. way this as a representative of the subjunctive. these cases the use of the optative not obligatory. . loss ( .. . etc. disapwhich in pears. . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK a clause is 319 dependent upon another clause containing a ' potential optative or an optative of wisli Thus he : was at a how he should deal ivith the matter (orig. Conditional clauses are regularly introduced by followed by the indicative or the optative. or by lav In the concluel if. and the original mood is is optional. etc. In all of . where the When the optative is employed in optative is normal. The negative of the conditional clause is is . that modifiers constitute a complete in itself or with its sentence. (= sion A. ? § 156). the dv. €5 ov ) becomes el dv becomes €$ dv becomes dv becomes $ irpiv becomes circi becomes €. except in those clauses mentioned under 3). frequently retained. many instances accompanies the subordinating conjunction when the subjunctive follows (§ 145). ) any form may of the verb. followed by the subjunctive.

and the as. The negative is regularly . hut if you prefer. reference. or the like . remain. The future threat. The like. such as : os who. but for convenience their treatment is deferred to § 170. . €€ a) '. a indicative with el generally expresses a warning. be either a) definite. oiroBcv lohence. €i makes sense when combined with the protasis: €. under three heads and and that (e'ai^) those with (a) the indicative (§ 166). and (c) the optative (§ 168). where. and the modal types are in general the same as those employed in conditional clauses (see above). pass! (§ 162). Hence conditional clauses with €1 indefinite relative clauses are treated together. may antecedent of the relative whoever. its' this not come to the relative clause and such clauses as indefinite or conditional relative clauses. A. bans whither. § . - the negatiA'e being either ov or acter of the construction which he does not know. b) is When the antecedent general or indefinite in are known according to the char- employed oiSev (matter») : may is indefinite. 166. the conclusion may be of . Many temporal clauses have the same modal construc: tions as indefinite relative clauses. (b) the subjunctive (§ 167). Relative clauses are introduced by relative pronouns or adverbs. or b) indefinite. a) When the antecedent may take any form definite the relative clause is that occurs in an independent sentence.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 320 B. Conditional axd Relatr^e Clauses with THE Indicative. Conditional clauses (§ 165 A) have €l with any tense The apodosis may be of any form that of the indicative.

The apodosis most frequently has either (a) the present indicative.).€ (Men. The in the former case.. : . « or (b) the future indicative. sponds exactly to the subjunctive in similar clauses in English (but 7iot in Latin) kav if these } : things be true. honest. 167. the introduc- in standard classical Greek regularly accom- panied by the adverb dv (§ 145). The subjunctive correduced by kav (di/. — in conditional tory word is and indefinite relative clauses. Relative clauses (§ 165 B) with the indicative may have either a definite or an indefinite antecedent. he will never have wealth. b) cav Tis . A. or $ some other form of expres- sion referring to the future (sirmple future conditions) a) eav tis he is €). tive being main clause may have any reasonable form ov I Gcol veos tohom the gods love dies young . § 147 see § 152 . € if you won't hold your tongue. -€|€5 el : 321 -. B. : if one have friends.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK any form . fortunate. The subjunctives of the progressive and the aorist action-stems are most com- mon . For unreal conditions €l. for object clauses with b. Conditional clauses with the subjunctive are intro= €l dv. see § 143. does that tvhich is not injurious injure ? Conditional and Relative Clauses with When the subjunctive is employed THE Subjunctive. the negain the latter. €|€i if a man be . or equivalent (universal or general conditions). you will have trouble..

and to the Latin present and perfect subjunctive The most frequent form tions. by OS €. Conditional and Relative Clauses with THE Optative. the same as is §. uni- and are usually known in conditions in Latin is an as optative. not a subjunc- . € The types (see § 145). i.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 322 $. above (A) : - do they prevent you from doing whatever you wish ? See also § 169 a. cl. .. A. in the English sequence conditions is — € : § 169 b. — When the optative is employed in con168.e. should hesitate the vessels that 169. etc. ^ in condi- of apodosis in optative the potential optative (§ 163) exactly as should See further would. the introductory if word the indicative were used. ditional and indefinite relative clauses (definite relative clauses do not have either the optative or the subjunctive). it I us. same of clause-combinations are the as . Avould be it §. to to be dv : € € The subjunctive ^:)asi. to be to €l do ivrong or wronged rather than Indefinite relative clauses €-€ Many Cyrus might give classes : 1 «Is to embai'k in conditional and indefinite relative sentences These are of those which refer (a) to the present versal present. (b) to the tive. do wrong (Plato). €. The optative corresponds to the English would. two if wronged. Conditional clauses: should be necessary either should choose B. are general or universal in their reference. {i. \. Relative clauses Avith the subjunctive are introduced B.. should. .e.

such clauses are introduced by cirel the like lireC. ind. or relative clause : e'i •€-•€ if he rode out anywhere. in the conditional i. and or 2) the same as that of the main clause .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 323 present (or past^ geiieral conditional (or indefinite relative) sentences. to See further. or aorist with dv (§ 136)) in the main clause. temporal clauses of indefinite frequency § 170.) € or the 167: uavx' § tls find out all things. s after that.e. . is either 1) prior to that of the main clause. a) Present general conditional and indefinite relative sentences have the present indicative (or equivalent) in the main ' i\\Q present indicative with . if one shun not the «. . «.. subjunctive with to . Temporal Sentences 170. they are not gods (Euripides). cav os . while the conditional or relative clause has either €|-€€. introduced by . b) Past general conditional and indefinite relative sentences have the past-imperfect indicative (or equivalent. and the optative introduced by el. - gnomic aorist (§ 136). if gods do any- thing disgraceful. ' \. oaxis. ^ clause. eirel . he would take Cyrus about on a horse with a golden bridle. . -. (when =) after. past-imperfect with (§ 135). the other always hapjiened. Temporal clauses refer to a time that . it is possible ei toil.. os. situation as a vague supposition: supposing the one thing happen.. (pres. as soon as. €1. The meaning of the optative in such a sentence is the same as that discussed in § 168 the protasis presents the . os. .

and the like. depart until they (Jiad^ said ' '. mits you to do whatever you wish.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 324 0T€. II B. ? -. . 3) subsequent to that of the €ws. €ws. U7itil . tvhenever he (himself) oi would turn back. 164. €€. while. woi sooner Sentences of the last type (3) refer.Q €$ future: ol us wait until the generals arrive. 2. this. when. again. frequency in \h\Q present (§ 169 a). -. or b) to let th. than € as long as.irpoxcpov until. 179. they did not - : . In conclusion be it observed that means before and . All other temporal clauses have the construction of ordinary conditional and relative clauses (§§ 165-169): Indicative irals when the boy was ten years old. ov irpiv not before = 4s main clause introduced by . = until. whenever she Optative : SHE per- weaving. The temporal clauses in sentences of the last class (3 b) have the construction of final clauses (§§ 160. these loho were listening on this side and on The is would open ranks that. the temporal sentence of indefinite last illustrates the . Subjunctive (regularly with av): - ivhenever you return home to your mother. c). § 169 b) under the subjunctive. all meaning . like '. example temporal sentence of the example indefinite frequency in the joasi (cf. and the . either €$ a) to thQ past: they ol u'aited until the generals arrived . 6. cv or .

irpCv {not but that before asking this. of note the following Infinitive in indirect discourse (negative usually I. and the like have two meanIn the former case their (b) until. I. The imperative . . aorist. etc. . When " is regu- to die is sweetest (Bac- the infinitive has a subject expressed. imperative expresses tions. a) as a noun: chylides). § 1T9. Uses of the Infinitive The infinitive was originally a verbal noun. We may 172. frequently preceded by . Infinitive not in indirect discourse (negative usu- ). etc. but the aorist subjunctive with is . .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK is € before seeing followed by the infinitive : irplv =) 325 . ally ). in the latter case. by tions introduced . come In prohibitions the aorist imperative used. come 7iow ! not ordinarily instead (§ 157). but the subjunctive when the reference is to future time or to the universal before present ings until and that . duced by 0T€. €€. the latter are three imperatives common). II. (a) as : is lo7ig '. d'ye is commands and prohibi- There and perfect (not or one of its compounds. clauses have the constructions allowed in clauses intro- €€.. the construc- Uses of the Imperative The 171. ^. a-yc. many whose uses are exactly like those in English.. with : progressive. it larly in the accusative case. followed by the indicative when the reference is to past time (see above). as.

: (i. with the future (also with the aorist or the progressive) infinitive.. ). € by the neuter and when so used is often preceded . promising. y8) verbs of hoping. an adjective. b) as a complement of a verb: / am ashamed you to tell eLiretv the trutJi.e. 7) verbs oi preventing. etc. € €( behold. with the infinitive. Note especially I am a) am about likely intend to. command it almost (§ 116 b). with the future or progressive to (rarely aorist) infinitive. at riding. g) in an absolute construction ciros seems €€ to 80 to speak. expecting.. complement c) as a - of etc.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 326 In this use the infinitive forms of the article (. €|-€€ tve time it is Note especially oios and to be oios re were not able going away. to think that I should ! to express a § or wish (chiefly in poetry). . ' able: to express result. or noun good in a manner most beautiful to skilled in speech. to. me. known is as the articular infinitive sound mind standing) is heaven s . . adverb. etc. we have come d) to express 2^urpose: to learn. to find ^ e) with f) with €€- out. I may €= h) in exclamations: suffer this i) (^absolute infinitive'^ € : as say. fit. § TTpiv before: irplv end. § 151. am (^destinedy to. 170 before hearing. to have a good under- greatest gift (Aeschylus).

b the one whoever does no the things that ivere said. exactly as the infinitive combines verb and noun. The distinctions lute.. and Exercises 35 and 38.. but when the participle has a general or conditional force cases the negative The I. LIII. See § 143. noun being omitted (/". wrong. Exercise 18) €€ who understands. uses of the particij)le are those in which the adjectival character of the par- ticiple is II. 175. Lessons XLVII. The three action-s|iems and the two timestems (§§'131-133) all form participles and there are eleven in all. the The corresponding expressions in English are the one who. . The negative regnlarly is . § 103 d). Note especially the use of the participle with the article. (i. more prominent those in which the participle mates a finite Circumstantial. 174.e. etc. the article more nearly approxi- verb A. he who. In B. plays a most important role in participle In origin an adjective. is and in certain special . open door is not always abso- use the participle has the funcIt is used either Avith or without the present blessings . - its attributive : -€•€ an Supplementary/. . they who. Greek syntax. (cf. between these uses tions of an adjective.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 327 Uses or the Participle The 173. {Attributive Participle^. manner.- standing open). a the expert. : . it combines in its uses adjective and verb. In its circumstantial use the participle is added to noun or pronoun and expresses circumstance.

