bW
3. dJ

COywYvm^ \ J^

f

Oav

V ^Ma;6/va

CUM}! ouv\

Ova

e•

^^

awe* CVm^

imci^AXA iKp

brei-QJelW»

-('vi

£/^

Tf^iVA^C^

Cw^

/
..^'^^^

\

2jlly\^ >vuv

ci

q

'si
y

7

</

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

:>^°•
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
NEW YORK

BOSTON CHICAGO DALLAS
SAN FRANCISCO

ATLANTA

MACMILLAN &
LONDON

CO., Limited

BOMBAY CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN

CO. OF
TORONTO

CANADA,

Ltd.

THE
FIRST

YEAR OF GREEK

BY

JAMES TURNEY ALLEN,

Ph.D.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF GREEK
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

"Ntta

gork

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1917
All rights reserved

258

COPTEIGHT, 1917,

THE MACMILLAX COMPANY.
Set up and electrotyped.

Published August, 1917.

Nortoooti ^rees

Berwick & Smith Co.
Norwood. Mass., U.S.A.

J. 8. Gushing Co.

X (1915). For it is clear that students of college age do not desire. New (1913). all of these freshmen and sophomores Statistics show. for the majority.^ . 235-242 First Year of Bottles." XII (1917). . and should not be expected. possible in so brief a period the student is must be given the opportunity of reading in their original form choice por- Greek tions of literature of the Hellenic — the finest flower and revealing To mind. The course must be more compressed college. V The Classical Journal. Nor are many are juniors. richer. students each year begin the study of Greek after entering and this number is certain to increase. and even graduates. These new conditions under which the study of Greek is begun have given rise to a new and serious problem. during the past decade or so Greek has come to be in this country largely Already approximately four thousand a college subject. pp. that the majority do not continue the study beyond two Indeed." . years.PREFACE However regrettable may it seem. to begin the study of a language in precisely the same manner as children of fourteen or fifteen. subordinate. the content of the first Just so far as year. 262-266. caption " XV The in pp. moreover. . 331-332. my "Old Wine See Chronicle.^ 1 See my article Classical JotirnaL 2 "College Students Beginning the Study of Greek. this end all other objects are. Greek " University of California reprinted in revised form luider the in pp. seniors. many are content with but a single year.

Many of the lessons. As title its series lessons of indicates. This book is the fruition of this long-continued experiment. grammar (Part II). which indeed was one of the chief considerations in determining their choice. were used with successive classes until more than three hundred students had been introduced to the study of Greek by their means. annually revised. For in learning a language like Greek there is hardly any exercise more helpful than memorizing and reproducing from memory suitable passages both in prose and verse. In fact. They were used. The selections have been chosen for their and graded with greatest care.PREFACE VI More than eight years have passed since I myself to this problem.' and these. by five different teachers both in preparatory school and in college. times a week may who recite in this subject but College classes which meet five complete the work in less than a year. It consists of two parts Part I contains lessons by a vocabulary. Follow- followed (^) ). Each begins with a numeral. a grammar Qy The scheme of the lessons is fairly uniform. and ('). notes . The plan of the book is simple. are followed by a supplement which may be treated in one of two intrinsic merit to be read (')^ . A first addressed and exercises was prepared. one or more selections for reading. (^) ing these in turn are references to the a vocabulary. it is designed to provide material for an entire year for pupils of high-school age and for college students three times each week. there are only a few that are not worthy to be memorized. and deserve and re-read many times. moreover. followed in many instances by a quotation to be learned by heart. moreover. and exercises Part II.

Occasionally a passage containing a rare word or an unusual construcBut these are exceptional. All of the and in these have been taken directly from Greek literature. 178. abundant material for both oral and written work. . while forms of infrequent occurrence. even for those teachers who desire to employ the " direct " method. Non-essentials . coupled with the fact that lessons and grammar have been carefully articulated. 1 See the note prefixed to Exercise II. The marking of the long vowels in such words as Bevrepa. and similar exercises. But a sincere attempt has been made to state all fundamental principles not only briefly but clearly. ^ to provide. additional lessons. The exercises which conclude Part I. and this feature of the grammar. if treated in this manner.PREFACE ways. others Some may be used may be assigned as Vll as exercises in reading at sight. that this method in the case of Greek is not very successful with mature students. however. and the like may pupil will need until he begins the reading of drama. selections both in the lessons (^)^ The grammar (Part II) contains practically all that the Homer and have been omitted. the main only common words and standard constructions will be found in these pages. Such exercises cannot be repeated too frequently. In tion has been admitted. p. Experience has demonstrated. they will be found pansion. should make this portion of the book one of invaluable service. writing from dictation. These yield themselves more readily to the memorizing of selections. receive but slight attention. are intended to accompany the lessons and should be regarded as suggestions admitting of indefinite imitation and exAlthough very incomplete. such as those of the pluperfect.

. University of California. 1917. and these entirely from his Memorabilia^ pupil who successfully completes these lessons ready for the Anabasis or any similar text. and especially to my students whose good-will and forbearance have made possible its thorough testing. June 1.vni PREFACE seem unnecessary. but has been adhered to consistently throughout for the sake of its pedagogical value. the is To all vho have aided in the preparation of this book. Although few of the selections in this volume are taken from Xenophon. I make grateful acknoAvledgement.

.CONTENTS PART I PAGES Lessons I-LXXX Additional Selections for Reading Exercises .... 1-149 150-176 177-214 • PART II The Grammar 217-339 Vocabulary 341-375 .

.

MEPOX TO PART I THE LESSONS .

.

c . all. " Well begun. § 3 (Vowels). €08 Cf. et. half clone. scholium. see Part II (TO a. of all (things). . archaic. e (Consonants) For the Alphabet (o . theology. Lat. it) icas. ^ The pupil need learn at in this lesson. Lat. Cf. Iv in. § 2. a eV. § 4 a (Diphthongs: at. See half. speech. god. . § 6 a-e ev. PI. the. -logy. - loord. Cf prototype. b. 9 f. 5 b. . () he (she. ''^ — Greek proverb. the beginning.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK €19 I. §§ 1. the note. . logic. Cf. 01. Ace. av. '. he (she. irpos Cf. first only so much of the alphabet as occurs . € in the presence of God. first. the god. To '^ (The) beginning (is the) — ) half of ). it) is. /txtct. . § 24 a. Cf. 1 Pronunciation. Breathings. and. § 9 a. €v ^ in (the) beginning. c. () Cf. est. . rbv to the lesson. .i Punctuation Marks. the mathe- this (one) he. matics. -. Quantity. §§ 8. semi. ou). Accents. erat.

§ 4 b. see VocabuCrasis. because this is in for emphasis. polemic. () peace. Cf. Cf.). he (she. ill. Cf. see § 198. <£ (before a vowel.. These should be studied until they can be reproduced from memory either orally or in writing Improper Diphthongs. . rocky hillside. self. rock. but. omitted with . EN APXHI HN ^ 6 o. philosopher. including a mastery of both quotations.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 2 . also. lary of Proper Names. even - among () war.pxfj 6 6 iv — ^. in the (fertile) plain. (the) rocks. (). ivise. beautifully. . as in etc. 171 on time. another. The article is omitted. well. George. () § 13 b. (/cat iv) even hndly. (see Preface). automaton. rears.. plain. § 4 b. the friend. Irene. To AcvTcpov Thorough review Lesson I. § 15.. . allopathic. and. For Aristotle and Menander. like bed. debs . Ace. even ^ -- Cf. Cf. Pron. in. '-'. « ^» () - See il/aii^ewxvi. sophomore. The \6yos. § 189. ytup-^/os (0) farmer. clever. ^v 6 the predicate. iv Eng. ^eoj is See put article is first '. . () one fond of wisdom. dear. Peter. ireSCov () it) nourishes. Cf. Tbv yewpyov. 8. 6 18. ? of ). Cf. even. and.

(. and this the very inscription which stood over the door in his day Note the capital letters (§ 1 c).. Second Lesson) i \rCjrHE^\> 2]^ [^ Fragment Synagogue of the Hebrews inscription from a synagogue at Corinth (c/.) and the Exercises . See § scheme of this line 6 ' — hillsides of and a ^-. 4). \. in which the sign . These should be pronounced and memorized in the reverse order. Acts perhaps not impossible that this was the synagogue in which Paul preached. Beginning with this lesson each noun is accompanied in the word-list by the appropriate form of the article in parenthesis. The wirpais. 103 a.. thus rj 6 : (Supplement See Exercise 1 (H.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ] 4 1. to the . from Menander v^^^_:_ I w-i. . 2. of an It is ! {) 1 For the use of the Supplements see the Preface. xviii. ^ MevavBpov. — > I half v/_i. ). is metrical . I The Greece are very rocky. KU\y-iI \ w_i_ represents a long syllable where the meter strictly calls for a short.

anthropology. Gco-yvis. . Cf. III. s. . . oiSeis no one poSov () rose. Accusative of Specification. skilled. of Proper € Names. " . megaphone. 1. PI. €() Lat. each. these. as ovScis there is nothing. 191. . Cf. the use of €. better. . § 113 d. Bible. € of Lessons I €. )( 6 . 901-902. deed. and . () human being. §§ 190. work Meya — 2. -. Cf. § 100. Agreement. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 4 . (fepy-). great. § 10 accented ' c. viola . loise. violet. els) Rhodes. ' — ®€oyvL9. Thorough review ' no one. here {they are). For Theognis and the Elegiac couplet see the Vocabulary and U. Cf. {). is ' before. ovbiv there 3 and . worse. () parsley. large. Werk. .. Cf Germ. § 180 § 21 (learn the full declension of each) — . book. . celery. To ' 6 ov8eU epyop • '.v. = () €(() all things. II. - . .' (- Gf. /.

. ). and quotations. a so-called pentameter. The latter always has a strongly marked pause in the third foot. The ancient Greeks greatly admired the feathery leaves of the parsley. () oi/5eis The avros no one of verses beginning human kind {is in) himself. § Exercise 3 (H ). especially phrases. Thorough review. . Accents. Avith special reference to words. § 9 (entire. 9 f. are a fragment of an ancient Flower song. aiWva Exercise 2 beautiful parsley. ( IV. >_^ >^wv^ I w . ' To 6 . The metrical form (§ 8.e. Proclitics. which was sung by a chorus of girls and their leader the first verse by the leader.€. the response by the chorus who danced as they sang.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK The Elegiac couplet quoted above from Theognis has the following metrical form -i_ww l-i-ww I-: -: |_l. etc. Enclitics. § 11. i. The first verse is an hexameter the second. ^-J- I >-L. and frequently used them in the making of chaplets. I v^ v:y \y\yK^ \ \y-L- I | v^ ]Miere for Supply kari (§ 103 b) roses 9 my vi/ me >_:_ \ w | | w_:_ w vv | <^ v-/ | <^ v:/ w_i_ | (are) the roses? | \^_l. 9 e). — ' .) is as follows: . The city Seli'nus was named from the plant. ' -. 10. \J /\ \ w Where are my (§ 100).ww !_: _:_-1-^^ -: I I | -J-^^ |_: w | _i.

1 sumus. mater. () \6. — Enclitics (type II) § 10 b. Gen. - brother. except that of the sec. ). ei. () physician. they are. . . Cf. c. art). (J)) grief. ! . et cetera. Lat. sorrow. pediatric. § 106 .'^ Cf. esse. . chres- '. Cf. All the forms of which appear in this lesson are enclitic. pers. Agatha. ( 4-. remaining. pater. Uses of the Cases. (. left. ' To Accents. Xoiiros - born of the same womb. § 29 /.. 2 In early Christian times the word was often. are. Phila- Cf. tion. § 9 a. This form never loses its accent. the . 8^.) tomathy. § 111 Second Declension. useful. () : () sister. written At that period these words were identical in pronunciaof this verb : . b. 2 Uses of Avtos self. hence ? we •( you es. A-B is 6 . estis.. See Exercise 3. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK -) it I am (ior you are (thou () sumA Cf. ' . mother. ( root of this verb (to be) . V/ MeXer?. delphia. () good. '^. e 6 Herewith Exercise 4 The () father. $ Cf. sunt. -. sing. good. ka-^iv () i<rrL(v) est. (ye) are. through instead as though from a misconception.

- : M. " Practice makes (thing). holocaust.''^ The equals of 1 the same (thing) Adjectives (at least those of the first-second declension type) nor- mally have three endings in the nominative. before. perfect. .. many if.-F. thus: M. £<rov '. "'. the lohole . ? -(^?). larger. and. € former. . -^ ^ '. €$ () from. Practice (is) away). (tVos). Notions) of Euclid. unequal. etc. Lat. e . }. I. ^ . isother- greater. the halves (). oXos entire.. . {air\ 7 £ both and. times (). ts «€ 4$. mal each § 26. adjectives usually have only ttvo endings. «ov equal. ) ' . . Common a. are. . Gen. But comi)OMnd &. § 6 f) (Gen. added).^ . you and Cf. § 195. (( () Cf. roO ^lari. iav y. -o" double.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -5 wnegwaZi other. thus .). beautiful. KOINAI ENNOIAI Axioms (Gr. . 7) (be (he taken . lohole. lav iav \ ^. § 100. F. }.

vyitia § 184. . for. understanding. Lessons Exercise 5 One of student when he r 1^. and 144. 8 . The trouble arises in the main from the multithe scheme of the conjugation is plicity of the forms simple and clear. 162. by essays the mastery of ancient Greek of the verb. — ^ . . graphic) . 113.— . same way conjugate : (c/. Read carefully §§ 131. — . the chief difficulties encountered The Verb. Learn the present indicative. and infinitive of the progressive action-stem of the is found in the inflection conjugational system is . hygiene. phrases. . unfastening. the () mind. regular verb (active voice). for the Greek more elaborate even than that of Latin. 171 (first sentence). . THE FIRST 8 — . 133 (first and last sentences). life. . imperative. biology.. * : ). vovs . . and the optative. foolish. ^ Thorough review of forms. 6 2.. Cf. words. dull.— 1. To — I-V (97 . § 79 A. 3• 'Tyieia iv 4- . quotations. taking as the type the verb I am In the loosing.-ov () health. -1' VI. OF GREEK Alt () $ Cf.

and the . nor yet.). the earth. . see § 78. VII. TTjs upon (7/. Herewith Exercise 6 (H --- (( () dig through treasure up €•• (). . clex3- . oi . epigram. . () 1 Cf. (both not treasure- Cf. I . () heart. . Learn by heart the passage from Matthew quoted below. heaven. / . Cf. « ' Repeat in negative form. there. nor not). . . 9 . . recognize again (^ava)). ittL upon (Gen. as follows € Greek govern the infinitive. regard.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK € •-^ €€' I am I holding. -. To ^. irXovo-ios rich. Cf. . talking Qcf.'). have . () %M € through. diameter. () For the thief. (). Cf. - telling. (/^) steal tomaniac. . / am (imper. - 9 ? house. and . . I rejoice Xoyo^). Cf. custom. neither . plutocrat. recessive accent in the imperative of the trisyllabic polysyllabic verbs. Hence means Bich may I believe the wise (to be)\ This quofrom the famous prayer of Socrates with which Plato closes his Verbs of thinking regularly tive of the 6 tation ' is verb iu to be'' (eiV) is eJvaL ^ () Phaedrus. thesaurus. sky. urging (^commanding') I hold as customary. law}. not . () . in that place. cardiac. ? otrov where(ever) PI. () loealth. .). treasure. am / am . . . ( . believe {cf. Uranus. The infini(= esse). reading I (lit.

/. ^ . ' — . winged.. 'OpeaTij. Adverb. 6 . oiSe — ..<. bring. ev Instrumental-Oiitive. . . carpology. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 10 Mr) 7^?> iv . e^eiv. $ — 3• « — 6 4• . . 2. ' . . . 3. " TTOvot^ ' § e. VIII. To ''} The .-6 — ' true. moth and rust (eating) make{s) will be. ^. . . Cf. 694.{' e/cet . having KapTTOs {) fruit. 5 yap — . bear. The Accusative as . evayyeKiou - 2. 6^ 1. to disappear. '^^^ tff-Ka' . 113 fero. § 121. ' .

ris. pain. etc.F^^i? OF //£: Jf/BSr The Verb Moods. = writing a should. <^ ^ €av (. § 162. -. microscope. Uses of the Subjunctive (negative always ') : a) Exhortation. § 163. repeating the full clause each time a) iav /3) iav ) €1 ) el if <. little. I. : § GREEK 11 143. § 168 A. En- clitic. $ 8€($ = all. . () ttus evei'y () Voc. () one. 165. T^v) iav) () and () if. labor.). what? why? . . 7. lord. despot. i/i'e Eat» - oiJSets. . . message. Learn the subjunctive (active voice) of the progressive § 79 A. § 167 A. § 156. master. c) . {would. § 155. one. Mou. how? who? irovos if. small. and conjugate the verbs in the action-stem of following clauses. : letter. () toil. . Zar<7e (prizes). if Herewith Exercise 5 I be Cf. could. ns any €^ ^\— less. Conditional Clauses. Cf. Uses of the Optative (§ 161) : a) Wish. or no i/ (Subj. (c5) (= etc. b) Question of Appeal. c) Conditional Clauses. / might.. b) Potential. even letter. epistle. any thing.) seize or grasp.

ive shall have. lam).. ' . I enjoy writing. wealth. present infinitive. . iav Tis V if one be (subjunctive of 3. ' IX. optative. ovSev y 3• 1. . . §§ 100. -ovres : something. ' €)(€ .. ?. . . ). ^ . imperative. enjoy. . will have. .2. . ei^€t9 — — . . €)(€ ^. and participle. . review the progressive action-stem subjunctive. . ?|ets you pray (imperative). 2. " € § : 103 d. property. iav with the subjunctive forms) stealing these (things). 101 The Verb indicative. : Omission of Noun. ^ do) \ / am ) not / ov this.'. loosing. things. 1 Conjugate the following (employing iav (neg. pi. \€%. am urging €€' ^ The Thus : : ov €€£- my brother to he writing / am not urging him (to " participle ends in -. etc. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK ^ 12 . '. . 174. pi. we pi. — &€(. 4• ??? TL. !>- To Koim 6 — — Agreement. " . § 6f (end)). possessions.

heliotrope. . () () () comrade. () drink. sea. Ace. § 52 formations. etc. Master the verbs Conjugate the following cited in these sections. optative. () Cf. Cf. etc. : (indicative. : shall speak the truth (io-morroio) Herewith Exercise £ ^ (2) (do. selenite. commonly means . ^\ (An Ancient Drinking Song) ^\ ^ yrj jLteXatva irivei. dron. by ' ! €€ ! by Zetis. c.''' . TTLvei 6 '- 0€ oevope ' -L. the Fut. 54. Cf. can. infinitive. (do). / ( 8. thalassocracy. Although " I shall \y speak. craipos ? -- () geography. (1) (3) 710 ! NO (can). Cf. participle) of § 79 a. ). mean " I shall tell. not I! ! . f. () () earth.). Cf.'''' often means or ipQ ''tell. yes! € .''' moon. The Future learn the conjugation of the future active . Formation of the Future. rhododen- 1 sun. tJXlov aeXyjvrj. 5 . by Zeus € certainly ! Zeus no.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 13 — personal endings Verb-roots and verb-stems. tree. thematic and non-thematic §§ 53. /. . § 61 a.

. . § {cf. . 117 b. Psyche. . her. wishing.^. () jwssession. 40 A.many. § 111. to be drink- and wishing. vtvet course § 100. i. soul. maiden First-Second Declension Adjectives. ] 2.. . Herewith Exercise ^. -^ . . Why.) s. or. . etc.() ( See the sake of the meter. of for of Anacreontics. . more p^'eciotis. temper. do you contend ing ? (with agree with with . () mood. A the 78. Ionic form. & 4. either . coreopsis)). XaXtvos () bridle.' . — '<. Cf. 9. () better. yrj the dark earth. me myself also ). see ToSe . Dative (Instrum. To '' First Declension. large. § is that in spite of the evident inferi- ority of this Anacreontic The rrtvtiv me when I too wish These verses are from the collection Vocabulary. Genitive with Comparatives. be learned by heart. it ol . . the earth. (. yri () wrath. my . In Attic Greek the plural of (id est).. etc. The poet has here employed an . THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 14 1. . -dative) of Cause. Uses of the Cases. breath. 2. €recommended It is self. misogynist. ^$ . § 121. Cf. (^ (entire). l ^ . € « () silence. . § 28 dear this sister.e.. it. comrades. . xoisdom. . () folly ($). § 12 a.v. () woman. Means.

— 9• 6. rt — ... 233.. — \ opyfj 5' '. . . 15 (her) father Semon set up here (this) monument . .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 1.. 6 oi/Sev — . . . . it) gives.. ^' ' -^ — .. 224. Attic Tomb Inscription ^^ ( %^ ^r^ ivOaSe For Lys'ea 552. . . 482. ^eipov eaTL 5• 6. 264. ). 208. 414. . . . 3- 4• . he (she.. 2. *H Xeye 7- 8. — . . ^. . 9. .. . try (imperative). § 12 C. An Early 549. < —'. — — '4. 442. .

6 6 — 6$ 1. iv ev 6 2. . . . therefore. . . evayyeKiov -'. triangle under. 1. greater. (. wait.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 16 ). larger. . § Herewith Exercise w) () corjier. iwKXToKrjs TTJs nor side. . stretch under. : € ' § . abide. 28 A. . . B. 120 d. Cf. !. . — .. shorter. . then. subtend.and : -as. angle.€vav8po^.. . bad. on I say \iy that. (/). — M. less. First Declension and word. 416. or. . '8 XI. worthless. ) smaller. § 19 a). in '. The - -. () yet. . - (17) . . ' (VI.' the (one) abiding. () 2. remain. la feminine and masculine nouns The Dative with Adjectives (vy if. To <. Cf. 45). sub that. either (Ace. . . € aya^ol•'. late love. and polygon. pleurisy. . not. 10.

: . . having the angle under irXevpa 4. etc. has been supplanted by the more emphatic 7. . etc. . . thus on the other hand. wliile looks forward to a balancing clause with (§ 190). nor yet. ort 1 -. 1. ^ . . In now on the one hand this instance.) ywviav (having) say " at ") greater.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^ " . 5 ^. 6/ : (loe ( We say "i?i .'''' for etc. TOY -. ^ 6. . . ^' . . 4 ^ . Et " /cat .. every. on the one hand now. ^) . So in line 9 (/ etc. however. 3. .for ' ? {) if not. €( let there be. . Note the order ). . . € of every triangle. ^ nor yet surely. yap . . ' €<. ties the sentence with the preceding sentence. ... now then. . 8e. 17 ' ort . .

(entire). . soul. s/ioio (Set|ai). C. D { }). (§ 198) in 10. ) ' ' he . The First Declension (entire). and XII. etc. hv ^v it 14. the very (point) which it-was-necessary («Set) to eSei Q. evXaXov ' ''^ \^vj(r]V \8 /. Within soul of my my 8<. B. TOY ^ ? ^'^^7' 5 -^^. So in Observe the emphatic position of lines 8. was shown. hath Love himself portrayed. The Declension of Adjectives (first-second declension). l^ To €<. : EQUAL is not. § 28 A. 13. E. ' — MeXea7/30i?. heart the sweetly prattling maid. -not) it 17. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 18 7. loould he {hvLtis. D.. ? . 8. 40 A. . — Translation by Dr. Walter Headlam. 10.

.. 5 es. Gen. 'E/jws 25 Ivtos imthin Acc. . . . («. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . e^ovTa. €€5 step. -^ ) .). ivrbs ivrbi ttjs a straight . ^. . .*? . Eros) fashioned {cf. ' .. otl . . . = ddda () two). ^^ 2 ySao'tl•' () - . Ti^l•' ' 17 . . - each €(} each 'rav (of ' {cf. .' is '. base. . . line. . € to each. plastic). iv\a\os -ou sweetly prattling = to prattle). side. '' . Svolv 19 (Gen. Dat.. . . ^.

4. ^. : .^' ' 8e vneprepov. XIII. and lohatever is higher than these. § 25 b 24 b.. Spou'dides (the) potter. § 28 A. and IkcXvos Uses of the Article.: - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 20 - 3. ) .®04\^3 . . (the) tombstone retrograde inscription of the seventh century b. B. § 29 Demonstrative Pronouns The Article cKctvo. . found on a fragof a marble tombstone. § 103 Position of Article § 2-4 a Declension. ^" . £/[]5. 208. — . daughter of A 2. . € . Of Eni'alon. T7]v See equal sides. €. ' ly To TpCrov *H Xeye rt '< Review The First Second Declension. etc. ^-\ 2.c. . 1 ^ Toi in truth. .€8. § 129 g. ^|ei the]/ loill greater. ment 70 /. — Aios. C (o ') § '. . (/cat 'a ). TOY Zew? i(TTLV tol^ . have also the angle (of the one) the {angle) inclosed by the ... . . . .

. At 5. 7.€ yap et? . . Herewith Exercise . -^...THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK and Attributive. 21 Position of Demonstrative Pro- . ' /cat 5 evdela - ." € . . upon it 15 {intersect) them. § 105 . . § 104 Uses of nouns. ijrei €-€6 . Uses of Cases. let there fall has fallen upon) interchangeable. ei's (it eSet Set^at. \ ecrrt -/^ -£> -^- /. . 11. . § 111. 106 § . ' TOY At Ty OTL eial avTTj . intersects. 12..- . .

". 168 A. . the thing learned. send. () shadow. §§ 165. discreet. . Et avajKatov aBiKelv. restrain. () stepmother () poverty. procession. Cf. ovSep tS' <. Cf. --. Cf. 469. pomp. escort. 166 A. To ? <. 8€. better. ovScis there is no one.. irovos. beautiful.. I should -€. glossary. more. sciagraph. - to be loronged. « - .). also of -€ and Conditional Clauses. .() conduct. nec- essary. the act of learning. Herewith Exe rcise 12.. — . § 92. (Gen. (^). Conjugation (entire) of -€. () do wrong treat unjustly 8£to . J ' J" t^ ^ € Pronunciation of Top<yia. -}.€8. dreadful. . choose. of more (17) Cf.: . ^. . or. down hold § 6 f () ? -- (the) cause .. another. Double Negatives § 5 e. more or than.. -. € THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 22 XIV. iv . than. rather (). €€ (17) - tongue. () hymn. hoio ! sober. . Cf. prudent. 557. § 91 . €I am. F. § 180 a. . 167 A.. is as. € 8€ — '<. . -. either Cf. Sophronia.. Cf.

). 6 . ovSeu ovSev 23 — — — - 810 2.COS THE FIRST YEAP OF GREEK 1. .^.— ovoe ev ecrrt ovSev ZeC.. e^eiv. . 408. epya 8. — %. 423. ^' 6. 637.. .. 3• 4• 5• . -wV^^Aci .^ ^ . . . 9- Mop. OvK €(* ecTTLV 2. 127. . . — .^^. 220. . — Et . . — 5 ". ^^ .- -€<.. 7• . — MevavSpos.. ecrrt 436. . . .

. hut surely. tooYa^os. 167 B. (ought to^ speak}.11. ' To ^ . < is . an urge on. delay. harm loait. tarry. 6 ye . press F. injure.. well-being. . 7ior yet. infinitive with accusative as subject. icell done perity. ' optl §184. () €$ . wait for. § 185. () F. — Review the conjugation Interrogative Sentences § 178. not then? 8. nor. 166 B. 168 B. vera. . ' . Relative Relative Clauses Avith the Indie. wahr? truly. V Sec. in truth. and . ye certainly. Sentence Questions with : . {there is need) one ought. XV. § 99 . tvtoell. . harmful. of course. on. 744. II . hasten. ? ye or 8. -ov beneficial.. § 24 c Pronoun: of te Bel e-Trevheiv MepavBpov^ . by no means. §178. pros- not. II. (-) iti 13. one Governs should. srirely. Opt. Subj.. § 91 (entire). abide. §§ 165 B. Herewith Exercise . in fact. Verbal in -tcov (XeKreov one must . . . Adv. = . § 178. nicht = tvy/tgood! ovSi ! cv-irpa-yCa (17) . Alpha-privative. § 177 os w^o.. -€8. it not SO ? § 184.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 24 €^.

In the dialogue from which this brief passage is taken Socrates (see Vocabulary of Proper Names) is represented as leading the conversation. 15 . .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 25 Nat. The answers are made in this particular instance by Adimantus. it is usually ^. ^/ . . . yap ^' '^ 5 . . . . . . (also does it -^. < ovS' . do any evil? 14. 6 ye. § 120. 9. a frequent order. . tivos genitive of the verb is omitted. € .ewv. (). ^. 7. 9) see Exercise 13. For the neg. aya. Socrates contends that God is good and therefore (see the second portion of the extract) is not the cause of usual : GOD ' popular myths) 4. ye (§ 185). A new 14. 379 2 . Partitive genitive. TToiel. . ye indicates that this series begins in 1. . 11. "^ . When is the last of this series of questions. = 6 deos is good. . — ] HoXireiqi. ye emphasizes as (as contrasted with the false representations of Him in ye eeos 1. ayauov. . ayadoyv ovhev ye . 6 evil. 1.

little Cf. | . . . €. spirit: (a) Cf. For indie. see also § 61 b. active. () upon.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 26 ^. To <. number). set one''s heart lowed by genitive 8 .. and fut. §§ 190. F. life. (b) de- 9 - -ov few. progressive action-stem an e . Review the conjugation of § 91 €'-€. imper. opt. desire.. infin.. Lat. scant. thus: etc.. . seem. 14. . treat hate {cf. mi- do wrong (to). . Cf. § 92) . In the same manner conjugate love. polygamy. 191 § 184 § 185. ttokv much. since. oligarchy. Herewith Exercise '•€ : F. €. €.. () F. -. § 81 A. affectionately. Regularly fol- (§ 115 d). long for. (in . Learn the conjugation of with the subj. sogynist) F. 7%-). together the future. -- € In with the -et)• in the pres. fumus. F. () sire. and partic.. XVI. - kiss. of the progressive action-stem.. . large number of verbs have Verbs in -€. us as. ' ye — (-€. Attic Greek these verbs regularly contract this thematic vowel (including in the preceding the thematic vowel I am making (stem: (§54). treat unjustly token.

. 6 .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . 27 ' 6 0e6<. . recommended that Si - . ... . 5 6 . : . . 6 . ot ' /. the bless- (§ 15) are for us far fewer similar to the old Greek proverb It is 379 . . ings (in life) () )( 6 . by heart this passage be learned . {). ' ) ' € €. Xeyovacv. 6 than the €.. \' -Ky'. — 25 . . . Tliis is ills..-- . .. ecrrt. . ^ — (4) yap '23. .

.. young... (. ing. sceptic etc. vio% hut.. time. — Mevavhpov^ 425. — 225. — ). marriage. II a. Exercise 15. € () ^. iced- bigamy. 6 ! only Cf. Cf. use (voOs). mind one's (before a vowel. a reply : 3. intend. ? TToiei . pliyte. Cf. most (of use one^s wits think. secret. etc.-ov alone. orthodoxy. () € — Cf. . 6 -< ». * TE () -)( ) € die. ttoUl. § 172. () truth. see.. Review Lessons XV-XVI. To 'Of . . (). . certainly *H . . Cf. olSev. Cf. . Infinitive as a Noun (^Articular Infinitive). €'. especially. Cf. have understand- be prudent. - <••€ look. -6v upright. mono- -ov -5.2C . . ding. hidden. 2. 4. F. neo- straight.-). have sight.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 28 ^. As $ tone.- . avTod. dcC always. marry. have in mind. U. examine Cf. KpviTTOs - -l>v ') 1. - cryptogram. "€ XVII. think. veo^. () closely. new. consider. all). chrouology.

Prepositions..' %.. 4. § 104 Pronouns^ § 105 Meanings of Demonstrative Pronouns. §§ 123-129: learn the of Article strative . 5. — 8. 15. ^. prepositions listed in these sections. 6 §§ 101. — ^\<. 7. *j. the man loho does not marry. . ^ ^ aei. " € €-\ XVIII. 5- 6. ) ayawrj. poetic for 68. e^ei — — 437. 832 outos. Position Position of Demonand Attributive. 9 2S. . — oe . rrj 839 — - 1195. (?). and compound each of these . §\llO. 6 The Demonstrative Pronoun et? ayei. . oibev he knoivs.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 4. together with their fundamental meanings. ^. 29 '•^. § 25 a'^^ ?.. . 2. iv Cf.. •^. . . Atcr^vXog.

II. 12.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 30 -... ^. - "Ayet 5. 250. .-. . — %. . 3- 4• . — . heuva — — . Et SeiV become (§ 18). 328 ^. 448 W. . -. Mol•».. 877 ". 16. ovSev ayei. . .. 9- .. . 268 "^. go. ' . 391 W. . - step. /cet — — — — — . eivaL 6. . observing that the preposition precedes the verb and that ev and . 268.. prepositions in turn with the verbs throw {e. . . Bel.g. before Herewith Exercise 1.. 7• 8... 592. ' — — aet avTod. 75. ... 2. . . " . -). . 11.

evavhpov. . Sdv\ 6. however trivial. Cf. — MevdvSpov. 120. of 8. . . $. as they thought it and in the wonderful language which they spoke. To The Formation M€V § . Adam. yap. he {she. — M. Tot. 447. sympathy. no particle. and syntax.1 184. which no serious student of tlie Classics can afford to neglect. § 185.. C. to miss which is to fall short of apprehending the full significance of ancient life and thought. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK nXovTelv 12.. TO § ^ijv 12 — . €. {the) to live. § it) is poor. . to he 14. 3• 14 31 — TreVecr^at • € 15- 2. ' ^ . . § 99. however delicate. 113 d." J. and idiom. § 196. ivveaKaCBeKa. MevdvSpov. 219. i). in which there may not lurk a subtle force. ye in 11. . as they saw it. § 187 . there is no shade of expression. MevdvSpov. to see what they saw. . think what they thought. 582. 12. BODY. . We desire to recreate the world of Plato and Sophocles. . §§ 190-191. to suffer. rj iSpaaas you did. — Words. The Vitality of Platonism. / . 300. ev-TV)(ovaiv. Cf. . . . '^€ XIX. — . able. 1 " that laborious study of words.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 32 The two negatives pounds : (oi)/c.) ^ some of their com- . (§ 144) and .

: §54. middle-passive. 3 These verses are an apocryphal version of the famous oracular response regarding Socrates. (/ 1 2 / am F. § 140 Learn the conjugation of the present and future indicative. be born. / think. () self^. and the subjunctive of the progressive actionI release {for mystem. xaipeiv honor). I understand (Greek conjugate says '''Stand .. of The Middle Voice. one must {ought to) dismiss (permit it to say '^^ Fare- well "). and Like able § 80. ^ . '. I am of (eVi)). . " ' — Ancient Oracle. '. -THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Et 33 . - XX.' • iav oe 6 .- et • — . ^aipeiv . -). ^.^ Primary Personal Endings. — ^ iav - . upon'''' Like willing.€'. tvish . -. become. conjugate I F. § 79 B. €. : F. .

^ iv KOLvfj 2. is 6. ^) hird. go. -in § 121.e. common Dat. still in Koivfj Gen. wa-trep just as. horses. a figliting-cock. •8 -8. ornithology. tl — . vir. pleasant. Dat. still. -- €. more. gain. (Dat. best. TL aya^oi'.-ov 5 opvis pi. my friend. lego. turii light. () () man. I take delight go etc. long ago. . (. See below. eav • 6. Cf. (6). (to) profit. ." ? ?.€. -) dog. Cf. iciser. . (- pick out. ayadov^ 1. irois he said. {"'.. the pages. loisest. cynic. feel see . . 19). Cf.$. " . -€ () unroll (a scroll). please and de- choose out. i. ovs . . (. / delight in writing .. here employed as an adjective. 5 . (koivos). . Cf. through (a book. -.- .-' ' .). « furthermore.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 34 TE « . . £Ti longer. pleasure take with oneself in. palseography. " Cf. hi-ep^op^ai. Lat. . '. § 121. . sweet. rjoeTaL. sucivis come.). -08.

Modes of Address . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ypa^pavres which they left in books. . To €8 '<€. Review Lesson XX.e. : ( XXI.4€ -. tion of Master. or else to •4. see. written (them). we 7. were not in use among equals.-- - - wishing. . (. participle ends and is in : ^^•. such as Frequently epithet and name are combined Forms of address like Sir ! or Mr. The ancient " book" was a roll. eav aWrfkot^ — ''. § 174. etc. middle-passive '-€ : - - - 40 § a . -^evos declined exactly like first-second-declension adjective. Compare the refrain common in Greek larly address their Lord as Christian hymns Lord. becoming. .e. The Participle with the Article (one) saying (i. but belonged to the language of the slave and hireling.. understanding. - Note that the .-4 -). Herewith Exercise 18. thinking. being able. : . . originally my Lord ! and was employed by slaves and other subordinates In the New Testament the disciples reguin addressing their superiors. 35 in the form ofioriling. Mister is a corrupmeant So tlie common address in Modern Greek. 6. good sir ! my friend.. . such as thus the who says) this. having iv i. ' et?. was the custom to addi-ess one's friend either by employ a complimentary epithet. have mercy I In ancient Greece his given it name.

preference. wish. . p- know . tcrao'tt' because. expresses more as a feeli7i(j. . hear (oneself) ill () 8 .€. BiKaios - () "^ 1. Cf. desire. . Cf. «. ^.F. . . . wish. . ' ^'. thyroid. asked. ." — when -ov be wealthy. ivell to (spoken of) will. ^ (JTt. .THE FIB ST YEAR OF GREEK 36 .. 64. and synonymous uearly often be F. . 6.. . (in poetry also § 27. desire. 285. "^ . prefer. be willing. . .. will. 236. be counsel. more as a rational and -ov just. plan. . lohoever. /tear. . 5. yet.. hear (oneself) icilling. interchanged may the loish or will Cf. worthless. ov^ — & - in '— . to (spoken of).. senate. (§ 62) acoustic.'''' mean. 2. volo. €) consent. () door. . F. . 232. they what they need. are and strict distinction. — — — 6 6. righteous. - and () will. 3- 4- purpose ? ' aSiKelv 6 slight.' .

§ 168 A. impera- . § 167 A. c) Herewith Exercise - 19. as it seems.4<. and participle of and of § 79 § 80. ^ () ' Conditional Glauses. shine. infinitive. § 156. Review §§ 54. Learn the conjugation of the present indicative and the subjunctive. as as is lamp. likely. "v.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 37 .' a) b) Uses of the Optative a) ' v' : WisTi. But she the garland of the garland shines. irepl ' — MeXea7/oo9. and of the future indicative. fade. waste away. § 162. § 163. die out (of fire). : Exhortation. Conditional Clauses. XXII. likely. 140. Walter Headlam. /cat To A€VT€pov *0 /3<?. . and participle of -the progressive action-stem. answer. optative. Cf. ' '. Question. infinitive -. optative. -\. Uses of the Subjunctive tive. — Translation by Dr. c) it is TE () and be answering. b) Potential. On Heliodora''s brow the garland pines. . § 155.

^— »' if Topylq. it is yi certainly most. . . uter ? ? . iroTc'po . . ^ . 474. . Common colt. . . neither. .-? () shameful. ^. a as Polus. . ^ Tt % 15 etrrt . ooKei YloTepov . 469. e/Aotye. . 8 -a . . €. -jrOTepos § 194. no means. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GRERK 38 . least.. . . It 5 € aoiKeiv . )(^. : gar- Cf. irepl more shameful. fj . ' Kakof re SiJTa. €<rTi tivtp if indeed. eivai.. " enrep . § or? . () wreath. crown.• ^ . %<. \\.. ^ aoLKeiv ] . by about the head (poetic).. Stephen. ' ye. . is it (of two) ritrum €( very. ) ' eoLKC. . € ^ worse. 187 TO TO . an () whether ? - ! land. which irOTcpov. aya^ov. certainly not . .. ^. proper name more.

is . . ) .. Compare the that youngling king. . 6. . avSpl 7• 8.. . ^^. .. ecrrt 479. {utrxim " Whether 39 . — . question 1.. . 631. <.. Psyche. .. Mei>avSpo^. .. . for a man. II. an .^'' .. 2. .. . 245. -. — the son of Archida'mus.^. . . . -— . is studied. . ^ ."" ^.. 4• 33.or? to introduce the two members of a direct alternative . — yiyvov 714. ij . .. usage in archaic English — Beaumont. 9• . Meyiarov 346. 3• elvai 9e\e. -^ 164 ^. Classical Greek regularly employed irbrepov ij. 7. . ' -^8— . Agis. 366. '. " — 6. . . — 32.. ^ — ' — — /. €. .. ' .. . . ap^eiv re 215 D. '^ — . 5• " iv . : 161. Herod or ?).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Uorepov whether .

tive. ^. Contract Verbs in -€ Learn the conjugation of the : present indicative. Herewith Exercise 1 20. elBevai I think eihevaL I do elvai I do not know. impera- - and participle of the progressive action-stem of I am making for myself § 81 B. elvai. I know. ^ (or elhevai (X think : to know^ 1 I know. F. person singular also F. . deem. think. To - TTOielv. ' XXIII. The second person singular. regard. suppose. present indicative of /xot is otei.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 40 . Xeyetv disgraceful I con- sider the telling of falsehoods. ) Conjugate the verbs in the following phrases 1) ^ think 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) ovK <. suppose.-. not oCtj. A'erbs of thinking (see § 179) : hold as customary. and the subjunctive. iroLelv. (€) {^ regard. - (first ). hold. optative. infinitive. — ^/?. believe. not think I think I am '^ wise. Conjugate in the same way I believe.

.. Et " § 113 e. in which. to . elSevau. to. elScvai to .fiS-). do. TE () o€oaL F. - § 115. point out. .€. ). ol oe • re 5 '. -. try you will reap the fruit ! {6$.). in the Sv § 195. ^. in which way. . suspect.. olSa.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . way. Aevopos '. — do not even be suspected. foi5. care for. -\€. infin. F. take care of (Gen. . ^ " Kat € elSevai eiSevat. make pl^n^ €-€. (). . KaC both . T€ . having learned. . ." €. indicate. know 41 secretly (fe'S- signs Cf. OIMAI ". . § 115. ) .. fare (wpay^• pragmatic. .-. . ' . deliberate. -eivai crlyfj — turn. () rpoiros way . practical). () everywhere (oD where). semaphore. do not even permit yourself be suspected. think manner. and. . . -.

dicit.. 114. . . ..^. . — : — 6 . 136.. '. one has at one time.^ . . — 310. . " another another. — 9• . . . aStKeiv 2. alius aliud « 1. . 4• 5- 6. — . . 3- . 8. . "^ )() . . ^ ett'at . 7- — — MevavSpo^. . ^. — — ^. 560 . another at another.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 42 (another says another {thing)) one says one thing.. . — '. ).^.^ irepi yap ) . .' aya^ct. .

too much. 0€. 10. will fly aloft. beware. ! — Translation by Dr. for any one. To .). §§ 79 . 81 .). is possible. alel (del) () I shall always this be called a maiden. Review the forms already learned ." . 80 of . and written in the old. xf)v)(r)v My cr^erXt'. name. Attic alphabet (date c. Love. 7. thou wretch . 11. ^— soul that swims in fire forbear.^ ? THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK II ^^rA 43 CDP4 ^ lkV>^» A ^ i<fei<t.. ©Z^Or TOY TO LAXO^ rA ^' ... ' XXIV. Kairj^. Avev {) without living wisely.^^orA| :• Al ^l . . 8.g. ck it without (Gen. A metrical tomb inscription found in Attica. . to burn so oft She too hath wings. • \ (6 = -. . 600 e. . Or she having received . . atet.- Walter Headlam.

the verbs cited in these sections. toil. rrjs apeTrjs rbv loe loill their wealth for our respectability (Gen. (0) Love. -/€///€^ '^ - ' e^et. '€ to. TE . poor. 62 (entire). . flight. and vv| night. virtue. § 116 e). excellence. be = penury. --. ' <^. pi. Cf. «yireSov firm. €. ttovos). . the soul sioimming in fire. of are the vulgar In this quotation the and breeding. the ayaOoi those of good birth . () imng. and encaustic work (cf. "Epws ? ' ^ aet. vT^pvyas. $. ' Cf. . burn. () F. possessions. unflinching. cruel.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 44 Master Formation of the Future §§ 61.^ . _ (in poetry also () ) . many times. ^ set fire (- (--). § € 30 A. . . Ace. not take-in-exchange Value or Exchange. | XXV. () / flee. — 315-318. ('? Eros. €. lasting. Tot Cf. To •^ The Third Declension learn the declensions of — : Read carefully goad.) () aUi F. : Herewith Exercise 21. . fugio.

€. 269 cr/cta . . W. ^\. Ace. distinguish. loutish. large knife. F. Cf. () () " 45 22 . ).. . bo-ns whoever. § Greek. < -.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK lion.. ^. () -wTos love. deov oiSe 3• left side. . . <. .). on the -6v - -oi/ highest {of all). 1. yap iare . anchor. Eros. ' € — %/. — )— . awkward. . experience ivithout ? - (Gen. boy. 27. () -ovTos old man.)( 52. 0eov. of 7^p(ov €$ man^ mother. 6 irats child. /c eariv. — 5• megaphone. Tod 4- left- . critic. ovic — 6. ' ) 2. — •% veot . Cf. Cf. \ ^. §34. . ^ .. § 33 31 - . - () (§ 61 d) separate. . . Tt ' 509 ajKvpai '^ 623 €^^^ €<. divinity. voice. handed. judge. *< () () dirk. 4. father.

. nrepl — same error. . 8. lesson. -. Plato tells us that these words were said to have been spoken by an Egyptian priest in the course of a conversation with the Athenian statesman Solon. Review the preceding of the make sweet.. § 51. avSpl / yvvrj. . . giving grace. numerals €is Herewith Exercise 22. '—— €^. 4. 9. XXVI. They serve to remind us of "the eternal boyhood of the Greeks " 6. tioice to perfume (). 10.it bis perfume - perishes. — 634. To " . and add the declensions . . to -. 121. (?). TtTxapes. Tpcis.. ttJ 5 . . —) ^. : the e^. . 164 . THE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK 46 " 7.. 9• . - W. -€ •' ^.

9 -5 47 — — . § 39. 4- 6. 1. 6 ^. 1. 408. ) .. TLKTeLv. stature -ijpos ^ Cf. . () () both. distinctive ^.make known F. F. ^. . ^. Et? ecrrt ^ bear to. -e/cos give birth -). mortal F. character. (rsK-. ^. . he graved or impressed. . trast -ov () . ot . -at -a -? -bv Xeaiva opKos 1.•.. fox.. () immortal. 25. --. —^ — €1/ 26.• Con- banquet-song. drant. 6\. hydrophobia. mark a en- mark. *^^/ 5- " ^/^'. Orcus. loithovt ." ^. oath. usu- ally in this sense as a passive €. bloio. upbraid. — MevavSpov. health (vyieia). . € ^^ good in ^ . /. . F. lioness. breathe. -i(j fraud € ? (? () () cunning).." — . " 168.^ . • — Ne/u. 2. hy- {). " 3• () () Cf. - F. ^. : reproach. () . . (?)) {-).. 7• Ov/c vale! water.FIRST YEAR OF GREEK TE . growth.