. etc. or participle is : € €€ since she is sometimes omitted : are you are experienced. he said ivith a laugh (see Exeror concession: YeXaaas v€OS cise 35). midst. are often preceded by as. although grammatically they belong Avith the finite verb: €-6€ }X€Ta|i) he came in in the midst of his play {while playing). the . purpose (usnally future participle).€$ means. be translated with. at first. often €ti6vs and similar expressions often attach them- selves to a participle.) he willing to he BeXe as you are heed your elders came to sit down beside us. Note especially a) Certain participles of time and manner are often used with an adverbial force ginning. b) Similarly .).. condition. young (wheyi young. etc. €. TJ€i etc. € d) A concessive participle e) In like manner preceded by are. since f) is frequently preceded by although. such are finally continually . straightway. This shows that the participle sets forth a ground of belief entertained by the subject of the main verb or of some other person mentioned prominently in the sentence the belief) that g) A : tls you are going to with the thought (in become what? circumstantial participle in the genitive agreeing . €. participles expressing cause are often ota. purpose. at the hastily.€5 ^ . . etc. same ' in the be- may time. cause. The young. (Men. c) €| in : .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 328 € '--. " Participles expressing cause.

endure. € object: I know that you f) below. main idea -€§ we had just he was un- consciously supporting the slayer of his son. Note especially the supplementary participle with a) verbs -- meaning pear. continue. is more . -€€§ observation. supplementary use the participle completes It agrees either $ the idea of the main verb of the clause. ap- begin. In it its it is permitted. ject may be omitted when it can be easily supplied from while we tvere saying the context on the ground these things. ill.it being permitted. do escape chance. ivas possible for him to €- become king. and tlie in answering questions. € : § (see f) above) that Croesus was being besieged. See are wise. and the like : cease. grieve. the participle containing the I I chanced departed. or with the 2. be. c) with / delight ivell. b) verbs meaning like : do rejoice. since when 176. - h) Instead of the genitive absolute an accusative absolute is used when the verb is impersonal: €|.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 329 with a noun or a pronoun is used as a genitive absolute. -€ they are contirt- ually learning. The subcorresponding to the ablative absolute in Latin. with the subject: 1. anticipate. ?€ was just saying. I know that I am wise. d) 05 € common than / am plainly with a participle it is clear that. to be sitting.

f) verbs meaning know. etc. forget.. announce. expressing the agent. to tell. : 330 e) - (or € conscious -''^ / know (lit. by a clause with as when ". the word occurs. aorist. the 177. thus )- (or (or 18) I begin I am ashamed at telling . g) vith certain verbs which is may by on and a the infinitive (some also /) be followed also by There verb). -€ €. There are two constructions." future. etc. hear. he ignorant of remember. being in the dative case . finite usually a difference of meaning. number. if it The and verbal agrees case. tion are frequently followed by a participle (progressive. telling a falsehood Uses of the Verbals Many' verbs in Greek form a verbal adjective in -T€OV which denotes necessity or duty. perceive.. with its subject in gender. ^ Iknoio that V€iv I know how I am to tell. }/€€ / am plainly I appear to be. / begin - to learn.) instead of in English : he learned that Cyrus was doing these things. I a7n ashamed by telling . Xc^civ learning . It is -T€os sometimes accompanied by the copula but more frequently this is omitted.. ) OF GREEK THE FIRST (or I am with myself^ are followed by the participle either in the nominative or in the dative (or I am ovtl) -- : conscious of being foolish. and similar verbs of percep- show. negative of each being : a) Personal (passive) construction.

(for tl ^'). II) are intro- dv. those which are not introduced by an interrogative pronoun. often introduced by the emotional particles which merely heighten the tone of the question. .: : THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK $ 331 1€05 man -ye (§ 120 b): should not be honored before the truth (Plato). or etc. . ? Indirect word questions (see § 179. i. the neuter forms or -€ The word with the infinitive. Word I. etc. . whom then and b^ whom would we find. or or or or €. i. Sentence questions..e. and do not imply either an affirmative or a negative answer or do you speak Grreek? €€$ ' . ing verbal has (eVrt) and equals in mean- € for the agent stands in either the dative or the accusative: Xcktcov in fact God is GrOOD and one should speak so about Hiin (Plato). xivas ovv viro cvpoi- \. and which accordingly admit the answer ^es ! or no ! Such questions are and . ..e. . which imply the answer yes: do you not speak Greek f € in truth? . .. duced either by the interrogatives indicated above or by . etc. : tis tives are used with a single verb € : . - a) Direct sentence questions are often introduced 1) ov. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES two kinds Interrogative sentences are of 178. II. how? and the those which are introduced like.' . a) by- who f where ? irtos Frequently two or more interroga- interrogative pronouns. etc. questions. - The b) Impersonal (active) construction. is not by GOD good then . all of . the corresponding indefinite relatives: .

telling. followed by a with or that. . . . or €'€ is . . i/ou . After I. Etc. saying. € c) Alternative sentence questions are introduced a) in the direct form by irorepov € the two) . etc. / declare. and sometimes even in the indirect form: -€€5 . : do you ? surely . . . it is subject of the infinitive but is of ). (For the use of the participle in a manner that approximates indirect discourse see § 176 f ). . to do wrong. say. 2) which deprecate an affirmative reply do not speak Greek. . to be . . / am finite verb.. 6€ ivhetlier . or? (whether) <€ .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 332 . often omitted in the direct form of an alter- native question. . the main verb the assertion stands in the infinitive (negative usually The case. €€§ . and and sometimes after I said. II. 179. regularly in the accusative the same as the subject of the leading verb regularly omitted and a predicate noun or adjective if it is stands in the nominative : € the man . are you aicake or asleep? INDIRECT DISCOURSE. do not rule over you? these also b) Indirect sentence questions are regularly introduced by €1 if. which wronged? in the indirect form by the same particles as are employed in the direct form. tvhether (§ 179. el whether. or. or by €l .. which {of or?: iroTcpov . . II) €t : €65 I know not whether.. etc. In indirect discourse two constructions are allowed: with the infinitive . . or is ) « iroTcpov worse. I. .

After OTt or changed. remembering.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK he sai/s that is wise. The subjunctive is never employed in indirect discourse in Greek unless it would have appeared in the direct of the statement or question Qe.. per- such as ceiving. the person alone being if necessary. vrhich frequently are followed by a participle (§ 176 f). exactly as in English.. dv it retained he right « : (= should be observed that in indirect discourse he €^. are regularly followed by or saying and ciirov ? that and a I said finite verb. . of thinking: by the are regularly followed in- the subject and predicate being treated as above I think I know.. etc. . often allow the construction with on and ?• The negative is regularly the same as that which or ").. when an infinitive always of the same it is action-stem or tense-stem as that of the original verb-form (see § 131). after eav. The verbs € I am telling.g.). In like manner most verbs of knoiving. / I / knotv. learn. manner verbs a) In like finitive. etc. remember. clSevai I thought 1 heard. When b) said that ) is it is would not Finally employed 8 the infinitive represents a potential (optative or indicative). 333 we declare our- clScvai he said he did (^). eivai € selves to be philosophers. would be employed in the direct form ( A. questions of appeal (§ 156). -. II. 'a primary tense (§ 53) the verbs that follow retain their original form.. not know. in . form etc. The same rule applies also to indirect questions (§ 178)..

b) When the leading verb becomes an infinitive (see above). indicative with dv never changed to the opta- is a past-iraperfect or pluperfect indicative.€ . € dv. clauses depending on an infinitive which is introduced by a verb meaning advise. may be changed from indicative or subjunctive to optative after secondary tenses. is thus changed to an opta- I might aid him. report that he would come sooner than Astyages himself would (( wish An a) . clauses with '. tive . etc. 6-€€- was just on tvas the tviser d-yyeXov he hade the messenger ). an indicative or a subjunctive may be shifted to the optative of the same action-stem or tense. verbs in subordinate clauses may the optative form after secondary tenses. etc. if necessar}-). seldom. or. command. in various dependent clauses which are not strictly in indirect discourse. be changed to Occasionally a attracted into the infinitive. 'past rect statement or question tense verbs in an indi- all maj remain unchanged « ).. : . and the like. 170. . if he should be in a subjunctive with dv dv disappears was going that . but which contain or imply the thoughts of a person other than the speaker or writer. (§§ 160.stem: € OTTOxcpos them the point of asking tvhich of | ' (the € (^ -"€ € ?? person alone being changed. exactly as really in indirect discourse (II.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 334 After a secondary or B. plan. B). subordinate verb c) The verbs is I. An aorist indicative in a subordinate clause remains un- changed. 3 b). . When tive. as frequently happens. if they were Such clauses final irplv dv. .

regularly stands 182. questions. nevertheless. 2. tive. II. ov. b) infinitive . hut indeed (§ 184). abrupt transitions (well. An which \vould ordinarily have the negais usually negatived by if the verb upon which it depends is accompanied by a negative or is in a question with a negative idea implied. It is frequent in hut also. let really.. II) tive CONJUNCTIONS. hut.. each retains its own force but when followed by one or more compound a) in the '^ . never stands see § 178. Frequently two or more negatives are employed in the same clause. especially: When a negative (simple or compound) is followed same clause by a simple negative. (§ 190) and stronger contrast than Etc. well hut. The uses compounds see two negatives of the ( and and their 144) have been generously illustrated in the foregoing paragraphs (§§ 146-179). '€ objections. commands . PARTICIPLES. ). etc. negatives. always post-posi- first in its clause. first in its clause. yet mon after a negative : . . so. marks a especially com- other) (jif. nay. it . . For is not only . (ap") then. . i.. . . accordingly . but. as 159. need tW. ' us he going! : nay . iav tl 335 See also § 164. hut come. (§ 172. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK / (^.e. (') 181. § § also cf. the negative € there strengthened is was no one who : ovBels ivas not suffering something.) : yap hut nothing except. there is no one tvise. THE NEGATIVES 180. § 160 Note c.

how surely : in truth ? than. II. hence for. least. . . it pronunciation certainly/ ' ) The at any rate. the very one who. surely. 187. regularly emphasizes the . follows.€5 € WU. hack. For also. it expression which it . (for apa) sure. . 185. ticle . . .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 336 183. €. hoth . even. 186. indeed. 189. and. often repeated: or. . . For . . os only a strengthened form of ircos ! irov : . enclitic. and indeed. to best not to is by an emphatic .' un- derstand perfectly. . When word . if indeed. also certainly. how (why^ not ? truly. . . even. 184. again. ircus ircos 'yap) hut indeed^ ydp) aye surely. what (or ) Questions are often l>egun with . or do . again. . so f . it to reproduce its force €6 : regularly emphasizes the It etc. turn iyi always post-positive. el is T€ So emphasizing par- (y'j a post-positive. (for .. always -/e (or post-positive. . . in turn. at : translate not not is it of course. pray? 188. wahrP nicht € word In . means or . see § 195. and. but € many instances €€ I. . for truly. . . . \ . particle is a post-positive parti- which regularly emphasizes the word it follows where? where pray? what? cle . either or. always post-positive. . : you not know? see § ITS. . hack again.. also. (or hut surely (§ 181}.

the not follow. . | the article in the not. ' in the right {hand) .. while. Sometimes the clause or phrase for which conjunction (a weak ' and or ' is ' calls does frequently employed as a but ') when no -clause may be followed by more regularly stand between Both and and its noun. on the other hand. or clause which is Thus to follow. § 190. etc. . but. € . . etc. § 196. Furthermore. clause or phrase in which . Moreover. to balance that with second word). 175 although. phrase. you have a friend. . in the d. . this answering phrase or clause regularly contains in the same position as that occupied by \i4v in the first phrase or clause (regularly the word. but some- is may it be rendered on the one hand. precedes. ivhereas. ' teaches.€ particles .. times usually not translatable. . one of the most characteristic is in classical Greek. is often be omitted. 337 same way as. the to In translation left. is a post-positive conjunction. yet. I too. etc. it and indicates that the stands preceding clause or phrase containing it may coordinate with a . while. and . . a preposition and its case. and. . etc. and § 184. ?. ' may be rendered be sure. than one : speak Greek. you do not. yet.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK precedes . It is always post-positive (§ 182) and is used to distinguish the word or phrase or clause with or in which it stands from a word. conversely. : in particular also. but sometimes and. always calls for a which it is itself connected. I have teacher pupil learns. . .