. . active participle of the progres- - and is declined accordand third declensions the masculine and . Herewith Exercise 23. Participle ^. to become beautiful in growth (stature. — sive action-stem has the suffix ing to the \6<^ : neuter being of the third declension. - being loved. . and \iyov felling.. Decline . . rjherat and Exercise The 99 2. — one (only).. § doing. being with. . Uses of : the ol8a... . appearto be young with one's friends. 18. 8. * XXVII. § 50 - being. 5. §§ 173-176 (especially with . Gods and men 7^vos (to) race. ' iwi are of the for giving birth same race. first aet. To yap Review Lesson The < XXI Participle. Sevrepov 8e \ " TO '. : - making. '-€$. Learn the declension of A. ance). -. being present. to ^^ \j* f - § 129 g. The mother of both is the Earth. the feminine being declined like § 28. by 2. . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 48 avhpl 'TytaCveLV 8..

am / ). later. 6 ). find a tvay (iropos). in. per. () due measure. . ^^ 405. differ.. € () \ ( -yvo-. ). () -6v av ' Papvs heavy. the Cf. 25 Kaipos endurable. hysteronprote- roii. hoio ! that < (= '). ence.. oihiv bear apart.. . . pros- it -. Cf heterodoxy. .-€€ «^. muddle. Cf. — Mevav'^pov. 2. 446. opportunity. T^ 1. appears (so).. believe (in) (Dat. 558. be it all in a (Imperative). ? such (a case). ovScrcpos ovScVcpov turn again. 7• nei- . have faith (in).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 49 TE -/ -. cv the right €€ barometer. — ^^. JliaTeveLv Set ? as. 627. another. ^ ther. 532. €T€pov other. . puint of lime.. thrive. know). eariv . (71 •€ (of two). .. Cf. ^ . TTotet — € § 197. — . he ignorant iyvoia. . ear) — Kat — . (« remember ! trust. Cf. makes no differ- eiJwopoi. — . 354. 3- 4- 5- 6.

. ^. . is a bore (he notice being heavy) rls ^. ovhkv ^-. who own . . etc. ^ . . .. ^Eo'Ttl•'. loves not to be loved in return whenever one'loves another {) is it by this one not possible for one whom he loves? . $ . lohich.» . . ^. '. . 6 .• Tt 6 . "E/xot-ye . ^^'. 7.' 15 . -. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 50 8. . 6 Nat. t he fails to observe that he %- (. 6 . 1. . . ovSpov . 6 8. . . ' ianv yap ev — 398 . escapes his 10. . — . ? . TLva i^rj. . /. 6 5 ' — 9• . . . 6 .^ ^^ . .. Tt ' . . .

( ? XXVIII.^ — ?.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . ^ ? - ' • '' ^ ... — ' ^ . they observe very accurately. ^. .. he had. m .^. 2. * they made.'/^ *Avrjp . ypaOv) an old wovian. pulled out the hairs.. 3• eluoai. - 4• "8 XXVII). full of evils {faults). ^ he got. To Tliareoetv Bel Copy ) - 701 ^ .^ ^ 410. several times the selection (Lesson 1. . . is . . themselves. ^ - • 1 €\< ^.. ^ from they do not see. . evTv\eiv.. . ^ . — 2 — — MeVaz/8/309. ^ . /cat 51 ^ ypaOs (Ace. .

€ €. § 172. € XXIX.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 52 Before proceeding to the following lessons the pupil $. 641. -6 prevent. os said he braid. '}'.5. is clear. . To 'Aei "\ Seovre^ «:09 . clearly. Moreover. of the third declension.. - TE €. Indefinite Relative and Temporal Clauses. 167 B. of the first and second declensions of nouns and adjectives. €«•() said I (mid 8 pu7ush.-. 40. allow. avTos . he should make himself master of the vocabulary. Herewith Exercise 24. both words and phrases. (). as presented in Lessons XXV-XXVIII and of the forms of the verb indicated in Lesson XXIV. . os . forbid (Infin. 170. Review Lesson XV and Exercise 13. up- visible. . they permit. it (and he and ' said). The Infinitive Avith Verbs of Preventing. ' — . §§ 21-25.). 29. €( () manifest. II b (7). Ace. with happy. I said). . 168 B. dear. §§ 28. a good genius blessed (). §§ 166 B.. - - : €K€ivos -. . - () he a slave strike at. should have a thorough mastery of the pronouns -. . employed in Lessons IXXVIII and in Exercises 1-23.

methinks.) I suppose. . 1 This selection from the Lysis (pron. .. . . superlative sail). ' ey. thus. -8 Adv. 6 . -. and is later repeated and expanded.-^^. MEN ' iyco. .3* • . altogether. spirit. . suppose . ? 5 Xeye. qiiam. V very much. . . ]^€ " yeveadai. € ere . «- Voc. ye ^ eVt- €. Tiiese particles suggest a certain hesitation in putting the ciuestion. (€ yap ^^ sible. i SWvdx^viXi^ %\ TiO^ . blessed. IVsis) of Plato extends through Lesson XXXIII. Cf. ' . ourws (oSros). -lov in every way.• €. ^ of 65e. eivai 6 . 53 eivai ere 6 ' . () Tpoiros(o). € . desire. - . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK $ = -is «5 ? . A'l OY. soul. quam beatissimns. ere 1. happy. as happy as pos- elvai . (end. eoye. ei ae €€ 5 ere SrjXov yap . AE ye. Socrates is seated with the lad Lysis upon a bench in a gymnasium at Atliens. €. ^- Nat ovSev eVt- - ye. $ ( (i/iai) (ttiSs () voyage with . as follows.•). . . (0) Lysis. .

also of TO chariot. in truth. sale. sell. ? () hire. F. money {Apyvpos (0) silver). one. Ruling. etc.- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 54 8. " . .. § 27.. () . . reins. (they are eager) they eagerly con- . -- offer () « () q^tid vero 9 coined silver. § 116 e. b) bring to an end complete. . § • : . ^' — etc. . €-« turn (over) to . - F. Value. and Genitive of Price. '^. The Third Declension Learn the declension of ris who? what? and tis tl some one. () - («). permit. . . vero.. § 32. - be happy. ^evos race. TE () rule. Lat. cf. ('£) . any one. with Verbs of 115 g. sider how you might Trot €^ ? become. verily.. () (for surely. . driver . XXX. to oVoi. PI. en- trust to. bridle. execute. ^' ae 6 . --- furthermore. § 35. (). . 9. MEN Xeyet? elvaL pay (a debt). tcages. -ov free. § 19 for pay. () hired servant. Herewith Exercise 25.). . is the indirect form of ttws.• ' from (Gen. etc. / To .

if you-cnnceive-a-desire to ride .. employed with great frequency after interrogatives. 20. 26. 3° . contending (in a race). . ^ . . . . . e. ^. . ^ . rj . ecocrt . ). and . (& is is ifev). fjv 2 . is an intensive particle. 22... ^. . . . &v they would permit (cf.. ... §§ 106. § 192. . - r^ ' Ecrrt Tt9 ) 19. . etc. . 116 MEN ^. : 25 whom . upon {some) one. \ - . . . and to take (strictly but . 55 then 9 etc. 6 35 . €^17• . . . (- when he takinrj). ' . . Se' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -) < .

still. ? hoio f (the tone is scornful). means. To — An owl to Athens. mule team. -- . at- (). slave very altogether. () 115 26. The Genitive with Verbs of Touching. ^ .). The Reflexive Pronouns : : § 23. '. 34. handle touch. their affairs. . € {%). furthermore. Cf. . the 6. think more of. 29. XXXI. . . irXeiovos they Tjyodvrai 33. €. hold in higher esteem. in turn. c. 6€. . 31. The Third Declension §§ 30-35..''^ . () ().& etc. loillingly. iraid-aywyas. intentionally. § who many wholly. The 6. TE . ^ muleteer. . TOUT eVrt. -OVTOS ruler ? of course. .TEE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 56 28. -ov our surely not () tended a hoy.v is repeated later &v. 30.? ^ 178. €. : strike. - -ov your {i^eh). II. Cf. again. .v. whence 9 wherefore no one. Herewith Exercise () lead. yes. by all . " Coals to Newcastle. (to) () 32. (Gen. . . doubtless.

ei's .. etc. is free.^ 6 . 8. . 45 6 39. ' .MEN (5et- Accusative and infinitive construction . €. for one who ( surely it-is-a-dreadful-thing upon). -. . . ' ). . . A' ap^etv . § 114. . 47. yap. ^ ).• ]. after deivov 44. €- ia-Ti) . 50 . .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . . ". . 7rat3a7w70s 41.. 40. This is the interrogative ris -). . ^' 57 . musical instruments. ^ . ^. ' / / < -.• '' . . .^ ^ eVt . etc. /ipxei Ti's . ( The slave who conducted the Athenian lad to school. SovXov . . is a familiar figure on Athenian vases. . he sets over ' . MEN € €.. ^l•» oe " . ^.• 4° .• . € /. .. ' ^. yoip . . carried his writing-tablet.

54. . To Aevrepov ^/ Uses of ^9. intensive study of the passage contained in the preceding 11. {') time of {it § 121. § 158 ditional Clauses. now. . why? 'pray? jitst ieivos . (c) Modest Assertion. §§ 165. .. eg.€8. . 48-56. "- . €vi « . the (b) Question. Adv. § Subjunctive: 156 . Tivos () on what account. life. in this case. § her. iireiSav 49. not yet what. dreadful. . § 116 b). . - he of age.1 OS ^ 75.' 48. <C. 167 Make an ys that § 120 a). . . SHE permits.• tire day. • iyco. . (^ for happy hoy in any respect. nourish Contrast turn. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 'H/act^cXet? el 55 ' €. age. BaSi^e aury 110. eXerjs . siirely you havenH wronged XXXII. await (). and he said with a laugh. . -^ rear. a task to (one). lacks little. . all. . throughout the enin a icord. (-). pray? what in the world? why? here. at be her 51.. Tt 52. ^ . fKeiv-q you may ^r when{ever) you return home. almost.- €. .f . . Tc hvcuA nr^ -TAn^i^pAjflLW OuC^Aw'^^^ 4-P ^^AinwvjCUU) . . § 155. . yet. () wait for. assign €.. a minute ago. -- ?. post. . arrange. 62. put in or- der. station. «- \J-^ ^ ' -' . \ — . TE -€ . § 160. (d) Con- (e) Final Clauses. (a) Exhortation.58 . •7€.

. ] . () 61. . 60. . . . ypa. doing almost none of the things modifies desire. in those matters of iiyoev. e\yoev whereas just speaking (iv toutols etc. iya. 65.^-^ . 62. . MEN ' TLVo'i AE ^? -\6- ^^ ). yap . . $ vayvrjva ij /\. ^. iv 6\iyov you 70 . iv ots 5e & iv ttj you first of those. SovXevopTa aet ovhev . referring to . Avert..^^^-.3. 4 • - • . . 158.' ere ivl "' OY. \. ak 72. ) - €. . eivai . -. 65 iv .. e^eerrt erot . § 102). iwei 6 . '^ ye roaovde since such a matter as \.. 66. . ere. fj ^. /Vvfi/'^ ^ (\ THIS. V. "§ .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 59 . ^7^ ^^7^ 6 6 ' /. 6. ' J^ .r|va^ something either to be read or to he written.' . ye iwei ere. ^• . which we were . %€. .

Cf. () might). household manadministration. have ?iotise-steward. boundary. § 27. ' ' . . '\ 6 . (Gen. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 60 XXXIII. --'. as a direct. be Cf. § 115 g) Cf. § 61. well then! bo-ir€p which very {one). limit. 26.-. 169. Dictation exercise based The on 48-56. experiment) -ojOs very well ! opos () manage manage. hear. Review Exercises 21. of {-). tis.. . MEN Ele v. experience {iv).. . () () () 75 () Cf. () £ agement. The Formation of the Reflexive Pronouns. ' — Mevav8po<.. To /7€/[) }? TOi a7reipia<i . etc. . prevail {-) stand over charge ( of. of Declension Future. (as TE ' 6 -\\) . standard. ^see. neighbor. aesthetic. . - sufficient.. () - inexperience (-. crov thrift. hold sway {over). trial. economy. .. director). 11. £( rule. horizon. 25. - () master perceive. § 23.. .

. '^ '"' to be . ^.. this day. V' .. '--- ^ Tpei//et '^ ^ 6 ^^(. . .. I uLcM irorepov otet t7)v 8 cre . so. .^. . to-believe . .. Tt8e. MEN ^ .^. . . go 95 w\ et$ which we become expert (6$ wise. ' • € . . ^^ 86. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . . in these {matters) sagacious) Cf.• otet 'E/xot aot ".'. - \$ ^. . 85 ." -. . -^ . in ' .. 75. ' ^. . on on the very day on which he-comes- .

. . Verb-roots. 93. impedio F. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 62 Stand in one's way. that ichich seems best. XXXIV. infinitive. both active and middle. Conjugate in the same way manding. . . . eh . § 52 Personal-endings Aug(thematic and non-thematic formations). . TToOs eis . . / 1 I am a7n eating : €€ I am am (Past-Impf. Te'rapTOv -^ '^ ^. (a) the present tense^ and fect tense . using as the type-verb.^ all of the forms built upon the progressive action-stem. A. seen (Les- upon which the Greek verb is built. agree with {'). () ^. . The Progressive Action-stem. and particiconjugational system of ple. - so fa)• as. hinder. is the progressive action-stem. . and upon this stem are formed a subjunctive. impede. 95. optative.. . imperative. § 79. row — The Verb. urging^ com- / ). B. 94.90. . (^iv . . . §§ 53-56 ment. § 135. & . ^. (come-to-possess). 92. The pupil should now master moreover. or («) the present indicative. § 57 Meanings of the Imperfect. See § 133. forms () the past imper- and () the past imperfect indicative. ' . In the indicative two tenses: tiie mood this stem. son VI). (-)). etc. . . . the first As we have of the action-stems. -/) preventing^ writing^ I am Usually called for the sake of brevity simply imperfect tease or imperfect indicative.

" . - iw-erpenev- "^-^. Past-Impf. Past-Impf." — lying. Impf. Ace. ephemeral. -. yiyvo- heiyig I am answering (Past- ^).. rub. Past-Impf. I am - lam -^. () (). ''^ . $ . Past-Impf. the days. € (- truly () turn (over) i-ir-^rpeirov intrust to. § 113 f. amivilling. permit. lam 63 becoming. curry {ktcLs turn ^^ () barley. Cf. Usually () manger. to. ---. comb).). Past-Impf. allow (Dat.). (Past-Irapf. of - Extent of time. I am holding. | THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK di/ing (Past-Impf. . -). €) -. TTjs avTTJs. erpenov (o). I have /m's/t. . Herewith Exercise 27. plural. TE . to eat. comb. prevented. . () a groom. diatribe. EN ovre if — 6 ' . day. (Past-Impf. () eat. \/. taking counsel. " eivaL. Cf. 228 . -. every day (all . et%oy).

the three types of neuter § word 32 {cf. — XXVI. '. € .'77^5. ". € € XXXV. >}. 29 decline . . -.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 64 \ /. Review Lesson nouns to : §35. • rjoov -^&} ' \oirrov . . . . -. — T7}S 4. epic) tvall (of a city). vevpa I changed past imperfect of 176. the strings (veOpa) yesterday. Like TO l^cvYos yoke ^ 2 "Ytvos '. and § . . . : . ^ \iyeiv ok 6 '^^ aoeiv.€\\)< 5 ^ vevpa TYjv €. '.

) (to).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK - -.).-)). Scvpo hither. to (Gen. throw Academy. to. .^ ^. an enclosure (- noQtv.. (rj) = 07it?ide. -. opposite against (Gen. o|ios -. TE rub €. «. . go. spring. near the postern. '. ( () tern over youth. ineLOrj - 5 . Cf. Lyceum. pastime. () Cf. lohence? trvXLs \ in which place. fountain.<. ^) (' in the place oppo- Iv site. . ^ev ret^o? • -. A' Meve^ivos. () worthy. pos- () gate). () () boat) through. ^ - . however. ?. in this place. rub away. ^1 ' -? . come in. spend (time). » . be on one''s loay. . opposite. (. -. the heave alongside. re . . -. € ' () (- straight toward. waste (time). proceed. lohere. (a come alongside. the surely.. without (Gen. () young man. ). () 65 -$ a small gate. truly. Thermopylae.). -lov worth lohile. (6) veavio-Kos here.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 66 evOv Aevpo Xeyet?. ' tjv Aevpo. XXXVI.. epyco ' ©€07^9. I came upon Its etc. €... when I arrived the spring of nacoTTos not known. . -^ 2. . 3.'-€. Sij. €. . the latter to the east. '] — '. . exact location both Hippo' thales. . § 195. 6 ' 15 1. the These were gymnasia in the suburbs north of the city. 6. I «. . . 10. § 93. €^ /cat ^. i//xas represents us 'F" . fJOL re § 92).. Whom -- seeing (as he saw) do you tovs mean To ^ ' % approaching. . Panops {). . ' so in line 13. with a gesture toward. 4. and Ctesippus of the deme of Paea'nia. am going. • . Aristotle his in the Lyceum. ) . ". " (9). along the road OUtside. 979-980.? (-) --. a door Standing open. . of § 91 (and and learn the conjugation of Review the conjugation €. /cat . deltas 13. former of Athens. . pointing out. oe. the son Note the of Hiero'nymus. to the ) Plato established his school in the Academy. is . .. . ^-.. (). ' ?. eyw. . . became). . eiOii 12. Herewith Exercise 28. by me /xas. position of re 6. (lit.

. e-ov e 16. K. sequor). professor. recently {vios). - . • ' 6. ye ^^? eVecr^at. . able. /caXcDs 20. iCdrjs in order that you may SEE. . Emphatic. . {acting beautifully) you are very kind.). ( -( () at the £ same time. (TO J 23. -\> . wrefitling- school wrestle). € . '. sophist. ye a comrade of YOURS. (-. ' oe uicrrt OTj €. iVa /cat 4. () a master (of one's for the gladly {s). I went in. noielv. worthy. used as a future (. ^..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 67 TE () am I oi & going . • . after. €. follow (Dat. emphasizes i'Stjj. must part. which we would share loith you (§ 115 a).sufficient. 24. . 2 . & IS? €-€' ' ye. § 189. ' 25 § 198. /. () palaestra. taking C. - with. craft). together () admirer praise). later than -ov (Gen. ^.. . recently built. /. 19. . . oe ev ' So? oe €. ' ^.<.4 ^ -^. . lohat . tl €. eyoj.) Cf. . ^]. ? -- . . 18.

: -- . -^^ 3 ' re )()^ .( (-\€ 27-29. having sacrificed) - xvith the offerings scarcely . late - -. charm side by side with you look at his canvas on the laugh and speak and munch alongside of that. loilhdrawing. ^\$ (Perf. {they) Stood around. .) the {duties) connected completed {having been done) . 6 and attire. the sacrifices finished 5). etc. . ev ^ avXrj. -)€% . selecting. 6 35 Si 27.. playing. actually moving their mouths to I . -- Oil entering we found. .$ iraWas iepe7a (Perf. 33. Trans- the duties at the altar scarcely yet completed. 36. : . {having been adorned) dressed in festal .- We found the boys. Part. and for life-like Murillo's Beggar-boys (you catch them. ^ 31. Part. Note the position. {- even''). play at "Put ' odd and Cf. Pass. . if sudden. . Observe the free use of the participial construction .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 68 . )-^ ) ) ) . - .. . .

114. \^ To Interrogative Sentences (Direct and Indirect). - (Past-Impf. . It scarcely over.. 69 There at once) the scene in the Lysis of the dice-players. Herewith Exercise 29. 6." p. £. . turn oneself around. re- () - 7£vvatos ' . thereupon. XXXVII. in the midst.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK their crusts. . all the boys are in full dress to take part in a religious ceremony. hesitate. . he was clearly. . . others in a corner. . § 81 A-B. so as to. is — Pater. look (). in the same way. . TE (€ -. noble between. Mid. ^ - - in the midst of play.£) with {epis () -tSos strife). -ov {yev-. hesitate (past-impf. . . vie observe. gard at. shrink (from doing) (past-impf. . § 19 b). § 178. . The Verb Learn the conjugation of the past-imperfect .. strive. -. but they are already busy with the knuckle-bones. for dispute. 8 •) well-born. Plato and Platonism. meanwhile. Intensive. €. for a time. ). : and middle-passive) of the contract verbs in -€. repeatedly. some just outside the door. ). and conjugate in like manner (active the past-imperfect of : he at a loss. turn (twist) about. frequently. then. -^)) () (^Stand apart {- (§ 61 (end)). so that.

Future Par- ... 50. § 175. . ' --. ^ ^/> ovu 6 . . looking at. to approach. ep^erai. ' • . lohen he saw. ). eireira 6 etcr- . in this respect. Purpose. -$ ticiple of ^-. I shall not they said. --'- -€€. - he came to sit (loion beside. . . . . . . 53. . jei 46. ask. ivith more beautiful..^-. 40-41. -\.^ . ) 45 ^ eihev e/xe re /cat 6 emero ^ Meve^evov ' 5 • .. . . iyaXaffav they laughed.. 4 rjnopei re fxeu -4 coKveL -. . 54. ws 44. ' eyeXacral•' . 55 43. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 70 . --. . to come toward. a glance toward. 52.

declare. d) Indirect Discourse. say (Acc.-Infin. (Past-Impf. chance upon.). Meve^evov. § 162.)• Perf.. / asked. () a etc. () () ing hack () recollection. eSo/cet Tvy^aveLv. . /. -•5 88 . Conditional Clauses. chance. () to a call- memory. § 168.. participle to (and Plupf. . happen (constantly used with part. < "^. the act of learning. Intensive Study of 11. gain. (). hit upon. am come. tl — 72 ev The Participle with the Verb The Four Uses of the Optative § 176 . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK XXXVIII.. () -- put one\s hand (xeip) to (a work). a sort of (Gen. To <{ 71 \ OKTO) . attempt. am gone. XXXVIl). TE -€. obtain.). c) ^?. : a) Wish. saying. 46-55 (Lesson .. tling. c. to ask.. B. b) Potential § 163. § 179. hit ) . '--^ gonr.. ~6 . etc. I have € II.- ' ) < teacher of wres- gymnasium-master 8l- -.) to I have come.

59. tions of the XXXII. " - he was (as charge of the sacrifice). vms calling (him). . . ' . . 6 .-- I teas on eSo/cet . . chanced) acting as iepoiroios (a magistrate v:ho officiated at sacrifices). (b) Irregular §§ 46-48. . The Third Declension A-B () as in the preceding lesson. . review §§ 27. . found in Lessons the point of asking dirorepos . stand). Read carefully. 56-68. \€ . 48. To . €- (). inclusive. . sacrifice {to be in it ' .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 72 €€ €u' ^. Herewith Exercise XL. approaching he summoned (lit. of this passage is . Intensive Study of Review Lesson XXX porto 30. II Avcnv ovv XXXIX. 50 11. . . •^ ' be read carefully in review. . XXXIII and 89-45. *?. Yjv (The continuation XXIX-XXX 56. 58.. it ye. . the found in Lessons . caused to saying that the gymnasium-master - he appeared to he officiating at the . * . To SeovTes ' V Comparison of Adjectives: (a) Regular. 30-35.) should iir-exeipovv § 179.

() death secretly. {-. love passionately {rf. (active Learn the conjugation of the verbs in : voice) () : Conjugate - )'€« ()() ask (a question^. therefore. same way in the for. § 19 b). ipa. laugh. and ask {a question). To MoVo9 '. . (} honor . attention. am paying (for eVe- •••- tlvi say kriow well! ev Cf.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 73 €. . clearly. «. : {cf. Genitive with Verbs of Herewith Exercise 31. Cf. then. it is time to be air-ievai. time. worth. (). 161. j)layfully. iv d. () season. etc. ((5/)) see. (Wov Isaid. whisper.8. tell. cf. say. at this topsis. value. again. TAtvt^ivov without the notice have gone. The Verb Contract verbs in -€ constitute a very large and important class. Similar to these are contract verbs in -. back again. honor} yearn (e/aa) desire. . \9 . § 194. Cf. which however are far less numerous than those in -€.). thereupon. boyishly. - have come. § of Menexenus. I declare. Past-Impf. know! \/. going away. moment () = '^ () . 115 Desiring. ! ws to the best of one^s ability. hour. XLI. thana- unnoticed by (Gen. I shall say. I g^o». -).. TE . 5. — ^. airep the very things which. § 82 A.

. .^ 6 65 Meve^evov. ^--- from (in the place) X^ets.. - . . --). . \ 70 . . dvep 71. ]. Avert • . is . %. . - .''^ tell. . . in order that you may .. had arisen lohich he The (68) ''also to me mnemonic go) out (whence also he stood up (to go) out). 72. .. 8 -^. ' 6 iv Meve^evo^ . ). .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 74 . . idiomatic {to . . ' eiVijs to recall. (). . . .. . ' ' . . . ^/. ) 75 65.• '\. etc. . ' ). 4 y ipei^. . • . . Cf. .. cf. fxe €9. also to Men. -^.. ' - ' 6 .

2^ossess. croL. . () the (act of) possessing. () he feasting. pos- session. 11. Vesta. I am acquiring. 84. ' €wi-Kovp^aeis shall. banqueting.. XLII. . § 175 g. 85. — The Grenitive Absolute. you share. () hearth.• ('). Cf. )? ear ipdv. 75 that you aid me in order that I {see how you may become a laughing- . Intensive Study of ^?. being asked (a question) getting possession 2. TE «- . / am 358. ' \)<. paSiov — . 64-75 (Lesson XLI).). . Cf. or|s you may • reprove see . etc. . Cf. () possession. €$ doiiH you any one). 8 . .^ ovhev rjhlov ipdre 7]^ ?. KTfjo-iS --. the fellow. -.. give a share of. fjf. stock? 83. . . of. ' ^TEE FIRST YEAH OF GREEK . the chap. conjugate . 6 —^ € TOL $ 77. The Verb Learn the conjugation in - : ^ Like § 82 B. . of the contract verbs (middle voice). ^ Kara-y^XaffTos 81. 85 . To AevTcpov mind any one (have no care for ' 9 ? 78.

. . . . 6 — - -/^. olos. -^. () -ovos cock. 5 mildly. () gold). honor Cf. €. . 6. . -. . ' .- • ^. share your conversation. . such (as) toiovtos calmly. ortyx. . (rd) . timocracy.. . () (such) as. toward these. money .. . coined gold. -€ \6yv you . 6 go ). . tohat () -v7os quail. ortygan. . ' . knows. . ' . Cf.. . . -(? toioOtos . 92. 90. ) . . gently.^' ' 95 (). • .. child value. . Cf. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 76 () () % '. .! . . . . 6 . irpos (-. . but he says he thinks .

( /s). () quickly ($). (Gen. re veoi ' ^ \ '. 103.^ la. A - XLIII. § 195. . 11 11.) (-). tachyg- raphy. . 93-106 (Lesson XLIl). 6 S. ' . ' () with the Participle. or . II. (Infin.te at Indie). Herewith Exercise 32. empiric. : night. olos 175 e € § 172. rbv A favorite oath to get 104. easily Cf. Quails also were domesticated and used in various sports. ireipa). cial favorite.. Cf. of. no . vi] . TE £8( ££$ - () consider (one) fortunate experienced in (Gen. . c was an fighting-cock espe- .) Tiixovs. . : (b) far along in •£ so as so that to. § of pets. whatever I ask you.V The Athenians were fond 102.) (a) far from {G&n. Intensive Study of <..< .8. . (if.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 95.. possession To «. are . ^. . of Socrates. .

€ ^. . €5. . Intensive Study of § : . . (JvKovv .: THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK 78 ' you acquired. . . . €. . -. - . . 110. 6 . fJLOL ju. ^. . To Declension of the Active Participles 50 § . (. ' - 33. . ' . . iav 20 ?. ^. SoKOV(Ti \ yap 125 ^'/< . . 6 Tt . 107-113 (Lesson XLIII).8' . . . . €. %^ . . . : . ^. I' 6 Sia } -. in lohat way (). 111. Herewith Exercise 113 e). of the 115 6 ^. 6 ' . 113. ) . . . Middle (Passive) Participles iroiovp-evos. 11. . €( XLIV.

) the very {experience) ). set in motion. rj ^^ y^P? eivai . ' 120.. -€ accent. Intensive Study of -. (. 11. differently (it) seemed. have a way totally at a loss. § pay heed 115 h) regard (Gen. - cover. . find out. which lovers Cf. oe. their darlinys. s an re € () . . eSo^ev. (Cf. . Sokcl Review the past-imperfect (active and middle) of verbs -... etc. ' -» --- ?. to . and Uses of the past-imperfect. 137. lam well off. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK lav re ) .. . To in etc. drive away. Cf. ' . intensified otherioise. 134. is it ivLore 122. -((. -. -- call to (one).. (eviore 135 possible for one-whn-loves. %. stir summon. sometimes I suppose 133. I am (to do). s (?). €• XLV. - "EotKei^. be vexed. € . .. deliciae. 124. TE () feel irritation. -€. 123. I am do). all in am able (to a muddle. . 6 /cat ^€€ 79 130 ev ) . €$). annoyed. . kinetic. favorites. speak with a foreign speak somewhat () brokenly. 127-137 (Lesson XLIV). dis- up. § 135. move. €.

— 138. ^ . € € iv «-. late. -^ iv 6 145 a being together. — have become. in- tercourse.() . yeybva^ev ' Slaves were usually foreign-born. ' 140 6i/>e " {-). brought to an end. 139. . . 145. 152. ' -. count. ^. 153. yielding to them {becoming less than they). have in mind. ^ ^ \ .. intend. ^. ^ -. -€\€ 148. I . . 8> . . 6 " ' - ' 150 . conversation late in the day. &- like {evil) spirits. . then. as they tcere going away. ice dissolved. place. . € € 5 150. -. -. after saying these things. . . . 147. . . . ice I set. i^-evpdv ice were able to discover.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 80 () iripi-t^rr&Tts the bystanders. ' .

€ ev — Review the ' irepavai} @€.. B). 0$ . €• question succeeds question and dilemma. ©/ / Herewith Exercise . -^ he erected. vepavai to bring to an end. ev last four lessons. . to -—. e^ To }. l> I.^^ OCD €39 ^ €•. until at length he exclaims in despair ^ \iyw. 187 K. and the third declension (including §§ 48. . accomplish (irepalvw) = . the unfortunate lad becomes more and more confused. Intensive Study of rA ^/^ "BOLO ^•. As sion is is reached. 50 A. I . XLVI. died. 1 11. dilemma. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK The Lysis 81 one of the dialogues of Plato in which no definite concluBetween the selection in Lesson XLIV and the closing paragraphs above about ten pages of the dialogue have been omitted. /^ f foi /'.: . A T-^ J^O X$ /^ . adding §§ 36-37: \€'). ^ A %€ having ( 138-147 (Lesson XLV). 34.

§§ 131-133. I langhed. € « € Aor. etc. To V-Z The Verb: Action-stems. . Other examples - € -. 1 e) Conditional Clauses. the most common formation consisting in the verbaorist-stem stem plus the suffix (§ 64). aorist active of way each . Indie. + -- St. . I made. . ^ - St. b) Question. I called. c) Aoristic Prohibition. ' « - I ''. 7€ do not lengthen the final e or to 57 before the . + -- St. d) Modest Assertion. St. Aor. Verbs form their aorist action-stem in one of several ways. § 157. and decline in the same given above. Indie.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 82 £ . . Indie. + + +<ra- . " XLVII.. : are: . of the verbs : a) Exhortation. + St. thus aorist indicative / loosed. / asked. . I did. . and aorist suffix. Indie. Aor. Aor. < «' «€( b2trst into Learn the conjugation of the § 79 A. Indie. . Aor. i) Final Clauses. Indie. St. Uses of the Subjuncti'e laughter.

acolyte. . 83 in- murder () murder).. () command. very sad -ov ().).^ € ^ ''^.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . ) &. . .. (65 . .. ^ • -^ '^ . it is difficult. ' ? '. aeon). much ooros -) -ov as Cf. 5 . . . -. () beggar.. • eiTTev. cLyadov einev ' 6 ^. -.. - -. ^. . €. fail of hitting. ^€).. (). (Dat. -. . -- Cf. ) . -. miss..-6 difficult. () 8 life. -. \ . '•09 Cf. -. €. ^^\: -? . Troie'o). . . . be hear false witness. 17 ' . . herit. fail. . TE () . an adidterer - lasting for an age (.. -. €€. . guard (-). () -ttjtos youth. TO ) -'^ — TTJs . €€ (-) €. ^. . zoology. follow. -. as.

iv distribute. is . in tlie battle of - Indic. . -. XeiVet e^et? • €^€9 . New Testament. ". ? . includ- . .V. A) and -. hevpo 6 — oiSas = S. passer-by. Outline the conjugation of ten or a dozen verbs. -$ .- . . lacking.^ ^ ^ ^ -€ "ing contract verbs in ing scheme (§ 79 I ' Progr. iyevero. -- rrjSe — ^<}. . Imper. Action-stem Future stem Aorist Action-stem XL VIII. see A'Ocabulary. iv eiirev . Subj.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 84 . announce to the Lacedae- obedient to their commands . 18. ^«-<» '. -.^ €-- ^ "8 -<£ Thermopylae loe lie stranger. having heard. the famous epitaph written in honor of the Spartans monians that here (TySe) <S Part. 9.-? -- --- 6€ — Infin. according to the Opt. €-/ On the style and language of the he became = . This is """ ^^o'i^' - -- --- -< -. Xi-ttv . €\ ayyeiXov 1 follow- : : who fell ( ). evayyeXiov by doing what 2. . remains. 5. 10. /'-'. '.

. ? he was biting. §§ 64 b. . () ijyyeiXa announce . () hare.€ ^^. bite.. . () -6 hateful. Aorists in -a. § 50 C. . make - remain. ( -. ( § 135. . (-). lick. he loould caress. kiss. wag the tail. aud pursue. incline.. ^. The Meanings 136 (especially the the Aorist. wait for. indicate to lean. have potcer point (). 85 A. Ace. hated. . hos- trori tile. \ . €. conquer. 229 . decline. (). Learn the declension of the aorist active participle in -aas. judge. (/)$) separate. tail. — 2. irori St at one time at another time. he xoould vayys. slant. .. . § of inceptive aorist). dis- tingnish.. . (§ 64 b) ayyiiXas.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 85 The First Aorist. \ayot)v 6 " Et ei. . Herewith Exercise . .. ayyeXoi messenger). . « bite 35. TE . out. fawn upon. €. (77-.4€'. . -. show. § 64 (a). eTirev • ei " vei<s .. cf. and decline in the same and without the way : . . |9. over.

. -. \ ^ . hi — . ^. . . being like). " ' . 343 ." 5 — deprived. of avTTJs. Ace.. • el^j^el•» -\. -. .\^ - is eXeye." 7. .. he found elpov it similar (lit.evSov vds evpov ok evprjaeiv 5 eKeivov. . (4\). he 5. . expecting 4.. .. 6 • 1.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 86 "Opvlv avrjp ^ . 353 . ok he ^^. 6 TTJs $.? . -?. 3.

)(. .. ' . .. . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK XLIX. .. 1. of the Genitive Case. 114-119. . £.". . §§ 111.. T^yetrat. avev 2. To .. — — — — 7- 9• 176 ^ 362. .' Sebi^re? -€ ' 87 — . C . 121. 485 D. /09.^^. — 8. 730 195 ^. 365 Review Lessons XLVII-XLVIII. . 52 a.. — 474 W. . ^ 2. . 8. %. -^. — — C..... The Uses yap. 23 ^. . Syj — 3• 4• 5- 6. AXTjOeia Xeyovauv. ^.

12. attain to. Cf.-. Genitive after in Com- position. 6 The sentence is .8et? — €. . . KaXeiv. 'E/c 11. 3. . § 116 h. acro-polis. \. . : ' -. The Verb : . § 119 ... etc.. . ei. '. § second). . 6. (). . . . (who are) has the construction of rich not in gold. () 1. 521 . of (first. ' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 88 10. and see § 137. \byoi. . L. 30. . - incomplete those loho are truly rich.^ . 79 A.. ^. come the heights. - — -] — -. e{jK\eia . Ot 12. . § 65. To M7. to. . Cf. '' . 4. 11. •79 OVTL . the Perfect Active Learn the perfect active Herewith Exercise 36. : Genitive of Time. . — .

on account (Gen. is written in Plato's noblest style. 8£ € day before yesterday. Tas at the door. The following selection. open {02)en up). but the gain in power will more than compensate for any loss of time. -. -€. -. () ijyyeiXa. iyepQ. Vesper. look I am awake. ^. ivtKo. Cf. the son of Apollodo'rus. strike. Cf. -((>. iyp-fjyopa . --. -6 -. . < . trict. dis- . 2<rir€po (17) evening.). It is therefore recommended that the class each day memorize so far as possible the portion contained in the lesson of the day before. Sec. to (^! town walking stick. € knock () down Kpoveiv to clap the hands. bacteria. . deme.). on what ac- count f at this time. to sleep. straight. tiBis straightway. A' €K en 6 . and extends through Lesson LXVII. - «-8€. ing.-. down upon (Gen. . into. within of. Pf ar- arrive. This passage of the ' 8' . -. (to) little walking stick. (et's)• for the sake of ivcKa.. rive at. ijyeipa awaken. llpuTay6pa% Protagoras is in taken from the Protagoras of Plato. . is . be in democracy). be asleep." seeking an introduction to the famous sophist Protagoras. Cf. - ac-ot'fw. so early. The rate of progress may thereby be somewhat retarded. lie § 57. epidemic. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 89 TE ^." or rather "early this morn- Town. why have you come so early wios (0) son. and is of its kind one most beautiful passages in Greek literature. ). Socrates relates to a friend how Hippoc'rates. - . -. Cf. came to see him "last night.() () = despise.

el• news. . . have you just heard f \\ a rush . 12... Cf. before daybreak. & X^yois that were well $ eC ! Cf. taking his stand. anything startling. Xiyeis. 11. Opdpot he eireifo^evos Came Straight in with recognizing. .? . 8. . . (^rushing).. dawn. 1. .. .. . . . . crow. 7. . . ineihrj 5 OF GREEK THE FIRST TEA 90 (tohile () it ?. $ ^ ' ' aya^ct ye.- '^. -^. 4. icas) still very early. . - eKpove. . ) 09. .s veurepov 9. () cock- early daton.. § 163. • .. . et ' . . . y'. -44 .. 7iOi.

^ SciTTVCO) ^ feel for.). hypnotic. intend (Infin.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK LI. dine dimmer. €- To Review the active forms : 91 of .(^ point out read.-€8 •. () excitement. -. sleep.. iJ - €. The Verb va etg. avSpcCa €•7€ as soon as. . -^ . KOTTOs (0) loeariness ^y -? -? (). ^. tell.. 'V^ ^ go to rest. Cf. -iroSos a pallet. -\\''< '. es- caped. he ran away.. then. to. () manliness a strengthened -. oxjje . ^-^. bed. . § 79 B. 6 6 crot ' 5 • ^2 . 137. iirvos . yap • rot -. and §§ 67. be about to. ^ Koi () () sleep. recognize. eXnev. --. - . at that time. - -. -() ().TE (a) -(. away. ^ -- grope for (Gen. run . relate {-) . desist. and learn the middle aorist and perfect.). supper).. .

. § 179. II B. § 179. and learn the conjugation of : Indirect Discourse. To - /cat . (it). Herewith Exercise 37. ava-ffTas arising (standing up). . LII. . it released.e. deme northwest from Athens near my 16. .e. 21. 22. say. \ ^ ere levai. ^. -dined). we were having 6$. Sedpo yJKevy 25 Tt - ' . . . . 17 . ^-.92 THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . though intending slave (boy) Satyrus. to tell €\\ you that I loas going € to - pursue. \ '. in the night (hours)). ye 15. 19. a village and the border of Attica. returned. (i. -6€ Oivbris having arrived from Oe'noe. i. -€\6 Tivos 7\ I came. § § 94. 17. . 18. . - because of something else I forgot we had dined (^. ^^ too far along () 23. 79 . ^ . § 98. ^ .e. The Verb Review the middle forms of declare. too late (i. I a future optative representing after the past tense This is the only use of the future forgot the future indicative is optative.

declare. F. find. -^. vaL Et ydp. () € but indeed.. oil . -. partly. ' . /cat ere . '. . un- one's -€. suade take. say.. my guest. good cheer! Pf. nunc. elwou. per- (€-). he of iJKOVffa. lodge (at unfasten. ert . money. above. see.€ 93 TE () ). .). . (). . £-€. ^. partly . . § 19 a. . here. Zev . .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . () would that ! then. -\ ^. 3° ' -- - 35 . rj . . . . super. ' 6. -. ti .' . . . -. . .. . ' €. house).-8.. jiever. there. coined silver. irap' he is (. . not yet. . Pf. (^). really. Aor. TO irpOTepov formerly. Aor. ' (too) early. over- --- yoke. on behalf of (Gen. etc. . veKa praise. ' • .%. now.

30 ei if . r\^ my own. 32. '. ? "^ . iws hv LIII. himself to a arise - it this very purpose. : (we § 172. 31. . . ^. (-\ . . \<. . yap ws OUT f. To /36/ : <.. . ment - TavTafor speak o^s 38. yau offer. . 30.forth . . ^. evwyyeXiov 6 vy • -'. in order that converse). €( as eZicos let (become). J ^ .. '... . the son of Hip- was a wealthy Athenian. life of pleasure -^ = ^. 45. — 0709 ^. II c.-. . is likely. yap '. Sore. Z^ ^ C ^ . ' -. . would that e'i-q neither amjthing of ^. irapa 44. = you may 35. adverbial TO -- . of sophists. etSe?. 39. 41. US . might depend upon this I as would leave untouched skilled in speaking..- Lwaev. who devoted and spent his money lavishly in the entertain- Callias. —: US Stand up . may find) at the house of Callias. -. ' ' oevpo avkrjv.^ -N . 37. adverbial poni'cus. of noble family. V.$ () and go out 43.! * . I let for the most part. -J ' evSov 45 28. -\^3 ' .. j THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 94 40 "^ ' . (?ioi) at all.

. . F.' : The Second Aorist : 95 Grnomio Aorist. eureka. « die A. «€ ^ . went (serves as aorist to or - irregularly retained throughout the moods. § 136.. -A. Master the following verbs and forms -. do not add a suffix to form the aorist. Herewith Exercise 38. or Of. •-€ -. root appear in if the aorists of Second or Root as are either (a) thematic or (b) non-thematic in formation (§ 53). The vast majority of verbs in Greek form the aorist stem by adding the and this formation is accordingly known suffix - or -a. . pelt (/3e\- Pf. €«.)^(-. find. The augment is -'). or cIttciv €. € came. . . cLTT-iQavov F. as the First or Sigmatic Aorist. throw. Pf. F.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK Uses of the Aorist . but em- ploy the verb-root (regularly in these known verbs accordingly are They Aorists. () € « . air-cGavov. In this lesson See aorists. . but of great frequency. €\(€ cvpeiv «. said (serves as an aorist to (for e-peirov) (/-). Pf. iN^ § we shall consider only the thematic second 63 and for the conjugation. Another group of verbs. €. -. -'). ^ efTTw. § 84. its shortest form. fewer in number. The more than one form). (-^.\. § 57.

Pf. especially the See Contrary to § 64. Pf.fiB- Pf. learn Pf. . ' pounds the accent is regular : iir-eXde go away ! .poiZ. F. F. .^. and the first -. -) .(yev. Review Lesson LIII. § 85. . F. -. . ^. . « ^ oiSa (^I have seen) qf.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 96 £ I ) saw (serves as aorist to . 39. "- become -. receive - leave (Xeirr- .yv-). yivi- - vB' also the conjugation of verbs in aorists in -a. «. . ciri €'•-€5• LIV. *€') ?.€ . I (fetS. -.-). and €lSov €'. F. " Observe that the last five verbs accent the aorist imperative (second means behold! But in comperson singular) on the last syllable. forget Pf. middle forms : Conditional Clauses Herewith Exercise : . § 82. . -. «. (for or / y . .\-). § 152.€ . .<yov. . €-€- (\. .-. Fact Conditions. (. knoiv^. take. (-). -. € ^ . F.

. . . wages. . to re- bring to an end (t^Xos).. () () statue).--. . €6 think on. attempt. tiri and ask ( . (- intrnd. '^ . . . d just as if. . --. of like name. 55 . . (8 -\>. put one's hand § 93). -. ']. consummate. decline () (). pay. physician. consider critically. ^ hr•^ )> apyvpiov 5° ? . cio-irep € hire. . ().(-. have in mind. I "^ A' -)€. . - . . -. sculptor () clearly. . . .. (a thing). -). * apyvpiov .-. irepi -. . -)... -Kptvo- answer. ^. -. (/. judge Pf..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 97 TE .- ». go around examine 4--. strength. . incline. etc. (.-- () . (). . and F. select. F. -). namesake. -€. question). pat• . . -. examine thoroughly.(-. fee.- . .

- rjpeTO. what profession 59. etc.• . 50. . et . . TH^^J'IRST YEAR OF av Wlwop av. some one had asked 6 Hippoc' rates of Cos. if &v - . |)?ii7:»ose . iv . of Athens. 98 -€.. < el " future participle expressing pay. ^. . famous sculptors during the and € LV. : hv ff. ris at you were intending (had in mind) v:hat would you have replied ? § 152. Et 6 re 65 . To Hippocrates as a representative of ? Polycli'tus. whom. translate To one of lohat profession do you think that you are going and what do you expect to become yourself that you are now seeking to go to Protagoras. e7r-evoeis et . (descendants of Ascle'piu.. 5. of the family of the Asclepi'adae. 40. The family of the Asclepiadae 53. . . and 52 . . ? ws 51. ^^ . To Herewith Exercise Phid'ias. Hippocrates of Cos was a famous physician and founder of the science of medicine.' were the most . ' .s) formed a sort of guild of physicians. translate: intending rt's (as about to Come tO become what). just as if you to . otl ^"^• . . . ws 56. in-evoets TeKelv to GREEK -€. latter half of the fifth century..' .• otl . of Argos. ^ [7.

6 —^ 8 . > '^. (by name) . " etc. mpL A. ask further. noun. in addition. ' . . already. avSpa. a sophist. — re .! THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK TE () it is like. zeal). -7) -ov ready. apyvpiov Tekelv virep . . -. word. . call well then tltv - --€(. around. ' Tekeiv ask concerning about. (Gen.. be earnest. () a master of one''s a wise man. m --? . % . (be zealous. craft. €1 €1 epoiTO. ( > name. (). . . 99 . Eiev. (to) name. such Sunrep just as. or Ace). ' ^ ^. -6 {an one). . . eyvpoo-Ocv former. it seems likely (a second perfect). ^ . . 75 . 7° \ iv .

Cf therapeutic. disgrace.. there toas a 83. -. serve. F. little yeviadai SO that he became visible. heal. I . I . Infinitive in Indirect Verbs Herewith Exercise 41. € TE (- priv- mar. Sufficient. . {\ one ought (&. have. (). () be ignorant feel - blush). av 68. .ses the series. § a. The particle of Protagoras clo. attend to.. -). that to which Socrates has been leading. 66. supply. LVL To Learn the conjugation The of . toonder ative. \\ elude -). 70. provide. with a bhish 82. (^ € shoto (or appear) just a 83. . - \. es- (\- . figure. if OUr mnney he spending besides {in addition). § 9. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 100 — Et /^ c. (^«pe . § 179. be ashamed got . -. disMid. Infinitive with of Thinking. and is is added for emphasis. ^/ Discourse. # .4 --4€ / \ -. The name 1'/6. yvo-). furnish... €- ( Cf. glimmer of daylight. inlend. . have in mind. red. -. one's notice. €<*/'. 179. -.'. disgrace. ^ %' SrjXop oTL 85 . . wonder. care for. eXadov. 9^•<. marvel thaumaturgy).) = Set. . . (- hold. dishonor. be surprised. the . (or gradually).

iroiov. avSpi. iro£a. ay- . .. ^^ . -. . " -\ . business. car- Cf.. . and Cf.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK € -? () - () image. . ' • \ . . -ovos ! a builder. (17) yet. " . = iripl what about? tCvos. xjjv'xrjv . /-. . (of one's ttov profession). animal). 8ta-voov)u. .. penter. () a master { in the world..'7/9 \iyeiv.. a work- -oiOS making. . . irepi. portrait.. Otju. ] 105 . )( ) €. I suppose €€ mnsier o/. therefore. . %v . ^. . of what sort? by the gods irpos () a painter of pictures (enclitic). cp^ao-ia 101 (). . architect. ing.. . then. ye ' . 95 . . .at. . iroios. • 6 6 . work. ••€ what icon.at 'Eyoj go . . ' ' ot .

To /cat Review the declension of spend.v Trpoj . risk. = 97. «5 perhaps. 104.102 € - THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK av . . . ij of the (art) of making. over your soul. indirect () form counsel. Decline -. LVII. or (loould () -(>. <§ . 'iSti () () We say (5). cithara... -- face peril risk. . - that he is) master 36. . need of (Gen. whom you are handing with mocking humor. be in (del). thing 95. of course. not even to . 94. clever speaking. Paraclete. fSti it . eivaL. of . call to one's side. ^ . etc. squan- der. were necessary. to the execiition (i. pertains here accusative of Specification. () lyre-playing. ? ( () lyre. the painting) this {that folloios). need. . heivov keyeiv -. ? «l .. is 103. . if it . . -is - () () teacher of the lyre.was necessary. . -is (17) question(ing). of the knowledge which air-epyaaiB. lack. 107.e. at ' able to speak. § 113 d. . ^ ' €< . etnoL^eu Adverb of $. peril. answer.) etc. Cf. danger. 101. emphasizes. - run a -.

. 6 125 xf)d)(7Jv. . ' ^. . Seivov 6 6 . - Joaj 130 35 '^'^^^ . . ^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 20 ". 6 • ^ 8. . . ^ -. .. no • SrJTTov hrj . • SrjXov . xjjd)(yjv )( - . ^. 2 Sia-KivSd- yevecr^at . € ' 103 ' XeyoLfxev. ^. . . . . ye. 4. ) ctl 115 ^ .. 6 • heivov Xeyeiv .. ' . &. . ./^> .

129. recognize thoroughly)." Svolv SeovTe? § g. 139. vXeiovos ^yei lohat if or woe. . ? one ought -- to associate with.. . 113 f. 136.- . ''5. all you took counsel loith coming at daybreak. ^«) VX^v (). buy. To (5t- Verbal of of. . sell. . ... Cf. TE . happen.. . convey -. 120. - lead. 176 . . -€ . upon which depends your . 7«7<"') -.^ "^817 6 ^^''^"^^eiXe^at 6 140 ". -€\€. $. . €. 125. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . .. Accusative of Extent of Time. 119. carry. Aor. -€ -. chance. ayvoQv you are clearly ignorant.Te ^laTtici^le oi to expose. -. vr\ with Future Indicative. become the pupil - LVIII. § 16. 3. a-Joa. rear. Perfect of 137. ^ with Participle. tain (Gen. . as though you had already fully decided -? 132. deceive.. ob- . hit.104 .(-.) cheat.. " €. € . eh into lohat sort of rtva 125. irepl you estimate 126. () .tu. ovre . i. you consider of greater value (that which at a higher value). § place under. . Cf. Fu. perfect participle of -. - a danger. § 176 c Herewith Exercise 42. --. for weal (-). § 148. .. . nourish -).e. .

. Cf.- rjv rj ' . importer. . . ^ yap . 144. \))() yap. .. - .. appears. ...^. . () ad always. < . In such a context yap § 184. surely 6 it original sense of surely. () wholesale nourishment 6 OVP. \ .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK « . 150 55 ' 6 . wares 105 ().• () perhaps. . xjjd)(yjv. . -. () () (). huckster. merchant. retains its . ' ' '7 .^-. . . etc. ". . retail dealer.. ' €< 9 . Ma^r^'/aacrt 145 6 6 6 -.

' ^. Beovreq of the Infinitive. etc.146.. secure. receive €€ xinder stand. seek be of benefit help. aid (rb take risks. -v -ov that which be anyone.-). purchase ). . . ? LIX. ' 158. ' Et may . del &•= here 157. in the same way. (). 149. hasten. = = & § 102. con- advice. of whosoever.). cir -. § 102. happy. To The Uses (see to it) that he do not deceive . " = ayovffiv. Gen. &v 15-5. TE . have perceive. vessel. § 177. - (). -^ / TEE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 106 oirws ye § 148. especially the Infini- tive Avith irpiv and €. (() -. .. honor. for the time being. (. () ttotos drunk urn.). . before (Infin. expert knowledge (of a subject). us. § 172. . $. value. --i's § 42. ^. (17) buying. €€. sack. the one icho knows. () () receptacle. () price. necessity. () food (bread. suit loith. . advantage). to. Verbals. . . . § 27 b. blessed. etc. play at dice start. safe. )( (- .

THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK . 168. it lest. . -. . 165 /cat -.-(). . (). - 171. . \. /cat .3. . . re /cat . . 176. having paid. YipohiKov § 160 '^ for one who has purchased putting down. - 6 6 . it is possible. . iu ayyetot? ot/caSe 164. with ttjc ^/ c. .. . ot 8e£a<j^at • 107 . /cat 185 with Subj.. -\. . /cat -teVat /cat \\\ \ -€ see to jLtera -. 172. '. I having piit down . /cat . el /cat Srj ^ . 8 . ^> ^. -. 170 75 /cat . . 17. . * 6<.

66 the perfect middle (passive). 179. and learn the aorist. . . 9- . ^ - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 108 177. us consult LX. we are (too) young to tvith (koivos). §§ 65. Herewith Exercise 43. ' To The Verb Review the perfect active.. § 67. 182. decide veoi {-€<) so xoeighty a matter. II.. 5. « -. «" . 6.pas. 7- 8. '€'" and and and Qqvpov) (/-).^' €| | € «.€ € ()- Review and master the following verbs 1. Passive Depo- nents. 3- 4. § 137 . and -•). : sive. {) cvpc- ^ € ^^y> . § 141. let . . and Perfect passive participles of rj respectively.. . The Meanings of the Perfect.. € --. 2.| J" J"' •^ • J ^ '^^ hr (/3eX- \y \- -). §§ 69 and 79 C.

€€ € €€ (€7- € (Xenr- j:^^*-"^ -)• 17. " -^-. 29• 30. and 32. 27• 28. " € . (e'/aew) eiTTOv.". 31..-| . 21. 26. €€6 8.-€ and 25• «. €€|/ -). ' €.^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 12. €€€ 109 t^ . (.yet-). « . (»- . ' €6 € €| •€ . €-). kKtkiv- (\- € € . 19• 20. 3• 4• -).-}.-. € | . . (i/c-).. € ^ « .*4--• - •w^"*''^ ireirauKa '€ '•€. yov. 33• 34• (-}. o-t-*^i> ^5>_>-<--«-«-^^-^ and (7/37-)• 22. €\|/ (^€7- 23• €' Orpeir- 24• -^. (/). €€ - . 15- 6.

. |( -€ €. (-). (&3 () den). have come. iv-iiretrov fall in. upon. as the future of or (more F. () throng. agree with. gone. have the force of a perfect. go to school. '). agree tireaov. commonly) . crowd. hardly.. noyed . )• with a struggle. he . walk. . fall in with. / am coxiie. Going See Lesson arrive. march way). -. yovv at any rate {ye 'ia. Pf.: . vexed. walk. With the force of a perfect. fall ha ! A. A. - / am Past Impf. come {go) frequently. come. come. . go. With gone. ^- § (^-. bah ! () doorkeeper. an- + vah I () eunuch. go. come Used be going. . go. go. proceed. go to and ( fro. €. Pf. 61 e. ef? To Verbs of Coming. agree with (Dat. LX. € siep. F. . etc. occur bur- .). cf. reluctantly (- toil). THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 110 LXI. TE () burdened. TecreTv . fall to. - (o/xos). iriae €8 weight. - «-. () -is incomplete (tAos). () vestibule.

-. . . 6 a^^ecr^at 111 door (). followed 195 . i^-ayyLov 189. ^ . at last with reluctance. I' iv oSop iv-enecrev.). A\K .. in this sense. . . . . \. . . slammed -ov closed the 205 complete). {kir . . . ..^. y-€\r]vos 204. has wholly faded out. .. /i07is - constantly employed In this idiom the idea of danger -) 6$. loith as vigorously as he could he is 199...-. 197. ^ -.. both hands (Dual Dat. . - ' .. tol having finished by an (^ infinitive.- yevoLTO. ./ . . probable.. 2 6 it is likely. 8 . .. --) -( THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . -. yap • -€€ 193. igo .

. €€ . fession. 4 ^•? 220 Cf. () be of good repute.. ?. 6 6 e^yj'i /xev 6 .---. . guest-friend. -5 ^ side. . local. -(). art. -€ half-brother.). '? () foreigner. t|fjs € () on the one €-8 epichoric native. LXII.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 112 . -. for a pro- ' €-. ' ot hi --. mother. profession. friend. €7€>) irepi- horn of the same -ov . . peripatetic. Cf. -- i. (). loalk. stranger. McvSaios o/J/e>ifZe (in Thrace).- . ^ ? .e. Cf. . /^ €€ € 6 215 irpb- portico. . colonnade. Cf. ^. in a row. ^ tyj 6 - - -. ' () (?) technical. €-$. Herewith Exercise 44. behind (Gen.. bewitch. iv 2 . -''. . ^. ^ . 6 . be famous . «irl -- . -. of) a locality -ov in (or or country. charm. tread on.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK LXIII. ground. $ () ( Cf. () cautious {-. ttws nature . F. -ov this side {-. Attic prose uses the .: --. . Temporal Clauses. TE -. raised from heavenly off body. - () and on that. Indefinite Relative and Temporal Clauses. uni- Cf. F. verse. be « ' Cf. sit : Poetic. way (of one's feet). order. sit sit. and compounds -^ especially § 169 b. (!). split schism). be cv 8-^-€ expound. Lat. pleasure (^) F. sit . ? (9 somehow. divide (and pass) around. (Cf. sido'). suavis). sit down. ef. company. meteor. down. in the cf. Poetic A. . sedeo^. sit. . down. seat (-. groio). -€ Impf (-. ' /cat Learn the conjugation of sit 113 down. () take pleased. Impf. §§ 165-170. . ^- «. cosmos. Lat. . the Cf. ornament. physics. cf. No sit. () baiid. impede. Conditional Clauses. -. and F. § 96. €••9 ). fo/xat () bench. -ov listening to Opovos (0) high-backed chair. chorus. Attic prose uses the compound: sit § 96. -cf. Lat. throne. - Verbs of Sitting {-}. scindo. future or aorist. on Lat. (go through). Cf. explain «.

" ' ^/^ 6 6 . €. -. . . of the deme of Mvppivovs. Odysseus sees Sisyphus. '' . § 42. \ 6 --^-^ - ' Si 226. 228.elvaL 225 < they took (their) positions. 228.^.. After this one I perceived. * ' -^ . . ^S' : serve oneself with. /)55 LXIV. TRE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 114 IB' ? TOVTOV Toz^ ')(opov ') " 230 € -. etc. The Third Declension Adjectives The Verb § 97. . . Heracles. 601) which describes Odysseus' visit to the underworld. . Tantalus. Hippias of Elis was one of the more prominent of the sophists. 231. . iu 6 235 - iv . «. .'''' Plato is playfully quoting Homer.. from the passage (Odyssey XI.

with the Dative. . as --$ -h not clear () 6$ () -8 () -5 () Cf. 120-122. .. 115 Case. -. -. humming.. TE Ca) - -^. prose except in compounds.). () () (^. heaviness. . bed-spread. near. ding).. ' ^ ^^.^ . () (ev). («). rare serve with. lodging.. bed. () room. 245 . € () lad. bed- IF . ringing. cover (-) .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK use. idea. . \. . use (Dat. jieece (used as . . oneself -. .^ dissolving." - iv 6 240 ert ^/. -. couch. loithout appearance. in Cf. from ISi'a wrap up in = () mattress. () store-room. §§ 111. chamber. . The Dative § 121.Sr) " - etcr-etS 6 6 .

thoughtful. €V€Ka on v:hat account. -. — eipai <. thought although eager. -. § ov 113 () an equal little. (). a tragic poet. -\•>/\. (/3€- . 70. . see (^opa- (ij) . cf. Cf. look sight. €v€Ka famous (iv. (^ Cf. engaged in equal with. See Lesson LX.- Si-eXeyovTo Trepl he 250 ^€ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Kainep — 239. \6yoi). /cat Verbs of Seeing: €€ have the eyelids^.). . -. a match for -ov on account of (Gen.-^.>() aicay. e. tvatch. Cf. LXV. sceptic. . 4-€$ having emptied (). Kaiirep 248. iv Prodicus of Ceos was another of the more famous sophists. See Lesson LX. ' = 700»' Agathon was 251. spend time.116 . view.. a short time. 242. a viewing^ theory.-). yap €' . at any rate. (^. theatre. in age comrade. = 247. p. . €-8 contest -ov (). examine heard. TE 8-. $ e7<^ ?^ 249. delay.

. : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -. : b) Non-thematic second aorists tion of : see §§ 55. : 270 § 179. ^ ' 267. I b. ' € TOL ^. § 136. ' LXVI. ovSev 260 ' -- Tt ovv . The Verb 265 in Eager Questions. '. ^-^ ^. € .. 270. . - ' . 8 . . ' .. . . TOP ' €Tl ' 117 . clv . § 21 b. The Aorist 8^ - . ^. learn the conjuga- . . § 86. privately. TTpbs i. -.e. 63. . . and . .'. The Second Aorist a) Thematic second aorists review Lesson LIII. . . 'H/ACt? ovv /3'//^€9 € - 255 Trpoa-rj^ep . \ -. to him(self).

el -€ . procure and prepare. dress. 4 make ready (food.-.( -. . iv- . etc. pect () €<8 () 89 vessel. etc. a).-ov ^/ {-). -. (ff/ceOos -. evoov irepX — \oyov re XecrOaL -€ €€ — yap -.. ' . 8 8•8 admirer lover. . . . 275 - under. in the presence of (Gen. -)..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 118 TE (. . . -\ . council {). TlpoSiKov .-" . . - prepare. - - . {. pleasant.). €. (Tvv-ehpLOV -^. * 28 - - -.-. . a sitting together in council. (to) -•€. € \4 . make ready (what one - glad{ly). 285 () sus- sudvis. prepare. imple- ment). .). . ^. . \ . §19 . has). --. Cf. () p)-epare. . ^ ^. 6 ^..

287. 6 .-^ . without waiting foi' the servants to arrange laying hold of (Gen. . 283. THE FIRST YEA re OF GEEEK € UpoSiKOf. 271. -. 119 (--). 6€ the seats. - . -.. -. -. -teVat -)^)6.. -. 290 . . rJKOv e/c TlpoSiKov. . . § 115 having made (him) get up. -- 275-276. show himself off and make . . . -. c). 282. -. 8 295 ' 3 . .e. . cautions. 284. . ^. -] -.. he provident - a display. iwel ^ 6 . 6 .. infinitive of to careful.. ' ^^. i.

of (a) ris eyvwv. for -) cf. 5-. outrage. mal- outrage. -6$. . Lat. treat.-. . <. teach () . -. () € -TOs ? it is -"fj likely. -. step he says he would gladly learn. (~/ 7 -. change. § 27 . come recognize. . A-B. (- thology. wonderful.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 120 -\ 291. on the next day. he will advance. TO Review the declensions 48 . «Ikos the art of paint- Cf. § 122 a. ivhat(ever) will result suffer make differently. Pf. immediately. § 300. -. know {g)nosco. § issue). progress. . although (followed by par- ticiple). throw iracrxw.. (- make mention.v. = 298. . pa- for is . . loriting. natural. . €-(€. (-). to the better) to make (b) €- ns. . ". iirl . () Cf. 295. ing. -(>v strange. (-- advance (c) thematic active participles. . to . ? () -is avXos () flute. () () flute playing. - on which{ever) day. graphic. painting. ^. didactic. 3. Cf. 7670^0x1 having become.-. off. I b. . wrepaiq. § 50 TE know). just as if . TTj 301. it of such an age. Infin. § 179. . (to LXVII. . progress. &v 296. to &v represents 299.-dv of drawing.. so old. cf.

304. et - €€ -^. . . €. . / THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 121 IZ' . . ' . . . . -. 305 BiSa^eLev yevoLO. * . ^-. Xeyet?. '* . eirei et ? . -.-.. -. Slv) 7^ . .^ € KoX ovSev elirov. -^ — . - 3^5 . . ( inel : . peated in 306 ) - ei 310 .. .. . 325 . since even you 32° would . ---. . €-<€. The &v is re- . -€ .

315. . again).. in lohat ? - day by day. Orthagoras of Thebes was a music teacher. -. . . 3.. ' 335 4 . iiute-playiiig. 6 330 IH' €€ .--. ' rj / . 319. 312. his specialty being ' . -. Zeiixippus of Heraclea was a painter. € -\\ - — — ". . -- = {eir-av-epwTaw ask. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 122 310.. . €. . . . 340 345 . ^. . eh 316. . 314. . ^-. . .

e. - Compare 11. The conversation develops into a discussion of the nature of virtue.^.34 (-). advertise. promise. having fled. in Attic prose. The Infinitive as a Verbs of § 176 Noun. -(. LXVIII. Review: The conjugation of § 95 . c. and. Herewith Exercise Verbs 45. . not common Cf. especially of the perfect active participle. II a .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ( 331. 342. I a Infinitive with with a Participle. promise. = administer. back again against-their-will (AKovras) those who have fled from 335. Svolv € . announce. 123 the special studies which had been re- cently added to the curriculum in Athenian schools. it . Herewith ends this selection from the Protagoras. 345. etc. such as arithmetic Translate: they lead calculations). § 172. they might best administer. F. --- how best to 8irws hv . the arts. astronomy. . Thinking. €-\ () 337. wise counsel. § 179. Ttts i. § 50 SeSios fearing^ (/? '€€'$ C knowing^.--2 . 2. - hold oneself under (aji obligation). ' the declensions « €$ of the active participles. Like decline having made. of which dialogue constitutes the dramatic introduction. oilha).. except in the singular of the indicative . geometry.. prudence. of Fearing: I fear is (perfect used as a present. ff. more common is . how (^/) the technical subjects. . etc.

• . fear. elSevai 5 to rejects the eivai yap and might escape condem- This.' y) SoKeiv eivai.. TO When on of corrupting the was called of young men. ovoev • ovoels oeoiacTL €6€<. () flight. God whom the Athenians believed.. holding the conviction that he to devote his life to the pursuit of philosophy. oiSe oiSev. '. fear. and Socrates. ^ €$• participle -. he afraid. '. -. Of. he says. TOL . ^.. tyJ € 8eSieVat. terrify. . el aya^oil•' OTL /^ . ^ and others to a searching examination aWovs) summarily suggestion that by renouncing this mode of life he ^ ov elvai. would be conclusive proof that nation. — . -. . . Cf hydrophobia. - . . subject both himself 3ei ( before a court of his fellow-citizens on the twofold trial charge of not believing in the Gods in . frequently occurring forms are 6€. . put : infinitive to flight. €€.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 124 I fear The most (second perfect as present). . flee in fear.. eii^at..

aes- ovop this place. 29 the fear of death. — The First-Third-Declension Adjectives. in any respect ( + -).. iroXvs Cf. .. disobey the oracle. iv" 14.. topography. —. 11. {) change - {) change of resi- deuce. LXIX. Observe the order of emphasis. roiros () place. dream. know.. Tb^Tcpovthe one {ofttoo). .'.. polygamy. 9. {-) icondrous. . -la -ov €-(-$ () most. Unseen {one) in this (point) also here . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK oe aoLKeiv etoevai. -^ lie down to sleep.). € ( thetic () from = Cf. " -^ the b (end). . . etc. because .. again). sleep. than any one. 12. §§ 43. Cf. 17. TE € -. . . whether God or man. () () perception. . Awo\oyiq. § 4 (= ) irpb See . .' evo? h4ovTe<i yXvKV. See 16. ^. 45. more. {. - $ aya^a — 3. (= the {conditions) in {the house) of Hades. 15 ecrrtv. 4.' et peKriovL^ aTreiueiv koll 125 in preference to the evils which 1 § 102.) otl ovhe ^ 1. much. this ignorance of thinking.

^. 6 ' . . oTSei' ei . . — 2. ^ '^ . and to 6 . § . 1. € to be nothing rhv 3. } . . etc. ^ ' ' ^ . ) ivOevSe 5 etre 6 rh 1. . .€va Te9veo)Ta. \eyop. 1477-8. .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 126 ^ ^€ Later in the course of his speech before the court Socrates remarks TOL eivaL ecrrt : • .. .. firjh' ^'^ } . . ^. it is such have no perception of anything. . ' — 3- — as 180 a.. the one loho is dead. eivai. according as people say.'. 833. ' . . ' 638. ovSev /cat hrj ) death. \. to. ( condition) \-6€ .

161. • 31. = ' ? — it is I am first clear that. .. ipei. @ . .. Star of my soul * Ah me 1 . ov ecrri . quotation above ^. 669. e/xo? — Gazing • § 137.< '> ' 4. ovpavo'i. 2. ? = ^. ( (). Star ? at stars. TOL TL ^<. . .'''' awois = 5. To . ^ : . = 1.4< -^. . . you could accomplish.. -).. is eider-down. fast \\6€s is and lying down &V01S dv 4. () 7• -€. -. VII.. 127 / '^ '. . ' 4-€^ ipa. — • • ipiei. yrjv LXX. e'iOe et? 'Av0oXoyia<. 58. -€. : " breathing 's break- beneath the earth. . Prose lost. 7.. . — €-€ 5- . dead they have a parody of the the ^. THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK .' ' -.a late form for ^v I was.. . oi This 3.. ' — 6.

Walter Headlam.. mosquito. gnat. €. § 162. /^. A. ? €€ = €l (). bird-lime () bull. ().at F. TE KAI . irapos formerly (poetic). aster. (poetic) -aros eye (-). § 153. gaze () look earnestly at. — nouns and adjectives. . Thy kiss a limed lure TJiou kindlest tchom thou look''st upon. already. -aros a Minotaur. — Translation by Dr. . * . hope at length. fdiyov touch (poetic). hast him sure. 8€. . .. mistletoe.. -) - kin- caustic). Modes of Expressing Wish With a) : Optative. 44. kiss. (?). . pared from the mistletoe berry) I. (). Timarion. learn Cf. Whom in- . die. . now () (). b) With Past Indicative. ^' " e)(et9 TO • ia-iSyq. --. . . quire (wevd- () Kcpds Cf. () ? that! (). (or KaCco -aros horn. ya (^). by inqui)-y. Walter Headlam.. hum {-. Review: The Third Declension §§ 30-38. marry bind. ). 85€€8 twelve years old. touchest. . (pre- Cf. need. . TEE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK 128 That I were heaven. to gaze with Those myriad eyes on thee ! all — Translation by Dr..{-). (). ' — - Thine eyes are fire. -ipos star.

... Mother Earth That erst Not heavy. 309. 453. $ 1. . '. O. ^ 6 — VII. — Translation by Dr.-. may^st thou have {thyself) upon I 235 . . ^ - ws = thoti hast $ cLv \ . §§ 160 a. 4» €7 . Epitaph on a Boy '. To press Aesigenes ! was unto thee noio in turn may'' st please not heavily.. 197. -. Tavpos . — '.. (him) bound.- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 2. ^^ • — 6 . — Hail.. . . Walter Headlam. Man . 1>. VII. . . 2. e.-. — Epitaph on an Unhappy . • .^ --. . € 129 Epitaph on Aesigenes .

laid away. 6 alighting upon. .-. . live (Infin. and . Zsiis ' ' ." . place for dancing. ' . 6- et/xt \ ' "Opvis '.) ". 6 /cat ^.. -< THE FtRST YEAR OF GREEK 130 he put away. receive having sat upon. yap ' ^r]Sev €/€€ 2. 3. (Cf. -. et .. smi7e. €\ (Cf. sixty years of age. . (re/c- -). . 5. . crawl. . dance. . . -- eWe -. iScov poSov '. creep. "ApKTOS 1. (. etc.. (-). -. ).-). . 4.) laugh. -. of Tarsus. avrrj . bear {young).) bring forth. {) (Cf. {6) animal.

. agony. . vault. (poetic) set free (eXeudepos - view with -.-. .. (). () emulation. §§ 59. through. LXXI. . 3. . tomb. praise ircpdo). -idos -a -ov () (). -ovs. .«. 8'.). The was he 1. etc. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK ' '^. 865-866. awjcward. abode. €. painful. TE . § 171. 60. envy. — boasting. (f^Xos deem happy happy (poetic)). admire. mantic.. (to). of one'' s father. Imperative. . Verbs according to the Progressive Action-stems. Cf. 8 aX-yeivos -cDiOsconiesi. -17 - C/". ' iSvvaTO. . show free). Verbs in -. — Temporal Clauses. fat. ? ' () (wipas end). 4. . envy. seat. () - cJiest. § 83.TpL'i (J)). () (). -. seer. pass complete . ita. 131 170 § Classification of .( F. ancestor. {\$). () make clear. -aros end (poetic). fatherland.

Cf. set your country free. ). '^4 he — . lSy). . ' . The . Free your wives. Greeks entered the battle of Salamis.^ . . .. . 402-405. . 4^'—6) ^ ). ^. 1417-1419. . ^ avhpa ' : . 963-964. 1 6vTLva accusative of oWu. . . ® 3. • — ^ 4. — (&. %.'. go. yvoivai Ihelv ' ' 6 — \€ . 3 ^. irore 6 call to battle as the . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 132 1. 2.C. ^ I. \6 1529-1530. -. M17 -. .'' etc. Browning's translation in Balaustion'' s Adventure That song of ours which saved at Salamis : " sons of Greece. 480 B.

e-)... : -.. offer send.) a) Those with TJiematic Presents : - run away (hpa-). .. . rec- set . (17. €" (/-). (See §§ 2) Verbs with Non-thematio Second Aorists. — 391 ^ '. -^. ("). .^ . . -). 86. enter : 19 a) make stand. <. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 2. ^e-). -?.' *. b) Those with Non-thematic Presents (for (^- place. Lesson LTII.--- 63. . € ' '^ ovSev 3• 6)(€. LXXII.«" " « ' "- € step. M>^ /xot elr) re () . — 133 €• 979-980. '^. let go ((- § ". • ovSev etSore? — . - ognize or or € go (/3-). put give. Verbs with Second Aorists 1) Verbs with Thematic Second Aorists.

-(<. endings and thematic and non-thematic formations. . . point out. stand. .^ () () . : have 287.. --. ' 557-558. §§ 5356 non-thematic second . 1st .. . understand (lit. -. . (make) stand upon. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 134 Learn the conjugation of Personal § 87 A-B. 63 § peculiarities of . . appears to be for - .. --.^ . --. 187. 2d . In such meaning the second. -. with reduplication 60 b the '. . -^ is : of the occurrence of this very important verb already been met in the preceding lessons TTJs $. at one time . I to stand. point. . § t.. (make) stand (make) stand up.. () . The perfect active The stood. stand with a specialized meaning.. thus : middle of this verb is I set up (for myself). ' razor. . . and a second aorist. . (make) stand away. . --. upon). . €. tol e^ets. -£. active participle in -as. I -. € . — Very few verbs have both a instances the first aorist is intransitive. . Mid. . . 58.. . (for --. iroiipos poetic for . ^ ' KLvSvi'o'. . regularly transitive in : - aorist - intransitive -($. (-). § 77 aorists. () acme. Many instances first I caused 2 23. -. . beside. transitive like the first aorist active etc.. edge.. at another time.. -. the -verbs.. .*€'). . think. point out to consider oneself. § 50 C. Cf. €--.

-. ' '-'. 2..$ . Trj ^ TTj Mop. '. €. § 159. -^ — 5• 87 . - ".. tois apyo'is. - 5 iav TTaiSiov 6 — 1 €.. superlative ? = Tois of the use in late Greek yos). 0--4 ev elnev . 1-isk. 242. iv . . ^ — — . . . 252.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK . ]. ^. -. 8e 3- ' <. uncontracted form of (balanced) tipon the edge of a razor. . -" eKeivQ 6. 237. of the comparative for the ... . . . an instance (= 309. — 4• § . First-Second Perfect: 1. . This is a and very ancient proverb. . 2 135 you will not enter. . ' € . common here means chance. — MevavSpov.

. § 6 ^.. -8€ .-. oy LXXIII. make return. as . he iv 6 ' •'. . I possess. \€ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 136 iv OTL ' iv -^- . iv (. -' .. Herewith Exercise 46. much raise.." '. 6 )(^ 5 ' \ 6 6 4- ^ '^ 3 * -.-. -^-^. ' . 5 - Kat 7.. 6 ets . Review the preceding -as. \4 — Tats .^ . lepov I. .' oirws = - Lva. - (TuaL.< . . <. Equals lift hv • ^ give back. as Up {upon). . lesson and ]3articiples in 50 c).

set So iv fire).. eav - — . 1 ^.?^^. ^ .. . ^^/ 5 — irpbs ^/? SetKvvvra Tot's KayaObv Cf. . Tijs .. '... .. ". 3• 4• ervnre 137 • . to extinguish . () (6). — '. ^ ^. '.. €( ^1* &-.. > (8).\ .. . evayyeXiov $. ).. •'. . . -.) —" iwicrroXijs rijs i-iy'. eavrbv uepX — 2 -' . .^ ev = T7J \€q. ." THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK lo 2.. ly' ' LXXIV.

§ 137. (-).cIXov ^ grasp.. describe. . seize. Cf. B.€ .. C a-e) and uses (§§ 173176) of the participles. «) collect.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 138 Review the forms (§ 50 A. -| -| (. aesthetic. and Mid. hit. -| -| accomplish (Act. show 50 C. Harpy. narrate. take^ etc. (take for oneself^ choose. ^ ? € 5 . possess. -| -| - obtain etc. perceive. re ^-. Of. /^ ' -- -^- - ^-4€ - .). Review Lesson XXVII and Exercise 18. eVt re /cat re iv acquire. (Gen. Master the following verbs -€ € -. .) € . St-oicretl•' TELV. €| €€| § point out.

you. '^ .. . -. " ^^. 8. dealt with. -^ -. . " - " 5 ^ ^ " 6 6 20." " ovtl. . . . 6 ^-." ". " . . the subject having. is Socrates. $ ( . 6. with.- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -. 27. Euthydemus.. i. i. 139 rt el y^viOTTOieiov rjei jote^' iavTOv 2. ^. how he Tois in the ability. 25 .e. ^." " . 9. etc. - yaa y4 to he ADMIRE pursuing. ' ' /. ." ^^ ^ . . . ^ . 13.e.' ^ . € . etc.

deny. .. 6 6 . he in -€| wish. refuse. delight in (Dat. Se 30 oneself. proceed. § learn Like Bcis persuaded. . - show ^ fear.). ^^< -. he willing. ' ^ . Middle verbs with appeared. -. {Of appear. converse ivith (Dat. (^please oneself with). " 6 " yap " ." '/' ^^ " ^'^ " " . ^. or Part.). need of. want (Gen. -^ . Review the nevTe aorist passive (see Lesson the declension of the participles in decline €$ pleased. /cat 35 " {Of. he pleased with. feel dis- grace.} %< . . -eis." 7? " yevi" crvX-Xeyei .. oe LX) and 50 C. go.. having of passive form. . Master the following verbs : € -. he ashamed. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 140 LXXV. '" ^.). aorists §141. -.

)^. . " .. " " " 6 6 141 " -. 45." . for § 179." tol -€•€ 31. " y'. ."^' €. " -€-' -. ." 6 55 . " . '. ? . ri 4° .^' ." " " ' '. . ' . . .• ' " -.• ^7. ^ . '8. " 6 ^. " . " ." . " ." ." 5° ^." €^17 45 . § 98. you desire." . -" ." THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .. " " . . II you are seeking." . -. " ." fell into a profound silence. " 31 f.

apothecary.. Take then your part. epithet. else) ^^ . All Life — Review the declension of the and learn the conjugation of is set up. Of. And put all seriousness away. ouSej/os . Of. a Play . add to. Traijviov -' • — 'Aveo\oyLd<>. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 142 €. Or bear the smart. Kar-eipyaffai have 58. < . § 88. com- pose. put off from. €^17. de- C) put.). set hy the side Cf. set down. . Translation by Dr. you achieved would appear as just as any {one b'lKaios .- : . LXXVI. Of. of. posit. '' . place upon. compounded with eighteen prepositions the following aside. . -. put together. dedicate. participles in -cis (§ 50 . Of. lay Of. " 6^17• {-'. . --. place. Walter Headlam. metathesis. 57. " epya /aeWot. anathema. . is but a Stage. . " vrjvaL 6 y €. parenthesis. Cf." "^ /< € Ti ovv Uijaat <7? . synthesis." ' . note transpose. : .

^' /. ." ^ " . . ^. . " 1 .• ' ' . ' /^ev /. 7° .^ " «^ ^ ." " " ." " " ^7. . ^} ' TA " BouXet ow.• 7.• " . ' . . " ^ . "" 6 6 143 " "''.• " /cai e^r/." . " " . " " . " " " " ." ---? 6 eivai. ." " .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . " ^^. " ^." ^.. €. ^^ / -^^.' " ^". . epyov " " . TrJ ." ." . /. . " " 65 " ^/. '' " ' - 75 - 8 ^^ ^5 ovSkv ' " . /' " . elneVf " (^ 7.?. . " " ' ^ . ^.• ^." ^^ ". " ev- ." ." €. .'^ ." "" ." ." ' ^ . . " " .

€.e. ow.^' ye Selv 95 that this is necessary." ." iav iv -.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 144 66." making use / . €. - ^ ^ . ." - . 77. "'. of § .• . arpaT-qybs aipedeis having been elected general. ." . . " iav " ." " " . LXXVII. }) -.— Review the conjugation go i. . ^-^ '^ .. . ye - . to be in need of this. " ' " i^-eivai ." €. " ' ." " . " Seiv " .. "Aeyet?. also of the drill in Exercise 47.'^ € 6 ? . " . 05 " 6 . elvai oe eivai . TA " 88. . . 6 - - ^•> ..^' -.

yap 5 . . § 28 D Uses of the Genitive: Avith verbs of earing for. 88. — -€ . • e^etv is right. /cat eSofcet * . .. LXXVIII. 91. AI - Se TTore AQIAI. ' .-. forcements are coming. . § 116 e . . with adjectives.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^ rj ." a^tat . . ' . €. • 94. /rots he lest himself destroy § 102. etc. . 107. 93. Tt^eVat. - eyoiye ) <5 '. of ^.. ' . § 130. falsely declare that reen- aor. Contract Nouns of the First Declension. . yap '* . etc. subj." 145 . § 117 with improper of price. § 115 h. discouraged. fearing Seiffds {-). . "^'. 99. €$ make new distinction (and say) that oh it but that one ought.= . . etc.. A' '^^. prepositions. "''.

eva'yyeKiov Learn the conjugation of the compounds of of el." yvpeia €. of the dual and to hoio man c. this. LXXIX." 6 'Avtl- € ' ' " • eivaL 15 • /cat /ca . offer.. " . .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 146 . § 50 Herewith Exercise 48. ' }. tioo Thv . considering (inquiring. Gen. § 191. .. iv. 6 6 . 2. eivaL. much. § 89. . hvolv 4€. . )( 4 ' -. '. '-— . \. . xohether. 11. Of etc. ing the participles in -oOs. . . himself his friend). (). €. '." / " '.. minae. ' .-. the one icho 8. . etc. . I am 14 was neglecting to examine himself as in the presence of the : buy 18. give. note the following includ- . . 5. — --€\$ . - > ...e. (i. loondering) ff.

< . apodosis. . betray. etc. Of. whenever to sell. to offer for sale. -^^. . be a temptation. - ) ^ -fj .^ AI avrjp. -.)." . restore. - ye eavrov. . €- give in return. . 1 6. 6 €t . .'^. antidote. 29. " 147 . to -" AIQIAI.1 - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -. give to.' . 24. 20 . poSlBo another. will fetch. ) . what he it is etc. . ." = 27. " ^» -^.- 3° rj hear one (complaining) that. possible to get. hand over Of. (29-30) lest it eupovros sell for . eiraywybv . sell. 25 ' . - . 28. 6 au ecTTt. . " B' eivau. give bacJc. give a share of (Gen. . /.

' . — . — '€<.. 222 . § 90. 2. 609-615. • . 49. Review the conjugation of . 149-150.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 148 •? . 739 ^. . 4. - oioa . . eivai ' — 3- 4. To ' " .. — Qeiyvidoi.. . . € TOL SiKaiov ovre avSpa iv .. LXXX. . . .' ' . show. Herewith Exercise 1. § 50 C. and learn that point out. avepi ' € oySoT] of § 89.' ^. together with the declen- sion of the participles in -vs.. $. .

persuading them by their pre- (sc. 5 I . . ' • eivai €)(. An . . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK irepi apeTTj^ ^ . \ € 5- Trjhe yevecr^at € 8e €17) ) 6 — -% ) .c. ^ ^ -€ '» . See Lesson VI. & =: 8 1. cepts. . 5. such outward advantages as I possess.-. . ^^ ' . Attic Insckiption. = 4. 600-500 ^ A/^ [ . 9 149 ic / ^ I b. = = . ^ . § 164. and bear nor carry. in the inward parts. 3. ( neither .

misuse). . ). 5. Attic prose (except Thucydides) regularly employs ets. -.c). Astyages gave orders that the child. 6(^ 8. as by Thucydides. be your oion tindoing. and serves to illustrate the studied cruelty of book oriental torture. (?) (-) throio aside. 6 )(). ^s ceavTov to your oion (home). summoning the nobleman Har'pagus. e^ by means disregard (lit. the son of his daughter Man'dane and Camby'ses. is taken from the first of Herodotus (108 ff. some day supplant him in the kingdom. es (= eis) is the form regularly 7.. deceive). be put to Asty'ages fearing lest his grandson -would death.(-) ^(/7 . § 157.OF GREEK THE FIRST 150 ADDITIONAL SELECTIONS FOR READING This selection. Accordingly. nepi-w^iT-gs later. -) . afterwards = . his chief administrator and the most faithful of his subjects. determined to make ayay with the boy in his infancy. king of the Medes and Persians (594-559 b. the Pensian. employed by Herodotus. ovv OLKeiov . in whatever manner. 6. $ . fall foul of yourself. -) {-\\ abuse. eXeyev TOiaSe crot e/xe re . ( '•/5). - --. • " ' Oaxjjov 4. It is very common in early Greek. 5 /caXeicra? re ^' ^ avopa. The Punishment of Harpagus..

." ' -. . " • J) ' ' 6 . dressed () and.^ varepov ere -€ . 28. 26. -• /THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK - ' ySovXet.\ ". . my {service) must he have you observed any untowardness in this dutifully. € -€. 25 ). . 25.e.• . . '.e. spoken - rrj childless. the past man (i. in myself). ' . -. . . ." -) yiyve- et ' 6 - OLKaSe ' " . any time in TO 7' 13.^ ' TOl•* ^. e? . robed for burial. . . without a son. death. 2 - ^-/3^ 9. etc. neither at €(( . . . { -) --$ (^) 17. ^-. 15. ^. . rendered {in) the robe for will not give assent to his resolve.-. i. '. ^^~ ' 6 Si 5 ) " • 7} eVt ' shall {is about to) pass to.^ € 151 avSpl ovSev. 22. § 178.

Teray/AaL 5 ^. some one of the {servants.^' 6 \ . . -€). -. (that) he Will destroy you. -- Ttva ere 51. .6 30 . . . . . 4 " ^. . being with child and daily expecting . ' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 152 eveKa ." eiire 6 35 . P. household) of Ast. 33. -. (). ' 31. . 47. . '. '. ^^ ^-. yeveadai . . 48. 44. . 6v to (one) of the herdsmen whom. -. deliverance. 45 . Sia -^. -. '€ . {-€. - ' . Sei ' . ' . ^.

really civ - {-) was. 57. ^. -^ 6 " . . • ' for lohat reason.' ei- eiSov iSeiv € 6 ' ^. ^-/ ^ .etvat )5. 63. . 6 55 avSpa. 8 £. . gasping and screaming. . '-^^ }- -. he {suddenly) (that) which would that I had not § 153 b. 61. gone carrying) to carry uioay. 68. . do^o). II B. €-€. . -€\) €€ '^ --^.. )(. . ^. 65. not being accustomed (to -\$ (-. he stood over seen. .. . § 145. ' . 7° § 179. etc. ). -. § . P. -.1 {to he rb astonish). appeared. it . affwaipbv -^ in e. tivos could never have guessed whose child . (like a 175 vision sleep). 65 ' ota . . 72. ... . € . ' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ' e? 153 eV repoL ttJ? 6 . ^ . .

especially cloak.154 . a still-born child. ^^ ^ . 88. Se ^ ^. 95 74. you loill be caught () . . • ^. . wrap. -\(). . -. clasping.. § 175. . 86..' - eh) 6 ' -SLKv. Fut. THE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK -^ 75 .'. 84. -- 6. }. . . (existing openly) prevailing unrepressed. 95. Tedveos ^/ . he said there would come. 93. -. 85 - ohov \oyov 8 oe ' • ' ' go -. re . " . Part. 87. . 75. (e^Tj) § 115 . of Purpose. c. --$ ' () clothing.(-/). 92. to see (it). ^ - -. .

. . of .-^8 .. --..5. .. 105 iy 6 ' ' no "5 6 at ('). the one § 138.. ^ . bestowing {upon)..^ . . mid. . giving. Future participle. (child) lay buried (had Aor. § in view of the present Trpos (i.- THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK . . 97.." 155 - . . ) . . . 115 for the purpose of putting 101.. and (noio) TO been buried).. existing) circumstances. 99.e. ^ . to death. ^ . . 112. 11.

loithout delay. ^ )- he assigned the 125. \$. at once. to subject 7€-€ opyy 5e . 136. -. . etc.s soon as he tms released. . . an added in Persia the yipas and name to of a another yipas (rd) a gift of honor. ^^.e. ^aaTiyCiv he handled him roughly.-. use of ace.. surname. ) . 130 him. ) ^ . -. ^ ) -. anger just as he was. The King's Eye was confidential adviser to the king. . . i. . merely ws Adverb. . whipping rt. - elvai. ^ . ' 6 " 121. The without ceremony. . 131. 128. -$ 8 125 30 6 Sr) ^ ( ( 135 Srj ^. in each one is (). KOpos. 1 . 124. office. . in name. '^ € . name only..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 156 . elvaL I20 hrj eivai. § 98.

. disobey. to be like his own. . 154." .-- " . of themselves ^ refuse to obey. - .. -. -. the lapse of time since the exposure. too independent (i.^ THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK Se 7€ SeiKvvs ISojv € Tou 157 eVet8r) . 6 -. to 45 ^. -." 142. 160. 159. -. . ^. punish the 150 55 ' \ 6 6 hoy for the sake of the honor of Artemhares. es S ' 157.e.-^ until. -. " * 6 ' .^ . . ^ .8 -. . etc.' . )(^ eti'at ' 8. wishing -. for a slave's child to utter). 160. tion. '' • ". 150. ySacrtXea. 153. 14° xpbvos $ es dvayvwaLs {there) came to Astyages recogni- eavTOv to correspond to himself. ^.'8 .

70 - elnev. ^ " '" . .158 . ). ( TTejxxfjaL € -€€^< inl e/c-TrXayei? 65 ^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^ . . ^^ - - " - amazed. 8 -^- Si '^ -^ Sr) 163.'^ ) - 6 . . €. -. make aicay with." . dumfounded. iva-yKOLS 182. 85 6 4-•9 ^'^^ ^ \ 162. Aorist participle. ^> . recovering himself. (necessities) tortures. use to the uttermost. -. . ^ ^ -. . . kill. -. 175 Sr) -] . 186. . . 6 '£ 6 ' ' 7/. -.-. - . -. (-) -€€€! 174. -".

- i\ey6evos 189. . 179. (jiven .^ ^ . . . ^ .. commands (= c3). the which he felt toward him. " .. subj. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ' ' e'/c 159 . Sttws . .) ) ' /.) -! . following) 208. ^. 2 ' ^.^ -^ . . - ).e. -. . evSov eiSe 4€. to this (i. ^- . igs having the anger . . 198. //€7 '^ 19° ..• " ^' . ^^ effect.. \ 191 put £f. -.. to the test. -^ -^. cross-examine. §§ 156. . . . . be convicted . (aor. 205 on cross-examination.

. - § 120 b. ev 216. the things that had happened. 224. ---. . { tevat 6 . ? TO. . (^). .'. I did not bear it lightly. yeyovus about thirteen years of age. .2IO . 221 .€- 211. . .) -- " . TO - 6 " " re ) 215 ^) '] ^ - . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 160 . it 215. -. = 4. . 225 230 ^ ..- /ca . . 222. . 220 . .. . .. ^. had been repeated (iraXiWoy^w). .?-.. . ). 6 Si -.