(§ 178. therefore. the other is not. always post-positive. ivhat then ? of course.. ' € € . . . which in writing. . . verily . both (the ancient Greek € often stands at a ^. =Lat. enclitic particle. . «€ and. € . it € . II). always postany rate. irtp. . 193. I know. . was saying). just as. . . . . an intensive. . often written with an accent €. . €€ € ' whether . . . . . ov truly. attached to the emphasizes : eiircp T€ and. . the very if indeed. not therefore? noiv (as I ' positive. considerable distance from the second tc (or -€ often 175 d). . I do others not knoiv. and . as in pronunciation. or.. oii ' 192. 191. indeed. In this usage the article retains its original demonstrative force (§ 103). . . €. 191. even as. . oi shows a marked tendency to be the second word in its group met both Hippothales the son of Hieronymus and Ctesippus. . some the one is learning. oxiv at . ' some things . others. it : €LT€ . b hi the one : . i. see the end of Lesson XXXV. / and you The /"')• tirst €..kv and hi are frequently employed with forms of the article Avithout an accompanying noun. therefore not. and the forms ol are accordingly . nor. 195. yet yet. the other. and further. . For other examples. . surely not. whosoever..e. verily. . .. . neither .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 338 . . never said ''you and € . . . Kaiirep although (§ que. is word one who.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 196. say.). § 172. as. II. a negative to precede the word emphasizes. inasmuch as. ? 5 enclitic surel•/. TOi surely. c. as though to receive. g. EQUALS be : and added. quam €0 tt€VT€ about five. when. § a. There are many uses: that. § 151. So and if to EQUALS sums are equal. a) Comparative and however. the adjective shows a marked tendency to follow its noun. : in the the mind is thought. ful! post-positive. and post-positive) and 197. therefore. the \vord . = '. first. = = € 130 to. there it is a far greater freedom or elasticity in the arrangement of words in Greek than in any of the less highly inflected There are many disturbing elements.g. infinitive. OEDER OF WORDS 198. II order that. in 147 as. the new. the . €' word was GOD. but in languages. : Final many speak. : Temporal c) : d) Declarative f) Consecutive: : how beauti- that.-. § 170. proclitic. 339 § with the a. g) Prepositional: €|€ f. that. takes precedence the that . Thus containing -. although there is one is a certain normal order for many of the parts of speech {e. doubtless. etc. e) the as as beautiful as possible. . eiireiv so to as. so that.sequence expressed . yet. §§ 179. hence the emphatic. for. . idea. § 175 b) Causal (usually - ol : celerrime. general word-sequence follows which uppermost is in the sentence €. § 147 160 a. The subject of the order of vi^ords in Greek of very great importance.

.

All masculine and neuter nouns of the second declension and all feminine nouns of the first declension are printed without the article all . a Prin. etc. Eng. town) vessel (jar. nouns. pounded with it. as well as some of very frequent occurrence. pronouns. pts. ager. message. . -? () -€ € assembly. but with each there is a meanings and uses are Following each preposition are given 1) the verbs comexplained. a struggle. Moreover. lead. to the cultivated fields. too much. adjectives. very much. other nouns have the gender indicated. L. in which its slightly disturbed in order to bring into juxta- words which belong Sometimes these are placed under together. . . and 2) the compound nouns. tions reference to the section in Part the alphabetical order position is at length. a root {e. there being instead a reference to the lesson in which these have been presented. hring to- market-place. cof- hear nounce. see good. Less. ayep- The principal parts of verbs are usually omitted. contest. country pi. ? € € messenger. etc. As a result the arrangement of the words in the first part of the vocabulary is not strictly alphabetical. -? () ornament. too. urn. words which are for all first the second part. and are ade- of rare occurrence in the lessons quately explained in the word-lists or the notes are omitted. See § 47 . hunting-expedition. Neither of these is complete. Less. a. gather. . €( Prin. in other instances a type-word heads the group. $ fer. etc. and adverbs.. In cases of extreme displacement cross-references are given. like and particles are not treated . of which the the proper names and proper adjectives.v. -5 () a place of contest. adjectives. agony. preposi- vaC. gether. hring home a wife for oneself (or for another).VOCABULARY The following vocabulary contains the common is divided into tvro parts. 341 an- Lat. acre. see os. -- s. pts. field. chest. Cf (opp. market. statue. In many other instances. II.g. -). and KaXos. xvithout weight (^). €- message. LVIII.).

saying (or contest (for a prize). point (of a spear.- § 181.) -?) a-8oXos -ov (Adv. report.. 6 ael who for im- -$ (). task. -5) €- a at. the other. respect. shame).- do lorong . -ov at the furthest point. (§ 42 (Lat. javelin. . -ov bear- away the prize. -ov impossible song. . . ing . to culminating point. II a. LXXIV.-ov in heaps. €. want of -ov (Adv. true. be at the highest hear. () athlete. unjust d-SiKeu -) {-$ a-SiKOS -ov -. - -' sicy. wrong. spirit. mic. 342 cL-Slkos . Past-Impf. 42. M. exact. . . -5 § point (of prosperity. sing. €£. ). in plenty. 117 a). in crowds. -^ most (Gen. - ill) -- (aldws awe. acme. -. Cf (. hit with dart. . -. ment. )€ common). § 178.-. « satis). blood. have enorigh of the to a taking. () truth. Prin. be captured (used as the pass. of. () seize. hut. LXXV. . deceit. to Prin. choice. outrage. oneself. or ) or P. pts. injure -8 €-5 - doing (). haematology. prize.-). of (.. (^ ) shameful. -€ () an-ae- for pts. take Prin. -< follow (Dat. hlame-worthy -ov sible (Ace). ait always. Cf. -- unwill- crowds. Less. . otherwise. Adv. disfigure. well (or discouraged. the heights. forever. -ov loithout respon- . dishonor. sense of hearing. the one for (Geu.. . spoken make LX. . food. under- outermost. . choose. LX. another (of many). enough in Cf. -9 . Lessons ) speak the truth. spirit. injustice. listen mortal. to be (p^s) exact. etc. without (). aim javelin. desires.. pts. act of hearing . etc. accurate. be ashamed. ) discourage- topmost. the cause. throw a javelin. . -^ - ether. see . without -- be ashamed the upper air. yet. -- the time being death. insult.). stand thoroughly. -ov garrulous. Less. -- -) -ov (for ing.

-irfCe» Less. over- offer. A. ignorance. undeserved. : § 145. set LXXVI. § 176. and Less. .-£. tvagon. c. words. carry make away -€. turn. in up. 343 €. § 115 h). vir. take up. § 124 a. sinful. see have no care for (Gen. failure. -£ --. -£KOS at the 130 b. 42. (r/) same turn hack. () -. hold out. carry carry away. . husband. to up and take less so verily. . 6$ tip. sin. LXXII. ' ---<(8. instead. -ov human. F. hi at at another time. fail. partly . man. another time (fire). tiirn ascribe. in return. again) LXXII. § 88. -. § 2. wait for. with appos. show forth.. -. endure. see -o-Ttts. partly. -. Semitic word.. exchange. re- throw. - manliness. appear. refer. {-). -. : of. go up. - upset. read. -ov unerring. again (with inten- -( -( - A. Less. take -. In comp. erring. time. in oppo- sition. - change. M. two). . refer. . aor. § 130. avSpos () man. - compel. 8 -8 () persuade. - be it. 6. err (§ 115 e). - both. §§ 175 . repay (Ace). back. - up. «s open. hold up. and slavery. up. { '). : sive force) step up. up. LX. ovei) . human being (homo). necessity. € . . . etc.. M. . - - -os -ov loithout sickness. instead In comp. miss. - (recognize Less. & $ -€ one time See p. be led to the torture. chap. take captive § 128. . force. of with. ivind. () fox. = €. 2 a. - § 28 . blame- -ov unworthy. ment. LI II. . . Less. = § 194. each other. -01S -oDs at . . . Less.- - -5 (). --.) - each or both (of -ov Usu. Less. common two hold back. up. back. pi. . LXXIV. LXXII. F. both sides. ignorant -is . . . . on pi. Neiit. sell into the men's apart- Bopeas without. phrases. belonging to an- stranger.-ov other^ strange. north wind. -. fellow. against. . (A amen. carriage. Gen. -4 do in turn. error.

from. ^inharmed (). a|ios -a -ov worth. deal ') -- b.. in reply. {away Less. § ask in stand LXXII. Less. M. Less.-- be going away.(^\$ greediness -raros) behave simply. Less. Less. airas give back..--- 344 d|ios give in return. of frankly. went away. pletely surprised. tithe). (from). LIII.). M. -€ -€ . -€. make thorough of trial 82 B. fail. - worth. . . -ov. LXXIX. --. completely. shoic (forth). -- § -•7€ send Compound - step away. €. have or receive in full. -€ say in return. be from) show. point. from. A.-- pts. see oo-rrep ttirXois -- . per- lam lost. I. etc. value. ish. die. laid away. from. lose. am to. . -. vnthout harm. ^ : -\• Less. LIV. ar- undone. worthy of (Gen. reply. uncover. repay. -- = "rras. -€€ he piit aioay. - . -ovos . 124 Com- = single. . . back. answer. destroy. . LXXII. LIIL fail to hit. be destroyed. go aioay. and § 194. § Prin. G. -' -)- set free shut away Less. Less. (Dat. Aor. complain loudly. back. simjile (§ 41). - § 90. LIII. § 93.-. carry away. ap- LXXIV and titterly cow- ardly. 117 a).ktov- trick.-- -'- kill {kt€V. throio away.). In comp. Less. once. -T)'ei he v:as going aioay -. -----. sound turn. drive away.{ be away. shut out. § 88. stand away from. give a tenth of (as a make one stand aioay from. come from (a place) -rive. look tou-ard. ---F. (). . § 79. issue. jjoint -- LXV. -• ••€• threaten boast.). threat. sell. away from. carry pay (tribute.-- -' : result. against. -' -).disobey (Dat.-- lose.{ keep away from. -£ -€ . A. Less. pay. M. otit. deceit. LII.