See the Agamemnon of Aeschylus.. 237. . 250 which was placed beside him. 2?. which was when set before him by his kinsman Atreus..5. . ^ - - " 235 240 /cat 6 245 . -. . flesh of his own children. ^ -- 'ot ^. if he had enjoyed the dinner. The reason for this is disclosed in the concluding paragraph of the story. ^•t . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 6 rot? € 161 . the same parts of the body. . . 240. 1587 ff. and feet. the head. he was made to eat the In the famous feast of Thyestes. -^ -. . . 6 Each guest had a separate table. hands.. " . were kept apart in a basket.. iScov /cat ' o/c. ' -. el tQ. /cat \ -. the hands. at all.-. ? ..

of Croesus himself crept into their sympathies And the personality — the admirer of Hellenic and wisdom. son Lydia (c. which was the westernmost boundary of the empire of Astyages. Astyages sent the boy Cyrus to his parents in Persia. and for the Halys river. Avith his capital kingdom as far east as the Halys river. .c). except Miletus and from the tribute levied upon his subjects and from the gold mines of Asia Minor he became fabulously rich. 560 b. who received him with great rejoicing. The Astyages was deposed and Cyrus became king . 238. Cyrus gained for himself the title of "The boundaGreat. will destroy a great empire. ries of his By revolt of the was successful Medes and Per- vastly enlarging the empire. which she possessed in such full measure. if he cross the Croesus believed that "the great empire " would be that of Cyrtis. with Persia in the ascendency. : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 162 II-III After so ferociously wreaking vengeance upon the nobleman Harpagus. B. About the time that Cyrus usurped the throne of Persia. 546 B. Croesus determined to attack Cyrus this purpose conducted an expedition across urged forward by the response of the oracle at Delphi fall of and the Persians. and conspired with Harpagus and others to overthrow his grandfather. the adorer of Hellenic gods. the generous giver out of abundant wealth. of Alyat'tes.C. none deemed his overthrow possible and the sheer and sudden fall into nothingness made perhaps a deeper and more abiding impression on the imagination of Hellas than any other historical event. -\ CroesilS. so dizzy the height of his power. "The capture of Sardis Avas an eventuality of Avhich no one had So great had been the wealth and might of Croesus. " A\vv -. forasmuch as they had supposed him dead. sians." His rule extended from 558-529 b. ~/\ Halys. Never more than for the memory of Croesus did Greece put forth the power of that genius. I. Ionian.c. of weaving round an event of history tales which have a deep and touching import as lessons for the life of man. and attacked and subjugated the Aeolian. but as events proved he was himself defeated and forced back into Sardis and there taken captive by Cyrus (c. with jealousy men who enjoy too great prosperity. Upon the Astyages in 550. He extended his . succeeded to the rule of at Sardis. In course of time the lad grew to manhood. Bury.). Kpoitros. p. and Dorian Greek cities of Asia Minor.. that . Croesus. It was the most illustrious example that the Greeks had ever witnessed of their favorite doctrine that the gods visit seriously thought." ^ art his 1 J. History of Greece.

although Solon appears not to have died until after Croesus' accession. for 9. '^ -- - "^ ' .c). §§ 113 d. e^-eSe^aro 6 . 594 and 590 e. payment of tribute. ^s (c. . rovs iv ry Awptias..g. 6 --- 1. . % eyeveTO .c. 5 . illustrate ? ^ . 13. . irSiv 10. 5 . 6 -\. . to the ovs ' § 102. being 35 years of age. . 617-560 b. . the story of the visit of Solon to Croesus is perhaps apocryphal.^ . . they admirably the style of Herodotus and his belief in divine nemesis. Solon. . -. that Solon's archonship fell between of these tales are told in selections II visit of 163 and III. 114. . But whatever the element of truth in these tales. and revolve about monhowever. reXevra.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Some the arch. \€5. the Athenian lawgiver. Alyattes was king of Lydia 4. II ^ 6 € . . while Croesas did not ascend the throne until about 560 n. . to the court of the Lydian In view of the fact.

. woXvs frequent report. ) ' . futbjpct aftencard on the third day. held § 122 a. ws 32.. 37.'^ -. € -€ 6 19. (he . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 164 . ". 6 ^ -LKVovvTaL ocXXol '. 38. -. 30.^. ot . had he subdued). . $ 35. - ' 25 -. \. \6yos 33. . e. ' 3 6 . 26. -\ how through love of knoioledge. not resorting to flattery. a desire has come upon me. ' /. .^ . ' 35 6 • " -. et^e 2 . having .rpecting.. made ovoev as he had opportunity.( cr^eSot' ' ). . fjv . ^ . . thinking.

. .. (youv) certainly he saw children born. the very spot where. 4. . II few miles northwest of Athens. his City being prosperous. severely. at Eleusis. . him being loell off (in the means) of .. TTjs 44. . Xe)(^9ei' " • Sr) • ' -/^ etvai 165 €< - " • fxev. -. him (lit. in the () on 56.6 - . \\ . the many blessings (the great pros- siipposing that he woxild at receive second place (carry away any rate the second prize)." . eiSev in-eyeveTo. . (). . ) ^. 45.) . .--" . 4° 45 5° 6 6 . -^ 4 the reply ?3 -'^ . . a iv 51. -€. 6 ' • " 55 ' 40. turning upon). life) to (-).3. livelihood sufficient (for their needs) teas (theirs). 54. . . . 8 ^ . 41. earnestly .. (to midst of prosperity. 48. .. (45) very frequent in Herodotus for . -. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Trj \\ \ -^ \4yeL ' . perity) of Tellus. . $ § 17!). 52.

.. the goddess. ^ in season. 67. . dead {-). • \eyerai lepeiav eoei -£ .e. iv uipq. . ohe 6 6 THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK .! 166 - 65 . rotdSe ^ . i. being prevented (^excluded) by the {lack of ) time. wpq.. •€ 62. § 86. viro-5uvres. 61. \ . be taken by carriage. of god in question. € KXeo^et she prayed the goddess to give to etc.e. 63.e. ^eos. 69. 0% to be conveyed by team. the divine but iu power ^ 1. regardless of the sex of the to be 70. - Kleobis. "). 70 debs {i. her. 72. -- ^. The masculine is used here of the deity... ' " 75 ^ - .-. i. 75. . 7 - 6 yap -^ . ^ . . that she had been blessed with such children 74. (). -^ .. tohat children she had obtained.

. -^ iv . rrjs eaLo>s the second place {in point) fortune. ').. ( (^ -- . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^. . 87. .) 80.- ." ^ Srj ' ' * 8 "^ ^^ 8$ avSpcov " . 6 TO. ovSl . of the of good- (). €)( ) {-. The great temple and the precinct of Hera near Argos was one most famous centres of her worship in Greece. (rrjs tQ Herodotus makes Solon first reckon a year as having 360 days (70 X 360 = 25. -. . / -.^ '/. you ask me (a man) who knoios the divine nature. 85. go .200). 83. ^ . ^ . 6 ^. ' " " . . has been cast aside ^pwT$s 95 . oovvai €)(. re 167 ? ' ". He then adds an intercalary month irdv) in order to make the year corHepov each second year 89. - -.--\8 -. 93 $) iv ff. . etc.

/ . .. aorist. . . 107. ^ . - . ^. tmtil human I learn life is all uncertainty that you have ended your life in prosperity. year. TO %» .-€ 6 4s respond with the seasons (' ai This falling at the 'proper time).^ . (-.^ 6 \ '. to the Other. 6 . €•. 07 113. . ^ ry 102. /Lie^-eis TrotijffayueiOs ovSevos giving up. Gnomic § 136. and an average of 375 days in each In this reckoning Herodotus is of course in error.. '' 105 . . 168 . erepq. loholly. altogether. 102. ^ . . ^.' - ^ . 104. . - the one (lay . that the seasons may makes 35 extra months in 70 years. § 98).^ . -. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK - 8 at Seof. ' Oe . 109. . '^. ignoring holding him (to be) of no account. -• -.. he overturns them root and branch. 111. .

5-? (-\\). § 172. . (i^-eyeipw). he got (i.-.. brought home) a wife.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 169 . .e. yap (jjv 6 6 ' 5 ".^) was accustomed. ivas blighted (-). something hanging (on the walls). 15.e. 7. Aty. (/3). 12. 6 -evhovTL . -^ . etc. disabled. "^ . III ' eXa/3e iavTov eivau yap -). . 3. 11. aXrjdeiav . g. ayerai . although he . etc. 13. 8 ). as one was --- may conjecture. - . 5 -). - ^ .^. ' ) 6 koyov . .-. lest (i. 18.

The murderer was 25. Cf. marriage (having the marriage in hand for him).^ 6 * "'^. . . eSeiro. -." ^^ ' ' 35 . § 130. who was a Victim of a calamity... iv (-). 40. ^ . ) " . ().-' ^ -. i. . ws 38. . .< ' ' - "'. and could not enter again into social relations until he had been purified by some one who took pity upon him. under a ban.-. The purification consisted in the main in the ceremony of sprinkling the blood of a pig on the hands and head of the guilty person. : 34. 6 " " 20. 21. 33. who loas guilty of murder. c. 5. ." . i-f\avo 37. he sought purification. \. need (lack). 3 ' )(. ^ . . . -\ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 170 €)( 20 ' Iv X^pcrl -LKveLTaL 25 yevea .? . yoxi loill (). ^] his son being occupied with the .e. 05 d7il'en into exile to friends. ' ^ '' .. . The name Adrastus means The Unescapable.• " 6 "^.

- iv Statrat' iv iv - 171 4° ' yiyverai. . -.. . 39. . -. )(^-.^--." 6 6 -^fJv. -42. § 135. 44.^^ € «^ . epya ' in ' oijSev. would (were wont they to) do. €\ . 43..e. € ^\ ^ . 6 ." .. epya works. as zealously as possible. etc. - " ' -. 55 - . cidtivated fields. C. as lightly as possible. ' - . i-iroiovu 58. 5° ^.' ^-. refusing (saying^ no ^). -. . ' " ' -\\ . 05 a monster of a boar. . 45 i.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . .. ws 62.

it . .. 82. was wars and on hunting expeditions Heretofore has it been permitted us to to enjoy the noblest reputation. aypa<. e.) " -.5(€t9. 8 hi 85 " . etc. somehov I might if be able.e. ei TTws during 85 my ff. -.'' -6 64. TLvd --. to 7-?•5 = 68.. . . avhpX . formerly permitted us me) going (i. -. 67. Sia • " yap oxJjlv -. -/- .• ) eivai. avTov 6 ^. es . etc. ttjs $^ lifetime. . . . have excluded. ) ' . ^ 75 . -. enjoy the fairest and noblest reputation through going.". ^. .-^. exets you have shut out. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 172 Trporepov 65 re - . . it is pardonable for you. ayopav rtcrt ^ ^ . ." .

]. etc. inasmuch as I have been 96. 6 • ]. overpersuaded... " -^- . ^ ^} . as having been conquered. . ^. ^ ^^." ? - '. as he sets out. . oSov ' .. " *1 ^ /. .^ . /cat . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . . ya (otherwise) under other circumstances .-.^. dWws I would not go. 95 tei^at ' '^. ' .. 89.^ ). etc." 105 " • You say to say. ^ crot ISovtl y' oxjiiv etjott nepl 173 e/xe ' top St/cato? ' rjv go . 106. that the dream said.. ^. . . {. etc.. 108. . ' ) .

missiiig. rvy^ai/et 6 125 yyv . 129. tressed. confusion) greatly dis- . 123. verbS e. ^ -' .}^€\€>^ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 174 ^. {equipped with) attended by waiBos. etc. of hitting. 126.^' -^ ^ . (thrown together in trouble. ^^ -- no dvSpa /catov -. ) Sr) yyov. { .. confuse. unharmed on his guardian. ' 30 6 Srj --/$ § 115 . hei . . futVLre -paruciTple oi purpose. . . . . ev ^^ yap Se. . men Genitive with. so far as depends 118. . aya- TTOieiv 115 ' ~ veal•' tat ' 120 eg -). §175. etc. levai. .-". ayyeXQv.. expect SO far as his guardian is concerned. Srj 6 . - hvooylo payvo 115. veaviais re and dogs. -. ) --.

, ,
^
,
,
,
\
.
- -..
,
-,,.-TEE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

Ty

,

eVaXet

eKokei 8e

eTaipeiov,

re

^

'

-^^

peiov

35

140

'

'

-

-

"^ -,
,
-, ^
"

^,

175

145

^,

^, ,
Slktjv,

,

-,

?,

150

."

"ASpa-

'

^

6

6

155
133.

^eovs

134.

di)

it

cared for the murderer.

, \.

he had found.

138.

150.

.

§ 179, II

(he escaped notice feeding) he

137.

ing

()

he had suffered
Zeus (God) of the hearth.

et

)

.

had without knoiih

§ 176 c.
§ 179, II B.

except so far as

you wrought

it,

etc.

176

,,.-,
^
-€ -THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK
eVetS^

iyevero

eivaL,

^,

(quiet

156.

from men)

xohen quiet prevailed

about the tomb.
157.

-'-6($

-

(recognizing with himself) being conscious,

believing.

158.

he knew.

§ 95.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

^

177

I— EXERCISES

1.

(

For additional
baa,
;

To accompany Lesson II)

pronunciation

drill in

baa !

where ?

NO!
ۥ I too,

€ «.

:

bow-woio
iro

ircus

!

whither ?

;

yes

!

how ?

;

ov no !

1.

\alp€ rejoice! good- morning
ttcos

you

you.

et ego.

?

€€9

too, et tu.

hail! farewell!

!

;

how are you (for me)

€' / am ill.
/ am well,
/ am learning, I understand,
am not, etc.
I do not
I knoiv.
/ am speaking (/ speak^ Greek.

?

^

I
know.

.^

Each pupil should make
of all the

classifying

1

2

,

words

at this poiat a complete list
Lessons I-II and the exercise above,

in

them according

mihi,

i.e. I

not, ordinarily

am

to accentuation

interested in your condition.

has no accent, but attaches

and arranging
§ 120.

itself in

pronunciation

word that follows. But when it stands alone (in which case it
means 7io!), and when it is the final word in its clause or sentence, it
receives an acute accent
Why ? See further § f.
In ancient Greece it was not the custom to shake the head as we do
to indicate denial or refusal, but to throw it up and backwards,
and
especially
should therefore be accompanied by a toss of the head.
to the

:

,

.

,

:

:

THE FIE ST TEAR OF GREEK

1(8

each group in alphabetical order.

compared and kept
are as follows

may

lists

be

The groups

acute accent

^

a) on ultima:

b) on penult:
c)

These
and drill.

:

Words with

I.

for reference

KaX6s beautiful.

had.

^^

zvisdom.

on antepenult:
a) penult and ultima both short

:

book.

6€VT€pos

(^ w w)

second,

) penult long, ultima short
Words with

II.

circumflex

a) on ultima: uo^SiS wisely

.

ircos

.

b) on penult (ultima short)

:

( _ w).

:

;

cts-

5.

€€

2.

(

accompany Lesson III)

The Greek language has been spoken
for thousands of years,

lions of people.

to
is

But

aud

is still

as a living tongue
spoken by many mil-

of course the ancient Attic dialect,

which these lessons and exercises are an introduction,
no longer employed in this way. In learning the Attic

dialect,

however, one should constantly emphasize phrases

rather than isolated words.
cise, therefore,

In the accompanying exer-

master each of the type-sentences, copying

and repeating aloud each of the phrases invoh^ed until it
then write the other
veritably becomes a living phrase
sentences in conformity with the model, and repeat each
;

one aloud
I.

,

many

times.

"

understand, you do not.

,

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

€5, -

€09

6

'

understands, the sister does

,

know, you do

I

I.

are not.
(o

'

am

not.

3.

5.

am

§

103 b)

The

2.

II.

not.

brother

{,),^),
I

am

not.

is

writing

my

reading

You

4.

you

brother

are writing, I

speaks Greek, the brother does

sister

^,

not.

You understand, I do
'
The

7iot.

not.

I

179

'

One understands,

the other

does not.

One

6.
ing,"

writing, the other

is

etc.

8.

is

not.

One speaks Greek,

,

(^ol8€v'), etc.

III.

7.

etc.

9,

'

One is readOne knows

have

book,

you

have not.
10.

I

have a friend, you have not.
11. I have roses
12. You have a large book, I a small (one)

(§ 100), etc.

(^^.
IV.

£.


€.

;;

;

Have

Have you a book ?

YOU a

or

.

book?

YOU

Have

Ans.

too

Ans.
a book?

Ans.

14. Have YOU
Have you a friend?
Yes.
15. Have YOU too beautiful roses?
I too.
17. I have both (/cat) a
Have you a brother?

13.

roses?
16.

brother and
books.

V.

(/cai)

a


€$
'

We

18.

sister.

There

There

is

is

have roses and

no one wise.

nothing

evil.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

180
19.

There

There

24.
26.

one

no

is

dear.

21.

bad.

20.

better.

nothing

is

beautiful.

22.

23.

worse.

25.

large.

beautiful.

useful.

€ -)

3.

{
(^

this exercise

proceed as in Exercise II)

Enclitics, § 10 (the four accentual types).


I

€()

€€

amicus sum.
amicus

es.

amicus

est.

amici sumus.
amici

II

'.

Repeat with

.
6.^

fool.

3.

:

estis.

6()

amici sunt.

III

IV

)
^
)
^

(^,
(^,
€().
(^,
€€.
(^,
(^., ), .•.
(^, 8~) €()•
1.

4.

"
,

Grreek (PI.

clpii.

€1.

">€<).

.

f(hid of horses (tTTTro?).

fond of
7.

2.

-

books.

foolish, a

!

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

€,

.
'

kyui

You

8.

,

-

a)

I.

.

)

"ycwp-yos

are a philosopher, I

farmers are wise, we are not.

farmer

?,

.

'

am

b)

a farmer.

Fond

10.

/£/) are wise, some (0?

)

The

9.

Some

11.

beautiful.

'

of horses is the

fond of books, the physician.

;

181

The

12.

(04

roses are

beautiful, the trees are not.

How

II.

How

13.

()

beautiful

beautiful the

book

is

the trees are

How

17.

!

I

know

do not

does not know.

do not,

We

25.

(T(p

,

1

,

C

1

r

the

the farmer

know.

b)

This (one)

19,

He knows that he
know that he knows.

does not

that you know.

that

we

23.

You

are wise.

philosophers.

1

^^^ brother himself.

J

Strictly these differ slightly in emphasis.

BROTHER

I

that

tall

the (self)same brother.

'

,

()

How

€ -)

4.

.

He

How

20.

know
know that we are

do not

is

() (^
We

know

21.

etc.

small

is !

14.

!

15.

that I know.

he knows.

21.

(sm^.)

are!

How

/ know

(olhev) that

You

the roses are

fond of horses

.

knows
22.*

16.

!

a)

III.

18.

((^)

hevhpd)

trees

beautiful the rose

himself; the latter, The brother

The former means The

HIMSELF.

!

.

.

Repeat with :

1.

.

OF GREEK

FEBST

182

2.

8.

is handsome.
5.
The same physician is wise.
7. The father
6. The same f^meis are fond of horses.
himself is wise.
8. The same (one) is both wise and

4.

€ € «»

good.
II.

^Lol

a) ovT«»s
It seem» »o

to

JIE.

c

)

d)

also.

to

€ .€
^

b)

It teem» so to me.

;

10.
to
9. It seeuKS so to the same physician.
11.
to the philosopher
the physicians themselves.
13. Does it
12.
to the same slaves.
himself.

seem so to the
in. a) SOS

Give me the book.

TO

|MH.

Gfive the hook to

TO
14.

Yes

l|rother him.self ?

15. To the
To me myself give

Give the books to the same brother.

brother himself give the rose.

the roees.

17.

IV. a)

«;
18.

b)

ME.

Am

16.

Give them to me.

;

What am I to give yoii ?
6m
To whom am I to give the hookf
I to give

you the same

give you the book itself ?

£

to the farmer?

Am

20.
to the

21.

rose
I

?

b)

19.

Am

I to

to give the books

same friend?

22.

to the same wise physician ?

V.
23.

Call the

cian himself.
26.

the brother.

same brothers.

24.

the physi-

the philosophers themselves.

25.

the fools.

1 «writs, Iftas,

foie

8€

*o

% coBBonaiit.

{ef.

*rm)^

is

often ivmoaiieed and wrinen

be-

€€. Do etc. 3. etc. d) I. They understand perfectly. 8. d) c) 18. I stand. 16. be urging these things. consider the wise rich. 12. III. a) - not he not Let these not consider the 21. €. b) - c) 11. a) ^. you. telling you nothing. ( May the farmers rejoice. TTcos b) am ill. am not. non . These {ovtol (rt) -) € be writing nothing. Do c) (thiiigs). -). 2. €. Be (ye) not. € b) ' ' / €€ cannot have nothing tell {say). learning nothing. 183 24. What What are these saying ? well.• understand perfectly. Be (thou) speaking Greek. 23. Be (ye) learn- etc. We.( €€5. {do not keep') 17. .) are reading nothing. a) '. May we we these rejoice. May May you not rejoice. not. you are well. tell ? 5. -) €€. 20. 6. wise rich. May these rejoice. 9. etc. May 10. €. Let the brother not. You (j9?. We are a) '. you are e) 15.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK €' 5. 4. 19. ing these things. to are saying he telling {%aying^ nothing. May we be 13. the physicians May this (one) consider the \vise rich. writing b) these £ 22. IV. but not you 14. Do not Let him not be urging. (Tip . c) They do not under7. II.

the books. ill. these things. tell Can you tell me 32. but the brother is fond Not the books. e) irplv before telling. You I. noli wise. We 25.. It is . but wise but as follows. ii\Li . handsome. « is intransitive : {have one- . . It is not Not the farmer. things. ? me me this ? etc. is . not . mother are well. These 30. 4. (Lesson VII) 6. but the physician is fond Not the sister. I well. call the same physician. . 1 The man When is . . the philosopher. (the 11. 6.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 184 . am 2. .? this. not to be writing these 28. 27. fore writing this. You are My 3. not only handsome. I am . It is not so. give Be- 36.') you. not to be learning. 8. 35. 7. €€^ so. €. 31. tell (€9 33. is ill. urge (are commanding) you to be learning 26. These are urging us. not only . III. it is € €€ it is as follows. but also. of horses. . . man} Not not so. have nothing to have nothing to Xe^eiv Can he tell us this the physician. 9. of horses. We 29. but also rich. self) be. but the roses are beautiful. etc. I. Before telling 34. fare. but foolish. (say ' the ') 5. us. accompanied by an adverb. Can you (^pl•)•. habeo dicere. ov but. etc. 10. . II. as follows.

18. Let us not. 4. Would you be learning the lesson. ovhkv 1 not.'' ). I. Do 14. If we be learning these things. they will have friends. IV. be writing (Lesson VIII) 7. book Tlie 13. are. 5. 16. If I etc. etc. us be going. If these.i € I. Let us be reading the Let us not be going. 15. are ' €€ 10. Omit the word not be should (might) be writing would not be learning anything (Gk. 2. let ) not only large. etc. should speak Greek. Let us not. but is not only 185 £€. What am 9. Let us be learning these things. 24. book. you will have (e|ei9) friends. etc. ( these things. What 8. 12. If you have money. 3. ? ? €| |€ you? to tell the physician ? ? give . These . 17. etc. II. If () have money. for ' them. if we have not money. If they have not money. 6. but also learning (them). etc. ? We should 22. etc. to not. 14. If 13. ? if it lav he so. also beautiful. dv Would you speak Greek? learning the lesson this. What we are we to be reading be learning lav III. they will not have friends. I shall have friends. 11.. 23. dv We . What mn I to .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK We 12. 20. etc. we. () I 19. I. €. 7. We should 21. Let us be writing this.

writing. us stop writing these things. 29.^ I see you reading. a) (^through tvriting} 12. reading the book. make 11. He 10. The one These enjoy 4. learning the lesson 3. is 14. you vriting. the other (does) not. things ^j<v'^ ^^"^ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 186 -^^. see learning 7. They would rejoice. € €1 €€ things. I see 5. they would have money. so. we should not have money. The ace. stealing.) III. I do writing (things'). ^^ ^\^ -\ -€$ / T• We enjoy reading writing these 2. If friends. . etc. I shall make you stop writing.V.) 1 not. we should have we 27. 15. 13. make you these things. pi. I 16. see you (j^?. my ^ reading. stealing. many (PL 7/3^€9. ? € a) II. By these {exercises} I learn is ace. 25. etc. tiot. well. ? enjoys reading. not. etc. 6 b) I shall 6. If these 30. sing. - I This (one) will 9. € enjoy reading. --i" stop reading. if if should be it el so. should have friends. brothers ('i/i^') learning the lesson. If it should not be 26. If 28. ? do -- Do you 1. 8. If you should not be we should be learning these should have money.

20. 3^ou Though they have 22. § 179. ' oii. an irregular noun of the third declension Ace. house-servant. (Lesson XI) Repeat Exercise IV. Repeat Exercise IV. -. €. Having friends. (Lesson X) . . substituting for '€05. 2 yvv-f) is Nom. § 39. . 11. . athlete.. . 19. you that Having {if I treasures. poet. bride. (Lesson XIII) € ' € . . . . . these hooks. I have €€^ 187 . .. these do not believe. . : step-mother. 'yvvaiKaz. sing. Dat. 9. 1 See pi. . 18. they 21. I a. $ exercise € € € €€ . . .^ 10. . treasures. we believe that we have reading this he learns . . .? THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK € b) I believe have) friends^ By 17. (say '•having'') friends. . many things. //. substituting as in the preceding and in the same order the following vords . pi. etc. this book..

This rose is beauis These roses are small these ! . poet's if ') 19. etc. If I be wise. your ^ sister these the 17. than those. ). is wise. you sister. substituting €K€LV0 (-a) for How I. . wreath. these philosophers themselves. etc. etc. this rose. 18. Stephen) to Of. € these sisters. Teach ME. If € you are if it wise. 11. €1 it if be necessary. (Lesson XIV) 12. . he c. farmer himself. to those poets. the physician s book. 3. if you are ivilling (or if you please). (^^ than larger is (raSe). These ath7. please. Call 10. substituting for plural forms and necessary. 15. 6. poet's (things). should be wise. the 21. . servants. athlete. us. If I am wise. teach will I the farmer's 20. tiful. 2. lov If the words teacher. my books. 2. $ If I 3. making each if should be necessary. 1 § 61. is not. that (one). wife this to brother's book. . 9. This book . . TO €€. using clause negative. beautiful this rose (one) 4.. it is el etc. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 188 € Repeat. (or €1 €1 Come. your brothers. Give my book. this large. 16. 1. {'). Give her her (' the 12. Give the this to these girls. $. give me. That book is larger than letes are handsomer 5. 13. II.. Repeat. the 14. Repeat. («?) wreath (/ 8.

negative form. (or and .{ ). etc.€€. believe. in life than good health What poet says that (Xeyei otl) Is 6. etc. He c) is is ? 13. 15-18. ? € Repeat a) with must learn. II. 5. 5. 19-22. is . ? and Is he not. c) must must to By / must . etc.' 11. a) There 2. is there than no possession. ills. no means. repeat. You 10. not a Greek. If the pupil (o 3. could a) this. . is ? speaking (the) truths not he ? Are you speaking the truth I. speaking the truth. Repeat is in the plural What 1. we € ? By Change the pronoun little 14. 'they. Is he npt a not achieve greatness. etc. ' () - b) (Lesson . many bless- XV) Is he speaking (the) truth? . ? better possession the tongue not the cause also of ings (a<yaeS)v) I. If I should be speaking the truth. etc. Repeat with we. If I be speaking the truth. He is man . better in is nothing.' are not. ? 4-9.) or b) not.') THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK speaking the truth If I ain 1. Greek? Are you 2. you are speaking the is truth. 189 If 2. a good friend 3. ' he 13. Is the Greek ? labors we could 12. etc. 4. ? 3. The the tongue is the cause of many There 4. say a ? do. etc.

|6. OS (Lesson XVI) Whomever) does such iroici.THE 190 FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -€. . Repeat c). I hate. Repeat b) with kcXcuciv. . 42-57. € . b) I. changing the J. . to €7. € 30-41... to and making the verbs Repeat in negative form. Repeat. € €. (things). 23-25. Repeat the clauses under a) with Repeat the sentences under b). . (may^ be hurtful.€. €. .. II. ivhat(ever) should he hurtful. ^ ^ . we. these. . dv that which is hurtful. . you (ye). changing plural. 26-29. you. .€. €. ..$. . £6 a) . . €.). subject to . 5-9. what(^ever^ . 14. 1-4. this (one'). 10-25. athlete.. changing the subject to the these. dv <iv . (or dv Repeat. III. changing . €.. .

my b MY brother. ). Repeat. 14. Our 3. €09 Change to Your 1. () Do 12. beau- (omit sister a poet. my Call . €6$ €€ your. our. €€ in. mens. Whom brothers. 10. but not are is not. my not desire such things (). are Whom this! not hate sister. €€ €05 your. 26-29. is is your . mine. noster. (^). tuus. 8. 7. yours. to love my ? Do 17. () our book. vester. to and a teacher. € €05 this girls. 191 €. Let 13. com- and repeat. farmer. brothers. comrades. mine. we are me What to hate we I my ? to be . brother desire such things. YO UR eraipos rade. friend 5. brother is wise Your father 2. 4. Do other To one () not be doing such things! 16. (Lesson XVII) % my.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK €. mine 6. €8 6$ a brother of a comrade of yours. GOM- your RADE. my 11. we to be Whom doing are ? we 15. these same 15. to the Be doing 9. my Call sisters. (^) repeat each with tiful.. BROTHER. you. changing the subject to we. give the brother's (book). yours a farmer.

chez moi. ivith us. . Tivos on what account ? .. on what account? why? La TO on this account.. Trap' hy tvol^ me. May this (one) 24.. irpo in view of this. ircpl TovTots on these (^condi- € €. house. I these (things^.. etc. do such things. irpos according . with you. substituting € Master the following prepositional phrases from me. TovTO. May these never. learn this lesson. irapd my for wherefore. \. before this. why? instead of bia this. . €. you.. contrary to concerning to this. with these. 5 . do such things. you. hy you^ etc. 7. If I should never. 18. I should never 21. Repeat with to . ? my 19. irpos tovtois in addition to the law. " irpos hy the gods ! ] \ . 27. on this account. 28.. 25. at . the law. slave. etc. May Let us not be doing these things. Repeat Exercise XI. € €' €' tions). Iirl : froin you. 20.. 23. etc. If If we.. (Lesson XVIII) 16. . etc. Trap' . never (/^) (/) 26. If etc. 22.€ to me. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 192 teaching Be teaching me. our slaves. these girls.

VER wise. '€V • . oi 2) Fem. . . on LS ditions'). € and "ye certainly ! € " hk Repeat these phrases. Contrast . (usually written evye^. greatest. Tivos €€ € come now/ on I. ye. ^ (See § (Lesson XXI) 174. where pray f TTS>sbr\. \€ and much tainly the cer- ! very many.) Observe that in these two words the accent ye. « THESE (con- ^ to ME. . 193 veri/ wise. . € € yi VERY many. . substituting plural forms 1) Masc: . § 05 € . . -.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 17. €5. 18. is recessive. (Lesson XIX) Master the following phrases . oStos € € - . €5 -ye THIS account. : € ..

? 7. what must we do ? friends. learning this lesson. 5. We delight in friends. etc. Let the one delight in 14. ? If these. If we be making 1. these of 13-48. you (do) not.) The one wishes to be rich. ? you be making no reply. 4. 2. 16. we shall have friends. Repeat with 2) 5-12. each . and and repeat. these. phrases 1) with the negative 1) to the plural. Are we —) reply. wishes to be becoming wise (^ one who understands these (matters). You wish to become wise. 3. If you. If May ve delight. If I should. May 11. take May 13. to delight in friends or in horses 20. 6. the other (does) not. etc. What pray are we to be replying? 2.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 194 The one who wishes 1. In friends 18. 3. Change feminine (both sing. 5. to be rich. to be delight in good Are we to reply that we know or that . If we should be making this reply. The The one who 2. The one who does not delisfht in friends does not have friends. ? 10. should we be telling the truth ? 9. we wish ( not in books. 17. let the other be making no reply (say be replying nothing "). replying that Qort^ ' ' this reply. Let us be we do not know. yiyveadai). 15. is 2) to . shall we be telling the truth? 6. Do not be making this reply (say 5e replying this''). the other in books. If we delight in friends. We have nothing to rich. the The one who 3. etc. 4. 8. etc. ? 12. 4. If he should. 1. we (do) not. Let one be replying that he does not knoAV. etc. horses. etc. (Lesson XXII) 19. etc. If you. If these poets should. 19. pi.

you Let these. 3. ? I to delight in a good friend or in a good horse I might make this reply. of less least. I — ^) on 195 Am 21. . c) TOVTO of greatest value (importance). etc. (Lesson XXIII) 20. consider. etc. hold in higher esteem. Repeat. conjugating the verb in •- a) in the present indicative. etc. 6. worth . should should not ? make By no means. 10. a) TovTO irepl I. What What are we to be doing ? 4. in (^ 4. of Friends ^). 2. We he 3. May (pi. in b) in the future indicative . Review Exercises 16-17. May 7. consider of greater worth than 21. . € b) I This great value (or importance or worth) ^ consider of hold in high esteem. in c) in the optative of the progressive action-stem. etc. (Lesson . Repeat. . of shall we do? doing nothing. XXIV) What are we doing? 2. etc. Do thou. substituting the verb (in which case the meanings given above remain unchanged). we 5.( THE FIRST FEAR OF GREEK we do not know reply that 22. hold in highest esteem. Repeat each of these sentences. I 9. I '- etc. little worth. May you 11. 24. etc. c) TTcpl 1. . these 8.). substituting in a) Trcpl (importance) in b) ircpl . Be 1. of greater value TrXeiovos (importance'). we this reply. you. money ought. ? We 23.

what shall I reply ? ? these 28. If any one ask 25. (-. etc. the same fathers. 7. the father. call (^). etc. etc. I shall not The 16. We should be becoming wise. . . some will not. you •)? 27. etc. 22. Repeat the phrases with ing for pi. ? Who you.). I shall call shall. (Exercise 16). the other will stand- shall reply that (ort) 30. these (things). May we be becoming wise. Call the boy. is will We. firm (/AeWi). the same boy. We. These friends. 1.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 196 Be calling your (say 5. Am themselves. are calling them. "Ycpiav. . Some 12. sider 17. Who 10.. 15. I shall () We 29. We 8. 14. iraXs. the ') brothers. become 24. (Lesson XXVI). the man. 21. I shall con- poet. Vie 9. firm. me about this. 26. wise. mother has no possession more precious than a boy. the Greeks. 23. Some things 18. What reply to the Greeks ? mother ? boy has no possession more A precious than a mother (say 'there 6. substitut- the appropriate forms (both sing. ? gift to the old 4. . the other standsThe one will flee. I shall you 19. ' know. -. and is for a hoy^' etc. Do 2. these same 22. ? I to give the not keep calling the mothers same boys themselves to the 5. them. farmers. 3. am I 6. some things we To-morrow 20. me happy you happy. me calling calling 11.) of «. man ? are we to the to be making these men A ".- we think we understand The one is fleeing. to . . etc. them. know. the mother. will call me ? Consider 13. 31.

Does ^our whatever I wish. vent us from doing whatever we may wish. health is the best (thing) for a man. (Lesson XXVII) Review Exercises 8 and 18. a mother life 197 (say ' of life for ') 23. Review Exercise 1. May we (things). the same you making saying these will hear 12. from doing whatever you wish ? 3. examples cited . We know that we knows that he is foolish is 7. they will pre6. 5. man's character is known from (his) speech. as the philosopher says. 4. For these ^ . we are foolish. hear that A we 11. wise. The 1. ^. I 9. vji_ We (} you always To-morrow reply. To have 2. 8. father always prevents me from doing 2. My ('') ' (Lesson XXIX) 13. this same hear you reply- ing to the physician that you are well. Fathers always prevent their (' the ') children from doing whatever they wish. .. know are wise. value nothing niore highly than justice (^ I 5. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK For boys are anchors of a mother's 7. and study carefully the in §§ 174 and 176. gods. 3. in followed by the genitive (§ 115. If these be able. are mortal men. their father (say be doing'} father prevent you (} will prevent (them). i). 10. but t/ou are wise. In the following sentences use the verb 1-4. Whoever We know that we are foolish. in 5-8. 6. in 9-12. Whenever these children may wish to be reading something. 4. 24.

What do you I. . How much do you ask for this horse ? much is the farmer asking for this chariot ? 10. (Gen. to desire Let us 7. . (Gen. 1. XXX) (Lesson Repeat the phrases with ing for (Exercise 16). are are are. ? these ? We desire 5. it tis (both . 25. to Does 8. '• children? are these 6. On what account To whom. .. Know (Lesson QyvSiOC) thyself not love thyself ! ! Do 4. For how much are you are you asking for etc. we to be replying ? making . I. ? (things) these desire 6. What offering to sell these (things^ ^ 9. . ? . ? Whom * do these ? XXXI) 2. me Zeus.7. ? Are we nothing. ? Whose the child")! What 5. etc.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 198 men do not wish us to be as happy as possible. not seem so also also. For how much do the gods sell to us all the blessings of life ? ' 1. /?). sing. substitut- . do not know vho (rt? or you (say of whom child are Whose 4. you? to By 9. Love ^>^ thyself ! 8. desire nothing. 9. Do not love thyself too-much . How 8. the appropriate forms of and pL). you 3. ?!). 1 Ace. «. we 4. they happen not to love us. Who ?) you you are we 8. ? he 2. For 7. I 2.. 3. II.this reply ? are we to be calling ? are to be Whom permit to do whatever he wishes 26.

1 See § 119. neither eating nor drinking. touching I 10. ? you w^e I was eating nothing.• What am 7. We were not replying. near the postern-gate. we 8. we shall not have friends. 6. 11. The horse was eating the barley (say of the harley'^. In the day-time these attendants rule me at night ^ (jjVKTo^ 8e) my mother rules me. Who ' ^ {} . (jt?Z. for he thinks more of the slaves than of me. these 9.28. . Does your father permit you to govern the mule-team? 15. What was 1. was ? 3. ? Don't touch this! 12. Do not touch the chariot 14. ? ? Touch My Qthe') mother permits me 13. I ruling ? What was you ? We were was preventing you from doing these (things) ? 7. you were not. 16. Who was dying? 12. 8. 11. We were becoming wise. We thought we were dying. (Lesson down XXXVI) (along') the road.) ? 1. 6. this! ! (^ 27. his ('') son.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK (Xidv^ 5. 13. XXXIV) you ? ? this slave ? ? we ? Whom 2. to touch these (things). we eating (Lesson saying these ? I I . not have friends. Why was the dog in the manger (say the in manger dog ') not permitting the horse to eat ? 10. 9. for the dog was not able to prevent (it). 5. By no means. No one was preventing us from making this reply. ! 199 The one who loves himself too much does If we love ourselves too much. We were not dying. 14.

We. etc.. 7. . 4. in a position opposite the €v wall. Make an intensive study of 1-15 (Lesson XXXV). €§ €5 €ls TO wall. time for me to be going away for 6. These boys. kept. etc. We were. etc. away. We were absent. in. It -). 16. What was I doing ? these We (Lesson . father was wont to regard (say was regarding') the slaves as of more value than us his sons. He we You kept turning around turning around he was frequently 5.. these you in 10. out. ' . toward. <. position opposite ! 8. etc. in. regarding''). I was going away. My For they were phiinly eager to approach. 2. ! — away. Ap- out. You were. preparatory based upon this passage. Let us be going. I am going away. 13. etc. 11. proach 12. 3. These. you were going 15. irepl to a dictation exercise 1. I Tliese boys and regarding us (say You you ? was not hesitating. etc. is out. These. out 5. the opposite city-wall. in. . . 4. ' XXXVII) 3. — 14. ! lines toward. 1 . (^ for us 7. the wall. toward. 29.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 200 according €9 TO to Plato. €K to a position opposite the from a . Come . Come 9. etc. 6. ? 2.

(Lesson XLI) are you asking me to be asking these (?) men ? What 2. OLos € € or Olds 32. 12. 6. These 5. 4. ? 5. were saying that we were more beautiful than 6. etc. (questions). ? are than these brothers. ? is 7. 10. You is he. Do not keep asking this. 12. 9. I. If you should ask this. I was hesitatthe happier ? which of these men was the worse. we shall reply that we do not know. (fte) ? are these physicians 3. the other was answering. You were asking which of us was the more beautiful. 13. This boy was hesitating to ask me about this (matter). What is smaller than this book ? wiser than you. wiser than you. The one was asking. these larger. 7. This (one) they were wont to consider (say 'they were considering^) the worse. We 3. € am able qualified^ both to deliberate and [ \ [ € (Lesson XLIII) Qfit. If you ask this. What are asking which of us is the wiser. My mother was wont of these same boys ing to ask me hold to 13. . Which the largest of these Which 9. Let them not be asking these 8. we regard nothing more beautiful than a good friend. There is is higher in 31. We have nothing to ask you. ? {) 10. 2.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK am I 1. What 1. I was saying that I was more beautiful than you. to fight. 11. you. We 4. angles 201 is the larger Which 8. are books are smaller. 11. XXXIX) (Lesson 30. we should make no reply (say ''he replying nothing''^.

' Repeat (making the necessary changes) with b) Although wise. € ) T€ € through- Repeat. Repeat. 33. substitut- Repeat with making the necessary changes.. $ II. . also as one having experience. I am nevertheless (things^. ?. still trying to he . . ing . (or a) Since T€ desire. Repeat.€ €. I. etc. I do not . a $ $. is .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 202 Repeat . old.. -€ this sentence. Although growing many . experienced. conjugating the verb out the present and future indicative. know what friendship . - 32. compound forms) "? (Lesson XLIV) Review Exercises 23 and a) . conjugating the verb in the present and future indicative and making the other necessary € changes. learning is adjective and so has no ^distincti\^e feminine Tovs avSpas. observing that . what in the ivorld Repeat with it is'). substituting for (and making the other nec- essary changes. b) Concerning these {matters^ you I shall try to question . (^friendship .

the From 4. playing. . who was Socrates? young man or an old man ? 3. the others will say {epovat) that friends. €. and . About what were he . €€ In Around the . being a boy. .^ . 2. . 5. Tas KOpas « a) II. substitut- appropriate forms (both sing. 1. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK c) «. . ') XLVI) Repeat the phrases with ing for away (^- is. Toi»s - Xcyovtos ol . the others were con- As we 3. (Lesson 34. Repeat each of these phrases in the plural. Before the city. versing with us.. 2. the horseman. substituting for : . irepi the words Repeat. the words a).) of priest. . 6. 2. Into 7. And 4. Out Far from ' of 3. . vas playing in the courtyard. yet cover what friendship (^) pi. b) Repeat : 203 this being so. . Was he a 1. substituting for ToxiaSe.. I believe you to be you are not able to dis- (Exercise 16).. Write in Greek each of the following questions together with an appropriate answer. While ^?) was Lysis (Gen. €€'. Come tell me. While we were conversing with one another Lysis. . ( are going . - 1. €. b (§ 39).

Who and the boys cou versing with one another ? was calling the boys and bidding them go home ? ? 6. etc. to find than good-health Which 9.). Were they out what friendship was? 7. tav should €l I do what are we do ? to let what did '€. do- TTOico^cv. etc. I do. ? happier than a king is seemed to you of these boys able better is ? more to be the ? 35. etc. ing. lav T.. . doing etc. if I be ^ doing. doing doing. ivhat are we to be doing ? us he doetc. (while should do. TToiet . do ! .: : THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 204 4. . Repeat with Observe further that the aorist participle (having . if let us do. done}. beautiful into the city Who 8. What Were they going 5. (Lesson XLVIII) Observe carefully the difference between the progresand the aorist forms as illustrated by the following examples sive . dont. be . € Aorist Progressive what ivas I «. TTOLCLV to be doing. €1 T. etc. be doing this TToicL . this ! don' t do this ! to do. ing f .

II. . 66. my ^. €. tlius «. €€.).$ a fool Exercise b) (/ (hv kiiow that 23). c) - Contrast laugh. / am . Cf. bursti^ig Repeat each in the feminine. .He a) He Contrast said (while^ laughing. often refers to in time to that indicated by the lead- ing done. €. thus / d) e) I have I am € come foolish. o28a undone ! brother heard him This done he said. (Lesson L) dead. €€ b) € : said with a laugh. etc. laughing.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK € €$ 205 Indicates an act merely as an occurrence without I. Repeat a).-. Repeat. thirty years (of age). I am a) / fundamental meaning. Repeat b). substituting for (both masc. and fem.) of 36. lost. havthe appropriate forms dKoveiv. Am I awake heard its is 'prior ing verb. Because of an act that « : . to recognize or asleep ? that I am €"am / am . substituting• for a-yyciXas the appropriate forms (both masc. c) '. -? '€. thank you for announcing. substituting for -YtXaaas into tears. and fem.) of iroitLv. Study carefully §§ I. etc. 65. € turn in announcing this Vou did me a-yyeiXas was kind of you (it to a good announce. 137. reference to time or duration.

to be dead. To have spoken 18. etc. ap- or recognize that ten years old. I am twenty years are undone €. 13. saying that I Observe that in English the perfect is constantly employed where. ? These have not. seen the them. etc. have neither seen nor heard be awake. To told all the truth. (Lesson €'' did not hear the man. has broken the peace 16. We To have Study carefully a) I have b) c) 1 20. Who men ? 17. ? Ave are foolish. ! We 6. ish. in What has he done ? = be more natural. 9. «- € €€" To be dead. / am etc. 11.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 206 He ^') I. 10. I have ' ' c) d) violated the j^^cic^• have neither seen nor heard the man. Greek. To the truth. 37. am saying that was saying. d) 15. fool- We are You are ! € What have I done? ^ b) / have told {spoken') all the truth.. e) We a) II. : . They Are you awake These are dead. thus Compared with English. 14. those do not. these. 3. §129. an aorist . 21. about lost (vre/ot. is Are 5. be thirty years of age. of age. pear asleep dead. spoken. These recognize that they are 7. 6$ LH) € ( . seen and heard. etc. § 179. Greek employs the perfect infrequently. We have 12. 4. I. ? 8. Have you 19. 2.

: ! THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK e) (or I have that ^) I sai/ (or said^ (or had) spoken. learning. learning. : € 1. €€ € may I Aorist I learned. . 1 Observe that (shall) say. plural. learn. he learning. followed by .! .! dont he.! to he learning. ipQ) is {ipiw) is the future in common use meaning / will not common. Review Exercise second and third in the second. Progressive / am learning. Repeat with €-€. I was lav learning if I € he €dv he . f) g) 207 -uvai oii I refuse to I my go away~). and the first. (Lesson LIII) 38. etc. ipd is . etc. to learn. and means I shall speak. may I learn. having learned. - 2. h) that I am « olos away not going €|-€€ (i. . deny that Iheard the man.! etc. shall say. (while) learning. if I learn these {things).e. ovSeva 4. . learning these (thiyigs^. etc. shall forget €€€. etc. 3. 5. and third persons and study carefully the following examples of progressive and aorist forms 35. 4• . Repeat each of these sentences persons singular. don't learn! §157. these things. etc. etc.

tion : : question'). . What did I ask her ? 6. (Lesson LIV) 39. Study carefully §§ "* a) €1 I. Repeat each of these sentences. I should desire to associate. - 5. irats €. . and making the other necessary changes. ivere not I should not he asking this man so (questions^. 4. •3. -. If I be asking her many 4. Two verbs of asking (Lesson LIV) ask (a 1. -€ -- 85. What was I askWhat am I asking this man ? 3. If the hoy had asked me THIS. - «. . . If I should not ask them these . 2. c) €L If many V€os - . If I ask her many (questions) (questions) 1.. I should have made no reply. (Lesson LV) 40.-. If should not be asking the boys these I (questions) (questions) . 7. etc. 152. ing the same . 8.THE FIRST YEAR OF GEEEK 208 . young. What will I ask this woman ? man ? 5. «. 1. 3. 2. b) €1 Even if were ill. conjugating the leading verb in each throughout the indicative of the tense indicated. Repeat with : clirov. Construc- two accusatives. «.

Know well that these will say. Verbs this. favor^. i J is. ! are going away. etc. 14. 5. not. 10. I do not know.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 209 Repeat. If these boys. etc. to 15. Ask me this. If you. ) 13. I think I know. as seem wisest of (questions). well (eu nothing. I knows what the sophist is ? 8. Do you knov? I know. 37. to all we these. Who Does this man not know what friendship is ? 6. IL tion : ask ( two accusatives. keep asking me this. May we. etc.! knew . 12. Let them 16. thought 1. . Know that 17. If I was saying that I should not be asking so many 14. Let him. etc. we were To know the. Be asking me this. .. Let them. etc. etc. 16. Don't ask me this (§ 157). etc. (^) (^) know 11. I. 18. May knew. men. 2. We have nothing to ask you. 3. Construc- • Repeat the preceding drill. 13. 19. from seeming to know (say 'from know''^. May I never I knew. . 7. Socrates we consider the For he knew that he knew (Lesson LVIII) of telling^ saying. Don't 12. not able to discover what friendship differs 42.! 10. I this'! 9. 15. 4. (Lesson LVI) 41. conjugating the verb throughout the mood or tense indicated. I Review Exercise « (. 9. 11.

is \vhat (/) 17. before. conjugating the verbs throughout the singular and plural. ovSev Repeat 1 and 2. . We shall this. (§ 175). . etc. . This is This what I I (eiirav'). 43. € Explain what you mean. If 6.. Don't keep telling me this this. 17. say that 14. 6. . tell Repeat. I 11. also chance to be saying also chanced to say tell. 4. Say we do not know. was delighted at seeiyig. (Lesson LX) was admired (marvelled at) for wisdom. I 9. 5. conjugating the Toiixois . did say If I should have said nothing. . ^:>omi out.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 210 I. 3. 15. (thing). ? I If 7. conjugating the verb throughout the mood or tense indicated. Tell 10. 1. What will I 3. clircv have come declare. €. 4. What say to him this . him I ? What am I telling the boy ? 2.€ Repeat 16 and II. Don't say this have nothing to say. same me (§ 157). What was I telling the man ? 4. 2. 12.. (X€Jv^. . etc. If I tell this 5. . 13. 16. € 1. should say this . * verb in the plural. / 2. Repeat these sentences. to tell. should this tell I 8. explain. conjugating the verb as 3.

By his (' the ') father. and making the other necessary changes. 5. I stood up. 1. 8. ^'?) Few know what death is (say 3. I arise. I you? May 7. Those who fear death many. conjugating the verb throughout. those who know what (it) is fear death. I 7. Protagoras was called a sophist. was If it () men never be called sophists 9. these The boys were was Lysis led home 8. ''know the death what 4. would it please should be called a sophist. i.e. I made ). both singuand plural. (^. etc. Repeat 4. He was not persuaded to go ^) ? were delighted at seeing these men con- — slave (irorepov I that. I I 8. should be arising. ( 4. 3. By whom ? 10. am arising. I should should make the . ). We 12. I stand (). saying that Protagoras. I am 4. I that (it) 2. in the act of standing the boy stand am ( ('). 211 ! led home. I 2. ) Many 1. the boys arise. For I chance to fear death. I stood 1. (^ii) are is'). etc. home. (Lesson LXVIII) 45.. If I 5. though fear death as is the greatest of I kne\v well (? ev all evils. was 2. etc. 9. as above. (^ said would not please me you. Repeat 5.the first year of greek (Lesson LXII) 44. or by a 11. . (ot are few. made 6. standing. although not knowing that it is an evil. but Plato a philosopher. 5. versing with one another. 6. lar (Lesson LXXIII) 46. 10. Protagoras called a sophist.

4. I ran away. Set it down (/cara-^e?). 12. $ -. 11. 13. Those also I held in dishonor. ( 8^ Where are we. € hold in honor. ! ! 16. 3. Where 1. and went home (say Avill arise. I Repeat each of these sentences with you.! THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 212 others arise. I myself knew the man. ? These we should hold in dishonor. you. whom pray . shall b) make grateful return to these . 48. those. those in honor. Let them not. Let him doAvn. Don't set it dowai. you. I arose 14. T. the man. § -. ! Be coming to know thy- -. arising I went home '). know Let each (one) (Lesson . ' 11. ! Let these not 17. d) These a) b) himself . etc. to place the stool 10. we. ? (Lesson a) LXXIX) . () 9. Give me the book. ' the blame for this? ? ? e) lav laois f) el XL LXXVII) b) c) shall . etc. we. a) I. 7. they. this same slave. arise 18. Let the boys themselves. I ascribe . Repeat each of these sentences with you. Let the boy himself set it 5. Plato ascribed the good to God. 8. Know Do not arise thj'self 19. 6. etc. but not the evil. etc. 2. am I not. Arise 15. « self ! 20. 47.

these If I betray these. 3. etc. d) -. etc. Am 5. -€. Maf/ II. (Lesson Xe^CL oStos ffe is speaking nonsense. the These gave (say 16. betray your (' the ') friends. delight in The herdsman { gave the child to his wife (sa}^ placed the child in the basket (et? 'woman'^. they. ^. ' having given we pleasures etc. I shall not Don't not. ' d) LXXX) -. Having Don't. ek he carried (it) into the mountains 14. I to us not. b) c) -€| e) Whom pray shall II. 49. sharing 11. Having given the 15. would 10. ) } we should If 9. 2. etc. etc. my €-€ I aj^poiyit general? I am making . as above. herdsman went ') the child to the herdsman and went away. The just man time alone reveals (say '•shows'^. not have friends (. 1. away. all my betray friends? 4. -. Let 6. 1. delivered. Repeat. 8. etc. Grant me (/xot) the favor. . child to his wife. e) €$ toIs y . Let have friends. Repeat each of these sentences as before. }. Are we. sharing (o 13. Having placed the child in the basket. these (things) with you. etc. 213 never grant. a) I. a display of skill. 7. share these (things) with you. '-€ / c) etc. ayyo^}.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK for the benefits. ? with my I delight in comrades. my We 12.

THE FIBST TEAR OF GREEK 214 2. . eager 6. to be skill. 4. The man () seem to us is showing off (e7-e^. Sophocles the poet said that time alone reveals the just. These showing off. let the old us depart. man not.i). 5.l'^. The young man is to show his Having displayed our skill. 3.

MEPOS TO PART II THE GRAMMAR 216 .

.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 1.. The Alphabet ( The standard Greek alphabet has twenty-four Form 217 letters : — . ).

= rh ot ch Examples are et : = = = = = ps ae OS. See §§ 8. d) The letters were used as numerals.^ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 218 that was officially adopted at Athens in the year 403 B. Xerxes. See 6. 9 f. See further u V Eu-hoe'a. times long. Marks. — The only § 51. punctuation marks used in modern editions of Greek texts that differ from those in use in English are the question-mark (. Fiov violet when used c) The . p is written viclere. double gamma) It = w. = see. came into use during the Middle Ages. Of. but note further that represents the long (open) e-sound midway between vowels are short. 6eos § 8. oe evs (final) ei. i. In transliterating Greek names into English employ the nominative and observe that K = = = /* c 77 X (init. somealways long . The primitive Greek alphabets contained three additional letters. 1 case. The sounds of the vowels are indicated in the table above (§ 1). which disappeared in early times. um eus eus Sophocles. was the Ionic alphabet.C. Ti-mo'theus. The most important of these was F digamma {i. Pro-me'theus. ( • — The Of these € are always e sometimes short.e. § 51.. See letters Punctuation 2.) and the colon (•). I . J ov (final) €$ S^p|i?s = = = \ eos (final) e Byzantium.) = : 7. = = ng us. Before this date the Attic alphabet had passed through many changes. — Vowels ). Aiyvirros Aegyptus. Pronunciation 3. piScLV to as a numeral. ancients used only capital letters the small .

)IPH. .

like sh. cf. $. An vowel or diphthong is always accompanied whether it is to be uttered with or without an -sound if with an expulsion of the breath (). : . d) Every consonant M^as sounded. the sign . breathing and accent marks (§ 9) are omitted. breathing') is employed b) If the initial vowel is a capital letter. however. to th ph that is. the breathing is written before the vowel c) When an entire word is written in capitals.(pronounced ego). ' : ' : . This sign half.. See century B. was possibly pronounced sphinx.) messenger. were respectively it in were similar kh hothead. . sound dz in adze. . the sounds Later they came to be pronounced topheavy. was probably rolled more than r in English. a) by a sign initial to indicate . loch. perhaps as early as the fourth in glaze. d) If a word begins with a diphthong. Philip.C. of improper diphthongs (§ 4 b) Hades. cf. and these sounds are retained in modern Greek. it still b) it retains in §6e. the (pronounced Ao) the sign is written over the vowel is called the rough hemisphere. angel . very early became (for € THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 220 to Athens Later. packhorse. like th ph kh {ch^ in thin. If no A-sound is present. (smooth breathing. ' . but like zd. and this was pronounced like modern Greek.was originally pronounced a) -). Breathings. as in glaz'd . ' : . the breathing " written over the second vowel of the diphthong This is : is not true. or | Avas sounded like ng in sing before e) in the early periods c) (7-nasal) 6. : ( = f) Attic cf.

— The : -. always has the rough breathing in the g) Initial Attic dialect above. quantity of the syllable is a factor of great importance in the pronunciation of ancient Greek. A a) In dividing a word into syllables single consonant --. a Grreek oh! . : cf. otherwise the antepenult: Prome'theus (three syllables) io'€os Timo'theus (four syllables). It is usual. if this be long in Greek. — 7. rheumatism.: : : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK " When the initial vowel or diphthong 221 accented. sounds. ^ So and ir when exposed through elision (§12) become and respectively before a rough vowel or diphthong " =. -?. followed by a vowel usually has the long sound : Ionia. is : connected with the vowel fol- lowing b) Combinations of consonants which can begin a word are connected with the vowel following : : Compounds formed without c) according to their elements Quantity. further. and to accent the penult of the word. hyper. makes a distinct syllable. : I do not speak Greek.^ A syllable may be long 1 In pronouncing Greek proper names in English (see § 1. et €. elision (§ 12) are divided -^.. : .' =. . / do not know . cf. the is I accent and breathing are written together: have you are. Syllables. to give the vowels their long or short English . as follows a) A vowel Orion. note) it is customary to ignore the Greek accent. Every single vowel or diphthong. e) Initial is regularly pronounced and written with a rough breathing a stream.' =. f) Before a smooth vowel ov not becomes before a rough vowel. 8. whether with or without a consonant. «-. See § 9 f.

: €- Accent. that when is. : : €. treated as either long or short (^ >^). or followed by a single consonant (or a stop and a liquid) before e. The two kinds . when vowel (naturally its folloAved by two consonants or a double con- €- (|): sonant 4) 3. when i. of accent are : 1) Acute or sharp. indicated by the sign pitch of the voice is raised as the syllable is $• 2) Circumflex^ c) The or the uttered rising-falling tone (") ?. a) Accent English : it Greek in is chiefly differs radically from accent in a musical or joiic/i-accent stress . b) There are two kinds of accent in Greek. Duca'lion. b) A vowel followed by a single consonant (or by a stop and a liquid has the long sound if it stands in an accented penult other- (§§ 17. and another vowel has the long sound. A 18) short vowel followed by a stop and a liquid (§§ 17. and d) oe. but three accent-signs. e. the The ('). ae. Soc'rates. has a long vowel or a it ( ). ---^ ). i. a. or y . § 3) is ( : is. Pausa'nias. 18)) . ?/. wise the short sound : Cha'ron. where it is perhaps entitled to be called it is called. ( _ -§ (— v^). The diphthongs ae and oe are sounded like e.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 222 By a) nature^ that diphthong (§§ By b) position^ short. is 9. third accent-sign is (' ). Grrave accent as This constitutes the second element of the circumflex accent. But in such names as He'siod. ^). plays but a secondary role. c) A vowel followed by two consonants has the short sound. The consonants c and g are soft before e.

f ) The rhythm of all classical Greek depends upon the quantity of the syllable (§ 8). acute accent . remains which at the is last This occurs when is incorporated in a sentence. 10. circumflex accent accompanies only a syllable that long hy nature (§8). but before a single initial See accent-sign.. but that monotone regularly sellable is acute accent-sign changed in writing to a grave accent-sign before another word in the same sentence. not upon the accent (pitch). may accompany one . and may rest upon either the last syllable or the syllable before the last (but only when the is last is short) The : . uttered alone has the rising inflection on if the last syllable (eVrtV). like vowel when this is a capital : ". § 6 d. or in the words Tis who ? what ? final . . Enclitics. a) Some words of one or two syllables attach them- . it is 223 merely a sign to indicate that a syllable which Avould normally be pronounced with the rising inflection (acute) the voice a word. €. . but the third the last The is short : of the last three from the end only when the breathing (§ 6).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Elsewhere an accent.. The accent e) one of the The of Greek word always accompanies a last three syllables. and merges not so pronounced. . is written over the second vowel of a diphthong. individual accent in that of the word- its group: on the level. syllables of a word. d) But a acute is not changed to a grave before an enclitic (§ 10) or an elided syllable (§ 12).

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

224

selves so closely to a preceding

word

become virThese
Examples are

as to

tually a part of that word, as does -que in Latin.

.

are called Enclitics (i.e., leaning-words}.

,

,,

€,

The

b)

an

effect of

an

enclitic:

1) Preserves
acute

to

, () .

accent and never changes a final

a grave (§ 9 d): 8os
it has an acute on the penult

lowed by
3) If

i)

own

5 «, "

2) If

cent:

its

A

it

number
word before

enclitic is to increase the

of syllables of the Avord preceding, hence the

and

is fol-

a dissyllahic enclitic, the latter retains its ac-

€.

has an acute on the antepenult

circumflex on the penult

,

acute on the last syllable

.

(^^.,

,

(),

:

or

adds an

it

€,

c) Enclitics retain their accent:

1) Sometimes for emphasis
it

seem

so to

2) After elision (§ 12)

:

:

evil.

3)

)

)
wise.

is

pronounced and accented

' «',

d)

id

When two

each, except

.

or

€i.

in its clause

does

all things are

«
,, .'

When it stands first
When it is emphatic

7) After ovK.
is not.

€;

TO U too ?

:

:

eVri

;

the

:

man IS

«

:

there

est.

more

of course

syllable an acute accent

the

enclitics
last,

follow one

receives

another,

upon

from the one following

:

its final

.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

225

11. Proclitics.
A few words of one syllable have
no accent of their own, but attach themselves closely to

the

word that

and the
Examples are

are called Proclitics.

.

€K, el, ov,

But
by an

-ye

,

ol,

when

it is

Iv, els,

followed

Beos-

Elision.

12.

-

a) Elision
of a

:

,

,

:

a proclitic receives an accent
enclitic

These

in English.

follows, like a

is

the cutting off of a short vowel at the end

word when the next word begins with

05.

The apostrophe (') marks
pounds

:

*

a vowel:

the omission, except in com-

(for Stay.

and conjunctions accented
on the last syllable lose their accent with the elided syllable, and become in effect proclitics (§ 11):
b) In

()

elision, prepositions

c) Other

words throw, the accent back

but without changing the acute to a grave

The only consonants allowed
word are v, p, and s (| = ks,

a)

()
(for

'

.

to the penult,

=

word

end
and

to stand at the

=

attach themselves closely to the

(§ 11).
of a

:

Final and Movable Consonants.

13.

a

?

'

.

its)•

€K

of

word that follows

All other consonants were dropped at the end

.,

bod^ (for

:

cf.

'), €pe was
') and
he

writing

Lat. scribi-t^.

b) Most forms ending in

(also

all

verb-

forms of the third person singular ending in -e add
before a word beginning with a vowel, and often at the
end of a clause or sentence. This is known as v-movable.
c)

For

0X1 (oy/c,

),

see § 6 f

:

226

?

:

THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK

thus, so may drop the s before a consonant.
becomes
before a consonant.
before
e) The ending -€t of the pluperfect may add

d)

So

ۤ out of

a vowel.

Contraction is the
14. Contraction of Vowels.
term employed to signify the uniting of two successive
vowels, or a vowel and a diphthong, both in the same
Avord, into a single vowel or diphthong
>
of
contraction
learned
The phenomena
are best
by mastering the paradigms of contracted nouns, adjectives, and
verbs, §§28 D, 29 C, 41, 81-83.
But note especially
:

that
€€, €t,

A

and

€CL

>

cl; oo, co, o€,

contracted syllable

is

.

€€

, €>
and

regularly accented

€0l

;

if

>.

either of

the original syllables was accented

A

a)

the

final syllable

(),

with the circumflex accent, unless

? (?).

original

final

syllable

had an acute accent

:

b) Other syllables according to the rules stated in § 9
15.

Crasis.

— Crasis

(^

mixture^

is

the con-

traction of a vowel or diphthong at the end of a

with one at the beginning of the following word
(/cat

),

16.

(/cat ez/)

Vowel-Gradation.

e.

word

:

(/cat eav^.

— In

the same root or suffix

there frequently occurs an interchange of vowels similar

There are
two strong grades and one weak

to that in English, as in dri7ik, drank, drunk.

usually three grades,
grade, as follows

Strong

:

THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK

-

Examples are

-

-

:

carry

a carrying

€--

nourish

--^

know

(Dor.

--

;

Att.

-

I say

I place

€---^

have

-€

-€

voice

-s

was

nourished

I know

--

-s chariot

(two-carrier)

nourished

ciS-evai to

--0

227

a heap

I give

to

see^

we say

-€-€

tve

--€ we

place
give

consonants and their combinations
17.

Stops.

a) Stops (or

Mutes) are those consonants whose pro-

nunciation causes a complete though momentary closing of
the breathing passage.

Stops are of three orders (smooth,

middle, rough or aspirate) and of three classes (labial, palatal,

dental), as follows
Classes

Okders

;

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

228

€€ (-),
€€§ (-^?), €-€".
(^--),

but

c)

IT,

become

,

and

and

, , and

So
vowel
e

>

are

>

Of)

becomes -

When

e)

, , or

a

(

two aspirated stops (,

€- (-^

a,

t

and a

,,

)

/c,

is

would normally

regularly changed

(--,^

:

'•>

;

>

Similarly

or
(/3e-

:

,)

first

>,

>t,

(^--^.

§

;

(%e-

19 a). ^

Liquids and Nasals.

18.

a)

see § 61.

---((--»)
€-,

begin successive syllables, the
to its cognate smooth stop (,

-).

^

normally becomes

remains unchanged)

with

;

and the preceding

(a

short

if

(-/-),

:

d) Before

\-^^.

,

dropped before

(^€7-8~),

, , and

;

are dropped before

then lengthened,

is

et,

become

with

, ,

|;

'

The

and

liquids are

Of

-nasal (§ 5 e).

these

;

the nasals are

, ,,

, ,

and

play a very important

In the parent Indo-European
were frequently vocalic (written 1 m,
n, r), i.e. they served as vowels in the formation of syllables.
Of. fathom, yes'm, heavew, SittZ, brittle, etc. In Greek
or else
these vocalic liquids and nasals either became
developed a short vowel (usually a) to accompany and
or
r > ap or pa
1
became
support them. Thus
from
rn >
> , as follows
(e ---') from
(«jreX-to), § 20)
word-formation.

role in

language

1,

m,

n, r

,

:

:

;

;

€-.

b) Before
(/c?)

1

it

ir,

,,

(?)

becomes Y-nasal

There are exceptions, as

;

€-€--becomes

before

, ,

;

(--/)

;

before
it

-, --, ---.

,,

,|

remains unSee

§ 73.

) --,.
«THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

Thus

changed.

:

;

apparent exceptions

d) V before

€5

f)

Initial

is

>

>

g)

is

a) In

>

-

:

and

,

was lisped

seven (orig.

b) Medial

ev

;

;

after a

-.

Digamma

Greek

dialects

to see (fiS-, cf.

survived as an

qf. septem'), tnrcp

;

20.

;

placed

is

diphthong

:

-sound (§ 6)

=

to disappear
:

:

super.

between two

"y^vous (yevea-ot,

see § 35).

(/r)


?

early disappeared from most of the

cTttov

/

said

(fe-n--,

cf.

Lat. voeo),

Lat. videre).

d) In a few words an
pleasant

(^-^)

was dropped, or

original initial

antl

shows a tendency

Lat. gener-is
c)

is

tovs (tov-^^^

F•

vowels, especially in inflectional forms
cf.

:

(^6\-).

:

many words an

it

)

>

ec,

assimilated

- {)
-

:

There are some

doubled when a simple vowel

is

Omission of

rather

a, e

in composition or inflection

it

not doubled

19.

{-).

(/ueXay-?).^

or

-€ (-).
before

(eV-

dropped and the preceding- vowel

is

e) V before

;

;

see § 67.

;

regularly lengthened (a
els (eV?),

(^-)

>.

before

c)

{-^)

229

(^afdS-., cf.

initial

disappeared

:

Lat. suavis^.

Consonantal

l.

— In

very primitive times

many

Greek words contained a consonantal { = y, cf. pin^n '),
which effected certain important changes in pronunciation
and spelling. Some of these are as follows
'-

:

.

^ There are some exceptions.
Thus in the dative plural
dropped without compensatory lengthening:

before

-

is

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

230

,

,

(from

and sometimes

(^\-,

§

dpi,

>

,.

)

see § 59

d)
§ 59

:

>

a)

b)

59

-,
>

,.
, >

c,

§

59

).

c,

,

(=

§ 5 f)

-

:

c, /3).

€vi, €pi, tvi, ipi,

and

C/^op-) fate,

:

€iv, €ip, Iv,

, , Up

;

see

c, e.

>

e)
see § 59

>

;

1^

, sometimes

or

(see above, b)

;

c, a.

declensions of pronouns

The Persoxal Pronouns.

21.

a)

b) Pronoun

you (thou).

/.

(^Unaccented forms
are unemphatic.)

the

of

person

third

(him,

her,

( usually

if).

an

in-

direct reflexive.)
S.

N.
G.

.

.

/

a~\)

0/

you
of {from) you

of {from) him, her,

{from) me

D.

,€

it

{for)

-,

{for) you

to {for)

him,

etc.

me
A. €,
P. N.

€5

-,

vie

you {ye)

us

D.
A.

$

to

(for) us

22.

to

us

The forms

(for) you

yoic

ol

i

him, her,

•€5

it

they

of {from) yon

of {from)

G.

you

<ri

€9

ive

of {from) them

--

to

(for) them

tr^as them

are usually enclitic.

The Intensive

Pkonoxjn.

— The

intensive pro-

(§ 40 ), except
that the neuter nominative and accusative singular end in

noun

-0 (cf.

self is declined like

TovTo) instead of in -ov, thus

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK
S.

N.

avTOs

G.

.

For the uses of avTos, see
28.

avTTjs

§ 106.

The Reflexive Pronouns. — The

?

231

reflexive pro-

nouns are formed from the stems of the personal pronouns
combined with
They have no nominative
(§ 22).
forms

b) The Demonstrative Pronoun €K€LV0S that. as 25. suffix -€. a) demonstrative pronoun.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 232 The article was originally The demonstrative pronoun € ties in accent. with the a The Demonstrative Pronoun outos this. €. . is See § 10. the old demonstrative This explains the apparent irregulari- .

§ 9 c) on the last syllable. "5 : whoever Each part is is a compound of os who and tls some declined separately. b) one. except in the genitive plural tivcs. as follows: . accented (§ 10 b. receive an acute (or grave.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 233 Indefinite ^•^ YXQ/iJ'^iA'^O N- Ti Tis Tivos. Tivi. 2). Tivis Twri Tivas The dissyllabic forms of the indefinite pronoun. when .

THE FIRST YEAH OF GREEK .234 P. V. N.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK N. 235 .

V... the G. irXovs Compounds -. e) tive so regularly . . S. ' . see § 28 A. ? ? V. \.filiend same physician TO the road 1€ () € ? ? ^ ^» ? ? ? ?? ? G. . ? child (oareov) {) forms like Trepi-irXovs tlie (/-?) basket. C. S. : gift ? () -. ( The nominative in''tI7e in os is ]\iasc'uline. () () V. TrcpiirXou. the triangle € £ () ? . . () . contracted a sailing / . (^?) () siave slave ? " ^^ ^? () () ? ? Contract Nouns. D. ? ?? V. . nominative singular around. €09 0€0s• vocative Feminine. So -. ? Tois ovTois Tovs -? "€ -? "? - jlvToiis () .\. and Neuter Nouns. the has recessive brother €€. philosopher . ? avTos N. accent . in -oos accent all the €. D. D. () G.. . the D.. voyage. () : sometimes used for the voca- the .THE FIE ST YEAR OF GBEEE 236 d) The ending nominative plural ot of the is treated as short . VOVS (wo?) mind^ hone. () G. g. .

> but merely \ > ). sion are masculine. is usually the same as the and nominative. is the usual euplionic changes (§ 17 c) But stems ending in v. ..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 237 Third Declension. if being dropped The c) short (€>?.(-).. or . t. final being dropped. and There are a few excep- tive singular accent the final syllable in the genitive dative. § 13. § 50. both singular tions 31. feminine. e) Most nouns which are monosyllabic in the nomina- . . . § 43. (/^-). Mute Stems (§ 17). a) The stems end in a consonant. or as the stem. 30. § 13. § 17 c. : irais. iras. b) The nominative singular of feminine nouns making |. to : s. lengthen the last vowel.and mak- ing the usual euphonic changes. d) The dative plural is formed by adding . In neuter nouns the stem final : or s do not add and lengthen drop those in - most masculine and formed by adding s to the stem and is : vocative singular employed as the nominative. and are in most cases conveniently determined by dropping the endThe nouns of the third declening -OS of the genitive. and but NoLTNS WITH plural. or neuter. while (Xeovr-). p. .

alternative form is the man . € () <() 5 5 (5 D. the mother N. oj^a G. 1 very common the daughter '. sav- 5 ' € •8 • ' " ? € -() )ior (-) 05 •£ x«ip '€5 •() A. D. the father s. 34. D. ix (() Plural Singular N. V.OF GREEK THE FIRST 238 P. D. TOis () 33. N. « (§ 18). G. A. Xeovres vvkt€s . (-) ". N. - Greek the shepherd the dog the hand (-) (-) (-) P. . D. opviGas the chariot . ". ' G. . G. € (-) the pre- server.• . V. •() (^-. § 17 c) () 6. S. V. Tip ' Nouxs Stems in the divinity the - or G. A.with Variable Stems (Synco- pated NOUNS).<() Xcovrds TraiSes •••() 'Traicri(v) iroSds iraiSas Neuter Nouns with Stems 32. TO opviGes iroSts Nouns in Xeipes ^ -') •-() •() . -.V.

N. 239 .THE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK P. V.

. Zcvs () Zeus 6. The stems (() became respectively and (cf. leaving merely 4. ol -€<() (-X^t) The nouns . ". —A few of the . . gen. woman. -£$ or cow. . ?Plural Singular son or €(). -€ G. . however. ndv-is) Irkegular Nouns.-. -€9. N. . -|(). -. V. () or €. -. 38. . in -€. .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 240 This not true. D. 39. Of.. 2. (-) () G. () . -€$• is . 1. toiis or 068 V. Lat. {€'8 () vap before a vowel >•3. . wife ^5. {) knee more impor- -. -. Pl. is Nouns with Stems 37. -. . . . of nouns of the type of the principal noun in -. -. -. €..and -. bov-is. 1. -€$ ship are thus declined Sing. -. ($ •€ PacriXcvs the king N. .-. : spear €. 1. " - (to) milk . € tant irregular nouns are 7. (^) water () and the p was . 3 () -. . . 05 D. and (ySou-) then dropped. vaOs SiXG.

the others to the the feminine ending of the nomiAfter e. of which the feminine endings belong to the first declension. unequal. Tlie young. and few others. . new. just. In the geni- § same form and accent.) (. equal.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 241 declensions of adjectives 40. and : F.) - beautiful. are thus declined : un- beneficial.) adjectives small. of Adjectives the Fikst-Second Declen- sions. The adjectives of the first-second declensions have normally three sets of endings. tive plural all the genders have tive feminine endings (. tlie (.) dea7% (. have no distinca Compound adjectives. or second. F. . vtos largest^ . native singular is after other letters. A. . t.

— The § 35) happy fortunate are declined . (-009) - . vocative. «- -^ -) (st. F. . — The masculine and neuter forms of these adjectives are . § 29 C as those given above (B). N. declined: Adjectives of the Third Declension. -? -. G.. '-. (r^o'. M. -fj So (?) of : disposed. eii-voa true (cf well- (not ev-va). G. as follows D. See also 43. larly circumflexed on the last syllable (/". -. D. of gold G. N. D. G.') €05 : N. . is simiile and But compounds have no silver. • €() .. § 48. and N. G. and — Most adjectives in -€os The contracted forms are regu- -oos are contracted. . V. . (st. <( •() ciJcXin hopeful. pi. . Other types are represented by fatherless. S. golden. 41. § 28 D) and are the same . G. . Adjectives of the First-Third Declensions. V. ?). masculine and neuter singular. Neut. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 242 Contract Adjectives. €-. «€ £5 € ?€ « ( ' € £€ € €( £ M. \. D. accusative. . V. except in the nominative. €€ € « . better. distinctive feminine forms 42. adjectives S. F.

long here. true also of participles (§ 50). ( iratrai <() The wide. iratri (st. This all. ^ A. N. (st. V. £$ €( ^ < F. G. D. . G. 243 the feminine forms of the first. which strictly beblack and irds (st. .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK of the third declension . 44. . . broad as follows ^. F. adjectives and ^apicis •( •() -) cvpOs (st. V. -) is every are declined as follows ? €5 M. -') : . . €. . eupev- iracri Q>eupe-) evpv-^ graceful are declined . D. S.

244 THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .

:

.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK
r\his

(-)

-yas

.

shamfful

(-) large
{-) sioift

-$

-<08

(for

more or

£(

good

-KrTOS

less irregular

better

best
best

better

KpeCrTwv better

-TOs best

evil

small
1

much
easy

,

Comparatives in

48.

«--8

^-')

beautiful

iroXvis

-\-<08

--)

(for

Tlie following are

05

--

pleasant

-05 (-)

245

(for

-

^-/)
more

-

most

are declined as follows (c/.

§§33,42):
M.
S. N.

N.

F.

better

G.

D
A.
V.
P.

or

. V.

or

or

G.

So

,, ', .
£(()

D.

.

or

€, ,€^,€,
(.

sive in the forms:

\.

or

The accent

is

reces-

ADVERBS
49. Most adverbs end in -, the majority being formed
from adjectives with the accent of the genitive plural

beautifully (/caXo?),

pleasantly

(^8),

formed by means

thus

justly (St/cato?),

(^<;^.

Many, however, are

of other suffixes, such as -a

:

very ;

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

246

«
-aKLS

:

TToWaiKis mani/ times
within ;

-

;

-: ^^\

homewards ;

:

-

secretli/ ;

-:
from

:

home.

The comparative
adjectives

is

of

the comparative of the

(

adverbs which are derived from

regularly the neuter accusative singular of
adjective

;

the

neuter accusative plural of the superlative
wisely

(€

beautifully

So

-

superlative, the
:

more

very

most
least

less

DECLENSIONS OF PARTICIPLES (ACTIVE VOICE)
50.
-o-vT-^

A. Thematic Formation (Participles
§§ 75, 43).

The type

is

being (etVO

in
^

-,

st.

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK
B.

The

(§ 83),

and

participles of contract verbs in

-

(§ 82)

making, doing,

and

(-')

may

(-^)

-€

247
(§ 81),

be represented by

showing (declined like

asking {a question^.

follows
Singular

-

{-)

),

The forms

are as

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

?AS

, §,

?
,

Tn the same manner are declined

G.

•$

taking (ones) standi G.

«.,

-

having done^

having selected^ judged,

\.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

249

THE VERB
STEMS AND ENDINGS
Every verb-form consists of at least two elements,
and an ending: €-€; most verb-forms contain
€•--€ (rt.
st.
three or more elements
Each verb nor(rt. yvo-, st.
mally forms several action- and tense-stems; see §§ 131,
52.

a root

-,

:

-----

''-}.

-),

59-70.

Verb-endings are of three sorts, a) personal endings,
b) infinitive endings, and c) participle endings.

Personal Endings; Thematic and Non-the-

53.

matic Formations.
son

they are

;

employed

:

— Personal endings indicate the per-

a) primary personal endings,

in the present

subjunctives

;

When

the formation

when

the

is

are

vowel, the formation

54.

;

it is

%

is

not preceded

and

in the

in the imperative.

preceded by the
and
elsewhere

(o before

said to be thematic

endings

--, -.
stem

employed

the various verb-endings are

variable or thematic vowel
e),

of the indicative

c) personal endings

;

in all

b) secondary personal endings, or those

employed in the past tenses
optative

those

or

and future indicative and

-, €-€
i',

:

;

by the thematic

called non-thematic:

-, €-€,

The thematic vowel belongs

one of the elements mentioned in

§ 52.

to the

For non-thematic formations
§ 80.

,

,

THE FIEST TEAR OF GREEK

250

The thematic formation

see
is

€,

,-

§ 91;

by

illustrated

§ 79.

55.

Secondary Personal Endings.
Active

'

Middle Voice

S. 1.

-V

2.

-<r

or

3.

(orig. -T, § 13)

P.

-p•''!*'

--

1.

-€

2.

-T€

3.

-V or -<rav

^

56.

-TO
-jieGa

^

For thematic formations see
thematic formations,

-<ro

,

,

§ 91,

--

,,
,

§

(or -de)

79

;

for non-

§§ 86, 87.

Personal Endings of the Imperative.

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

251

b) Temporal Augment, which consists in the lengthening of the first vowel of verb-stems beginning with a vowel
€ becoming , and i, o, and
/ heard
becoming respectively , , and
I was wishing
A long initial vowel (except a) is not changed of the
remains undiphthongs ai and ei > ,
>,
>
(rare) remains unchanged
changed or >
or
I found
/ demanded
I was gone
Verbs compounded with a preposition regularly take
there are a few exthe augment after the preposition
but
I was dying
ceptions
/ sat down
I was
Again, a few verbs have two augments

(or diphthong), a, a, and

:

().
,€

(),

,

(),

£

---

;

:

(^),

().

;

:

{.-.).

(--)

;

:

seeing

(), -€| I opened (-).

few verbs which originally began with
With an e of the
have
the syllabic augment.
or F (§ 19)
/
verb-stem this is then contracted to €l
Finally, a

:

had

,

(,
rt.

58.

-),

rt.

-), €-|

broke

Reduplication.

completed action, or in
action,

and

is

(--)
(^<,

I
rt.

(--)

as following

— Reduplication

is

some verbs merely

the
of

sign

all

of

intensive

a part of the perfect action-stem.

found therefore in

(-

fay-).

It

is

forms made from the perfect stem.

It is of several sorts

-

a) Verbs beginning with a consonant usually prefix that

(, t; see
I have fled,
/c,

a rough stop

(,
/
,€am
€- I

consonant with
§

€,

%,

)

becoming smooth

have learned,

17 e):

have died,

dead,

b) Verbs beginning with a double consonant (", , ),
usually merely prefix an € (/o being
two consonants, or

:

«-,

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

252
doubled):

t

have thrown,

I

/ have

Verbs beginning

c)

the regular temporal

/
,),
()
have

I

heard

6- /

know,

lied.

diphthong) have

Avith a vowel (or

augment

reduplication:

in lion of

(),

led

I

have recognized,

/

have perceived (^-

().

have seen

/

have

irregular.

is

CLASSES OF VERBS

The

conveniently classified according to the

A'erbs are

progressive action-stem, which

The

Thematic Stems

59.

a)

appears in

many

forms.

following are the most important groups
(§ 53):

Verbs with no element added

^ €

to the verbrstem (or

--

in man}^ instances to the verb-root) except the• thematic

-%:

Three common

become,

b) Verbs Avhich add -T%-

c)

[

(§ 17)
steal

-

sit

down

(apiraj-).

\^erbs in

rarely,

-

or -^

7) Verbs in

(-).

(-

-, -,

(/-),

-

-Class],

dip

:

(-).

The stem regu-

20) [ioia-Class)

^^
§

for

(or

-,

§

19),

:

row (e/aer-).
from stems in

-,

-8,

a

few from

(-), -€grasp, seize

-), from stems in - or - (or,

§ 20 b)

;

:

beget, bear

(-),

(§ 20 e), from stems in
hope
(or by analog}):

a) A^erbs in

do

or

Verbs which add -i% (see

stems in

)

,

(-), €'

injure

it,

)

(for

fall,

young.

larly ends in

-).

persuade (7reL0-%-, rts.
verbs have stems reduplicated with

dig

-

(-},

(§ 20 a):

-

always thematic: -. a) A^erbs witli (Ik-'). -€. -€. corrupt (^€/?-). -. -. sarily to ^e-). with a nasal in- take find (eup-}. (§ 59 d) -\--). in the majority of cases the prin- cipal parts must be learned separately. -ip. -. future has the (§ 53). a) The present future give.- [iVw-Class] : (-). F. 253 While verbs are regular. lose (for The form come (§ 53): {-'). -iv. give suffix - and : many (-). in -€v. -. NoN-THEMATiG Stems 60.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ) Verbs e) Verbs stems in -. cut.- drinks from stretch (^-). - Verbs which add (^-. from in (^-)^ show stems in (^^-}. formation of tense-stems and action-stems The Future. destroy. -. sit -). - stop. (rey-). of the progressive action-stem does not neces- determine the forms of the other stems. (-. -. -. . . d) Verbs which add a suffix containing etc. (^-'). and. -ep. av%-^ - --- unreduplicated stems: be . b) Verbs with reduplicated stems: show. 61. ^-). - (XayS-).-set (-. is same endings as the thematic Thus the preceded by the suffix --. -%-.) (§ 20 c): -. Verbs with ^. -%- : c) (v%-. - call to witness - (§ 20 d): judge --. e) know --arrive perceive^ serted in the stem. F.

F. (-)^ . c) K. F. : F. in the (^ (^. Verbs whose stems end in have futures in | y. Verbs e) - future in . These are known as hear. : . have futures in persuade. vowel % 63. F. end. or have futures in d) Verbs whose stems end in a liquid or nasal (. etc. € be. See Lesson LIII and § 84. F. : -€ . The aorist Root Aorist. F. Some verbs having active forms in the present have middle forms in the future. forms middle) is of three action-stem (active and 1) Thematic. : €--- or . F. F. form the bear. -€ verbs in (§ 81) lean (/cXty-). €. are identical with the progressive action-stem forms of IT. more than two consider. F.. - regularly have -. Examples are verbs wath deponent futures. take. - have . - -€ and verbs in . But there are a > F. : -^ of . after teach few- TeXcoj /a). or : '€. or |. €' — flee. F. F. and also those mentioned under e). . . F. . A f) in throw (/3-). ') is then dropped form the future by adding In point of conju(§ 19 b) and the vowels contracted. syllables few verbs are wholly irregular see. F.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 254 b) Verbs in future exceptions a /. . knoiv. see. F. being the verb-root plus the thematic (-%-'). gation these futures. €|. learn. . F. F. : leave. do. : ask. The Second . . . €. . call. F. : 62.. F. . .

. . «--. -. Three verbs in active. - --. a) § 28). > : e.have - See §§ 88. The second perfect active is I have written cf. {-'). 66. 89. in the first aorist -. See § 64. stain €-. 98. See Lesson LXXII and § 86. The first perfect and is formed by adding - / : have loosed (). ^^. with the suffix Formations 1) and 2) together constitute what is known for convenience as the second aorist. — Active. . The First Perfect 65. is 64. the perfect in -. - > . Second Perfect Active./ came to recognize (jyvw. if short. These aorists are very few in number. €i. — The Most verbs First or Sigmatic Aorist. active €. €-. (or : the perfect in -a ^). />.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK the verb-root without suffix 2) Non-thematic. (/cpiv-). to after judge {-^. . 3) Non-thematic. but like those above are of great importance. .-'). - (or -a). ivard off . regularly form their aorist stems in -a omitted). (77€-). being €-- / stood 255 {. e (^-). see § 69. . B. c Verbs whose stems end in a liquid or a nasal (. . For the aorist passive stems. form their aorist stem (active and middle) by adding the suffix See Lesson XLVII and § 79 A.<yvo-). shoiv for the reduplicated stem (§ 58) I have seen (--). : ( lengthened t > > . has both and is i. . I have fled : yi- (). being § 18). and the last vowel of the stem. .

(. st. receive Some verbs ending to before in Infin. absence of the Normally.drop only before (-). €€'-. elai(v). the . -. : (/-) has two perfects / have : fared. Pf. : judge -. - carefulbf -. 18) PF. So I in a consonant. Pf.-^.. €€-. -). (see the latter ordinarily remains unchanged do There are some exceptions. €-€. € / have guarded ^- c) If however a long vowel precedes the final consonant. change €-. above). . . €€-. a perfect does not have a which has a second \^erb first perfect. If - the stem ends -. view Infin. -'). -. -. perfects. and have done. Examples are aspirated called are These .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 256 perfect differs from the first only in the The second . there are the usual euplionic changes (§§ 17. J rt. The formed by adding the endings directly to the reduplicated verb-stem myself. have injured (. . before the endings others.(-). If the vowel preceding the final become . ir. again. €-€§. - — The Perfect Middle (and 67. -|. (-). b) Verb-stems ending in . (-).€€-€$. . and and y become and consonant is short. Part. : €. I Pf. €€-€9• others drop the have loosed for injure : (--). Part. arid vice versa. or and in . -. . or form second perfects. -. € . . perfect middle is Passive)..-. I (/. have cut rt.

«-: They do not harmed appeared 79 C. Pf. §§ 17. and imperative (except before -vr) Ge becomes / was loosed. For the accent is (/3-). (-). 18). and with the necessary euphonic changes. was left (/-). €€- : €€€-. passive is --(-. participle. ivas made 69. complete. — Perfect Mii)dle(-Passive). --/ was active . ^ This tense to . 257 Pf. of the infinitive and The Future Pf. In the indicative. See § --- -. sJiall have been / shall — The Aorist Passive. Observe that the aorist passive employs only endings. to form the stem .-. Pf. was done rt. is -^. - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . ".€€€-. . differ ().-. "€•€-. This formation is rare. formed by adding the future middle endings the perfect middle stem. ((<-). Pf. -. €--- The formation that in in -c. The stem of the aorist formed by adding the sufhx -Qe {-) or -€ (-V. and (forms in Some vowel stems add do not occur).. and 68. appear Infill. meaning was written : €--- ^. see § 78. / shall € / : remember.-. . in called the first aorist passive the second aorist passive. (-). is generally passive in sense loosed. before endings not beginning with a short vowel at the end of the stem is regularly lengthened and finally in some verbs a vowel is added command. ('-). infinitive.) to the verb-stem as it appears in the perfect middle (omitting the reduplication.

— The optative adds to the action- stem the secondary endings (§ 55) preceded by the moodExcept in certain cases (see below) the or suffix . FORMATION OF THE MOODS. . § 89). «. form the imperative by adding the personal endings vowel (§ 56). In the first person singular active the secondary ending after the long form of the mood-V is used (not -) suffix -. The Future Passive. Before the ending -v of the third person plural the suffix appears in the 73. — The Etc. - / shall be written. (. €--.. ^. of all (§ 53) with the action-stems has the primary endings lengthened thematic vowel "/?: shall he loosed^ -t|S -t). in the singular aorist passive: may I be giving active of : € may I ('/. Thematic progressive a) Thematic stems (§ 53) action-stems and aorist action-stems. 71. - is used instead of -v --. of Mi-verbs . see § 69). § 79 C. primary ending -. contract verbs in and is -€ he is (for usual -- always employed in the €--. form i€ : -€. Xvo-t-s suffix - appears before active endings only (and so occurs reguIt is always used in larly in the aorist passive. of the imperative after the thematic . . § : -The 79.may they he loosing. the -- singular active --').THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 258 "— This tense is formed by 70. subjunctive - 72. or adding the future middle endings to the stem (in -77) of the aorist passiA'e : shall be done. The Optative. both active and mid: dle. The Imperative. The Subjunctive.

is and (-oy). and the per- (- its . and these endings loses and the vowels are contracted > eo > § 19 b). - (with . See Infinitives. . except that in the second person singular (^-) active middle § 79 A. perfect active participle has the suffix -via in the feminine). replaced by is (-') in the (-at). b) Non-thematic stems. The 74.- then contracted with the thematic vowel (Xeye-ev'). — All active participles (except the perfect) and the aorist passive participle have the suffix -VT. -. "-^. See § 50 C. The aorist passive (see § 69. For the - infinitives of end) has the ending Mi-verbs see - : § 77. 75. a) Thematic stems (§ 53). vidiich is : ond (. The Participles. fect active imperative is very rare. active The progressive. The The declensions are given in § 50. There is no imperative of the future stem. supplanted by For Mi-verbs see §§ 86-98. All middle and future passive infinitives have the ending § 67). secaorist and future stems add the ending -ev. -. eiirciv € to eiv: (aee>a)). {eiTre-ev}. B. active The first aorist has the ending -ai (a of the stem being omitted) The : : perfect has the ending -c-vai (a of the stem being omitted) : €-€. (-. etc. ..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK - Of 259 - is regularly omitted. b) Non-thematic stems In the : first aorist and middle the imperative endings are added in - -- -- (§ 64) active to the stem (or -a).

end). The Mi-verbs had a tendency to become i2-verbs. In the last example a is inserted. a) Verb-forms generally have recessive accent. . first i. § 88. which are best learned by mastering the forms They differ from -verbs only themselves (§§ 86-98). liarities. {irpay-). Final -ai is usually treated as a short syllable X-ucxai. -09. in the progressive and second aorist action-stem systems. 77. The Verbals. with the necessary euphonic changes (§§ 17. become! e) But the latter sell! § 89. c) The second . — The The Mt-verbs have many pecuMi. aorist active infinitive circumflex on the final syllable - : or reduplica- in -€lv has the d) So also the second aorist middle imperative in put in! § 88.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 260 All middle and future passive participles end in -^€VOS . word and be (eV-) {-}. : (a/cou -). except €. aorists in - All Mi-verbs have vowel stems.-ov. the accented as far from the end as possible (see § 9). is : i\Iany of the contracted forms are apparent exceptions. €€5 for 78. Other exceptions are b) The accent never precedes an augment tion.Verbs. 76.e. except for the irregular sit (§ 64. cf. - when compounded with prepositions have recessive accent: -: dissyllabic put down! . Accent of Verb-forms. — The verbals in -t€os and -tos - by adding these (see § 177) are formed - suffixes to the rerb-stem. \€K-T€OS 18) (-).

.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK g) : €€ behold! But - Compoiinds f) penult say . (4) : all infinitives in - All second aorist participles in -§ : - . up ! h) The following regularly accent the penult: (1) first aorist active infinitives KeXevaai (2) second aorist middle infinitives perfect middle (3) . 5. -€5 of Bts. All participles.. (and passive) infinitives and participles i) and . give back and ! 261 accent the provide ! come! go! ivpi find! ! vhen uncompounded accent dTT-cnre speak out ! the . : : .. all participles in final syllable in the $. . give take! final ihi syllable. -ous -us have the acute on the nominative singular masculine : ... . . €S.