-- II. Pf. goodness. €. 1 gastronomer. pleasing. etc. silver mines (sc. Compound Nouns. M. a -€ <---- ago. - -ov inextinguishable. . . sufficient. ride pass. beginning. he without a way. -€ - § 182. lives near one's () city. archon. from dice knuckle- bones). a way. § 178.-ov -ov imexpected. ment. off. builder. superl. satisfied. one loho neighbor.. €05 . . J excellence. € ) --. . toion. -€5 () . gladly.-? then. £08 . F. "^ play with dice.- accepta- ble. () ruler. of <o-voC skilled in as- tronomy. just. sovereignty.. turus. II. sable. - - -£ () . lay hold idle. revolt. -ov glad. money. unexpectedly. moment office.- (€ on the left side. pi. . . (un)dressing- -€5 () an uncover- ' apKTos (v) bear. begin. -"(-88 . -9 and Less. gasp. satisfy. greet. ansvjer. pant. rule. gleaming. Up. F. harpy. LXXII. of. set Cf. just now. § 115 g). cling to (§ 115 c). impas- -iropos -ov toithout it Arc- arctic. architect. silver. -' () a bright star {cf. lazy. - -ov best . . - €- (§41) of silver. pleases me. carry senger - Cf. a writing off. please. -5 mes- be at a loss. -(8(-). usually with -- the force of the adverb. apio-Tos rob- begin. astronomy. () snatch off. an -? --. apKeVb) loard enough. ing. on fire. / room. aristocracy. the left hand -Tcpas xeipos €| 8. to.: 345 d-TTopos § 87. () chief- (Gen. city (§ 36). .-? toIs content be refuse. the stars). to deal with. £ () a plunderer. deny. a seising. vertebra made --(orig. . a a small coin. () frag- one who hard -- is sent. virtue. fasten be etc. on the Cf. -'•£ F. - welcome. am register. -(. ber. . left.-•- (sc. M. ancient. be strong loith one''s blessings. census. xeip).

one's purpose. cious. ). (arroio. Prin. (/3a-). hit. look. ) (. harm. pts. free 5 €5 -. throiB - security. an- noyed. again. liveli- Pf. harm. . ugly. manner of life. go. rule (§ to-morrow. ) bar- foreign. $ king. Hog)..-9 (^?) --- -4s (). the living. morrow. Adv. § 183. (to) burden. a touch-stone. § (-wrepos down by Tos) iceighed ture. of eat (-.-).-. deep LXXII hood. vexed. are since^ § 175 LX pts. step. .- 44 ill-luck. fut. back again. ... the lyre. it is ov - not meet to . (cf. baric. from scot-free. § 28. at. dart. ungra- 8 - test. --€ . - Pf. hand - ) = (. . Less. ^] Less I stand to be lived. unpleasant. . mischief. (-). . Le. () in turn. - self. foreign. () murderer. make unseen heaviness. 7iot € - accomplishing icithout plete. § kingly. Lat. icalk. pass. Prin. (sc. LXI. firm. §44. court. (/SeX- - but. pass. tor- stone. 47 palace. '- missile See etc. incom- -i's at. -<ra queen. -€9 - e.-. § 183. - withoiit Cf. Is immediately. Prin. royal. -9 - -$ speechless. one who commits a deed with his oion court-yard. -<ci>s rub upon the touch- () see out grace. of «. -- go. 071 the () -- (6$). pts. (17) stability. diphthong. {-). aor. misshapen. infiu.SS. () -. pts. hurt. () = -- kingdom. meat). () loith- - be king. live.. speech.. heavy. -tax. better. 05 . § 106. safe. -.). -. . to trip -5- ^ 346 not liable throw. icithout form (). Greek. Less. .harmful. -. morrow. be burdened. troublesomeness. LX. best. dishonor Prin. living. pass. see. torture. without an end. test. nevertheless.

--. pts.ya-). § 185. resolve = LXVII. (yvd. . Poetic mortal {-). the elders. also oneself (or one's child) in marriage. Gen. yvoiT}v. § 44. -. ptc. -. slow). coun- determination. old . for a short time. '. 7<) (or gence. naked. Pf. brief. ) {ye tongue. writings. geometry. (Infin. -- take counsel xoith oneself. (o2) sllOUt. § 35. wi^.yv).'. speech. () (. (jyev- () picture.- cowherd.training. Voc. birth. yvCodi. . draw. de- Mid.($. the north wind. a land-measurer. man. come gxiage. (). horn. Less. noble. hy birth. rate. Less. the epistle. ' €. . pts. alphabet). -. any knee. thought. yvQ)vai. lightly clad. § 39. aor. --- wed'ding. : give (of § 184. cow. race. ten character. marriage. x>aint. §186. LXXV. (17) oiol. loiter delay. geometer. . Mid. A. Less. Gen. of old age (yipwv). race. sloio. marry. shout. --« €'^. Frill.). () woman. () earth. Prin. angle. letter. book. by race.() - write. laugh. deliberate. Dat.). . exercise. pts. etc. intelli- {y. herdsman. Boreas. judgment. groio old. he - see - scratch.{ . . yeyovos -via -os). Prin. letters . to knoio. sel. take counsel. a writ- PI. (. Pts. ox-Stall. -ov (yevvaiorepos -6- Tos) well-horn. . .() see ) ox. yov. . be willing.-) . . skilled in gym- nastid exercises. wish. corner. see () Gen.• Prin. Part. recognize. . .€- see 347 * when called) aid.. be full of (Geu. ''. family. {tor y - unarmed. § 38. Adv. . at least. . assist (Dat. altar. LX become. G6n. 7^01^5). also a lesson. at lan- . he will.-- liberate. . LXX. etc. § 28 D. PI. a school for gymnastic -?1 . -€ - (). family. ( Less.

'. need (Gen.cowardly. request. skilled. that which is need. etc. ?. LXXV. distinguish. out.. () - belonging to the clearly. . thoroughly.). -6 -€€$.: 348 8 () -ovos () -ovos guest. next.-?. . €€ skilled in speaking.«. --- -€€- -«€ show - succeed in -- -- carry through. dispose. by chance. desire . part. § 187. dinner.-« destroy pass. lack.ss. stealing. -ovtos needful. (or tico). etc. arrange. ten. carry. heg. . . '€€9 clear. through. -U.). € . destroy. of course. (it).?- divinity. § 83. aor. pass. fearing. keep alive by stealth. (Dat. . LXXIV and point pts. € . wonderful.-. (') through. § 127. § 90. Less. show.). differ.. Prin. . receive. clear. spirit. § 190. £-8 - state. €. pts. differ from utterly. arrest. lord.€ . Prin. tenth. part. -€.- - people or €€.- public.- - - directions. hr[\Lo<i exj)ense. ten years old. decide. - loeep. ivos certainly. Le. (to) Mid. -oraros. con- -€- (one) must converse. -« seize. ' o5v. complain loudly. pts. § 187. (Gen.- ought one need. -«s - slander.: I.-. €. Pf. (or devrepa) then. Voc. dissolve. break up. aevae. A. coioardice. €68 . LX.make publicly. exchange.). terrible. Less. See LXVIII. traduce. is (Infin. use up. country. 6€ -. Less. deivws) - -. Past-Impf. vos accused by a daughter. Compound Verbs : throio across. indifferent (-orepoi. In comp. -|« -|a appoint. people. -€€\ 6 second. § 193. bursting into tears. master. hither. dine.). : (Gen. district. Adv. hind.verse xoith ) '? €• Prin. (or twenty lacking one there € far from almost.

. SkSdo-Ko) power. Ace. § 23. etc.. if. () band. shaft. satisfaction. Dat. () § 89. -(-. nation.. § 130). (to). LXXIX. gift. -. 50 C). Verbal allow. tell. subj. . give. § 177. . - aor. ought (^). of aor. .be willing. See Less. seem. loish. 8-« Less. able. of -opilm separate.! -€. if not. II. . punishment. § 91. freely. LXXIV. 8((>. define. you are opinion. re- tolcl. . etc. as adv. Compound Nouns. . -- : aor. fore. oh that liken. = : for the reason that ceive ) . teach. about Less. pts. () whether. or. lohere- mode of life. (- destruction . § 21 b. spear-bearer. - LXVII. . . - (). - lodg- of himself . SiaKOcrioi -ai -a Prin. spear. ' ---. § 80. . teacher. . ' . . he be able. -« -- narrate. . - ing. '. (17) -'€ Less. . hoard and etc. him. describe. - ( (Gen... ?). do. of trial. part. right. twelve. see . powerful. 162) aor. § 88. right for me to twice. to receive . give. that! . txoenty thousand. (§§ 153. to re- - (-orepos ^ ----- just. lawsuit. see -. Gen. think. See . imagine. two. two hundred. el whether . § 39. aor. of notable. cli- vide into parts. . . of Si - 349 e -€-€ go -. think.-- guess. € - near (Gen. of honest. {--€) -£|-€ . xtenalty. slave. aor. justice. See to give. it is -(). seventy. custom.-• (out) through. see (§§ 05. suppose. if. compare. -4. see = -. pursue. it was necessary. Adv. aor. of justice. . 8). tribe. seven -. Justice. unless. be XXI. of aor. lated.

lead out. urns -- etc. do wrong. F. expose. () a putting posure. -(() in. show. in : €•-€. pxit out. going. see cto of infin.). €( tip.) be {it) fulfilled. strike out. In comp. re- -.-. you xorought. -.twentieth € see LXXIV. -era ^'. (i. likely. --". throio § 93. aor. ^v one. . - clvai to be. pass. (or deceive utterly. is likely. A. . A. is it --' -. -•. uncover. (more going . § 91. '. «?i- javelins awaken. cIkos <!>s II. I am accus- ^) ont : of - aor. look upon. -. come . garment.-. completely. § 95. -' . selection. into. ) tomed eK (before a vowel.e. also Infin. Compound Nouns. -fj. pass. 1€ exposed. if really. € . awoke. : child. lie § 194. I said. into. image. Less. past-impf. -€8 lead out.- etc. it is examine. of permitted. § 94. empty. e|- astonished. € carry out. of -<. In § 126.) things the |. aor. next. -. at --- (Ace). A. €•05 . it is of a river. of. common in. LIU. out from. of €<-€ he entered. A. bring . err. fut. elxov. of (part. ^s) comp. of oiSa. () -aros I am €( he. choice. discover. send out. view. ex- . to.05 € €8 -OTOS () {) as likelihood. part. € () likeness. -.. els aor.-| that away.---' --- dress. rear. go (-^. -ovos : throio out. of look into. peace. -.-' -. to. -{- -). or therefore). . expel. of. § 124. -« -- 350 «Ikos Compound Verbs I. test.) miss. aor. etc. see from. Less. out. in. subj. reveal. : nonnce. I have said. find out. '-8 --? - - etc.(. (aor. § 93. not possible. e'er then . have been said. (-idys -€. go out. €-> = take utterly enslave. succeed ceive (ef/cotri). to.

it is likely. -. $) command (-\). -€€ each (of two).).). within (Gen. comp. § 25. six. there. believe. -is clear. next. since. .- -. my. at home. subj. -.). eviavTos year. -. display oneself. here.(8 -€€ cKaTcpos 351 from €- -- that (one). tionally. display. where^ ««€-€£ see see A. among. A-. cXcvOcpos -) ev 48. at. fvL). iv-xiirvtov 'iv dream (inrvos). '^. fit ^ Past-Iinpf. expectation. CKctOev €6(. whenever. § 23. in the presence here. Compound Nouns. «- (-orepos etc.) for a freeman. fall In «-•-. en- put on. « see £K. he. 'ivtKa iV€K€v -? of myself. of (Gen. in this case. (part. opposite. § 125.- in the rational. . draio. command. thence.). see have iirei lohen. «. - «'- -. § 130. in. yonder. €-$ sixteen (^0• €-> see ( inten- willingly.- earlier of.. ter into. . « front thence. - within. sixty. refute. convict. § 130. there. see - etc. drag. ip-) Aor. on. - sand. henceforth. cherish. {ivos.€. . eiraOov. in. '.). for the sake of. it is like. -. -ovos sensible. on within. - ' .: €€§ . least. free. each (of many). hither. enjoin. --) -- £-€ in. (= iv II. in a row. expect. 7 of (Gen.. mine. comp. she. §§ 47 -| ?. on aC' count of (Gen. there.-€• . (also TO ivTeOOev) hence. Compound Verbs throw in.). festival. toay. €- hope. etc. iv (in I. Past-Impf. : €£ outside upon. etc. cross-question. holiday. see tls. unrestrained. sixth. tv less. also ^7-. iv. here. - «. €€5 . €5 . theretipon. €v-TOs this side of (Gen. six thou- .iKtlv () i\iris -iSos see « . Gen. e/-. there. fall €() € . €<08 . there. thereupon. hope. . : ) (Gen.