P.. . •<- 1 (-€ <-€8 (No subjunctive) <- -<() 1 Very rare. .() 1. 2. etc. Opt. -<. 3. Progkessive Action-stem . €--68 3. -- 2. P. (stem Conjugation of -) / loose. Xv-£is 3. 1. unbind. - Present Tense -€ Infin.-€ -£ SrBj Indio. -- 2. 1.-< - - §60 -€ -•() Past-Imperfect Tense S. 2. 1. €--£() 1. €-Future Tense-stem Future Tense S. (- . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 262 CONJUGATION OF THE VERB -VERBS 79. [•<(•-€ "-£ (-] and only -eiv (No imperative) in indirect discourse. 2. A. - S. 1. . -€ -€€ 3. set free. Impeb. -€ 2. 3.. Active Voice. €--€ 3.

. \v<ras §50 . 1.(-€ €-• (-() . - <€ -€ Perfect Action-stem Present Perfect (Subjunctive. 2.I. Paet-Aorist S. .' Opt.<. Indic.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK AoRisT Action-stem SUB. 3. . and 263 Partic. 2. 1. 3. optative. -- Teitf^e *- -as €-(€() <-| €-(€ (-€ €-. P.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 264 Progressive Action-stem Indio. .

- " or (No •< - subjunctive) - [< (No imper- -<] C. 3. 3. . 2. Present Perfect Tenise S. 2. The middle forms of the progressive action-stem and of the perfect action-stem are either middle or passive in But in the and future systems there are separate forms for the sense. 3. 1. 1. 2. according to the verb or the context. . 2 Very rare . only in indirect discourse. 2. aorist passive. 3. 265 Perfect Action-stem Opt. as follows 1 There are no forms of the perfect middle (passive) imperative common use except that of the third person singular been loosed. £8 €£5 £€' € € €€ (() €i€V € ^ (€ € £-' Future Perfect Tense S. 1. 3. P. 2. The Passive Voice. SUBJ. 1. ^ Paktic. 1. 1. Indio. Past Perfect {Plu- €-'- . - -' 3. 2.2. ^ ' . 8. 3. 1. S. perfect) Tense S.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . €5 € «5 €4$ . : let it in have . 2. 1.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 266 L First Aorist and Future Passive (§§69. AoRiST Action-stem Indic. . 70).

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Progressive Action-stem 267 .

€••-. ( 3. (iwoie-op) 2. lam being made. -. -e) itroUi ( -) ( -«'f) 3. (^) conjugated like conjugated like -. ( 2. 2. Progressive Actiox-stem lam .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 268 S. . 1 : eiroiow -es) ( 6€ -ov) '. -. P. 3. 1. ( 3. FtnrEE AoEisT . conjugated like Middle (^Passive) A'^oice: making {doing ) for myself. ( . P. ( € Lmpekativk -") -ere) Ivfixitite iroiei /e-e) -) (^iroie-eiv) Pabticiple (-) iroitL• § iroieiTt 50 Past-Impep.fect IxmcATivB S. : : Peefect «iroiiis ( 2.

( conjugated like in -. 269 . : €•. Pass. conjugated like conjugated like Perfect: AoR. (^') I ask Progressive Action-stem a question. . ( -01') 3.€ -) £-€ -) -. ( -€) 1. P. -. Active Voice: -. . 3. {(-6) 2. 1. FtTTiTRE : . ( -) €7. -. ( 2. conjugated like : 82. Contract Verbs A.THU FIBST YEAR OF GREEK « ( € Past-Imperfect Indicative S.

( -) 2. try. Pbogkessive Action-stem § 84 . ( -ere) 3. (^^ trial of.€ € THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 270 P. -. . Future: 1. ( -ov) €-. make . -. . conjugated like Middle (Passive) Voice : - . conjugated like or Aorist: . -. conjugated like conjugated like or .

) Imperative S. 1. €€ eiriipoo-ee conjugated like conjugated like (^) : <. ( 1 -0J') Declined like . ( -e) 3. 3. ( -ei) P. ( €€. €. . ( -. . ( 2. -. € € € Participle Infinitive (-) -e) 3. ( -ere) 3. ( « -) 2. CoNTKACT Verbs in Active Voice £6€ -6) -) -) 271 make clear. ( -(>) --) --{) --) -) -) -y]Te) -otre) -) -»») (/-/) €€ Past-Impj)rfect Indicative (\•) P. ( -ere) 3. Progrkssive Action-stem Present Indicative S.^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK P. ( -us) 3.l. 1. ( -overt) ( $ \6-) -T)s) € ( -() . ( -es) 3. ( -6) S. : AoKisT 83. 2. (\6-) 2. 2. 8 -. £.l. . : «. ( -) 2. 1. 2. Optative Subjunctive § 50 .

3. ( € -ourai) - Imperative (-) S. together Avith the Thematic Progressive Forms. P. » / am £$ learning 2. B. ( 2. ( -ei. 1. (-) -) ( 3. ( 1. 2. 84.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 272 Middle (Passive) Voice. 2. ( -) -^ Optative {-•) ) (^-) € (-£/^) € -) {7]\6-€) -) (-/) - Infinitive \6-() Participle (-!) -) Past-Imperfect Indicative S. 3. 1. ( 2- ( 3. ( -6€) -) 2. . ( -erat) -ijrai) 1. 2. Active Voice. A. Progressive Action-stem Present Indicative S. ( The Thematic -ero) « -) -) «-) Aorist. . r?) -) 3. ( -ecrSe) 3. Past-Imperfect Indicative I was Aorist Action-stem ' AoRTST I learned learning €() ££() . for the sake of comparison. ( 3. - Progressive Action-stem Subjunctive Pkbsent Indicative (-) S. 1 .

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 273 .

274 THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .

- ••-€ Infinitive Subjunctive (. B.Participle : Non-thematic Second Aorists. 2. Aor. § 63. See Intake (something) stand (§ 87). . 1. - Middle Voice words) /or owese^). 3.-Indicative S. .. P. 3. answer.. : / -. cAoose (one's 275 •--€ -€ -€€ air-e 86.--- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK : replied. 6 : Optative Imperative - ••-•€ '-€ -. reply Aor. 1. to (lit. Sec.. 2.-). I stood -(> .

THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK and I enter. Aor. .276 r C. Sec. : € I entered.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Progressive Action-stem 277 .

FuTCEE : : (first 3. «€5 <£. (ending in €£€ €£< -) in the singular of the indicative elsewhere. second aorist.) THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 278 P. 2. aorist . . 1. See § 64. Indic.

THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK A. Active Voice. Indic. Progressive Action-stem Pkes. 279 .

\. . P. 1. eSiSocrOc cSCSovto. '-€$ 78 e . I sold) Infix. - § -€ . show. : as Impek. - -€€ .. £8€ «SCSooO ISCSoto F. . . -€6 -£' 3. point Active Voice. . €6. compare .. .Second Aokist Indic. compounds Opt. 90. . out. 1.. S.€ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 280 Past-Imperfect : Future and perfect are regular 2.. (only in : Subj. c8ci|a. ---. F.

[ « 3. el. 2. Opt. Indicative 1 Subjunctive Optative Imperative (- S. Inkin. 1. only in indirect discourse. Sun. 2. 3. . (-) 2. €l«r£(v) - ? € . € lam Scikvvt) Past. 1. . 1. 1. . 1. «- 3. . Indic. - : 91. 2. e?). 8£' €( . except 2 Very rare . P. P. Future Indicative S.i. SciKwoOai 8€£$ . £<£() 1. 1. (I 3. €'- 2. 2.Imperfect 8£- . P. 3. (rt. Infinitive Participle ovcra 50 § (€ {-) <() «( €£ Past-Imperfect Indicative S. S. € -€ € £<] / am conjugated like present and (§ 91). Paktio. - - Optative Infinitive Participlb 6<- <-£$ 6(0. -' 2. €crei 3.0 €< €<roiTO -(€ 'itrtfrQt 92. thus - / am absent are 1 All forms of the present indicative are enclitic.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 8 281 Progressive Action-stem 8( 8€ 8€ Pres. Impkh. - or § 55 3.

Cf. : going (rt.-] --- .l. S. am Imperative . . -. -ci \. '-€.. el- Infinitive Fi-ti:re 1-.T^£ FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 282 -€ -- - Optative Indicative Subjunctive S. 2. . : -(. irap-fi Past-Imperfect So 93. ire). 3. \. Lat. - Participlb .1 '-€8 irap-fjs -€<() -. -. 1.

283 . 1.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK '.

-€. \. 2. F. 1. . 3.« -. . 1. 3.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 284 96. 2. Like thus s. found only in the progressive action-stem. . . and in prose (as frequently also in poetry) -( -€ -. : (rt.« . . down. thus Subjunctive Optative Impbeative Infinitive Participle . (rt. kcl- is €-) lie. € regularly compounded with Indicative S. frequently com2)ounded with . --£ -(€ Past-Imperfect: 97. . -^ sit.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 285 .

(-^. bringing. j^our plough : Place cup pot : drink (^. nom. nom. bring. : nom. > -epia oIk£-tls -tis: Action. (veo-?). -: nom. : : - truth. mind. {Bo-). becoming .-)). NoUNS the suffixes employed to of indicate: Agent. forge Those coppersmith). : suffixes are queen. nom. nom. -lov: 10. quality. . : : housemaid (-)). (-. -: -$ . or simply the person concerned in the action €. a tion added). -/ -: €05 youthfulness . pupil nom. (.speak). . (jev. : giver : speaker {pe. self-control omitted) soundness of a thing {-. Feminine -6 - tl8. . . nom. FOKMATION OF SlMPLE WORDS. endure). sta- - Ablaut or vowel-gradation (§ 16) plays here an important role carry. I.yov-). > - . nom. poem - ) . means: -.( nom. -lov: Hence c-io. tlius : (^-. \- €-05 earthquake {. nom. -09 nom. final vowel lengtliened made. --€-{ {-(-€ { Instrument.-)).: ^ -- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 286 often modified. unsdom. The following some are A. nom. muse). "yeve-ais act of justice. -- -«Os : horseinan linr-eijs {-^. smell -( hardihood -eid) - (oi/CO-9)• . Muses come from nouns seat of the -ciov: in . etc. -9 nom. ( : nom. : carrying. shake). -05 . p>lough). : . : odor -id: {cf.

contempt. young -. (2) of the second element. amphibious c) numeral events . These are divided according to the nature (1) of the first element. a. nom. - nat- (/co. . : }: -09 . -:. ural lo. apathy. or -a: Xonr-os remaining important are: (. €-(- €S. maidens apartment. warm. num. : ivarlike.-. y\f6vh-r\s false. - -ivos genuine. daddy . -: thenon (-^^. anaemic without hlood. : . nom. nom. The first part a) adverb: is «^-^« often an well-horn. little child. : mindful. Some of the more o. (). etc. -5 nature}. expressing negation {A-privative') hlood). -os. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -: . : a d) an inseparable prefix -. nom.Xoltt- nom. II. Formation of Compound Words The Greek language formed and still forms innumerable compounds. (\enr. ('). a-iraGeia cf. girl. an ahsence of suffering. : --.): 10. Adjectives There are many adjectival suffixes. = young hoy . -lov: - . Par- Diminution (often implying affection. -lov: -lov -. - A. contest living on consisting : ( of five -9 -. nom. nom. senate-house in 287 (^^. -. b) preposition (see §§ 123-129): hoth sides (of the shore-line).-: -)).. ivo ta -ios heavenly.

brother . accent.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 288 ((-? ( -- -. hall).). cf. etc. denoting uyiion (^A-copulative^ of the same tvomh. one who throiving-stones. . : leads a boy (to school. In the -$ -$ . Compounds generally have recessive But there are many exceptions Cf. father.-§ -5 latter case the €- noun (.(Latin semi-): B. AGREEMENT 100. A neuter plural subject regularly has the singular the trees are : its verb in (Greek is) beautiful. merry dishonored or adjective usually changes its form diaphragm. : cf. if wealth is (a) blind (thing).-€€ ill: dysentery soften). evrepa the in- ( dyspepsia testines). mind). >. a one born : hemisphere ripen. (). The last womb'). 101. pelted with stones. whom we know (about) (= . A - neuter predicate-adjective is very often used as the substantive-predicate of a masculine or feminine subject : 102. killing one" 8 slain by one's father. A relative the accusative case the antecedent. element of compound nouns or adjectives regularly consists of a verb-stem or noun-stem. § 78 a. pronoun which Avould normally be in is regularly assimilated to the case of the latter is a genitive or a dative: b Croesus the first irpiuTos of the foreigners €).

. oi . your father) love you much ? €5 With proper names and with abstract nouns may be used or may be omitted: article d) The noun is are the (possessions') beautiful. the German usage) : does the father (i.. and even the force of a demonstrative in certain uses a) The article . was originally a in Attic Greek it has article. 104.e. the €. frequently (jenerie in is dXXos see § 191. a) before the noun. between the article and noun. . b) The article €€ ' we use a very c) weak is frequently employed where in English possessive Qcf. either . the or wisdom. i. generally : speak- ing. demonstrative pronoun. reference the friend (i.iiv\h\\te is when the article follow the noun (the afterthought position) : and . the can easily be common the many. The to the (§ 24). 1) When a noun is preceded by the article any modifying word or phrase usually stands immediately after the article. or Aristotle. as or article being repeated: This position of the modifier (for the two a) and b) are really one) is known as the attributive position.. a friend) is another self.THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK 289 USES OF THE ARTICLE AND OF THE FRONOUNS 103. in English : b) after the noun. often omitted supplied from the context : when it Cf also of friends. c) A third attributive position 2i.e.e. .

^ stand in the predicative position The of personal genitive <. the very the 3) : the teacher himself. : - being in the predicative position (§ 104. and means self: accompanied by the article. accusative) when used alone serve as the personal pronoun of the third perthem. The same (one') means itself: brother. this book (not man.. her. either before or after the noun. - tive position : pronouns (. by the article.'). 105. the same. . regularly stands in the predica- : '. him. and attribute is rare. son : .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 290 ^. espeLesson XI.. But with the names of persons or follow . it is said to This position of the article cially in prose (but see . oblique cases (genitive.. Demonstrative pronouns (§§ 24. When the modifying word or phrase is not preceded 2. noun is the when So 106. The demonstrative may precede or this - '). The intensive pronoun (§ 22) is used in and Exercise Lesson V three ways (see 4) 1) In apposition with a noun or pronoun it emphasizes I (my)self. dative. (never 6 (§ 106). 25) regularly stand in the predicative position (§ 104. the article avr\p : may he omitted: or this Socrates. Socrates here. 2) or 2) (the') When it is itself preceded hy the article self(same). 2): ? . .

the following exactly reversed.' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 107. Of usually refers to what precedes (so the former - manner). to what follows (so But sometimes these relations in the preceding manner) . § : from yourself I shall instruct you. (see §§ 104. etc. «. is both mean this. these. see § 120 a. 103 b. your. SHE permits you Note also : doing? (§ 10 c) and to do these things. etc. may Even refer forward in are : answer this! These pronouns are often used in lieu of our emphatic RU. of me. of myself. here he or you there ! what are you that is! thafs it ! is to say . . '' . Possession is etc. €5 : (^) 108. (§ 23) are generally But sometimes they serve as indirect reflexives. (§ 108): child (or. . by my own cise 15). of you. Relation- very frequently suggested by the For the dative. . that. by the pronominal adjectives your (see Exer- our. simply. ship or possession article.): . (i. the Greeks said this (one). each (of two). my child). with the accompanying noun or €5 each (of § . both. THEY. 3) . 2 my.e. . expressed by 106. « 291 many) generally stand in the predicate position With the article is often omitted (§ 104. etc. toOt' that too. SHE. 2). that (one). and 110. each day The pronouns but . those. and in some indirect reflexives: | knoiv thyself! stances refer not to a subject but to a dependent Avord '" 109.

'' " in. thus accusative. by the dative. Greek nominative. the meanings and constructions of the those of the genitive case fall into two broad classes : pure genitive ("o/") and those of the ablatival-gQmiivQ .se-form8 were discarded and their functions or meanings were assumed and expressed The ablative. tive-ablative Q'on. in the Latin Q'-from ") being expressed by the genitive instrumental-2i\Adit\\Q {''with" "?/") and the Latin loca.'^ " ' Ablative -z~w Dative Nominative Vocative Nominative (subject) ' (". In Greek. hj the dative." "?/"')"-^ ^^-Zl~~Instnimental ^'Locative (" on." in.. pronouns.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 292 USES OF THE CASES 111. therefore. five cases distinguishes : and vocative. three of the original ca. ." " among'''') Dative C^for.^^ " in." " among ")." was thus absorbed by the the instrumental (" with ") and the locative genitive " (" ow. genitive.Dative meanings and Greek divided the pure ablative this table it is at once clear that the constructions of the Latin between the genitive and ablative are the dative. etc. as Greek developed into a separate language. -." ") . which by one of the other case-forms.^-^^ SsS. These correspond to the six cases in Latin and to tlie eight cases in the parent language from which both Greek and Latin were descended..-Genitive Genitive ("o/") " Ablative ( from " ) .'' '' among'''). dative. In the declension of nouns. In other Avords. Latin Nominative : Geeek Vocative Vocative (address) Accusative -Accusative (object) Genitive From > Acciisative ^ . expressed the idea "/roTW.

. see § 126 ff. The nominative vocative 113.) battle. . wise an Athenian in the quickest why ? Accusative of Extent of Time or Space : there he remained five days. in every all speed . by birth. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 293 Q'-from"}. - : a sophist. ohov^ . b) Double object I am : teaching the hoy geometry. : - . see / am you. ov g) Accusative in Oaths with no by. The which prepositions may be employed But the piire geniand the pure dative ("/or") never employ cases w^ith are indicated in the table by italics. (^Qognate accusative. . e) Adverbial accusative: . way. c) Object and predicate-accusative we call the d) Accusative Xshilled') of man Specification in all things. 13. (sc. much. €€€ ^ (or yes by.. See p. For the accusative with prepositions."'' " to "). 112. tive ("(>/'") prepositions. The is sometimes used for the uses of the accusative are virtually identical with those in Latin : / a) Object: fighting a case so regularly Beds Qnever 0ee). of the instrumental-dfitiye.. and of : the locative-diitive. in what way? greatly first . with f) way. and the meanings and constructions of the those of the pure dative must be divided into three sets dative ( '"for.

the teachers. piece of advice. The genitive is in Greek a compound case (§ 111). taJce hold of.g. 114. possession^ subject. such as tival ("-from "). With verbs the genitive is either the object of the verb or serves as an adverbial modifier thereto (e. measure. to in (the house) of Hades. With - the following groups of believed to be of partitive origin - a) Share: : verbs the genitive is with verbs meaning -. cup of water. governed by a preposition €ts " doctors (sc. cause.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 294 as subject of § 175 an iufinitive. some abla- of its uses being genitival in origin (" o/"').. make trial of: ov she does not prevent you these things. Iv The genitive with a noun is frequently employed in the predicate in any of the foregoing relations - : for it is €€€ " (the nature) of the free-born to speak the truth. . 115. h.€-€ why dont you share your conversation with us ? b) Enjoy. § 116 f). so that the genitive appears to be to the (sc. material. etc. object. part. accusative absolute. school. some A few of its uses are difficult to classify. In certain phrases the noun upon ) which the genitive depends is omitted. - we -uci ae from handling . : to els house'). taste enjoy c) all the Touch. etc. : good things. exactly as in English: love of friends. (^Adnominal Genitive) the geninouns When used with tive may express a large number of relationships. § 172 . worship of Grod.

he lack. any one I I hear : •€€ you of : I whenever one praises the beautiful. be leader of: Love is king of the gods (Plato). etc. obtain. -. remove from. : clearly of ablatival - it is employed with verbs meaning: Cease from. it . care for. b) Want. them. toils Begin: f) follows. empty: who does no wrong needs no Note especially the phrases lacks much) (lit. li) Memember. strive after. hit (and miss) (Sophocles). smell.) PaaiXeiici neglect: : -. 295 rot : Ipd of (all the^ gods Death alone yearneth not ov - after gifts (i. surpass. bribes') (Aesch3'lus). . be distant from. a sound.e. forget. be full j) he began his speech as "§ Perceive i) €-|€ will never attain the heights without g) Mule. lead. lacks little). it is : far from (or simplj. Fill. genitive used with verbs also to express is other relations. it (i. etc. € e) Reach. some of which are Thus origin (§ 111). . The 116. become filled with pride (Plato).e.. : .6\iyov) almost - almost nothing. dont heed. be inferior to.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK d) Aim desire at. a) etc. nearly all. f the island being not far distant from the mainland. (Jiear. laiv (Antiplion). release from. c) Differ from.

- -. § 130. €€ . etc. for how much irevxe does he teach? for five minae. meaning the verbs -- especially with those that parallel in mentioned in §§ 115-116. at. but detest thee for thy cowardice (Sophocles).) . The genitive with verbs often denotes the cl) . (^down) compounded with especially those against : despise thy youth! (Paul). having no from . here also in this respect differ I. •€ . note h) The genitive often follows compound verbs down upon. g) Crime (with verbs denoting a judicial action') - : am prosecuting for slan- der and ami on trial for murder (Lysias). different b) adjectives of the comparative degree lowed either by the genitive or by let your talk Tt (Menander). The genitive is . value : € at the price of toils the gods sell to us all blessings (Eijicharmus) . f) Cause (with verbs meaning admire. See especially the so-called improper prepositions. €$ J envy thee for thy wisdom. e) Price. € : praise. 117.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 296 but gentlemen. . d|ios worthy of. . With adverbs also the genitive is very frequent. wonder blame. be angry. Such are a) aiTios cause of accountable for part in. from the majority of people (Socrates). the like. let no one used also with many adjectives. €€ Source: ME you shall hear all the truth from ' (Socrates). and these are fol- than be better (= quani) : than silence 118.

and with the passive perfect (and pluperfect) when the subject city must avTOis (i. be like. So the dative is used with a large number of verbs vhich in English are usually transitive. irevxe For the genitive with prepositions see § 124 ff. etc. 9 fication "/or " is The present. sometimes " . employed the possessor with a) of verbs ethical dative. €9 : in the even- in winter . rich for another true dative commonly means " better suits the English idiom to man such a itXoutcl and not for himself. The true dative (§ 111). : € .e. : is . obey. . also and similar is for ms have a brother {there a brother). for the . Ocpous in sum- vuKTos at night. serve. please. denote the time by day . Like the genitive. genitive absolute^ § 175 g. verbs meaning help. meet.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Finally the genitive 119. b) of the agent Avith verbals in -tos and -reos (§ 177). mer .. c) of the indirect object : give 8os me the book. of interest is «. personi- 120. is not personal be benefited : €€ by you the (strictly for tuhen preparations you) . ing § ivitkin is used adverbially to itself which un action takes place during the day . (lit. 297 during five years.g. the dative is a compound case is used properly of persons and when used of things. e. had been made by for) them. what shall I learn for what would you have me you?) The last sentence illustrates what is commonly learn ? known as the The dative : €$ - / -. expresses personal interest .

: - on the folloiving . etc.121. This is more common in poetry in prose it at Marathon. manner. take delight in (please myself with) good « and use (i. The in strumental-(\. year.) day. month. . 07i ctcl in the tenth year. vaiois at the Panathenaea. fact. in . the third on the same day on the preceding day. little friends. . by a head") equal in temper. ? 9 298 help me! rots €€ if it irciGou obey the laivs «- €l tois ! resembles the preceding (instances). b) Place. each other. festival.e. Note especially (i. month. a head shorter in silence .'dX\\e (§ 111) expresses instrument^ means. and nouns which are of kindred derivation or meaning with verbs that govern the dative hostile to : equal to - freedom . 5? in KOLxnj this ttovois by : common. d) with adjectives. adverbs. accompani- € ment. etc.ive expresses a) Time (the day. The ' Zgca^ip-flflt. THE PREPOSITIONS 123. serve oneself ivith) folloiv and - follow . $ he me ! had formerly used the room as a store-room. 1l22. cause. in which (ivay^ I in labors. respect.e. The prepositions were originally adverbs and only gradually became stereotyped as prepositions governing . . association. night. found only with proper names The dative is used with many compound verbs and with prepositions see § 125 ff. (ivay') .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ? . is : .

€ voias from set purpose. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK The 299 was retained in some which abounds Prepositions are employed as in the pages of Herodotus. often implying comple- etc. Frequently. formerly. exhaustion. afterward. The 124. as in and next. etc. in return. the beginning . in return. away. prepositions are used with the genitive. ' only are a) against): § 6) instead of (original what account f why? In compounds [anti-. . the first element (or elements) of innumerable compound words see § 99. e) out c) €| (before a consonant e'/c out from the city . : : ills. [ec-. case is repeated after the compound : The - leap off from the horse. irpo € out irpo- design. ) ^~) ^ of. ^') time. ' from^ awag from: air' from which ah") (sc.. from. to be utterly coivardly. prepositions which govern the genitive case « (. €| from : Ik tt]S '"€9 from what you say . dative. before : out. Lat. ex-] €5 before this . ex. [apo-. learn by heart. since. on instead of peace. hack (-^ and often suggesting completion. too. give meaning. - In compounds back). ivith In compounds: tion: d) irpo (sc. b) from : in return for ' § 6. against. in opposition. original adverbial force € instances. instead. to and accusative cases (§ 111). from childhood. tlvos. from. ap-. aph-] Lat. . a preposition with its cases. before the town . ant-] § (.

sys-. to. With the accusative only €LS. by) after a long time. Prepositions with the dative only 125. Lat. € Prose usually (and with the genitive. (--). at. together. sym-. to ten . -. [pro-] enee.e. on: kv in. In compounds: 127. on. sy-] 126. Lat. § 18 my b. dis-') 5 : through: . Is tl els to .e. e friends. in the beginning . avy-. iravTos constantly . In compounds : syl-. Is into the city. in with ablative) among us . ' me . in. e\-. €S €is used is ? Of. : . quently also poetry) employs - with fre- with. a) Genitive di-. altogether. a) €V 18 €7. Is (orig. = ^ . Compounds are frequent in prose as well as in poetry. = Lat. ') Accusative : of^ wickedness. els what (^end) on the until. morroiv . c. c.. Prepositions with the genitive and accusative only: (hi . on account on what account? . : (-. OF GREEK THE FIRST YEA 300 . episode into. send in . God. In compounds in behalf before^ forth^ : in prefer- of. b) old form ) $ -. to. also apart (- why? because. for In compounds through (i. among. €V In compounds m. a) ^amounting') for speaking . this reason through (i. b. in with accusative) into. kv on a stately chair. = . with: tols the aid of ivith 0€c3 em-] [en-. ttoXcws through the city . -. through. [syn-. el-.§ (€At-.

di-] destroy utterly. day by day . etc. by sea. on behalf of ? (the) head. according a) Genitive : § 19 . b) along. In compounds against^ down-stream. be- the dative and accusative only is used (^av) up: a) Dative ..: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK -€ {\ ' different directions^ sugs^esting often . ) beyond Sicily Accusative: beyond: virkp more than half. in defence of ex- [liyper-] With 128. motion . the against us. In compounds ceedingly. Accusative: ' etc. [cata-] Lat. . against. completely : the rock head. above. and way according down. : over. according down (doionfrom. Accusative : horizontal river in up along. c) virtp (for both by land along the road. back. up the every . yond {one's) power. down § 6) to. to the ? to laws. down 301 : over xiirep on behalf of the city. by hundreds. super) over: above. : over. .): § $ €§ "' a) Genitive completion. among. on the ? €€ toOs . Trerpas : down from ' {down) upon beneath the earth /S) . of € through the army . beyond. me . upon a ) upon (only poetry) : sceptre. [dia-. through.

ambi-}. : €§ what they had. Dative my to make -§ it to a profession .. on: €? "? a) Genitive: during time ) rats : sickness €irl ness. ac- cusative : (' a) hence = .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 302 day. up to. Lat. and dative. Attic In about. $ sick- be learning lirl tovtois on these conditions. ol Croesus and those with him. lifetime . 7) Accusative with cliietty « -€€ accusative. against. a) Genitive used prose - quarrel- in fear about about Miletus : the . [ana-] hack. (eV. for five years. In compounds with the Prepositions 129. around. 7) Accusative through: horse. upo7i. towards. Not common Xenophon. his . : in Attic prose except in genitive. for the sake : [amphi-] of. to. € ttjs ' 7 our upon the couches . originally on both sides. four deep. again. In compounds on both sides. : eirl for a time. mounting hri Btipas to the doors. cirl '€ for one's hurt. eirl . about. ling about /8) Dative: his wife.. upon (in addition to^ €Trl something the earth.. up. b) ' § 6) upon.

about. at the house of (usually : persons) sons) " from persons) ) also de- alongside. carry over. change notes change or reversal metaphor). motion to (in prose only of permotion along. In compounds alongside. : at. near: a) Genitive ) it [meta-. trap' in each deed. ' : at my with house. : contrary ' to : ' . ep-. amiss con- (- [para-. in after : this. to. past. what about ? 1 Trepi syllable. by. among. /3) 303 those with us.€' Dative m addition. par-] e) TTcpi around (on a) Genitive: all sides). : misunderstand). after : of). in which case it is accented on the first . by. often follows its noun. toward. beside. trary to expectation. with. a) Genitive: with: ol . about: concerning: ircpi^. to me . c) upon. by. eph-] [epi-. after share with : seiid for. (^-(^-(€-88 In compounds of). . met-. amid (Homeric). : 7) Accusative into the midst. .e. meth-] () d) .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK In compounds for. give a share summon) . (/^er. among: § 6) with. | along the coast of the mainland. after (in time or rank) search (i. : Dative : . from (most frequent with from me. past (a place) along- Accusative side beside. cf. € ' against.

sub) under: § 6. viro the side subtends the angle. for (a place) under. ) Accusative around the PeloKvpov Cyrus and his fol- ircpl : ponnesus. a) Genitive toward. or prepositions which are never used in composition. towards or during (of time) 0-€€ : under a tree. In addition to the prepositions proper (§§ 128129) are the improper prepositions.: ?? THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 304 /3) Dative: about their necks. : In compounds g) \»1 ] . agreed by all. to. : (. by (^fronting). In compounds : under. hyp-. [hypo-. gradually. In compounds vive'). against. * : under. besides. ! -? irpos way of Cyrus . s to the light. in addition. irpos 7) Accusative irpos in view of these considerations. € irpos at. Lat. at nightfall. Examples are . beyond (-^ (^- very glad). hyph-] 130. [peri-] - to these thiiigs. characteristic of the irpos ) it is Dative: irpos sur- irpos "6 near the city .Tots KuPetiCLV irepl xois to take risks with one's dearest possessions. f) : exceedingly around. ol TTCpl lowers. irpos iroXet TOts in addition excel. also during the night. by (of under Dative 7) Accusative "YTJS ) the earth. near: a) Genitive : irpos talcing by the gods your side. tlie ' agent or cause): viro by me. (along) under. behind. to staiid : : to [pros-] § 19. secretly. ircpl .

€p. . against . or brief.^ as the in consequence all forms built 1 of these upon it called in stem itself invite one to Usually. ivithout. same time similar to). except: tival its of of for the sake of eveKa on which far as concerns beyond (of time) straight) 305\ : to. Action-stems. of persons only. € €| out of. so adverb cept to ME) except . it can be regarded be writing ") [time-exposure] merely as an occurrence.. it . as it proceeds from step to step (" to or again. noun between. whether long first. i-yyvs in the presence near. can be thought of as being in progress. at the : together with. being for the time ignored (" shot] . : b) With the dative with. close to (cf 6<. thirdly. or. to YOU) straight toward. Ivros behind ME (often also a conjuncclear to every one ex- € together tvith. evcKa. (usually follows to eveKa y account. apart from. c) Accusative : . it to write ") [snap- can be thought of as completed (" to have written""). . (cf. motion: -€ $? came Perdiccas and into Chalcidice. but incorrectly. To express these three different ways of regarding action the majority of verbs in Greek form stems which are known this and as action-stems. .irpoa0ev in front of. called the present stem. after verbs of he es THE VERB — Ways of regarding Action. apart from. Every action can be regarded in one of three ways: 131. can be visualized. as it were. book The first is the progressive action-stem. its actual duration. before. €V€K€V on account with regard within to . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK With a) the genitive: € without.

That is to say. and : " ive being in the act of learning. or both. the time-distinctions are superimposed upon the actiondistinctions (see § 133). are obtained the tenses. infinitive. participle) refer to future time.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 306 regard the action as -. namely. is (§ 131) do not indicative The the realm of time-distinctions. see 133. €- from the stem from the stem writing. So act is called the . Ways 132. In addition to these three action-stems there are two time-stems . so there are three time relations or j)ositions in These two sets of relations time: present. as follows Present Past-Aorist Past-Imperfect Present-Perfect Future : Past. Time.Perfect (Pluperfect) Future-Perfect . being in the act of The stem which merely names holding (having^. etc. mood I was ivriting. the future and the future-perfect timeAll of the forms built upon these stems (or tense-stems). thus I shall : I am writing. optative. 53). undefined) "^- - are both forms of the progressive action-stem (see §§ 52. past. third stem is the perfect action-stem. — The action-stems in themselves express position in time. etc. These are seven in number. --. Tenses. two stems (indicative. The § 136. The 133.|€ beiJig in process. each other cross . thus . § — of regaeding Action and Position in As there are three ways of regarding action (§ 131). be writing. %- to he are writing. aorist action-stem see Lesson (^- XL\"II and the unlimited. they are not parallel. future. and here by add- ing certain prefixes or suffixes.

tenses. or are trying to persuade you. etc. but the historical present in is far : expressed thei/ : With long ago. and moods is set forth in § 79. usually called merely the imperfect. still The we have long : are) learning these (things'). The present tetise (§ 133) is in general employed Greek he sends more common in Greek (for he sent^ heralds. Theoretically there should have been formed also a presPerhaps such ent-aorist corresponding to our ''I write. a verb in the present has the force of a present and perfect combined been (and 135. say. future-tense stem. refusal. With a negative the past-imperfect often denotes resist- ance.• could not) : . wrote. usually termed merely the on the aorist action-stem : '. they woidd not be persuaded. past-aorist. progressive. are both formed on the progressive action-stem. (woidd not. The particle dv sometimes accompanies the past-imperwhen it denotes customary action (see § 145) ciroC- fect : they would (were accustomed to) dv do the hoar no harm.'" I declare. any other expression of past time. The scheme of stems. 138. which is regularly a presentand the past-imperfect (or past-progressive)./ aorist.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 307 Of these the present. as end). past-imperfect tense denotes a continued or customary or repeated or attempted action in the past. For the tenses a form is found in - of the perfect action-stem see §§ 137. is The formed is The future formed on a is also the future-perfect (§ 131. Uses of the Action-stems and the Tenses 134. Sometimes an attempted action is exactly as in English.

as stated in to refer to an action merely as an occurrence.€ Subj. Sometimes. {gnomic aorist) : €€5. patient or present^) dont we too. like the past-imperfect. but these are secondary special usages made above. three tenses (§ 133). with a laugh let this? (i. may I not write XLVII and LIII. its is The actual duration being ignored. then Prodieus also? Occasionally the past-aorist.e. \|. 1 In the indicative In indirect discourse the aorist optative and the aorist it forms infinitive refer to past occurrences (see § 179. become to bursting into laughter^.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 308 The function 136. present to denote a fact of experience or a general truth €$. called the inceptive aorist. 1 c). Opt. 137. See further etc. refers to I thus: Indie. do and and do not affect the general correctness of the statement For the use of the aorist participle with reference to a prior action see Exercise 35. life's the entrance. . employed with dv to to express repetition : ctircv is dv he used say. § 131.i § 84. especially Exercises 35 The state king. . and - beginning of an action or became king. The perfect action-stem invites one to regard the action as completed (§ 131). you depart. you behold. - wrote us write this . of the aorist action-stem. the world's a stage. past-aorist indicative an action as occurring in past time but other forms built upon the aorist stem do not refer to past time. This : 38. Not infrequently the past-aorist indicative is used as a ?. Lessons and aorist often denotes the €8 is . the past-aorist indicative is eager questions (where English ov : call used in imemploys a why .. -€9 • you come (in^.

pLK-')^. acquire').: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 309 -. I am awake (^iye lam accustomed. Greek perfect instances. the English perfect : made . but usually even here the enduring the action is still more or less prominent. ing^ hawling {ivitensive perfect). emphasis dead. I remember. (^<^^ I know recog- 7^0-)). perfect./?-)).-^). lost ( /rei- hpoi- to recognize. § 95 (fetSIforget I have. . have € of hawl- whereas in English the the completion of the action corresponds closely to the / lam shudder . awaken Ceyep. emphasizes the enduring result. possess I remember 138. (^yev- /rt-). to be sure. perfect (pluperfect). I know .- «" In Greek the perfect emphasizes the enduring result of to he / am awake . eoiKC it is (ei'/cw resemble (/ret/c- pOLK. etc. (by birth) Ifear nize I have come ()- become he horn. see Exercise 36.fiS-). « € € -^ (^ € (and destroy. The past poth. like the present In English the is constantly used where Greek employs an hence in Greek the pluperfect tense is comparaaorist. many . § 87. action the : awake.iyop. I stand . (^ forget (. remind). pluperfect tively infrequent. I am dead. I am I am -)). ^« I is I have waked In a great rather upon up. to he ((^^ effect Note the following (see §§ 65-67): €- I perish. I likely resemble . lose^.

forth). I cease {cf active (another) stop). see § 149.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 310 For the future perfect middle see perfect active The future 139. carry show appear (A. to express a €. . etc. The Voices The conjugation 140. it is formed used familiarly is you yourself will So with ov in questions: judge will you not pelt (him') ? For with the future indicative. / copy for myself made (A. command The future time . The middle voice lies between the other two atid is essentially a reflexive {cf I teach myself I make myself stop. myself win (a prize) . have a copy copy). voices : active. turn (A. Of these the active and passive require no explanation. 68 § . of the Greek verb includes three and passive. / (A. (off) for hear. I turn (an- turn myself. the future extremely rare. himself.) In some instances the original difference between the shine. -other. I show myself. middle. : (7/:). is upon a time-stem tense refers to future (§ 133). .). or in affects It represents the subject as acting some manner that directly or indirectly himself I make 1) I make Tpeiro^at myself stop. or / write). 2) ^ I write for myself {A. (or active and middle has faded : be bright. je upon me doute). bring).

311 - all forms built upon the progressive These are known as deponent verba (cf. see also § 62. €| have both middle and passive aorist forms ceive. and perfect the passive endings. wish. there are only three subjunctives. are the infinitive (a verbal noun in origin) and the participle (originally a verbal adjective). others have passive forms (passive deponents): /avor. morior. The moods in ancient Greek are the subjunctive. see §§ 69. Lat. The passive voice is Greek has no expressed by middle endings mi/self stop or few re- received. future. contrast with the seven tenses of the indicative. passive in A : I am made / make : to stop. A. . Deponent verbs usually have middle forms also in the future and perfect but in the aorist some have middle forms (known therefore as middle deponents). verbs have only middle forms in the pres- ent (including action-stem). The indicative is the realm of tense-distinctions. but / wished (passive deponent). wish. I was I received and See § 142 and Lesson LX. active or intransitive.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Many 141. and In there are seven tenses (see § 133 and §§ 134-139). optative. 79 C. In the aorist the passive employs active endings. The Moods and Theih Uses 143. the meanings are self). sequor): in classical Greek). 142. and imperative (see Accompanying these indicative. be willing (never receive (take to one's Although the forms are middle. A. distinctive In the present. optatives. and imperatives : those . A. - I favored (middle deponent). Lesson VI).

For ox» §§ 150. (aorist). § 180 . are no This is a fact of cardinal importance in Greek syntax. and See §§ 172. for and participle (§§ 172. (. see Lesson XIX. 180 b. also and For compounds of 144. and future optatives are rare and are employed only in indirect discourse to represent a future indicative after a past tense (see § 179. no7i. It is used in . Lat. All of the action. There are two negatives (see Lesson VI) ot» These are used in and (c/. optative. a. optative of ivish (§ 162) and also with the infinitive see § 159. II B).. aorist. and perfect action-stems. . thus: differ in tense.and tense-stems form both infinitives and participles future perfect. namely. perfect. future. with the indicative and potential general as follows optative (§ 163). Future stems never form subjunctives or imperatives. : . ) : progressive. upon the progressive. writing something (progressive) ^ something (progressive) ivrititig be write something . the optative. differ- ences in meaning between these three sets of forms grow out of the fundamental meanings of the action-stems They do not (§ 131). ne). See further § 84 and Exercises 35 and 38. 160 c. The adverbial particle dv is employed with the and the subjunctive to limit the indicative. the imperative being even The rare). 173). us be let tl let us write something (aorist). TJiere tenses of the subjunctive. aorist. 173. 146. 158. sometimes also with the infinitive with the subjunc(§ 172) and the participle (§ 173} tive. or imperative. respectively (but the perfect forms are not common. : . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 312 formed. meaninors of these moods.

(= } dv wherever. often contracted to dv whoever. 136 (end)). the like. Dependent clauses II. See further § 179. 170. . with the optative (never future optative) to express B. : in conditional. and See §§ 167.^ a) to denote unreality: the angle also € b) to denote past potentiality. and temporal (sometimes also final) clauses with the subjunctive. 313 : •- with the past tenses of the indicative: A. c) with the and past-imperfect indicative to aorist express repeated or customary past action (§§ 135. The indicative mood tions of fact. it may is employed in simple declaraand exclamations also in simple be indicated also by xcas permitted. '€ ctires. (or ) it was neces- . relative. potential] : dv I might etc. [past dv have said . questions. € OS dv and dv} and (= et is av. they could not have thought. so that the subjunctive in such clauses € regularly introduced by tav or . I b. etc. 1 - Unreality sary. Uses of the Indicative 146.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Independent clauses I. ' dv would be equal. See further § 163. whenever. the opinion of $ speaker (or writer) as an opinion the [potential optative] : dv it may be so. past probability.) = ( if. but it is not. Here dv attaches itself to the subordinating conjunction. eSet. dv what would you have said? See further § 152.

with the present and past tenses are present or past (see further § 160 c) eXeyev beware lest he was speaking in jest. of the indicative command and let " infinitive ) so fear. strive for. . and temporal Other uses are (§ 170) clauses. These verbs are sometimes followed by otl or as that. introduced by see to it that you aid me. are followed by the futu7-e indicative (rarely the subjunctive) (how) that (neg. 151. are followed when they as to. etc. not able to oios ' sag what = indicative. is ^ refer to objects of fear so that is or the indicative. delight. are followed introduced by (that 7iot) «I (neg. etc. cautio7i. tive is normally ov. indignation. . am I mean. b) Some verbs expressing by a clause with the pity. el € : indignant that I am surprise. that... etc. 148. " and : with the future indicative are frequently used in Attic Greek (without an introductory verb. by Verbs expressing lest ) (neg. because. the result us. effect. ?) €€5 149. 147. or a prohibition: him not deceive : which followed by either the With the €€ infinitive presented as a tendency: (neg.. ). English that 6 €€ if (if not). as. see § 148) to express a €|-'€ 150. relative (§ 166 B). and with dv (§ 145). €. € a) Clauses introduced by otl. 6s. have the The nega- indicative (or the potential optative. (how') since. Verbs signifying care for.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 314 conditional (§ 166 A). § 163). treated in §§ 147-153. that.

would have^ . : Hopeless Wishes are expressed by by €€ or el and the distinction be- a) a past tense of the indicative preceded The negative oh that! tween the tenses €5. The past-imperfect is with dv used of unreality in the present. had. as follows > . etuov dv I should have told you. a. ou). Uses of the Subjunctive 154. would be. apod. apod. in the apodosis a past tense of the indicative (§ 145). attained: 152. I should tell you. of an act completed in past time Qivould have had'). the same as above (§ 152) would that you were in the habit of eating b) is is followed by an dv or simply I should like dv would that they) were speaking the truth. €€8 ! the living I ought (aorist of €€ : ? ! owe). el . Thus cl dv if this were true. were. 153. with the would that I were not would that you had « iroietv ! not done this . would have been") . the pluperfect (yeri/ rare). € V€Kpox)S / infinitive: doing this c) infinitive: it if they (= dead and not bodies. had been. the aorist. SO as to see. as an end so I saw nothing. of a simple occurrence in the past (prot. Unreal or Contr ary/ have in the protasis €l with C onditional Fact to Sentences past tense of the indicative. The uses of the subjunctive (§ 143) in standard Attic Greek are seven in number. or of an act or state conceived as continuing in the past (prot.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 315 with the indicative (neg. '.

with aorist subjunctive). Emphatic Future ( § 155. 2. § 156. Conditional and relative clauses 7. person plural of € . 155. the the subjunctive is let €€ scrlbdmus 156. § 160. ( first . § 157. with aorist subjunctive). let neg. . §159. . as in Latin. § ). (compare Lat. (rare) 3. or : (or or shall ive say this ? 157. is : what are we . or b) the subjunctive of the aorist action-stem: . neg. Question of Appeal . B. neg. the junctive (singular or plural) first person of the sub- eraploj'ed in questions of is Questions with the sub- appeal or deliberative questions. neg. constantly employed to express exhorta- The negative tion. neg. 167. to / what am I to The be writing f say ? a) Questions \vith the subjunctive are often introduced by € . Modest Assertion. Dependent Clauses: 6. . 1. ov.: : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 316 Independent Clauses A. In Greek. ^) - PovXci do you wish? (pi. § 158. €€ negative (rare) ) € . ( 5. junctive always expect an answer in imperative form. we). thus is us be writing! ne scribdmus ! us say ! In Greek. Negative command is expressed by with a) the imperative of the progressive action-stem. Final and object clauses . Exhortation. Prohihitioii 4. as in Latin.

). € of the aorist action- stem) preceded by is sometimes employed as the equivalent of an emphatic future indicative with ' 160. 5 keep to the straight he honest. they do not § 170. may SiKaios ). by « €$ See also until. ing verbs and expressions oifear. may b}'^ express a cautious or modest assertion^ a suspicion that something may ' hut ' suspect that this true !) lest this he ) The negative is may be true. etc. may this not he true. ) (neg. : this shall The subju nctiv e is NOT employed come pass. €9 wait until you become of age. $. ^ hasten not quickly you become poor. that. aircOSc to be rich. until (neg. in €€. that you b) Temporal — order that (neg. to and in final object clauses a) Pure final clauses (expressing purpose) introduced by Lva. 3. into The subjunctive introduced 158. § follow- fear lest we . : be true (ah. caution. do not learn! (not women never take €ls (your) counsel (Menander). or the like.! : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK a) 5 do not be learning ) '€ |$ 317 ). final clauses introduced by not before. c) Object clauses introduced €. The subjunctive (generally 159. may forget lest the € ") way home. - path.

164. av (neg. might. 2) Potential (optative with Dependent Clauses ^. ^^ 1) Wish (neg. The uses of the optative mood (§ 143) in standard Attic Greek nvefour in number. is : irovois with small labors how could one .. as follows: Independent Clauses A. The he ! € I " 6 Iv accompanied by the particle dv (§ 145) corresponds to the English potential forms with may. etc. The optative is frequently employed as a repre- sentative of an original subjunctive or indicative 1. 3) Conditional and relative clauses (neg. € or ). )). § 163. in indirect discourse after a joasf tense 2. € is known optative The negative as the Potential Optative. II . This use 163. after a past tense or etc.. can. .: : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 318 Uses of the Optative 161. 4) In indirect discourse. and object clauses commonly) when such in final (§ 160) after a past tense. II The 162. in questions of appeal and see § 179. €' dv I might cXol tis dv not he wise. 164. to be The optative of wish is frequentl}^ preceded by optative is or cl €i'0€ § 168. . oh that! (neg. and to the Latin potential subjunctive: credas. ^ : may I believe the wise to may only depend on this ! rich it if — a wish whose however extravagantly. would. 2-3 realization expresses a wish conceived. etc. or (less . assimilation to anotlier optative (neg. dicas. . achieve great deeds? (Euripides). putes. possible. by §§ 179. could. § 162.

? § 156).. and the original mood is is optional. ) any form may of the verb. or by lav In the concluel if. €5 ov ) becomes el dv becomes €$ dv becomes dv becomes $ irpiv becomes circi becomes €. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK a clause is 319 dependent upon another clause containing a ' potential optative or an optative of wisli Thus he : was at a how he should deal ivith the matter (orig. followed by the subjunctive. frequently retained. many instances accompanies the subordinating conjunction when the subjunctive follows (§ 145). the dv. that modifiers constitute a complete in itself or with its sentence. 3. . etc. The negative of the conditional clause is is . . Conditional and Relative Sentences 165. etc. except in those clauses mentioned under 3). €1 if. these cases the use of the optative not obligatory. and (af. disapwhich in pears. where the When the optative is employed in optative is normal. Conditional clauses are regularly introduced by followed by the indicative or the optative. hvvaiTO^ in Lesson LXXX. in indefinite relative and temporal clauses when these are dependent upon another clause containing a potential See the last selection optative or an optative of wish. way this as a representative of the subjunctive. loss ( . (= sion A. is permitted provided only that the combination of the two clauses intelligible. In all of . regularly . how am I to dea:l. .

such as : os who. be either a) definite. (b) the subjunctive (§ 167). hut if you prefer. Hence conditional clauses with €1 indefinite relative clauses are treated together. b) is When the antecedent general or indefinite in are known according to the char- employed oiSev (matter») : may is indefinite. and (c) the optative (§ 168). pass! (§ 162). reference. the conclusion may be of . - the negatiA'e being either ov or acter of the construction which he does not know. The negative is regularly .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 320 B. § . The future threat. 166. its' this not come to the relative clause and such clauses as indefinite or conditional relative clauses. where. or b) indefinite. . The like. Conditional clauses (§ 165 A) have €l with any tense The apodosis may be of any form that of the indicative. a) When the antecedent may take any form definite the relative clause is that occurs in an independent sentence. bans whither. a indicative with el generally expresses a warning. Many temporal clauses have the same modal construc: tions as indefinite relative clauses. oiroBcv lohence. and the modal types are in general the same as those employed in conditional clauses (see above). may antecedent of the relative whoever. A. but for convenience their treatment is deferred to § 170. remain. under three heads and and that (e'ai^) those with (a) the indicative (§ 166). or the like . Relative clauses are introduced by relative pronouns or adverbs. Conditional axd Relatr^e Clauses with THE Indicative. €i makes sense when combined with the protasis: €. €€ a) '. and the as.

The apodosis most frequently has either (a) the present indicative. : if one have friends.). For unreal conditions €l. honest. or equivalent (universal or general conditions). -€|€5 el : 321 -. the introduc- in standard classical Greek regularly accom- panied by the adverb dv (§ 145). 167. sponds exactly to the subjunctive in similar clauses in English (but 7iot in Latin) kav if these } : things be true. Conditional clauses with the subjunctive are intro= €l dv.€ (Men. tive being main clause may have any reasonable form ov I Gcol veos tohom the gods love dies young . The subjunctives of the progressive and the aorist action-stems are most com- mon . for object clauses with b. does that tvhich is not injurious injure ? Conditional and Relative Clauses with When the subjunctive is employed THE Subjunctive.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK any form . fortunate. or $ some other form of expres- sion referring to the future (sirmple future conditions) a) eav tis he is €). A. € if you won't hold your tongue. €|€i if a man be . The in the former case. you will have trouble. he will never have wealth. « or (b) the future indicative. B. Relative clauses (§ 165 B) with the indicative may have either a definite or an indefinite antecedent. the negain the latter. b) cav Tis . The subjunctive correduced by kav (di/. : .. § 147 see § 152 . — in conditional tory word is and indefinite relative clauses. see § 143..

The optative corresponds to the English would. are general or universal in their reference. . above (A) : - do they prevent you from doing whatever you wish ? See also § 169 a.e. — When the optative is employed in con168. {i. should hesitate the vessels that 169. etc. it I us. ditional and indefinite relative clauses (definite relative clauses do not have either the optative or the subjunctive). Avould be it §. € The types (see § 145). and to the Latin present and perfect subjunctive The most frequent form tions. the introductory if word the indicative were used. Conditional clauses: should be necessary either should choose B. i.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 322 $. uni- and are usually known in conditions in Latin is an as optative. to to be dv : € € The subjunctive ^:)asi. to be to €l do ivrong or wronged rather than Indefinite relative clauses €-€ Many Cyrus might give classes : 1 «Is to embai'k in conditional and indefinite relative sentences These are of those which refer (a) to the present versal present. ^ in condi- of apodosis in optative the potential optative (§ 163) exactly as should See further would.. not a subjunc- . €. Conditional and Relative Clauses with THE Optative. same of clause-combinations are the as . in the English sequence conditions is — € : § 169 b. cl. .e. by OS €. two if wronged. A.. should. do wrong (Plato). \. Relative clauses Avith the subjunctive are introduced B. the same as is §. (b) to the tive.

b) Past general conditional and indefinite relative sentences have the past-imperfect indicative (or equivalent. or relative clause : e'i •€-•€ if he rode out anywhere. if one shun not the «. it is possible ei toil. ind. €1.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 323 present (or past^ geiieral conditional (or indefinite relative) sentences.. is either 1) prior to that of the main clause. . if gods do any- thing disgraceful. the other always hapjiened. .) € or the 167: uavx' § tls find out all things. eirel . - gnomic aorist (§ 136). or aorist with dv (§ 136)) in the main clause. he would take Cyrus about on a horse with a golden bridle. as soon as. ' \. past-imperfect with (§ 135). oaxis. while the conditional or relative clause has either €|-€€. and the optative introduced by el. os. (pres. temporal clauses of indefinite frequency § 170. s after that. (when =) after. and or 2) the same as that of the main clause . they are not gods (Euripides). Temporal clauses refer to a time that .. Temporal Sentences 170. a) Present general conditional and indefinite relative sentences have the present indicative (or equivalent) in the main ' i\\Q present indicative with . to See further. «. situation as a vague supposition: supposing the one thing happen. cav os . . The meaning of the optative in such a sentence is the same as that discussed in § 168 the protasis presents the . in the conditional i. os. introduced by . subjunctive with to ..e. . such clauses are introduced by cirel the like lireC. ^ clause. -.

= until. tvhenever he (himself) oi would turn back. when. mits you to do whatever you wish.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 324 0T€. Subjunctive (regularly with av): - ivhenever you return home to your mother. whenever she Optative : SHE per- weaving. 3) subsequent to that of the €ws. either €$ a) to thQ past: they ol u'aited until the generals arrived . § 169 b) under the subjunctive. again. these loho were listening on this side and on The is would open ranks that. and the like.irpoxcpov until. while. 6. €ws. All other temporal clauses have the construction of ordinary conditional and relative clauses (§§ 165-169): Indicative irals when the boy was ten years old. -. The temporal clauses in sentences of the last class (3 b) have the construction of final clauses (§§ 160. frequency in \h\Q present (§ 169 a).Q €$ future: ol us wait until the generals arrive. depart until they (Jiad^ said ' '. ov irpiv not before = 4s main clause introduced by . woi sooner Sentences of the last type (3) refer. like '. ? -. cv or . all meaning . 164. U7itil . they did not - : . example temporal sentence of the example indefinite frequency in the joasi (cf. €€. II B. In conclusion be it observed that means before and . . or b) to let th. 2. this. c). the temporal sentence of indefinite last illustrates the . and the . than € as long as. 179.

with : progressive. a-yc. .. come 7iow ! not ordinarily instead (§ 157). duced by 0T€. Uses of the Infinitive The infinitive was originally a verbal noun. The imperative . (a) as : is lo7ig '. but the aorist subjunctive with is . aorist. but the subjunctive when the reference is to future time or to the universal before present ings until and that . of note the following Infinitive in indirect discourse (negative usually I. . d'ye is commands and prohibi- There and perfect (not or one of its compounds. it larly in the accusative case. We may 172. I. etc. clauses have the constructions allowed in clauses intro- €€. etc. imperative expresses tions. § 1T9. followed by the indicative when the reference is to past time (see above). €€. II. many whose uses are exactly like those in English. a) as a noun: chylides). When " is regu- to die is sweetest (Bac- the infinitive has a subject expressed. Infinitive not in indirect discourse (negative usu- ). ally ). the latter are three imperatives common). the construc- Uses of the Imperative The 171.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK is € before seeing followed by the infinitive : irplv =) 325 . ^. in the latter case. by tions introduced . irpCv {not but that before asking this. as. and the like have two meanIn the former case their (b) until. frequently preceded by . come In prohibitions the aorist imperative used.. .

' able: to express result. complement c) as a - of etc. promising. to have a good under- greatest gift (Aeschylus). I may €= h) in exclamations: suffer this i) (^absolute infinitive'^ € : as say. etc. € €( behold. 7) verbs oi preventing. Note especially I am a) am about likely intend to. known is as the articular infinitive sound mind standing) is heaven s . b) as a complement of a verb: / am ashamed you to tell eLiretv the trutJi. to think that I should ! to express a § or wish (chiefly in poetry). to find ^ e) with f) with €€- out. expecting. y8) verbs of hoping. € by the neuter and when so used is often preceded . to. .. adverb. § 151. €|-€€ tve time it is Note especially oios and to be oios re were not able going away. with the infinitive. . an adjective. ). : (i.e. with the future or progressive to (rarely aorist) infinitive. § TTpiv before: irplv end. am (^destinedy to.. me. fit.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 326 In this use the infinitive forms of the article (. at riding. g) in an absolute construction ciros seems €€ to 80 to speak. 170 before hearing. or noun good in a manner most beautiful to skilled in speech. with the future (also with the aorist or the progressive) infinitive. etc. command it almost (§ 116 b). we have come d) to express 2^urpose: to learn.

he who.- standing open). 174. 175.. The three action-s|iems and the two timestems (§§'131-133) all form participles and there are eleven in all. noun being omitted (/". etc.. b the one whoever does no the things that ivere said. Note especially the use of the participle with the article. . but when the participle has a general or conditional force cases the negative The I. wrong. {Attributive Participle^. is and in certain special .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 327 Uses or the Participle The 173. Lessons XLVII. (cf. See § 143. Greek syntax.e. (i. The negative regnlarly is . § 103 d). The distinctions lute. exactly as the infinitive combines verb and noun. plays a most important role in participle In origin an adjective. it combines in its uses adjective and verb. Exercise 18) €€ who understands. : . open door is not always abso- use the participle has the funcIt is used either Avith or without the present blessings . the The corresponding expressions in English are the one who. the article more nearly approxi- verb A. . - its attributive : -€•€ an Supplementary/. they who. and Exercises 35 and 38. a the expert. LIII. more prominent those in which the participle mates a finite Circumstantial. In B. between these uses tions of an adjective. uses of the particij)le are those in which the adjectival character of the par- ticiple is II. manner. In its circumstantial use the participle is added to noun or pronoun and expresses circumstance.

cause. such are finally continually . purpose.) he willing to he BeXe as you are heed your elders came to sit down beside us. often €ti6vs and similar expressions often attach them- selves to a participle. c) €| in : . at first. although grammatically they belong Avith the finite verb: €-6€ }X€Ta|i) he came in in the midst of his play {while playing). condition. at the hastily.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 328 € '--. . etc. (Men. The young.). etc.€5 ^ . This shows that the participle sets forth a ground of belief entertained by the subject of the main verb or of some other person mentioned prominently in the sentence the belief) that g) A : tls you are going to with the thought (in become what? circumstantial participle in the genitive agreeing . €. young (wheyi young. or participle is : € €€ since she is sometimes omitted : are you are experienced. he said ivith a laugh (see Exeror concession: YeXaaas v€OS cise 35).. " Participles expressing cause. since f) is frequently preceded by although. purpose (usnally future participle). b) Similarly . same ' in the be- may time. straightway. midst. be translated with. are often preceded by as. TJ€i etc. etc. € d) A concessive participle e) In like manner preceded by are. the .€$ means.. €. Note especially a) Certain participles of time and manner are often used with an adverbial force ginning. participles expressing cause are often ota.

anticipate. -€€§ observation. to be sitting. be. ?€ was just saying. and the like : cease. € object: I know that you f) below. d) 05 € common than / am plainly with a participle it is clear that.it being permitted. b) verbs meaning like : do rejoice.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 329 with a noun or a pronoun is used as a genitive absolute. supplementary use the participle completes It agrees either $ the idea of the main verb of the clause. See are wise. - h) Instead of the genitive absolute an accusative absolute is used when the verb is impersonal: €|. do escape chance. or with the 2. ap- begin. and tlie in answering questions. ject may be omitted when it can be easily supplied from while we tvere saying the context on the ground these things. The subcorresponding to the ablative absolute in Latin. c) with / delight ivell. ill. € : § (see f) above) that Croesus was being besieged. In it its it is permitted. grieve. I know that I am wise. with the subject: 1. ivas possible for him to €- become king. -€ they are contirt- ually learning. endure. Note especially the supplementary participle with a) verbs -- meaning pear. is more . main idea -€§ we had just he was un- consciously supporting the slayer of his son. since when 176. the participle containing the I I chanced departed. continue.

finite usually a difference of meaning. perceive. etc. he ignorant of remember. etc. the word occurs. There are two constructions.) instead of in English : he learned that Cyrus was doing these things. Xc^civ learning . and similar verbs of percep- show. ^ Iknoio that V€iv I know how I am to tell. -€ €.." future.. number. forget. by a clause with as when ". to tell. }/€€ / am plainly I appear to be.. : 330 e) - (or € conscious -''^ / know (lit. announce. tion are frequently followed by a participle (progressive. / begin - to learn. ) OF GREEK THE FIRST (or I am with myself^ are followed by the participle either in the nominative or in the dative (or I am ovtl) -- : conscious of being foolish. thus )- (or (or 18) I begin I am ashamed at telling . expressing the agent. g) vith certain verbs which is may by on and a the infinitive (some also /) be followed also by There verb). It is -T€os sometimes accompanied by the copula but more frequently this is omitted. hear. being in the dative case . telling a falsehood Uses of the Verbals Many' verbs in Greek form a verbal adjective in -T€OV which denotes necessity or duty. with its subject in gender. I a7n ashamed by telling . negative of each being : a) Personal (passive) construction. if it The and verbal agrees case. the 177. f) verbs meaning know. aorist.

Sentence questions. etc. whom then and b^ whom would we find. II) are intro- dv. xivas ovv viro cvpoi- \. Word I.e. ing verbal has (eVrt) and equals in mean- € for the agent stands in either the dative or the accusative: Xcktcov in fact God is GrOOD and one should speak so about Hiin (Plato). : tis tives are used with a single verb € : . . and do not imply either an affirmative or a negative answer or do you speak Grreek? €€$ ' . . i. - The b) Impersonal (active) construction. II. questions.. often introduced by the emotional particles which merely heighten the tone of the question. .. a) by- who f where ? irtos Frequently two or more interroga- interrogative pronouns. the corresponding indefinite relatives: . etc. . and which accordingly admit the answer ^es ! or no ! Such questions are and . . those which are not introduced by an interrogative pronoun.. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES two kinds Interrogative sentences are of 178. i. is not by GOD good then . duced either by the interrogatives indicated above or by .' . . all of . how? and the those which are introduced like. or etc. ? Indirect word questions (see § 179. or or or or €. (for tl ^').e. which imply the answer yes: do you not speak Greek f € in truth? .: : THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK $ 331 1€05 man -ye (§ 120 b): should not be honored before the truth (Plato). - a) Direct sentence questions are often introduced 1) ov. etc. the neuter forms or -€ The word with the infinitive.

. In indirect discourse two constructions are allowed: with the infinitive . which {of or?: iroTcpov . and sometimes even in the indirect form: -€€5 . the main verb the assertion stands in the infinitive (negative usually The case. . . . followed by a with or that. or €'€ is . or is ) « iroTcpov worse. are you aicake or asleep? INDIRECT DISCOURSE. saying. € c) Alternative sentence questions are introduced a) in the direct form by irorepov € the two) . . 179. often omitted in the direct form of an alter- native question... 6€ ivhetlier . telling. say. .. (For the use of the participle in a manner that approximates indirect discourse see § 176 f ). After I. . or by €l . / am finite verb. to be . which wronged? in the indirect form by the same particles as are employed in the direct form. el whether. or? (whether) <€ . / declare. : do you ? surely . Etc. do not rule over you? these also b) Indirect sentence questions are regularly introduced by €1 if. . i/ou . . . to do wrong. I. €€§ . II. . etc. and and sometimes after I said. 2) which deprecate an affirmative reply do not speak Greek.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 332 . it is subject of the infinitive but is of ). tvhether (§ 179. etc. II) €t : €65 I know not whether. regularly in the accusative the same as the subject of the leading verb regularly omitted and a predicate noun or adjective if it is stands in the nominative : € the man . or. . .

the person alone being if necessary. are regularly followed by or saying and ciirov ? that and a I said finite verb... After OTt or changed. 333 we declare our- clScvai he said he did (^). exactly as in English.)... etc.. form etc. clSevai I thought 1 heard. dv it retained he right « : (= should be observed that in indirect discourse he €^. -. . remembering.g. would be employed in the direct form ( A. of thinking: by the are regularly followed in- the subject and predicate being treated as above I think I know. . In like manner most verbs of knoiving. eivai € selves to be philosophers.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK he sai/s that is wise. The same rule applies also to indirect questions (§ 178). When b) said that ) is it is would not Finally employed 8 the infinitive represents a potential (optative or indicative). The subjunctive is never employed in indirect discourse in Greek unless it would have appeared in the direct of the statement or question Qe. 'a primary tense (§ 53) the verbs that follow retain their original form. not know. II. often allow the construction with on and ?• The negative is regularly the same as that which or "). per- such as ceiving. after eav. manner verbs a) In like finitive. learn. vrhich frequently are followed by a participle (§ 176 f). remember. etc.. in . when an infinitive always of the same it is action-stem or tense-stem as that of the original verb-form (see § 131). / I / knotv. questions of appeal (§ 156). The verbs € I am telling.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 334 After a secondary or B. 170. etc. but which contain or imply the thoughts of a person other than the speaker or writer. . or. 6-€€- was just on tvas the tviser d-yyeXov he hade the messenger ). if necessar}-).. 3 b). subordinate verb c) The verbs is I. an indicative or a subjunctive may be shifted to the optative of the same action-stem or tense.€ . When tive. be changed to Occasionally a attracted into the infinitive. is thus changed to an opta- I might aid him. : . verbs in subordinate clauses may the optative form after secondary tenses. plan.stem: € OTTOxcpos them the point of asking tvhich of | ' (the € (^ -"€ € ?? person alone being changed. € dv. (§§ 160. tive . 'past rect statement or question tense verbs in an indi- all maj remain unchanged « ). if they were Such clauses final irplv dv. in various dependent clauses which are not strictly in indirect discourse. exactly as really in indirect discourse (II. indicative with dv never changed to the opta- is a past-iraperfect or pluperfect indicative. and the like. B). as frequently happens. clauses depending on an infinitive which is introduced by a verb meaning advise. b) When the leading verb becomes an infinitive (see above). . etc. clauses with '. An aorist indicative in a subordinate clause remains un- changed. report that he would come sooner than Astyages himself would (( wish An a) . if he should be in a subjunctive with dv dv disappears was going that . may be changed from indicative or subjunctive to optative after secondary tenses. . command. seldom.

PARTICIPLES. as 159. it . yet mon after a negative : . let really. regularly stands 182.. An which \vould ordinarily have the negais usually negatived by if the verb upon which it depends is accompanied by a negative or is in a question with a negative idea implied. ov. THE NEGATIVES 180. never stands see § 178. but. hut indeed (§ 184). It is frequent in hut also. b) infinitive . negatives.. ). there is no one tvise. especially: When a negative (simple or compound) is followed same clause by a simple negative. the negative € there strengthened is was no one who : ovBels ivas not suffering something. accordingly . hut come. questions. Frequently two or more negatives are employed in the same clause. (ap") then. etc. abrupt transitions (well. so. (') 181. hut. II) tive CONJUNCTIONS. .) : yap hut nothing except. (§ 190) and stronger contrast than Etc. 2. iav tl 335 See also § 164. .e. § § also cf. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK / (^. commands . ' us he going! : nay . always post-posi- first in its clause. i. nevertheless. § 160 Note c. (§ 172.. . . marks a especially com- other) (jif. II. first in its clause. well hut. tive. '€ objections. . For is not only . nay. need tW. The uses compounds see two negatives of the ( and and their 144) have been generously illustrated in the foregoing paragraphs (§§ 146-179). each retains its own force but when followed by one or more compound a) in the '^ .

(for apa) sure. wahrP nicht € word In . but € many instances €€ I.€5 € WU. it pronunciation certainly/ ' ) The at any rate.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 336 183. . . even. . II. least. often repeated: or. . .' un- derstand perfectly. When word . and indeed. el is T€ So emphasizing par- (y'j a post-positive. . hoth . hack. . again. see § 195. . . . if indeed. . the very one who. also certainly. . \ . . 185. . either or. ticle . 187. how surely : in truth ? than. so f .. os only a strengthened form of ircos ! irov : . hack again. it to reproduce its force €6 : regularly emphasizes the It etc. . for truly. 184. pray? 188. again. to best not to is by an emphatic . follows. . 189. : you not know? see § ITS. always post-positive. at : translate not not is it of course. . how (why^ not ? truly. (or hut surely (§ 181}. 186. always -/e (or post-positive. €. . enclitic. For also. and. hence for. or do . For . and. also. (for . particle is a post-positive parti- which regularly emphasizes the word it follows where? where pray? what? cle . indeed. means or . in turn. turn iyi always post-positive. . even. ircus ircos 'yap) hut indeed^ ydp) aye surely. surely.. what (or ) Questions are often l>egun with . it expression which it . . regularly emphasizes the .

€ . § 190. this answering phrase or clause regularly contains in the same position as that occupied by \i4v in the first phrase or clause (regularly the word. ' may be rendered be sure. and . yet. . always calls for a which it is itself connected. I too. yet. clause or phrase in which . but sometimes and. while. one of the most characteristic is in classical Greek. the to In translation left. . but some- is may it be rendered on the one hand.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK precedes . etc. a preposition and its case. in the d. § 196.. conversely. . . phrase. ' teaches. and. Moreover. Furthermore. It is always post-positive (§ 182) and is used to distinguish the word or phrase or clause with or in which it stands from a word. .. to balance that with second word). times usually not translatable. etc. .€ particles . while. ?. precedes. you do not. is often be omitted. : in particular also. . ' in the right {hand) . is a post-positive conjunction. . . Sometimes the clause or phrase for which conjunction (a weak ' and or ' is ' calls does frequently employed as a but ') when no -clause may be followed by more regularly stand between Both and and its noun. but. on the other hand. the not follow. etc. | the article in the not. it and indicates that the stands preceding clause or phrase containing it may coordinate with a . or clause which is Thus to follow. I have teacher pupil learns. you have a friend. 337 same way as. etc. than one : speak Greek. and § 184. 175 although. . ivhereas.

. . attached to the emphasizes : eiircp T€ and. . € . the other. therefore not. II). just as. =Lat. it : €LT€ .. is word one who. 193. irtp. . never said ''you and € . «€ and. 191. In this usage the article retains its original demonstrative force (§ 103). €. always post-positive.e. was saying). 191. or. . .. . . ov truly. . some the one is learning. oi shows a marked tendency to be the second word in its group met both Hippothales the son of Hieronymus and Ctesippus. . . . . not therefore? noiv (as I ' positive. the other is not. considerable distance from the second tc (or -€ often 175 d). I do others not knoiv. oxiv at . it € . others. nor.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 338 . . I know. always postany rate. / and you The /"')• tirst €. often written with an accent €. . (§ 178. verily. an intensive. enclitic particle. . ' € € . the very if indeed. therefore. as in pronunciation. . . b hi the one : . and further. . ' some things . surely not. .. both (the ancient Greek € often stands at a ^. 195. oii ' 192. .kv and hi are frequently employed with forms of the article Avithout an accompanying noun. . . indeed. even as.. and the forms ol are accordingly . . €€ € ' whether . verily . i.. . Kaiirep although (§ que. ivhat then ? of course. and . . whosoever. . see the end of Lesson XXXV. . . yet yet. which in writing. neither . . . For other examples.

II order that. There are many uses: that. § 147 160 a. The subject of the order of vi^ords in Greek of very great importance.g. §§ 179. a) Comparative and however. OEDER OF WORDS 198. that. the . the new. there it is a far greater freedom or elasticity in the arrangement of words in Greek than in any of the less highly inflected There are many disturbing elements. = '. EQUALS be : and added. although there is one is a certain normal order for many of the parts of speech {e. infinitive. doubtless. a negative to precede the word emphasizes. : Final many speak.sequence expressed . . yet. = = € 130 to. quam €0 tt€VT€ about five. as though to receive. e) the as as beautiful as possible. eiireiv so to as. first. ful! post-positive. § 151. etc. : in the the mind is thought. c. II.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 196. the \vord . § 170. . therefore. idea. as. in 147 as. g) Prepositional: €|€ f. § a. €' word was GOD. ? 5 enclitic surel•/.). 339 § with the a. Thus containing -.-. when. § 175 b) Causal (usually - ol : celerrime. hence the emphatic. inasmuch as. but in languages. say. : Temporal c) : d) Declarative f) Consecutive: : how beauti- that. the adjective shows a marked tendency to follow its noun. and post-positive) and 197. general word-sequence follows which uppermost is in the sentence €. proclitic. so that. § 172. for. TOi surely. g. So and if to EQUALS sums are equal. takes precedence the that .

.

urn. adjectives. see os. II. xvithout weight (^). nouns. words which are for all first the second part. . of which the the proper names and proper adjectives. $ fer. Less. Eng. hunting-expedition.. a root {e. . to the cultivated fields. L. see good. but with each there is a meanings and uses are Following each preposition are given 1) the verbs comexplained. -). in which its slightly disturbed in order to bring into juxta- words which belong Sometimes these are placed under together. 341 an- Lat. Less. lead. hring home a wife for oneself (or for another). a Prin. gether. as well as some of very frequent occurrence. market. cof- hear nounce. pts. gather. and 2) the compound nouns. -? () ornament. . etc. All masculine and neuter nouns of the second declension and all feminine nouns of the first declension are printed without the article all . and KaXos.g. €( Prin. etc. preposi- vaC. tions reference to the section in Part the alphabetical order position is at length. pts. As a result the arrangement of the words in the first part of the vocabulary is not strictly alphabetical. chest. pronouns.VOCABULARY The following vocabulary contains the common is divided into tvro parts. contest. too much. See § 47 . field. country pi. a. €- message. and are ade- of rare occurrence in the lessons quately explained in the word-lists or the notes are omitted. Cf (opp. agony. hring to- market-place. Moreover. ayep- The principal parts of verbs are usually omitted. adjectives. Neither of these is complete. other nouns have the gender indicated. like and particles are not treated . statue. -- s.v. very much. ager. town) vessel (jar. etc. acre. -? () -€ € assembly. in other instances a type-word heads the group. pounded with it. In many other instances. ? € € messenger. . In cases of extreme displacement cross-references are given. and adverbs.). message. a struggle. there being instead a reference to the lesson in which these have been presented. too. LVIII. -5 () a place of contest.

ing . etc. choose. -- -) -ov (for ing. exact. hlame-worthy -ov sible (Ace). to culminating point. LXXIV. unjust d-SiKeu -) {-$ a-SiKOS -ov -. LXXV. spoken make LX. . the other. injure -8 €-5 - doing (). report. in crowds. well (or discouraged. . Less. Cf. Lessons ) speak the truth. under- outermost. €.-ov in heaps. -. -ov bear- away the prize. . . pts. blood. hut.-). without (). to Prin. injustice. -9 . take Prin. prize. -- the time being death.-. -ov at the furthest point. -^ most (Gen. enough in Cf.. the heights. to be (p^s) exact. accurate. ). . ) discourage- topmost. the one for (Geu. sense of hearing. otherwise. point (of a spear. pts. -. yet. throw a javelin. listen mortal. haematology. Prin.. without -- be ashamed the upper air. saying (or contest (for a prize). food. () athlete. acme. . ait always. desires. § 178. -ov loithout respon- . mic. the cause.- do lorong . ment. -€ () an-ae- for pts. -ov impossible song. forever. see . spirit.) -?) a-8oXos -ov (Adv. outrage. - ill) -- (aldws awe. « satis). 342 cL-Slkos . )€ common). Cf (. . 6 ael who for im- -$ (). . LX. want of -ov (Adv. -ov garrulous. . -^ - ether. sing. etc. shame). . 42. () truth. insult. disfigure. . javelin. be at the highest hear.. another (of many). act of hearing . Less. Adv. respect.. be captured (used as the pass. . of (. (^ ) shameful. -5) €- a at. choice. task. -5 § point (of prosperity.). be ashamed. or ) or P. wrong. €£. stand thoroughly. () seize.- § 181. oneself. deceit. aim javelin. Past-Impf. spirit. II a. of. - -' sicy. dishonor. M. 117 a). -- unwill- crowds. -< follow (Dat. in plenty. have enorigh of the to a taking. (§ 42 (Lat. hit with dart. true.

§ 88. . sell into the men's apart- Bopeas without. carriage. € .. time. common two hold back. . . in up. appear. miss. partly . refer. 6$ tip. necessity. up. F. . tiirn ascribe. 8 -8 () persuade. north wind. . () fox. - manliness. phrases. up. see have no care for (Gen. ovei) . re- throw. Less.) - each or both (of -ov Usu. err (§ 115 e). avSpos () man. 2 a. () -. instead In comp. - upset. Semitic word. - (recognize Less. hold out. - compel. In comp. -ov unerring. blame- -ov unworthy. . undeserved. & $ -€ one time See p. «s open. exchange. - - -os -ov loithout sickness. see -o-Ttts. § 130.. take up. read. Less. both sides. . -4 do in turn. take -. to up and take less so verily. back. aor. repay (Ace). . in return. words. show forth. ivind. two). carry make away -€. LX. endure. in oppo- sition. wait for. another time (fire). = § 194. be led to the torture. each other. A. . hi at at another time. of with. ignorance. M. instead. again) LXXII. . c. - be it. -ov human. . go up. with appos. §§ 175 . again (with inten- -( -( - A. § 115 h). (r/) same turn hack. fellow. man. hold up. -. ' ---<(8. and Less.-ov other^ strange. . -01S -oDs at . take captive § 128. { '). failure. . {-). LXXIV. LXXII. Gen. error. = €. -. § 2. 6. ment. -. carry carry away. ignorant -is . . F. sinful. § 176. partly. back. -. force.. . . -£ --. against. . Less. human being (homo). 343 €. . - change. turn. (A amen. : of. Less. - both. sin. § 124 a. M. : sive force) step up. - up. erring. refer. husband. -. over- offer. etc.- - -5 (). LI II. chap. tvagon. : § 145. and slavery. --. -irfCe» Less. Neiit. up. -£KOS at the 130 b. - § 28 . fail. vir. set LXXVI. pi.-£. on pi. LXXII. belonging to an- stranger. 42.

-£ -€ . against. value. look tou-ard. § 79.-. come from (a place) -rive. €.-- be going away. carry pay (tribute. LXXII. sell. reply. etc. -----. M. LIII. away from. 117 a). ^inharmed (). point. -€ say in return. be from) show. throio away. worthy of (Gen.(^\$ greediness -raros) behave simply. LIIL fail to hit. . § 93. . shut out. ap- LXXIV and titterly cow- ardly. see oo-rrep ttirXois -- . pletely surprised. -ovos . ---F. destroy. die. tithe). . carry away. jjoint -- LXV. Less. complain loudly. § ask in stand LXXII. pay. repay. Aor. - .).--- 344 d|ios give in return. -' -)- set free shut away Less. --. issue. M.). in reply.{ keep away from. sound turn. -- § -•7€ send Compound - step away. from.. (). 124 Com- = single. -T)'ei he v:as going aioay -. § Prin. shoic (forth). Less. otit. from. -€€ he piit aioay. deal ') -- b. ar- undone. ^ : -\• Less. vnthout harm. drive away. be destroyed. Less. (from). A. I. uncover. answer. - worth. -' -).-- -' : result. deceit. completely. fail. -. . LIV. LII. {away Less. M. airas give back. -€. and § 194. am to. of frankly. . -• ••€• threaten boast. Less. back. ish. -- = "rras. . LXXIX. laid away. -ov. have or receive in full. LIII. Less. went away. give a tenth of (as a make one stand aioay from. A. § 88.disobey (Dat. In comp.{ be away. - § 90. Less.. stand away from. threat. back. lose. Less. once. per- lam lost. go aioay.-- pts.ktov- trick. from.). -€ -€ . G.-- lose. . a|ios -a -ov worth. (Dat.-- -'- kill {kt€V. simjile (§ 41). make thorough of trial 82 B.

gladly. please. a seising. -€5 () . - -ov best . -€ - § 182. . apKeVb) loard enough. - welcome. a a small coin. silver. Pf.: 345 d-TTopos § 87.- accepta- ble. to deal with. census. of. just now. pleases me. lives near one's () city. € ) --. pleasing.-ov -ov imexpected. city (§ 36). am register. pant. . £08 . "^ play with dice. -(8(-). a way. -' () a bright star {cf.-? then. LXXII. unexpectedly. on the Cf. F. deny. . sovereignty. -'•£ F. money. a -€ <---- ago. revolt. left. § 115 g).-? toIs content be refuse. () ruler. () snatch off. II. § 178. astronomy. beginning. ing. lay hold idle. usually with -- the force of the adverb. he without a way. pi. from dice knuckle- bones). goodness.. virtue. -(. fasten be etc. archon. greet. - -ov inextinguishable. turus. the left hand -Tcpas xeipos €| 8. £ () a plunderer. lazy. . moment office. gasp. -"(-88 . just. F.. / room. ansvjer. - €- (§41) of silver. M. ride pass. . -ov glad. €05 . silver mines (sc. a writing off. on fire. cling to (§ 115 c). Compound Nouns. one loho neighbor. rule. gleaming. -5 mes- be at a loss. - - -£ () . €. . architect. sufficient. -9 and Less.- (€ on the left side. J excellence. to. carry senger - Cf. satisfied. . () chief- (Gen. .-•- (sc. xeip). the stars). off. harpy. be strong loith one''s blessings. an -? --. . set Cf. M. apio-Tos rob- begin. . satisfy. builder. sable. vertebra made --(orig. (un)dressing- -€5 () an uncover- ' apKTos (v) bear. superl. -- II. 1 gastronomer. Up. impas- -iropos -ov toithout it Arc- arctic. begin. of <o-voC skilled in as- tronomy. ber. aristocracy. () frag- one who hard -- is sent. ancient. etc. toion. ment.

ungra- 8 - test. () -. aor. without an end.-. back again. () murderer. pts.. vexed. from scot-free. ). -- go. Greek. -9 - -$ speechless. throiB - security. ^] Less I stand to be lived. Less. LX. {-). . § 28. nevertheless. test. dart. rule (§ to-morrow. harm. - self. morrow.. () loith- - be king.. pts. - withoiit Cf. hit. manner of life. Adv. -<ra queen. § 106. diphthong. look. () in turn. '- missile See etc. icithout form (). morrow. Hog). court. to trip -5- ^ 346 not liable throw. . () = -- kingdom. an- noyed. baric. foreign. better. pass. . 05 .- 44 ill-luck. ) (. live. unpleasant. pts. hurt.-9 (^?) --- -4s (). (sc. icalk. -. -<ci>s rub upon the touch- () see out grace. $ king.harmful. 7iot € - accomplishing icithout plete. free 5 €5 -. fut. best. (17) stability. of «. -. make unseen heaviness. a touch-stone.SS. ) bar- foreign. again. misshapen. (/SeX- - but. . are since^ § 175 LX pts. see. (cf. mischief. tor- stone. harm. Prin. pass. (-). meat).-. be burdened.-). Prin. §44. one who commits a deed with his oion court-yard. living. LXI. cious. (/3a-). go. the lyre. of eat (-. heavy. hand - ) = (. 47 palace. . safe.. deep LXXII hood. troublesomeness. the living. Prin. (to) burden. speech. Less. Lat. § kingly. it is ov - not meet to . Is immediately. ugly. - Pf. § 183. pass.). liveli- Pf. one's purpose. step. royal. § 183. dishonor Prin.. --€ . . incom- -i's at. 071 the () -- (6$). -. -tax. firm. . Le. torture. (arroio. § (-wrepos down by Tos) iceighed ture. infiu. -€9 - e. . at.

-ov (yevvaiorepos -6- Tos) well-horn. Boreas.() see ) ox. judgment. man. . -. Prin. altar. '. brief. . PI. corner. for a short time. thought. a land-measurer. also oneself (or one's child) in marriage. exercise. ox-Stall. . deliberate. yvCodi. at least. horn. angle. (o2) sllOUt. coun- determination. § 185. LXX.€- see 347 * when called) aid. rate. Mid.() - write. marriage. sel. ( Less. Frill. a writ- PI. x>aint. the north wind. groio old. LX become. (Infin. {tor y - unarmed. . ().- cowherd. race. Voc. (. LXXV. § 44. intelli- {y. etc. Poetic mortal {-).. family. at lan- . Adv. yov. Less. . the epistle. . -- take counsel xoith oneself. . () earth. () (. laugh. § 35. ) {ye tongue. speech.). recognize. -€ - ().ya-). family. he will. cow. be full of (Geu. () woman. aor. ''. shout. loiter delay. the elders. wi^. to knoio.-- liberate. yvoiT}v.yv). pts. race. . Prin. yvQ)vai. § 28 D. geometer.• Prin. . Pts. --- wed'ding. Less. he - see - scratch. a school for gymnastic -?1 . hy birth. . Gen. : give (of § 184.). geometry. de- Mid. --« €'^. -. pts. alphabet). sloio.-) . be willing. Gen. Part. §186. . old . book.'. also a lesson. skilled in gym- nastid exercises. . -. --. yeyovos -via -os). noble. pts. etc. Less. take counsel. A. 7^01^5). letters . letter. writings. come gxiage. 7<) (or gence. herdsman. ten character. birth. wish. slow). § 39. ' €. (yvd. marry. lightly clad. resolve = LXVII. § 38. . (jyev- () picture. by race. G6n. . Dat. assist (Dat. draw. . (17) oiol. ptc.($.{ .training. Pf. of old age (yipwv). any knee. naked. see () Gen.

. vos accused by a daughter. LX. €.€ . Less. : (Gen. ten years old. dinner. € . (it). need (Gen. (') through. € . § 187. hr[\Lo<i exj)ense. § 190. (to) Mid. . § 187. decide. () - belonging to the clearly. break up. (Dat. pts.: 348 8 () -ovos () -ovos guest. aor. In comp. keep alive by stealth. con- -€- (one) must converse. § 90.- ought one need.: I. Voc. district. traduce.cowardly. distinguish. next. people. bursting into tears. dissolve. that which is need. '. clear. arrest. ten. exchange.- - - directions. differ. See LXVIII. -ovtos needful. Prin. €68 . thoroughly. § 83. desire . ivos certainly. ?. arrange. lord. show. carry. complain loudly. -|« -|a appoint. . ' o5v. Past-Impf. terrible. deivws) - -. (or twenty lacking one there € far from almost. - loeep. €€ skilled in speaking. use up. aevae. etc. A.?- divinity. tenth.. Compound Verbs : throio across. -6 -€€$. .-. stealing.).-. fearing. . -« seize.ss. Adv. country. -€.- - people or €€. spirit. . Pf. receive. coioardice. Le.). -U. --- -€€- -«€ show - succeed in -- -- carry through.-?. etc. Less. request. pts. LXXIV and point pts. § 193. by chance. (or devrepa) then.«. hind. Less.). pass. heg. dine. is (Infin. Prin. indifferent (-orepoi.verse xoith ) '? €• Prin. wonderful.- public. skilled. €.). LXXV. out. of course. '€€9 clear. lack. hither. part.). (Gen. § 127.-« destroy pass. -«s - slander. -€€\ 6 second. dispose. . through. -oraros. £-8 - state. 6€ -. destroy. (or tico). master. differ from utterly. part.make publicly.

See . of -opilm separate. '. see . justice. § 130). Compound Nouns. if. (to). he be able. describe. you are opinion. hoard and etc. of notable. -« -- narrate. punishment. (17) -'€ Less. . Dat. -4. () § 89. spear-bearer. pts. think.. him. . twelve. seven -. . etc. . of trial. that! . spear. seventy. aor. tell. part. (§§ 153. satisfaction. do. -. gift. Gen. Adv. -(-. unless. ' . . . - lodg- of himself . if not. § 91. of justice. cli- vide into parts. § 23. fore. ought (^).! -€. See to give. {--€) -£|-€ . teach. define. see (§§ 05. suppose. . - ( (Gen. think. custom. 8((>. - (). etc. lawsuit. . § 39. imagine.-• (out) through. SkSdo-Ko) power. as adv. () band. 162) aor. ' ---. = : for the reason that ceive ) . give. lohere- mode of life. two hundred. Verbal allow. of aor. or. SiaKOcrioi -ai -a Prin. II. § 177. - aor. txoenty thousand. if. . right for me to twice. § 88. freely. Ace. () whether. see = -. . loish. . . LXXIX. lated. right. see -. able.. . it is -(). two. shaft. aor. nation. compare... ?). . . of Si - 349 e -€-€ go -. . el whether . of honest.-- guess. oh that liken. 50 C). § 21 b. seem. slave. -- : aor.be willing. pursue. give. - LXVII. 8). LXXIV. to receive . § 80. tribe. € - near (Gen. be XXI. subj. . powerful. of aor. 8-« Less. it was necessary. (- destruction . xtenalty. to re- - (-orepos ^ ----- just. about Less. teacher. aor. Justice. See Less. re- tolcl. - ing.

bring . is it --' -.-' -. it is examine. 1€ exposed. -' . €•05 . : nonnce. do wrong. -. (aor. awoke. -era ^'. e'er then . test. out from. rear. In comp. next. aor. § 95. urns -- etc. pass. part. throio § 93. expel. lie § 194. view. € () likeness. €( tip. selection. peace. err. . () a putting posure. In § 126. of permitted. - clvai to be. subj. out. common in. of (part. els aor. I said. to.e. (more going .-. to. I have said.---' --- dress. find out. see from. ) tomed eK (before a vowel. image. (i. '-8 --? - - etc. completely. (-idys -€. garment. etc. A. €-> = take utterly enslave. of €<-€ he entered. LIU. or therefore). going. strike out. not possible. at --- (Ace). -{- -). Less. € . into. -•.(. of oiSa. if really. of -<. aor. also Infin. . choice. A. A. have been said.twentieth € see LXXIV. --". past-impf.- etc. -« -- 350 «Ikos Compound Verbs I. (or deceive utterly. '. elxov. € carry out. . come . of. ex- . it is of a river. ^s) comp. expose. e|- astonished. you xorought. lead out. is likely. aor.) be {it) fulfilled. § 91. succeed ceive (ef/cotri). re- -. pxit out. cIkos <!>s II.-| that away. show. Less. ^v one. look upon.. empty. «?i- javelins awaken. -ovos : throio out. to. pass.) miss. Compound Nouns. discover. of. see cto of infin. -. send out. fut. -. into.-. § 93. -(() in. uncover. -. : child. § 94. go out. in : €•-€. go (-^. F. I am accus- ^) ont : of - aor. -. § 124. in. of look into.05 € €8 -OTOS () {) as likelihood.). -€8 lead out. () -aros I am €( he. -fj.) things the |. A. reveal. likely.

in. - sand. A-. free. mine. tionally. thereupon.). here. fvL).€. at home. e/-. display oneself. expect. there. see have iirei lohen. €-$ sixteen (^0• €-> see ( inten- willingly.). -. ip-) Aor. sixth. '. « front thence. there. Compound Verbs throw in. festival.: €€§ . also ^7-. CKctOev €6(.- in the rational. hither. in.-€• . theretipon. 'ivtKa iV€K€v -? of myself. «- (-orepos etc. display. iv (in I. comp. (= iv II. Past-Impf. etc. on aC' count of (Gen. he. -is clear. cherish. iv-xiirvtov 'iv dream (inrvos). Gen. since. '^. . -€€ each (of two). least. - «'- -. fit ^ Past-Iinpf. drag. yonder. believe.(8 -€€ cKaTcpos 351 from €- -- that (one). see tls. among. en- put on. ter into. iv. on.). whenever. opposite.). my. 7 of (Gen. - «. €<08 . «. in this case.. holiday.- -.. there. etc. it is like. next. each (of many). -ovos sensible.). command. there.) for a freeman. enjoin. six thou- . (also TO ivTeOOev) hence. subj. cXcvOcpos -) ev 48. six. eiraOov. convict. « see £K. in the presence here. : €£ outside upon. § 130. for the sake of. €€5 . (part. $) command (-\). --) -- £-€ in.iKtlv () i\iris -iSos see « . henceforth. toay. tv less. it is likely. -. €5 . § 23. . . there. cross-question. within (Gen. Compound Nouns. {ivos. see - etc. § 125. on within. she. €v-TOs this side of (Gen. where^ ««€-€£ see see A.- earlier of. §§ 47 -| ?. draio. eviavTos year. hope. - within. €- hope. expectation. refute. here. : ) (Gen. . - ' . -. fall €() € . sixty. .). § 130. -. of (Gen. thence. comp. in a row. § 25. at. fall In «-•-. unrestrained.

tion to). return. deed. .: €€•. -. -. -.<8 . then. aor. towards. fault find (with). have charge care of. vated fields. •-€ into being after. for (Gen. etc. potir a libation upon. -. -€\ - pf. upon. ser- viceable (deriv. I. to -ov (-orepos -ototos. - brought - place Upon. -aTos •7-5 - () -yov set foot mount upon (Gen. bliy. ). suitable. -( --» -< -< listen country.).). profession. desire. hear (Gen. -. -. work. Past-Impf. §88. HTTos come see.). Adv. Past-Impf. -Tpoiros trustee. praise. ---' «. as time passed. town. come in (in addi- -. -•- over) middle part. fat. -( '5 --A. €€ -8 () cattle-shed. desire (Gen. -. . administrator. ---. to over- II.--. chief.-• be in - - ---€ -. -8€. §80. of summon. Compound Nouns. --. --5 «--. receive (Gen. aor. () : promise. : toioards. •-•7€. -'2 . come come upon. on. -« Compound Verbs A. of .). thereupon. ---. admirer. call. of () -ov belonging to the folloio (Dat. 352 In comp. aor. an end.- «iri- -' Past-Impf. --) () overseer. attempt. view.). () etc. of close a slam. - eir-aivos praise.). aor. a dream appeared - «ir- upon (or or place set him. . slay upon. hut. infin. of to. tcith -•( understand. master. verse. visit. go back.€€ see ') (iir'. . etc. Aor. over. obscure). -o«s (to) word. love passionately. come to town. blame.--.-. 7. -Tpi'irw Verbal : entrust to (Dat. - -. ask. -•<. of to. etc. -.). see culti- . meet with (Dat. § 129 b. observe. . on. the commands. bring to completion. €-£ display. etc. obtain. see command. §177. against. lover. €-.

of sexual passion). wiith pass. readiness. tertain () comrade. said. ( {5 shall say. €( €•• -. -•« €-8 to pass through . garment. -tDs) erotic. . be happy. €-u-Ko\os -ov -arcs -wraros) (-urepos appearance.e.-. a question. (). CTaipos is satisfied. €-( strife. comZeus who presides over fellowship. con- (). -with gen. forms of €-«. deem happy. of. () companion (i.). -ov well-made be -- be for- (). of two. . pf. of Prin. . see -. <-. ^Tcpos see - -ov one other.). () Love. straightioay. preparedness. etc. deserted. straight road (66). happiness. within (§ 130). happy. (. eunuch. eat €(€. pray to . (Dat. be p)rosperous . Less. € -(). praise. fut. good wool. renown. having a goodrepute. pray. €-8 cottieniiOMs.thank tunate en- (straight) ioioard (Gen. be having a beautiful -€'s clothing. c'ri -ov ready. £((. the prayer. '£(). . famous. find a ivay. be esteemed. roris.. pf• (§ 87). § 130). LXI. ask (a question). see itri. 6. «.-6 was come. still. (Adv. F. passionately desire. epis -iSos (17) ipois - 353 « find. pts. -- famous. . eii-iropos -ov pass. furthermore. Ziiis calm. of fut. (Dat. (07€. aor. iTos -ovs (to) year. ! Gen. -ov -«Tos (0) love (esp. a woman who panions. -«tos. « '. -ovos blessed a good genius. () straight. of cpia - €- -ov {-orepos -oraros) desolate. £« €€ sumptuously straight line CTaipcios -a -ov pertaining to see easy €-€ -•« (iOvs not a lawful wife). rich. « (- a questioning. of a-rtpiu» de- pass. -€-€ €-. -. tented with one's food prive of. «T. (§ 91). amoI € LIV. « . €€. ei)-KO\ajs) full of resources. . of pf. gfo. -ov. () €<8 -? {) -? -5 () €-€5 Prin. pts. () (V well. able (to do). - see €< = eat. { €' «- cvpov €- £ (-). -«- "? - cpcoTiKOs - (Adv. well done. Less.