§ 129 b. suitable. of . Past-Impf. HTTos come see. -. meet with (Dat. : toioards. . •-•7€. •-€ into being after.). profession. ---. of () -ov belonging to the folloio (Dat. master. -. etc. fault find (with).). - eir-aivos praise. the commands. -8€. come in (in addi- -. attempt. . lover. receive (Gen. §177. praise. () etc. 352 In comp. bring to completion. come to town. Past-Impf. come come upon. ). observe. then. over. view. -. ser- viceable (deriv. obscure). obtain. as time passed. -« Compound Verbs A. -o«s (to) word. hut. return. -€\ - pf. --) () overseer. -'2 . an end. desire (Gen. hear (Gen. -•- over) middle part. to -ov (-orepos -ototos. tcith -•( understand. blame. -aTos •7-5 - () -yov set foot mount upon (Gen.- «iri- -' Past-Impf.€€ see ') (iir'.). desire. -. bliy. - -. towards. etc. -Tpoiros trustee. for (Gen. aor. () : promise. on. . -. of summon. ---. of close a slam. etc. -( --» -< -< listen country. §88.<8 . fat. ---' «.-. --5 «--. vated fields. chief. deed. Compound Nouns. aor. €-£ display. - brought - place Upon.). 7. €€ -8 () cattle-shed. to over- II. -.: €€•. see command. administrator. §80. ask. aor.--. call.). tion to). I. etc.). Aor. upon. against. admirer. -•<. on. aor. -. . love passionately. -. slay upon.-• be in - - ---€ -. Adv. of to. potir a libation upon. -Tpi'irw Verbal : entrust to (Dat. . -( '5 --A. infin. town. thereupon. €-. verse. a dream appeared - «ir- upon (or or place set him.). visit. go back. of to.--. have charge care of. work. see culti- . --.

of. « . garment. pf. eat €(€. CTaipos is satisfied. -«- "? - cpcoTiKOs - (Adv. deem happy. see -. -ovos blessed a good genius. fut. ! Gen. renown. (Dat. ().e. of sexual passion). well done. { €' «- cvpov €- £ (-). Less. €-8 cottieniiOMs. -ov -«Tos (0) love (esp. comZeus who presides over fellowship. good wool. happy. pts. « '. eii-iropos -ov pass. of pf. -ov.-6 was come. £« €€ sumptuously straight line CTaipcios -a -ov pertaining to see easy €-€ -•« (iOvs not a lawful wife). () €<8 -? {) -? -5 () €-€5 Prin. of cpia - €- -ov {-orepos -oraros) desolate.-. €( €•• -. happiness. of Prin. () (V well. tertain () comrade. iTos -ovs (to) year. of a-rtpiu» de- pass. furthermore. etc. find a ivay. €-( strife. a question. straight road (66). having a goodrepute. (. «T. straightioay. « (- a questioning. deserted. able (to do). . amoI € LIV. famous. -ov well-made be -- be for- (). of two. F. LXI. (07€. be having a beautiful -€'s clothing.). . readiness. £((. pray. (Dat. be happy. - see €< = eat. €€. tented with one's food prive of. ei)-KO\ajs) full of resources. Ziiis calm. preparedness. ^Tcpos see - -ov one other. see itri. -•« €-8 to pass through . pts. €-u-Ko\os -ov -arcs -wraros) (-urepos appearance. -€-€ €-. said. the prayer. . -tDs) erotic. -with gen. (Adv. § 130). -- famous. rich. passionately desire. ask (a question). € -(). . wiith pass. Less. -«tos. (§ 91). '£(). still. forms of €-«. a woman who panions. within (§ 130). epis -iSos (17) ipois - 353 « find. of fut. eunuch. 6. () companion (i.). con- (). «. pray to . c'ri -ov ready.thank tunate en- (straight) ioioard (Gen. aor. be esteemed. <-. () straight. gfo. () Love. -. pf• (§ 87). be p)rosperous . . roris. praise. ( {5 shall say. ..

-ous I. in o's) (. ws just as he loas in wrath without de- (i. every on each - . high esteem. F. - suppose. I have seen <() (). $9). (infin. already €() life. by no § 93). either §§ 178. II.our.. €v . vie loith. LVI. lay). --'€ (§ 96). delight oneself icith. £5 lead I. € / suppose. -- have. see have in mind.) leader in something (Gen. who paints from €€ (to) yoke or team (of mules.-ous of. Aor. it § 93). of hostile. (Past-Impf. . / am being dis- loell. pleasure. take pleas- so long as (see § 170). «* heed. age. ' . or. § 184.). deem happy. {. ) one of the same age. etc. I went be young €< eJxov) (. get. . sweet. each twice a day. . . youth). lohich place. II . -. hold in Adv. or. pitality. -. . (.. at one''s hearth. day. forthwith. seek. ijdews) pleasant. a hnlf-mina - half. in- tend. -. . truly.. .e.« 354 «-. . lead he paid no I cannot €€ tell. £. half (an insep. ( /5. iois until. € by this time. . - § 47 . think. prime of life. € J5ar(?0n. companion. - hold. is well. couraged. with pleasure. sit day. €€ (v €€ it is « «£€ so. ) « '« ' ? part.tame. ^. he jeal- day. rivalry. I said . c. () comrade. means! past-impf.). - and he loent least. Zeus who presides over hos- 1] « (fem. xire painter. -(8 see . = (= semi). (infin. €' yoke-strap. surely. ') the loay. day.. in which loay. 188. of have come. be of age. than. they allow life. (. live. -- - in (Dat. II. emulation. be one''s (Dat. See § 178. Less. animal. lohere. Adv. -- stupid. (). one § 179. A.). prefix. -tia = «. dat. (Ace). - {).

S

-

355

Itoas (€£>, § 91).

()

-8

harness-maker''

driver

().

See

§ 170.

€,

and

see

choose.

see

Less.

see

'-

-

€$

(), 1.
they went
they were

,
48).

either

.

.

none

aor.

, --.

,

,

be

{-% -)

-€

in-

a hunting of wild beasts;

- -'

?

'•€ =
--

().
, ,
,
-

boil.

)

fut. of

sea.

0-€.

(door-stotte),

Aor.

.

door-keeper

-- -<ra

bury.

--

imperative of

--

gaze

sur-

Prin.

pts.

view.

LXV.
see

-

ISiiv,

§ 88.

oblong

().

sacrifice, offer sac-

-<ra flatter.

()

LX.

.

at,

be

loonder,

an

rifice.

be of good cheer.
Less.

daughter.

shield.

death.

!

PL

door.

-- put

take courage

Dat.

hair.

()

by sea.



,

-Keiv.

mortal

{). Gen.

death.

€, €8,

()

(), and

Gen.

treasure, treasure-chamber,

chamber, store-room.

Less.

he ran

'IQti

() huntsman.

•€, aor. of

prised.

().

run.

prey.

sou7id, ring, peal.

€^

take

fested with wild beasts.

see

=

court,

=

the less.

(Gen.),

than

serve,

treat medically.

of,

wild animal, beast.

pass, of

worsted.

(or

care

a viewing, contemplation.

less (§§ 47

oihkv

€€ -€€
6€,
(~
servant.

-- view, contemplate.

or.

.

an attendant,

()

€€€ ().

().

Gen.

see

-ovTos

-).

9).

§

(et>i, § 91).

weaker

be

.

€€.

one should place

stillness, quiet.

-ov,

.

I

divine.

F.

warrior., hero.

{,

WrtS pZefflSed!

...


€,
, €,

€7

§ 194.

aor. pass, of

LIV.

by the gods

€5

see

€..
,
,
,
8
€,

Voc.

god, goddess.

-ov fighting against God.

shop.

tohen.

)

(,

irpos

reins.

18,
!

see

breast-plate.

,.

behold

t

--

ItSios

()

356

,

one''s

<$

Uvai

an atokward fellou\

;

going

to he

{,

Upov

()

Upa

()

holy place.

temple,

§175d).
and

UpEia priestess.

-

§ 93).

(Adv.

See

)- ( .
-

§ 171.

$)

gracious

impv.

pass.

!

bad,

suffi-

<

ap-

-ov

worthless,

of

) horse, mare.
-' () horseman.

(,

I'lriros

-

§ 160.

-5-, -,
lir-n-evs

•<
<<

-

equally

;

equal.

8,

-,

Adv.

-

lohich

- -()
-

--

(,

=

.

strength.

-

see

pej-tain

)

camel.

=

basket.

( ')

§

or

29 C.

down, doion from,

against, according

purify.

a,

vep).

.

heart.

-oraros)

§ 93.

(,

the

gen-

beauty.

-

to,

I.

etc.

In

comp.
down, against, etc.
often merely intensive. § 127 b.
In Compound Verbs
come down.
he ended by
:

just as

to

conceal.

.
()

(-orepoj

strong.

£ (>,

-

qualities

labor, be loeary, suffer.

be strong.

-

tisually

the

tleman.

make a thing stand.
LXXII.
they made me king.

loom, etc.

()

noble.

well,

well-born and well-bred,

loTOs anything set upright; mast,

t<rxis -vos

LX.

beautiful,

possessing

perhaps, probably.

See Less.

-

most nobly,
see

§9.
-os

( ?,ill.

/ am

groom.

-<(),

doing harm (pepy-).

?)

Adv.

ill.

worse.

Prin. pts. Less.

call.

See

in order that.

it is

do

yearning, desire.

Adv.

craven,

ill-born,

I am

a late aor.

pease.

€$

kindle, burn.

LXX.

Less.

cient, able, worthy.

be

§ 196.

-

and

Less. LXIII.

- !

-

§194.
yet.

of time, opportunity.

Upctov animal for sacrifice.

come

§ 189.

due measure, the right point

itpivs -t(os (0) priest.

see

purification.

-ov purifying.

although (reg. with part.,

offerings.

, -.
(,

()

-€«s

and, even, also.

93).

§

Upos -a -ov divine, holy.

clean, clear, free

from pollution.

one

;

loho has no professional knowl-

edge

-

-

private.

private citizen

;

:

-

-

-8

.

beseeching,

go (or come) down,

thrown doion, put down,
render judgment against

(gen. of the person

ace. of

;

the penalty).


-

--.
-

suppose, guess.

=

poetic,

pass.

Pf.

cover up.

-

-€
-8

pity.

Less. LXIII.

doion.

sit

--

-€8<

-$

II.

asleep.

lie

Compound Nouns,

etc.

through.

sleep

).

Opposite (Gen. §130).

dowmoards, beneath, in
Kol

§ 97

leave, leave

break down, put

dissolve, end, etc.

yoke,

€£ -- - --<ra

hence

lodge,

-ovs

()

be

a

make

head.

-5 ()

-<ra

-( -,

-

Pf. pass,

-'--

---

turn down, overturn, sub-

-- --

dare, take a

hence

risk,

it

possibly.

weeping, wailing

due.

put down.

§ 88.

-- -€<
--

despise

(Gen.

116 h).

(older

hear and obey, overhear (Gen.).

-€. -- -{achieve.

Impf.

-€, .

form

'()
- ()€£XLVIII.

is likely,

().

/cXt/'w)

^-

(eKXrjo-a) shut.

report,

--

use up, destroy.

-€|,

().

danger, risk.

observe care-

fully, consider.

herald.

one loho plays and sings

to the lyre

curately), perceive.

-€ --

occupy.

gain,

profit.

learn thoroughly, observe {ac-

--'-

urge, com-

gain, profit.

un-

;

guest.

§

-€,.

see

mand.

-

-<

down,

;

see

seize upon, catch, find.

behind.

the

world below.
lie.

-€ -

(-

spy, inspector

).
=;

fell asleep.

:

-ov ridiculous {ye-

- -- - €, ..
€€ €
- -- - €
§ 97.

doxon.

lie

re-

LXI.

Less.

turn.

scatter (seed, etc.).

-,

-

he ended

by saying.

--,

-

357

fame, glory.

inherit.

,().

lean.

Less.

couch, bed.

Gen.

-

hold down, restrain,

- shared

()
in

the State,

mon.

thief

common,
in

com-

$
€-

(5

-

in disorder.

-- -- order, arrange,

escape one^s notice.

strength, power,

(to)

have poicer, be master of (Gen. § Hog).
(), PI.
(), Gen.

€€
flesh, meat.

.

§ 47

better.

-

knock.

()

acquire,

-

come

Prin.

-

()

to

pts.

()

lion.

?)

much, too much.
(Adv.
perse-

-<

vering, earnest.

()

pilot.

in a circle.

circle,

(, ) dog, bitch.
pack of hounds, ken-

(--).
- -ov having authority

;

wolf.

--

mas-

distress, grieve.

Pass.

be grieved.

mistress.

-

(-).

pain, grief.

lyre.

sheepskin, fleece.

-- -•

Poetic

beseech.

entreaty, prayer.

nel

ter,

()

-

possessiOJi,

rest,

henceforth.

very, very

property.

Gen.

remnant.
remaining, the

-

hidden, secret.

possess.

collect.

leave.

conceal.

LXXIV.

,€-

reckon-

- ---€ - £€
-and

distinguish, de-

-- -- Strike,

)€8

reason,

account,

report,

tale,

ing.

cide, judge.

Less.

Speak well of one.
word,
sjjeech,

.

say.

tell,

--

possess,

§ 170, 2 c.

see

rule.

----

Less.

-,
-.
,
-- .
LVI.

fem. of

deck, adorn.
-ovs

$

358

ornament, universe.

order,

lamp.

--

prevent.

loose.

§ 79.

village.

-

-

dull,

dumb, deaf, deaf

«
, -€
-

obtain by

lot,

obtain

(- -).

Ace.

()

Less.

-

(-orepos

bright, brilliant

see § 113 g.

-€

()

hare.

grasp, receive.

,

-

and dumb.

LX.
-oraros)

lesson.

act of learning.

pupil.

learn.

take,

().

()
()

§

84 and Less.

LIII.

-

-ov blessed, happy.

my friend.

- deem

happy.

»

$

359


,

-

by

long, far.

far.

from

afar, afar.

more,

very,

and

most, especially,

...

certainly

!

-

rather than,

much

as

as

possible.

3().
-8

,

$

()

mad

be

rage,

-

()

one

call

-5 ()

''

see §§ 190, 191.

8

however.

siirely,

loait,

() part.
- - middle, medium,

?

midnight.

middle

to witness.

in

life.

whip, flog.
xmthout rea-

(),

mid-day

south.

- - filled

- -.
with, laden with

§ 117).

comp.

with,

share

:

change

one''s

In

after.

with,

§ 129

differently.

goad, whip.

the

midst.

()

loitness.

§ 196.

await.

-ovs

(Gen.

seer.

oracular response.

Gen.

,

after,

c.

mind, repent.

-.
^ ' €€
.
.. €€8
-,

-,
-(
$ (
' 8
in vain,

idly,

son.

-

give a share of, share.

Verbal

§ 89.

§ 45.

large.

and

Adv.

greatly.

Comp.

Super.

€-

-Otis,

lad.

-

have a share

dark, black.

aor. part,

certain, be destined) to do (In-

limb by

limb.

from) limb.

()

song,

tune,

often witli a part.

these things are
yoti

).

see Less.

my

have

not, see §§ 144, 180, 178 II
§ 160 c.

unless,

;

lest,

,

§ 159.
§ 67.

blame

against

;

XXXVII.

object of care,

.
-{

(Pf.

for the better.
between (Gen.), meanwhile;

lyric

lyric poet.

a care for this.
remember.

§ 87.

part.) fortxine being changed

verse.

care,

let

§ 98.

change.

-? ()

tive

re-

of.

of

loose, give up.

fin.).

an

§ 88.

change,

:

tract.

intend {be about, be

-oDs

after,

transpose, change.

Mid.

smile.

be

se7ld

summon.

§47.

'$

:

see

Impera-

(rivi),

charge

by no means.
ing.

at

all.

§ 51.

no one, nothNeut. as adv. not

.

|

360

€•€

£'

,

longer.

€.

.

.

'-

manage; tend

never.

710

.

.

what

nor.

.

.

see

-$

month.

jealousy,

-8(

hate.

reward.

ire, loages,

laio.

c. 818).
§ 28 D.
remembrance.
-<rw remember, remind.
make mention ! imperawhich serves as
of

€€-€.
tive

aorist to

with

-yis

difficulty.,

reluctantly,

£

.

.

not only

.

-

.

.

hut

.

also.

fate,

doom, death.
sung

lyric poetry

music,

€--

.

- one

- ()

,€-€ €£
-a

recently married.

youth.

cloud.

island.

-- -• ,
()

ship, § 38.

§

vcKpos

()

%.

conquer.

-.

sickness.

29 C.

mind,

corpse.

see s.v.

()

•€ -- --

dead.

childhood.

icho has just

() islander.
{v^js () fasting).

sea-fight.

vcKpos

() one

() mind,

()

young, new,

from

(\( (-)).

see s.v.

-(-

I.

victory.

tale,

myth,

vavs, Gen.

§ 179

/asi

labor, be weary.

word, speech, proverb,
see § 178

the

-$. Adv.

and

()

to

literature, music, etc.

,

)
-

i-ites)

(

vea veov [veurepos

come

alone, only,

^
of

customary

the

fresh,

commit adultery.

-

ven-

use; acknowledge, believe in;

deem, regard, believe.

veov

adulterer.

-

of

observe as a custom, pjractise,

scarcely.

portion, fate.

teacher

«-

law.

() mina (=

=

distribution

anything assigned, hence,

custom,

§ 51.

-•

<€(>

()

pasture.

68 ()

els,

due, hence, righteous

geance.

sheep.

of

see § 192.

Gen.

is

indignation,

sheep.

€05 - -

,
,
,

tend flocks in pastures.

€€-5

not yet.

.

neither

.

^

flocks.

to

he

ill.

thought, purpose.

€'€

€v

have in

vovv in accordance

€ -- - loith (one's) wishes.

perceive,

think, suppose, plan.

€-

vvv

dis-

tribute, assign, dwell in, occupy,

.

now;
Gen.

just now.

()
midnight.

night.

€->

.

)0

361

|€vos

(^ -)

happiness,

^5

nected with another by
hospitality, hence,

ties of

guest

(less

«(> --

(

entertain as a guest.

-ows (to) sword.

5
€€8

mass, bulk.

'

§§ 24, 105, 110.

this.

way, road,
along
the road, on the loay.
oSovs, Gen.
() tooth.

()

happy, prosperous.

,,

deem happy.

€, §

?)

ola (see

know.

^ --

with partic,

§

175

e.

-ov pertaining

to

the

house, belonging to the family.

()

--

house-servant.
inhabit, dwell.

()

household,

house,

family.

() plural of oIkCov = oIkos.

-{ --aros

()

-

()

suppose.

-

skilled in

manthink,

§ 179, I a.

{

I

-

--

am

qualified,

am

.
-, -, .

one and the same.

(,

)

of the same

age.

- -ov like, similar,
manner, equally.

€€()

same, nevertheless.

dream.

gone.

()

reproach.

reproach, charge against

,
,,
one.

()

name, noun.

Aor. pass.

, <,-., €,
•€
name,

call.

see

in-

forms

direct

;

respectively
;

J

-€
-

how

of
;

that,

in order that.

§§ 148, 149, 160.
behind, after (Gen.)

back,

back

again,

after

(Gen.).

'-

see.

temper, mood, wrath, anger.

reach

after (Gen.).

see

have

Epic

in anger.

see

LXI.

(-).

adj.

roast.

as, lohat sort of.

able.

-,

-.

see

eye

(see ttcDs;) how, as,

estate, etc.

such

oios

(^).

household management.

aging an

olos

room, chamber.
administer a

manage

household,

116 b.

dream.

§ 95.

-a

(

()

all the

oIkos house, room, household.
oIkcios

-

before.

little

-ov short-lived.

in like

§ 21 b.

a

irpoTcpov

j^ain, grief.

whence.
ot to him.

bliss.

- -ov scant, few, small,

frequently host).

oSos

- -ov

Stranger, foreigner, one con-

See

Less.

-

-ov (Adv.

oxit,

)

straightforward, right.

reach

upright,

!

362

OpBpLOS

--

at day-break.

-

opKos oath.

-hasten; Mid.
-8 (, )

motion,

in

set

start, hasten.

opvls

cock,

bird,

boundary,

limit,

(0)

hen,

rule,

standard.

-'

'

opiKOs


8

and

-rrep

oo-Tis

•- -=

.

many

how

great

! etc.

see oo-tis.
§

21

,)
II,

,

late.

see

-,

see

irais.

Gen.

710

(-).

(,

as adverb.

j'lciy thing ,

child, boy,

from

no

one.,

-

educate.
child, baby.

chant the paean

noth-

(as adv.) not at all.

never yet.

),

honor

See

long ago.

--

vjith

(iraLUv,

paeans.

§ 134.

ancient.

back, again.

-ov neither.

§ 46.

(ert).

= \£.

cordingly, not then

game.

'play.

not, nor, not even.

longer

)

training, education.

not,

never.

vision

little

ovSeis

•7£
€€8 -

serpent.

boyhood.

by no means.

ing,

.

-€8 ()

XIX.

and

()

be borne, hence, ride.

no ! §§ 144,
180, and Lessons VI,

8€
178

eye.

see

girl; servant.

§ 27.

b.

lohere, gen. of

(,

see

see

, see <8.
of him.

ovtws

thus, so.

it is.

, ,.8 -.

whenever.

oTi that, because.

,,

§§ 25, 105,

in this respect,

-ovs (t6) advantage, profit.

ivhat-

loin, loins.

lohen.

nor.

- ,

,

o»|/is

how many

as,

()

-vos

this.

08 .
68
8,

-€

whoever,

as great as,

.

.

see

Gen.

see § 194.

oircp,

102.

until.

Is

.

153 b.

€8

§§ 24,

§§ 27, 178, la.

ever.

as

he.

.

§ 196.

owe.

§

quail.

which.

loho,

-

8
,8

of a mule.

-8 ()

-os

see § 193.

thus

--

OS

neither

meanwhile.

() mountain-animal,

-- fear, dread.

OS

not yet.

.

.

.

,
-, ((),

mxile.

i.e.

.

.

110.

opos -ovs (to) mountain.
opevs

.

never.

surely not.

etc.

opos


,

then, ac.

.

.

?

-, -,

see iras.

()

alongside,

In comp.
amiss.

§

:

beside,

129

d.

by,

near.

by, beyond,

LXVII. - survive. . 8. about.^ - by. of send. . iravToios -a -ov of every sort. trust in (Dat. proverb. -€5 () assembly -epos (ayep-). -. pts. 129 e.- -- obey (Dat. take not at 6 iropa- to. hold beside. put beside. Mid. § all. trust. go around. prepare. . throw altogether. five thousand. be present. iravTOs. iras 82 -- like. Gen. see see § 194. § 93. trance. stop / ). etc. § 96. one loho gave. § I.(^-. -ov parallel. throw beside. see in. take. escort. -? -? - try. to. fifty. : around. -. look at from . see -ov resembling. trial. - treat. In about. Compound Verbs lead around. be beside oneself.. I. full suit of armor. -8 -- Compound Nouns. irap-o8os § fut. \. - -oraros) (-orepos ----. . excel. make -. -ov titterly bad. call to one.) . -ov wholly wise.: : I. provide. cease. en- end.-- stiffer. every. II. of () poverty. certainly. - --. -$8. -. handle. . be at hand. -- ••(-5 -. II. attemj)t. comp. see -. pass p)ersuade . be at hand.-). -. -- XXIV.: -. pass. . trust - - see A.-. -. -.-( beside. the whole. •irCo-Tis -€8 () bring to one. the side. sit beside. § 91. -' -- Less. ? --' -- give over - -' down sit summon. faith. . around. altogether. -.-. II. observe. jwe- sent. Past-Irapf. -' all. surround. furnish. fut. 7€- remain Prin. 4. I. -- 363 iras irept Compound Verbs everywhere..• from another. over. in every way. pass to cease. -. the very. See Less. beside. bring to an side-entrance.']. Mid. exceeding. -. faithful. () mother of all. (. -.

other. Compound Nouns. at an- lohich XXII. . . way. . (- toil / § 130. fall. . bad. (of account - flock. at length. irXoCs (0) voyage. irXovTos wealth. . . loith. - times. make a some time. see <. . . much. --. ford. drink. £-. irXio) Superl. etc. at in the loorld ? 8' at whence? how? make. wallet. hostile. . about (with what. when? . adv. XLIII. - -d (to) multitude. J river. ' hoio . fight with. irov- sea. loalk about. . weigh dnion. one time - . -. () see •€<. . go. government. poet. be rich. 47 § citi- many. . -i's of what sort? loar.be at -- -- consider carefully. loandering. as = many mould. '. the evil one. for the most part. €. -. older. II. see Less. much-learning. lohither? I. quam maxime. . preserve. harsh. shape.-) why . overjoyed. street. badness. -rrpiap-UTcpos numerals). press. . see citizen. on which where? sonieiohere. --- Strike. See most. . citizenship. quantity.more «s irX€i<rTov Pf. eirXivcra sail. republic. much? ever. side? . () - do. 10 depraved. travels.-€. i-ich. () -- foot. § 45. hitter. Comp.€ " . «08. . except. ? Less. take of. . 29 C. once. PI. -- ' '7£ sharp. - - pertaining to zens. -. Gen. irio-Tus.-9. () irepi-XuTros -ov very sad. . § . - . -- ' . many-colored. much. -€ : city. . . speech. strait. gray. someI suppose. proceed. . . see gird (oneself) II. . political. () poem. two) iroiel- U.- . device. . loar. iToUa ) . •- . 364 ireaciv €-. see '€€8.(.

- see () be zealous -. besides. Adv. expose. assistant -is obei- attach to oneself. -^. -ov by the roots (pi^a. Compound Nouns. yet. do. to. irpo lead toward. sooner. expect. Past-Impf. and Less. beggar. propose. : to. Gen. : § to. I. -<« . thing. In --. see irpo (end). --(. -ov belong - -- sance stretch forth. -- - - place before. sooner. prior. (like a corpse) -. inquire. -- Compound Verbs §§ IGO b. before.:. eager. () come §97. (-. logue. before. be laid out lie jrray Past-Impf. -•€5 standing near('aa). wife asked before (he could speak). -arcs : Prin. in preference -» f comp.yov-). proposition irpOTcpos -a See '-- dear (-orepos Stretching (). Prin. J. » : . . pts.. (6) -irvpos oi ••••€ . irpoo•- irpOT€pos. 170. •-8 rare. go toward. in addition to. (to) irporepov be- his add furthermore. hold pay see -€. Trpo<r-€Ti -. hear. set forth. -€ tention. put (). II. she^therd. supplement (). see § %% (ro) I. 365 (-). beg 129 f. -'.). - () -ov first. -Oes. root). wpos toxoard. II irp£v 6e/ore. fore. choose {in preference). fare LX. be placed by. toward. -' honor. ? former. as adv. . learn by inquiry. send forth. -ov former. etc. 172. Compound Nouns. II. before. Less. present. with reference to. forth. never LXX. person (in a dia- •-- in front of (Gen. . toward. to. sheep -?• € make to. by. § 130). c. from - one. face. A. . Very to. F. not yet. ancestor (yev. A. yet. affair. In comp. oiSt• . do previously. pts. -' indicate in advance. value. to to. bring before one. first. -£ -€ § 124 d. zealous. () forward. Compound Verbs -'. event. the assigned task. to. formerly. ---$-) at- call to oneself. etc. assign etc. (-acTTepos -is : -) to. by. require besides. belong to. fire. --.

a reciter of epic poems. €-.<- -os pass. . be advantageous.o-KOT€ivos () -aTos .pu-)• () saying. 08 deprive clear. In loith. fully. army.ark. thoughtful. sign. consider. gather together. « § 87. ( -5 () mouth. yours. feet)). -is £€ -. §41. dark. I. by chance. iro7i. temper. Prin.). 600 Gk. -- ( -(? () -aros Semitic indicate by a XLVIII. -ovs strength. -arcs . bring together. m. stage-building. see eral of (Gen. € 05 ' silence. sign. (. shadow.e. €05 . phrase. be gen- be soldier. earnestly. be useful. sell. de- breast. collect. ? (Adv. Compound Verbs - A. of. spy - general () scene. pjletely. Less. -ovs (to) darkness. - § 87. tomb. feet Eng. cppcvcra floio (pev. •'£- tirge - if ye turn not. loalk about loith. be eager. race-course. hasten. Aor. -. - tent. -' = equip. (-. examine careLess. Pf. stadium.-. of iron. = point out. -. easy. 5. . 200yard dash. your. agree with. song). disposition. - 366 for sale. . -. stitch a measure of {i. . -) -. play with. send with. stage. rhapsodist do be earnest. gether 8 to- rhythm. LX. . . --- sit down beside loith. -. pts. word. - A -) Sabbath. turn. verb. o-Koiros xi:atchman. LXV. rect (late) spelling -«-. come -- together. () ( --= ($ - expedition. general. pass. 582 army. . stade = length. (). agree. : com- with. sociate with. target. - - comp. € €€ €8. earnestness. <5 see spatch. c. haste. sit : doion -- as- icith. twist. somehow.- A less cor- is o-kotivos. ?. zeal.) ( paSios -a -ov (Adv.'•€ - -irws offer how? . § 125 b.

07'der. .: -. event. misfor- T£ and. -€ .completion. meet happen with. vigor- near. ().). a writing. loeight. see tCktw. €€ bring to an Te'Xcos -a -ov completed. and AdV. -5 () carpenter.- . Superl. quickly book.-8 (--5 etc. bear (young). an -« make lower. . be with. ? . €£ €€ . pardon. «- chance. -€ €| 367 assist in driving out. () a tax-collector. = -ovos cut the throat. Tc'Xos -ovs (to) end. . together. slave. c.-£< of sound mind. complete. an end. fulfilment. akin -^s to. (- perhaps. (€. save. % sympathetic sym- ) (for -- (or soon as ) as. (-^ -- -€(> live xoith. assign. . die. orvv-8ov\os a see € € iVeKOv felloio- - beget.- - bring -.. experiences. ously. to. () 6 (= -- -- ally -«s ). Compound Nouns. (. -€05 (-- being a --. •-8 -•8 a balance. £€8 tune. a helper in xoork. very. «- €- synagogue. quick. () () end. at once. closet. talent store-room. = ). € €5. finally. company. a bringing together.-. (. end. TOKOS child. ' see «.- soundness of mind. sober. as quickly as pos- sible. pile together. •8. self-control. arrange. bring to . (). with. nearly. born with. collect.. course. . drinking-bout. humble. burial counsel. (Comp. . thank-offering for deliverance. etc. posium. - (bbbv) with all speed. discreet. € €€ T€\os as adv. $1080). II. accom- plished. x)ay (a debt. body. -. almost. leisure. § 195.. good sense. etc. €€ to lay eggs. «-? --. . issue. -- inter- very much. § 21 b. -£ - counsellor.

. )€ m this place (). turn. « LVIII. Toi in truth. run. = see . of. concern- . . -< . c). .- Less. manner. () vu€p . sleep. surely. Mid.. honored. - - €'. somewhat. see see - €.() despotic rule. - . such. . chance. Less. then. etc. see so 176 fortune. . a. §27. some thing. tyrant. -) (^-orepos in ivhat way? way. (oneself). see TOKOS. .-. see — fourth. so bad. much. Toiros place. see ovtos. tIs tI &. <() ToaovTOS Strike. - . so tall. ) nurse. water. great. vester. kv - § tomb. in such a .-. -€.368 T€p\|ilS . etc. -. luay. ToiovTOs case. — <€. a turning. for -. rear. obtain (Gen. moreover. son. value. .hold in honor.. . price. at all. means.. ' €€ €. § 39... any thing. on behalf ing. nourishment. . § 88 and LXXVI. or why? any one. three times. see manner. surely.- participle. so () Gen. so great. see art. who? Tis. table. writer of tragedies. put. § 127 c. so long. absolute sovereign. § 120 c). . sist (. profession. nurture. chance (with hit. en- dure. . in every . avenge (Dat. -. 6 € See LX. dare. in ivhat manner. . -< (uphold honor) as- Less. above. food. -- undertake. turn trim. \.your. honor. a sort of. LX. vengeance. one who has suffered wrong. § 196. precious. value.-. third. . some one. § 39. etc. art. enjoyment. then. tvhat? §27. €- he spoke as follows. at that time. See place. therefore. See Less. make by devise. \. tKtyi -.). see T€K-. nourish. -705 .

behind. ^) friendship. and dvov declare. § 80. wont. under. bring. off. of account. vs. - (show oneself) appear. - under.. ) swine.-- In comp. . put on. () {an under-rower) underling. - () -ov beloved. fond of literature. {serve.-. --- -«'? () etc. ios (.. fond of argument. under. come win. sow. expose. motion. drug. boar. get he loas - - remaining. servant. receive fasten on. . § 129 g.)• II. take up (under) leave bald. give ! : - be- fitting a friend. 2b - - port. 179.-. answerer. () a a)i oneself.-. com- -ov loving one^s appears. after (Gen. -ov loving mankind. later than. Mid. say..: 369 tiiro { ') -. . no -ov slight. -- see it flee. wages. ••-€5 - bear. •' . -a -ov latter. load.see as receive rades. --' are 176 see -€( secretly. actor. dear. fond of words.). Gen. -- see of. by. is treat affectionately. ignorant clearly g. --now ! : secretary. by.. Compound Verbs show a glimpse . carry lead. - and §§ 94. flight. cure. €. -ov . endure. weave. prophetic voice. A. carry off for a carrying. I. fame. on the next day. - bind under.- show. left. secretly. I. hypocrite. vo-Tcpaios -a -ov next day. -. remaining. oh! ah! alas - -. a small basket. €€' ---^ -' - a roioer serve. re- -ov iJo-Tepos Mid. reply. medicine.. paltry. minister to (Dat. saying. next.. voice.(Adv. kiss. Compound Nouns.jealous. as (-)) -'--- tm- derstand. love. left. be . friend. on the day -€( after. . somewhaty under. -- friendly. under.-'- you § - go under.

go (or come) frequently.). {) nature. have a care for (Gen.). gratitude. time.-€ - -$ -€ --€S eager for knowledge. oneself with) use (Dat. ( seek to (Dat. LXVIII. favor. see bright. made ointment). - .. pAan.-ov useful. -Kos.). he (Adv. . . ing. matter. acter. character. . tell. pursue knoiol- edge. less correct (late) - coined gold.serviceable. Less. anxi- 47 B. . . anger. - - to be () the - Anointed One. prudence. mind. . possessio7i. (Infin. - one ought. tion. please. laying -ov golden . -£ {) care. in <( a for good.. € Dat. € €( 4)ov€vs -' Mid. A is - (serve need. •- Mid. . ])ainful.murder. impressed. gold. there is Infin. - of gut. money. - fear. -ov grace. per- right mind. for marking €-. €-. -. -0 -TOKos eggs. hand.). one''s () an instrument a mark engraved . inten- (ro) ception. Xiip. () thing. intend. (17) - think. have understand- -aros favor pi. etc. in thoughtful. precautions. gut. -- -. see -- rejoice.. gore.difficult. rubbed on (as time. Gen. kindness.-- intention. for a short time. ety. -€5 () -» char- features.consider. () guard. see € Gen. or point out (to) point out to oneself) ponder.. time. taking --- string chord. enjoy. - Gen. natural bent. be a philosopher. anointed. § thousand. -ov loving loisdom. pride. prudent. bitterness. reflect . go to and fro. () murderer. heed. €5 370 full of light. vjidow. x€p<ri(v). spelling () - light. See bile. terrify. -. see of gold. being on the loatch. a guarding. -. $) . guard. proud. - . murder.- () worse.

. « springtime. shoulder. false. egg. just 5 . good 9. falsely. € . - •. apart apart. (. liar. ovtos. §194. breath of see season. country. place. by sir it life. one''s see -^: \^ .-( speak €.). thus time is to be § 197. soul. -. oh . XiapCs from (Gen. station. life. in the - (ixriTtp jtist as. see bear false witness. -ovs {t6) falsehood. prime of lie. -ov serviceable. 371 space. life. . so as to Indie. -is lying. in truth. or Infin. . () -. same way. (followed § 151). as follows. 5€ . Gen. -. that. . see (). §130. ! — so so.() fitting time. ! being. beneficial. € - -. hour. loriting.

€$ See but and Aristotle. father of Char- Androu. kinsman He was handsome. namely. a sophist and a pupil of Protagoras. to son of Sparta collection later authorship. father of Hippocrates. preserved a large collec. a Medan. son of Croesus. " Uncle the Aesop. Athe- nian comic poet (445-385 b. of Mende. AloXcvs -€§ () is elegies. nosegay). Remus" of ancient Greece. known as Aesop's Fables includes many stories of The the twelfth century a. odes. Alcibiades. s. Atri'dae.e.II Proper Nouns and Adjectives ' *8 ' '€ fifth (i. '•€5 <8 Only fragments of Anacverses is of Antisthenes. pupil of a philoso- Socrates and founder of the hedonistic school of philosophy. philosopher scientist (384-822 b. a7i Aeolian. sons of Agamemnon and Menela'us. mides. and epigrams ranging from the seventh century b. i. 372 ."Atds A'tys. () Athens. *8 - Athens. a lyric poet of at Antimoe'rus 'Apio-TMTiros Aristippus. the century. 'ApYiios Artem'bares. Agis.d. an Athenian tragic poet. brilliant. nian. who said to have lived duiing the first half the sixth of centuiy. Aristophanes.e. and rich.c). Anthology quarter last of to ($ MeXea-ypos. the most brilliant representative of the Old Comedy.v. pher. Anacreon. tion of inferior imitations known as Anacreontics.c). an Athenian. an Athe- Apollodo'rus. a king of Archida'riuis. '€5- -ov Argive. Glaucon. of are extant. son of Andro'tion.c. during the 'AveoXoyia. but very immoral and utterly unscrupulous. A'treus. -ov Athenian. a of Pericles. reon's there " Polycrates. 'AvrC^oipos £ ' -' the sixth century. a collection of Greek idyls. 525-456. Aeschylus. poet laureate the court Samos.

probably Zeus. a quaintance of Socrates. a Demo'critus. one of famous 0€O"YVIS Plato sophists. a famous oracle of ? Apollo in Phocis. 5 EryxV- son of Acu'menus. and wrote numerous mathematical treatises. )' .C. tament an Euthijde'mus. '. -€ () a Dorian.. style Euclid. ' poet. father of the the of named one '- () Hellas. cele- the fifth century. Epicu'rus. physician at Athens. son of Phrygia and Midas. He end of the third century b. a king of Persia. father /) of see Zevs. Heracli'tus. of Laerte). Athenian transla- tions. Gen. as or pher of Ephesus. loves of Meleager. Testament. Gen. a famous mathe- matician part of original Greek in sional ac- flourished at the Menexenus. tragic poet (480-406 b. while the language dialect ( the Common dialect. Delphi. The New Testament is the most important representa- in the The Euxine Sea. the lives of the philosophers. Demo' crates. ' He was the first great comic poet of Greece. in part con- of With the exception of the book of Hebrews and an occasentence of ment is of Alexandria. i. . an early elegiac and perhaps the best repre- . sists ( The New Tes- documents. about SOO tius (i. Greece. who flourished B. Theog'nis. Heracles. . machus.e.c. of which the most celebrated is his " Elements of Geometry " in thirteen books. Demophon. Epichar'mus. Epicure'an the of school of philosophy. Her most important temple was at Argos.e. a king of famous Midas. a philosopher the most Crorgias.D. an is main that of the common people.. century A. tive of the colloquial post-classical Euripides. brated philosopher of . a comic poet of Sicily and a contemporary of Aeschylus. Diogenes Laerin the He third wrote. Dni'i'us. a philoso- form of the known Heliodo'ra. and founder of his dialogues after him. one of the He'ra.c).8 373 rop5ios TopSios ? € Gurdius. father of Lysis. the elsewhere New Greek the Testa- innocent of literary re- finements.

son of Xicer'atus. in his verses. "€5 () . ? -ov Lacedae- - ? " -ios -a -ov Nicias. a Mysian. a mountain in Mysia.). Olympus. a late Greek poet. said to Laconisms. philologist. a Persian name. Orpheus. poet. Nico' teles. LII. Callias. Kvpvos. a (ot) the Cilicians. his friend Cyrnus. b. (ot) the €£$ lyric noble. By single- Mithrada'tes. - - sophist.C. comic poet of the late fourth cen- and the best known representative of the New Comedy. Persia. Lycians. MCkkos Miccus. a mathema- have been a teacher title AvSos a Lydian. to Theognis were written by other He frequently mentions poets. . tician. literary critic. rian of the great library at Alexandria. born at Gadara lived in the first and was the first make a noteworthy anthology of Socrates. son of Apollodo'rus.c. an Athenian general. Median.. an Athenian Hippo'crates. Many commonly verses the of attributed €$ young Dorian Theodo'rus. ing of a single verse. Mysian. each consisttury.e. Cyrus gained for himself the title of " The Great. . the bibliographer. king (i. He employed (see Less. a of Melea'ger. tury B. He Syria. verse quotations) of -apos (0) Caesar. in cento of Greek poets. more than seven hundred of which. the one of Plutarch's essays. have been ' preserved in a collection Cadmus. libra- Lysis. the reputed founder of Thebes. McvavSpos Menander. Mcvc^cvos Menex'enus. known Menander. € € '. see from 558-529 ? -08 Clibu'lus. See Less. a friend of Calli'machus (c. 3Iede. 310240 B. father of Hipponi'cits. Kvpos Cyms. the elegiac couplet III). 'IiriroviKOs the lonians. a friend of Socrates. of Media and vastly enlarging the boundaries of his empire. as £5 Homer.C. His plays abounded in sententious sayings." His rule extended €3 monian.374 ' () sentative of the sententious style.

c). a ^ sixth century. 0£5 Pericles. Phrygian. of the nCvSapos Pindar. nian.C. the brother of Hippocrates. an Athe- Pausa'nias. of whom he was a great admirer. soldier. tury A. Pericles. Printed in the United States of America. Phile'mon.).430 B. Noth- either of () a X on miscellaneous subjects. (428-347 B. Timothy. and innumerable essays Lives ing is known about these. () Athenian tragic Sophocles. Athenian phi- losopher (469-399 B. -? Socrates. pupil of Soc- and teacher one of Aristotle - friend of Plato. Xenophon. one of the chief lyric poets of Greece (518-442 rates Greek Timar'ion. -ovos « () a Paphlago- an Athenian statesman (died 429 b. a celebrated Greek philosopher of the son of Xanthippus. the lyric poets. an Athenian states- - man of the sixth century. - Pan. . Char'mides. first great phi- losopher of Greece. a son of Pericles.-ov Syrian. who named one of his dialogues after him. () Phason. a Greek au- thor and lecturer of the He the Timo'theiis.Sav6nnros $ 375 Pythag'oras. one of the rivals of Menander.). a rural god. one of the earliest of the nian.() Sardes or Sardis. son of Philome'lus. -€Ovs Persians Terpander. capital of Lydia. country gentleman. Phrygia. and author (born 0. One () a Persian. Xenophantus. sophist of the fifth century. Solon. Phaedrus. the father of Plato's mother. Par'aliis. of loves of Meleager. a comic poet. . wrote first cen- Parallel of famous Greeks and Romans.C. plays of Aeschylus is called the (^).C. .).D. an Athenian and B.. poet an (497-405 B. a famous - pides. Protag'oras. Philip- Plutarch.C. The quotations in the Lessons are from his Memorabilia or Memoirs of Socrates.).C. Plato.).

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