. in- tend. iois until. -. pleasure. € / suppose. Less. etc. each twice a day. with pleasure. Zeus who presides over hos- 1] « (fem. means! past-impf. See § 178. in o's) (. sit day. ^. youth). prefix. § 184. . one § 179. - {). half (an insep.. - suppose. -- have.our. take pleas- so long as (see § 170). I went be young €< eJxov) (. a hnlf-mina - half. -(8 see . xire painter. . ( /5. or. in which loay. - hold. day. II. -- - in (Dat. -ous I.).« 354 «-. lead he paid no I cannot €€ tell. day. (. ) « '« ' ? part. A. deem happy. . think. see have in mind. «* heed. I have seen <() (). it § 93). pitality. Adv. II.-ous of. .). hold in Adv. be of age. € J5ar(?0n. c. either §§ 178. get. lohich place. . $9). ') the loay. of have come. ws just as he loas in wrath without de- (i. . €' yoke-strap. dat. ' . €v . -. or. £. companion. live. is well. they allow life. (Past-Impf. -- stupid. truly. ijdews) pleasant. surely. every on each - . couraged. (Ace). age. 188. .). (infin. lay). prime of life. LVI. € by this time. already €() life. by no § 93). €€ (v €€ it is « «£€ so. high esteem. £5 lead I.e.. -.. () comrade. emulation. he jeal- day. sweet. be one''s (Dat. animal. at one''s hearth. - § 47 . / am being dis- loell. ) one of the same age. Aor. who paints from €€ (to) yoke or team (of mules. than. (. lohere. II . F. (infin. {. forthwith. I said . vie loith. rivalry. delight oneself icith. (). seek. = (= semi). .) leader in something (Gen. --'€ (§ 96).. - and he loent least.tame. of hostile. -tia = «.

S

-

355

Itoas (€£>, § 91).

()

-8

harness-maker''

driver

().

See

§ 170.

€,

and

see

choose.

see

Less.

see

'-

-

€$

(), 1.
they went
they were

,
48).

either

.

.

none

aor.

, --.

,

,

be

{-% -)

-€

in-

a hunting of wild beasts;

- -'

?

'•€ =
--

().
, ,
,
-

boil.

)

fut. of

sea.

0-€.

(door-stotte),

Aor.

.

door-keeper

-- -<ra

bury.

--

imperative of

--

gaze

sur-

Prin.

pts.

view.

LXV.
see

-

ISiiv,

§ 88.

oblong

().

sacrifice, offer sac-

-<ra flatter.

()

LX.

.

at,

be

loonder,

an

rifice.

be of good cheer.
Less.

daughter.

shield.

death.

!

PL

door.

-- put

take courage

Dat.

hair.

()

by sea.



,

-Keiv.

mortal

{). Gen.

death.

€, €8,

()

(), and

Gen.

treasure, treasure-chamber,

chamber, store-room.

Less.

he ran

'IQti

() huntsman.

•€, aor. of

prised.

().

run.

prey.

sou7id, ring, peal.

€^

take

fested with wild beasts.

see

=

court,

=

the less.

(Gen.),

than

serve,

treat medically.

of,

wild animal, beast.

pass, of

worsted.

(or

care

a viewing, contemplation.

less (§§ 47

oihkv

€€ -€€
6€,
(~
servant.

-- view, contemplate.

or.

.

an attendant,

()

€€€ ().

().

Gen.

see

-ovTos

-).

9).

§

(et>i, § 91).

weaker

be

.

€€.

one should place

stillness, quiet.

-ov,

.

I

divine.

F.

warrior., hero.

{,

WrtS pZefflSed!

...


€,
, €,

€7

§ 194.

aor. pass, of

LIV.

by the gods

€5

see

€..
,
,
,
8
€,

Voc.

god, goddess.

-ov fighting against God.

shop.

tohen.

)

(,

irpos

reins.

18,
!

see

breast-plate.

,.

behold

t

--

ItSios

()

356

,

one''s

<$

Uvai

an atokward fellou\

;

going

to he

{,

Upov

()

Upa

()

holy place.

temple,

§175d).
and

UpEia priestess.

-

§ 93).

(Adv.

See

)- ( .
-

§ 171.

$)

gracious

impv.

pass.

!

bad,

suffi-

<

ap-

-ov

worthless,

of

) horse, mare.
-' () horseman.

(,

I'lriros

-

§ 160.

-5-, -,
lir-n-evs

•<
<<

-

equally

;

equal.

8,

-,

Adv.

-

lohich

- -()
-

--

(,

=

.

strength.

-

see

pej-tain

)

camel.

=

basket.

( ')

§

or

29 C.

down, doion from,

against, according

purify.

a,

vep).

.

heart.

-oraros)

§ 93.

(,

the

gen-

beauty.

-

to,

I.

etc.

In

comp.
down, against, etc.
often merely intensive. § 127 b.
In Compound Verbs
come down.
he ended by
:

just as

to

conceal.

.
()

(-orepoj

strong.

£ (>,

-

qualities

labor, be loeary, suffer.

be strong.

-

tisually

the

tleman.

make a thing stand.
LXXII.
they made me king.

loom, etc.

()

noble.

well,

well-born and well-bred,

loTOs anything set upright; mast,

t<rxis -vos

LX.

beautiful,

possessing

perhaps, probably.

See Less.

-

most nobly,
see

§9.
-os

( ?,ill.

/ am

groom.

-<(),

doing harm (pepy-).

?)

Adv.

ill.

worse.

Prin. pts. Less.

call.

See

in order that.

it is

do

yearning, desire.

Adv.

craven,

ill-born,

I am

a late aor.

pease.

€$

kindle, burn.

LXX.

Less.

cient, able, worthy.

be

§ 196.

-

and

Less. LXIII.

- !

-

§194.
yet.

of time, opportunity.

Upctov animal for sacrifice.

come

§ 189.

due measure, the right point

itpivs -t(os (0) priest.

see

purification.

-ov purifying.

although (reg. with part.,

offerings.

, -.
(,

()

-€«s

and, even, also.

93).

§

Upos -a -ov divine, holy.

clean, clear, free

from pollution.

one

;

loho has no professional knowl-

edge

-

-

private.

private citizen

;

:

-

-

-8

.

beseeching,

go (or come) down,

thrown doion, put down,
render judgment against

(gen. of the person

ace. of

;

the penalty).


-

--.
-

suppose, guess.

=

poetic,

pass.

Pf.

cover up.

-

-€
-8

pity.

Less. LXIII.

doion.

sit

--

-€8<

-$

II.

asleep.

lie

Compound Nouns,

etc.

through.

sleep

).

Opposite (Gen. §130).

dowmoards, beneath, in
Kol

§ 97

leave, leave

break down, put

dissolve, end, etc.

yoke,

€£ -- - --<ra

hence

lodge,

-ovs

()

be

a

make

head.

-5 ()

-<ra

-( -,

-

Pf. pass,

-'--

---

turn down, overturn, sub-

-- --

dare, take a

hence

risk,

it

possibly.

weeping, wailing

due.

put down.

§ 88.

-- -€<
--

despise

(Gen.

116 h).

(older

hear and obey, overhear (Gen.).

-€. -- -{achieve.

Impf.

-€, .

form

'()
- ()€£XLVIII.

is likely,

().

/cXt/'w)

^-

(eKXrjo-a) shut.

report,

--

use up, destroy.

-€|,

().

danger, risk.

observe care-

fully, consider.

herald.

one loho plays and sings

to the lyre

curately), perceive.

-€ --

occupy.

gain,

profit.

learn thoroughly, observe {ac-

--'-

urge, com-

gain, profit.

un-

;

guest.

§

-€,.

see

mand.

-

-<

down,

;

see

seize upon, catch, find.

behind.

the

world below.
lie.

-€ -

(-

spy, inspector

).
=;

fell asleep.

:

-ov ridiculous {ye-

- -- - €, ..
€€ €
- -- - €
§ 97.

doxon.

lie

re-

LXI.

Less.

turn.

scatter (seed, etc.).

-,

-

he ended

by saying.

--,

-

357

fame, glory.

inherit.

,().

lean.

Less.

couch, bed.

Gen.

-

hold down, restrain,

- shared

()
in

the State,

mon.

thief

common,
in

com-

$
€-

(5

-

in disorder.

-- -- order, arrange,

escape one^s notice.

strength, power,

(to)

have poicer, be master of (Gen. § Hog).
(), PI.
(), Gen.

€€
flesh, meat.

.

§ 47

better.

-

knock.

()

acquire,

-

come

Prin.

-

()

to

pts.

()

lion.

?)

much, too much.
(Adv.
perse-

-<

vering, earnest.

()

pilot.

in a circle.

circle,

(, ) dog, bitch.
pack of hounds, ken-

(--).
- -ov having authority

;

wolf.

--

mas-

distress, grieve.

Pass.

be grieved.

mistress.

-

(-).

pain, grief.

lyre.

sheepskin, fleece.

-- -•

Poetic

beseech.

entreaty, prayer.

nel

ter,

()

-

possessiOJi,

rest,

henceforth.

very, very

property.

Gen.

remnant.
remaining, the

-

hidden, secret.

possess.

collect.

leave.

conceal.

LXXIV.

,€-

reckon-

- ---€ - £€
-and

distinguish, de-

-- -- Strike,

)€8

reason,

account,

report,

tale,

ing.

cide, judge.

Less.

Speak well of one.
word,
sjjeech,

.

say.

tell,

--

possess,

§ 170, 2 c.

see

rule.

----

Less.

-,
-.
,
-- .
LVI.

fem. of

deck, adorn.
-ovs

$

358

ornament, universe.

order,

lamp.

--

prevent.

loose.

§ 79.

village.

-

-

dull,

dumb, deaf, deaf

«
, -€
-

obtain by

lot,

obtain

(- -).

Ace.

()

Less.

-

(-orepos

bright, brilliant

see § 113 g.

-€

()

hare.

grasp, receive.

,

-

and dumb.

LX.
-oraros)

lesson.

act of learning.

pupil.

learn.

take,

().

()
()

§

84 and Less.

LIII.

-

-ov blessed, happy.

my friend.

- deem

happy.

»

$

359


,

-

by

long, far.

far.

from

afar, afar.

more,

very,

and

most, especially,

...

certainly

!

-

rather than,

much

as

as

possible.

3().
-8

,

$

()

mad

be

rage,

-

()

one

call

-5 ()

''

see §§ 190, 191.

8

however.

siirely,

loait,

() part.
- - middle, medium,

?

midnight.

middle

to witness.

in

life.

whip, flog.
xmthout rea-

(),

mid-day

south.

- - filled

- -.
with, laden with

§ 117).

comp.

with,

share

:

change

one''s

In

after.

with,

§ 129

differently.

goad, whip.

the

midst.

()

loitness.

§ 196.

await.

-ovs

(Gen.

seer.

oracular response.

Gen.

,

after,

c.

mind, repent.

-.
^ ' €€
.
.. €€8
-,

-,
-(
$ (
' 8
in vain,

idly,

son.

-

give a share of, share.

Verbal

§ 89.

§ 45.

large.

and

Adv.

greatly.

Comp.

Super.

€-

-Otis,

lad.

-

have a share

dark, black.

aor. part,

certain, be destined) to do (In-

limb by

limb.

from) limb.

()

song,

tune,

often witli a part.

these things are
yoti

).

see Less.

my

have

not, see §§ 144, 180, 178 II
§ 160 c.

unless,

;

lest,

,

§ 159.
§ 67.

blame

against

;

XXXVII.

object of care,

.
-{

(Pf.

for the better.
between (Gen.), meanwhile;

lyric

lyric poet.

a care for this.
remember.

§ 87.

part.) fortxine being changed

verse.

care,

let

§ 98.

change.

-? ()

tive

re-

of.

of

loose, give up.

fin.).

an

§ 88.

change,

:

tract.

intend {be about, be

-oDs

after,

transpose, change.

Mid.

smile.

be

se7ld

summon.

§47.

'$

:

see

Impera-

(rivi),

charge

by no means.
ing.

at

all.

§ 51.

no one, nothNeut. as adv. not

.

|

360

€•€

£'

,

longer.

€.

.

.

'-

manage; tend

never.

710

.

.

what

nor.

.

.

see

-$

month.

jealousy,

-8(

hate.

reward.

ire, loages,

laio.

c. 818).
§ 28 D.
remembrance.
-<rw remember, remind.
make mention ! imperawhich serves as
of

€€-€.
tive

aorist to

with

-yis

difficulty.,

reluctantly,

£

.

.

not only

.

-

.

.

hut

.

also.

fate,

doom, death.
sung

lyric poetry

music,

€--

.

- one

- ()

,€-€ €£
-a

recently married.

youth.

cloud.

island.

-- -• ,
()

ship, § 38.

§

vcKpos

()

%.

conquer.

-.

sickness.

29 C.

mind,

corpse.

see s.v.

()

•€ -- --

dead.

childhood.

icho has just

() islander.
{v^js () fasting).

sea-fight.

vcKpos

() one

() mind,

()

young, new,

from

(\( (-)).

see s.v.

-(-

I.

victory.

tale,

myth,

vavs, Gen.

§ 179

/asi

labor, be weary.

word, speech, proverb,
see § 178

the

-$. Adv.

and

()

to

literature, music, etc.

,

)
-

i-ites)

(

vea veov [veurepos

come

alone, only,

^
of

customary

the

fresh,

commit adultery.

-

ven-

use; acknowledge, believe in;

deem, regard, believe.

veov

adulterer.

-

of

observe as a custom, pjractise,

scarcely.

portion, fate.

teacher

«-

law.

() mina (=

=

distribution

anything assigned, hence,

custom,

§ 51.

-•

<€(>

()

pasture.

68 ()

els,

due, hence, righteous

geance.

sheep.

of

see § 192.

Gen.

is

indignation,

sheep.

€05 - -

,
,
,

tend flocks in pastures.

€€-5

not yet.

.

neither

.

^

flocks.

to

he

ill.

thought, purpose.

€'€

€v

have in

vovv in accordance

€ -- - loith (one's) wishes.

perceive,

think, suppose, plan.

€-

vvv

dis-

tribute, assign, dwell in, occupy,

.

now;
Gen.

just now.

()
midnight.

night.

€->

.

)0

361

|€vos

(^ -)

happiness,

^5

nected with another by
hospitality, hence,

ties of

guest

(less

«(> --

(

entertain as a guest.

-ows (to) sword.

5
€€8

mass, bulk.

'

§§ 24, 105, 110.

this.

way, road,
along
the road, on the loay.
oSovs, Gen.
() tooth.

()

happy, prosperous.

,,

deem happy.

€, §

?)

ola (see

know.

^ --

with partic,

§

175

e.

-ov pertaining

to

the

house, belonging to the family.

()

--

house-servant.
inhabit, dwell.

()

household,

house,

family.

() plural of oIkCov = oIkos.

-{ --aros

()

-

()

suppose.

-

skilled in

manthink,

§ 179, I a.

{

I

-

--

am

qualified,

am

.
-, -, .

one and the same.

(,

)

of the same

age.

- -ov like, similar,
manner, equally.

€€()

same, nevertheless.

dream.

gone.

()

reproach.

reproach, charge against

,
,,
one.

()

name, noun.

Aor. pass.

, <,-., €,
•€
name,

call.

see

in-

forms

direct

;

respectively
;

J

-€
-

how

of
;

that,

in order that.

§§ 148, 149, 160.
behind, after (Gen.)

back,

back

again,

after

(Gen.).

'-

see.

temper, mood, wrath, anger.

reach

after (Gen.).

see

have

Epic

in anger.

see

LXI.

(-).

adj.

roast.

as, lohat sort of.

able.

-,

-.

see

eye

(see ttcDs;) how, as,

estate, etc.

such

oios

(^).

household management.

aging an

olos

room, chamber.
administer a

manage

household,

116 b.

dream.

§ 95.

-a

(

()

all the

oIkos house, room, household.
oIkcios

-

before.

little

-ov short-lived.

in like

§ 21 b.

a

irpoTcpov

j^ain, grief.

whence.
ot to him.

bliss.

- -ov scant, few, small,

frequently host).

oSos

- -ov

Stranger, foreigner, one con-

See

Less.

-

-ov (Adv.

oxit,

)

straightforward, right.

reach

upright,

!

362

OpBpLOS

--

at day-break.

-

opKos oath.

-hasten; Mid.
-8 (, )

motion,

in

set

start, hasten.

opvls

cock,

bird,

boundary,

limit,

(0)

hen,

rule,

standard.

-'

'

opiKOs


8

and

-rrep

oo-Tis

•- -=

.

many

how

great

! etc.

see oo-tis.
§

21

,)
II,

,

late.

see

-,

see

irais.

Gen.

710

(-).

(,

as adverb.

j'lciy thing ,

child, boy,

from

no

one.,

-

educate.
child, baby.

chant the paean

noth-

(as adv.) not at all.

never yet.

),

honor

See

long ago.

--

vjith

(iraLUv,

paeans.

§ 134.

ancient.

back, again.

-ov neither.

§ 46.

(ert).

= \£.

cordingly, not then

game.

'play.

not, nor, not even.

longer

)

training, education.

not,

never.

vision

little

ovSeis

•7£
€€8 -

serpent.

boyhood.

by no means.

ing,

.

-€8 ()

XIX.

and

()

be borne, hence, ride.

no ! §§ 144,
180, and Lessons VI,

8€
178

eye.

see

girl; servant.

§ 27.

b.

lohere, gen. of

(,

see

see

, see <8.
of him.

ovtws

thus, so.

it is.

, ,.8 -.

whenever.

oTi that, because.

,,

§§ 25, 105,

in this respect,

-ovs (t6) advantage, profit.

ivhat-

loin, loins.

lohen.

nor.

- ,

,

o»|/is

how many

as,

()

-vos

this.

08 .
68
8,

-€

whoever,

as great as,

.

.

see

Gen.

see § 194.

oircp,

102.

until.

Is

.

153 b.

€8

§§ 24,

§§ 27, 178, la.

ever.

as

he.

.

§ 196.

owe.

§

quail.

which.

loho,

-

8
,8

of a mule.

-8 ()

-os

see § 193.

thus

--

OS

neither

meanwhile.

() mountain-animal,

-- fear, dread.

OS

not yet.

.

.

.

,
-, ((),

mxile.

i.e.

.

.

110.

opos -ovs (to) mountain.
opevs

.

never.

surely not.

etc.

opos


,

then, ac.

.

.

?

-, -,

see iras.

()

alongside,

In comp.
amiss.

§

:

beside,

129

d.

by,

near.

by, beyond,

look at from . 4. (. ? --' -- give over - -' down sit summon. take. 8. () mother of all. -. - survive. beside. proverb. attemj)t. § all. observe. the whole. full suit of armor. one loho gave. -. 7€- remain Prin. § 96. be beside oneself. pass p)ersuade . jwe- sent. iravToios -a -ov of every sort. prepare. -$8.-- stiffer. faith. § I. \. -' all. fut. trial. every. -- 363 iras irept Compound Verbs everywhere. - -oraros) (-orepos ----. -. Gen.. : around. -€5 () assembly -epos (ayep-). en- end. -? -? - try. •irCo-Tis -€8 () bring to one.. I. etc. exceeding. see see § 194. -8 -- Compound Nouns.: -. altogether. -.) . stop / ). II. of send. In about. iras 82 -- like. . § 91. comp. see -. in every way. -. -- ••(-5 -. . make -. to.-.^ - by.: : I. -. furnish. fifty. throw beside. . irap-o8os § fut. - treat. see in. call to one. trust - - see A. -. trust in (Dat. Mid. pass. be at hand. iravTOs. -- XXIV. around.- -- obey (Dat. 129 e. II. -ov wholly wise. throw altogether. sit beside. trance.-. escort. § 93.-( beside. -' -- Less. See Less. . provide. pass to cease. go around. put beside. trust. five thousand. certainly. about.']. -ov parallel. handle. -. pts. cease. LXVII.• from another. Past-Irapf. be present.(^-. Mid. hold beside. . - --. -. II. I. surround. -ov titterly bad. the side. take not at 6 iropa- to. be at hand. the very. see -ov resembling. -. . Compound Verbs lead around. of () poverty. bring to an side-entrance. .-). over. excel. faithful.

i-ich. Compound Nouns. see gird (oneself) II. two) iroiel- U. at in the loorld ? 8' at whence? how? make. irov- sea. adv.€ " . . -. - - pertaining to zens. wallet. fall. quantity. make a some time. see Less. () - do. hostile. . travels. the evil one. ' hoio . drink. . etc. -. loalk about. -€ : city. irXovTos wealth. at length. . loith. much-learning. harsh. . someI suppose. •- . -. bad. hitter. . irXoCs (0) voyage. much. () see •€<. republic. «08.-9.(. €. eirXivcra sail. - . on which where? sonieiohere. . . overjoyed. --- Strike. device. . older. ? Less. irio-Tus. 10 depraved. . fight with. -- ' '7£ sharp. citizenship. lohither? I. speech. see <. iToUa ) . see citizen. . except. --. J river. . go. . PI. strait. . once. - times. street. . as = many mould. when? . -rrpiap-UTcpos numerals). at an- lohich XXII. II. . -- ' . XLIII. poet. - -d (to) multitude. () poem. Gen. £-. take of. see '€€8. . weigh dnion.- . much. . many-colored. other. one time - . political. proceed. -i's of what sort? loar. See most. loandering. loar. Comp. ford. be rich. . . gray.-) why . for the most part. preserve. 29 C. quam maxime. . () -- foot. . (of account - flock. (- toil / § 130. '.be at -- -- consider carefully.more «s irX€i<rTov Pf. press. § 45. about (with what. § . () irepi-XuTros -ov very sad. . irXio) Superl. way. side? . 47 § citi- many. 364 ireaciv €-.-€. badness. government. much? ever. shape. .

inquire. Prin. put (). In --. sheep -?• € make to. --(. -- Compound Verbs §§ IGO b. Trpo<r-€Ti -. () forward. (-. eager. •-8 rare.yov-). . fore. Adv. present.:. forth. () come §97. event. Less. propose. irpo lead toward. wife asked before (he could speak). never LXX. value. : to. be placed by. . . -' indicate in advance. beggar. expect. supplement (). -ov former. c. belong to. -Oes. before. -' honor. beg 129 f. hear. toward. - () -ov first. by. by. etc. II. sooner. be laid out lie jrray Past-Impf. assign etc. expose. (-acTTepos -is : -) to. formerly. oiSt• . go toward. 172. : § to. Past-Impf. do previously.). choose {in preference). § 130). etc. -<« . before. zealous. Gen. Compound Nouns. Very to. to to. F. sooner. in preference -» f comp. J. send forth. require besides. In comp. wpos toxoard. -£ -€ § 124 d. before. 170. 365 (-). yet. » : . first. as adv. Compound Verbs -'. affair. Compound Nouns. see irpo (end). -- - - place before. II. logue. (6) -irvpos oi ••••€ . . not yet. to. in addition to. see § %% (ro) I. root). ---$-) at- call to oneself. bring before one. -ov belong - -- sance stretch forth. I. from - one. -'. pts. prior. fire. with reference to. --. thing. -^. hold pay see -€. yet. proposition irpOTcpos -a See '-- dear (-orepos Stretching (). (to) irporepov be- his add furthermore. do. fare LX. assistant -is obei- attach to oneself. face. the assigned task. learn by inquiry. A. -arcs : Prin. A. -•€5 standing near('aa). to. - see () be zealous -. toward. (like a corpse) -. set forth. ? former. -€ tention. II irp£v 6e/ore. and Less. she^therd. ancestor (yev.. besides. to. pts. irpoo•- irpOT€pos. person (in a dia- •-- in front of (Gen. -ov by the roots (pi^a.

yours. earnestly. - tent. feet Eng. pjletely.<- -os pass. Aor. zeal. € €€ €8. sell. (). -ovs strength. Prin. -is £€ -. iro7i. race-course. 5. . c. haste. §41. In loith. shadow. LX. . send with. 582 army.'•€ - -irws offer how? . - - comp. disposition. Less. •'£- tirge - if ye turn not. 600 Gk. be eager. Pf. --- sit down beside loith. stade = length. « § 87. rhapsodist do be earnest. stage. cppcvcra floio (pev. (. (-. word. m.o-KOT€ivos () -aTos . play with. . I. army. be useful. loalk about loith.e. collect. = point out. somehow. ? (Adv. by chance. agree. LXV. de- breast. turn. come -- together. song). € 05 ' silence. -. stage-building. stadium. Compound Verbs - A. be advantageous. sign. phrase. pass. of iron. verb. § 125 b. - § 87.pu-)• () saying. -- ( -(? () -aros Semitic indicate by a XLVIII. earnestness. rect (late) spelling -«-. bring together. <5 see spatch. -. : com- with. sit : doion -- as- icith.-. hasten. dark. 200yard dash.- A less cor- is o-kotivos. - A -) Sabbath. tomb. sign. spy - general () scene. () ( --= ($ - expedition. -arcs . gether 8 to- rhythm.). easy. a reciter of epic poems. €-. -. sociate with. ?. -' = equip. general. twist. 08 deprive clear. . see eral of (Gen. €05 . o-Koiros xi:atchman. examine careLess. -. -ovs (to) darkness. your. temper. consider. feet)). thoughtful. gather together. be gen- be soldier. target. pts. fully. - 366 for sale. agree with.) ( paSios -a -ov (Adv. . . . stitch a measure of {i.ark. -) -. of. ( -5 () mouth.

together. etc. self-control. body. -€ .. issue. pile together. misfor- T£ and. -. c. -- inter- very much. to. = ). at once. €€ bring to an Te'Xcos -a -ov completed.completion. thank-offering for deliverance. akin -^s to. course. nearly. as quickly as pos- sible. -€05 (-- being a --. . Tc'Xos -ovs (to) end. and AdV. see tCktw. etc. a helper in xoork. bear (young). () a tax-collector. () () end. . collect. an -« make lower. -£ - counsellor. 07'der. (- perhaps. «- €- synagogue. = -ovos cut the throat. Superl. (-^ -- -€(> live xoith.- soundness of mind. experiences. with. (€. be with. arrange.-£< of sound mind.-. a bringing together. an end. save. orvv-8ov\os a see € € iVeKOv felloio- - beget. €£ €€ . born with. quick. humble. £€8 tune. posium. (). finally. complete. burial counsel. pardon. talent store-room.). meet happen with. Compound Nouns. (. a writing. slave. (Comp. discreet. quickly book. . «- chance. event. closet. ' see «. -€ €| 367 assist in driving out. •8. company. sober. assign. leisure. § 195. . loeight. ously.. () 6 (= -- -- ally -«s ). % sympathetic sym- ) (for -- (or soon as ) as. drinking-bout. ().: -. end. bring to . . good sense. .-8 (--5 etc. (. vigor- near. fulfilment. x)ay (a debt. ? . ..- . almost. - (bbbv) with all speed. die. very. € €€ T€\os as adv. II. TOKOS child. $1080). -5 () carpenter. «-? --. €€ to lay eggs. § 21 b. •-8 -•8 a balance. € €5.- - bring -. accom- plished.

much. of. somewhat. obtain (Gen.. - . c). see so 176 fortune. See place. nourishment. 6 € See LX. in ivhat manner. absolute sovereign. — <€. writer of tragedies. ToiovTOs case. honored. so tall. a. at all. -< (uphold honor) as- Less. sist (. - . .your. at that time. then. put. nourish. etc. LX.. tvhat? §27. water. turn trim. moreover. § 88 and LXXVI. a sort of. . . precious. -< . = see . <() ToaovTOS Strike. in every . chance (with hit. any thing. so long. above.. such. -- undertake. - - €'. )€ m this place (). « LVIII. § 196. vester. tKtyi -. or why? any one. value. so great. honor.-. a turning. See Less.. who? Tis. see ovtos. §27. son. § 39. so () Gen.() despotic rule. sleep. see see - €. see T€K-. one who has suffered wrong. . great. -€. dare. Toi in truth. etc. make by devise. see art. see manner. . means. art. kv - § tomb. . Mid. § 127 c. on behalf ing. tyrant. . turn. § 120 c). Less. en- dure. price. food. surely. . in such a . . luay. rear.. so bad. . chance. value. -) (^-orepos in ivhat way? way. see — fourth. -705 . -. profession. . enjoyment. three times.-. third. €- he spoke as follows. see TOKOS. (oneself). . some one.- Less. \. .-. for -.). etc. therefore. vengeance. tIs tI &. concern- . nurture.368 T€p\|ilS . surely. run. table. some thing. avenge (Dat. () vu€p . then. § 39. ' €€ €. manner. Toiros place. \.hold in honor. ) nurse.- participle. -.

Gen. Compound Verbs show a glimpse . reply. saying. - bind under.- show. motion. under. remaining. 2b - - port. ) swine. dear. . com- -ov loving one^s appears. carry off for a carrying.. Compound Nouns. •' . § 129 g. weave. on the day -€( after. later than. minister to (Dat.-. off. ignorant clearly g. 179. endure. give ! : - be- fitting a friend. carry lead. love.. Mid. -ov . flight. secretly. -ov loving mankind. receive fasten on. - and §§ 94. vo-Tcpaios -a -ov next day. under. --- -«'? () etc. servant. €. friend. behind. somewhaty under. a small basket. next.-. () a a)i oneself. under. by. () {an under-rower) underling. kiss. left. ••-€5 - bear. fond of literature. bring. -- see it flee. - (show oneself) appear. drug. -- friendly. left.. paltry. .). - () -ov beloved. --' are 176 see -€( secretly. sow. answerer. boar. get he loas - - remaining. take up (under) leave bald. -. voice. - under. vs.jealous.see as receive rades. --now ! : secretary.-- In comp. on the next day. re- -ov iJo-Tepos Mid. €€' ---^ -' - a roioer serve. -- see of. medicine. . {serve. wont. ios (. is treat affectionately. after (Gen. wages. expose. I. hypocrite. fond of argument. prophetic voice. . fame. A. fond of words. by. actor.: 369 tiiro { ') -..)• II. load.-. be . put on. oh! ah! alas - -. say. I.. no -ov slight. as (-)) -'--- tm- derstand. and dvov declare.-'- you § - go under. of account. § 80. come win..(Adv. ^) friendship. cure. -a -ov latter.

one''s () an instrument a mark engraved . $) . laying -ov golden . see -- rejoice. favor. •- Mid. Gen. €5 370 full of light. spelling () - light. -. LXVIII. go (or come) frequently. gut. § thousand. made ointment). acter.serviceable. intend. x€p<ri(v). - . inten- (ro) ception. bitterness.. have a care for (Gen. -ov loving loisdom. €-. () guard. proud. {) nature.-- intention. kindness. pursue knoiol- edge. see bright. Xiip. precautions. - Gen. . € Dat. € €( 4)ov€vs -' Mid. See bile. hand. terrify. (17) - think. be a philosopher.-€ - -$ -€ --€S eager for knowledge. anxi- 47 B. time. ety. anger. natural bent. see € Gen. there is Infin. -0 -TOKos eggs. enjoy. Less.. etc. prudence.. matter. or point out (to) point out to oneself) ponder. .- () worse. go to and fro.). gold. () murderer. anointed. ing. murder. per- right mind. less correct (late) - coined gold. see of gold. -€5 () -» char- features. (Infin. gore. money. a guarding.. for a short time. . . taking --- string chord. guard. A is - (serve need. -. for marking €-. -Kos. reflect .consider.). prudent. in thoughtful. character. ])ainful.). -. . - . - one ought. - of gut. in <( a for good. pAan. - fear. - - to be () the - Anointed One. tion.). please. tell. -£ {) care.difficult. mind. possessio7i. vjidow. impressed. -- -. -ov grace. () thing. heed. he (Adv. time.-ov useful. being on the loatch. . rubbed on (as time.murder. ( seek to (Dat. pride. gratitude. have understand- -aros favor pi. oneself with) use (Dat. .

. XiapCs from (Gen. that. € .-( speak €. just 5 . station. liar. () -.). ovtos. in the - (ixriTtp jtist as. country. shoulder. good 9. egg. (. same way. hour. soul. beneficial. - •. -is lying. falsely. -. . loriting. Gen. 371 space. . prime of lie. as follows. §130. §194. (followed § 151). thus time is to be § 197. see (). by sir it life. ! being. oh . .() fitting time. see bear false witness. ! — so so. place. or Infin. 5€ . « springtime. apart apart. -. life. life. € - -. breath of see season. -ovs {t6) falsehood. so as to Indie. in truth. -ov serviceable. false. one''s see -^: \^ .

II Proper Nouns and Adjectives ' *8 ' '€ fifth (i. 'AvrC^oipos £ ' -' the sixth century. father of Char- Androu. 525-456. AloXcvs -€§ () is elegies. 372 . son of Croesus. nian. preserved a large collec. known as Aesop's Fables includes many stories of The the twelfth century a. a lyric poet of at Antimoe'rus 'Apio-TMTiros Aristippus.c). *8 - Athens. '€5- -ov Argive. a Medan. () Athens. pupil of a philoso- Socrates and founder of the hedonistic school of philosophy. poet laureate the court Samos. to son of Sparta collection later authorship. a of Pericles. a collection of Greek idyls. of Mende. during the 'AveoXoyia. father of Hippocrates. odes."Atds A'tys. pher. namely. an Athenian tragic poet. €$ See but and Aristotle. sons of Agamemnon and Menela'us. tion of inferior imitations known as Anacreontics. kinsman He was handsome. i. Athe- nian comic poet (445-385 b.d. philosopher scientist (384-822 b. an Athenian.c. the most brilliant representative of the Old Comedy. who said to have lived duiing the first half the sixth of centuiy. Atri'dae. Glaucon. A'treus.e. Aeschylus. and rich. -ov Athenian.v. an Athe- Apollodo'rus. of are extant. son of Andro'tion. 'ApYiios Artem'bares. brilliant. '•€5 <8 Only fragments of Anacverses is of Antisthenes. Alcibiades. but very immoral and utterly unscrupulous. Anacreon.c). Agis. Anthology quarter last of to ($ MeXea-ypos.e. s. the century. a sophist and a pupil of Protagoras. " Uncle the Aesop. and epigrams ranging from the seventh century b. reon's there " Polycrates. mides. a7i Aeolian. Remus" of ancient Greece. nosegay). a king of Archida'riuis. Aristophanes.

father of Lysis. brated philosopher of . probably Zeus. a quaintance of Socrates. ' He was the first great comic poet of Greece. century A. machus. one of the He'ra. physician at Athens. Demophon. Her most important temple was at Argos. The New Testament is the most important representa- in the The Euxine Sea. of Laerte). as or pher of Ephesus. Athenian transla- tions. Greece. He end of the third century b. Delphi. while the language dialect ( the Common dialect..c. '. Demo' crates. a king of famous Midas. one of famous 0€O"YVIS Plato sophists. a famous mathe- matician part of original Greek in sional ac- flourished at the Menexenus. son of Phrygia and Midas. of which the most celebrated is his " Elements of Geometry " in thirteen books.e. Epichar'mus. Testament. and wrote numerous mathematical treatises. Epicu'rus. Gen. a king of Persia. a famous oracle of ? Apollo in Phocis. an is main that of the common people. style Euclid.. ' poet. a comic poet of Sicily and a contemporary of Aeschylus. Gen. in part con- of With the exception of the book of Hebrews and an occasentence of ment is of Alexandria. Dni'i'us.c). about SOO tius (i. tragic poet (480-406 b. . tament an Euthijde'mus. who flourished B. Heracli'tus. 5 EryxV- son of Acu'menus. an early elegiac and perhaps the best repre- . a philosopher the most Crorgias. Epicure'an the of school of philosophy. Theog'nis.e. a Demo'critus. a philoso- form of the known Heliodo'ra. cele- the fifth century. father of the the of named one '- () Hellas.C. sists ( The New Tes- documents. )' . . and founder of his dialogues after him. father /) of see Zevs. loves of Meleager. -€ () a Dorian. Heracles. the elsewhere New Greek the Testa- innocent of literary re- finements.D.8 373 rop5ios TopSios ? € Gurdius. the lives of the philosophers. i. tive of the colloquial post-classical Euripides. Diogenes Laerin the He third wrote.

as £5 Homer. Callias. rian of the great library at Alexandria. Persia. ? -ov Lacedae- - ? " -ios -a -ov Nicias. Orpheus. son of Xicer'atus.c. a Mysian. Kvpvos. of Media and vastly enlarging the boundaries of his empire.. LII. His plays abounded in sententious sayings. tury B. a friend of Calli'machus (c. Mysian. Many commonly verses the of attributed €$ young Dorian Theodo'rus.C. known Menander. poet. comic poet of the late fourth cen- and the best known representative of the New Comedy. b. . By single- Mithrada'tes. - - sophist. his friend Cyrnus.C. see from 558-529 ? -08 Clibu'lus. have been ' preserved in a collection Cadmus." His rule extended €3 monian. a of Melea'ger. McvavSpos Menander. Cyrus gained for himself the title of " The Great. the bibliographer. philologist. said to Laconisms. . ing of a single verse. Median. Olympus.e. son of Apollodo'rus. Lycians. Mcvc^cvos Menex'enus. more than seven hundred of which. libra- Lysis.). king (i. a Persian name. born at Gadara lived in the first and was the first make a noteworthy anthology of Socrates. to Theognis were written by other He frequently mentions poets. a mathema- have been a teacher title AvSos a Lydian. literary critic. a friend of Socrates. a (ot) the Cilicians. He Syria. a mountain in Mysia. (ot) the €£$ lyric noble. € € '. the elegiac couplet III). verse quotations) of -apos (0) Caesar.374 ' () sentative of the sententious style. 'IiriroviKOs the lonians. a late Greek poet. See Less. an Athenian general. "€5 () . father of Hipponi'cits. Kvpos Cyms. 3Iede. 310240 B. Nico' teles. the reputed founder of Thebes. tician. in his verses. MCkkos Miccus. each consisttury. in cento of Greek poets. the one of Plutarch's essays. an Athenian Hippo'crates. He employed (see Less.

Noth- either of () a X on miscellaneous subjects.C. one of the earliest of the nian. Athenian phi- losopher (469-399 B. one of the chief lyric poets of Greece (518-442 rates Greek Timar'ion. (428-347 B. -€Ovs Persians Terpander. of whom he was a great admirer. the brother of Hippocrates. of loves of Meleager. Philip- Plutarch. tury A. the father of Plato's mother.Sav6nnros $ 375 Pythag'oras. -? Socrates. Xenophantus. Protag'oras. of the nCvSapos Pindar. poet an (497-405 B. one of the rivals of Menander. son of Philome'lus. The quotations in the Lessons are from his Memorabilia or Memoirs of Socrates. Phrygian. and author (born 0. Char'mides.C.() Sardes or Sardis.).).). Pericles.. pupil of Soc- and teacher one of Aristotle - friend of Plato.-ov Syrian. a ^ sixth century. Printed in the United States of America.D. a son of Pericles. . first great phi- losopher of Greece.C. Timothy.c).C. Phrygia. - Pan. One () a Persian.).C. Phile'mon. nian. plays of Aeschylus is called the (^). a rural god. Phaedrus. Solon. sophist of the fifth century. capital of Lydia. wrote first cen- Parallel of famous Greeks and Romans. soldier. a Greek au- thor and lecturer of the He the Timo'theiis. () Phason. country gentleman. a comic poet. Xenophon. an Athenian states- - man of the sixth century. and innumerable essays Lives ing is known about these. the lyric poets.430 B. a famous - pides. Par'aliis. . an Athenian and B. Plato. . an Athe- Pausa'nias. -ovos « () a Paphlago- an Athenian statesman (died 429 b. who named one of his dialogues after him.). () Athenian tragic Sophocles. a celebrated Greek philosopher of the son of Xanthippus. 0£5 Pericles.

.

'TpHE following pages contain advertisements of a few of the Macmillan books on kindred subjects .

^ .

. and. Exeter illustrated. in gen- great pains have been taken to reliable is comparison with that to be found Beginner's Books.00 Concise.D. " Elements of Greek " was written not from the standpoint of the college professor. adequate. word The lists print- The para- and vocabularies selections are included for reading. superior. chapters of moderate length the ground in fifty them too long for a lesson.The Elements of Greek By FRANCIS KINGSLEY BALL. marked success the final and has stood with test — constant class use critical teachers. in the Phillips i2mo. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY Publishers 64-66 Fifth Avenue New Tork under . are given Covers — none of make instrument for the hand of the the book a good skillful teacher. digms assembled at the end eral. accurate. notably so in in many Gives a very good preparation The scholarship of the book The arrangements and ing of the book are convenient and effective. xvi Academy + 283 pages. It is the outgrowth of years of practical experience in the schoolroom. Instructor in Greek and German Cloth. and well arranged. Ph. and . but from that of the teacher and the student. for beginning Xenophon. $1.

Oxford.A First IN Greek Reader TWO PROGRESSIVE PARTS — WITH HINTS AND VOCABULARY By E. C. MARCHANT. M. short illustrated.A. 45 cents reading on subjects descriptive of ancient Greece and its cul- Greek mythology. Fellow of Lincoln College. but the Hints contain suggestions as to Greek tion that will help the reader syntax and construc- now and will use hereafter. There are very few notes. and Formerly Classical Master at St. Part I contains i2mo. which is meant to be Attic. and ture. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY Publishers 64-66 Fifth Avenue New York be of . The Part subject II is the of the fables. xi sketches + j2 for pages. and turned into simple prose. twenty exercises that form Adventures of Odysseus. adapted from the Odyssey. Paul's School Cloth.

— the aim being to pass on to the usages of the moods in as quickly as possible. mainly with the forms verbs. pitman. are are in their which deal made short and simple. Lecturer in Classics at the University of Bristol Cloth.Greek Prose Composition By H. and desirable as a change from the monotony of constantly rendering sentences into Greek. 60 cents This book aims at bringing the student as quickly as possible to a comprehension of the principles on which Greek compound sentences are constructed. i2mo. of the regular verbs. M. Proses at the end may is made to work which occur most The Continuous be found convenient for revision. The exercises begin the chief tenses of worked use is in from the by affording practice in the formation of regular first. any uses No attempt of the cases except those frequently and are most easily grasped. Prepositions and constant practice The earlier exercises. There is a Special Vocabulary to each exercise as well as a General Vocabulary of all the words required. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY Publishers 64-66 Fifth Avenue New York . given throughout.A.

M. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY Publishers 64-66 Fifth Avenue New York Greek . Elementary Classics Series Cloth. The Notes supplement the Vocabulary in the few cases . WITH VOCABULARY. the Vocabulary on word recurs cabulary divided into sections corresponding is its and each Greek word first may be found by means book explained in When occurrence. They are much first three abridged from the original. AND EXERCISES By CHARLES H. the language has been greatly simplified. and. for the benefit of beginners. and for that reason use of those who is well suited for the are beginning the study of the langage. in a later part of the is its the same place in the Vo- of the Index. viii + 113 pages. KEENE. The Vocabulary with those of the text.Tales from the Cyropaedia of Xenophon ADAPTED FOR THE USE OF BEGINNERS. The Tales here given Books i6mo.A. especially in the earHer sections. NOTES. The Exercises are based on the text. 40 cents are selected from the of the Cyropaedia. a is required in a form not The Cyropaedia does not historical or literary allusions that call for elaborate comment.where an explanation of the text suitable for contain many Vocabulary.

but may also give the student Greek personages and Greek The stories shorter stories Mythology. AND EXERCISES By Late Fellow F. John's College. i2mo. The aim may not of the author has been to provide a book which only be an introduction to Thucydides and Xeno- phon. H. M. Stories of the Games and Oracles. COLSON. by subjects. $1. are arranged some knowledge life. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY Publishers 64-66 Fifth Avenue New York . and Stories of the Philosophers. as At the same time they have been well as in form. and proceeding to Stories of of Athenians. VOCABULARY. xxiii The stories pages.A First Greek Reader — Stories and Legends WITH NOTES. as far as possible. beginning with and Fables.00 arranged in this book have been arranged with especial care that they should be Greek in substance. simplified + 164 and adapted. Stories of Alexander. Stories Stories of from Spartans. to the freely form of ordinary Attic Greek.A. Miscellaneous Stories. and Head Master of Plymouth College Cloth. Cambridge. of St.

^ uUSl ^^j^^Su^^^^ {o^ djutSi .

J ^ 3' .

i .

^^^-^ ^^ <:t^«-»t^ ^^"^^^ IfU: ^^ps^y^^^ u ^HaAJuX ./7 ^tiA^ ^*^)--<<:-^ <•! 22 ^ ^>-^^^(. uC^^^l/ ^AyKAA^A^^AA^^t^C ^l/Zc^uoc.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful