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THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

:>^°•
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
NEW YORK

BOSTON CHICAGO DALLAS
SAN FRANCISCO

ATLANTA

MACMILLAN &
LONDON

CO., Limited

BOMBAY CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN

CO. OF
TORONTO

CANADA,

Ltd.

THE
FIRST

YEAR OF GREEK

BY

JAMES TURNEY ALLEN,

Ph.D.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF GREEK
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

"Ntta

gork

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1917
All rights reserved

258

COPTEIGHT, 1917,

THE MACMILLAX COMPANY.
Set up and electrotyped.

Published August, 1917.

Nortoooti ^rees

Berwick & Smith Co.
Norwood. Mass., U.S.A.

J. 8. Gushing Co.

and even graduates. my "Old Wine See Chronicle. during the past decade or so Greek has come to be in this country largely Already approximately four thousand a college subject. and should not be expected. for the majority. For it is clear that students of college age do not desire. moreover. all of these freshmen and sophomores Statistics show." . pp. X (1915). years. the content of the first Just so far as year. . many are content with but a single year. seniors. V The Classical Journal. students each year begin the study of Greek after entering and this number is certain to increase. 331-332. Greek " University of California reprinted in revised form luider the in pp.^ 1 See my article Classical JotirnaL 2 "College Students Beginning the Study of Greek. caption " XV The in pp.^ . subordinate. These new conditions under which the study of Greek is begun have given rise to a new and serious problem. The course must be more compressed college. possible in so brief a period the student is must be given the opportunity of reading in their original form choice por- Greek tions of literature of the Hellenic — the finest flower and revealing To mind.PREFACE However regrettable may it seem. richer. to begin the study of a language in precisely the same manner as children of fourteen or fifteen. New (1913). this end all other objects are. 262-266. ." XII (1917). 235-242 First Year of Bottles. that the majority do not continue the study beyond two Indeed. Nor are many are juniors.

were used with successive classes until more than three hundred students had been introduced to the study of Greek by their means. Follow- followed (^) ). In fact. by five different teachers both in preparatory school and in college. a grammar Qy The scheme of the lessons is fairly uniform. are followed by a supplement which may be treated in one of two intrinsic merit to be read (')^ . They were used. (^) ing these in turn are references to the a vocabulary. Many of the lessons. moreover. times a week may who recite in this subject but College classes which meet five complete the work in less than a year. For in learning a language like Greek there is hardly any exercise more helpful than memorizing and reproducing from memory suitable passages both in prose and verse. Each begins with a numeral. and exercises Part II. annually revised.' and these. and ('). This book is the fruition of this long-continued experiment. As title its series lessons of indicates. followed in many instances by a quotation to be learned by heart. one or more selections for reading. The selections have been chosen for their and graded with greatest care. moreover. which indeed was one of the chief considerations in determining their choice.PREFACE VI More than eight years have passed since I myself to this problem. and deserve and re-read many times. there are only a few that are not worthy to be memorized. it is designed to provide material for an entire year for pupils of high-school age and for college students three times each week. notes . The plan of the book is simple. grammar (Part II). A first addressed and exercises was prepared. It consists of two parts Part I contains lessons by a vocabulary.

Non-essentials . In tion has been admitted. while forms of infrequent occurrence. additional lessons. coupled with the fact that lessons and grammar have been carefully articulated. and similar exercises. The marking of the long vowels in such words as Bevrepa. they will be found pansion. should make this portion of the book one of invaluable service. and the like may pupil will need until he begins the reading of drama. if treated in this manner. abundant material for both oral and written work. Experience has demonstrated. These yield themselves more readily to the memorizing of selections. 178. such as those of the pluperfect. even for those teachers who desire to employ the " direct " method. Occasionally a passage containing a rare word or an unusual construcBut these are exceptional. however. . selections both in the lessons (^)^ The grammar (Part II) contains practically all that the Homer and have been omitted. p. and this feature of the grammar. the main only common words and standard constructions will be found in these pages. But a sincere attempt has been made to state all fundamental principles not only briefly but clearly. ^ to provide.PREFACE ways. Such exercises cannot be repeated too frequently. 1 See the note prefixed to Exercise II. The exercises which conclude Part I. All of the and in these have been taken directly from Greek literature. writing from dictation. receive but slight attention. that this method in the case of Greek is not very successful with mature students. others Some may be used may be assigned as Vll as exercises in reading at sight. are intended to accompany the lessons and should be regarded as suggestions admitting of indefinite imitation and exAlthough very incomplete.

I make grateful acknoAvledgement. .vni PREFACE seem unnecessary. and especially to my students whose good-will and forbearance have made possible its thorough testing. but has been adhered to consistently throughout for the sake of its pedagogical value. the is To all vho have aided in the preparation of this book. and these entirely from his Memorabilia^ pupil who successfully completes these lessons ready for the Anabasis or any similar text. Although few of the selections in this volume are taken from Xenophon. 1917. University of California. June 1.

CONTENTS PART I PAGES Lessons I-LXXX Additional Selections for Reading Exercises .. 1-149 150-176 177-214 • PART II The Grammar 217-339 Vocabulary 341-375 ... .

.

MEPOX TO PART I THE LESSONS .

.

. erat. matics. of all (things).i Punctuation Marks. Breathings. €08 Cf. ou). Cf. Cf prototype. . 9 f. -logy. e (Consonants) For the Alphabet (o . . /txtct. § 24 a. ''^ — Greek proverb. the god. To '^ (The) beginning (is the) — ) half of ). a eV. § 6 a-e ev. €v ^ in (the) beginning. Cf. See half. c. the. theology. () Cf. the beginning. god. 1 Pronunciation. and. ^ The pupil need learn at in this lesson. -. first only so much of the alphabet as occurs . semi. all.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK €19 I. the mathe- this (one) he. Cf. logic. . half clone. c . est. archaic. rbv to the lesson. et. Quantity. - loord. PI. Iv in. speech. Lat. it) icas. the note. §§ 8. 5 b. '. av. . scholium. " Well begun. . 01. Ace. § 2. () he (she. € in the presence of God. § 4 a (Diphthongs: at. irpos Cf. § 9 a. §§ 1. Accents. b. see Part II (TO a. Lat. first. it) is. . he (she. § 3 (Vowels).

because this is in for emphasis. 171 on time. For Aristotle and Menander. Irene. in the (fertile) plain. debs . Cf. polemic. . To AcvTcpov Thorough review Lesson I. 8.. (the) rocks. even. George. automaton. . also. beautifully. plain. even - among () war. dear. ireSCov () it) nourishes. § 4 b. '-'. see VocabuCrasis. well. the friend. The \6yos. sophomore. rears. clever. Tbv yewpyov. (see Preface). « ^» () - See il/aii^ewxvi. ivise. self. lary of Proper Names. EN APXHI HN ^ 6 o. ? of ). omitted with . as in etc. (/cat iv) even hndly. <£ (before a vowel. rock. and.. another. even ^ -- Cf. . including a mastery of both quotations. Ace. see § 198. Cf. like bed. philosopher. () one fond of wisdom. rocky hillside. Cf.. Cf. () peace. iv Eng.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 2 . in. Pron. These should be studied until they can be reproduced from memory either orally or in writing Improper Diphthongs. ill. The article is omitted. § 189. Cf. he (she. Peter. 6 18. ^v 6 the predicate.pxfj 6 6 iv — ^.). ^eoj is See put article is first '. () § 13 b. but. allopathic. and. . Cf. § 15. (). ytup-^/os (0) farmer. § 4 b.

to the . . is metrical . xviii. from Menander v^^^_:_ I w-i. These should be pronounced and memorized in the reverse order.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ] 4 1. (.) and the Exercises . and this the very inscription which stood over the door in his day Note the capital letters (§ 1 c).. Second Lesson) i \rCjrHE^\> 2]^ [^ Fragment Synagogue of the Hebrews inscription from a synagogue at Corinth (c/. \. Acts perhaps not impossible that this was the synagogue in which Paul preached. 2. — > I half v/_i. ). 103 a. See § scheme of this line 6 ' — hillsides of and a ^-. The wirpais.. Beginning with this lesson each noun is accompanied in the word-list by the appropriate form of the article in parenthesis. in which the sign . ^ MevavBpov. KU\y-iI \ w_i_ represents a long syllable where the meter strictly calls for a short. 4). of an It is ! {) 1 For the use of the Supplements see the Preface. I The Greece are very rocky. thus rj 6 : (Supplement See Exercise 1 (H.

Werk. For Theognis and the Elegiac couplet see the Vocabulary and U. deed. § 113 d. loise. III.' (- Gf. ' — ®€oyvL9. II. here {they are). worse. = () €(() all things. oiSeis no one poSov () rose. . large. () parsley. s. 1. and . Cf Germ. /. Cf. § 100. §§ 190. Cf. . {). PI. ovbiv there 3 and . § 10 accented ' c. Gco-yvis. § 180 § 21 (learn the full declension of each) — . Cf. better. . )( 6 . - . 901-902. these. as ovScis there is nothing. Bible. 191. Accusative of Specification. is ' before. € of Lessons I €. Agreement.. . celery. great. " . . () human being. of Proper € Names. . Thorough review ' no one. viola . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 4 . book. work Meya — 2. Cf. To ' 6 ov8eU epyop • '. violet. . each.v. (fepy-). -. anthropology. els) Rhodes. €() Lat. megaphone. . the use of €. skilled.

^-J- I >-L. § 11.) is as follows: . ( IV. § 9 (entire. 10. § Exercise 3 (H ). ' To 6 . Enclitics.e. which was sung by a chorus of girls and their leader the first verse by the leader.€. 9 f. Proclitics. and quotations. etc.ww !_: _:_-1-^^ -: I I | -J-^^ |_: w | _i. and frequently used them in the making of chaplets. The ancient Greeks greatly admired the feathery leaves of the parsley. Thorough review. are a fragment of an ancient Flower song. i. especially phrases. ' -. The city Seli'nus was named from the plant. aiWva Exercise 2 beautiful parsley. The latter always has a strongly marked pause in the third foot. The first verse is an hexameter the second. the response by the chorus who danced as they sang. — ' . The metrical form (§ 8. . a so-called pentameter. \J /\ \ w Where are my (§ 100). 9 e). . ). >_^ >^wv^ I w . I v^ v:y \y\yK^ \ \y-L- I | v^ ]Miere for Supply kari (§ 103 b) roses 9 my vi/ me >_:_ \ w | | w_:_ w vv | <^ v-/ | <^ v:/ w_i_ | (are) the roses? | \^_l. Accents.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK The Elegiac couplet quoted above from Theognis has the following metrical form -i_ww l-i-ww I-: -: |_l. () oi/5eis The avros no one of verses beginning human kind {is in) himself. Avith special reference to words.

§ 106 . c. except that of the sec. () physician. estis. left. et cetera. Cf. - brother. Phila- Cf. Cf. mother. Gen. ' To Accents. () good. 1 sumus. ( root of this verb (to be) . -. b. written At that period these words were identical in pronunciaof this verb : . remaining. they are. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK -) it I am (ior you are (thou () sumA Cf. sorrow. '^. sunt.. This form never loses its accent. § 111 Second Declension. useful. esse. Xoiiros - born of the same womb. sing. e 6 Herewith Exercise 4 The () father. See Exercise 3. (J)) grief. Lat.. tion.) tomathy. () : () sister. good. . 8^. 2 Uses of Avtos self. (ye) are. art). . § 29 /. ' . delphia. hence ? we •( you es. the . ka-^iv () i<rrL(v) est. pers. (. A-B is 6 . $ Cf. ei. () \6. chres- '. pediatric.'^ Cf. All the forms of which appear in this lesson are enclitic. are. ). Uses of the Cases. — Enclitics (type II) § 10 b. § 9 a. ! . mater. 2 In early Christian times the word was often. through instead as though from a misconception. . V/ MeXer?. pater. ( 4-. Agatha.

e . larger.^ . § 100. many if. -^ ^ '. Gen. (tVos). added). }. thus . etc. I. But comi)OMnd &.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -5 wnegwaZi other. . lohole. " Practice makes (thing). € former. . -o" double. adjectives usually have only ttvo endings. ts «€ 4$. and. roO ^lari. you and Cf. . Notions) of Euclid. £<rov '. unequal. ? -(^?). beautiful. mal each § 26.. (( () Cf. €$ () from. KOINAI ENNOIAI Axioms (Gr.''^ The equals of 1 the same (thing) Adjectives (at least those of the first-second declension type) nor- mally have three endings in the nominative.). oXos entire. Common a.-F. are. perfect. }. times (). lav iav \ ^. thus: M. - : M. Practice (is) away). . «ov equal. . iav y. 7) (be (he taken . § 6 f) (Gen. before. isother- greater. the lohole . {air\ 7 £ both and. ^ . . F. § 195. "'. the halves (). ) ' . Lat. holocaust..

the chief difficulties encountered The Verb. * : ). To — I-V (97 . taking as the type the verb I am In the loosing. . unfastening. 8 . . — ^ . ^ Thorough review of forms. vyitia § 184.-ov () health.. Read carefully §§ 131. and infinitive of the progressive action-stem of the is found in the inflection conjugational system is . hygiene. quotations. and 144. 133 (first and last sentences). . biology.. The trouble arises in the main from the multithe scheme of the conjugation is plicity of the forms simple and clear. dull. life. vovs . THE FIRST 8 — . imperative. § 79 A. 171 (first sentence). -1' VI. phrases. and the optative. 162. 3• 'Tyieia iv 4- . the () mind. 6 2. graphic) . — . words.— . Lessons Exercise 5 One of student when he r 1^. for the Greek more elaborate even than that of Latin. regular verb (active voice). for. foolish. . Learn the present indicative. . 113. by essays the mastery of ancient Greek of the verb. same way conjugate : (c/. OF GREEK Alt () $ Cf. . Cf. understanding.— 1.

not . 9 . and . have . Learn by heart the passage from Matthew quoted below. the earth. as follows € Greek govern the infinitive. VII. . . custom. am / am . Herewith Exercise 6 (H --- (( () dig through treasure up €•• (). in that place. recognize again (^ava)). - 9 ? house. Cf. -. neither . nor yet. thesaurus. law}. « ' Repeat in negative form. I rejoice Xoyo^). oi . treasure.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK € •-^ €€' I am I holding.). () . Cf. see § 78. .). . Hence means Bich may I believe the wise (to be)\ This quofrom the famous prayer of Socrates with which Plato closes his Verbs of thinking regularly tive of the 6 tation ' is verb iu to be'' (eiV) is eJvaL ^ () Phaedrus. - telling. . nor not). . ittL upon (Gen. heaven. (). () loealth. urging (^commanding') I hold as customary. Cf. I . (/^) steal tomaniac. / am (imper. believe {cf. cardiac. The infini(= esse). irXovo-ios rich. . sky. talking Qcf. (both not treasure- Cf. . there. . TTjs upon (7/. () heart. reading I (lit. To ^. () %M € through. clex3- . and the . regard.'). plutocrat. . . ? otrov where(ever) PI. / . epigram. ( . Cf. . () For the thief. diameter. () 1 Cf. Uranus. . recessive accent in the imperative of the trisyllabic polysyllabic verbs.

to disappear. ' . 'OpeaTij. To ''} The . bring. ^. Cf. winged. .{' e/cet . 113 fero.-6 — ' true. § 121. oiSe — . Adverb. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 10 Mr) 7^?> iv . /. . 6 . ^ . ' . 5 yap — .. . " TTOvot^ ' § e. ' — . 3. 2.<. carpology. .. . 694. evayyeKiou - 2. ev Instrumental-Oiitive. having KapTTOs {) fruit. moth and rust (eating) make{s) will be. e^eiv. '^^^ tff-Ka' . The Accusative as . . $ — 3• « — 6 4• . VIII. . 6^ 1. bear.

. . -. microscope. () toil. ..) seize or grasp. = writing a should. () ttus evei'y () Voc. Uses of the Subjunctive (negative always ') : a) Exhortation. or no i/ (Subj. if Herewith Exercise 5 I be Cf. master. ris. . pain. Mou. § 156. (c5) (= etc. and conjugate the verbs in the action-stem of following clauses. § 163. Learn the subjunctive (active voice) of the progressive § 79 A. En- clitic. message. despot. c) Conditional Clauses. § 155. : letter. any thing. one. 7. b) Question of Appeal. () one. {would. epistle. etc. Conditional Clauses. 165. ns any €^ ^\— less. / might. Cf. I. § 168 A. <^ ^ €av (. § 162. how? who? irovos if. Uses of the Optative (§ 161) : a) Wish. small. what? why? . b) Potential. . T^v) iav) () and () if.F^^i? OF //£: Jf/BSr The Verb Moods. even letter. § 167 A. Zar<7e (prizes). labor. i/i'e Eat» - oiJSets. little. c) . could. $ 8€($ = all. : § GREEK 11 143. repeating the full clause each time a) iav /3) iav ) €1 ) el if <. lord.).

loosing. . €)(€ ^. . . . am urging €€' ^ The Thus : : ov €€£- my brother to he writing / am not urging him (to " participle ends in -. " € § : 103 d. !>- To Koim 6 — — Agreement. and participle. possessions. ovSev y 3• 1.2. 174. review the progressive action-stem subjunctive. 1 Conjugate the following (employing iav (neg. ei^€t9 — — .. . etc. ^ . things. : Omission of Noun. pi.. — &€(. ' €)(€ . ive shall have. ?|ets you pray (imperative). '. I enjoy writing. \€%. enjoy. . present infinitive. wealth. ). THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK ^ 12 . § 6f (end)).'. . pi. 101 The Verb indicative. ?. 4• ??? TL. ^ do) \ / am ) not / ov this. 2. . -ovres : something. . " . ' IX. §§ 100. optative. ' . will have. iav with the subjunctive forms) stealing these (things). lam). property. . imperative. we pi. . . iav Tis V if one be (subjunctive of 3.

infinitive. selenite.'''' often means or ipQ ''tell. etc. TTLvei 6 '- 0€ oevope ' -L. etc. thalassocracy. can. : (indicative. Ace. tree. yes! € . ). () Cf. Although " I shall \y speak. f. heliotrope. The Future learn the conjugation of the future active . by ' ! €€ ! by Zetis. Master the verbs Conjugate the following cited in these sections. 54. Cf. (1) (3) 710 ! NO (can). () () () comrade. /. craipos ? -- () geography. by Zeus € certainly ! Zeus no. optative. participle) of § 79 a.). § 52 formations. Cf. ^\ (An Ancient Drinking Song) ^\ ^ yrj jLteXatva irivei. (do). . Cf. c. thematic and non-thematic §§ 53. rhododen- 1 sun.''' moon. Formation of the Future. mean " I shall tell. : shall speak the truth (io-morroio) Herewith Exercise £ ^ (2) (do. dron. / ( 8. commonly means . () () earth. . tJXlov aeXyjvrj. 5 .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 13 — personal endings Verb-roots and verb-stems. () drink. sea. Cf. the Fut. § 61 a. not I! ! .''' .

Psyche. €recommended It is self. . -dative) of Cause. yri () wrath. vtvet course § 100. l ^ . The poet has here employed an . Genitive with Comparatives. . Means. . To '' First Declension. () mood. me myself also ). . maiden First-Second Declension Adjectives. more p^'eciotis. (. ] 2. 117 b.. or. be learned by heart. . see ToSe . & 4. § is that in spite of the evident inferi- ority of this Anacreontic The rrtvtiv me when I too wish These verses are from the collection Vocabulary. Ionic form.. large. to be drink- and wishing. A the 78. . of for of Anacreontics. her. i. soul. . yrj the dark earth. the earth. my . XaXtvos () bridle. § 12 a. etc. xoisdom. etc. temper. § {cf. -^ . Cf. () folly ($). § 28 dear this sister. . () jwssession.^. € « () silence. 40 A.) s. breath. either . wishing. do you contend ing ? (with agree with with . 2.. misogynist. In Attic Greek the plural of (id est).' . THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 14 1. coreopsis)). § 111. Why. it ol . § 121.. comrades. Herewith Exercise ^. — '<. . 9. . it. .v. . Cf. (^ (entire). ^$ .many. () better. Uses of the Cases.() ( See the sake of the meter. Dative (Instrum. () woman.e.

. . . 224.. — . 264. it) gives.. — 9• 6. < —'. . . . try (imperative). . An Early 549. rt — . . .. 233.. .. 3- 4• . . 6 oi/Sev — . Attic Tomb Inscription ^^ ( %^ ^r^ ivOaSe For Lys'ea 552.. ). 482. . 9. *H Xeye 7- 8. 442.. . 15 (her) father Semon set up here (this) monument . . 208. — — '4. 414. ^. he (she. . § 12 C. — \ opyfj 5' '. ^eipov eaTL 5• 6. 2.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 1. .. ^' ' -^ — .

' the (one) abiding. (. ' (VI. § 19 a). The - -. la feminine and masculine nouns The Dative with Adjectives (vy if. therefore. on I say \iy that. .and : -as. : € ' § . () 2. !. 1. Cf. iwKXToKrjs TTJs nor side. pleurisy. angle. less. late love. - (17) . € aya^ol•'. in '. subtend. 28 A. and polygon. . 6 6 — 6$ 1. . . .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 16 ).. (/). . . . Cf. 416. . larger. or. evayyeKiov -'. . sub that. ) smaller. . worthless. . . () yet. shorter. To <. bad.€vav8po^. either (Ace. greater. wait. stretch under. — M. '8 XI. 10. First Declension and word. remain. then. 120 d. . . 45). iv ev 6 2. . — . . triangle under.. § Herewith Exercise w) () corjier. B. . not. abide.

^ nor yet surely. : . 3. yap . . TOY -. thus on the other hand. . 1. however. So in line 9 (/ etc. having the angle under irXevpa 4. etc. now then. Note the order ). 4 ^ . on the one hand now. has been supplanted by the more emphatic 7. . 17 ' ort . etc. 8e.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^ " . . . wliile looks forward to a balancing clause with (§ 190). ties the sentence with the preceding sentence. In now on the one hand this instance.. 6/ : (loe ( We say "i?i . ' €<. Et " /cat .for ' ? {) if not. . every. . € of every triangle. 5 ^. ^' . ^ . €( let there be. . ... . . . ^ 6. nor yet.) ywviav (having) say " at ") greater. .'''' for etc. ^) . . . ort 1 -. .

s/ioio (Set|ai). ? . : EQUAL is not. ) ' ' he . — Translation by Dr. Walter Headlam.. B. C. the very (point) which it-was-necessary («Set) to eSei Q. and XII. (§ 198) in 10. etc. § 28 A. (entire). Within soul of my my 8<. D { }). 40 A. -not) it 17. D. loould he {hvLtis. 13. So in Observe the emphatic position of lines 8. was shown. The First Declension (entire). l^ To €<. soul. TOY ^ ? ^'^^7' 5 -^^. . 10. ' — MeXea7/30i?. 8. . hath Love himself portrayed. E. The Declension of Adjectives (first-second declension). evXaXov ' ''^ \^vj(r]V \8 /. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 18 7. heart the sweetly prattling maid. hv ^v it 14.

. = ddda () two). e^ovTa. ivrbs ivrbi ttjs a straight . . Gen. .). Ti^l•' ' 17 . 5 es. . base. . iv\a\os -ou sweetly prattling = to prattle).. Svolv 19 (Gen. €€5 step. -^ ) . Dat. 'E/jws 25 Ivtos imthin Acc. otl . line. . . ^^ 2 ySao'tl•' () - . . . («. .*? . ^. ^. . . side. . plastic). € to each.. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . . . - each €(} each 'rav (of ' {cf. .' is '. ' . Eros) fashioned {cf. '' .

4. . B.€8.^' ' 8e vneprepov. have also the angle (of the one) the {angle) inclosed by the . .. TOY Zew? i(TTLV tol^ . found on a fragof a marble tombstone. § 28 A. § 25 b 24 b.. etc. and lohatever is higher than these. ment 70 /. . ^. ) . 1 ^ Toi in truth. . €. C (o ') § '. . Spou'dides (the) potter. Of Eni'alon. § 29 Demonstrative Pronouns The Article cKctvo. . XIII. . and IkcXvos Uses of the Article. . (the) tombstone retrograde inscription of the seventh century b. £/[]5. ^|ei the]/ loill greater. € . daughter of A 2. ^" . ^-\ 2. . : .. § 103 Position of Article § 2-4 a Declension.®04\^3 . (/cat 'a ).c. § 129 g. — . 208.: - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 20 - 3. . T7]v See equal sides. ' ly To TpCrov *H Xeye rt '< Review The First Second Declension. — Aios.

.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK and Attributive. § 104 Uses of nouns.- .. 11. ei's (it eSet Set^at. \ ecrrt -/^ -£> -^- /.€ yap et? . Herewith Exercise . upon it 15 {intersect) them.. Uses of Cases. 12. . ' TOY At Ty OTL eial avTTj . . let there fall has fallen upon) interchangeable. 106 § . . 21 Position of Demonstrative Pro- . -^. § 105 . At 5. . . ijrei €-€6 .. ' /cat 5 evdela - . 7." € . § 111. . intersects.

() hymn. choose. 168 A. — . beautiful. § 180 a. irovos. Cf. of more (17) Cf. Cf. . glossary. is as. . Double Negatives § 5 e. () stepmother () poverty.. () do wrong treat unjustly 8£to . hoio ! sober.. Cf. §§ 165. sciagraph. €€ (17) - tongue.() conduct.. another. 469.€8. J ' J" t^ ^ € Pronunciation of Top<yia. better. also of -€ and Conditional Clauses. than.. --. € THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 22 XIV. discreet. ^. () shadow. more. ovScis there is no one. €I am. § 92. Herewith Exe rcise 12. 167 A. the thing learned. rather ().. . more or than. either Cf. restrain. - to be loronged. 8€.). € 8€ — '<. -.. nec- essary. pomp. prudent. (Gen. ". To ? <. iv . 557. procession. down hold § 6 f () ? -- (the) cause . Cf. . Et avajKatov aBiKelv. Sophronia. . « - . escort.: .. 166 A. I should -€. send. (^). -. F. ovSep tS' <. the act of learning. § 91 . -}. Conjugation (entire) of -€. or. Cf. . dreadful. . .

.. ). .— ovoe ev ecrrt ovSev ZeC. — Et . ^^ . . .. .. — . ovSeu ovSev 23 — — — - 810 2. .COS THE FIRST YEAP OF GREEK 1. . 637. 6 .^. 220. ecrrt 436. . 7• . 127. — MevavSpos. -wV^^Aci . epya 8. . 423.^^.^ ^ . OvK €(* ecTTLV 2. 9- Mop. . ..- -€<. ^' 6. 408. — 5 ". e^eiv.. — %. 3• 4• 5• . .

of course. abide. 166 B. -ov beneficial. wait for. = . hasten. V Sec. 7ior yet. wahr? truly. — Review the conjugation Interrogative Sentences § 178. {there is need) one ought. in truth. (ought to^ speak}. tarry. ' optl §184. . infinitive with accusative as subject. §§ 165 B. an urge on. ? ye or 8. () F. injure. § 178. 168 B. Adv.. < is . II . § 177 os w^o. ' . harm loait. harmful.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 24 €^. . on.. 167 B. Sentence Questions with : . one Governs should. § 24 c Pronoun: of te Bel e-Trevheiv MepavBpov^ . and . srirely. by no means. § 99 . tvtoell. (-) iti 13. . II. in fact. § 91 (entire). nor.. 6 ye . Opt. . Alpha-privative. § 185. ' To ^ . () €$ . ye certainly. not then? 8. . nicht = tvy/tgood! ovSi ! cv-irpa-yCa (17) . tooYa^os.11. -€8. pros- not. vera. it not SO ? § 184. Subj. 744. . press F. delay. hut surely. Relative Relative Clauses Avith the Indie. XV.. icell done perity. §178. Verbal in -tcov (XeKreov one must . well-being. Herewith Exercise .

. yap ^' '^ 5 . When is the last of this series of questions. — ] HoXireiqi. 9. € . . TToiel. . . < ovS' . . it is usually ^.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 25 Nat. do any evil? 14. § 120. 9) see Exercise 13. Socrates contends that God is good and therefore (see the second portion of the extract) is not the cause of usual : GOD ' popular myths) 4. . ^/ . . ye indicates that this series begins in 1. . In the dialogue from which this brief passage is taken Socrates (see Vocabulary of Proper Names) is represented as leading the conversation. For the neg. tivos genitive of the verb is omitted. 7. ayadoyv ovhev ye . 6 ye. "^ . 6 evil. (also does it -^.ewv. Partitive genitive. 379 2 . The answers are made in this particular instance by Adimantus. . A new 14. a frequent order. ayauov. ye (§ 185). (). 1. = 6 deos is good. ^. 15 . . ye emphasizes as (as contrasted with the false representations of Him in ye eeos 1. . . . aya. 11.

imper. .. . F. €. and partic. . For indie. §§ 190. ttokv much. () F.... €. little Cf. | . § 81 A. number). set one''s heart lowed by genitive 8 . Cf. . of the progressive action-stem. long for. (b) de- 9 - -ov few. active. 7%-).. XVI. F. infin. oligarchy. § 92) . scant. since. seem. opt. desire. mi- do wrong (to). life. affectionately. large number of verbs have Verbs in -€. In the same manner conjugate love. treat unjustly token.. and fut. thus: etc. -. €. polygamy. -- € In with the -et)• in the pres. spirit: (a) Cf. Herewith Exercise '•€ : F. . together the future. To <. ' ye — (-€.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 26 ^. Review the conjugation of § 91 €'-€. us as.. progressive action-stem an e . Lat. Regularly fol- (§ 115 d). Attic Greek these verbs regularly contract this thematic vowel (including in the preceding the thematic vowel I am making (stem: (§54). () upon. see also § 61 b. 191 § 184 § 185. fumus. sogynist) F. . () sire. (in . treat hate {cf. Learn the conjugation of with the subj. - kiss. 14.

. 27 ' 6 0e6<.. .. Xeyovacv. 6 . . . Tliis is ills. 5 6 .-- . . : .. ^ — (4) yap '23. . recommended that Si - . — 25 . ings (in life) () )( 6 . . 6 . by heart this passage be learned .. . . ecrrt. . {). 6 than the €. ' ) ' € €. . ot ' /.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . \' -Ky'.. the bless- (§ 15) are for us far fewer similar to the old Greek proverb It is 379 .

have in mind. — 225. .. Cf. — ). () closely. time. . have understand- be prudent. -6v upright. - cryptogram. Cf. . (). neo- straight. veo^. () truth. ? TToiei .. sceptic etc. all). § 172. Exercise 15. To 'Of . F. olSev. a reply : 3. . €'. young. — Mevavhpov^ 425. U. . * TE () -)( ) € die. mono- -ov -5. use (voOs). "€ XVII. secret. iced- bigamy. certainly *H . ing. Review Lessons XV-XVI. pliyte. 4. 6 -< ». have sight. dcC always.-ov alone.-).- . think.2C . € () ^. mind one's (before a vowel. Cf. see. 6 ! only Cf. most (of use one^s wits think. As $ tone. ttoUl..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 28 ^. chrouology. () € — Cf. especially. marriage. Cf. . 2. hidden. intend. . ding. Infinitive as a Noun (^Articular Infinitive). new. (. orthodoxy. II a. avTod. marry. examine Cf.. - <••€ look. vio% hut. consider. etc. Cf.. KpviTTOs - -l>v ') 1.

e^ei — — 437. 15. Position Position of Demonand Attributive.. — ^\<. oibev he knoivs. 29 '•^. 4. 5. ^ ^ aei. 5- 6. . 6 §§ 101. prepositions listed in these sections.. §§ 123-129: learn the of Article strative . poetic for 68. rrj 839 — - 1195. •^. *j. — 8. 6 The Demonstrative Pronoun et? ayei. iv Cf. 9 2S. (?). . . the man loho does not marry.. . — oe . 832 outos. . together with their fundamental meanings. §\llO.' %. ^. " € €-\ XVIII. ^. § 25 a'^^ ?. ) ayawrj. 7. § 104 Pronouns^ § 105 Meanings of Demonstrative Pronouns. and compound each of these . Atcr^vXog. 2.. Prepositions. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 4.

75.. — %. II. 592.. . observing that the preposition precedes the verb and that ev and .. 328 ^. ovSev ayei. . heuva — — . — . .. /cet — — — — — . .. 16.. 448 W. -. before Herewith Exercise 1. . 268. - step.-. 3- 4• . . . . 9- . ^. ' .. 877 ". . .. 7• 8. . eivaL 6. go. 268 "^. . . -).g... Mol•». 250. 2. . prepositions in turn with the verbs throw {e. " . Et SeiV become (§ 18). ' — — aet avTod. 12.. - "Ayet 5. 391 W. . Bel.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 30 -. 11.

§ 196. 1 " that laborious study of words. and idiom. . and syntax. § 99. 3• 14 31 — TreVecr^at • € 15- 2. 219. . §§ 190-191.. C. Cf. in which there may not lurk a subtle force. 113 d. Tot. ' ^ . — Words. no particle. . 582. '^€ XIX. MevdvSpov. — MevdvSpov. able. as they thought it and in the wonderful language which they spoke. To The Formation M€V § .1 184. sympathy. yap." J. .. {the) to live. . 447. — M. €.evavhpov. . ivveaKaCBeKa. Adam. think what they thought. 12. MevdvSpov. i). to suffer. to see what they saw. . 300. We desire to recreate the world of Plato and Sophocles. . to he 14. however trivial. BODY. which no serious student of tlie Classics can afford to neglect. ev-TV)(ovaiv. as they saw it. he {she. § it) is poor. / . Cf. . . there is no shade of expression. rj iSpaaas you did. § 187 . § 185. TO § ^ijv 12 — . — . . to miss which is to fall short of apprehending the full significance of ancient life and thought. Sdv\ 6. $. The Vitality of Platonism. ye in 11. . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK nXovTelv 12. of 8. 120. however delicate.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 32 The two negatives pounds : (oi)/c.) ^ some of their com- . (§ 144) and .

§ 79 B. . / think. ^. 3 These verses are an apocryphal version of the famous oracular response regarding Socrates. I understand (Greek conjugate says '''Stand .€'. '. one must {ought to) dismiss (permit it to say '^^ Fare- well "). €.. -THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Et 33 . : F. conjugate I F. ^aipeiv . and the subjunctive of the progressive actionI release {for mystem. " ' — Ancient Oracle. I am of (eVi)). . middle-passive. § 140 Learn the conjugation of the present and future indicative. xaipeiv honor). : §54. '.- et • — . - XX. (/ 1 2 / am F. — ^ iav - .^ Primary Personal Endings. upon'''' Like willing. () self^. ^ . become. tvish . of The Middle Voice. and Like able § 80. -. -).' • iav oe 6 . be born.

- . cynic. Cf. {"'. .. hi-ep^op^ai. . (. " . () () man. Cf.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 34 TE « . sucivis come.). tl — . a figliting-cock. •8 -8. « furthermore. irois he said. palseography. rjoeTaL. lego. here employed as an adjective. 5 . . Dat. (to) profit. ornithology. (6). the pages. / delight in writing . I take delight go etc. go. ovs .€. my friend. (- pick out. -.-ov 5 opvis pi. common Dat. Cf. ^) hird. . § 121.e. .. (Dat. (koivos). -- €. feel see . through (a book. horses.). i. Lat. iciser. is 6. TL aya^oi'. more. -08. " Cf. ayadov^ 1. please and de- choose out. best. . '. . -) dog. vir. £Ti longer. . See below.$. -€ () unroll (a scroll).-' ' . 19). eav • 6. -in § 121. (. sweet." ? ?. loisest. pleasure take with oneself in. ^ iv KOLvfj 2. pleasant. gain. turii light. long ago. wa-trep just as. . still in Koivfj Gen. still. Cf.

Modes of Address . Herewith Exercise 18. etc.. such as Frequently epithet and name are combined Forms of address like Sir ! or Mr. but belonged to the language of the slave and hireling. : . have mercy I In ancient Greece his given it name. - Note that the . see. becoming. being able. we 7. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ypa^pavres which they left in books. participle ends and is in : ^^•. eav aWrfkot^ — ''. ' et?.-4 -).4€ -. understanding. 6. good sir ! my friend. originally my Lord ! and was employed by slaves and other subordinates In the New Testament the disciples reguin addressing their superiors. such as thus the who says) this. The ancient " book" was a roll.. Mister is a corrupmeant So tlie common address in Modern Greek. Compare the refrain common in Greek larly address their Lord as Christian hymns Lord. . . § 174. The Participle with the Article (one) saying (i. thinking.e. -^evos declined exactly like first-second-declension adjective. Review Lesson XX.-- - - wishing. . were not in use among equals. (.e. 35 in the form ofioriling. : ( XXI. . was the custom to addi-ess one's friend either by employ a complimentary epithet. To €8 '<€. having iv i. . middle-passive '-€ : - - - 40 § a . tion of Master. written (them). or else to •4.

2. hear (oneself) icilling. . senate. .. (in poetry also § 27. be willing. «. 6. desire. desire. F. ivell to (spoken of) will. "^ . will. expresses more as a feeli7i(j. . 5.. hear (oneself) ill () 8 . prefer. asked.. wish. ^. . .. BiKaios - () "^ 1. to (spoken of). . . 64. preference. be counsel. - and () will. Cf. yet. lohoever. 285. . plan. are and strict distinction. tcrao'tt' because. — — — 6 6. 232. . p- know . . /tear. . . () door. worthless. .'''' mean. thyroid..' . Cf. . (§ 62) acoustic. volo. 236. wish. 3- 4- purpose ? ' aSiKelv 6 slight. interchanged may the loish or will Cf. they what they need. and synonymous uearly often be F.F. ' ^'. ^ (JTt. €) consent. ." — when -ov be wealthy. more as a rational and -ov just.€. ov^ — & - in '— . righteous. .THE FIB ST YEAR OF GREEK 36 . .

likely. XXII.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 37 . But she the garland of the garland shines. waste away. -\. Walter Headlam. . optative. fade. : Exhortation.' a) b) Uses of the Optative a) ' v' : WisTi. irepl ' — MeXea7/oo9. infinitive. ^ () ' Conditional Glauses. Conditional Clauses. /cat To A€VT€pov *0 /3<?. — Translation by Dr. § 156. ' '. § 155. c) it is TE () and be answering. as as is lamp. shine. Learn the conjugation of the present indicative and the subjunctive. § 163. Question. and participle of -the progressive action-stem. c) Herewith Exercise - 19. Cf. On Heliodora''s brow the garland pines. impera- . § 162. Uses of the Subjunctive tive. as it seems. likely. § 168 A. § 167 A. infinitive -. "v. and of the future indicative. Review §§ 54. and participle of and of § 79 § 80.4<. die out (of fire). optative. b) Potential. 140. answer. .

€<rTi tivtp if indeed. fj . .. neither. e/Aotye.. ) ' eoLKC. proper name more. . . 8 -a . 474. ^ . -jrOTepos § 194. ooKei YloTepov . irepl more shameful. ^ Tt % 15 etrrt . () wreath. It 5 € aoiKeiv . § or? . an () whether ? - ! land. ' Kakof re SiJTa. )(^. iroTc'po . no means. . ^— »' if Topylq. by about the head (poetic). ^. . crown. eivai. € ^ worse. " enrep . Stephen. . . ' ye. least. a as Polus. ^ aoLKeiv ] .• ^ .-? () shameful. 187 TO TO . . aya^ov. certainly not .. is it (of two) ritrum €( very.. which irOTcpov. . : gar- Cf. . uter ? ? . \\.THE FIRST YEAR OF GRERK 38 . . 469. . it is yi certainly most. %<. €. . Common colt. .. . ^. .

€. avSpl 7• 8. " — 6. .. is studied. : 161.. ^ — ' — — /."" ^. for a man. <. . ' . . 5• " iv .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Uorepov whether . — .^'' . . question 1. . II. 4• 33. 7. ' -^8— . . ecrrt 479. 3• elvai 9e\e.or? to introduce the two members of a direct alternative .. — 32. . 2. an . . . 245. ) . . — the son of Archida'mus. ... . . {utrxim " Whether 39 .. Agis. ap^eiv re 215 D.. Psyche. -. ... Compare the that youngling king... ^^. '^ — . . usage in archaic English — Beaumont.. ij . . . . . is . Classical Greek regularly employed irbrepov ij. ^ . 366. . Herod or ?).. — yiyvov 714. -— . 6. Mei>avSpo^.^. 631. . -^ 164 ^. . 9• .. '. Meyiarov 346.

tive. ^ (or elhevai (X think : to know^ 1 I know. iroLelv. hold. person singular also F. - (first ). and the subjunctive. optative. Herewith Exercise 1 20. think. impera- - and participle of the progressive action-stem of I am making for myself § 81 B. elBevai I think eihevaL I do elvai I do not know. present indicative of /xot is otei.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 40 .-. The second person singular. not think I think I am '^ wise. Conjugate in the same way I believe. (€) {^ regard. believe. elvai. ) Conjugate the verbs in the following phrases 1) ^ think 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) ovK <. . Contract Verbs in -€ Learn the conjugation of the : present indicative. regard. ^. infinitive. deem. — ^/?. suppose. A'erbs of thinking (see § 179) : hold as customary. ' XXIII. not oCtj. I know. suppose. F. To - TTOielv. Xeyetv disgraceful I con- sider the telling of falsehoods.

practical). . F..€. point out. foi5. fare (wpay^• pragmatic.. infin. TE () o€oaL F.fiS-). . § 115.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . deliberate. Et " § 113 e. ()." €. T€ . () rpoiros way . having learned. know 41 secretly (fe'S- signs Cf. make pl^n^ €-€. . ) . olSa. care for. elScvai to . do. . -. () everywhere (oD where). . suspect. and. ). ^ " Kat € elSevai eiSevat. try you will reap the fruit ! {6$. — do not even be suspected. semaphore. to. . -\€. . KaC both . ' .). elSevau. -.-. in which way. way. - § 115. ^. in which. take care of (Gen. think manner. do not even permit yourself be suspected. . OIMAI ". . -eivai crlyfj — turn. in the Sv § 195. . to . . . ol oe • re 5 '. Aevopos '.. indicate.

. .^.. . . 136. . alius aliud « 1. one has at one time. dicit. .^ irepi yap ) . — : — 6 . ). . . — 9• . 560 . "^ )() . 114. ^.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 42 (another says another {thing)) one says one thing.. 8.. . 4• 5- 6.^ . 3- . " another another. aStKeiv 2. . . '. ^ ett'at . — — ^. 7- — — MevavSpo^. — 310. — '. . — .. . . .^. another at another. .' aya^ct.

Attic alphabet (date c. • \ (6 = -. 600 e.). beware. Review the forms already learned .- Walter Headlam. to burn so oft She too hath wings. will fly aloft. ck it without (Gen. thou wretch . alel (del) () I shall always this be called a maiden.^ ? THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK II ^^rA 43 CDP4 ^ lkV>^» A ^ i<fei<t. name. A metrical tomb inscription found in Attica. . ' XXIV. too much. for any one.). . To . 10. 11. atet. 81 . 0€.g. Or she having received . 8. §§ 79 . and written in the old. 7. 80 of .^^orA| :• Al ^l ... ©Z^Or TOY TO LAXO^ rA ^' . ! — Translation by Dr. Kairj^. ^— soul that swims in fire forbear. . xf)v)(r)v My cr^erXt'. . Avev {) without living wisely. is possible." . Love. ..

. -/€///€^ '^ - ' e^et. : Herewith Exercise 21. § € 30 A. Tot Cf. and encaustic work (cf. 62 (entire).) () aUi F. toil. €. ' <^. «yireSov firm. excellence. . — 315-318. and vv| night. ttovos). To •^ The Third Declension learn the declensions of — : Read carefully goad. (0) Love. ' Cf. '€ to. poor. § 116 e). . possessions. fugio. "Epws ? ' ^ aet. | XXV. . () / flee. vT^pvyas. unflinching. €. the verbs cited in these sections. . TE . _ (in poetry also () ) . cruel. lasting. the soul sioimming in fire. burn. the ayaOoi those of good birth . rrjs apeTrjs rbv loe loill their wealth for our respectability (Gen. . pi. many times. be = penury. virtue. ('? Eros.^ .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 44 Master Formation of the Future §§ 61. not take-in-exchange Value or Exchange. ^ set fire (- (--). () imng. flight. Ace. () F. Cf. --. $. of are the vulgar In this quotation the and breeding.

6 irats child. 269 cr/cta . distinguish. ' € — %/. 0eov. Tod 4- left- . Cf. Cf. bo-ns whoever. F. awkward.€. judge. . . of 7^p(ov €$ man^ mother. () -wTos love.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK lion. § 33 31 - . critic. . <. anchor. ovic — 6. Ace. . . 4. Cf.)( 52. W. experience ivithout ? - (Gen. loutish. - () (§ 61 d) separate. handed. . § Greek. divinity. /c eariv. large knife. yap iare .. ^ . — )— . . §34. 27. Tt ' 509 ajKvpai '^ 623 €^^^ €<. < -. ^\. ).. ^. () () " 45 22 . Eros. () -ovTos old man. voice. ' ) 2. on the -6v - -oi/ highest {of all). 1. . . deov oiSe 3• left side. boy. \ ^.). — •% veot . *< () () dirk. father.. — 5• megaphone.

tioice to perfume (). (?). 8.. nrepl — same error. They serve to remind us of "the eternal boyhood of the Greeks " 6. . — 634. -€ •' ^. . lesson. - W. and add the declensions . . 9• . to -. Plato tells us that these words were said to have been spoken by an Egyptian priest in the course of a conversation with the Athenian statesman Solon. —) ^. 4. THE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK 46 " 7.it bis perfume - perishes. '—— €^. Tpcis. To " .. . Review the preceding of the make sweet. XXVI.. 10.. giving grace. 9. § 51. TtTxapes. 121. -. 164 . : the e^. numerals €is Herewith Exercise 22. ttJ 5 . avSpl / yvvrj. . .

mortal F. . ^. trast -ov () . (rsK-. . F. fox. ^. --. mark a en- mark.." ^. F. -at -a -? -bv Xeaiva opKos 1. ) . he graved or impressed. *^^/ 5- " ^/^'. . ^. 4- 6. stature -ijpos ^ Cf. Et? ecrrt ^ bear to.•. . -i(j fraud € ? (? () () cunning)..• Con- banquet-song. . 408. 1. 7• Ov/c vale! water. usu- ally in this sense as a passive €. loithovt . ot . . oath. 9 -5 47 — — . " 3• () () Cf." — . 25. drant. (?)) {-). hy- {). 6\. — MevavSpov. .. distinctive ^. lioness. hydrophobia. TLKTeLv. growth. -e/cos give birth -). " 168. () immortal. () () both. : reproach.make known F. § 39.FIRST YEAR OF GREEK TE . bloio. • — Ne/u. Orcus. 2. () . character. breathe. 6 ^. /.. upbraid.. - F. —^ — €1/ 26. € ^^ good in ^ . 1. health (vyieia).^ . ^.

8. the feminine being declined like § 28. first aet. § doing. rjherat and Exercise The 99 2. Uses of : the ol8a. to become beautiful in growth (stature. §§ 173-176 (especially with . . Learn the declension of A. * XXVII. . . § 50 - being. Participle ^. to ^^ \j* f - § 129 g. being present. - being loved. ' iwi are of the for giving birth same race. appearto be young with one's friends. The mother of both is the Earth. 5. .. Herewith Exercise 23. ance). . Sevrepov 8e \ " TO '. : - making... — sive action-stem has the suffix ing to the \6<^ : neuter being of the third declension. Decline . — one (only). . active participle of the progres- - and is declined accordand third declensions the masculine and .. and \iyov felling. -. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 48 avhpl 'TytaCveLV 8. 18.. To yap Review Lesson The < XXI Participle. Gods and men 7^vos (to) race. '-€$. being with. . by 2.

(71 •€ (of two). believe (in) (Dat. Cf. (« remember ! trust. am / ). pros- it -.-€€ «^. puint of lime.. 25 Kaipos endurable. 558.. ). find a tvay (iropos). 532. opportunity. () -6v av ' Papvs heavy. — . the Cf. cv the right €€ barometer. makes no differ- eiJwopoi. thrive.. oihiv bear apart.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 49 TE -/ -. Cf. know).. TTotet — € § 197. in. () due measure. T^ 1. hysteronprote- roii. hoio ! that < (= '). — Mevav'^pov. appears (so). . 3- 4- 5- 6. 6 ). 354. . Cf. ear) — Kat — . be it all in a (Imperative). he ignorant iyvoia. . — . Cf heterodoxy. eariv . another. ovScrcpos ovScVcpov turn again. ^ ther. per. muddle. — ^^. ^ . 627. 2. ence. €T€pov other. differ. € () \ ( -yvo-.. . later. ? such (a case). . 446.. 7• nei- . ^^ 405. JliaTeveLv Set ? as. . . have faith (in).

"E/xot-ye . . . 6 . . . '. ^. ovSpov . . 6 Nat. 6 .• Tt 6 . 6 5 ' — 9• . ' ianv yap ev — 398 . . ^. t he fails to observe that he %- (. $ . /. who own .^ ^^ . ? .' 15 .» . ^^'. ^Eo'Ttl•'. 6 8. ^ . . lohich. 1. -. ovhkv ^-. . . escapes his 10. . — . . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 50 8. TLva i^rj. . . .. . is a bore (he notice being heavy) rls ^. 7. . . . 6 . Tt ' . loves not to be loved in return whenever one'loves another {) is it by this one not possible for one whom he loves? . etc. ..

is . . evTv\eiv. ypaOv) an old wovian. * they made. . he had. pulled out the hairs. themselves. several times the selection (Lesson 1.. ^ . ^ ? - ' • '' ^ . . . 2.'/^ *Avrjp . — ' ^ .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .^ ^ 410. — 2 — — MeVaz/8/309. To Tliareoetv Bel Copy ) - 701 ^ .. full of evils {faults). ^ from they do not see. ( ? XXVIII. 3• eluoai.... ^ . /cat 51 ^ ypaOs (Ace. . - 4• "8 XXVII). they observe very accurately. ^ - • 1 €\< ^.^ — ?.^. ^ he got. . .. m . ^.

§ 172.). . with happy. €( () manifest. it (and he and ' said). . ' — . - TE €. as presented in Lessons XXV-XXVIII and of the forms of the verb indicated in Lesson XXIV. is clear. Review Lesson XV and Exercise 13. . The Infinitive Avith Verbs of Preventing. up- visible. of the third declension. 641. II b (7). employed in Lessons IXXVIII and in Exercises 1-23. Ace. - - : €K€ivos -. they permit. Herewith Exercise 24. - () he a slave strike at. §§ 28. clearly. € XXIX. of the first and second declensions of nouns and adjectives. 167 B. os . avTos .5. dear. €«•() said I (mid 8 pu7ush.. 170.-. I said). 168 B. allow. Moreover. forbid (Infin. os said he braid. -6 prevent. '}'. 29. Indefinite Relative and Temporal Clauses. should have a thorough mastery of the pronouns -. To 'Aei "\ Seovre^ «:09 .. §§ 166 B.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 52 Before proceeding to the following lessons the pupil $. € €. §§ 21-25. he should make himself master of the vocabulary. both words and phrases. . 40. . (). a good genius blessed (). .

and is later repeated and expanded. methinks. eivai 6 . ere 1. € ere . .-^^.• €. as follows. ]^€ " yeveadai. ei ae €€ 5 ere SrjXov yap .) I suppose. €. . ' . ourws (oSros). «- Voc. A'l OY. ' ey. 53 eivai ere 6 ' . . quam beatissimns. ye ^ eVt- €.•). $ ( (i/iai) (ttiSs () voyage with . . - . -lov in every way. AE ye.. . Socrates is seated with the lad Lysis upon a bench in a gymnasium at Atliens. desire. ? 5 Xeye. . . thus. MEN ' iyco. (€ yap ^^ sible. Tiiese particles suggest a certain hesitation in putting the ciuestion. as happy as pos- elvai . altogether. ^- Nat ovSev eVt- - ye. suppose . happy. . superlative sail). ^ of 65e. -. 6 . () Tpoiros(o). . soul. . i SWvdx^viXi^ %\ TiO^ . € . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK $ = -is «5 ? . (0) Lysis. spirit. qiiam. blessed. 1 This selection from the Lysis (pron. Cf. . V very much. -8 Adv. eoye. IVsis) of Plato extends through Lesson XXXIII. (end.3* • .

. to oVoi. Lat. driver . § 27. '^.. () (for surely. vero.). ^' — etc. . . TE () rule. ^' ae 6 . ^evos race. . . verily. sider how you might Trot €^ ? become. () - («). also of TO chariot. F. / To . money {Apyvpos (0) silver). sale. permit. sell. XXX. with Verbs of 115 g. en- trust to. § • : . tcages. -ov free. - F. reins. (they are eager) they eagerly con- . b) bring to an end complete. - be happy. -- offer () « () q^tid vero 9 coined silver.• ' from (Gen. . cf. § 19 for pay. execute. (). PI.. ? () hire. any one. . Value. €-« turn (over) to . one. () hired servant. Herewith Exercise 25. . etc. () . § 32. 9.- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 54 8. Ruling. ('£) . . The Third Declension Learn the declension of ris who? what? and tis tl some one. " . MEN Xeyet? elvaL pay (a debt). --- furthermore... § 116 e. is the indirect form of ttws. and Genitive of Price. bridle. § 35. etc. in truth.

. employed with great frequency after interrogatives. ecocrt . 26. if you-cnnceive-a-desire to ride . - r^ ' Ecrrt Tt9 ) 19. and . 116 MEN ^. (- when he takinrj). . . . 55 then 9 etc. €^17• . ' . . . 3° . (& is is ifev). fjv 2 . . . . . . §§ 106. ^. e. ^. 22. Se' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -) < . 20. &v they would permit (cf. . . .. contending (in a race).. rj .. : 25 whom . ^ . § 192.. . . . and to take (strictly but . \ - . . . 6 35 . ). ^ . etc. upon {some) one. is an intensive particle..

TEE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 56 28. 6€. The 6. (to) () 32.& etc. . € {%). whence 9 wherefore no one. 31. 34. To — An owl to Athens. . Cf. in turn. TOUT eVrt. 29. at- (). § who many wholly. irXeiovos they Tjyodvrai 33. slave very altogether. . '. " Coals to Newcastle. doubtless. . c. Herewith Exercise () lead. The Third Declension §§ 30-35. -OVTOS ruler ? of course. TE . loillingly. . .v. . -- . . handle touch. : strike. ^ . - -ov your {i^eh). -ov our surely not () tended a hoy. €.v is repeated later &v. €. furthermore. still. (Gen. . the 6. iraid-aywyas. . ^ muleteer. again. yes. II. The Genitive with Verbs of Touching. intentionally.). () 115 26.''^ . XXXI..? ^ 178. mule team. think more of. their affairs. by all . 30. means. The Reflexive Pronouns : : § 23. () (). hold in higher esteem. ? hoio f (the tone is scornful). Cf.

^.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .^ 6 . . . /ipxei Ti's . ' ). 50 . is a familiar figure on Athenian vases. is free.. . €- ia-Ti) . . . This is the interrogative ris -). MEN € €. ^l•» oe " . ...• 4° . ^ . ^' 57 . . for one who ( surely it-is-a-dreadful-thing upon).MEN (5et- Accusative and infinitive construction . yoip . .• ]. .. €. he sets over ' . 47. etc. ^. ( The slave who conducted the Athenian lad to school.• '' . etc. yap. . carried his writing-tablet.^ ^ eVt . 40. -. § 114. ^ ). 7rat3a7w70s 41. musical instruments. ". . . € /. . 8. 45 6 39. SovXov . ei's . ' ^. after deivov 44. ' / / < -. . ' . . . A' ap^etv .• .

48-56. • iyco. eXerjs . (c) Modest Assertion. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 'H/act^cXet? el 55 ' €. . dreadful.. 54. a minute ago. . throughout the enin a icord. now. . all. arrange. Tc hvcuA nr^ -TAn^i^pAjflLW OuC^Aw'^^^ 4-P ^^AinwvjCUU) . § 158 ditional Clauses. await (). () wait for. life. . 167 Make an ys that § 120 a). assign €.- €.f . the (b) Question. lacks little. put in or- der. "- . . -- ?.' 48. Tt 52. at be her 51. (^ for happy hoy in any respect. eg. SHE permits. not yet what. . iireiSav 49. in this case. yet. - he of age. •7€. nourish Contrast turn. why? 'pray? jitst ieivos . ^ . siirely you havenH wronged XXXII.€8. Adv. {') time of {it § 121. pray? what in the world? why? here. (-). Tivos () on what account. (a) Exhortation. .• tire day. §§ 165. station.. «- \J-^ ^ ' -' . post. . 62. . . . TE -€ . .58 . . To Aevrepov ^/ Uses of ^9. fKeiv-q you may ^r when{ever) you return home. a task to (one). and he said with a laugh. <C. . § 155. (d) Con- (e) Final Clauses. age. intensive study of the passage contained in the preceding 11.. €vi « . .1 OS ^ 75. § her. . \ — . § 160. § Subjunctive: 156 . almost. . -^ rear. § 116 b). BaSi^e aury 110.

. . ere. doing almost none of the things modifies desire. 66. 6..^^^-. e\yoev whereas just speaking (iv toutols etc. which we were . $ vayvrjva ij /\.. . ak 72. '^ ye roaovde since such a matter as \. . referring to . in those matters of iiyoev. iya. . ^• . %€. 65. 62. V.' . § 102). . . yap . 60. ye iwei ere. iwei 6 . -. Avert. 158. .r|va^ something either to be read or to he written. e^eerrt erot . \. 4 • - • . fj ^. ' J^ . "§ .' ere ivl "' OY. 65 iv . ) - €..3. iv ots 5e & iv ttj you first of those. ] . ^7^ ^^7^ 6 6 ' /. eivai . /Vvfi/'^ ^ (\ THIS. ^. MEN ' TLVo'i AE ^? -\6- ^^ ).^-^ . iv 6\iyov you 70 . ypa. . . . () 61.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 59 . SovXevopTa aet ovhev .

limit. well then! bo-ir€p which very {one). - sufficient.. tis. director). The Formation of the Reflexive Pronouns.. (as TE ' 6 -\\) .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 60 XXXIII. 11. have ?iotise-steward. boundary. . aesthetic. --'. ' — Mevav8po<. standard. § 61. § 115 g) Cf.-. () - inexperience (-. £( rule. economy. . . § 23. () () () 75 () Cf. experience {iv). as a direct. '\ 6 . of {-).. Review Exercises 21. . Cf. neighbor. 25.. (Gen. ' ' . ^see.. - () master perceive. crov thrift.. 169. § 27. experiment) -ojOs very well ! opos () manage manage. hold sway {over). household manadministration. . prevail {-) stand over charge ( of. . be Cf. . () £ agement. () might). of Declension Future. trial. 26. etc. MEN Ele v. horizon. hear. Dictation exercise based The on 48-56. To /7€/[) }? TOi a7reipia<i . .

• otet 'E/xot aot ". . . . . Tt8e. '--- ^ Tpei//et '^ ^ 6 ^^(. . so. ' ^. go 95 w\ et$ which we become expert (6$ wise.^. ' • € ." -. ^^ 86. in ' . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .. . MEN ^ .'. -^ . to-believe . . . 85 . '^ '"' to be .. I uLcM irorepov otet t7)v 8 cre . this day.^. 75. on on the very day on which he-comes- . - \$ ^. in these {matters) sagacious) Cf. . . ^. .. . ... V' .

' . . § 135.90. agree with {'). § 79. . seen (Les- upon which the Greek verb is built. § 52 Personal-endings Aug(thematic and non-thematic formations). (come-to-possess). ^.^ all of the forms built upon the progressive action-stem. XXXIV. row — The Verb. impedio F. son VI). the first As we have of the action-stems. The Progressive Action-stem. . §§ 53-56 ment. eh . . TToOs eis . -/) preventing^ writing^ I am Usually called for the sake of brevity simply imperfect tease or imperfect indicative. . urging^ com- / ). etc. The pupil should now master moreover. (a) the present tense^ and fect tense . Te'rapTOv -^ '^ ^. and upon this stem are formed a subjunctive. A. (^iv . . . In the indicative two tenses: tiie mood this stem. impede. / 1 I am a7n eating : €€ I am am (Past-Impf. Verb-roots. () ^. 93. . or («) the present indicative. 92. See § 133. & . and particiconjugational system of ple. infinitive. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 62 Stand in one's way. (-)). . . . 94. forms () the past imper- and () the past imperfect indicative. . - so fa)• as.. § 57 Meanings of the Imperfect. 95.. B. is the progressive action-stem. that ichich seems best. . both active and middle. . imperative. . hinder. Conjugate in the same way manding. using as the type-verb. optative.

Past-Impf. Past-Impf. Herewith Exercise 27.. allow (Dat. diatribe. et%oy). () a groom. Ace. . (Past-Irapf. Usually () manger. | THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK di/ing (Past-Impf. ''^ . -. to.). . of - Extent of time. \/. erpenov (o). TTjs avTTJs. rub. -. every day (all . § 113 f. amivilling. prevented. to eat. plural. Past-Impf. I have /m's/t. ." — lying. " eivaL. - iw-erpenev- "^-^. € (- truly () turn (over) i-ir-^rpeirov intrust to. Past-Impf.). €) -. 228 . () (). I am holding. -). Past-Impf. Cf. Cf. I am - lam -^. comb). permit. $ . comb. ---. EN ovre if — 6 ' . ephemeral." . day. taking counsel. () eat. curry {ktcLs turn ^^ () barley. TE . (Past-Impf. yiyvo- heiyig I am answering (Past- ^). Impf. lam 63 becoming. the days.

". the three types of neuter § word 32 {cf. . . • rjoov -^&} ' \oirrov . -. . € . vevpa I changed past imperfect of 176. -.'77^5. . the strings (veOpa) yesterday. >}.€\\)< 5 ^ vevpa TYjv €. '.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 64 \ /. — T7}S 4. '. . . ^ \iyeiv ok 6 '^^ aoeiv. 29 decline . and § . Like TO l^cvYos yoke ^ 2 "Ytvos '. Review Lesson nouns to : §35. : . — XXVI. epic) tvall (of a city). € € XXXV.

-. ). . A' Meve^ivos.. lohence? trvXLs \ in which place. (6) veavio-Kos here. () Cf. come in. go. ^ - . () worthy. -. lohere. -. '. near the postern. Cf.-)). ?.^ ^.<. rub away. truly. throw Academy. proceed. in this place. «. opposite against (Gen.). opposite. Scvpo hither. . (a come alongside. ineLOrj - 5 . Lyceum.). ^1 ' -? . .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK - -. an enclosure (- noQtv. ^) (' in the place oppo- Iv site.. » . Thermopylae. however. . TE rub €. ^ev ret^o? • -. spend (time). to. re . spring. o|ios -. be on one''s loay.) (to). € ' () (- straight toward. (. () 65 -$ a small gate. ( () tern over youth. pastime. to (Gen. -lov worth lohile. (rj) = 07it?ide. without (Gen. pos- () gate). () () boat) through. the heave alongside. waste (time). fountain. . the surely. () young man.

. 6 ' 15 1. Herewith Exercise 28. . I came upon Its etc. 3. of § 91 (and and learn the conjugation of Review the conjugation €. fJOL re § 92). . .? (-) --. § 93. ' ?.. '] — '.. 979-980.'-€. ' tjv Aevpo. deltas 13. €^ /cat ^. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 66 evOv Aevpo Xeyet?. 4. . Aristotle his in the Lyceum. 10. . pointing out. . along the road OUtside. . /cat . Sij. when I arrived the spring of nacoTTos not known. . am going. the son Note the of Hiero'nymus. a door Standing open. to the ) Plato established his school in the Academy. (lit. €. ) . former of Athens. oe. 6. the latter to the east. €. epyco ' ©€07^9. ^-. (). eiOii 12.. -^ 2. by me /xas. " (9).. • . eyw. Panops {). . . the These were gymnasia in the suburbs north of the city. i//xas represents us 'F" . with a gesture toward. . Whom -- seeing (as he saw) do you tovs mean To ^ ' % approaching. I «. and Ctesippus of the deme of Paea'nia. XXXVI. ". is . . .. . exact location both Hippo' thales.. . position of re 6. became). ' so in line 13. § 195.

() a master (of one's for the gladly {s). used as a future (. /. • . . (TO J 23. must part. -\> . ^. ye a comrade of YOURS. €. . (-. . . eyoj. Emphatic. together () admirer praise). - . emphasizes i'Stjj. .. able. ( -( () at the £ same time. ' ^.). craft).4 ^ -^. sophist. taking C. . .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 67 TE () am I oi & going . - with. iVa /cat 4. recently built. 19. € . ^. oe ev ' So? oe €. ? -- . follow (Dat.. lohat .sufficient. • ' 6. {acting beautifully) you are very kind. '. tl €. 2 . 24. § 189. sequor). noielv.) Cf. iCdrjs in order that you may SEE. after. e-ov e 16. & IS? €-€' ' ye. ye ^^? eVecr^at. 18. ' 25 § 198. ' oe uicrrt OTj €. .<. I went in. . ^]. . /. () palaestra. worthy. . professor. which we would share loith you (§ 115 a). /caXcDs 20. wrefitling- school wrestle). K. recently {vios). later than -ov (Gen.

and for life-like Murillo's Beggar-boys (you catch them. ^ 31. charm side by side with you look at his canvas on the laugh and speak and munch alongside of that. -- Oil entering we found. Part.) the {duties) connected completed {having been done) . 6 35 Si 27. {they) Stood around. . Trans- the duties at the altar scarcely yet completed. 6 and attire.$ iraWas iepe7a (Perf. having sacrificed) - xvith the offerings scarcely . 36. -)€% . . etc. -^^ 3 ' re )()^ . {having been adorned) dressed in festal . ^\$ (Perf. Observe the free use of the participial construction . )-^ ) ) ) . ev ^ avXrj. Part.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 68 . Pass. if sudden. Note the position. . play at "Put ' odd and Cf.- We found the boys. . the sacrifices finished 5). : -- . - . actually moving their mouths to I .( (-\€ 27-29.. 33. {- even''). selecting. . . playing.. loilhdrawing. : . late - -. .

so that. . . TE (€ -. in the midst. some just outside the door. It scarcely over. then. re- () - 7£vvatos ' ." p. turn (twist) about. The Verb Learn the conjugation of the past-imperfect . . meanwhile. \^ To Interrogative Sentences (Direct and Indirect). . ). § 19 b). for a time. gard at. : and middle-passive) of the contract verbs in -€.. for dispute. Intensive. 8 •) well-born. XXXVII.. § 81 A-B. strive. hesitate. 114. . turn oneself around. -.£) with {epis () -tSos strife). €. thereupon. but they are already busy with the knuckle-bones. ^ - - in the midst of play. hesitate (past-impf. . Mid. others in a corner. he was clearly. look (). . .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK their crusts. . -^)) () (^Stand apart {- (§ 61 (end)). £. repeatedly. - (Past-Impf. in the same way. -ov {yev-. . ). Herewith Exercise 29. frequently. and conjugate in like manner (active the past-imperfect of : he at a loss. Plato and Platonism. 6. . shrink (from doing) (past-impf. § 178. noble between. so as to. 69 There at once) the scene in the Lysis of the dice-players. is — Pater. all the boys are in full dress to take part in a religious ceremony. vie observe. .

- he came to sit (loion beside. Future Par- . . looking at.. ep^erai. .. 52. ' eyeXacral•' . .^-. -$ ticiple of ^-. 4 rjnopei re fxeu -4 coKveL -. . . .^ . --. --'- -€€. . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 70 . Purpose. -\. ^ ^/> ovu 6 . ' • . . . 50. in this respect. ws 44. 55 43. 54. . iyaXaffav they laughed. ). jei 46. I shall not they said. ) 45 ^ eihev e/xe re /cat 6 emero ^ Meve^evov ' 5 • . a glance toward. ask. eireira 6 etcr- .. § 175.. . to come toward. ivith more beautiful. 40-41.. . . ' --. to approach. 53. lohen he saw.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK XXXVIII.... § 168.) to I have come. d) Indirect Discourse. participle to (and Plupf. '--^ gonr. chance. . () () ing hack () recollection. (). § 162. ~6 . happen (constantly used with part. B. (Past-Impf.. tling. c.-Infin. Meve^evov. Conditional Clauses. to ask. () -- put one\s hand (xeip) to (a work). () a etc. Intensive Study of 11. hit ) . I have € II. § 179. b) Potential § 163. a sort of (Gen. : a) Wish. To <{ 71 \ OKTO) .)• Perf. () to a call- memory. hit upon. . TE -€.. tl — 72 ev The Participle with the Verb The Four Uses of the Optative § 176 . chance upon.. say (Acc. XXXVIl). etc. / asked. am gone.). /. gain. 46-55 (Lesson .- ' ) < teacher of wres- gymnasium-master 8l- -. obtain. c) ^?. attempt. < "^. am come. eSo/cet Tvy^aveLv.). saying. the act of learning. -•5 88 . declare.

tions of the XXXII. approaching he summoned (lit. sacrifice {to be in it ' . 6 . stand).THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 72 €€ €u' ^. caused to saying that the gymnasium-master - he appeared to he officiating at the . 59. the found in Lessons . 30-35. *?. . of this passage is . \€ .-- I teas on eSo/cet . •^ ' be read carefully in review.. 58. Herewith Exercise XL. . vms calling (him). (b) Irregular §§ 46-48. . Yjv (The continuation XXIX-XXX 56. II Avcnv ovv XXXIX. . inclusive. . Intensive Study of Review Lesson XXX porto 30. . Read carefully. it ye.) should iir-exeipovv § 179. . XXXIII and 89-45. To SeovTes ' V Comparison of Adjectives: (a) Regular. 48. To . . . 50 11. found in Lessons the point of asking dirorepos . * . ' . The Third Declension A-B () as in the preceding lesson. " - he was (as charge of the sacrifice). . 56-68. €- (). . chanced) acting as iepoiroios (a magistrate v:ho officiated at sacrifices). review §§ 27. .

The Verb Contract verbs in -€ constitute a very large and important class. \9 . § of Menexenus. I declare. (Wov Isaid. moment () = '^ () . at this topsis. time. TE . going away. hour. then. attention. — ^. § 194. back again. am paying (for eVe- •••- tlvi say kriow well! ev Cf. ! ws to the best of one^s ability. again. . and ask {a question). Similar to these are contract verbs in -. () season. clearly. 5. - have come. Cf. 161. ((5/)) see.8. say. therefore. love passionately {rf. know! \/. value. which however are far less numerous than those in -€. «. worth. it is time to be air-ievai. I g^o». ipa. 115 Desiring. etc. I shall say. thereupon. boyishly. laugh. whisper. j)layfully. ().).. XLI. To MoVo9 '. tell. . TAtvt^ivov without the notice have gone. thana- unnoticed by (Gen. (} honor . -). Cf. () death secretly. (active Learn the conjugation of the verbs in : voice) () : Conjugate - )'€« ()() ask (a question^. Genitive with Verbs of Herewith Exercise 31. {-. § 19 b). iv d. cf. honor} yearn (e/aa) desire. : {cf. Past-Impf. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 73 €. same way in the for. airep the very things which. § 82 A.

. .• '\. ^--- from (in the place) X^ets..''^ tell. 4 y ipei^. in order that you may . ' 6 iv Meve^evo^ . .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 74 . - . fxe €9. idiomatic {to . . . . . ). ) 75 65. ^/. cf. ' ' .. . had arisen lohich he The (68) ''also to me mnemonic go) out (whence also he stood up (to go) out). - . 72.. .^ 6 65 Meve^evov. Avert • . Cf. . . .. dvep 71. also to Men. -^. . . . (). . %. .. etc. --).. . ' ). \ 70 . ' eiVijs to recall. . is . • . . ]. 8 -^. ' - ' 6 .. .

XLII. of. Cf. () hearth. 85. I am acquiring. -. )? ear ipdv. being asked (a question) getting possession 2. ' \)<. paSiov — . ' €wi-Kovp^aeis shall. Vesta. . . Intensive Study of ^?... you share. 64-75 (Lesson XLI).• ('). TE «- . . pos- session. . €$ doiiH you any one). croL. or|s you may • reprove see . . To AevTcpov mind any one (have no care for ' 9 ? 78. of the contract verbs (middle voice). conjugate .^ ovhev rjhlov ipdre 7]^ ?. the fellow. Cf. give a share of. The Verb Learn the conjugation in - : ^ Like § 82 B. banqueting.). stock? 83. 85 . 11. / am 358. 8 . ' ^TEE FIRST YEAH OF GREEK . etc. ^ Kara-y^XaffTos 81. fjf. . . Cf. the chap. 75 that you aid me in order that I {see how you may become a laughing- . () the (act of) possessing. § 175 g. KTfjo-iS --. 84. () he feasting. 2^ossess. () possession. 6 —^ € TOL $ 77. — The Grenitive Absolute. .

(rd) . -^. timocracy.^' ' 95 (). . child value. . ' .. . . . 6 go ). . .. money . ortyx. 6 — - -/^. . honor Cf. gently. irpos (-. () (such) as. €. . . tohat () -v7os quail. 92. ortygan. but he says he thinks . 5 mildly. olos. -€ \6yv you . ' . . . . ) . 6. . 6 . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 76 () () % '. coined gold. . . Cf.. . .- • ^. . .. • . -. () gold). . such (as) toiovtos calmly. knows. . Cf. 90. share your conversation. () -ovos cock. . -(? toioOtos .! . toward these. ' .

: night. or .^ la. of. 93-106 (Lesson XLIl). . ireipa). 11 11.. (Infin. c was an fighting-cock espe- . empiric. . § of pets.te at Indie). olos 175 e € § 172.V The Athenians were fond 102. possession To «. cial favorite. rbv A favorite oath to get 104. of Socrates. 6 S. Herewith Exercise 32. 103. are . ( /s).8. : (b) far along in •£ so as so that to. Quails also were domesticated and used in various sports. Cf.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 95.) (-). . TE £8( ££$ - () consider (one) fortunate experienced in (Gen. () quickly ($). ' () with the Participle. Intensive Study of <. (if..) Tiixovs. tachyg- raphy.. ' . . II. ^. re veoi ' ^ \ '. (Gen. vi] . no . easily Cf. whatever I ask you. A - XLIII.) (a) far from {G&n. . .< . § 195. .

%^ . iav 20 ?. .8' . . (. . -. . ^. 6 ' . - .€ ^. 111. . €( XLIV. €. . . ^. 107-113 (Lesson XLIII). Middle (Passive) Participles iroiovp-evos. ' . 6 . SoKOV(Ti \ yap 125 ^'/< . Herewith Exercise 113 e). Intensive Study of § : . in lohat way (). To Declension of the Active Participles 50 § . €. 11. . . . (JvKovv . . of the 115 6 ^. . . ) . 110. . 113. I' 6 Sia } -. €5.: THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK 78 ' you acquired. . ' - 33. : . . . . 6 Tt . . ^. fJLOL ju. .

kinetic.. have a way totally at a loss. . which lovers Cf. I am (to do). etc. 127-137 (Lesson XLIV). § pay heed 115 h) regard (Gen. TE () feel irritation. -. drive away. I am do).. be vexed. oe. their darlinys.. (eviore 135 possible for one-whn-loves. Cf. %.) the very {experience) ). THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK lav re ) . sometimes I suppose 133. 134. find out. . lam well off. dis- up. . stir summon. deliciae. 6 /cat ^€€ 79 130 ev ) . 123. -((. s (?). -€. . Sokcl Review the past-imperfect (active and middle) of verbs -. move. ' . 124. . -€ accent. all in am able (to a muddle. § 135. intensified otherioise.. - "EotKei^.. favorites. €• XLV. rj ^^ y^P? eivai . is it ivLore 122. set in motion. . €. speak with a foreign speak somewhat () brokenly. 137. eSo^ev. -- call to (one). ' -» --- ?. differently (it) seemed. (. . - cover.. (Cf. To in etc. s an re € () . annoyed. 11. ' 120. and Uses of the past-imperfect. € . to . Intensive Study of -. €$).

^ . have in mind. brought to an end. intend. then. as they tcere going away. . ice I set. 8> . -. 153. . ' . ^. . after saying these things. € € 5 150. . . conversation late in the day. . -. -€\€ 148. 145. ' 140 6i/>e " {-). I . . . 152. place. -^ iv 6 145 a being together. . yielding to them {becoming less than they). ice dissolved.. — have become. i^-evpdv ice were able to discover. . ^ -. . yeybva^ev ' Slaves were usually foreign-born. 6 " ' - ' 150 .() . 139. ^ ^ \ . . &- like {evil) spirits. ' -.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 80 () iripi-t^rr&Tts the bystanders. ^. — 138. count. late. 147. in- tercourse. € € iv «-.

0$ .. died. vepavai to bring to an end. and the third declension (including §§ 48. until at length he exclaims in despair ^ \iyw. e^ To }. the unfortunate lad becomes more and more confused. dilemma. ev last four lessons.^^ OCD €39 ^ €•. . -^ he erected. 50 A. Intensive Study of rA ^/^ "BOLO ^•. /^ f foi /'. I . XLVI. ©/ / Herewith Exercise . 187 K. accomplish (irepalvw) = . B). A T-^ J^O X$ /^ . ^ A %€ having ( 138-147 (Lesson XLV). 1 11. to -—. l> I. .: . 34.€ ev — Review the ' irepavai} @€. adding §§ 36-37: \€'). THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK The Lysis 81 one of the dialogues of Plato in which no definite concluBetween the selection in Lesson XLIV and the closing paragraphs above about ten pages of the dialogue have been omitted. As sion is is reached. €• question succeeds question and dilemma.

I made. . I called. . € « € Aor.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 82 £ . Indie. . . §§ 131-133.. I langhed. I did. d) Modest Assertion. St. Indie. § 157. + + +<ra- . Indie. Indie. i) Final Clauses. . and aorist suffix. the most common formation consisting in the verbaorist-stem stem plus the suffix (§ 64). St. Aor. 7€ do not lengthen the final e or to 57 before the . Indie. Other examples - € -. / asked. ' « - I ''. To V-Z The Verb: Action-stems. Aor. + -- St. Aor. and decline in the same given above. etc. thus aorist indicative / loosed. ^ - St. 1 e) Conditional Clauses. + -- St. Uses of the Subjuncti'e laughter. b) Question. < «' «€( b2trst into Learn the conjugation of the § 79 A. aorist active of way each . . Verbs form their aorist action-stem in one of several ways. Aor. " XLVII. Indie. : are: . of the verbs : a) Exhortation. . + St. c) Aoristic Prohibition.

^ • -^ '^ . . . (Dat. ) &. 17 ' . (). ^^\: -? .. () command. . very sad -ov ().). . €€ (-) €. €. . -. it is difficult. . much ooros -) -ov as Cf. . €€. 83 in- murder () murder). \ ..-6 difficult. ' ? '. as. ^€). -. -- Cf. . .. -. . . -. an adidterer - lasting for an age (. ^. TE () . fail.. guard (-). () 8 life. 5 . . ^. -.. () -ttjtos youth.^ € ^ ''^. . (65 . '•09 Cf. miss. zoology. herit. -. . aeon). acolyte.. cLyadov einev ' 6 ^. () beggar. Troie'o). TO ) -'^ — TTJs . -.. €.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . . fail of hitting. • eiTTev. - -. -. follow. be hear false witness.. ) .

10. -. evayyeXiov by doing what 2.^ ^ ^ ^ -€ "ing contract verbs in ing scheme (§ 79 I ' Progr.^ €-- ^ "8 -<£ Thermopylae loe lie stranger. according to the Opt. announce to the Lacedae- obedient to their commands . ? . -. 18. Imper. iyevero. iv eiirev . . Outline the conjugation of ten or a dozen verbs. see A'Ocabulary. 5. iv distribute. €\ ayyeiXov 1 follow- : : who fell ( ). . hevpo 6 — oiSas = S. passer-by. This is """ ^^o'i^' - -- --- -< -. A) and -.- . having heard. . . includ- . -$ . Xi-ttv . -- rrjSe — ^<}. XeiVet e^et? • €^€9 . ". ^«-<» '. New Testament. /'-'.-? -- --- 6€ — Infin. is . the famous epitaph written in honor of the Spartans monians that here (TySe) <S Part. in tlie battle of - Indic. '. Subj. .V.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 84 . remains. €-/ On the style and language of the he became = . 9. Action-stem Future stem Aorist Action-stem XL VIII. lacking.

. fawn upon. lick. make - remain. -. and decline in the same and without the way : . (-). have potcer point ().4€'. . Learn the declension of the aorist active participle in -aas. () ijyyeiXa announce . kiss. . \ayot)v 6 " Et ei. incline. . () hare. . . (). dis- tingnish. . wait for. he loould caress. () -6 hateful.. wag the tail. conquer. ( -. Ace.. ? he was biting. 229 . TE . bite. tail. eTirev • ei " vei<s . — 2. Aorists in -a. . judge. . § of inceptive aorist).. |9. (77-. (§ 64 b) ayyiiXas. . Herewith Exercise . . \ . . indicate to lean. . hated. decline. €.. (/)$) separate. § 64 (a). The Meanings 136 (especially the the Aorist. § 50 C. ayyeXoi messenger). cf. over. out. ^. . aud pursue. he xoould vayys. . ( § 135.. show. « bite 35.€ ^^. slant.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 85 The First Aorist. 85 A. hos- trori tile. irori St at one time at another time. €. §§ 64 b.

ok he ^^. Ace. 6 TTJs $. . -?." 7. . 3." 5 — deprived. " ' . 343 .. . expecting 4. -. of avTTJs.. . ^. he 5.\^ - is eXeye. 353 . (4\). being like). he found elpov it similar (lit. • el^j^el•» -\.. \ ^ .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 86 "Opvlv avrjp ^ .? ..evSov vds evpov ok evprjaeiv 5 eKeivov. . . hi — . . -. 6 • 1. .

)(. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK XLIX. of the Genitive Case. .. 730 195 ^. — 8.. .. C . %.. §§ 111. To . . . avev 2. — — — — 7- 9• 176 ^ 362. — 474 W. -^. — — C. . £. . .. . .. 485 D.' Sebi^re? -€ ' 87 — . AXTjOeia Xeyovauv. ' . 23 ^. 365 Review Lessons XLVII-XLVIII.. ^. Syj — 3• 4• 5- 6. . 1. .. The Uses yap.^^.. ^ 2. 8. /09. 114-119. T^yetrat.. 121.". 52 a.

() 1. . Cf.. 11. § 65. - — -] — -. Cf. : ' -.-. § 116 h. § second). . . '' .^ . (who are) has the construction of rich not in gold. \. Ot 12. : Genitive of Time. e{jK\eia . •79 OVTL . 4. 6 The sentence is . 'E/c 11. and see § 137. . . ei. . KaXeiv... Genitive after in Com- position. . . of (first.. . - incomplete those loho are truly rich. § 119 . — . '. The Verb : . . come the heights. . ' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 88 10. 30.8et? — €. 3. 79 A. acro-polis. etc. 6. \byoi. . to. . To M7. L. . 521 . ^. the Perfect Active Learn the perfect active Herewith Exercise 36. (). attain to. 12.

-€. came to see him "last night. ivtKo. why have you come so early wios (0) son. 2<rir€po (17) evening. ing.. and extends through Lesson LXVII. trict. -6 -. ). tiBis straightway. within of. --. iyp-fjyopa . Vesper. Cf. -. but the gain in power will more than compensate for any loss of time. (to) little walking stick. . on what ac- count f at this time. Socrates relates to a friend how Hippoc'rates. the son of Apollodo'rus. bacteria. It is therefore recommended that the class each day memorize so far as possible the portion contained in the lesson of the day before. ^. () ijyyeiXa. -. - . rive at. This passage of the ' 8' . A' €K en 6 . . to sleep. is written in Plato's noblest style. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 89 TE ^. is . Cf. dis- .-.() () = despise." or rather "early this morn- Town. so early.). Pf ar- arrive. The following selection. lie § 57. into. epidemic. -. -((>. Cf. down upon (Gen. and is of its kind one most beautiful passages in Greek literature. < . look I am awake. - ac-ot'fw. Tas at the door. -. llpuTay6pa% Protagoras is in taken from the Protagoras of Plato. deme. ijyeipa awaken. Sec. 8£ € day before yesterday. straight. iyepQ. € knock () down Kpoveiv to clap the hands. Cf. The rate of progress may thereby be somewhat retarded. (et's)• for the sake of ivcKa.). be asleep. be in democracy). open {02)en up). strike. to (^! town walking stick. . - «-8€." seeking an introduction to the famous sophist Protagoras. . on account (Gen.

7iOi.. ) 09. $ ^ ' ' aya^ct ye. taking his stand. 4.s veurepov 9. -^. . . . .. . . et ' . . have you just heard f \\ a rush . . y'. . . Opdpot he eireifo^evos Came Straight in with recognizing. Xiyeis. ... .- '^.. . . 1. . 12. el• news. .? . . ineihrj 5 OF GREEK THE FIRST TEA 90 (tohile () it ?. Cf.. crow. (^rushing). § 163. dawn.. • .. 11. 7. . () cock- early daton. & X^yois that were well $ eC ! Cf. 8. - eKpove. anything startling. before daybreak. -44 . icas) still very early. .

--.. es- caped. and learn the middle aorist and perfect. he ran away. €- To Review the active forms : 91 of . tell. - . -\\''< '. () manliness a strengthened -.. -() (). intend (Infin. 6 6 crot ' 5 • ^2 . away. desist.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK LI. be about to. yap • rot -. bed.).. -^ . . . eXnev. KOTTOs (0) loeariness ^y -? -? (). and §§ 67. ^ -- grope for (Gen. at that time. iirvos .. -. run . avSpcCa €•7€ as soon as. ^.(^ point out read.). Cf. The Verb va etg. sleep. -iroSos a pallet. 137.TE (a) -(. dine dimmer. ^ Koi () () sleep. 'V^ ^ go to rest. hypnotic. supper). ^ SciTTVCO) ^ feel for. then. oxjje . iJ - €. () excitement. § 79 B.-€8 •. ^-^. relate {-) . - -. to. . recognize.

\ '. § 179. 21. returned. . (it). 17 . too late (i. we were having 6$. ^ . (i. 19. -€\6 Tivos 7\ I came. II B. . To - /cat . - because of something else I forgot we had dined (^. . i. ^ . 22. . . Herewith Exercise 37. § 98. ava-ffTas arising (standing up). ^. The Verb Review the middle forms of declare. 18. to tell €\\ you that I loas going € to - pursue.e.e. . . -6€ Oivbris having arrived from Oe'noe. in the night (hours)). § 179.e. § § 94. and learn the conjugation of : Indirect Discourse. -dined). 79 . 17. ye 15. a village and the border of Attica. it released.. say. ^^ too far along () 23. deme northwest from Athens near my 16. \ ^ ere levai. I a future optative representing after the past tense This is the only use of the future forgot the future indicative is optative. LII.92 THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . though intending slave (boy) Satyrus. Sedpo yJKevy 25 Tt - ' . ^-. .

. partly . above. () would that ! then. 3° ' -- - 35 . . partly. elwou. see.€ 93 TE () ). there. -. . good cheer! Pf.. vaL Et ydp.' .).. -\ ^. (). F. ' 6. Aor. . ti . Pf. say. . rj . . '. Zev . house).%. ' • . he of iJKOVffa. money. () € but indeed. . jiever. . § 19 a. suade take.. -. . Aor. . . un- one's -€.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . lodge (at unfasten. here. nunc. not yet. oil . ^. find. my guest. . ert . TO irpOTepov formerly. really. .-8. per- (€-). . ' €. . . -^. . -. £-€. (^). declare. coined silver. over- --- yoke. on behalf of (Gen. ' (too) early. now. /cat ere . super. etc. . veKa praise. ' . irap' he is (. .

. iws hv LIII. . 41. \<.^ -N . Z^ ^ C ^ . €( as eZicos let (become).. Sore. yap ws OUT f. . -\^3 ' . = you may 35. . -J ' evSov 45 28. —: US Stand up . : (we § 172. J ^ . 30 ei if .- Lwaev. adverbial TO -- . might depend upon this I as would leave untouched skilled in speaking. ^. ? "^ . yap '. ' ' oevpo avkrjv.forth . '. (-\ . ^.-.! * . adverbial poni'cus. 37. of noble family. life of pleasure -^ = ^. in order that converse). j THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 94 40 "^ ' . — 0709 ^. himself to a arise - it this very purpose. US . is likely. . may find) at the house of Callias. ment - TavTafor speak o^s 38. yau offer. .$ () and go out 43. of sophists. V. who devoted and spent his money lavishly in the entertain- Callias.. would that e'i-q neither amjthing of ^. .. 31. 30.. evwyyeXiov 6 vy • -'. ' -. . '. 32.. . irapa 44. 45. the son of Hip- was a wealthy Athenian. .. To /36/ : <. 39. (?ioi) at all. I let for the most part. -. r\^ my own. II c. etSe?.

Master the following verbs and forms -. pelt (/3e\- Pf. its shortest form. or Of. €. () € « . find. « die A. eureka. (-^. Pf. as the First or Sigmatic Aorist.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK Uses of the Aorist . or cIttciv €. said (serves as an aorist to (for e-peirov) (/-). do not add a suffix to form the aorist. . § 57. . but em- ploy the verb-root (regularly in these known verbs accordingly are They Aorists. . •-€ -. The augment is -'). but of great frequency. € came. cLTT-iQavov F. «€ ^ .. throw. § 136.)^(-. . F. went (serves as aorist to or - irregularly retained throughout the moods. . . -'). iN^ § we shall consider only the thematic second 63 and for the conjugation. Pf. -. The more than one form). § 84. In this lesson See aorists. root appear in if the aorists of Second or Root as are either (a) thematic or (b) non-thematic in formation (§ 53). Herewith Exercise 38. fewer in number. ^ efTTw. -A. €«.' : The Second Aorist : 95 Grnomio Aorist. The vast majority of verbs in Greek form the aorist stem by adding the and this formation is accordingly known suffix - or -a. €\(€ cvpeiv «. F. air-cGavov.\. Another group of verbs.

.€ . . .poiZ. . (. . take. F. €-€- (\. «. § 82. § 152. Fact Conditions. -. « ^ oiSa (^I have seen) qf. . -. (-).fiB- Pf. 39.<yov. especially the See Contrary to § 64. " Observe that the last five verbs accent the aorist imperative (second means behold! But in comperson singular) on the last syllable. € ^ . -.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 96 £ I ) saw (serves as aorist to .^. learn Pf. § 85. and the first -. Pf. .yv-). Pf. F. .-). forget Pf. ciri €'•-€5• LIV. Review Lesson LIII. F. -. (for or / y . middle forms : Conditional Clauses Herewith Exercise : .(yev.-. knoiv^. . "- become -. *€') ?. ' pounds the accent is regular : iir-eXde go away ! . yivi- - vB' also the conjugation of verbs in aorists in -a. F. and €lSov €'. I (fetS. receive - leave (Xeirr- . . F. . -) .€ .\-). «. ^.

-. -. . --. of like name. -). -Kptvo- answer. etc. fee. ^ hr•^ )> apyvpiov 5° ? . . -).. decline () (). -. -€. have in mind. to re- bring to an end (t^Xos). . . '^ . * apyvpiov . (.-- () . (). go around examine 4--. . irepi -. F. strength. (8 -\>. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 97 TE . put one's hand § 93). tiri and ask ( . incline. judge Pf. 55 . () () statue). question).. .- . attempt. €6 think on. select.--.. . cio-irep € hire. -). physician. .(-. . -..(-. and F. (- intrnd. (). . . -. . . wages. . sculptor () clearly. ']. consummate. . (a thing). consider critically. I "^ A' -)€. examine thoroughly. .. namesake. pay. d just as if. .- ». pat• . ^. . (/. . - .

of the family of the Asclepi'adae. Hippocrates of Cos was a famous physician and founder of the science of medicine. et . : hv ff. .' were the most . . just as if you to . e7r-evoeis et . To Herewith Exercise Phid'ias. To Hippocrates as a representative of ? Polycli'tus. . and 52 . The family of the Asclepiadae 53. iv . if &v - . .' . ris at you were intending (had in mind) v:hat would you have replied ? § 152. 40. Et 6 re 65 . ' . 5. 98 -€. famous sculptors during the and € LV. 50. (descendants of Ascle'piu. otl ^"^• .• . of Argos. TH^^J'IRST YEAR OF av Wlwop av. in-evoets TeKelv to GREEK -€. what profession 59. ws 56.• otl . ^^ . . translate: intending rt's (as about to Come tO become what).. whom. translate To one of lohat profession do you think that you are going and what do you expect to become yourself that you are now seeking to go to Protagoras. - rjpeTO. some one had asked 6 Hippoc' rates of Cos. . < el " future participle expressing pay. latter half of the fifth century. ^ [7.. etc. ? ws 51. |)?ii7:»ose . of Athens. ^. .s) formed a sort of guild of physicians. ..

^ . (). . " etc. ' ^ ^. mpL A. a sophist. ' . such Sunrep just as. 6 —^ 8 . m --? . 7° \ iv . 99 . (to) name. or Ace). zeal).! THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK TE () it is like. . it seems likely (a second perfect). % . Eiev. . ask further. apyvpiov Tekelv virep . -7) -ov ready.. -6 {an one). ' Tekeiv ask concerning about. . around. (be zealous. (by name) . . (Gen. avSpa. . word. craft. — re . already. €1 €1 epoiTO. . call well then tltv - --€(. -. > '^. in addition. eyvpoo-Ocv former. 75 . be earnest. ( > name. . noun. () a master of one''s a wise man.

figure. The name 1'/6. \\ elude -). es- (\- . one's notice. . -. (^ € shoto (or appear) just a 83. § 9. care for. be ashamed got . Sufficient. . € TE (- priv- mar. disgrace. # . have. I . marvel thaumaturgy). be surprised. disMid. () be ignorant feel - blush). ^ %' SrjXop oTL 85 . av 68. with a bhish 82. €- ( Cf. LVL To Learn the conjugation The of . (- hold. toonder ative. red.'.. dishonor. . disgrace. - \. I . (or gradually). § a. § 179. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 100 — Et /^ c. (). -). -. . furnish. glimmer of daylight. The particle of Protagoras clo. serve.4 --4€ / \ -. eXadov. inlend. . provide. Infinitive with of Thinking. . -. wonder. attend to. 179. there toas a 83. supply.) = Set. yvo-).ses the series. the .. that to which Socrates has been leading. (^«pe . 66. Cf therapeutic.. €<*/'. Infinitive in Indirect Verbs Herewith Exercise 41. . if OUr mnney he spending besides {in addition). {\ one ought (&.. little yeviadai SO that he became visible. heal. -. 70. have in mind. ^/ Discourse. and is is added for emphasis. F. 9^•<.

of what sort? by the gods irpos () a painter of pictures (enclitic). a work- -oiOS making. car- Cf. ' • \ . )( ) €.. irepi. -ovos ! a builder. . .'7/9 \iyeiv. . portrait. iroios. . therefore. then. xjjv'xrjv . ^.at 'Eyoj go . Otju.. .at. . " .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK € -? () - () image. architect. . . ye ' . work. and Cf. . ••€ what icon. ay- . . .. ] 105 . () a master { in the world. . iroiov. ^^ . avSpi. = iripl what about? tCvos. .. . cp^ao-ia 101 (). (17) yet. • 6 6 . /-. penter. 95 . %v . ' ' ot . . ing. 8ta-voov)u.. -. I suppose €€ mnsier o/. business.. . " -\ . (of one's ttov profession). animal). .. iro£a.

to the execiition (i. -is (17) question(ing). . <§ . ^ . To /cat Review the declension of spend. -is - () () teacher of the lyre. need. of the knowledge which air-epyaaiB. ? «l . indirect () form counsel. cithara.. etnoL^eu Adverb of $. 101. Decline -. etc. § 113 d. . LVII. call to one's side. . ? ( () lyre. pertains here accusative of Specification. . eivaL. 107. «5 perhaps. 104. heivov keyeiv -. () lyre-playing. - that he is) master 36.) etc. fSti it . emphasizes. of . Cf. the painting) this {that folloios).. whom you are handing with mocking humor. danger. . Paraclete. - run a -. or (loould () -(>.v Trpoj . were necessary. not even to .. clever speaking. peril. at ' able to speak.102 € - THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK av . lack. be in (del). if it . 94. thing 95. . ij of the (art) of making. answer. . .was necessary. -- face peril risk. . ^ ' €< . risk. of course. over your soul. is 103. need of (Gen. 'iSti () () We say (5). squan- der. = 97.e.

. . . . 6 • heivov Xeyeiv . . ^ -. € ' 103 ' XeyoLfxev. 4. . 2 Sia-KivSd- yevecr^at .. ' . Seivov 6 6 . . . - Joaj 130 35 '^'^^^ . • SrjXov . . ^. ) ctl 115 ^ .. &. ye. . ^. . . 6 125 xf)d)(7Jv. ^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 20 ". no • SrJTTov hrj . xjjd)(yjv )( - . 6 • ^ 8. ./^> . ' ^. .

() . ? one ought -- to associate with. 125. -€\€... -€ . . Aor. § 148." Svolv SeovTe? § g. . .104 . --. § 16. 7«7<"') -. 120. . .(-. € . hit.- . " €. carry. - lead. for weal (-). . sell.. ^ with Participle. Accusative of Extent of Time. . you consider of greater value (that which at a higher value). 136. . To (5t- Verbal of of. . €... 3. ayvoQv you are clearly ignorant. Perfect of 137. vXeiovos ^yei lohat if or woe. deceive. become the pupil - LVIII. TE .) cheat. vr\ with Future Indicative. -€ -. 119.. . recognize thoroughly). THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . ^«) VX^v (). happen. upon which depends your .e. chance. 176 . ovre . ''5. -. Fu. perfect participle of -.Te ^laTtici^le oi to expose. as though you had already fully decided -? 132. irepl you estimate 126. - a danger. . § place under. 113 f. 139. rear. $. buy. all you took counsel loith coming at daybreak. Cf.tu. tain (Gen.. ob- . i. 129. .^ "^817 6 ^^''^"^^eiXe^at 6 140 ". convey -. Cf. . eh into lohat sort of rtva 125. § 176 c Herewith Exercise 42.. a-Joa. . nourish -).

.. appears. ' €< 9 . retains its . . importer.^-. surely 6 it original sense of surely. huckster. . .- rjv rj ' . etc. retail dealer..^.. Ma^r^'/aacrt 145 6 6 6 -. . wares 105 (). . Cf. ^ yap . () ad always. - . . ' ' '7 . () () (). ". . -.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK « . < . () wholesale nourishment 6 OVP.. .• () perhaps. In such a context yap § 184.. 144. . \ . \))() yap. xjjd)(yjv. 150 55 ' 6 . merchant. .

(17) buying. § 102. for the time being. secure. hasten. Gen. -v -ov that which be anyone. expert knowledge (of a subject). 149. (() -. Verbals. have perceive. () food (bread. especially the Infini- tive Avith irpiv and €. necessity. aid (rb take risks. () () receptacle. safe.). -^ / TEE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 106 oirws ye § 148. happy. = = & § 102. in the same way. etc. . ^. before (Infin. del &•= here 157. .-)..). (). value. . advantage). ' ^. () ttotos drunk urn. . ' Et may . blessed. play at dice start. . us. con- advice. Beovreq of the Infinitive. purchase ). ? LIX. etc. § 27 b. § 172. --i's § 42. seek be of benefit help. To The Uses (see to it) that he do not deceive . vessel. . - (). . cir -. €€. . (. &v 15-5. of whosoever. () price. suit loith. ' 158. TE . the one icho knows. " = ayovffiv. to. )( (- . receive €€ xinder stand.146. . $. sack.. honor. § 177.

165 /cat -.-(). \. YipohiKov § 160 '^ for one who has purchased putting down. . . 8 . with ttjc ^/ c. ot 8e£a<j^at • 107 . ^> ^.. /cat 185 with Subj. /cat -teVat /cat \\\ \ -€ see to jLtera -. /cat . . . . re /cat . it is possible. 17. . * 6<. /cat . 172. . . - 171. I having piit down . . (). it lest. - 6 6 . . . '. el /cat Srj ^ . having paid. 176. 170 75 /cat .. 168. -\. . -. . THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK . iu ayyetot? ot/caSe 164.3. -.

2. decide veoi {-€<) so xoeighty a matter..| J" J"' •^ • J ^ '^^ hr (/3eX- \y \- -). ' To The Verb Review the perfect active. and Perfect passive participles of rj respectively.^' €| | € «.pas.. . «" . § 67. . and -•). '€'" and and and Qqvpov) (/-). ^ - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 108 177. . Passive Depo- nents. The Meanings of the Perfect. and learn the aorist. §§ 69 and 79 C. Herewith Exercise 43. 7- 8.. let . : sive. § 141. 5. II. € --. {) cvpc- ^ € ^^y> . 182. . § 137 . 9- . we are (too) young to tvith (koivos). 3- 4.. us consult LX. 66 the perfect middle (passive).€ € ()- Review and master the following verbs 1. §§ 65. 6. 179. « -.

. yov. 33• 34• (-}. 29• 30. 19• 20.. 15- 6. « . ' €6 € €| •€ . 26. kKtkiv- (\- € € .yet-).-}. 27• 28. (. €€ - . 3• 4• -). €€6 8. (i/c-).-. €€€ 109 t^ . " -^-. €-). €\|/ (^€7- 23• €' Orpeir- 24• -^.^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 12. (»- . € | .-| . 31. (/). and 32. " € .".-€ and 25• «. € ^ « . o-t-*^i> ^5>_>-<--«-«-^^-^ and (7/37-)• 22. 21. €€|/ -). ' €.€€ € €€ (€7- € (Xenr- j:^^*-"^ -)• 17. (e'/aew) eiTTOv.*4--• - •w^"*''^ ireirauKa '€ '•€. .

() throng. . / am coxiie. Pf. reluctantly (- toil). hardly. F. TE () burdened. gone. noyed . ef? To Verbs of Coming. an- + vah I () eunuch. come Used be going. agree with (Dat. 61 e. fall ha ! A.. vexed. () vestibule. cf. commonly) . crowd. go to school. . A. have the force of a perfect. €. (&3 () den). LX. Going See Lesson arrive. come. go. . (-). '). go. go. TecreTv . - «-. occur bur- . as the future of or (more F. go to and ( fro. . go. With the force of a perfect. ^- § (^-. )• with a struggle. agree tireaov. upon. agree with. come {go) frequently. proceed. fall to.: . iriae €8 weight. |( -€ €. - / am Past Impf. () -is incomplete (tAos). etc. With gone. .). Pf. bah ! () doorkeeper. -. - (o/xos). yovv at any rate {ye 'ia. walk. iv-iiretrov fall in. come. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 110 LXI. walk. € siep. fall in with. march way). he . have come.

/ . . -. . --) -( THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . /i07is - constantly employed In this idiom the idea of danger -) 6$. . ..-.. . . slammed -ov closed the 205 complete).. \. y-€\r]vos 204. -.. .- yevoLTO. tol having finished by an (^ infinitive. ^ . ^ -. probable.. . 2 6 it is likely. I' iv oSop iv-enecrev. . yap • -€€ 193. {kir .. both hands (Dual Dat. igo . . . loith as vigorously as he could he is 199. 6 a^^ecr^at 111 door ().. . . followed 195 . . has wholly faded out. in this sense..^. at last with reluctance.. . A\K . 197. .). 8 . - ' . i^-ayyLov 189.

e. art.- . 6 6 e^yj'i /xev 6 . ' ot hi --. (). t|fjs € () on the one €-8 epichoric native. for a pro- ' €-. McvSaios o/J/e>ifZe (in Thrace). colonnade. . -. bewitch. -- i. . -. stranger. . fession. be famous . Cf. ?. 4 ^•? 220 Cf. LXII. ^ tyj 6 - - -. 6 . Cf.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 112 .---. ^ ? . .). Herewith Exercise 44. -5 ^ side. '? () foreigner. guest-friend. €-$. profession. €€ . . behind (Gen. tread on. Cf. of) a locality -ov in (or or country. peripatetic. ^ . -(). . €7€>) irepi- horn of the same -ov . ^. () be of good repute. iv 2 . /^ €€ € 6 215 irpb- portico.. ^. ' () (?) technical. in a row. -€ half-brother. -''. . loalk. friend. local. mother. charm.. «irl -- .

company. ' /cat Learn the conjugation of sit 113 down. cf. -ov listening to Opovos (0) high-backed chair. down. F. F. way (of one's feet). Impf. future or aorist. groio). sido'). split schism). - () and on that. pleasure (^) F. sit sit. Temporal Clauses. Lat. (go through). TE -. No sit. down. Indefinite Relative and Temporal Clauses. Lat. () cautious {-. be « ' Cf. () baiid. $ () ( Cf. sit. uni- Cf. be cv 8-^-€ expound. raised from heavenly off body. order. -ov this side {-. the Cf. ttws nature . suavis). - Verbs of Sitting {-}. explain «. ? (9 somehow. . throne. Conditional Clauses. sit down. on Lat. cosmos. -.: --. Cf. impede. ef. physics. seat (-. Attic prose uses the . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK LXIII. . (Cf. ground. § 96. -€ Impf (-. §§ 165-170. €••9 ). meteor. chorus. -cf. ornament. in the cf. (!). Attic prose uses the compound: sit § 96. and F. scindo. . and compounds -^ especially § 169 b. verse. . Poetic A. . ^- «. divide (and pass) around. sedeo^. sit : Poetic. sit . Lat. fo/xat () bench. () take pleased.

. After this one I perceived.. 228. of the deme of Mvppivovs. Tantalus.^. § 42. . Heracles. Odysseus sees Sisyphus. «. -. /)55 LXIV.'''' Plato is playfully quoting Homer. . 228. Hippias of Elis was one of the more prominent of the sophists.elvaL 225 < they took (their) positions. TRE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 114 IB' ? TOVTOV Toz^ ')(opov ') " 230 € -. iu 6 235 - iv . . ." ' ^/^ 6 6 . etc. . * ' -^ . ^S' : serve oneself with. €. '' . from the passage (Odyssey XI. .. 231. \ 6 --^-^ - ' Si 226. The Third Declension Adjectives The Verb § 97. 601) which describes Odysseus' visit to the underworld. .

. . . () store-room. 115 Case. . bed- IF . 245 ..^ . .^ dissolving. couch. bed. € () lad. ' ^ ^^. -. from ISi'a wrap up in = () mattress. .. -. as --$ -h not clear () 6$ () -8 () -5 () Cf.Sr) " - etcr-etS 6 6 . \.). §§ 111. lodging. use (Dat. heaviness. . The Dative § 121. near. . ringing. oneself -. («). -. 120-122. jieece (used as . () (ev). in Cf.. humming. loithout appearance." - iv 6 240 ert ^/. TE Ca) - -^. () () (^. cover (-) . () room. idea. bed-spread. prose except in compounds. chamber.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK use. ding). with the Dative.. rare serve with.

a viewing^ theory. see (^opa- (ij) . LXV.. €V€Ka on v:hat account. (^. engaged in equal with. ' = 700»' Agathon was 251. yap €' . . theatre. (). -. view. tvatch. /cat Verbs of Seeing: €€ have the eyelids^. Cf. See Lesson LX. 4-€$ having emptied (). . See Lesson LX. delay.). TE 8-.- Si-eXeyovTo Trepl he 250 ^€ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Kainep — 239. — eipai <. thought although eager. 242. sceptic. a tragic poet. cf. -. . spend time. = 247.-^.-). €-8 contest -ov (). (/3€- . e. $ e7<^ ?^ 249. . in age comrade. § ov 113 () an equal little. look sight. \6yoi). p.>() aicay. iv Prodicus of Ceos was another of the more famous sophists. a short time. 70. thoughtful. (^ Cf. a match for -ov on account of (Gen. -. examine heard. Cf.116 . at any rate. €v€Ka famous (iv. Kaiirep 248. -\•>/\.

. € . \ -. ' € TOL ^. The Verb 265 in Eager Questions. -. : 270 § 179. The Second Aorist a) Thematic second aorists review Lesson LIII. . clv .e. and . ^. ovSev 260 ' -- Tt ovv . . § 21 b. 'H/ACt? ovv /3'//^€9 € - 255 Trpoa-rj^ep ... . 8 . I b. privately. ' . : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -. . § 136. : b) Non-thematic second aorists tion of : see §§ 55. 63. 270. . ' LXVI. to him(self). TTpbs i. . TOP ' €Tl ' 117 . . . '. § 86. ^ ' 267. .'. ^-^ ^. The Aorist 8^ - . learn the conjuga- . - ' . .

. {. pleasant. 275 - under. . * 28 - - -. -\ . procure and prepare. TlpoSiKov . - prepare. ^. etc. dress. Cf. -. . .-ov ^/ {-). (Tvv-ehpLOV -^. \ .-" . evoov irepX — \oyov re XecrOaL -€ €€ — yap -.( -. (to) -•€. . etc. . - - . €.-.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 118 TE (. el -€ . 8 8•8 admirer lover. ' .. . (ff/ceOos -.). --. ^ ^. a). has). 285 () sus- sudvis. imple- ment).. make ready (what one - glad{ly). € \4 .). -).. 4 make ready (food. () p)-epare. iv- . 6 ^. pect () €<8 () 89 vessel. . . §19 . . . in the presence of (Gen.-. . prepare. council {). a sitting together in council.

. ' ^^. -. -] -. cautions. 282.. .e.-^ . . -teVat -)^)6. -. . -- 275-276.. iwel ^ 6 . . -. § 115 having made (him) get up. . 119 (--). 6 . rJKOv e/c TlpoSiKov. without waiting foi' the servants to arrange laying hold of (Gen. THE FIRST YEA re OF GEEEK € UpoSiKOf. . 6€ the seats. 284. -. -. 290 . infinitive of to careful. he provident - a display. . - . 283. show himself off and make . i. c). .. 8 295 ' 3 .. ^. 6 . -. . 287. -. 271.

Infin. to . to the better) to make (b) €- ns. know {g)nosco. -. () () flute playing. for -) cf. § 50 TE know).v. iirl . . 7670^0x1 having become. Pf. 3. ? () -is avXos () flute. immediately. although (followed by par- ticiple). €-(€. I b. TTj 301.-dv of drawing. treat. just as if . (-). ^.-. graphic. he will advance. = 298. (- thology. § 179. off. . progress. wonderful. A-B. loriting. () € -TOs ? it is -"fj likely. . pa- for is . -. painting. . Cf. natural. § 27 . of (a) ris eyvwv. § 122 a. 295. . § issue). teach () . .. - on which{ever) day. ". to &v represents 299. 5-.-. . <. . ivhat(ever) will result suffer make differently. step he says he would gladly learn. § 300. . change. (to LXVII. so old. progress. TO Review the declensions 48 . .. ing.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 120 -\ 291. () Cf. mal- outrage. &v 296. cf. wrepaiq. throw iracrxw. Lat. -. (~/ 7 -. (-- advance (c) thematic active participles. didactic. «Ikos the art of paint- Cf. -6$. (- make mention. -(>v strange. . . come recognize. outrage. it of such an age. on the next day.

/ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 121 IZ' . . . -€ . . ( inel : . 305 BiSa^eLev yevoLO. . €. ^-. €-<€. -^ — . . Xeyet?.. 304. . . . ' . - 3^5 . -. et - €€ -^. Slv) 7^ .^ € KoX ovSev elirov.-. . '* . . -. eirei et ? . -. .. since even you 32° would . ---. * .. 325 . peated in 306 ) - ei 310 . The &v is re- . .

. . . 319.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 122 310. . 315.. € -\\ - — — ".--. . .. eh 316. -. Orthagoras of Thebes was a music teacher. . ^-. . ' 335 4 . Zeiixippus of Heraclea was a painter. . . -- = {eir-av-epwTaw ask. ^.. 314. 3. . ' rj / . €. 340 345 . -. . 312. again). iiute-playiiig. . . in lohat ? - day by day. 6 330 IH' €€ . his specialty being ' .

such as arithmetic Translate: they lead calculations). and. § 179. Svolv € . etc. wise counsel. The conversation develops into a discussion of the nature of virtue. § 172.. Like decline having made. 123 the special studies which had been re- cently added to the curriculum in Athenian schools. it . prudence. back again against-their-will (AKovras) those who have fled from 335. § 50 SeSios fearing^ (/? '€€'$ C knowing^.--2 . Review: The conjugation of § 95 .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ( 331. LXVIII. - hold oneself under (aji obligation). . advertise. oilha). ' the declensions « €$ of the active participles. c. The Infinitive as a Verbs of § 176 Noun. 342. of which dialogue constitutes the dramatic introduction.34 (-). II a . in Attic prose. etc. geometry. especially of the perfect active participle. announce. Ttts i. - Compare 11. Herewith ends this selection from the Protagoras. astronomy. --- how best to 8irws hv . except in the singular of the indicative . of Fearing: I fear is (perfect used as a present. . not common Cf. .. having fled. how (^/) the technical subjects. Herewith Exercise Verbs 45. -(. F. 345. promise. = administer. more common is . the arts. ff. I a Infinitive with with a Participle. promise. they might best administer. Thinking.e. €-\ () 337.^. 2.

Cf hydrophobia. -. and Socrates. ^. he afraid. ^ and others to a searching examination aWovs) summarily suggestion that by renouncing this mode of life he ^ ov elvai. terrify.. frequently occurring forms are 6€. elSevai 5 to rejects the eivai yap and might escape condem- This. '.. would be conclusive proof that nation. . fear. put : infinitive to flight. he says. () flight. TOL . God whom the Athenians believed.. el aya^oil•' OTL /^ . .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 124 I fear The most (second perfect as present).' y) SoKeiv eivai. oiSe oiSev. '. - . €€. fear.. subject both himself 3ei ( before a court of his fellow-citizens on the twofold trial charge of not believing in the Gods in . ^ €$• participle -. . eii^at. — . -.. . • . ovoev • ovoels oeoiacTL €6€<. tyJ € 8eSieVat. . flee in fear. holding the conviction that he to devote his life to the pursuit of philosophy. Of. TO When on of corrupting the was called of young men. .

. dream. Awo\oyiq. . . " -^ the b (end). {. . () () perception. because . ^. Tb^Tcpovthe one {ofttoo). — The First-Third-Declension Adjectives.. § 4 (= ) irpb See . 4. . (= the {conditions) in {the house) of Hades.'. polygamy. iroXvs Cf.' evo? h4ovTe<i yXvKV. 9. 12. aes- ovop this place. more. much. topography. 17. . 15 ecrrtv. . 11. {-) icondrous. .. 45.) otl ovhe ^ 1. Cf. know. this ignorance of thinking. than any one. Observe the order of emphasis. §§ 43. in any respect ( + -). See 16. . etc. {) change - {) change of resi- deuce. whether God or man. 29 the fear of death. -la -ov €-(-$ () most. -^ lie down to sleep. Unseen {one) in this (point) also here . again)... sleep. € ( thetic () from = Cf.. iv" 14. roiros () place. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK oe aoLKeiv etoevai. LXIX.' et peKriovL^ aTreiueiv koll 125 in preference to the evils which 1 § 102. disobey the oracle.). —. - $ aya^a — 3. TE € -..

} . . ' — 3- — as 180 a. 833. 1. \. . according as people say. . ^. — 2. ' 638.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 126 ^ ^€ Later in the course of his speech before the court Socrates remarks TOL eivaL ecrrt : • . the one loho is dead. ^ '^ .. \eyop.. 1477-8. and to 6 . . to. . firjh' ^'^ } . ovSev /cat hrj ) death. . . ) ivOevSe 5 etre 6 rh 1. § . it is such have no perception of anything. .'.. € to be nothing rhv 3. etc. ^ ' ' ^ . oTSei' ei . .€va Te9veo)Ta. ( condition) \-6€ . ' . eivai. . ^. 6 ' .

58. yrjv LXX. fast \\6€s is and lying down &V01S dv 4.. . ^ : . = 1.. 2. () 7• -€. 127 / '^ '. quotation above ^. ov ecrri . .. -). .. @ . — €-€ 5- . ipei.a late form for ^v I was. ovpavo'i.4< -^. e'iOe et? 'Av0oXoyia<. e/xo? — Gazing • § 137. = ' ? — it is I am first clear that. THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK . TOL TL ^<.. Prose lost.. . ? = ^. ( ().'''' awois = 5. VII. dead they have a parody of the the ^. — • • ipiei.. Star ? at stars. ' — 6. oi This 3. you could accomplish. . : " breathing 's break- beneath the earth. ' 4-€^ ipa. .. . . 669. 161. To . -€. . is eider-down. -. Star of my soul * Ah me 1 . 7.' ' -. • 31. .< '> ' 4.

* . touchest. 8€. 85€€8 twelve years old. ). mistletoe. Walter Headlam. quire (wevd- () Kcpds Cf. mosquito. (or KaCco -aros horn. -) - kin- caustic). . . kiss. (?). . A. . ().. Walter Headlam. now () (). hum {-. ^' " e)(et9 TO • ia-iSyq. Whom in- . . — Translation by Dr. (pre- Cf. (). TEE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK 128 That I were heaven. marry bind. €.. need. already. () ? that! (). hope at length. Thy kiss a limed lure TJiou kindlest tchom thou look''st upon. TE KAI . § 153. pared from the mistletoe berry) I. irapos formerly (poetic). gaze () look earnestly at. gnat. ya (^). b) With Past Indicative.. . 44. Review: The Third Declension §§ 30-38. § 162. Timarion. . (). bird-lime () bull. .. . die. (poetic) -aros eye (-).. learn Cf.{-).at F. --. to gaze with Those myriad eyes on thee ! all — Translation by Dr. aster. by inqui)-y. -ipos star. -aros a Minotaur. Modes of Expressing Wish With a) : Optative. — nouns and adjectives. /^. ' — - Thine eyes are fire. . fdiyov touch (poetic). hast him sure. ? €€ = €l ().

Epitaph on a Boy '. 1>. e. .. . . 2. .. ^^ • — 6 .-. . Mother Earth That erst Not heavy. € 129 Epitaph on Aesigenes ..^ --.-. . • .. -. 453. (him) bound. Tavpos . VII. Man . $ 1. 197. may^st thou have {thyself) upon I 235 . 4» €7 . '.. — '. To press Aesigenes ! was unto thee noio in turn may'' st please not heavily. §§ 160 a. Walter Headlam. — Epitaph on an Unhappy . ^ 6 — VII. ^ - ws = thoti hast $ cLv \ . — Translation by Dr. . O. — Hail.- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 2. 309. .

{6) animal. . etc.. creep. -< THE FtRST YEAR OF GREEK 130 he put away. sixty years of age. 3. live (Infin. (Cf. .-. and . -. 6 /cat ^.. 6 alighting upon. smi7e. 5. -..-). (re/c- -). -. €\ (Cf. . bear {young). . receive having sat upon. dance. 4. . et .) bring forth. . . yap ' ^r]Sev €/€€ 2. of Tarsus. Zsiis ' ' . 6- et/xt \ ' "Opvis '.) ". place for dancing. iScov poSov '. (. ). -- eWe -." . (-). "ApKTOS 1. avrrj . . . laid away. crawl. {) (Cf.) laugh. ' .

through. . Verbs in -. ? ' () (wipas end). . etc. seat. Imperative. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK ' '^. envy. The was he 1. -17 - C/". TE . -idos -a -ov () (). of one'' s father. 865-866. 131 170 § Classification of . 4. ' iSvvaTO. seer. show free). €. LXXI. (poetic) set free (eXeudepos - view with -.. — Temporal Clauses. 8 aX-yeivos -cDiOsconiesi.( F. {\$). -aros end (poetic). . praise ircpdo). 60. .«. abode. § 83. Cf. () emulation. (f^Xos deem happy happy (poetic)).TpL'i (J)). ancestor. (). . . awjcward. mantic. envy. () - cJiest. fat.-. agony. vault. . 8'. () make clear.. () (). painful. (to). . -ovs. § 171. . §§ 59. admire. 3. pass complete . tomb. -.). fatherland. Verbs according to the Progressive Action-stems. — boasting. ita.

963-964. Free your wives. . The . 1 6vTLva accusative of oWu.^ . M17 -.C. ^. yvoivai Ihelv ' ' 6 — \€ . . . . . ' . 3 ^. . -. ® 3. Cf. '^4 he — . . . ^ avhpa ' : . 2. %. Greeks entered the battle of Salamis. set your country free. \6 1529-1530. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 132 1.. — (&. ). • — ^ 4. go. 4^'—6) ^ ). lSy). 1417-1419. 402-405.'. Browning's translation in Balaustion'' s Adventure That song of ours which saved at Salamis : " sons of Greece.'' etc. ^ I. . irore 6 call to battle as the . 480 B.

. let go ((- § "..«" " « ' "- € step.) a) Those with TJiematic Presents : - run away (hpa-). '^. €" (/-). . Lesson LTII. b) Those with Non-thematic Presents (for (^- place. -^. (17. — 391 ^ '. : -. - ognize or or € go (/3-). Verbs with Second Aorists 1) Verbs with Thematic Second Aorists. rec- set .. — 133 €• 979-980. enter : 19 a) make stand. . -). . THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 2. <. • ovSev etSore? — .e-).. -?. ^e-).--- 63. . LXXII. M>^ /xot elr) re () . ("). put give. (See §§ 2) Verbs with Non-thematio Second Aorists. 86.' *..^ . offer send. € ' '^ ovSev 3• 6)(€.

at another time. at one time . upon). 1st . stand with a specialized meaning. . §§ 5356 non-thematic second . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 134 Learn the conjugation of Personal § 87 A-B. iroiipos poetic for . -. 2d . . ^ ' KLvSvi'o'. thus : middle of this verb is I set up (for myself).. . ..*€').. 187. . § t. . appears to be for - . . understand (lit. 58. endings and thematic and non-thematic formations. ' razor. .. --.. the -verbs. -£.. : have 287. --. . -(<. edge. . ' 557-558. transitive like the first aorist active etc. — Very few verbs have both a instances the first aorist is intransitive. () acme. The perfect active The stood. Many instances first I caused 2 23. . () . In such meaning the second. €--. regularly transitive in : - aorist - intransitive -($. stand. point out. . . and a second aorist. point. Mid. --. beside. . -. -. --. (-).^ . Cf.^ () () . § 77 aorists.. (make) stand (make) stand up.. (for --. tol e^ets. € . (make) stand away. I -.. . . . think. . . -^ is : of the occurrence of this very important verb already been met in the preceding lessons TTJs $.. . active participle in -as. point out to consider oneself. § 50 C. (make) stand upon. I to stand. with reduplication 60 b the '. . -. 63 § peculiarities of .. €.

tois apyo'is. uncontracted form of (balanced) tipon the edge of a razor. ^. — 4• § . ' € .. 237. This is a and very ancient proverb. 2 135 you will not enter. First-Second Perfect: 1.$ . '. 2. ^ — — . 8e 3- ' <. .. ]. 0--4 ev elnev .. an instance (= 309. . § 159. . common here means chance. 242. -^ — 5• 87 .. of the comparative for the . -. 1-isk. . . superlative ? = Tois of the use in late Greek yos). ' '-'. . -" eKeivQ 6. 252. -. . . iv . . - 5 iav TTaiSiov 6 — 1 €.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK . Trj ^ TTj Mop. .. — MevavSpov. - ". €.

< . as Up {upon). Review the preceding -as. . . \4 — Tats . ' ..^ . 6 ets . 6 )(^ 5 ' \ 6 6 4- ^ '^ 3 * -. § 6 ^. \€ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 136 iv OTL ' iv -^- . -^-^.. oy LXXIII. . 5 - Kat 7. Herewith Exercise 46.' oirws = - Lva. iv (. <.-. lepov I. - (TuaL. as . -' . much raise. . make return. lesson and ]3articiples in 50 c). he iv 6 ' •'. -8€ ." '. .-... Equals lift hv • ^ give back. I possess.

"... .\ . 1 ^. 3• 4• ervnre 137 • . '. •'. ly' ' LXXIV. '. . evayyeXiov $.^ ev = T7J \€q. ^ . . ^^/ 5 — irpbs ^/? SetKvvvra Tot's KayaObv Cf. .?^^. eavrbv uepX — 2 -' .. €( ^1* &-. -..) —" iwicrroXijs rijs i-iy'.... ^ ^.. () (6). — '.. > (8). to extinguish . eav - — . .. . ). set So iv fire). .. Tijs ." THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK lo 2. .

Of. Harpy.€ . hit. (take for oneself^ choose. show 50 C. -| -| accomplish (Act. /^ ' -- -^- - ^-4€ - . describe.) € . €| €€| § point out. take^ etc.cIXov ^ grasp.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 138 Review the forms (§ 50 A. possess. (-). Master the following verbs -€ € -.). aesthetic. . re ^-. (Gen. ^ ? € 5 . Review Lesson XXVII and Exercise 18. narrate. «) collect. § 137. C a-e) and uses (§§ 173176) of the participles. perceive. B. -| -| (. seize. -| -| - obtain etc. Cf. St-oicretl•' TELV. ... and Mid. eVt re /cat re iv acquire.

etc. etc. € . is Socrates. 9..- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -. 139 rt el y^viOTTOieiov rjei jote^' iavTOv 2. - yaa y4 to he ADMIRE pursuing. " - " 5 ^ ^ " 6 6 20. . -^ -. 8.' ^ . -. how he Tois in the ability. ." " . . i. . 6 ^-. . i. 6. ^ . ^." ^^ ^ . 25 . with. you. Euthydemus. the subject having. . '^ . . 27. . 13.. . " . $ ( . ' ' /.e. " ^^." " ovtl. ^." ".e. dealt with.

want (Gen. {Of appear. aorists §141. deny. 6 6 . he pleased with. -^ . need of. .." 7? " yevi" crvX-Xeyei . ' ^ . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 140 LXXV. go. Master the following verbs : € -. oe LX) and 50 C. refuse. Middle verbs with appeared. -. - show ^ fear. . Review the nevTe aorist passive (see Lesson the declension of the participles in decline €$ pleased. he ashamed. (^please oneself with). -. having of passive form.} %< . ^^< -.). converse ivith (Dat.). -eis. " 6 " yap " . he willing.." '/' ^^ " ^'^ " " . § learn Like Bcis persuaded. ^. . feel dis- grace. or Part. he in -€| wish. '" ^.). proceed. Se 30 oneself. /cat 35 " {Of.. . delight in (Dat.

. " " . " ." ." ." tol -€•€ 31. for § 179." . ri 4° . ^ .)^." THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .^' . " .. " . . " -€-' -. . -." 5° ^.• ' " -. ? . . '8. " . . you desire." €^17 45 . " . . 45."^' €.• ^7. " ." 6 55 . ' . '." . -" .." " " ' '." fell into a profound silence. § 98. " y'. " 6 ^. " " " 6 6 141 " -. II you are seeking." . . " 31 f.

" epya /aeWot. Of. put together. Walter Headlam. Cf. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 142 €. is but a Stage. synthesis. place upon. Or bear the smart. of. Translation by Dr. Traijviov -' • — 'Aveo\oyLd<>. add to. . All Life — Review the declension of the and learn the conjugation of is set up. Of.). set hy the side Cf. com- pose. " vrjvaL 6 y €. . anathema. < .. And put all seriousness away. put off from. a Play . Kar-eipyaffai have 58. posit. : . ouSej/os . metathesis. you achieved would appear as just as any {one b'lKaios ." ' . epithet. 57." "^ /< € Ti ovv Uijaat <7? . . . dedicate. § 88. parenthesis. Take then your part. set down. apothecary. compounded with eighteen prepositions the following aside. de- C) put.- : . €^17. '' . LXXVI. note transpose. " 6^17• {-'. -. else) ^^ . lay Of. place. Of. . Of. participles in -cis (§ 50 . --.

^." ^.• ' ' . 7° ." ." . /." . €.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .' " ^". . " " . . epyov " " . /' " .• 7.?. " " ' ^ . ^^ / -^^. ^} ' TA " BouXet ow. TrJ . .^ " «^ ^ . . " ^. elneVf " (^ 7. " " " " . " " .• " . ^' /. " ev- .• ^. . "" 6 6 143 " "''." ^^ ". " ^ ." ' ^ . " ^^. ." " " .." . . . . ' ." ---? 6 eivai." "" . . " 1 ." ^ " .'^ ." . " " 65 " ^/.• " /cai e^r/." " . '' " ' - 75 - 8 ^^ ^5 ovSkv ' " . ^." €. " " . . ' /^ev /." " " ^7.

." " ." €. "Aeyet?. - ^ ^ . . }) -.. " . " ' " i^-eivai . .^' ye Selv 95 that this is necessary. " ' .— Review the conjugation go i. 6 - - ^•> ." ." - . 77." " " ..^' -. to be in need of this. .. also of the drill in Exercise 47." iav iv -. " Seiv " . €. 05 " 6 . ." . ." making use / . ^-^ '^ . elvai oe eivai .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 144 66.• .'^ € 6 ? . . €.e. ye - . " iav " . arpaT-qybs aipedeis having been elected general. TA " 88. ow. of § . "'. LXXVII.

. 88. A' '^^. etc. 93. 107. ' . . with adjectives. €. • 94. falsely declare that reen- aor. § 116 e .. /rots he lest himself destroy § 102.= . LXXVIII. subj. fearing Seiffds {-). . €$ make new distinction (and say) that oh it but that one ought. yap 5 . ' . prepositions. of ^. § 130. /cat eSofcet * .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^ rj . . • e^etv is right. Contract Nouns of the First Declension. . 91. etc." 145 . . . "''. "^'. . — -€ ... AI - Se TTore AQIAI.-. . § 117 with improper of price. forcements are coming." a^tat . Tt^eVat. ' . - eyoiye ) <5 '. discouraged. etc. yap '* . 99. § 28 D Uses of the Genitive: Avith verbs of earing for. § 115 h.

note the following includ- . '. § 89. (). (i. 6 6 . )( 4 ' -. eivaL. '. . offer. eva'yyeKiov Learn the conjugation of the compounds of of el. . . much. . the one icho 8.-. etc. § 191." / " '. ' }.. 11." 6 'Avtl- € ' ' " • eivaL 15 • /cat /ca . ing the participles in -oOs. iv. § 50 Herewith Exercise 48. this. .. considering (inquiring. . " . ." yvpeia €. '-— . — --€\$ .. xohether. I am 14 was neglecting to examine himself as in the presence of the : buy 18. of the dual and to hoio man c. .. Of etc. give.. . €.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 146 . 2. hvolv 4€. 5. tioo Thv . . \. - > . loondering) ff. minae. ' .e. Gen. LXXIX. himself his friend).

' . whenever to sell. ." = 27. possible to get. 6 €t . etc. " ^» -^. 20 . - . " 147 . antidote. to -" AIQIAI. to offer for sale. - ye eavrov. .'^. eiraywybv ." .1 - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -. apodosis. (29-30) lest it eupovros sell for . be a temptation. €- give in return. .- 3° rj hear one (complaining) that. -. . 24. give to. what he it is etc. 6 au ecTTt. . . . Of. give a share of (Gen. 25 ' . give bacJc. " B' eivau. poSlBo another. - ) ^ -fj . ) .^ AI avrjp. sell. -^^. betray.). /. . restore. 1 6. < . 29. hand over Of. will fetch. 28. .

. . 2.' ' . • .. . . . 149-150.. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 148 •? . . avepi ' € oySoT] of § 89. € TOL SiKaiov ovre avSpa iv . To ' " . — . 49. 222 . . together with the declen- sion of the participles in -vs. show. 739 ^. — '€<. Herewith Exercise 1. 609-615. $. § 50 C.. . eivai ' — 3- 4. Review the conjugation of . ' . and learn that point out. LXXX..' ^. 4. — Qeiyvidoi. § 90. - oioa .

See Lesson VI. = = . & =: 8 1.-. and bear nor carry. An . ^ . ' • eivai €)(. in the inward parts. 9 149 ic / ^ I b. cepts. = 4. . 5 I . ( neither . Attic Insckiption. . persuading them by their pre- (sc. . § 164. such outward advantages as I possess. 5. . ^ ^ -€ '» . 600-500 ^ A/^ [ . \ € 5- Trjhe yevecr^at € 8e €17) ) 6 — -% ) . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK irepi apeTTj^ ^ . ^^ ' . 3.c.

and serves to illustrate the studied cruelty of book oriental torture. afterwards = . ^s ceavTov to your oion (home). Attic prose (except Thucydides) regularly employs ets. (?) (-) throio aside. 6. ( '•/5). summoning the nobleman Har'pagus.(-) ^(/7 . $ . It is very common in early Greek. eXeyev TOiaSe crot e/xe re . - --. 6 )(). • " ' Oaxjjov 4. ). be put to Asty'ages fearing lest his grandson -would death. The Punishment of Harpagus. in whatever manner. Accordingly. -) .OF GREEK THE FIRST 150 ADDITIONAL SELECTIONS FOR READING This selection. 6(^ 8. misuse). as by Thucydides. ovv OLKeiov .. -) {-\\ abuse. es (= eis) is the form regularly 7. Astyages gave orders that the child. determined to make ayay with the boy in his infancy. nepi-w^iT-gs later.c). be your oion tindoing. § 157. employed by Herodotus. is taken from the first of Herodotus (108 ff. 5. . some day supplant him in the kingdom. king of the Medes and Persians (594-559 b. the Pensian. e^ by means disregard (lit. his chief administrator and the most faithful of his subjects. deceive). the son of his daughter Man'dane and Camby'ses.. -. fall foul of yourself. 5 /caXeicra? re ^' ^ avopa.

25 ). .^ € 151 avSpl ovSev. . 15. robed for burial. the past man (i. 26. without a son. . . . . ^^~ ' 6 Si 5 ) " • 7} eVt ' shall {is about to) pass to. ^. . in myself). -• /THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK - ' ySovXet.-. . rendered {in) the robe for will not give assent to his resolve. ' . '. dressed () and.• .^ ' TOl•* ^. " • J) ' ' 6 . death.e." ' -. . -. . . '.^ varepov ere -€ . 28." -) yiyve- et ' 6 - OLKaSe ' " . etc. e? . spoken - rrj childless. neither at €(( . 25. .\ ". 22. my {service) must he have you observed any untowardness in this dutifully.e. € -€. 2 - ^-/3^ 9. any time in TO 7' 13. ^-. i. { -) --$ (^) 17. § 178. .

yeveadai . ' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 152 eveKa . - ' . 45 . . Teray/AaL 5 ^. P. ^. '€ . 6v to (one) of the herdsmen whom. -- Ttva ere 51. some one of the {servants. 33. -. ' . (). 47. (that) he Will destroy you. -. '. . -. Sei ' . '. -. . ^^ ^-.6 30 . deliverance. -€). .^' 6 \ . . 4 " ^. 44. . Sia -^. 48. . . . being with child and daily expecting . . . household) of Ast." eiire 6 35 . {-€. ' 31.

1 {to he rb astonish). '-^^ }- -. €-€. gasping and screaming. ' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ' e? 153 eV repoL ttJ? 6 . . )(.' ei- eiSov iSeiv € 6 ' ^. -^ 6 " . 61. . affwaipbv -^ in e. it . . . 57. 65 ' ota . . 68. . 65. . . he stood over seen. 63.. II B. • ' for lohat reason. (like a 175 vision sleep). 7° § 179. really civ - {-) was. ' . 72. he {suddenly) (that) which would that I had not § 153 b.. -€\) €€ '^ --^. do^o). § . P. § 145. tivos could never have guessed whose child . 8 £. . . € . . gone carrying) to carry uioay. appeared. . etc. 6 55 avSpa. not being accustomed (to -\$ (-. ^. ^. ^ . ^-/ ^ .. ).etvat )5. . -. -..

re . c. Se ^ ^. clasping. you loill be caught () .. . (existing openly) prevailing unrepressed. 93. 75. especially cloak. . Tedveos ^/ . . ^^ ^ . .(-/). Fut. he said there would come. 85 - ohov \oyov 8 oe ' • ' ' go -. 95 74. --$ ' () clothing. ^ - -. . -. 88. 87.'. -\(). 95. a still-born child. § 175. THE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK -^ 75 . of Purpose.154 . (e^Tj) § 115 . to see (it). -. • ^.' - eh) 6 ' -SLKv. 92. 84. 86. . wrap. . Part. " .. -- 6. }. .

^ . . Future participle.-^8 . 97. of . ^ . the one § 138. § in view of the present Trpos (i.." 155 - . 115 for the purpose of putting 101. . .- THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK . . 112. to death. ) . existing) circumstances. .. .. (child) lay buried (had Aor..e. 11. .. bestowing {upon).^ . 99..5. 105 iy 6 ' ' no "5 6 at ('). .. . and (noio) TO been buried). mid.. . ^ . giving. --.

) ^ . -. \$. . at once. 128. ^^. . merely ws Adverb. 131. anger just as he was. 130 him. whipping rt. . in name. name only. .. ^ ) -. 124. ) . The without ceremony. use of ace. . an added in Persia the yipas and name to of a another yipas (rd) a gift of honor. ' 6 " 121. loithout delay. to subject 7€-€ opyy 5e . 1 . ^aaTiyCiv he handled him roughly.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 156 . '^ € . . The King's Eye was confidential adviser to the king.e. § 98. etc. KOpos. . . 136. -$ 8 125 30 6 Sr) ^ ( ( 135 Srj ^.s soon as he tms released. - elvai. ^ )- he assigned the 125.. surname. office. in each one is (). elvaL I20 hrj eivai. -. i.-. ^ . .

-. disobey. for a slave's child to utter). 150. ySacrtXea. 153.' . -. '' • ". " * 6 ' . to 45 ^." 142. etc. to be like his own.8 -. . -. -. ^ . 160. the lapse of time since the exposure..^ .. 14° xpbvos $ es dvayvwaLs {there) came to Astyages recogni- eavTOv to correspond to himself." . wishing -.^ THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK Se 7€ SeiKvvs ISojv € Tou 157 eVet8r) . - .e. ^. tion. punish the 150 55 ' \ 6 6 hoy for the sake of the honor of Artemhares. -. . of themselves ^ refuse to obey.-^ until. 154. ^. )(^ eti'at ' 8. 6 -. es S ' 157.-- " .'8 . 159. too independent (i. . 160. .

" . (necessities) tortures. . use to the uttermost. 70 - elnev. 175 Sr) -] . 8 -^- Si '^ -^ Sr) 163. ^ ^ -. . ^> . . dumfounded. kill. (-) -€€€! 174. -. 186. €. -. iva-yKOLS 182. ). -.'^ ) - 6 . -. ^^ - - " - amazed. . recovering himself.158 . ^ " '" . . -. . . 6 '£ 6 ' ' 7/. ( TTejxxfjaL € -€€^< inl e/c-TrXayei? 65 ^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^ . -". make aicay with. - . Aorist participle.-. . 85 6 4-•9 ^'^^ ^ \ 162.

to the test.^ -^ . . 2 ' ^.. " . 205 on cross-examination.) -! .• " ^' . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ' ' e'/c 159 . 179. cross-examine. ^- . . . (aor. - i\ey6evos 189.) ) ' /. following) 208. be convicted ... §§ 156. ^.^ ^ . . . ^ . commands (= c3). igs having the anger . . . .e. -^ -^. -. (jiven ... ^^ effect. . evSov eiSe 4€. the which he felt toward him. subj. - ). to this (i. Sttws . 198. . //€7 '^ 19° . . \ 191 put £f. -.

yeyovus about thirteen years of age. 224. .?-. . . = 4. . - § 120 b. ? TO. ---. . it 215. . .. . 221 .. I did not bear it lightly.'. (^). . ).€- 211. ... had been repeated (iraXiWoy^w). TO - 6 " " re ) 215 ^) '] ^ - . . . 6 Si -. ev 216.- /ca . . -. 225 230 ^ . . ^. 222.) -- " . the things that had happened. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 160 . { tevat 6 . . 220 .2IO .

the same parts of the body. at all. and feet. . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 6 rot? € 161 . he was made to eat the In the famous feast of Thyestes. ^•t . 2?. . /cat \ -. ? . . the head. el tQ. -. iScov /cat ' o/c. ... .. flesh of his own children. the hands.. The reason for this is disclosed in the concluding paragraph of the story. which was when set before him by his kinsman Atreus. See the Agamemnon of Aeschylus.-. 1587 ff. 6 Each guest had a separate table. hands. 250 which was placed beside him.5. were kept apart in a basket. . ' -. 240. . -^ -.. ^ - - " 235 240 /cat 6 245 . if he had enjoyed the dinner. 237. ^ -- 'ot ^. " .

-\ CroesilS. Astyages sent the boy Cyrus to his parents in Persia. with jealousy men who enjoy too great prosperity. Avith his capital kingdom as far east as the Halys river. which was the westernmost boundary of the empire of Astyages. History of Greece. succeeded to the rule of at Sardis. Upon the Astyages in 550. ~/\ Halys. It was the most illustrious example that the Greeks had ever witnessed of their favorite doctrine that the gods visit seriously thought. Never more than for the memory of Croesus did Greece put forth the power of that genius. the generous giver out of abundant wealth. with Persia in the ascendency. if he cross the Croesus believed that "the great empire " would be that of Cyrtis. which she possessed in such full measure. Croesus determined to attack Cyrus this purpose conducted an expedition across urged forward by the response of the oracle at Delphi fall of and the Persians. B. He extended his .. but as events proved he was himself defeated and forced back into Sardis and there taken captive by Cyrus (c. : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 162 II-III After so ferociously wreaking vengeance upon the nobleman Harpagus. 238.c).). Kpoitros. forasmuch as they had supposed him dead. . I. The Astyages was deposed and Cyrus became king . and attacked and subjugated the Aeolian. In course of time the lad grew to manhood. Bury. and for the Halys river. of weaving round an event of history tales which have a deep and touching import as lessons for the life of man. and Dorian Greek cities of Asia Minor. the adorer of Hellenic gods." His rule extended from 558-529 b. none deemed his overthrow possible and the sheer and sudden fall into nothingness made perhaps a deeper and more abiding impression on the imagination of Hellas than any other historical event. 560 b. that . of Croesus himself crept into their sympathies And the personality — the admirer of Hellenic and wisdom. p." ^ art his 1 J. and conspired with Harpagus and others to overthrow his grandfather. will destroy a great empire. ries of his By revolt of the was successful Medes and Per- vastly enlarging the empire. Croesus. Cyrus gained for himself the title of "The boundaGreat. Ionian. About the time that Cyrus usurped the throne of Persia. sians. son Lydia (c. " A\vv -.c. so dizzy the height of his power.C. who received him with great rejoicing. of Alyat'tes. "The capture of Sardis Avas an eventuality of Avhich no one had So great had been the wealth and might of Croesus. 546 B. except Miletus and from the tribute levied upon his subjects and from the gold mines of Asia Minor he became fabulously rich.

.c. 6 -\. . reXevra. the story of the visit of Solon to Croesus is perhaps apocryphal. §§ 113 d. . .^ . to the court of the Lydian In view of the fact. while Croesas did not ascend the throne until about 560 n. . 594 and 590 e. 114. illustrate ? ^ . to the ovs ' § 102. % eyeveTO . although Solon appears not to have died until after Croesus' accession. '^ -- - "^ ' . 6 --- 1. II ^ 6 € . . -.. ^s (c. and revolve about monhowever. 5 . the Athenian lawgiver. . . being 35 years of age. Alyattes was king of Lydia 4. 13. .c). . . e^-eSe^aro 6 . 5 . irSiv 10.g.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Some the arch. Solon. \€5. they admirably the style of Herodotus and his belief in divine nemesis. payment of tribute. rovs iv ry Awptias. for 9. 617-560 b. But whatever the element of truth in these tales. that Solon's archonship fell between of these tales are told in selections II visit of 163 and III.

' /. having . et^e 2 . 37. ) ' . \. ot . woXvs frequent report. - ' 25 -. . (he . made ovoev as he had opportunity. fjv . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 164 . 6 ^ -LKVovvTaL ocXXol '. . . 38. -.^ . . e.rpecting. ' 35 6 • " -.. had he subdued). € -€ 6 19. a desire has come upon me. thinking.. ' 3 6 . futbjpct aftencard on the third day. ws 32. . $ 35. ^ . ". -\ how through love of knoioledge. 30. 26.^. held § 122 a.'^ -. \6yos 33..( cr^eSot' ' ). not resorting to flattery.

. .." . at Eleusis. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Trj \\ \ -^ \4yeL ' . severely. a iv 51. \\ . -€. (youv) certainly he saw children born. in the () on 56.. -. (). . .. 41.6 - . (to midst of prosperity. him being loell off (in the means) of . 45. ) ^. the very spot where. 4. . the many blessings (the great pros- siipposing that he woxild at receive second place (carry away any rate the second prize). -.) . II few miles northwest of Athens. . livelihood sufficient (for their needs) teas (theirs). . . him (lit. eiSev in-eyeveTo. Xe)(^9ei' " • Sr) • ' -/^ etvai 165 €< - " • fxev. his City being prosperous. . . .3. 6 ' • " 55 ' 40. (45) very frequent in Herodotus for . earnestly . 8 ^ . perity) of Tellus. 48.. 52. $ § 17!). 4° 45 5° 6 6 . -^ 4 the reply ?3 -'^ . TTjs 44. . 54. .--" . turning upon). life) to (-). .

her. The masculine is used here of the deity. . 61. . viro-5uvres. wpq.. rotdSe ^ .e. regardless of the sex of the to be 70. 7 - 6 yap -^ . -- ^. iv uipq. 69.-. be taken by carriage.. ^eos. 63. \ . ^ in season. 0% to be conveyed by team. tohat children she had obtained. ohe 6 6 THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK . •€ 62. . i. ^ .e. -^ .. the goddess. 67. . "). dead {-).e. that she had been blessed with such children 74. of god in question. . being prevented (^excluded) by the {lack of ) time. 75. § 86. (). 70 debs {i.! 166 - 65 .. 72. the divine but iu power ^ 1. ' " 75 ^ - . i. • \eyerai lepeiav eoei -£ .. € KXeo^et she prayed the goddess to give to etc. - Kleobis.

87. . -^ iv . ' " " . 6 TO. oovvai €)(. . you ask me (a man) who knoios the divine nature.200). 93 $) iv ff. .--\8 -. 83. . The great temple and the precinct of Hera near Argos was one most famous centres of her worship in Greece. rrjs eaLo>s the second place {in point) fortune. ^ . (rrjs tQ Herodotus makes Solon first reckon a year as having 360 days (70 X 360 = 25. etc. . re 167 ? ' ". 6 ^. -. of the of good- (). THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^. - -. €)( ) {-.- .^ '/.. '). go . . He then adds an intercalary month irdv) in order to make the year corHepov each second year 89. ovSl .) 80. ( (^ -- ." ^ Srj ' ' * 8 "^ ^^ 8$ avSpcov " . ^ . has been cast aside ^pwT$s 95 . 85. / -.

^ . . § 98). tmtil human I learn life is all uncertainty that you have ended your life in prosperity. to the Other. ^ ry 102. -• -.' - ^ . . year.^ 6 \ '. . ' Oe . . ^. . ignoring holding him (to be) of no account. . 104. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK - 8 at Seof. 109. - the one (lay . 168 . Gnomic § 136.-€ 6 4s respond with the seasons (' ai This falling at the 'proper time). ^. .. '^. 07 113. (-. he overturns them root and branch. /Lie^-eis TrotijffayueiOs ovSevos giving up. altogether..^ . -. erepq. that the seasons may makes 35 extra months in 70 years. . 111.^ . . 107. TO %» . aorist. €•. '' 105 . 102. and an average of 375 days in each In this reckoning Herodotus is of course in error. - ../ . ^ . 6 . loholly.

as one was --- may conjecture. . 5-? (-\\). something hanging (on the walls).e.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 169 . ' ) 6 koyov . although he . - . ayerai .. brought home) a wife. 11.-. "^ . 12. disabled. . he got (i. 3. 18. 8 ). etc. 13. (/3).^. etc. -^ . III ' eXa/3e iavTov eivau yap -).-. yap (jjv 6 6 ' 5 ". 15. - ^ . § 172. 7. (i^-eyeipw). 5 -). ivas blighted (-). .^) was accustomed. Aty. . aXrjdeiav . g. 6 -evhovTL .e. lest (i.

and could not enter again into social relations until he had been purified by some one who took pity upon him. The murderer was 25.-. 6 " " 20. Cf. § 130. 33. i-f\avo 37. : 34.• " 6 "^.< ' ' - "'. . ..e. . The purification consisted in the main in the ceremony of sprinkling the blood of a pig on the hands and head of the guilty person. 21.. . ^] his son being occupied with the . 5. i. c. ' ^ '' . . -.? . ws 38. 40. need (lack)." ^^ ' ' 35 . The name Adrastus means The Unescapable. who loas guilty of murder. .^ 6 * "'^.-' ^ -. \. ." . under a ban. who was a Victim of a calamity. yoxi loill (). iv (-). . eSeiro. ) " .. . 05 d7il'en into exile to friends. ^ . (). marriage (having the marriage in hand for him). he sought purification. ^ . -\ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 170 €)( 20 ' Iv X^pcrl -LKveLTaL 25 yevea . 3 ' )(.

39. -.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . ." 6 6 -^fJv. -42. €\ . as lightly as possible. cidtivated fields.^^ € «^ . 55 - . epya works. -.^--. refusing (saying^ no ^). . ." . )(^-. would (were wont they to) do. - iv Statrat' iv iv - 171 4° ' yiyverai. 6 . 45 i. ' " ' -\\ . 44.. ws 62. . 5° ^. C. ' - . § 135.' ^-.. 43.e. - " ' -. as zealously as possible. 05 a monster of a boar.. € ^\ ^ . etc. i-iroiovu 58. -. .. epya ' in ' oijSev. .

." . . Sia • " yap oxJjlv -. e. it . -. ) ' . 8 hi 85 " . -/- .-^.". . -. was wars and on hunting expeditions Heretofore has it been permitted us to to enjoy the noblest reputation. it is pardonable for you. to 7-?•5 = 68. . etc. aypa<. ttjs $^ lifetime. . TLvd --. 67. ^ 75 . formerly permitted us me) going (i. -.) " -. enjoy the fairest and noblest reputation through going. . . es . somehov I might if be able. .e. avTov 6 ^. avhpX . 82.• ) eivai. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 172 Trporepov 65 re - .'' -6 64. ei TTws during 85 my ff..5(€t9. . ayopav rtcrt ^ ^ . ^. . etc. exets you have shut out. have excluded.

" -^- . 108. ^. ^. . oSov ' .^. etc. . overpersuaded.^ ). etc. that the dream said. ^ crot ISovtl y' oxjiiv etjott nepl 173 e/xe ' top St/cato? ' rjv go ... ' .-. ' ) .. ya (otherwise) under other circumstances .. . . 106. ^ ^} ." ? - '.. 6 • ]. .. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . as he sets out. /cat . as having been conquered. ." 105 " • You say to say. 95 tei^at ' '^. 89. " *1 ^ /. dWws I would not go. etc. inasmuch as I have been 96. {. ]. . ^ ^^.^ .

) Sr) yyov. of hitting. confusion) greatly dis- . rvy^ai/et 6 125 yyv . {equipped with) attended by waiBos. -. expect SO far as his guardian is concerned. Srj 6 . so far as depends 118. unharmed on his guardian. missiiig. . . . confuse. tressed.. 123. . futVLre -paruciTple oi purpose. ) --. hei . . ' 30 6 Srj --/$ § 115 . . 126. men Genitive with. etc.^' -^ ^ . §175. . - hvooylo payvo 115.-". levai. aya- TTOieiv 115 ' ~ veal•' tat ' 120 eg -).}^€\€>^ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 174 ^.. etc. . ayyeXQv. (thrown together in trouble. ^ -' . ^^ -- no dvSpa /catov -. veaviais re and dogs. ev ^^ yap Se. 129. verbS e. { .

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155
133.

^eovs

134.

di)

it

cared for the murderer.

, \.

he had found.

138.

150.

.

§ 179, II

(he escaped notice feeding) he

137.

ing

()

he had suffered
Zeus (God) of the hearth.

et

)

.

had without knoiih

§ 176 c.
§ 179, II B.

except so far as

you wrought

it,

etc.

176

,,.-,
^
-€ -THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK
eVetS^

iyevero

eivaL,

^,

(quiet

156.

from men)

xohen quiet prevailed

about the tomb.
157.

-'-6($

-

(recognizing with himself) being conscious,

believing.

158.

he knew.

§ 95.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

^

177

I— EXERCISES

1.

(

For additional
baa,
;

To accompany Lesson II)

pronunciation

drill in

baa !

where ?

NO!
ۥ I too,

€ «.

:

bow-woio
iro

ircus

!

whither ?

;

yes

!

how ?

;

ov no !

1.

\alp€ rejoice! good- morning
ttcos

you

you.

et ego.

?

€€9

too, et tu.

hail! farewell!

!

;

how are you (for me)

€' / am ill.
/ am well,
/ am learning, I understand,
am not, etc.
I do not
I knoiv.
/ am speaking (/ speak^ Greek.

?

^

I
know.

.^

Each pupil should make
of all the

classifying

1

2

,

words

at this poiat a complete list
Lessons I-II and the exercise above,

in

them according

mihi,

i.e. I

not, ordinarily

am

to accentuation

interested in your condition.

has no accent, but attaches

and arranging
§ 120.

itself in

pronunciation

word that follows. But when it stands alone (in which case it
means 7io!), and when it is the final word in its clause or sentence, it
receives an acute accent
Why ? See further § f.
In ancient Greece it was not the custom to shake the head as we do
to indicate denial or refusal, but to throw it up and backwards,
and
especially
should therefore be accompanied by a toss of the head.
to the

:

,

.

,

:

:

THE FIE ST TEAR OF GREEK

1(8

each group in alphabetical order.

compared and kept
are as follows

may

lists

be

The groups

acute accent

^

a) on ultima:

b) on penult:
c)

These
and drill.

:

Words with

I.

for reference

KaX6s beautiful.

had.

^^

zvisdom.

on antepenult:
a) penult and ultima both short

:

book.

6€VT€pos

(^ w w)

second,

) penult long, ultima short
Words with

II.

circumflex

a) on ultima: uo^SiS wisely

.

ircos

.

b) on penult (ultima short)

:

( _ w).

:

;

cts-

5.

€€

2.

(

accompany Lesson III)

The Greek language has been spoken
for thousands of years,

lions of people.

to
is

But

aud

is still

as a living tongue
spoken by many mil-

of course the ancient Attic dialect,

which these lessons and exercises are an introduction,
no longer employed in this way. In learning the Attic

dialect,

however, one should constantly emphasize phrases

rather than isolated words.
cise, therefore,

In the accompanying exer-

master each of the type-sentences, copying

and repeating aloud each of the phrases invoh^ed until it
then write the other
veritably becomes a living phrase
sentences in conformity with the model, and repeat each
;

one aloud
I.

,

many

times.

"

understand, you do not.

,

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

€5, -

€09

6

'

understands, the sister does

,

know, you do

I

I.

are not.
(o

'

am

not.

3.

5.

am

§

103 b)

The

2.

II.

not.

brother

{,),^),
I

am

not.

is

writing

my

reading

You

4.

you

brother

are writing, I

speaks Greek, the brother does

sister

^,

not.

You understand, I do
'
The

7iot.

not.

I

179

'

One understands,

the other

does not.

One

6.
ing,"

writing, the other

is

etc.

8.

is

not.

One speaks Greek,

,

(^ol8€v'), etc.

III.

7.

etc.

9,

'

One is readOne knows

have

book,

you

have not.
10.

I

have a friend, you have not.
11. I have roses
12. You have a large book, I a small (one)

(§ 100), etc.

(^^.
IV.

£.


€.

;;

;

Have

Have you a book ?

YOU a

or

.

book?

YOU

Have

Ans.

too

Ans.
a book?

Ans.

14. Have YOU
Have you a friend?
Yes.
15. Have YOU too beautiful roses?
I too.
17. I have both (/cat) a
Have you a brother?

13.

roses?
16.

brother and
books.

V.

(/cai)

a


€$
'

We

18.

sister.

There

There

is

is

have roses and

no one wise.

nothing

evil.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

180
19.

There

There

24.
26.

one

no

is

dear.

21.

bad.

20.

better.

nothing

is

beautiful.

22.

23.

worse.

25.

large.

beautiful.

useful.

€ -)

3.

{
(^

this exercise

proceed as in Exercise II)

Enclitics, § 10 (the four accentual types).


I

€()

€€

amicus sum.
amicus

es.

amicus

est.

amici sumus.
amici

II

'.

Repeat with

.
6.^

fool.

3.

:

estis.

6()

amici sunt.

III

IV

)
^
)
^

(^,
(^,
€().
(^,
€€.
(^,
(^., ), .•.
(^, 8~) €()•
1.

4.

"
,

Grreek (PI.

clpii.

€1.

">€<).

.

f(hid of horses (tTTTro?).

fond of
7.

2.

-

books.

foolish, a

!

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

€,

.
'

kyui

You

8.

,

-

a)

I.

.

)

"ycwp-yos

are a philosopher, I

farmers are wise, we are not.

farmer

?,

.

'

am

b)

a farmer.

Fond

10.

/£/) are wise, some (0?

)

The

9.

Some

11.

beautiful.

'

of horses is the

fond of books, the physician.

;

181

The

12.

(04

roses are

beautiful, the trees are not.

How

II.

How

13.

()

beautiful

beautiful the

book

is

the trees are

How

17.

!

I

know

do not

does not know.

do not,

We

25.

(T(p

,

1

,

C

1

r

the

the farmer

know.

b)

This (one)

19,

He knows that he
know that he knows.

does not

that you know.

that

we

23.

You

are wise.

philosophers.

1

^^^ brother himself.

J

Strictly these differ slightly in emphasis.

BROTHER

I

that

tall

the (self)same brother.

'

,

()

How

€ -)

4.

.

He

How

20.

know
know that we are

do not

is

() (^
We

know

21.

etc.

small

is !

14.

!

15.

that I know.

he knows.

21.

(sm^.)

are!

How

/ know

(olhev) that

You

the roses are

fond of horses

.

knows
22.*

16.

!

a)

III.

18.

((^)

hevhpd)

trees

beautiful the rose

himself; the latter, The brother

The former means The

HIMSELF.

!

.

.

Repeat with :

1.

.

OF GREEK

FEBST

182

2.

8.

is handsome.
5.
The same physician is wise.
7. The father
6. The same f^meis are fond of horses.
himself is wise.
8. The same (one) is both wise and

4.

€ € «»

good.
II.

^Lol

a) ovT«»s
It seem» »o

to

JIE.

c

)

d)

also.

to

€ .€
^

b)

It teem» so to me.

;

10.
to
9. It seeuKS so to the same physician.
11.
to the philosopher
the physicians themselves.
13. Does it
12.
to the same slaves.
himself.

seem so to the
in. a) SOS

Give me the book.

TO

|MH.

Gfive the hook to

TO
14.

Yes

l|rother him.self ?

15. To the
To me myself give

Give the books to the same brother.

brother himself give the rose.

the roees.

17.

IV. a)

«;
18.

b)

ME.

Am

16.

Give them to me.

;

What am I to give yoii ?
6m
To whom am I to give the hookf
I to give

you the same

give you the book itself ?

£

to the farmer?

Am

20.
to the

21.

rose
I

?

b)

19.

Am

I to

to give the books

same friend?

22.

to the same wise physician ?

V.
23.

Call the

cian himself.
26.

the brother.

same brothers.

24.

the physi-

the philosophers themselves.

25.

the fools.

1 «writs, Iftas,

foie

8€

*o

% coBBonaiit.

{ef.

*rm)^

is

often ivmoaiieed and wrinen

be-

16. {do not keep') 17. 4. These {ovtol (rt) -) € be writing nothing. 9. Be (ye) not. May these rejoice. 20. am not. €€. ( May the farmers rejoice. wise rich. -) €€. (Tip . d) I. III. €. € b) ' ' / €€ cannot have nothing tell {say). a) '. Do c) (thiiigs). TTcos b) am ill. . €. Do not Let him not be urging. -). non . telling you nothing. May we be 13. c) They do not under7. II. IV. 2.) are reading nothing. you are well. 3.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK €' 5. you. learning nothing. to are saying he telling {%aying^ nothing. 6. d) c) 18. Let the brother not. 19. I stand. What What are these saying ? well. Do etc. a) ^. the physicians May this (one) consider the \vise rich. They understand perfectly. €.( €€5. be urging these things. 23. etc. You (j9?. b) - c) 11. tell ? 5. ing these things. Be (thou) speaking Greek. May 10. May May you not rejoice. We are a) '. consider the wise rich. not. etc.• understand perfectly. 8. We. May we we these rejoice. you are e) 15. Be (ye) learn- etc. but not you 14. a) - not he not Let these not consider the 21. 183 24. writing b) these £ 22. 12.

Can you (^pl•)•. fore writing this. not . III. It is not Not the farmer. but wise but as follows. e) irplv before telling. These 30. am 2.? this. of horses. but the roses are beautiful. as follows. ov but. the books. tell (€9 33. I am . but foolish. You I. We 29. Before telling 34. I. man} Not not so. the philosopher. 35. tell Can you tell me 32. €. « is intransitive : {have one- . 4. is . . these things. 1 The man When is . (Lesson VII) 6. . . etc. ii\Li . self) be. us. but also. habeo dicere. €€^ so.. accompanied by an adverb. (say ' the ') 5. It is . 31. give Be- 36. . I well.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 184 . . mother are well. not only . but the brother is fond Not the books. 6. not to be writing these 28. ill. . You are My 3. (the 11. not only handsome. have nothing to have nothing to Xe^eiv Can he tell us this the physician. not to be learning. of horses. 9. It is not so. 27. ? me me this ? etc. These are urging us. . handsome. We 25. is ill. 8. II. 7.') you. 10. fare. noli wise. it is € €€ it is as follows. things. urge (are commanding) you to be learning 26. but the physician is fond Not the sister. but also rich. etc. call the same physician.

but also learning (them).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK We 12. What 8. 24.. etc. ? if it lav he so. etc. dv Would you speak Greek? learning the lesson this. If I etc. be writing (Lesson VIII) 7.i € I. IV. What mn I to . should speak Greek. 15. We should 21. If these. 11. 17. etc. 4. Let us be writing this. ? We should 22. If you have money. also beautiful. 18. ( these things. ovhkv 1 not. €. if we have not money. dv We . 20. Let us not. These . Omit the word not be should (might) be writing would not be learning anything (Gk. we. Let us not. but is not only 185 £€. they will not have friends. 7. If they have not money. I. they will have friends. are. book. 6. What we are we to be reading be learning lav III. 12. ? ? €| |€ you? to tell the physician ? ? give . Let us be learning these things. Do 14. etc. 3. () I 19. If () have money. Would you be learning the lesson. Let us be reading the Let us not be going. 16. 14. are ' €€ 10. for ' them. What am 9.'' ). us be going. to not. I. etc. let ) not only large. II. I shall have friends. 2. you will have (e|ei9) friends. etc. etc. If we be learning these things. 23. book Tlie 13. 5. If 13.

By these {exercises} I learn is ace. etc. . brothers ('i/i^') learning the lesson. stealing. --i" stop reading. we should have we 27. we should not have money. - I This (one) will 9. make 11. stealing. I shall make you stop writing. pi. € €1 €€ things. The ace. you vriting. the other (does) not. 15. reading the book. so. 8. ^^ ^\^ -\ -€$ / T• We enjoy reading writing these 2. The one These enjoy 4. make you these things. 29. writing. many (PL 7/3^€9. see learning 7. 25. a) (^through tvriting} 12. they would have money. tiot. 6 b) I shall 6. my ^ reading. ? do -- Do you 1. I do writing (things'). They would rejoice. see you (j^?.) III. etc. ? enjoys reading.^ I see you reading.) 1 not. He 10. well. If friends. should have friends.V. If these 30. things ^j<v'^ ^^"^ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 186 -^^. not. is 14. etc. € enjoy reading. sing. 13. If it should not be 26. If you should not be we should be learning these should have money. if if should be it el so. learning the lesson 3. us stop writing these things. If 28. I 16. ? € a) II. I see 5.

an irregular noun of the third declension Ace. . 9. (Lesson X) . treasures. § 179. . 11. house-servant. . €. . athlete. . 19. . . these hooks. etc. . .^ 10. Having friends. they 21. (Lesson XIII) € ' € . these do not believe. ' oii. poet. . . Repeat Exercise IV. 'yvvaiKaz. pi.. we believe that we have reading this he learns . . Dat. substituting for '€05. . . 18.. bride. many things.. this book. I have €€^ 187 . . 1 See pi. (say '•having'') friends. substituting as in the preceding and in the same order the following vords . .? THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK € b) I believe have) friends^ By 17. § 39. $ exercise € € € €€ . sing. -. you that Having {if I treasures. 20. : step-mother. (Lesson XI) Repeat Exercise IV. 3^ou Though they have 22. //. 2 yvv-f) is Nom. . I a.

That book is larger than letes are handsomer 5. is wise. This book . (Lesson XIV) 12. 1 § 61. 9. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 188 € Repeat. to those poets. the physician s book. poet's if ') 19. making each if should be necessary. etc. please. my books. Give my book. if you are ivilling (or if you please). these philosophers themselves. Give the this to these girls. the 21. beautiful this rose (one) 4. Repeat. your ^ sister these the 17. . etc. 6. . Stephen) to Of. If I be wise. substituting for plural forms and necessary. you sister. (^^ than larger is (raSe). 18. he c. (or €1 €1 Come. wreath. athlete. 11. Repeat. If € you are if it wise. TO €€. 2. poet's (things). 2.. 16. this rose. ). € these sisters. 3. should be wise. etc. («?) wreath (/ 8. substituting €K€LV0 (-a) for How I. . using clause negative. $. that (one). Call 10. lov If the words teacher. This rose is beauis These roses are small these ! . 1. If I am wise. the 14. us. $ If I 3. 13. .. this large. teach will I the farmer's 20. €1 it if be necessary. 15. Give her her (' the 12. . is not. {'). farmer himself. Teach ME. it is el etc. tiful. your brothers. II. servants. wife this to brother's book. than those. These ath7. give me.

etc. II. Is the Greek ? labors we could 12. etc. 4. He c) is is ? 13.{ ). in life than good health What poet says that (Xeyei otl) Is 6. ? better possession the tongue not the cause also of ings (a<yaeS)v) I. believe. ' () - b) (Lesson . a) There 2. He is man . You 10. ' he 13. repeat. Greek? Are you 2. negative form. ills. could a) this. etc. If I be speaking the truth. is . (or and .' 11. 5. etc. is there than no possession. not a Greek. The the tongue is the cause of many There 4. many bless- XV) Is he speaking (the) truth? . If the pupil (o 3.' are not. ? 3. Repeat is in the plural What 1. say a ? do. If I should be speaking the truth. . ? € Repeat a) with must learn.') THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK speaking the truth If I ain 1. we € ? By Change the pronoun little 14. ? and Is he not. Is he npt a not achieve greatness. is ? speaking (the) truths not he ? Are you speaking the truth I. ? 4-9. 'they. etc. no means. speaking the truth. c) must must to By / must . 19-22. a good friend 3.) or b) not. better in is nothing. Repeat with we. etc.€€. you are speaking the is truth. 189 If 2. 15-18. etc. 5.

. changing the subject to the these. 10-25. ^ ^ . 1-4.$. €. .. III. |6. 23-25. what(^ever^ .THE 190 FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -€.). Repeat c). . . changing the J.. 42-57. €. € 30-41. . I hate. Repeat the clauses under a) with Repeat the sentences under b). . . . you (ye). 26-29. to and making the verbs Repeat in negative form. € €. . € ..€. dv <iv .. these. . dv that which is hurtful. 5-9. changing plural.€. (may^ be hurtful. €. OS (Lesson XVI) Whomever) does such iroici. b) I. . €. changing . 14.. you. athlete. II. to €7. . £6 a) . subject to . Repeat b) with kcXcuciv. Repeat. (or dv Repeat. (things). we. ivhat(ever) should he hurtful. this (one'). .

(^). to the Be doing 9. are Whom this! not hate sister. changing the subject to we. but not are is not. 7. friend 5. 14. these same 15. €€ in. brother is wise Your father 2. 4. Let 13. yours. we are me What to hate we I my ? to be . 10. brothers. mens. yours a farmer. BROTHER.. brother desire such things. 26-29. €€ €05 your. YO UR eraipos rade. Do other To one () not be doing such things! 16. 8. is is your . we to be Whom doing are ? we 15. my 11. our. (^) repeat each with tiful. () our book. Whom brothers. mine. noster. beau- (omit sister a poet. comrades. give the brother's (book). () Do 12. Our 3. com- and repeat. to and a teacher. GOM- your RADE. ). € €05 this girls. vester. you. €09 Change to Your 1.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK €. mine 6. 191 €. Repeat. to love my ? Do 17. my Call sisters. my not desire such things (). tuus. mine. €6$ €€ your. €8 6$ a brother of a comrade of yours. my b MY brother. my Call . (Lesson XVII) % my. farmer.

etc. you. with you. Tivos on what account ? . . these girls. 27. on what account? why? La TO on this account. do such things. the law. Trap' . irapd my for wherefore. May these never. Repeat with to . TovTO. irpos according .. 20. etc. etc. If I should never. I should never 21. at . etc. on this account.. Iirl : froin you..€ to me. ircpl TovTots on these (^condi- € €.. contrary to concerning to this.. 28. hy you^ etc.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 192 teaching Be teaching me. May this (one) 24. house. irpos tovtois in addition to the law. substituting € Master the following prepositional phrases from me. slave. " irpos hy the gods ! ] \ . \. never (/^) (/) 26. May Let us not be doing these things. . our slaves. . 18. why? instead of bia this. I these (things^. irpo in view of this. . 7. € €' €' tions). (Lesson XVIII) 16. with these. do such things.. Repeat Exercise XI. ivith us... you. 23. If etc. chez moi. 5 . 22. Trap' hy tvol^ me. before this. learn this lesson. 25. €. If If we. ? my 19.

-. oi 2) Fem. § 05 € . 18. . substituting plural forms 1) Masc: . . « THESE (con- ^ to ME. on LS ditions'). . ye. € and "ye certainly ! € " hk Repeat these phrases. '€V • . €5 -ye THIS account. is recessive. ^ (See § (Lesson XXI) 174. €5. oStos € € - . . \€ and much tainly the cer- ! very many. Contrast . . 193 veri/ wise. (Lesson XIX) Master the following phrases . : € .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 17. . greatest.. € € yi VERY many.) Observe that in these two words the accent ye. (usually written evye^. Tivos €€ € come now/ on I. VER wise. where pray f TTS>sbr\.

we shall have friends. these. we (do) not. 2. Let us be we do not know. 4. The one who does not delisfht in friends does not have friends. Let one be replying that he does not knoAV. etc. ? 12. the other in books. the The one who 3. If he should. We delight in friends. If you. 4. 1. Change feminine (both sing. etc. etc. If May ve delight. Let the one delight in 14. 16. Repeat with 2) 5-12. phrases 1) with the negative 1) to the plural. take May 13. should we be telling the truth ? 9. 3. etc. shall we be telling the truth? 6. The The one who 2. to be rich. learning this lesson. ? you be making no reply. Are we —) reply. to be delight in good Are we to reply that we know or that . these of 13-48. wishes to be becoming wise (^ one who understands these (matters). etc. You wish to become wise. 6. ? 7. replying that Qort^ ' ' this reply. yiyveadai). ? 10. horses. the other (does) not. If we should be making this reply. May 11. If these poets should. (Lesson XXII) 19. each . 4. 5. 15. If I should. What pray are we to be replying? 2. let the other be making no reply (say be replying nothing "). you (do) not.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 194 The one who wishes 1. If we be making 1. Do not be making this reply (say 5e replying this''). If you. 17. 19.) The one wishes to be rich. pi. etc. what must we do ? friends. 3. We have nothing to rich. ? If these. we wish ( not in books. In friends 18. and and repeat. etc. is 2) to . 8. to delight in friends or in horses 20. 5. If we delight in friends.

of shall we do? doing nothing. etc. conjugating the verb in •- a) in the present indicative. May (pi. these 8. a) TovTO irepl I. we 5. Review Exercises 16-17. should should not ? make By no means. € b) I This great value (or importance or worth) ^ consider of hold in high esteem. in (^ 4. 2. etc. . consider. I '- etc. c) TOVTO of greatest value (importance). etc. hold in highest esteem. in b) in the future indicative . . etc. of Friends ^). What What are we to be doing ? 4. 3. etc. c) TTcpl 1. you. I — ^) on 195 Am 21. Repeat each of these sentences. We he 3. consider of greater worth than 21. Repeat. (Lesson XXIII) 20. Be 1. in c) in the optative of the progressive action-stem. XXIV) What are we doing? 2. ? I to delight in a good friend or in a good horse I might make this reply. 6. money ought. May you 11. . substituting the verb (in which case the meanings given above remain unchanged).( THE FIRST FEAR OF GREEK we do not know reply that 22. May 7. I 9. 10. worth .). (Lesson . etc. of greater value TrXeiovos (importance'). of less least. hold in higher esteem. . Do thou. 24. ? We 23. little worth. substituting in a) Trcpl (importance) in b) ircpl . you Let these. we this reply. Repeat.

Who 10. some things we To-morrow 20. 31. . What reply to the Greeks ? mother ? boy has no possession more A precious than a mother (say 'there 6. ? Who you. "Ycpiav. I shall not The 16. 23. wise. . etc. 21. is will We. the Greeks. me about this. them. them. mother has no possession more precious than a boy. farmers.). . sider 17.) of «.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 196 Be calling your (say 5. ' know. these same 22. 14. substitut- the appropriate forms (both sing. some will not. I shall you 19. the other will stand- shall reply that (ort) 30. May we be becoming wise. will call me ? Consider 13. am I 6. Call the boy. firm. iraXs. and is for a hoy^' etc. you •)? 27. the mother. the father. me happy you happy. . me calling calling 11. 1. man ? are we to the to be making these men A ". Am themselves. these (things). the other standsThe one will flee. We should be becoming wise. etc. are calling them. 22. the ') brothers. ? I to give the not keep calling the mothers same boys themselves to the 5. call (^). the man. . become 24.. Do 2. firm (/AeWi). (-. Some things 18. what shall I reply ? ? these 28. ? gift to the old 4. (Exercise 16). (Lesson XXVI). 7. etc. We 8. etc. etc. These friends. Repeat the phrases with ing for pi. I shall () We 29. Vie 9. I shall con- poet. the same boy. We. -. If any one ask 25. to . the same fathers. know.- we think we understand The one is fleeing. Some 12. 15. I shall call shall. 3. 26.

. in 9-12. the same you making saying these will hear 12. value nothing niore highly than justice (^ I 5. wise. 24. Review Exercise 1. To have 2. in 5-8. The 1. 8. May we (things). this same hear you reply- ing to the physician that you are well. know are wise. in followed by the genitive (§ 115. 6. their father (say be doing'} father prevent you (} will prevent (them). father always prevents me from doing 2. are mortal men. as the philosopher says. For these ^ . (Lesson XXVII) Review Exercises 8 and 18. 4. vji_ We (} you always To-morrow reply. My ('') ' (Lesson XXIX) 13. We know that we knows that he is foolish is 7. i). gods. they will pre6. 10. ^. man's character is known from (his) speech. 3. examples cited . from doing whatever you wish ? 3. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK For boys are anchors of a mother's 7. Fathers always prevent their (' the ') children from doing whatever they wish. 5. Whenever these children may wish to be reading something. a mother life 197 (say ' of life for ') 23. we are foolish. but t/ou are wise. If these be able. vent us from doing whatever we may wish. Whoever We know that we are foolish. health is the best (thing) for a man. 4. Does ^our whatever I wish. and study carefully the in §§ 174 and 176. hear that A we 11. . I 9. In the following sentences use the verb 1-4.

are are are. . the appropriate forms of and pL). me Zeus.. to desire Let us 7. ? Whom * do these ? XXXI) 2. What offering to sell these (things^ ^ 9.this reply ? are we to be calling ? are to be Whom permit to do whatever he wishes 26. XXX) (Lesson Repeat the phrases with ing for (Exercise 16). ? Are we nothing.. do not know vho (rt? or you (say of whom child are Whose 4. What do you I. '• children? are these 6. you 3. 25. sing. ?!). Know (Lesson QyvSiOC) thyself not love thyself ! ! Do 4. etc. On what account To whom. For 7. you? to By 9. not seem so also also. ? (things) these desire 6. Love ^>^ thyself ! 8. For how much are you are you asking for etc. I 2. ? . . ? these ? We desire 5. «. How 8. . desire nothing. 3. Do not love thyself too-much . For how much do the gods sell to us all the blessings of life ? ' 1. we to be replying ? making . 9. we 4. ? he 2. to Does 8. (Gen. /?). 1 Ace. they happen not to love us. it tis (both . Who ?) you you are we 8. 1. How much do you ask for this horse ? much is the farmer asking for this chariot ? 10. substitut- . ? Whose the child")! What 5. . I.7. (Gen. II.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 198 men do not wish us to be as happy as possible.

his ('') son. Does your father permit you to govern the mule-team? 15. In the day-time these attendants rule me at night ^ (jjVKTo^ 8e) my mother rules me. . What was 1. you were not.• What am 7. for the dog was not able to prevent (it). we eating (Lesson saying these ? I I . (Lesson down XXXVI) (along') the road.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK (Xidv^ 5. 1 See § 119.28. near the postern-gate. to touch these (things). We thought we were dying. ? ? Touch My Qthe') mother permits me 13. XXXIV) you ? ? this slave ? ? we ? Whom 2. ! 199 The one who loves himself too much does If we love ourselves too much. Do not touch the chariot 14. No one was preventing us from making this reply. for he thinks more of the slaves than of me. ? Don't touch this! 12. we 8. 14. 9. these 9. I ruling ? What was you ? We were was preventing you from doing these (things) ? 7. 13. 8. not have friends. we shall not have friends. 11. By no means. 16. 11. neither eating nor drinking. We were not replying. 5. touching I 10. 6. We were not dying. We were becoming wise. The horse was eating the barley (say of the harley'^. 6. (jt?Z. Who was dying? 12. was ? 3. Who ' ^ {} .) ? 1. this! ! (^ 27. ? you w^e I was eating nothing. Why was the dog in the manger (say the in manger dog ') not permitting the horse to eat ? 10.

— 14. He we You kept turning around turning around he was frequently 5. away. out 5. These. etc. preparatory based upon this passage. in a position opposite the €v wall. 2. 29. 11. 4. Ap- out. €§ €5 €ls TO wall. 4. etc. I was going away. toward. Let us be going. . It -). Come . toward. proach 12. in. You were.. ! — away. . regarding''). etc. you were going 15. these you in 10. I Tliese boys and regarding us (say You you ? was not hesitating. etc. We were. 6. We. These boys. ' . . 16. What was I doing ? these We (Lesson . irepl to a dictation exercise 1. Make an intensive study of 1-15 (Lesson XXXV). <. in. ' XXXVII) 3. ? 2. €K to a position opposite the from a . position opposite ! 8. time for me to be going away for 6. 13. 3. etc. We were absent.. ! lines toward. 1 . is out. etc. My For they were phiinly eager to approach.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 200 according €9 TO to Plato. I am going away. etc. the opposite city-wall. the wall. father was wont to regard (say was regarding') the slaves as of more value than us his sons. These. kept. 7. (^ for us 7. in. out. Come 9.

Do not keep asking this. What 1. 12. etc. 6. 10. ? is 7. You is he. I. 7. My mother was wont of these same boys ing to ask me hold to 13. you. these larger. We 4. ? {) 10. (questions). 2. I was hesitatthe happier ? which of these men was the worse. 13. 9. You were asking which of us was the more beautiful. If you should ask this. ? 5.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK am I 1. wiser than you. (fte) ? are these physicians 3. This boy was hesitating to ask me about this (matter). 4. This (one) they were wont to consider (say 'they were considering^) the worse. I was saying that I was more beautiful than you. angles 201 is the larger Which 8. The one was asking. Which the largest of these Which 9. 11. ? are than these brothers. are books are smaller. we should make no reply (say ''he replying nothing''^. (Lesson XLI) are you asking me to be asking these (?) men ? What 2. we shall reply that we do not know. 12. What are asking which of us is the wiser. Let them not be asking these 8. to fight. There is is higher in 31. € am able qualified^ both to deliberate and [ \ [ € (Lesson XLIII) Qfit. What is smaller than this book ? wiser than you. We have nothing to ask you. 11. . the other was answering. If you ask this. OLos € € or Olds 32. were saying that we were more beautiful than 6. These 5. We 3. we regard nothing more beautiful than a good friend. XXXIX) (Lesson 30.

also as one having experience.€ €. experienced. substitut- Repeat with making the necessary changes. a $ $. I am nevertheless (things^. Repeat. compound forms) "? (Lesson XLIV) Review Exercises 23 and a) .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 202 Repeat . 33. substituting for (and making the other nec- essary changes. - 32. € ) T€ € through- Repeat. learning is adjective and so has no ^distincti\^e feminine Tovs avSpas. etc. ?. what in the ivorld Repeat with it is'). observing that . conjugating the verb out the present and future indicative. ing . b) Concerning these {matters^ you I shall try to question . still trying to he . .. conjugating the verb in the present and future indicative and making the other necessary € changes. old. I do not . (or a) Since T€ desire. I. . know what friendship . Repeat. Although growing many . $ II. is . -€ this sentence. (^friendship .. ' Repeat (making the necessary changes) with b) Although wise.

- 1. Out Far from ' of 3. Tas KOpas « a) II. the words a). versing with us. the From 4. 2. While ^?) was Lysis (Gen. the horseman.) of priest. 6. Write in Greek each of the following questions together with an appropriate answer. ( are going . the others will say {epovat) that friends. . being a boy. . 2. . irepi the words Repeat. About what were he . 2. 1. . who was Socrates? young man or an old man ? 3.. b (§ 39)..^ . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK c) «. . I believe you to be you are not able to dis- (Exercise 16). b) Repeat : 203 this being so. substituting for : . ') XLVI) Repeat the phrases with ing for away (^- is. Repeat each of these phrases in the plural.. Was he a 1. the others were con- As we 3. €. . and . €€'. Into 7. . Before the city. €. substituting for ToxiaSe. . (Lesson 34. And 4. Toi»s - Xcyovtos ol . 5. €€ In Around the . playing. While we were conversing with one another Lysis. Come tell me. substitut- appropriate forms (both sing. yet cover what friendship (^) pi. vas playing in the courtyard.

if let us do. tav should €l I do what are we do ? to let what did '€. € Aorist Progressive what ivas I «. Were they out what friendship was? 7. Who and the boys cou versing with one another ? was calling the boys and bidding them go home ? ? 6. beautiful into the city Who 8. if I be ^ doing. Repeat with Observe further that the aorist participle (having . TTOLCLV to be doing. . TToiet . this ! don' t do this ! to do. etc. to find than good-health Which 9. ivhat are we to be doing ? us he doetc. etc. What Were they going 5.). do ! . done}. etc.. dont. ? happier than a king is seemed to you of these boys able better is ? more to be the ? 35. lav T. etc. doing etc. I do. be . €1 T. ing. (while should do. be doing this TToicL .: : THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 204 4. do- TTOico^cv. ing f . . (Lesson XLVIII) Observe carefully the difference between the progresand the aorist forms as illustrated by the following examples sive . doing doing.

Repeat b). reference to time or duration. substituting for (both masc. substituting• for a-yyciXas the appropriate forms (both masc. . thank you for announcing. I am a) / fundamental meaning. € turn in announcing this Vou did me a-yyeiXas was kind of you (it to a good announce. c) '. tlius «. and fem. II. . 137.) of 36. and fem.) of iroitLv. havthe appropriate forms dKoveiv. €€. to recognize or asleep ? that I am €"am / am . bursti^ig Repeat each in the feminine. 66. (Lesson L) dead. thirty years (of age).-. my ^.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK € €$ 205 Indicates an act merely as an occurrence without I. / am . laughing.). Repeat a). €. Study carefully §§ I. -? '€. €€ b) € : said with a laugh. etc. Cf. Am I awake heard its is 'prior ing verb.$ a fool Exercise b) (/ (hv kiiow that 23). often refers to in time to that indicated by the lead- ing done. etc. Because of an act that « : .He a) He Contrast said (while^ laughing. Repeat. substituting for -YtXaaas into tears. o28a undone ! brother heard him This done he said. lost. c) - Contrast laugh. 65. thus / d) e) I have I am € come foolish. €.

Have you 19. 37. These recognize that they are 7. ap- or recognize that ten years old. to be dead. (Lesson €'' did not hear the man. / am etc. ? 8. To the truth. I have ' ' c) d) violated the j^^cic^• have neither seen nor heard the man. To told all the truth. e) We a) II. They Are you awake These are dead. We To have Study carefully a) I have b) c) 1 20. of age. 14. be thirty years of age. saying that I Observe that in English the perfect is constantly employed where.. «- € €€" To be dead. § 179. etc. 13. pear asleep dead. in What has he done ? = be more natural. 21. §129. 4. I am twenty years are undone €. 9. 2. about lost (vre/ot. an aorist . ! We 6. seen the them. ? These have not. has broken the peace 16. Greek employs the perfect infrequently. 6$ LH) € ( . d) 15. 3. To have spoken 18. etc. Greek. 11. am saying that was saying. seen and heard. have neither seen nor heard be awake. I. Who men ? 17. spoken. is Are 5. ish. fool- We are You are ! € What have I done? ^ b) / have told {spoken') all the truth. ? Ave are foolish. 10. these. We have 12.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 206 He ^') I. etc. thus Compared with English. : . those do not.

(while) learning. and third persons and study carefully the following examples of progressive and aorist forms 35. 5. etc. ipQ) is {ipiw) is the future in common use meaning / will not common. shall forget €€€. shall say. these things. 4• . don't learn! §157. etc. deny that Iheard the man. . ipd is . h) that I am « olos away not going €|-€€ (i.! dont he. Repeat each of these sentences persons singular. etc. : € 1. Repeat with €-€. to learn. learning these (thiyigs^. . followed by . having learned. I was lav learning if I € he €dv he . (Lesson LIII) 38. 1 Observe that (shall) say.! . if I learn these {things). €€ € may I Aorist I learned. he learning. Progressive / am learning. etc. etc. : ! THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK e) (or I have that ^) I sai/ (or said^ (or had) spoken. learn.! to he learning. f) g) 207 -uvai oii I refuse to I my go away~). etc. ovSeva 4. and means I shall speak. learning.! etc. - 2. Review Exercise second and third in the second. 3. . learning. may I learn. and the first.e. plural.

If I ask her many (questions) (questions) 1. .-. Repeat each of these sentences.THE FIRST YEAR OF GEEEK 208 . Repeat with : clirov. I should have made no reply. 2. What will I ask this woman ? man ? 5. I should desire to associate. b) €1 Even if were ill. (Lesson LV) 40. «. Two verbs of asking (Lesson LIV) ask (a 1. What was I askWhat am I asking this man ? 3. - 5. If should not be asking the boys these I (questions) (questions) . young. «. and making the other necessary changes. irats €.. conjugating the leading verb in each throughout the indicative of the tense indicated. 8. tion : : question'). 2. ivere not I should not he asking this man so (questions^. Study carefully §§ "* a) €1 I. •3. 7. What did I ask her ? 6. . If I be asking her many 4. If the hoy had asked me THIS. 3. Construc- two accusatives. 152. (Lesson LIV) 39. ing the same . If I should not ask them these . -. -€ -- 85. . 4. etc. c) €L If many V€os - . 1. . - «.

Do you knov? I know. Know well that these will say. Know that 17. i J is. Verbs this. etc.! knew . etc. 9. ) 13. May I never I knew. to 15. 7. Who Does this man not know what friendship is ? 6. 19. conjugating the verb throughout the mood or tense indicated.. I do not know. etc. we were To know the. 15. . to all we these. I this'! 9. 14. Ask me this. 12. 16. I knows what the sophist is ? 8. etc. 3. If you. May knew. Don't ask me this (§ 157). If I was saying that I should not be asking so many 14. 13. Don't 12. (Lesson LVI) 41. from seeming to know (say 'from know''^. 18. well (eu nothing. Let him. 37. 2. (^) (^) know 11. If these boys. etc. Construc- • Repeat the preceding drill. Be asking me this. . men. IL tion : ask ( two accusatives. 4. 10. I Review Exercise « (. etc. not. We have nothing to ask you. as seem wisest of (questions). keep asking me this.! 10. . Socrates we consider the For he knew that he knew (Lesson LVIII) of telling^ saying. favor^.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 209 Repeat. Let them. Let them 16. I. May we. not able to discover what friendship differs 42. I think I know. 5. 11. etc. ! are going away. thought 1.

was delighted at seeiyig. 3. (X€Jv^. * verb in the plural. Don't keep telling me this this. € Explain what you mean. 2. I 11. etc. . . Say we do not know. . (Lesson LX) was admired (marvelled at) for wisdom. What will I 3. conjugating the verb throughout the mood or tense indicated.. should this tell I 8. did say If I should have said nothing. 16. Tell 10. 1. I 9. ? I If 7. etc. him I ? What am I telling the boy ? 2. 5. If 6. ^:>omi out. ovSev Repeat 1 and 2. . 4. also chance to be saying also chanced to say tell. What say to him this . conjugating the verbs throughout the singular and plural. €. (§ 175). (thing). explain. same me (§ 157). 6.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 210 I. 12. What was I telling the man ? 4. conjugating the Toiixois . should say this . . 13. / 2. . Don't say this have nothing to say. If I tell this 5. This is This what I I (eiirav'). 15. to tell. 17. conjugating the verb as 3. We shall this. .€ Repeat 16 and II. clircv have come declare. is \vhat (/) 17. 4. 43. tell Repeat. before. say that 14. Repeat these sentences. € 1..

8. ( 4. We 12. etc. I should should make the . If I 5. as above. in the act of standing the boy stand am ( ('). I arise. ) Many 1. For I chance to fear death. (^ii) are is'). would it please should be called a sophist.e.. although not knowing that it is an evil. or by a 11. am arising. I stand (). Those who fear death many. 5. though fear death as is the greatest of I kne\v well (? ev all evils. i. 9. made 6. 6. Repeat 5. (Lesson LXVIII) 45. I stood 1. 3. was 2. both singuand plural. Repeat 4. but Plato a philosopher. etc. (^ said would not please me you. saying that Protagoras. those who know what (it) is fear death. By his (' the ') father. (^. lar (Lesson LXXIII) 46. I 2. He was not persuaded to go ^) ? were delighted at seeing these men con- — slave (irorepov I that. I I 8. I am 4. standing. Protagoras was called a sophist. home. Protagoras called a sophist. versing with one another. these The boys were was Lysis led home 8. the boys arise. 211 ! led home. I stood up. . should be arising.the first year of greek (Lesson LXII) 44. 1. and making the other necessary changes. was If it () men never be called sophists 9. I that (it) 2. I you? May 7. By whom ? 10. I 7. ). (ot are few. ''know the death what 4. ^'?) Few know what death is (say 3. conjugating the verb throughout. 10. I made ). etc. 5.

you. Don't set it dowai. etc. 4. 12. ' the blame for this? ? ? e) lav laois f) el XL LXXVII) b) c) shall . Let them not. we. $ -. ? These we should hold in dishonor. Where 1. those. ( 8^ Where are we. Let him doAvn. ! Be coming to know thy- -. etc. this same slave. Give me the book. ! Let these not 17. () 9. to place the stool 10. T. 6. 2. etc. ' 11. Let the boys themselves. they. 8. « self ! 20. those in honor. whom pray . 7. § -. 11. 3. d) These a) b) himself . etc. 47. Let the boy himself set it 5. a) I. I ascribe . the man. € hold in honor. I Repeat each of these sentences with you. Repeat each of these sentences with you. Plato ascribed the good to God. Those also I held in dishonor. 13. but not the evil. 48. I ran away. Know Do not arise thj'self 19. ? (Lesson a) LXXIX) . arise 18. and went home (say Avill arise. we.! THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 212 others arise. arising I went home '). am I not. Set it down (/cara-^e?). I arose 14. Arise 15. shall b) make grateful return to these . I myself knew the man. ! ! 16. you. know Let each (one) (Lesson .

? with my I delight in comrades. Grant me (/xot) the favor. Repeat. -€.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK for the benefits. Are we. a display of skill. 49. Maf/ II. }. delivered. e) €$ toIs y . etc. not have friends (. Let have friends. child to his wife. 213 never grant. my €-€ I aj^poiyit general? I am making . I to us not. ) } we should If 9. . b) c) -€| e) Whom pray shall II. 8. etc. etc. ^. herdsman went ') the child to the herdsman and went away. they. Having placed the child in the basket. would 10. 7. a) I. these If I betray these. Repeat each of these sentences as before. etc. betray your (' the ') friends. -. as above. etc. away. 3. ek he carried (it) into the mountains 14. ' having given we pleasures etc. sharing 11. etc. Having Don't. 2. my We 12. ayyo^}. '-€ / c) etc. the These gave (say 16. Am 5. share these (things) with you. The just man time alone reveals (say '•shows'^. Let 6. sharing (o 13. 1. Having given the 15. d) -. ' d) LXXX) -. delight in The herdsman { gave the child to his wife (sa}^ placed the child in the basket (et? 'woman'^. all my betray friends? 4. I shall not Don't not. these (things) with you. 1. (Lesson Xe^CL oStos ffe is speaking nonsense.

. 4. The man () seem to us is showing off (e7-e^.l'^. to be skill. man not. 3. These showing off. 5. Sophocles the poet said that time alone reveals the just. The young man is to show his Having displayed our skill.i).THE FIBST TEAR OF GREEK 214 2. let the old us depart. eager 6.

MEPOS TO PART II THE GRAMMAR 216 .

.

The Alphabet ( The standard Greek alphabet has twenty-four Form 217 letters : — . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 1. )..

I . Pro-me'theus. piScLV to as a numeral. Xerxes. um eus eus Sophocles. which disappeared in early times. See 6. Pronunciation 3. = = ng us. ancients used only capital letters the small . = rh ot ch Examples are et : = = = = = ps ae OS. Marks. Aiyvirros Aegyptus.^ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 218 that was officially adopted at Athens in the year 403 B. came into use during the Middle Ages. — Vowels ). The most important of these was F digamma {i.e. See §§ 8. The sounds of the vowels are indicated in the table above (§ 1). The primitive Greek alphabets contained three additional letters.C. p is written viclere. ( • — The Of these € are always e sometimes short.) = : 7. oe evs (final) ei. = see. was the Ionic alphabet. d) The letters were used as numerals. See letters Punctuation 2. Ti-mo'theus.. J ov (final) €$ S^p|i?s = = = \ eos (final) e Byzantium.) and the colon (•). See further u V Eu-hoe'a. 1 case. but note further that represents the long (open) e-sound midway between vowels are short. somealways long . Of. Fiov violet when used c) The . Before this date the Attic alphabet had passed through many changes. double gamma) It = w. In transliterating Greek names into English employ the nominative and observe that K = = = /* c 77 X (init. 9 f. § 51. i. times long. 6eos § 8. — The only § 51. punctuation marks used in modern editions of Greek texts that differ from those in use in English are the question-mark (.

)IPH. .

a) by a sign initial to indicate . packhorse. See century B. or | Avas sounded like ng in sing before e) in the early periods c) (7-nasal) 6. This sign half. $..(pronounced ego). angel . however. Breathings. the sign . perhaps as early as the fourth in glaze. of improper diphthongs (§ 4 b) Hades. cf. . . was probably rolled more than r in English. and these sounds are retained in modern Greek. : ( = f) Attic cf. but like zd.) messenger. were respectively it in were similar kh hothead. d) Every consonant M^as sounded. ' : ' : . sound dz in adze.was originally pronounced a) -). Philip. An vowel or diphthong is always accompanied whether it is to be uttered with or without an -sound if with an expulsion of the breath (). and this was pronounced like modern Greek. like sh. d) If a word begins with a diphthong. the sounds Later they came to be pronounced topheavy. to th ph that is. If no A-sound is present. breathing and accent marks (§ 9) are omitted. very early became (for € THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 220 to Athens Later. it still b) it retains in §6e. the (pronounced Ao) the sign is written over the vowel is called the rough hemisphere.C. breathing') is employed b) If the initial vowel is a capital letter. as in glaz'd . ' . (smooth breathing. the breathing is written before the vowel c) When an entire word is written in capitals. like th ph kh {ch^ in thin. the breathing " written over the second vowel of the diphthong This is : is not true. loch. was possibly pronounced sphinx. cf. ' : . : .

. the is I accent and breathing are written together: have you are. : I do not speak Greek. et €. 8. always has the rough breathing in the g) Initial Attic dialect above. rheumatism. makes a distinct syllable. See § 9 f. hyper.^ A syllable may be long 1 In pronouncing Greek proper names in English (see § 1. A a) In dividing a word into syllables single consonant --. elision (§ 12) are divided -^. a Grreek oh! . quantity of the syllable is a factor of great importance in the pronunciation of ancient Greek. as follows a) A vowel Orion. if this be long in Greek. followed by a vowel usually has the long sound : Ionia. further. Syllables. ^ So and ir when exposed through elision (§12) become and respectively before a rough vowel or diphthong " =. — 7. : . : cf. It is usual. is : connected with the vowel fol- lowing b) Combinations of consonants which can begin a word are connected with the vowel following : : Compounds formed without c) according to their elements Quantity. f) Before a smooth vowel ov not becomes before a rough vowel. «-. Every single vowel or diphthong. sounds.' =. — The : -. -?. e) Initial is regularly pronounced and written with a rough breathing a stream. cf. and to accent the penult of the word. / do not know . to give the vowels their long or short English .' =. . note) it is customary to ignore the Greek accent. otherwise the antepenult: Prome'theus (three syllables) io'€os Timo'theus (four syllables).: : : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK " When the initial vowel or diphthong 221 accented. whether with or without a consonant.

( _ -§ (— v^). ?/. c) A vowel followed by two consonants has the short sound. : : €. i. e. that when is. ae. ^). A 18) short vowel followed by a stop and a liquid (§§ 17. but three accent-signs. has a long vowel or a it ( ). is 9. when i. a) Accent English : it Greek in is chiefly differs radically from accent in a musical or joiic/i-accent stress . b) A vowel followed by a single consonant (or by a stop and a liquid has the long sound if it stands in an accented penult other- (§§ 17. of accent are : 1) Acute or sharp. Pausa'nias. But in such names as He'siod. wise the short sound : Cha'ron. The diphthongs ae and oe are sounded like e. Grrave accent as This constitutes the second element of the circumflex accent. a. ---^ ). Duca'lion. 18)) . The consonants c and g are soft before e. or y . b) There are two kinds of accent in Greek. the The ('). and d) oe. : €- Accent. The two kinds . Soc'rates. § 3) is ( : is. treated as either long or short (^ >^). third accent-sign is (' ). plays but a secondary role. where it is perhaps entitled to be called it is called. and another vowel has the long sound. indicated by the sign pitch of the voice is raised as the syllable is $• 2) Circumflex^ c) The or the uttered rising-falling tone (") ?. or followed by a single consonant (or a stop and a liquid) before e.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 222 By a) nature^ that diphthong (§§ By b) position^ short. when vowel (naturally its folloAved by two consonants or a double con- €- (|): sonant 4) 3.

€. not upon the accent (pitch). uttered alone has the rising inflection on if the last syllable (eVrtV). or in the words Tis who ? what ? final . may accompany one . but that monotone regularly sellable is acute accent-sign changed in writing to a grave accent-sign before another word in the same sentence. syllables of a word. like vowel when this is a capital : ". d) But a acute is not changed to a grave before an enclitic (§ 10) or an elided syllable (§ 12).. . and may rest upon either the last syllable or the syllable before the last (but only when the is last is short) The : . remains which at the is last This occurs when is incorporated in a sentence. and merges not so pronounced. 10. . . but before a single initial See accent-sign. The accent e) one of the The of Greek word always accompanies a last three syllables. circumflex accent accompanies only a syllable that long hy nature (§8).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Elsewhere an accent. Enclitics. acute accent . is written over the second vowel of a diphthong. but the third the last The is short : of the last three from the end only when the breathing (§ 6). a) Some words of one or two syllables attach them- . § 6 d. f ) The rhythm of all classical Greek depends upon the quantity of the syllable (§ 8).. individual accent in that of the word- its group: on the level. it is 223 merely a sign to indicate that a syllable which Avould normally be pronounced with the rising inflection (acute) the voice a word.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

224

selves so closely to a preceding

word

become virThese
Examples are

as to

tually a part of that word, as does -que in Latin.

.

are called Enclitics (i.e., leaning-words}.

,

,,

€,

The

b)

an

effect of

an

enclitic:

1) Preserves
acute

to

, () .

accent and never changes a final

a grave (§ 9 d): 8os
it has an acute on the penult

lowed by
3) If

i)

own

5 «, "

2) If

cent:

its

A

it

number
word before

enclitic is to increase the

of syllables of the Avord preceding, hence the

and

is fol-

a dissyllahic enclitic, the latter retains its ac-

€.

has an acute on the antepenult

circumflex on the penult

,

acute on the last syllable

.

(^^.,

,

(),

:

or

adds an

it

€,

c) Enclitics retain their accent:

1) Sometimes for emphasis
it

seem

so to

2) After elision (§ 12)

:

:

evil.

3)

)

)
wise.

is

pronounced and accented

' «',

d)

id

When two

each, except

.

or

€i.

in its clause

does

all things are

«
,, .'

When it stands first
When it is emphatic

7) After ovK.
is not.

€;

TO U too ?

:

:

eVri

;

the

:

man IS

«

:

there

est.

more

of course

syllable an acute accent

the

enclitics
last,

follow one

receives

another,

upon

from the one following

:

its final

.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

225

11. Proclitics.
A few words of one syllable have
no accent of their own, but attach themselves closely to

the

word that

and the
Examples are

are called Proclitics.

.

€K, el, ov,

But
by an

-ye

,

ol,

when

it is

Iv, els,

followed

Beos-

Elision.

12.

-

a) Elision
of a

:

,

,

:

a proclitic receives an accent
enclitic

These

in English.

follows, like a

is

the cutting off of a short vowel at the end

word when the next word begins with

05.

The apostrophe (') marks
pounds

:

*

a vowel:

the omission, except in com-

(for Stay.

and conjunctions accented
on the last syllable lose their accent with the elided syllable, and become in effect proclitics (§ 11):
b) In

()

elision, prepositions

c) Other

words throw, the accent back

but without changing the acute to a grave

The only consonants allowed
word are v, p, and s (| = ks,

a)

()
(for

'

.

to the penult,

=

word

end
and

to stand at the

=

attach themselves closely to the

(§ 11).
of a

:

Final and Movable Consonants.

13.

a

?

'

.

its)•

€K

of

word that follows

All other consonants were dropped at the end

.,

bod^ (for

:

cf.

'), €pe was
') and
he

writing

Lat. scribi-t^.

b) Most forms ending in

(also

all

verb-

forms of the third person singular ending in -e add
before a word beginning with a vowel, and often at the
end of a clause or sentence. This is known as v-movable.
c)

For

0X1 (oy/c,

),

see § 6 f

:

226

?

:

THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK

thus, so may drop the s before a consonant.
becomes
before a consonant.
before
e) The ending -€t of the pluperfect may add

d)

So

ۤ out of

a vowel.

Contraction is the
14. Contraction of Vowels.
term employed to signify the uniting of two successive
vowels, or a vowel and a diphthong, both in the same
Avord, into a single vowel or diphthong
>
of
contraction
learned
The phenomena
are best
by mastering the paradigms of contracted nouns, adjectives, and
verbs, §§28 D, 29 C, 41, 81-83.
But note especially
:

that
€€, €t,

A

and

€CL

>

cl; oo, co, o€,

contracted syllable

is

.

€€

, €>
and

regularly accented

€0l

;

if

>.

either of

the original syllables was accented

A

a)

the

final syllable

(),

with the circumflex accent, unless

? (?).

original

final

syllable

had an acute accent

:

b) Other syllables according to the rules stated in § 9
15.

Crasis.

— Crasis

(^

mixture^

is

the con-

traction of a vowel or diphthong at the end of a

with one at the beginning of the following word
(/cat

),

16.

(/cat ez/)

Vowel-Gradation.

e.

word

:

(/cat eav^.

— In

the same root or suffix

there frequently occurs an interchange of vowels similar

There are
two strong grades and one weak

to that in English, as in dri7ik, drank, drunk.

usually three grades,
grade, as follows

Strong

:

THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK

-

Examples are

-

-

:

carry

a carrying

€--

nourish

--^

know

(Dor.

--

;

Att.

-

I say

I place

€---^

have

-€

-€

voice

-s

was

nourished

I know

--

-s chariot

(two-carrier)

nourished

ciS-evai to

--0

227

a heap

I give

to

see^

we say

-€-€

tve

--€ we

place
give

consonants and their combinations
17.

Stops.

a) Stops (or

Mutes) are those consonants whose pro-

nunciation causes a complete though momentary closing of
the breathing passage.

Stops are of three orders (smooth,

middle, rough or aspirate) and of three classes (labial, palatal,

dental), as follows
Classes

Okders

;

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

228

€€ (-),
€€§ (-^?), €-€".
(^--),

but

c)

IT,

become

,

and

and

, , and

So
vowel
e

>

are

>

Of)

becomes -

When

e)

, , or

a

(

two aspirated stops (,

€- (-^

a,

t

and a

,,

)

/c,

is

would normally

regularly changed

(--,^

:

'•>

;

>

Similarly

or
(/3e-

:

,)

first

>,

>t,

(^--^.

§

;

(%e-

19 a). ^

Liquids and Nasals.

18.

a)

see § 61.

---((--»)
€-,

begin successive syllables, the
to its cognate smooth stop (,

-).

^

normally becomes

remains unchanged)

with

;

and the preceding

(a

short

if

(-/-),

:

d) Before

\-^^.

,

dropped before

(^€7-8~),

, , and

;

are dropped before

then lengthened,

is

et,

become

with

, ,

|;

'

The

and

liquids are

Of

-nasal (§ 5 e).

these

;

the nasals are

, ,,

, ,

and

play a very important

In the parent Indo-European
were frequently vocalic (written 1 m,
n, r), i.e. they served as vowels in the formation of syllables.
Of. fathom, yes'm, heavew, SittZ, brittle, etc. In Greek
or else
these vocalic liquids and nasals either became
developed a short vowel (usually a) to accompany and
or
r > ap or pa
1
became
support them. Thus
from
rn >
> , as follows
(e ---') from
(«jreX-to), § 20)
word-formation.

role in

language

1,

m,

n, r

,

:

:

;

;

€-.

b) Before
(/c?)

1

it

ir,

,,

(?)

becomes Y-nasal

There are exceptions, as

;

€-€--becomes

before

, ,

;

(--/)

;

before
it

-, --, ---.

,,

,|

remains unSee

§ 73.

) --,.
«THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

Thus

changed.

:

;

apparent exceptions

d) V before

€5

f)

Initial

is

>

>

g)

is

a) In

>

-

:

and

,

was lisped

seven (orig.

b) Medial

ev

;

;

after a

-.

Digamma

Greek

dialects

to see (fiS-, cf.

survived as an

qf. septem'), tnrcp

;

20.

;

placed

is

diphthong

:

-sound (§ 6)

=

to disappear
:

:

super.

between two

"y^vous (yevea-ot,

see § 35).

(/r)


?

early disappeared from most of the

cTttov

/

said

(fe-n--,

cf.

Lat. voeo),

Lat. videre).

d) In a few words an
pleasant

(^-^)

was dropped, or

original initial

antl

shows a tendency

Lat. gener-is
c)

is

tovs (tov-^^^

F•

vowels, especially in inflectional forms
cf.

:

(^6\-).

:

many words an

it

)

>

ec,

assimilated

- {)
-

:

There are some

doubled when a simple vowel

is

Omission of

rather

a, e

in composition or inflection

it

not doubled

19.

{-).

(/ueXay-?).^

or

-€ (-).
before

(eV-

dropped and the preceding- vowel

is

e) V before

;

;

see § 67.

;

regularly lengthened (a
els (eV?),

(^-)

>.

before

c)

{-^)

229

(^afdS-., cf.

initial

disappeared

:

Lat. suavis^.

Consonantal

l.

— In

very primitive times

many

Greek words contained a consonantal { = y, cf. pin^n '),
which effected certain important changes in pronunciation
and spelling. Some of these are as follows
'-

:

.

^ There are some exceptions.
Thus in the dative plural
dropped without compensatory lengthening:

before

-

is

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

230

,

,

(from

and sometimes

(^\-,

§

dpi,

>

,.

)

see § 59

d)
§ 59

:

>

a)

b)

59

-,
>

,.
, >

c,

§

59

).

c,

,

(=

§ 5 f)

-

:

c, /3).

€vi, €pi, tvi, ipi,

and

C/^op-) fate,

:

€iv, €ip, Iv,

, , Up

;

see

c, e.

>

e)
see § 59

>

;

1^

, sometimes

or

(see above, b)

;

c, a.

declensions of pronouns

The Persoxal Pronouns.

21.

a)

b) Pronoun

you (thou).

/.

(^Unaccented forms
are unemphatic.)

the

of

person

third

(him,

her,

( usually

if).

an

in-

direct reflexive.)
S.

N.
G.

.

.

/

a~\)

0/

you
of {from) you

of {from) him, her,

{from) me

D.

,€

it

{for)

-,

{for) you

to {for)

him,

etc.

me
A. €,
P. N.

€5

-,

vie

you {ye)

us

D.
A.

$

to

(for) us

22.

to

us

The forms

(for) you

yoic

ol

i

him, her,

•€5

it

they

of {from) yon

of {from)

G.

you

<ri

€9

ive

of {from) them

--

to

(for) them

tr^as them

are usually enclitic.

The Intensive

Pkonoxjn.

— The

intensive pro-

(§ 40 ), except
that the neuter nominative and accusative singular end in

noun

-0 (cf.

self is declined like

TovTo) instead of in -ov, thus

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK
S.

N.

avTOs

G.

.

For the uses of avTos, see
28.

avTTjs

§ 106.

The Reflexive Pronouns. — The

?

231

reflexive pro-

nouns are formed from the stems of the personal pronouns
combined with
They have no nominative
(§ 22).
forms

with the a The Demonstrative Pronoun outos this. . €. suffix -€. a) demonstrative pronoun.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 232 The article was originally The demonstrative pronoun € ties in accent. is See § 10. as 25. b) The Demonstrative Pronoun €K€LV0S that. the old demonstrative This explains the apparent irregulari- .

2). receive an acute (or grave. "5 : whoever Each part is is a compound of os who and tls some declined separately. when . b) one.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 233 Indefinite ^•^ YXQ/iJ'^iA'^O N- Ti Tis Tivos. except in the genitive plural tivcs. as follows: . Tivi. accented (§ 10 b. § 9 c) on the last syllable. Tivis Twri Tivas The dissyllabic forms of the indefinite pronoun.

V.234 P. THE FIRST YEAH OF GREEK . N.

235 .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK N.

V. D. . contracted a sailing / . €09 0€0s• vocative Feminine.THE FIE ST YEAR OF GBEEE 236 d) The ending nominative plural ot of the is treated as short . VOVS (wo?) mind^ hone. () G. () . So -. see § 28 A.. ( The nominative in''tI7e in os is ]\iasc'uline. irXovs Compounds -. ' . the has recessive brother €€.. D. (^?) () siave slave ? " ^^ ^? () () ? ? Contract Nouns. ? ? V. g. the G. ? Tois ovTois Tovs -? "€ -? "? - jlvToiis () . . . ? avTos N. nominative singular around. e) tive so regularly . the D.. . C. philosopher . : gift ? () -. the triangle € £ () ? . ? ?? V. . TrcpiirXou. accent . in -oos accent all the €. D.\. () () V..filiend same physician TO the road 1€ () € ? ? ^ ^» ? ? ? ?? ? G. ? child (oareov) {) forms like Trepi-irXovs tlie (/-?) basket. . () G. S. \. voyage. and Neuter Nouns. S. () : sometimes used for the voca- the .

. or neuter. both singular tions 31. and but NoLTNS WITH plural. if being dropped The c) short (€>?. § 50. final being dropped. : irais. § 13. and There are a few excep- tive singular accent the final syllable in the genitive dative. sion are masculine.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 237 Third Declension. feminine. is the usual euplionic changes (§ 17 c) But stems ending in v. a) The stems end in a consonant. b) The nominative singular of feminine nouns making |. . Mute Stems (§ 17). or . or as the stem. d) The dative plural is formed by adding . 30. and are in most cases conveniently determined by dropping the endThe nouns of the third declening -OS of the genitive.. In neuter nouns the stem final : or s do not add and lengthen drop those in - most masculine and formed by adding s to the stem and is : vocative singular employed as the nominative. (/^-). § 17 c. > but merely \ > ). is usually the same as the and nominative. . to : s. while (Xeovr-).. p. lengthen the last vowel. e) Most nouns which are monosyllabic in the nomina- .and mak- ing the usual euphonic changes. iras. t.(-). § 13. § 43. .

with Variable Stems (Synco- pated NOUNS). N.OF GREEK THE FIRST 238 P. •() (^-. ' G. the mother N.V. V. - Greek the shepherd the dog the hand (-) (-) (-) P. ix (() Plural Singular N. A. 34. Tip ' Nouxs Stems in the divinity the - or G. opviGas the chariot . G. oj^a G. sav- 5 ' € •8 • ' " ? € -() )ior (-) 05 •£ x«ip '€5 •() A. the father s. € (-) the pre- server. § 17 c) () 6. € () <() 5 5 (5 D. S. « (§ 18). D. 1 very common the daughter '. TO opviGes iroSts Nouns in Xeipes ^ -') •-() •() . D.• . . D. -. G. TOis () 33. Xeovres vvkt€s . . N. alternative form is the man . V. (-) ". A.<() Xcovrds TraiSes •••() 'Traicri(v) iroSds iraiSas Neuter Nouns with Stems 32. V. D. ".

N. 239 . V.THE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK P.

-. 38. 2. Lat. 3 () -. gen. {€'8 () vap before a vowel >•3.and -. The stems (() became respectively and (cf. {) knee more impor- -. -. D. . ". -. () or €. and (ySou-) then dropped. 05 D. . -£$ or cow. -|(). : spear €. .. . is Nouns with Stems 37. however. 1. ndv-is) Irkegular Nouns.-. -. 1. () . in -€. -€$ ship are thus declined Sing. N. V. . . -. . ol -€<() (-X^t) The nouns . Pl. ?Plural Singular son or €(). bov-is. Of. woman. . wife ^5. -. € tant irregular nouns are 7. -.. Zcvs () Zeus 6. toiis or 068 V. 39. . —A few of the . ($ •€ PacriXcvs the king N. (-) () G. . " - (to) milk . . . 1. vaOs SiXG.. leaving merely 4. -€ G. of nouns of the type of the principal noun in -. (^) water () and the p was . €. -. . -€$• is .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 240 This not true. -€9.

. and few others. and : F. new. of Adjectives the Fikst-Second Declen- sions. just. In the geni- § same form and accent.) (. tive plural all the genders have tive feminine endings (. are thus declined : un- beneficial. F. native singular is after other letters. have no distinca Compound adjectives. unequal.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 241 declensions of adjectives 40. .) - beautiful. t. of which the feminine endings belong to the first declension. Tlie young. tlie (. The adjectives of the first-second declensions have normally three sets of endings.) adjectives small. equal. or second. . vtos largest^ . A.) dea7% (. the others to the the feminine ending of the nomiAfter e.

better. of gold G. S. . and N. G. €-. vocative. except in the nominative. and — Most adjectives in -€os The contracted forms are regu- -oos are contracted. accusative. eii-voa true (cf well- (not ev-va). — The masculine and neuter forms of these adjectives are . «€ £5 € ?€ « ( ' € £€ € €( £ M. G. (st. V. . § 29 C as those given above (B). • €() . -. . § 28 D) and are the same . masculine and neuter singular. Other types are represented by fatherless. distinctive feminine forms 42. G. adjectives S. «- -^ -) (st. D. G. \. — The § 35) happy fortunate are declined . F. 41. . ?). is simiile and But compounds have no silver. pi. -fj So (?) of : disposed.') €05 : N. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 242 Contract Adjectives. See also 43. § 48. declined: Adjectives of the Third Declension. G. (-009) - . Adjectives of the First-Third Declensions. golden. V. N. M. V. F. as follows D.. D. (r^o'. <( •() ciJcXin hopeful. D. '-. larly circumflexed on the last syllable (/". . Neut.. N. . €€ € « . -? -. .

G. N. 243 the feminine forms of the first. iratri (st. long here. G. . -') : . . eupev- iracri Q>eupe-) evpv-^ graceful are declined . S. ^ A. D. £$ €( ^ < F. which strictly beblack and irds (st. broad as follows ^. adjectives and ^apicis •( •() -) cvpOs (st. true also of participles (§ 50). -) is every are declined as follows ? €5 M. This all. . . €. . . (st. D. V. 44. F. ( iratrai <() The wide.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK of the third declension . V.

244 THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .

:

.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK
r\his

(-)

-yas

.

shamfful

(-) large
{-) sioift

-$

-<08

(for

more or

£(

good

-KrTOS

less irregular

better

best
best

better

KpeCrTwv better

-TOs best

evil

small
1

much
easy

,

Comparatives in

48.

«--8

^-')

beautiful

iroXvis

-\-<08

--)

(for

Tlie following are

05

--

pleasant

-05 (-)

245

(for

-

^-/)
more

-

most

are declined as follows (c/.

§§33,42):
M.
S. N.

N.

F.

better

G.

D
A.
V.
P.

or

. V.

or

or

G.

So

,, ', .
£(()

D.

.

or

€, ,€^,€,
(.

sive in the forms:

\.

or

The accent

is

reces-

ADVERBS
49. Most adverbs end in -, the majority being formed
from adjectives with the accent of the genitive plural

beautifully (/caXo?),

pleasantly

(^8),

formed by means

thus

justly (St/cato?),

(^<;^.

Many, however, are

of other suffixes, such as -a

:

very ;

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

246

«
-aKLS

:

TToWaiKis mani/ times
within ;

-

;

-: ^^\

homewards ;

:

-

secretli/ ;

-:
from

:

home.

The comparative
adjectives

is

of

the comparative of the

(

adverbs which are derived from

regularly the neuter accusative singular of
adjective

;

the

neuter accusative plural of the superlative
wisely

(€

beautifully

So

-

superlative, the
:

more

very

most
least

less

DECLENSIONS OF PARTICIPLES (ACTIVE VOICE)
50.
-o-vT-^

A. Thematic Formation (Participles
§§ 75, 43).

The type

is

being (etVO

in
^

-,

st.

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK
B.

The

(§ 83),

and

participles of contract verbs in

-

(§ 82)

making, doing,

and

(-')

may

(-^)

-€

247
(§ 81),

be represented by

showing (declined like

asking {a question^.

follows
Singular

-

{-)

),

The forms

are as

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

?AS

, §,

?
,

Tn the same manner are declined

G.

•$

taking (ones) standi G.

«.,

-

having done^

having selected^ judged,

\.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

249

THE VERB
STEMS AND ENDINGS
Every verb-form consists of at least two elements,
and an ending: €-€; most verb-forms contain
€•--€ (rt.
st.
three or more elements
Each verb nor(rt. yvo-, st.
mally forms several action- and tense-stems; see §§ 131,
52.

a root

-,

:

-----

''-}.

-),

59-70.

Verb-endings are of three sorts, a) personal endings,
b) infinitive endings, and c) participle endings.

Personal Endings; Thematic and Non-the-

53.

matic Formations.
son

they are

;

employed

:

— Personal endings indicate the per-

a) primary personal endings,

in the present

subjunctives

;

When

the formation

when

the

is

are

vowel, the formation

54.

;

it is

%

is

not preceded

and

in the

in the imperative.

preceded by the
and
elsewhere

(o before

said to be thematic

endings

--, -.
stem

employed

the various verb-endings are

variable or thematic vowel
e),

of the indicative

c) personal endings

;

in all

b) secondary personal endings, or those

employed in the past tenses
optative

those

or

and future indicative and

-, €-€
i',

:

;

by the thematic

called non-thematic:

-, €-€,

The thematic vowel belongs

one of the elements mentioned in

§ 52.

to the

For non-thematic formations
§ 80.

,

,

THE FIEST TEAR OF GREEK

250

The thematic formation

see
is

€,

,-

§ 91;

by

illustrated

§ 79.

55.

Secondary Personal Endings.
Active

'

Middle Voice

S. 1.

-V

2.

-<r

or

3.

(orig. -T, § 13)

P.

-p•''!*'

--

1.

-€

2.

-T€

3.

-V or -<rav

^

56.

-TO
-jieGa

^

For thematic formations see
thematic formations,

-<ro

,

,

§ 91,

--

,,
,

§

(or -de)

79

;

for non-

§§ 86, 87.

Personal Endings of the Imperative.

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

251

b) Temporal Augment, which consists in the lengthening of the first vowel of verb-stems beginning with a vowel
€ becoming , and i, o, and
/ heard
becoming respectively , , and
I was wishing
A long initial vowel (except a) is not changed of the
remains undiphthongs ai and ei > ,
>,
>
(rare) remains unchanged
changed or >
or
I found
/ demanded
I was gone
Verbs compounded with a preposition regularly take
there are a few exthe augment after the preposition
but
I was dying
ceptions
/ sat down
I was
Again, a few verbs have two augments

(or diphthong), a, a, and

:

().
,€

(),

,

(),

£

---

;

:

(^),

().

;

:

{.-.).

(--)

;

:

seeing

(), -€| I opened (-).

few verbs which originally began with
With an e of the
have
the syllabic augment.
or F (§ 19)
/
verb-stem this is then contracted to €l
Finally, a

:

had

,

(,
rt.

58.

-),

rt.

-), €-|

broke

Reduplication.

completed action, or in
action,

and

is

(--)
(^<,

I
rt.

(--)

as following

— Reduplication

is

some verbs merely

the
of

sign

all

of

intensive

a part of the perfect action-stem.

found therefore in

(-

fay-).

It

is

forms made from the perfect stem.

It is of several sorts

-

a) Verbs beginning with a consonant usually prefix that

(, t; see
I have fled,
/c,

a rough stop

(,
/
,€am
€- I

consonant with
§

€,

%,

)

becoming smooth

have learned,

17 e):

have died,

dead,

b) Verbs beginning with a double consonant (", , ),
usually merely prefix an € (/o being
two consonants, or

:

«-,

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

252
doubled):

t

have thrown,

I

/ have

Verbs beginning

c)

the regular temporal

/
,),
()
have

I

heard

6- /

know,

lied.

diphthong) have

Avith a vowel (or

augment

reduplication:

in lion of

(),

led

I

have recognized,

/

have perceived (^-

().

have seen

/

have

irregular.

is

CLASSES OF VERBS

The

conveniently classified according to the

A'erbs are

progressive action-stem, which

The

Thematic Stems

59.

a)

appears in

many

forms.

following are the most important groups
(§ 53):

Verbs with no element added

^ €

to the verbrstem (or

--

in man}^ instances to the verb-root) except the• thematic

-%:

Three common

become,

b) Verbs Avhich add -T%-

c)

[

(§ 17)
steal

-

sit

down

(apiraj-).

\^erbs in

rarely,

-

or -^

7) Verbs in

(-).

(-

-, -,

(/-),

-

-Class],

dip

:

(-).

The stem regu-

20) [ioia-Class)

^^
§

for

(or

-,

§

19),

:

row (e/aer-).
from stems in

-,

-8,

a

few from

(-), -€grasp, seize

-), from stems in - or - (or,

§ 20 b)

;

:

beget, bear

(-),

(§ 20 e), from stems in
hope
(or by analog}):

a) A^erbs in

do

or

Verbs which add -i% (see

stems in

)

,

(-), €'

injure

it,

)

(for

fall,

young.

larly ends in

-).

persuade (7reL0-%-, rts.
verbs have stems reduplicated with

dig

-

(-},

(§ 20 a):

-

-ep. - stop. and.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ) Verbs e) Verbs stems in -. NoN-THEMATiG Stems 60. sit -). with a nasal in- take find (eup-}. - call to witness - (§ 20 d): judge --. -%-. (-. destroy. -. (rey-). -. -. of the progressive action-stem does not neces- determine the forms of the other stems.) (§ 20 c): -. d) Verbs which add a suffix containing etc. in -€v. -%- : c) (v%-. -. e) know --arrive perceive^ serted in the stem.-set (-. 253 While verbs are regular. -.- [iVw-Class] : (-). formation of tense-stems and action-stems The Future. Verbs with ^. -€. from in (^-)^ show stems in (^^-}. future has the (§ 53). is same endings as the thematic Thus the preceded by the suffix --. F. (§ 59 d) -\--). lose (for The form come (§ 53): {-'). .- drinks from stretch (^-). -iv. av%-^ - --- unreduplicated stems: be . sarily to ^e-). -ip. always thematic: -. -. - Verbs which add (^-. . 61. b) Verbs with reduplicated stems: show. -€. F. ^-). cut. corrupt (^€/?-). give suffix - and : many (-). in the majority of cases the prin- cipal parts must be learned separately. -. (^-'). a) The present future give. a) A^erbs witli (Ik-'). - (XayS-).

end. F. €. F. A f) in throw (/3-). . take. . syllables few verbs are wholly irregular see. knoiv. : -^ of . and also those mentioned under e). vowel % 63. are identical with the progressive action-stem forms of IT. (-)^ . . F.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 254 b) Verbs in future exceptions a /. in the (^ (^. . But there are a > F. see. do. F. F. F. The Second . -€ verbs in (§ 81) lean (/cXty-). Examples are verbs wath deponent futures. F. Verbs e) - future in . : 62. c) K. F. F. : . form the bear. . . being the verb-root plus the thematic (-%-'). .. : -€ . gation these futures. after teach few- TeXcoj /a). or |. : ask. - regularly have -. F. F. . €. - -€ and verbs in . more than two consider. F. forms middle) is of three action-stem (active and 1) Thematic. These are known as hear. F. have futures in persuade. The aorist Root Aorist. Verbs whose stems end in have futures in | y. etc. : €--- or . F. F.. learn. F. . F. - have . . Some verbs having active forms in the present have middle forms in the future. €|. € be. or have futures in d) Verbs whose stems end in a liquid or nasal (. : leave. call. €' — flee. ') is then dropped form the future by adding In point of conju(§ 19 b) and the vowels contracted. or : '€. : F. See Lesson LIII and § 84.

«--. (/cpiv-). Second Perfect Active. stain €-. and the last vowel of the stem. The first perfect and is formed by adding - / : have loosed ().have - See §§ 88. with the suffix Formations 1) and 2) together constitute what is known for convenience as the second aorist. . ivard off . shoiv for the reduplicated stem (§ 58) I have seen (--). For the aorist passive stems. (or : the perfect in -a ^). Three verbs in active. - > . The second perfect active is I have written cf. B. {-'). 98. c Verbs whose stems end in a liquid or a nasal (. to after judge {-^. ./ came to recognize (jyvw. . being § 18). 66. . has both and is i.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK the verb-root without suffix 2) Non-thematic. if short.-'). : ( lengthened t > > . — The Most verbs First or Sigmatic Aorist. see § 69. the perfect in -. - (or -a). ^^. a) § 28). e (^-). but like those above are of great importance. 89. See Lesson LXXII and § 86. in the first aorist -. />. . regularly form their aorist stems in -a omitted). . I have fled : yi- (). > : e. active €. 3) Non-thematic. is 64. being €-- / stood 255 {.<yvo-). . form their aorist stem (active and middle) by adding the suffix See Lesson XLVII and § 79 A. -. See § 64. €i. - --. . €-. . (77€-). These aorists are very few in number. The First Perfect 65. — Active.

18) PF. (-). receive Some verbs ending to before in Infin. If the vowel preceding the final become . ir. again. Examples are aspirated called are These . Pf. -). b) Verb-stems ending in . €€-.drop only before (-). Part. So I in a consonant. . I (/. If - the stem ends -. Pf. and and y become and consonant is short. -|.. (-). change €-. . view Infin. : €. Part. : judge -. . -').. €€-€9• others drop the have loosed for injure : (--). € . -. elai(v). or and in . J rt.(-).(. €-€§. €-€. perfect middle is Passive). -.-^. The formed by adding the endings directly to the reduplicated verb-stem myself. -. absence of the Normally. € / have guarded ^- c) If however a long vowel precedes the final consonant.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 256 perfect differs from the first only in the The second . - carefulbf -. : (/-) has two perfects / have : fared. or form second perfects. I Pf. -. have injured (. . st. perfects. above). have cut rt. (see the latter ordinarily remains unchanged do There are some exceptions. arid vice versa.€€-€$. - — The Perfect Middle (and 67. -. there are the usual euplionic changes (§§ 17. before the endings others. €€'-. and have done. . a perfect does not have a which has a second \^erb first perfect. €€-. .-. the .

/ shall € / : remember. . ((<-). — Perfect Mii)dle(-Passive). differ (). 257 Pf. is generally passive in sense loosed. and 68. is -^.-. and (forms in Some vowel stems add do not occur). €€- : €€€-. ". to form the stem . before endings not beginning with a short vowel at the end of the stem is regularly lengthened and finally in some verbs a vowel is added command. 18).«-: They do not harmed appeared 79 C. meaning was written : €--- ^. - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . (-). For the accent is (/3-). complete. ivas made 69. ('-). See § --- -. ^ This tense to . --/ was active . Pf. appear Infill. participle. (-).€€€-. sJiall have been / shall — The Aorist Passive. The stem of the aorist formed by adding the sufhx -Qe {-) or -€ (-V.-. -. formed by adding the future middle endings the perfect middle stem.) to the verb-stem as it appears in the perfect middle (omitting the reduplication. and imperative (except before -vr) Ge becomes / was loosed.-.. This formation is rare. see § 78. §§ 17. in called the first aorist passive the second aorist passive. was left (/-). and with the necessary euphonic changes. infinitive. was done rt. €--- The formation that in in -c. passive is --(-. of the infinitive and The Future Pf. "€•€-. . Pf. In the indicative. Observe that the aorist passive employs only endings. Pf.

§ 89). form i€ : -€. ^. the -- singular active --'). The Imperative. Before the ending -v of the third person plural the suffix appears in the 73.may they he loosing. The Optative. or adding the future middle endings to the stem (in -77) of the aorist passiA'e : shall be done. 71.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 258 "— This tense is formed by 70. €--. — The optative adds to the action- stem the secondary endings (§ 55) preceded by the moodExcept in certain cases (see below) the or suffix . (. - is used instead of -v --. . . — The Etc. Xvo-t-s suffix - appears before active endings only (and so occurs reguIt is always used in larly in the aorist passive. Thematic progressive a) Thematic stems (§ 53) action-stems and aorist action-stems. The Subjunctive. form the imperative by adding the personal endings vowel (§ 56).. see § 69). «. both active and mid: dle. of Mi-verbs . contract verbs in and is -€ he is (for usual -- always employed in the €--. § 79 C. of the imperative after the thematic . in the singular aorist passive: may I be giving active of : € may I ('/. In the first person singular active the secondary ending after the long form of the mood-V is used (not -) suffix -. The Future Passive. § : -The 79. - / shall be written. FORMATION OF THE MOODS. of all (§ 53) with the action-stems has the primary endings lengthened thematic vowel "/?: shall he loosed^ -t|S -t). primary ending -. subjunctive - 72.

. B.. 75. All middle and future passive infinitives have the ending § 67). active The first aorist has the ending -ai (a of the stem being omitted) The : : perfect has the ending -c-vai (a of the stem being omitted) : €-€. The aorist passive (see § 69. There is no imperative of the future stem. See § 50 C. — All active participles (except the perfect) and the aorist passive participle have the suffix -VT. b) Non-thematic stems. {eiTre-ev}. etc. supplanted by For Mi-verbs see §§ 86-98. The Participles. vidiich is : ond (. See Infinitives. -. active The progressive. (-. and these endings loses and the vowels are contracted > eo > § 19 b). replaced by is (-') in the (-at). The 74. -. a) Thematic stems (§ 53). b) Non-thematic stems In the : first aorist and middle the imperative endings are added in - -- -- (§ 64) active to the stem (or -a). eiirciv € to eiv: (aee>a)). and the per- (- its .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK - Of 259 - is regularly omitted. except that in the second person singular (^-) active middle § 79 A. is and (-oy). secaorist and future stems add the ending -ev.- then contracted with the thematic vowel (Xeye-ev'). "-^. The The declensions are given in § 50. fect active imperative is very rare. perfect active participle has the suffix -via in the feminine). - (with . For the - infinitives of end) has the ending Mi-verbs see - : § 77. .

-ov. except €. a) Verb-forms generally have recessive accent. liarities. \€K-T€OS 18) (-). with the necessary euphonic changes (§§ 17. end). The Mi-verbs had a tendency to become i2-verbs. The Verbals. . aorists in - All Mi-verbs have vowel stems. cf. In the last example a is inserted. in the progressive and second aorist action-stem systems.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 260 All middle and future passive participles end in -^€VOS . 76. Final -ai is usually treated as a short syllable X-ucxai. - when compounded with prepositions have recessive accent: -: dissyllabic put down! .e. — The verbals in -t€os and -tos - by adding these (see § 177) are formed - suffixes to the rerb-stem. aorist active infinitive circumflex on the final syllable - : or reduplica- in -€lv has the d) So also the second aorist middle imperative in put in! § 88. c) The second . — The The Mt-verbs have many pecuMi. Accent of Verb-forms. {irpay-). -09. is : i\Iany of the contracted forms are apparent exceptions. : (a/cou -). except for the irregular sit (§ 64. become! e) But the latter sell! § 89. first i. § 88. the accented as far from the end as possible (see § 9). word and be (eV-) {-}. Other exceptions are b) The accent never precedes an augment tion. 77.Verbs. €€5 for 78. which are best learned by mastering the forms They differ from -verbs only themselves (§§ 86-98).

give take! final ihi syllable. give back and ! 261 accent the provide ! come! go! ivpi find! ! vhen uncompounded accent dTT-cnre speak out ! the . -€5 of Bts.. . up ! h) The following regularly accent the penult: (1) first aorist active infinitives KeXevaai (2) second aorist middle infinitives perfect middle (3) . 5. (and passive) infinitives and participles i) and .. . .. : : .. . €S.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK g) : €€ behold! But - Compoiinds f) penult say . (4) : all infinitives in - All second aorist participles in -§ : - . all participles in final syllable in the $. -ous -us have the acute on the nominative singular masculine : . All participles.

€--€ 3. - Present Tense -€ Infin. Impeb. 2. - S. Xv-£is 3. 1. -- 2. unbind. 2. [•<(•-€ "-£ (-] and only -eiv (No imperative) in indirect discourse. Progkessive Action-stem . Active Voice. •<- 1 (-€ <-€8 (No subjunctive) <- -<() 1 Very rare. etc. 1. set free. Opt. P.() 1. 1. 2.-< - - §60 -€ -•() Past-Imperfect Tense S. €-Future Tense-stem Future Tense S. €--68 3. A. -€ 2. (stem Conjugation of -) / loose. -€ -€€ 3. -<. P. 3. 3. €--£() 1. . . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 262 CONJUGATION OF THE VERB -VERBS 79. -- 2. .. (- .-€ -£ SrBj Indio.. 1.

. - <€ -€ Perfect Action-stem Present Perfect (Subjunctive. 1. 3.I.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK AoRisT Action-stem SUB.. optative. P. 2.(-€ €-• (-() . Indic. Paet-Aorist S. 1. 3. .<. 2. -- Teitf^e *- -as €-(€() <-| €-(€ (-€ €-. and 263 Partic. \v<ras §50 .' Opt.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 264 Progressive Action-stem Indio. .

SUBJ. 2. ^ ' . P. 8. 2. 265 Perfect Action-stem Opt. The Passive Voice. 1. ^ Paktic. 2. 2. 3. The middle forms of the progressive action-stem and of the perfect action-stem are either middle or passive in But in the and future systems there are separate forms for the sense. : let it in have . aorist passive. 3. €5 € «5 €4$ . - -' 3. Past Perfect {Plu- €-'- . 2. S. . 1. 2. 1. Present Perfect Tenise S.2. 3. 3. 1. 3. Indio. perfect) Tense S. 1. 1. 2 Very rare . 3.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . 2. 1. as follows 1 There are no forms of the perfect middle (passive) imperative common use except that of the third person singular been loosed. only in indirect discourse. £8 €£5 £€' € € €€ (() €i€V € ^ (€ € £-' Future Perfect Tense S. 1. . - " or (No •< - subjunctive) - [< (No imper- -<] C. according to the verb or the context.

. AoRiST Action-stem Indic.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 266 L First Aorist and Future Passive (§§69. 70).

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Progressive Action-stem 267 .

-. 1.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 268 S. (iwoie-op) 2. ( 2. ( 3. -. ( € Lmpekativk -") -ere) Ivfixitite iroiei /e-e) -) (^iroie-eiv) Pabticiple (-) iroitL• § iroieiTt 50 Past-Impep. P. Progressive Actiox-stem lam . ( 3. lam being made. ( . P. 2.fect IxmcATivB S. conjugated like Middle (^Passive) A'^oice: making {doing ) for myself. 3. : : Peefect «iroiiis ( 2. . 1 : eiroiow -es) ( 6€ -ov) '. -e) itroUi ( -) ( -«'f) 3. FtnrEE AoEisT . €••-. (^) conjugated like conjugated like -.

. {(-6) 2. ( -) €7. -. Contract Verbs A.THU FIBST YEAR OF GREEK « ( € Past-Imperfect Indicative S. . ( 2. (^') I ask Progressive Action-stem a question. conjugated like : 82. Active Voice: -. 3. -. 269 .€ -) £-€ -) -. ( -€) 1. ( -01') 3. : €•. Pass. ( conjugated like in -. P. FtTTiTRE : . conjugated like conjugated like Perfect: AoR. 1.

-. (^^ trial of. try. . conjugated like Middle (Passive) Voice : - . conjugated like conjugated like or . ( -ov) €-. -. make . Pbogkessive Action-stem § 84 . -. ( -ere) 3. conjugated like or Aorist: . .€ € THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 270 P. ( -) 2. Future: 1.

€. ( -(>) --) --{) --) -) -) -y]Te) -otre) -) -»») (/-/) €€ Past-Impj)rfect Indicative (\•) P. ( « -) 2. ( 2. Optative Subjunctive § 50 . 2. ( -e) 3. 3. CoNTKACT Verbs in Active Voice £6€ -6) -) -) 271 make clear. ( -ere) 3. € € € Participle Infinitive (-) -e) 3. : AoKisT 83. (\6-) 2. ( -es) 3. 1. Progrkssive Action-stem Present Indicative S. £.^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK P. ( -overt) ( $ \6-) -T)s) € ( -() . . ( -. ( -us) 3. 2.l. . . 1. ( -ei) P. : «. ( 1 -0J') Declined like . ( -6) S.) Imperative S. €€ eiriipoo-ee conjugated like conjugated like (^) : <. -. ( -ere) 3. 2. ( €€. 8 -.l. ( -) 2. 1.

(-) -) ( 3. 2. ( 3. . 2. ( € -ourai) - Imperative (-) S. for the sake of comparison. ( -6€) -) 2. » / am £$ learning 2. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 272 Middle (Passive) Voice. 1. - Progressive Action-stem Subjunctive Pkbsent Indicative (-) S. 1 . ( 1. ( -) -^ Optative {-•) ) (^-) € (-£/^) € -) {7]\6-€) -) (-/) - Infinitive \6-() Participle (-!) -) Past-Imperfect Indicative S. 84. ( -erat) -ijrai) 1. ( The Thematic -ero) « -) -) «-) Aorist. ( 2. ( 2- ( 3. 1. together Avith the Thematic Progressive Forms. Active Voice. B. Progressive Action-stem Present Indicative S. Past-Imperfect Indicative I was Aorist Action-stem ' AoRTST I learned learning €() ££() . A. ( -ecrSe) 3. 3. P. r?) -) 3. 2. 3. ( -ei.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 273 .

274 THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .

1. 2.-). Aor.. 6 : Optative Imperative - ••-•€ '-€ -. .. . - Middle Voice words) /or owese^). to (lit. 2. reply Aor. Sec. cAoose (one's 275 •--€ -€ -€€ air-e 86. B.--- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK : replied.. answer. 1.- ••-€ Infinitive Subjunctive (. I stood -(> .Participle : Non-thematic Second Aorists. P. : / -. 3. § 63. See Intake (something) stand (§ 87).-Indicative S. 3.

. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK and I enter.276 r C. : € I entered. Aor. Sec.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Progressive Action-stem 277 .

2. (ending in €£€ €£< -) in the singular of the indicative elsewhere. second aorist. «€5 <£. aorist .) THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 278 P. 1. . Indic. See § 64. FuTCEE : : (first 3.

Indic. Progressive Action-stem Pkes. Active Voice. 279 .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK A.

-€6 -£' 3. eSiSocrOc cSCSovto. ---. \. .. S. - § -€ . compare . F.€ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 280 Past-Imperfect : Future and perfect are regular 2. '-€$ 78 e . (only in : Subj...Second Aokist Indic.. point Active Voice. . I sold) Infix. show. compounds Opt. 90. €6. out. 1. . . : as Impek. 1. . c8ci|a. - -€€ . . £8€ «SCSooO ISCSoto F. P.

except 2 Very rare .Imperfect 8£- . thus - / am absent are 1 All forms of the present indicative are enclitic. - or § 55 3. «- 3. P. -' 2. 2. only in indirect discourse. . 2. . 1. 2. e?). . [ « 3. Indicative 1 Subjunctive Optative Imperative (- S. Inkin. 2. 8£' €( . Future Indicative S. 1. (-) 2. £<£() 1. 3. Impkh. €l«r£(v) - ? € . (I 3. 1. S. € -€ € £<] / am conjugated like present and (§ 91). Paktio. 1. Infinitive Participle ovcra 50 § (€ {-) <() «( €£ Past-Imperfect Indicative S. SciKwoOai 8€£$ . Indic. €'- 2. P. 1. (rt. Opt. el. €crei 3. Sun.0 €< €<roiTO -(€ 'itrtfrQt 92. - : 91.i. 3. . 1. € lam Scikvvt) Past. P. - - Optative Infinitive Participlb 6<- <-£$ 6(0.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 8 281 Progressive Action-stem 8( 8€ 8€ Pres.

3. am Imperative . . 1. Lat. irap-fi Past-Imperfect So 93. : -(. S..-] --- . '-€. -. Cf.1 '-€8 irap-fjs -€<() -. -ci \. el- Infinitive Fi-ti:re 1-. .T^£ FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 282 -€ -- - Optative Indicative Subjunctive S. : going (rt. 2.l. \. -. - Participlb . ire).

283 .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK '. 1.

« -. 3. 1. 1. 2. Like thus s. -^ sit. found only in the progressive action-stem. F. . . -€. frequently com2)ounded with . \. : (rt. . thus Subjunctive Optative Impbeative Infinitive Participle . .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 284 96. --£ -(€ Past-Imperfect: 97. .« . down. and in prose (as frequently also in poetry) -( -€ -. . 2. € regularly compounded with Indicative S. (rt. kcl- is €-) lie. 3.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 285 .

p>lough). : odor -id: {cf. endure). : . becoming . nom. -/ -: €05 youthfulness . -: nom. -05 .: ^ -- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 286 often modified. NoUNS the suffixes employed to of indicate: Agent. means: -. : carrying. quality. nom. \- €-05 earthquake {. . poem - ) . : : - truth. -9 nom. : : housemaid (-)). {Bo-). unsdom. nom. -09 nom. nom. . (veo-?). sta- - Ablaut or vowel-gradation (§ 16) plays here an important role carry. -lov: Hence c-io. -lov: 10. (jev. nom. Muses come from nouns seat of the -ciov: in . > -epia oIk£-tls -tis: Action. ( : nom. j^our plough : Place cup pot : drink (^. pupil nom. The following some are A.-)). Feminine -6 - tl8. > - . mind. : nom. or simply the person concerned in the action €. : suffixes are queen. bring. forge Those coppersmith).speak). tlius : (^-. nom. smell -( hardihood -eid) - (oi/CO-9)• .-)). I. . FOKMATION OF SlMPLE WORDS. --€-{ {-(-€ { Instrument. -: -$ . "yeve-ais act of justice.( nom. shake). final vowel lengtliened made. nom. -- -«Os : horseinan linr-eijs {-^. . (. (-^. etc. self-control omitted) soundness of a thing {-. bringing. muse). : giver : speaker {pe.yov-). nom. (-. a tion added).

Xoltt- nom. expressing negation {A-privative') hlood). y\f6vh-r\s false. -:. -lov: - .-. €-(- €S. a-iraGeia cf.. Some of the more o. : . nom. daddy . maidens apartment. -5 nature}. (). -lov: -lov -. nom. or -a: Xonr-os remaining important are: (. apathy. nom. -. senate-house in 287 (^^. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -: . . - A. num. = young hoy . b) preposition (see §§ 123-129): hoth sides (of the shore-line). nom. anaemic without hlood. Par- Diminution (often implying affection. (\enr. young -. nom. ivo ta -ios heavenly. -os. : }: -09 . Adjectives There are many adjectival suffixes.-: -)). -: thenon (-^^. amphibious c) numeral events . : ivarlike. a. (2) of the second element. nom. Formation of Compound Words The Greek language formed and still forms innumerable compounds. : a d) an inseparable prefix -. ('). : --. contempt. contest living on consisting : ( of five -9 -. girl. little child. ural lo.): 10. : mindful. - -ivos genuine. The first part a) adverb: is «^-^« often an well-horn. an ahsence of suffering. - nat- (/co. These are divided according to the nature (1) of the first element. II. warm. etc.

brother . >. merry dishonored or adjective usually changes its form diaphragm. pelted with stones. if wealth is (a) blind (thing). § 78 a. evrepa the in- ( dyspepsia testines).-§ -5 latter case the €- noun (. father. pronoun which Avould normally be in is regularly assimilated to the case of the latter is a genitive or a dative: b Croesus the first irpiuTos of the foreigners €).-€€ ill: dysentery soften). AGREEMENT 100. accent. one who throiving-stones. : leads a boy (to school. A relative the accusative case the antecedent. (). killing one" 8 slain by one's father. whom we know (about) (= . cf. denoting uyiion (^A-copulative^ of the same tvomh. a one born : hemisphere ripen. element of compound nouns or adjectives regularly consists of a verb-stem or noun-stem. hall).). 101.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 288 ((-? ( -- -. : cf. mind). The last womb'). etc. In the -$ -$ . A neuter plural subject regularly has the singular the trees are : its verb in (Greek is) beautiful. Compounds generally have recessive But there are many exceptions Cf. A - neuter predicate-adjective is very often used as the substantive-predicate of a masculine or feminine subject : 102. .(Latin semi-): B.

or Aristotle.e. either . The to the (§ 24). the German usage) : does the father (i. 104.THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK 289 USES OF THE ARTICLE AND OF THE FRONOUNS 103. a friend) is another self. . was originally a in Attic Greek it has article.iiv\h\\te is when the article follow the noun (the afterthought position) : and . between the article and noun. a) before the noun.... reference the friend (i. the or wisdom. your father) love you much ? €5 With proper names and with abstract nouns may be used or may be omitted: article d) The noun is are the (possessions') beautiful. .e. the €. often omitted supplied from the context : when it Cf also of friends. c) A third attributive position 2i. demonstrative pronoun. b) The article €€ ' we use a very c) weak is frequently employed where in English possessive Qcf. frequently (jenerie in is dXXos see § 191. as or article being repeated: This position of the modifier (for the two a) and b) are really one) is known as the attributive position. and even the force of a demonstrative in certain uses a) The article .e. the can easily be common the many. 1) When a noun is preceded by the article any modifying word or phrase usually stands immediately after the article. in English : b) after the noun. i. oi . generally : speak- ing.

him. - tive position : pronouns (. (never 6 (§ 106). The demonstrative may precede or this - '). 2): ? .. dative. by the article. oblique cases (genitive. son : . . When the modifying word or phrase is not preceded 2. Demonstrative pronouns (§§ 24. accusative) when used alone serve as the personal pronoun of the third perthem. : - being in the predicative position (§ 104. her. . espeLesson XI. 25) regularly stand in the predicative position (§ 104. noun is the when So 106. The same (one') means itself: brother. the very the 3) : the teacher himself. this book (not man. either before or after the noun... and means self: accompanied by the article. But with the names of persons or follow .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 290 ^. the article avr\p : may he omitted: or this Socrates. Socrates here. 105.'). 2) or 2) (the') When it is itself preceded hy the article self(same). the same.^ stand in the predicative position The of personal genitive <. it is said to This position of the article cially in prose (but see . and attribute is rare. regularly stands in the predica- : '. The intensive pronoun (§ 22) is used in and Exercise Lesson V three ways (see 4) 1) In apposition with a noun or pronoun it emphasizes I (my)self.

and in some indirect reflexives: | knoiv thyself! stances refer not to a subject but to a dependent Avord '" 109. see § 120 a. 2 my. Relation- very frequently suggested by the For the dative. your. the Greeks said this (one). the following exactly reversed. (§ 23) are generally But sometimes they serve as indirect reflexives. THEY.' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 107. these. by the pronominal adjectives your (see Exer- our. (§ 108): child (or. 2). simply. '' . SHE. . each (of two). « 291 many) generally stand in the predicate position With the article is often omitted (§ 104. of me. toOt' that too. Of usually refers to what precedes (so the former - manner). 3) . Possession is etc. of you. . and 110. 103 b. . that (one). etc. (see §§ 104. «.e. €5 : (^) 108. etc. that. . SHE permits you Note also : doing? (§ 10 c) and to do these things. by my own cise 15). with the accompanying noun or €5 each (of § . expressed by 106. § : from yourself I shall instruct you. (i.): . of myself. both. to what follows (so But sometimes these relations in the preceding manner) . here he or you there ! what are you that is! thafs it ! is to say . ship or possession article. is both mean this. those. each day The pronouns but . my child). may Even refer forward in are : answer this! These pronouns are often used in lieu of our emphatic RU. etc.

se-form8 were discarded and their functions or meanings were assumed and expressed The ablative. in the Latin Q'-from ") being expressed by the genitive instrumental-2i\Adit\\Q {''with" "?/") and the Latin loca. therefore.^^ " in.'' '' among''').. which by one of the other case-forms.-Genitive Genitive ("o/") " Ablative ( from " ) . five cases distinguishes : and vocative. tive-ablative Q'on. etc." " among'''') Dative C^for. pronouns. In other Avords. ." in. genitive." ") .. as Greek developed into a separate language. In Greek. Latin Nominative : Geeek Vocative Vocative (address) Accusative -Accusative (object) Genitive From > Acciisative ^ . Greek nominative.Dative meanings and Greek divided the pure ablative this table it is at once clear that the constructions of the Latin between the genitive and ablative are the dative." "?/"')"-^ ^^-Zl~~Instnimental ^'Locative (" on. the meanings and constructions of the those of the genitive case fall into two broad classes : pure genitive ("o/") and those of the ablatival-gQmiivQ .'' " in. hj the dative. These correspond to the six cases in Latin and to tlie eight cases in the parent language from which both Greek and Latin were descended." " among ").^-^^ SsS. dative. expressed the idea "/roTW. by the dative. thus accusative. three of the original ca. -.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 292 USES OF THE CASES 111." was thus absorbed by the the instrumental (" with ") and the locative genitive " (" ow. In the declension of nouns.'^ " ' Ablative -z~w Dative Nominative Vocative Nominative (subject) ' (".

For the accusative with prepositions. ov g) Accusative in Oaths with no by.) battle.. - : a sophist. ohov^ . 112. (^Qognate accusative. 13. b) Double object I am : teaching the hoy geometry. : - . e) Adverbial accusative: . way."'' " to "). of the instrumental-dfitiye. much. c) Object and predicate-accusative we call the d) Accusative Xshilled') of man Specification in all things. . €€€ ^ (or yes by. and of : the locative-diitive. The is sometimes used for the uses of the accusative are virtually identical with those in Latin : / a) Object: fighting a case so regularly Beds Qnever 0ee). See p. wise an Athenian in the quickest why ? Accusative of Extent of Time or Space : there he remained five days.. The which prepositions may be employed But the piire geniand the pure dative ("/or") never employ cases w^ith are indicated in the table by italics. see § 126 ff. see / am you. by birth. . and the meanings and constructions of the those of the pure dative must be divided into three sets dative ( '"for. in what way? greatly first . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 293 Q'-from"}. in every all speed . The nominative vocative 113. with f) way. (sc.. tive ("(>/'") prepositions.

g. h. governed by a preposition €ts " doctors (sc. etc. With - the following groups of believed to be of partitive origin - a) Share: : verbs the genitive is with verbs meaning -. etc. With verbs the genitive is either the object of the verb or serves as an adverbial modifier thereto (e. taste enjoy c) all the Touch. some abla- of its uses being genitival in origin (" o/"'). so that the genitive appears to be to the (sc. make trial of: ov she does not prevent you these things. object. school. The genitive is in Greek a compound case (§ 111). - we -uci ae from handling . the teachers. possession^ subject. taJce hold of. 115. : good things. worship of Grod. material. § 116 f).€-€ why dont you share your conversation with us ? b) Enjoy. Iv The genitive with a noun is frequently employed in the predicate in any of the foregoing relations - : for it is €€€ " (the nature) of the free-born to speak the truth. part.. piece of advice. In certain phrases the noun upon ) which the genitive depends is omitted. exactly as in English: love of friends.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 294 as subject of § 175 an iufinitive. 114. cup of water. § 172 . some A few of its uses are difficult to classify. such as tival ("-from "). to in (the house) of Hades. cause. (^Adnominal Genitive) the geninouns When used with tive may express a large number of relationships. . : to els house'). measure. accusative absolute.

) PaaiXeiici neglect: : -. empty: who does no wrong needs no Note especially the phrases lacks much) (lit. f the island being not far distant from the mainland. etc. release from. he lack. Fill. b) Want. obtain. li) Memember. -. a) etc. etc. nearly all. . : clearly of ablatival - it is employed with verbs meaning: Cease from.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK d) Aim desire at. care for. remove from. strive after. hit (and miss) (Sophocles).6\iyov) almost - almost nothing.. dont heed. be leader of: Love is king of the gods (Plato). be inferior to. c) Differ from. The 116. : . 295 rot : Ipd of (all the^ gods Death alone yearneth not ov - after gifts (i. (Jiear. it is : far from (or simplj. it (i. genitive used with verbs also to express is other relations. toils Begin: f) follows. any one I I hear : •€€ you of : I whenever one praises the beautiful. laiv (Antiplion). become filled with pride (Plato). smell. lacks little). it . . surpass.e. be distant from. some of which are Thus origin (§ 111). forget. a sound. them. bribes') (Aesch3'lus).e. be full j) he began his speech as "§ Perceive i) €-|€ will never attain the heights without g) Mule. € e) Reach. lead.

the like. from the majority of people (Socrates). wonder blame. 117. here also in this respect differ I. . value : € at the price of toils the gods sell to us all blessings (Eijicharmus) . Such are a) aiTios cause of accountable for part in. With adverbs also the genitive is very frequent. •€ . €€ . different b) adjectives of the comparative degree lowed either by the genitive or by let your talk Tt (Menander). The genitive is . € : praise. The genitive with verbs often denotes the cl) . €€ Source: ME you shall hear all the truth from ' (Socrates). for how much irevxe does he teach? for five minae. f) Cause (with verbs meaning admire. be angry. - -.) . d|ios worthy of. See especially the so-called improper prepositions. €$ J envy thee for thy wisdom. § 130. note h) The genitive often follows compound verbs down upon. but detest thee for thy cowardice (Sophocles). and these are fol- than be better (= quani) : than silence 118. having no from . let no one used also with many adjectives.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 296 but gentlemen. meaning the verbs -- especially with those that parallel in mentioned in §§ 115-116. e) Price. etc. . at. g) Crime (with verbs denoting a judicial action') - : am prosecuting for slan- der and ami on trial for murder (Lysias). (^down) compounded with especially those against : despise thy youth! (Paul).

The true dative (§ 111). Like the genitive. 297 during five years. genitive absolute^ § 175 g. . b) of the agent Avith verbals in -tos and -reos (§ 177). the dative is a compound case is used properly of persons and when used of things. and with the passive perfect (and pluperfect) when the subject city must avTOis (i.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Finally the genitive 119. serve.e. c) of the indirect object : give 8os me the book. 9 fication "/or " is The present.. be like. ing § ivitkin is used adverbially to itself which un action takes place during the day . please. obey. sometimes " . had been made by for) them. also and similar is for ms have a brother {there a brother). employed the possessor with a) of verbs ethical dative. e. (lit. : € . expresses personal interest . irevxe For the genitive with prepositions see § 124 ff. So the dative is used with a large number of verbs vhich in English are usually transitive. meet.g. for the . : is . mer . personi- 120. denote the time by day . rich for another true dative commonly means " better suits the English idiom to man such a itXoutcl and not for himself. what shall I learn for what would you have me you?) The last sentence illustrates what is commonly learn ? known as the The dative : €$ - / -. of interest is «. verbs meaning help. Ocpous in sum- vuKTos at night. etc. €9 : in the even- in winter . is not personal be benefited : €€ by you the (strictly for tuhen preparations you) .

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ? . Note especially (i. The prepositions were originally adverbs and only gradually became stereotyped as prepositions governing . ? 9 298 help me! rots €€ if it irciGou obey the laivs «- €l tois ! resembles the preceding (instances). in .121. b) Place. accompani- € ment. is : . association.) day. found only with proper names The dative is used with many compound verbs and with prepositions see § 125 ff. The in strumental-(\. etc. : - on the folloiving .'dX\\e (§ 111) expresses instrument^ means.e.ive expresses a) Time (the day. the third on the same day on the preceding day. etc. respect. cause. manner. month. vaiois at the Panathenaea. THE PREPOSITIONS 123. festival. month. each other. adverbs. 07i ctcl in the tenth year. . $ he me ! had formerly used the room as a store-room. take delight in (please myself with) good « and use (i. serve oneself ivith) folloiv and - follow . little friends. . by a head") equal in temper. 1l22. night. (ivay') . The ' Zgca^ip-flflt. fact. and nouns which are of kindred derivation or meaning with verbs that govern the dative hostile to : equal to - freedom . d) with adjectives. 5? in KOLxnj this ttovois by : common. a head shorter in silence . This is more common in poetry in prose it at Marathon. . year. in which (ivay^ I in labors.e.

to be utterly coivardly. ex-] €5 before this . etc. give meaning. to and accusative cases (§ 111). since. often implying comple- etc. instead. . .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK The 299 was retained in some which abounds Prepositions are employed as in the pages of Herodotus. formerly. [ec-.. €| from : Ik tt]S '"€9 from what you say . as in and next. against. ' from^ awag from: air' from which ah") (sc. ivith In compounds: tion: d) irpo (sc. from childhood. learn by heart. on instead of peace. ex. from. exhaustion. dative. before the town . ^') time. tlvos. a preposition with its cases. ant-] § (. ) ^~) ^ of. case is repeated after the compound : The - leap off from the horse. b) from : in return for ' § 6. irpo € out irpo- design. in return. € voias from set purpose. Lat. the first element (or elements) of innumerable compound words see § 99. prepositions which govern the genitive case « (. ap-. [apo-. e) out c) €| (before a consonant e'/c out from the city . from. - In compounds back). hack (-^ and often suggesting completion. ' only are a) against): § 6) instead of (original what account f why? In compounds [anti-. Frequently. away. too. prepositions are used with the genitive. The 124. afterward. in return. the beginning . original adverbial force € instances. : : ills. in opposition. aph-] Lat. . before : out.

to. sym-. = . With the accusative only €LS. send in . In compounds: 127. Is into the city. €V In compounds m. : . on account on what account? . [pro-] enee. to ten . with: tols the aid of ivith 0€c3 em-] [en-. Prepositions with the dative only 125. Is tl els to . in with accusative) into. ') Accusative : of^ wickedness. e\-. in.§ (€At-. : (-. Is (orig. b) old form ) $ -. morroiv . altogether. els what (^end) on the until. in with ablative) among us . avy-. this reason through (i. on: kv in. to. In compounds in behalf before^ forth^ : in prefer- of. OF GREEK THE FIRST YEA 300 . in the beginning . episode into. quently also poetry) employs - with fre- with. a) €V 18 €7. c.. c. [syn-. by) after a long time. among. ttoXcws through the city . through. God. (--). = Lat. e friends. el-. €S €is used is ? Of. a) Genitive di-.e. -. sys-. In compounds : syl-. for In compounds through (i. € Prose usually (and with the genitive. = ^ . b. together. also apart (- why? because. on. -.e. sy-] 126. Lat. § 18 my b. Prepositions with the genitive and accusative only: (hi . kv on a stately chair. dis-') 5 : through: . iravTos constantly . at. Lat. a) ^amounting') for speaking . ' me . Compounds are frequent in prose as well as in poetry.

on the ? €€ toOs . above. In compounds against^ down-stream. of € through the army . among. back. Accusative: ' etc.. me . and way according down. the against us. up the every . etc. Trerpas : down from ' {down) upon beneath the earth /S) . [dia-. in defence of ex- [liyper-] With 128. down § 6) to. be- the dative and accusative only is used (^av) up: a) Dative . In compounds ceedingly. super) over: above. ) beyond Sicily Accusative: beyond: virkp more than half. completely : the rock head. beyond. yond {one's) power. according a) Genitive : § 19 . by sea. through. to the ? to laws. according down (doionfrom. by hundreds. down 301 : over xiirep on behalf of the city. : over. upon a ) upon (only poetry) : sceptre. on behalf of ? (the) head. . against. : over. b) along.): § $ €§ "' a) Genitive completion. di-] destroy utterly. day by day . . c) virtp (for both by land along the road.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK -€ {\ ' different directions^ sugs^esting often . motion . Accusative : horizontal river in up along. [cata-] Lat.

In compounds on both sides. b) ' § 6) upon. on: €? "? a) Genitive: during time ) rats : sickness €irl ness. ambi-}. 7) Accusative through: horse. again. € ttjs ' 7 our upon the couches . towards. : in Attic prose except in genitive. ol Croesus and those with him. up. around. mounting hri Btipas to the doors. up to. and dative. to. Dative my to make -§ it to a profession .. In compounds with the Prepositions 129.. 7) Accusative with cliietty « -€€ accusative. upon (in addition to^ €Trl something the earth. Attic In about. his .. $ sick- be learning lirl tovtois on these conditions. a) Genitive used prose - quarrel- in fear about about Miletus : the . for five years. : eirl for a time. ling about /8) Dative: his wife. upo7i. originally on both sides. for the sake : [amphi-] of. ac- cusative : (' a) hence = . [ana-] hack. cirl '€ for one's hurt. Lat. (eV. four deep.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 302 day. eirl . against. lifetime . Not common Xenophon. : €§ what they had. about.

ep-. In compounds alongside. to. /3) 303 those with us. : at. . beside. toward. what about ? 1 Trepi syllable. past. (^-(^-(€-88 In compounds of). (/^er. by. meth-] () d) . to me . amiss con- (- [para-. by. past (a place) along- Accusative side beside.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK In compounds for. : Dative : . : misunderstand). a) Genitive: with: ol . ' : at my with house. give a share summon) . with. amid (Homeric). among. among: § 6) with. par-] e) TTcpi around (on a) Genitive: all sides). : contrary ' to : ' . met-. at the house of (usually : persons) sons) " from persons) ) also de- alongside. in after : this. after share with : seiid for. trary to expectation. € ' against. about: concerning: ircpi^. after : of). cf. in which case it is accented on the first .€' Dative m addition. carry over. after (in time or rank) search (i. from (most frequent with from me. change notes change or reversal metaphor). often follows its noun. motion to (in prose only of permotion along. . c) upon. about. by. : 7) Accusative into the midst. near: a) Genitive ) it [meta-. trap' in each deed.e. | along the coast of the mainland. eph-] [epi-.

viro the side subtends the angle. behind. In compounds vive'). in addition. s to the light. sub) under: § 6. hyp-. € irpos at. against. ircpl . or prepositions which are never used in composition. by (of under Dative 7) Accusative "YTJS ) the earth. ol TTCpl lowers. Lat. In addition to the prepositions proper (§§ 128129) are the improper prepositions. ! -? irpos way of Cyrus . towards or during (of time) 0-€€ : under a tree. hyph-] 130. a) Genitive toward. at nightfall. Examples are . f) : exceedingly around. In compounds : under.: ?? THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 304 /3) Dative: about their necks. to staiid : : to [pros-] § 19. [hypo-. : (. gradually. for (a place) under. to. characteristic of the irpos ) it is Dative: irpos sur- irpos "6 near the city . : In compounds g) \»1 ] . ) Accusative around the PeloKvpov Cyrus and his fol- ircpl : ponnesus. tlie ' agent or cause): viro by me. irpos iroXet TOts in addition excel.Tots KuPetiCLV irepl xois to take risks with one's dearest possessions. irpos 7) Accusative irpos in view of these considerations. near: a) Genitive : irpos talcing by the gods your side. beyond (-^ (^- very glad). * : under. besides. secretly. [peri-] - to these thiiigs. agreed by all. also during the night. by (^fronting). (along) under.

called the present stem. .irpoa0ev in front of. before. except: tival its of of for the sake of eveKa on which far as concerns beyond (of time) straight) 305\ : to. or brief. thirdly. so adverb cept to ME) except . motion: -€ $? came Perdiccas and into Chalcidice. (usually follows to eveKa y account. € €| out of. i-yyvs in the presence near. . .. evcKa. apart from. as it were. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK With a) the genitive: € without. its actual duration. Every action can be regarded in one of three ways: 131. €V€K€V on account with regard within to . at the : together with. close to (cf 6<. but incorrectly. it . whether long first. it can be regarded be writing ") [time-exposure] merely as an occurrence. of persons only. Action-stems. book The first is the progressive action-stem. against . can be thought of as being in progress. same time similar to). €p. (cf. after verbs of he es THE VERB — Ways of regarding Action. can be visualized. apart from.^ as the in consequence all forms built 1 of these upon it called in stem itself invite one to Usually. being for the time ignored (" shot] . to YOU) straight toward. To express these three different ways of regarding action the majority of verbs in Greek form stems which are known this and as action-stems. or. as it proceeds from step to step (" to or again. it to write ") [snap- can be thought of as completed (" to have written""). c) Accusative : . noun between. Ivros behind ME (often also a conjuncclear to every one ex- € together tvith. : b) With the dative with. ivithout.

be writing. — The action-stems in themselves express position in time. third stem is the perfect action-stem. and here by add- ing certain prefixes or suffixes. the future and the future-perfect timeAll of the forms built upon these stems (or tense-stems). participle) refer to future time.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 306 regard the action as -. each other cross . These are seven in number. namely. is (§ 131) do not indicative The the realm of time-distinctions. aorist action-stem see Lesson (^- XL\"II and the unlimited. are obtained the tenses. That is to say. § — of regaeding Action and Position in As there are three ways of regarding action (§ 131).Perfect (Pluperfect) Future-Perfect . future. the time-distinctions are superimposed upon the actiondistinctions (see § 133). Ways 132. In addition to these three action-stems there are two time-stems . mood I was ivriting. two stems (indicative. 53). being in the act of The stem which merely names holding (having^. undefined) "^- - are both forms of the progressive action-stem (see §§ 52. so there are three time relations or j)ositions in These two sets of relations time: present. Tenses. etc.|€ beiJig in process. infinitive. So act is called the . etc. past. Time. see 133. thus . --. thus I shall : I am writing. and : " ive being in the act of learning. The 133. optative. as follows Present Past-Aorist Past-Imperfect Present-Perfect Future : Past. they are not parallel. %- to he are writing. or both. €- from the stem from the stem writing. The § 136.

With a negative the past-imperfect often denotes resist- ance. are both formed on the progressive action-stem. say.'" I declare. refusal. The particle dv sometimes accompanies the past-imperwhen it denotes customary action (see § 145) ciroC- fect : they would (were accustomed to) dv do the hoar no harm. tenses. which is regularly a presentand the past-imperfect (or past-progressive). past-aorist. future-tense stem. The present tetise (§ 133) is in general employed Greek he sends more common in Greek (for he sent^ heralds. and moods is set forth in § 79. still The we have long : are) learning these (things'). (woidd not. past-imperfect tense denotes a continued or customary or repeated or attempted action in the past. Sometimes an attempted action is exactly as in English.• could not) : . or are trying to persuade you. etc. but the historical present in is far : expressed thei/ : With long ago. Uses of the Action-stems and the Tenses 134. For the tenses a form is found in - of the perfect action-stem see §§ 137. a verb in the present has the force of a present and perfect combined been (and 135. is The formed is The future formed on a is also the future-perfect (§ 131. 138. they woidd not be persuaded. Theoretically there should have been formed also a presPerhaps such ent-aorist corresponding to our ''I write. progressive. wrote. as end)./ aorist. The scheme of stems. any other expression of past time.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 307 Of these the present. usually termed merely the on the aorist action-stem : '. usually called merely the imperfect.

Not infrequently the past-aorist indicative is used as a ?. its is The actual duration being ignored. refers to I thus: Indie.€ Subj. {gnomic aorist) : €€5. may I not write XLVII and LIII.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 308 The function 136. three tenses (§ 133). 1 In the indicative In indirect discourse the aorist optative and the aorist it forms infinitive refer to past occurrences (see § 179. - wrote us write this . and - beginning of an action or became king. patient or present^) dont we too. employed with dv to to express repetition : ctircv is dv he used say. 137..e. called the inceptive aorist.i § 84. as stated in to refer to an action merely as an occurrence. This : 38. -€9 • you come (in^. Sometimes. especially Exercises 35 The state king. of the aorist action-stem. See further etc. . The perfect action-stem invites one to regard the action as completed (§ 131). with a laugh let this? (i. the world's a stage. \|. the past-aorist indicative is eager questions (where English ov : call used in imemploys a why . 1 c). § 131. do and and do not affect the general correctness of the statement For the use of the aorist participle with reference to a prior action see Exercise 35. you behold. life's the entrance. like the past-imperfect. then Prodieus also? Occasionally the past-aorist. become to bursting into laughter^. . but these are secondary special usages made above. Lessons and aorist often denotes the €8 is . present to denote a fact of experience or a general truth €$. past-aorist indicative an action as occurring in past time but other forms built upon the aorist stem do not refer to past time. Opt. you depart.

« € € -^ (^ € (and destroy. (^ forget (. possess I remember 138. § 87. acquire'). emphasis dead.fiS-). like the present In English the is constantly used where Greek employs an hence in Greek the pluperfect tense is comparaaorist. I know .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 309 -. I am dead. I am I am -)). I am awake (^iye lam accustomed. pluperfect tively infrequent. many .- «" In Greek the perfect emphasizes the enduring result of to he / am awake . action the : awake. I remember. eoiKC it is (ei'/cw resemble (/ret/c- pOLK. (^yev- /rt-). etc. I stand .-^). I likely resemble . emphasizes the enduring result. Greek perfect instances. lost ( /rei- hpoi- to recognize. see Exercise 36.pLK-')^. perfect (pluperfect). ^« I is I have waked In a great rather upon up. (by birth) Ifear nize I have come ()- become he horn. have € of hawl- whereas in English the the completion of the action corresponds closely to the / lam shudder . (^<^^ I know recog- 7^0-)). The past poth. lose^./?-)). but usually even here the enduring the action is still more or less prominent. remind). the English perfect : made . ing^ hawling {ivitensive perfect). to be sure. § 95 (fetSIforget I have. .iyop. to he ((^^ effect Note the following (see §§ 65-67): €- I perish. perfect. awaken Ceyep.

middle.). see § 149. The Voices The conjugation 140. or in affects It represents the subject as acting some manner that directly or indirectly himself I make 1) I make Tpeiro^at myself stop. have a copy copy).: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 310 For the future perfect middle see perfect active The future 139. / copy for myself made (A. -other. (off) for hear. I cease {cf active (another) stop). I show myself. 68 § .) In some instances the original difference between the shine. 2) ^ I write for myself {A. The middle voice lies between the other two atid is essentially a reflexive {cf I teach myself I make myself stop. it is formed used familiarly is you yourself will So with ov in questions: judge will you not pelt (him') ? For with the future indicative. carry show appear (A. or / write). himself. of the Greek verb includes three and passive. is upon a time-stem tense refers to future (§ 133). : (7/:). voices : active. je upon me doute). forth). . . (or active and middle has faded : be bright. myself win (a prize) . / (A. turn (A. command The future time . Of these the active and passive require no explanation. to express a €. I turn (an- turn myself. etc. bring). the future extremely rare.

- I favored (middle deponent). the meanings are self). The moods in ancient Greek are the subjunctive. wish. A. and imperative (see Accompanying these indicative. 311 - all forms built upon the progressive These are known as deponent verba (cf. contrast with the seven tenses of the indicative. Lesson VI). see §§ 69. but / wished (passive deponent). wish. distinctive In the present. there are only three subjunctives. The Moods and Theih Uses 143. others have passive forms (passive deponents): /avor. and In there are seven tenses (see § 133 and §§ 134-139). Lat.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Many 141. I was I received and See § 142 and Lesson LX. and perfect the passive endings. A. . €| have both middle and passive aorist forms ceive. A. see also § 62. and imperatives : those . be willing (never receive (take to one's Although the forms are middle. optatives. In the aorist the passive employs active endings. The indicative is the realm of tense-distinctions. active or intransitive. are the infinitive (a verbal noun in origin) and the participle (originally a verbal adjective). 79 C. optative. 142. passive in A : I am made / make : to stop. sequor): in classical Greek). Deponent verbs usually have middle forms also in the future and perfect but in the aorist some have middle forms (known therefore as middle deponents). morior. verbs have only middle forms in the pres- ent (including action-stem). future. The passive voice is Greek has no expressed by middle endings mi/self stop or few re- received.

The adverbial particle dv is employed with the and the subjunctive to limit the indicative. : . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 312 formed. the optative. 160 c. All of the action. with the indicative and potential general as follows optative (§ 163). . optative. ne). also and For compounds of 144. II B).and tense-stems form both infinitives and participles future perfect. sometimes also with the infinitive with the subjunc(§ 172) and the participle (§ 173} tive. See further § 84 and Exercises 35 and 38. (. perfect. writing something (progressive) ^ something (progressive) ivrititig be write something . upon the progressive. thus: differ in tense. ) : progressive. are no This is a fact of cardinal importance in Greek syntax. : . Lat. For ox» §§ 150. and See §§ 172. and future optatives are rare and are employed only in indirect discourse to represent a future indicative after a past tense (see § 179. 146. for and participle (§§ 172. aorist. differ- ences in meaning between these three sets of forms grow out of the fundamental meanings of the action-stems They do not (§ 131). respectively (but the perfect forms are not common. namely. us be let tl let us write something (aorist). TJiere tenses of the subjunctive. § 180 . see Lesson XIX. optative of ivish (§ 162) and also with the infinitive see § 159. It is used in .. Future stems never form subjunctives or imperatives. 180 b. the imperative being even The rare). (aorist). and perfect action-stems. or imperative. 158. no7i. 173. aorist. meaninors of these moods. 173). There are two negatives (see Lesson VI) ot» These are used in and (c/. future. a.

313 : •- with the past tenses of the indicative: A. it may is employed in simple declaraand exclamations also in simple be indicated also by xcas permitted. and temporal (sometimes also final) clauses with the subjunctive. the opinion of $ speaker (or writer) as an opinion the [potential optative] : dv it may be so. See further § 163. : in conditional. Uses of the Indicative 146. and See §§ 167. dv what would you have said? See further § 152. € OS dv and dv} and (= et is av. [past dv have said . but it is not. Dependent clauses II. 1 - Unreality sary. See further § 179. the like. ' dv would be equal. (or ) it was neces- . '€ ctires. often contracted to dv whoever. (= } dv wherever. 136 (end)). The indicative mood tions of fact. with the optative (never future optative) to express B. they could not have thought. 170. . I b.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Independent clauses I.) = ( if.^ a) to denote unreality: the angle also € b) to denote past potentiality. past probability. relative. so that the subjunctive in such clauses € regularly introduced by tav or . whenever. questions. Here dv attaches itself to the subordinating conjunction. eSet. potential] : dv I might etc. etc. c) with the and past-imperfect indicative to aorist express repeated or customary past action (§§ 135.

and with dv (§ 145). Verbs signifying care for. 6s. etc. § 163). b) Some verbs expressing by a clause with the pity. " and : with the future indicative are frequently used in Attic Greek (without an introductory verb. am I mean. see § 148) to express a €|-'€ 150. not able to oios ' sag what = indicative. are followed when they as to. These verbs are sometimes followed by otl or as that. ). indignation. English that 6 €€ if (if not). €. etc. that. with the present and past tenses are present or past (see further § 160 c) eXeyev beware lest he was speaking in jest.. effect. el € : indignant that I am surprise. as. strive for. or a prohibition: him not deceive : which followed by either the With the €€ infinitive presented as a tendency: (neg. 147. € a) Clauses introduced by otl. (how') since. . that.. are followed by the futu7-e indicative (rarely the subjunctive) (how) that (neg. 151.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 314 conditional (§ 166 A). etc. delight. . and temporal Other uses are (§ 170) clauses. treated in §§ 147-153. are followed introduced by (that 7iot) «I (neg. the result us. ?) €€5 149. by Verbs expressing lest ) (neg. is ^ refer to objects of fear so that is or the indicative. tive is normally ov. relative (§ 166 B). of the indicative command and let " infinitive ) so fear. 148. because. introduced by see to it that you aid me. have the The nega- indicative (or the potential optative. cautio7i..

'. I should tell you.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 315 with the indicative (neg. with the would that I were not would that you had « iroietv ! not done this . a. attained: 152. The past-imperfect is with dv used of unreality in the present. Unreal or Contr ary/ have in the protasis €l with C onditional Fact to Sentences past tense of the indicative. apod. would have^ . SO as to see. as an end so I saw nothing. € V€Kpox)S / infinitive: doing this c) infinitive: it if they (= dead and not bodies. : Hopeless Wishes are expressed by by €€ or el and the distinction be- a) a past tense of the indicative preceded The negative oh that! tween the tenses €5. Uses of the Subjunctive 154. would be. would have been") . el . in the apodosis a past tense of the indicative (§ 145). Thus cl dv if this were true. the aorist. were. had. or of an act or state conceived as continuing in the past (prot. of a simple occurrence in the past (prot. as follows > . The uses of the subjunctive (§ 143) in standard Attic Greek are seven in number. had been. the pluperfect (yeri/ rare). apod. the same as above (§ 152) would that you were in the habit of eating b) is is followed by an dv or simply I should like dv would that they) were speaking the truth. 153. ou). etuov dv I should have told you. €€8 ! the living I ought (aorist of €€ : ? ! owe). of an act completed in past time Qivould have had').

neg. Emphatic Future ( § 155. (compare Lat. or : (or or shall ive say this ? 157. neg. Final and object clauses . B. as in Latin. or b) the subjunctive of the aorist action-stem: . neg. § 158. ^) - PovXci do you wish? (pi. let neg. ( 5.: : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 316 Independent Clauses A. 1. Negative command is expressed by with a) the imperative of the progressive action-stem. 167. junctive always expect an answer in imperative form. Prohihitioii 4. to / what am I to The be writing f say ? a) Questions \vith the subjunctive are often introduced by € . Question of Appeal . we). . person plural of € . the the subjunctive is let €€ scrlbdmus 156. Exhortation. 155. §159. neg. ov. In Greek. § 157. (rare) 3. €€ negative (rare) ) € . the junctive (singular or plural) first person of the sub- eraploj'ed in questions of is Questions with the sub- appeal or deliberative questions. Conditional and relative clauses 7. . with aorist subjunctive). § ). 2. constantly employed to express exhorta- The negative tion. ( first . § 156. . with aorist subjunctive). thus is us be writing! ne scribdmus ! us say ! In Greek. Modest Assertion. § 160. Dependent Clauses: 6. as in Latin. is : what are we .

may b}'^ express a cautious or modest assertion^ a suspicion that something may ' hut ' suspect that this true !) lest this he ) The negative is may be true. ) (neg. final clauses introduced by not before. caution. : be true (ah. € of the aorist action- stem) preceded by is sometimes employed as the equivalent of an emphatic future indicative with ' 160. may this not he true. : this shall The subju nctiv e is NOT employed come pass. may forget lest the € ") way home. 3. do not learn! (not women never take €ls (your) counsel (Menander). The subjunctive (generally 159. $. until (neg. aircOSc to be rich. or the like.! : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK a) 5 do not be learning ) '€ |$ 317 ). 5 keep to the straight he honest. § follow- fear lest we . by « €$ See also until. €9 wait until you become of age. may SiKaios ). c) Object clauses introduced €. that you b) Temporal — order that (neg. - path. to and in final object clauses a) Pure final clauses (expressing purpose) introduced by Lva. ). that. into The subjunctive introduced 158. in €€. they do not § 170. ing verbs and expressions oifear. ^ hasten not quickly you become poor. etc.

€ is known optative The negative as the Potential Optative. etc. might. etc. ^ : may I believe the wise to may only depend on this ! rich it if — a wish whose however extravagantly. € or ). after a past tense or etc. 164. €' dv I might cXol tis dv not he wise. 2-3 realization expresses a wish conceived.. by §§ 179. The optative is frequently employed as a repre- sentative of an original subjunctive or indicative 1. The uses of the optative mood (§ 143) in standard Attic Greek nvefour in number. could. ^^ 1) Wish (neg. av (neg. putes. 4) In indirect discourse. in indirect discourse after a joasf tense 2. )). 3) Conditional and relative clauses (neg. This use 163. . The he ! € I " 6 Iv accompanied by the particle dv (§ 145) corresponds to the English potential forms with may. is : irovois with small labors how could one .. 164. 2) Potential (optative with Dependent Clauses ^. possible. can. and to the Latin potential subjunctive: credas. would. in questions of appeal and see § 179. and object clauses commonly) when such in final (§ 160) after a past tense. to be The optative of wish is frequentl}^ preceded by optative is or cl €i'0€ § 168. § 163. . § 162. or (less . as follows: Independent Clauses A. II The 162. . assimilation to anotlier optative (neg. II . achieve great deeds? (Euripides).: : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 318 Uses of the Optative 161. oh that! (neg. dicas.

? § 156). and (af. Conditional and Relative Sentences 165. is permitted provided only that the combination of the two clauses intelligible. regularly . and the original mood is is optional. disapwhich in pears. followed by the subjunctive. except in those clauses mentioned under 3). €5 ov ) becomes el dv becomes €$ dv becomes dv becomes $ irpiv becomes circi becomes €. etc. in indefinite relative and temporal clauses when these are dependent upon another clause containing a potential See the last selection optative or an optative of wish. how am I to dea:l. . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK a clause is 319 dependent upon another clause containing a ' potential optative or an optative of wisli Thus he : was at a how he should deal ivith the matter (orig. ) any form may of the verb. loss ( . €1 if. hvvaiTO^ in Lesson LXXX. many instances accompanies the subordinating conjunction when the subjunctive follows (§ 145). or by lav In the concluel if. that modifiers constitute a complete in itself or with its sentence. frequently retained. In all of . way this as a representative of the subjunctive. these cases the use of the optative not obligatory. where the When the optative is employed in optative is normal. .. Conditional clauses are regularly introduced by followed by the indicative or the optative. . (= sion A. The negative of the conditional clause is is . the dv. etc. 3.

where.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 320 B. A. under three heads and and that (e'ai^) those with (a) the indicative (§ 166). The future threat. be either a) definite. a indicative with el generally expresses a warning. such as : os who. oiroBcv lohence. a) When the antecedent may take any form definite the relative clause is that occurs in an independent sentence. - the negatiA'e being either ov or acter of the construction which he does not know. 166. or b) indefinite. and the as. Hence conditional clauses with €1 indefinite relative clauses are treated together. Relative clauses are introduced by relative pronouns or adverbs. § . b) is When the antecedent general or indefinite in are known according to the char- employed oiSev (matter») : may is indefinite. the conclusion may be of . or the like . but for convenience their treatment is deferred to § 170. bans whither. Conditional axd Relatr^e Clauses with THE Indicative. €€ a) '. . Many temporal clauses have the same modal construc: tions as indefinite relative clauses. The negative is regularly . and the modal types are in general the same as those employed in conditional clauses (see above). (b) the subjunctive (§ 167). and (c) the optative (§ 168). reference. its' this not come to the relative clause and such clauses as indefinite or conditional relative clauses. hut if you prefer. €i makes sense when combined with the protasis: €. may antecedent of the relative whoever. pass! (§ 162). The like. remain. Conditional clauses (§ 165 A) have €l with any tense The apodosis may be of any form that of the indicative.

— in conditional tory word is and indefinite relative clauses. see § 143. fortunate. € if you won't hold your tongue. the negain the latter. « or (b) the future indicative.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK any form .€ (Men. the introduc- in standard classical Greek regularly accom- panied by the adverb dv (§ 145). 167. b) cav Tis . for object clauses with b. The apodosis most frequently has either (a) the present indicative. Relative clauses (§ 165 B) with the indicative may have either a definite or an indefinite antecedent. A. : . B. tive being main clause may have any reasonable form ov I Gcol veos tohom the gods love dies young .). does that tvhich is not injurious injure ? Conditional and Relative Clauses with When the subjunctive is employed THE Subjunctive. or $ some other form of expres- sion referring to the future (sirmple future conditions) a) eav tis he is €). The subjunctives of the progressive and the aorist action-stems are most com- mon . you will have trouble. For unreal conditions €l. he will never have wealth. The in the former case. €|€i if a man be . or equivalent (universal or general conditions).. honest. sponds exactly to the subjunctive in similar clauses in English (but 7iot in Latin) kav if these } : things be true. : if one have friends.. The subjunctive correduced by kav (di/. -€|€5 el : 321 -. § 147 see § 152 . Conditional clauses with the subjunctive are intro= €l dv.

\. — When the optative is employed in con168. above (A) : - do they prevent you from doing whatever you wish ? See also § 169 a. . to to be dv : € € The subjunctive ^:)asi. are general or universal in their reference. it I us. to be to €l do ivrong or wronged rather than Indefinite relative clauses €-€ Many Cyrus might give classes : 1 «Is to embai'k in conditional and indefinite relative sentences These are of those which refer (a) to the present versal present. should hesitate the vessels that 169.. i. the introductory if word the indicative were used.e. and to the Latin present and perfect subjunctive The most frequent form tions. same of clause-combinations are the as . . ^ in condi- of apodosis in optative the potential optative (§ 163) exactly as should See further would. (b) to the tive. etc. Conditional clauses: should be necessary either should choose B. Avould be it §. in the English sequence conditions is — € : § 169 b.e. should. ditional and indefinite relative clauses (definite relative clauses do not have either the optative or the subjunctive). uni- and are usually known in conditions in Latin is an as optative. Relative clauses Avith the subjunctive are introduced B. cl. A. two if wronged. Conditional and Relative Clauses with THE Optative. by OS €.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 322 $. The optative corresponds to the English would. not a subjunc- . the same as is §. do wrong (Plato).. {i. €. € The types (see § 145).

introduced by . oaxis.. Temporal clauses refer to a time that . os. . os.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 323 present (or past^ geiieral conditional (or indefinite relative) sentences. such clauses are introduced by cirel the like lireC. if gods do any- thing disgraceful. . The meaning of the optative in such a sentence is the same as that discussed in § 168 the protasis presents the . . situation as a vague supposition: supposing the one thing happen. eirel . (pres. or relative clause : e'i •€-•€ if he rode out anywhere. it is possible ei toil. ' \. ind. or aorist with dv (§ 136)) in the main clause. if one shun not the «. is either 1) prior to that of the main clause.e. the other always hapjiened. temporal clauses of indefinite frequency § 170. «. €1. subjunctive with to . - gnomic aorist (§ 136). ^ clause. to See further. (when =) after. cav os . .) € or the 167: uavx' § tls find out all things. and or 2) the same as that of the main clause . in the conditional i. while the conditional or relative clause has either €|-€€. Temporal Sentences 170. -. past-imperfect with (§ 135). s after that. he would take Cyrus about on a horse with a golden bridle. a) Present general conditional and indefinite relative sentences have the present indicative (or equivalent) in the main ' i\\Q present indicative with .. as soon as. and the optative introduced by el.. b) Past general conditional and indefinite relative sentences have the past-imperfect indicative (or equivalent. they are not gods (Euripides).

§ 169 b) under the subjunctive. again. this. mits you to do whatever you wish. 3) subsequent to that of the €ws. II B. all meaning . U7itil . = until. these loho were listening on this side and on The is would open ranks that.irpoxcpov until. cv or . 2. 179. they did not - : . the temporal sentence of indefinite last illustrates the . ? -. . 6. like '. than € as long as.Q €$ future: ol us wait until the generals arrive. €€. €ws. In conclusion be it observed that means before and . example temporal sentence of the example indefinite frequency in the joasi (cf. frequency in \h\Q present (§ 169 a). c). and the . either €$ a) to thQ past: they ol u'aited until the generals arrived . when. and the like. -. woi sooner Sentences of the last type (3) refer. tvhenever he (himself) oi would turn back. while. 164. All other temporal clauses have the construction of ordinary conditional and relative clauses (§§ 165-169): Indicative irals when the boy was ten years old. Subjunctive (regularly with av): - ivhenever you return home to your mother.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 324 0T€. or b) to let th. The temporal clauses in sentences of the last class (3 b) have the construction of final clauses (§§ 160. whenever she Optative : SHE per- weaving. ov irpiv not before = 4s main clause introduced by . depart until they (Jiad^ said ' '.

: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK is € before seeing followed by the infinitive : irplv =) 325 . duced by 0T€. irpCv {not but that before asking this. . imperative expresses tions. etc. but the aorist subjunctive with is . with : progressive.. a-yc. a) as a noun: chylides). in the latter case. . Infinitive not in indirect discourse (negative usu- ). The imperative . but the subjunctive when the reference is to future time or to the universal before present ings until and that . ^. come 7iow ! not ordinarily instead (§ 157). frequently preceded by . many whose uses are exactly like those in English. (a) as : is lo7ig '. d'ye is commands and prohibi- There and perfect (not or one of its compounds. €€. and the like have two meanIn the former case their (b) until. I. as.. aorist. II. § 1T9. of note the following Infinitive in indirect discourse (negative usually I. come In prohibitions the aorist imperative used. Uses of the Infinitive The infinitive was originally a verbal noun. . the latter are three imperatives common). followed by the indicative when the reference is to past time (see above). it larly in the accusative case. clauses have the constructions allowed in clauses intro- €€. the construc- Uses of the Imperative The 171. by tions introduced . etc. We may 172. When " is regu- to die is sweetest (Bac- the infinitive has a subject expressed. ally ).

fit. Note especially I am a) am about likely intend to. y8) verbs of hoping. with the infinitive. an adjective. I may €= h) in exclamations: suffer this i) (^absolute infinitive'^ € : as say. me. § TTpiv before: irplv end. . complement c) as a - of etc.. etc.. etc. 170 before hearing. . expecting. to have a good under- greatest gift (Aeschylus). am (^destinedy to. g) in an absolute construction ciros seems €€ to 80 to speak. : (i. to find ^ e) with f) with €€- out. ' able: to express result. to. at riding. with the future or progressive to (rarely aorist) infinitive. 7) verbs oi preventing.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 326 In this use the infinitive forms of the article (. to think that I should ! to express a § or wish (chiefly in poetry).e. with the future (also with the aorist or the progressive) infinitive. § 151. we have come d) to express 2^urpose: to learn. €|-€€ tve time it is Note especially oios and to be oios re were not able going away. € €( behold. € by the neuter and when so used is often preceded . known is as the articular infinitive sound mind standing) is heaven s . ). promising. b) as a complement of a verb: / am ashamed you to tell eLiretv the trutJi. adverb. command it almost (§ 116 b). or noun good in a manner most beautiful to skilled in speech.

In its circumstantial use the participle is added to noun or pronoun and expresses circumstance. etc. The distinctions lute. 175. (cf. wrong. plays a most important role in participle In origin an adjective. a the expert. b the one whoever does no the things that ivere said. In B. exactly as the infinitive combines verb and noun. is and in certain special . noun being omitted (/". . they who. more prominent those in which the participle mates a finite Circumstantial.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 327 Uses or the Participle The 173. but when the participle has a general or conditional force cases the negative The I. uses of the particij)le are those in which the adjectival character of the par- ticiple is II. it combines in its uses adjective and verb. LIII. The negative regnlarly is . {Attributive Participle^. - its attributive : -€•€ an Supplementary/.. See § 143.e. Note especially the use of the participle with the article.. 174. open door is not always abso- use the participle has the funcIt is used either Avith or without the present blessings . Lessons XLVII. The three action-s|iems and the two timestems (§§'131-133) all form participles and there are eleven in all. Greek syntax. the article more nearly approxi- verb A.- standing open). Exercise 18) €€ who understands. between these uses tions of an adjective. : . he who. § 103 d). . (i. manner. and Exercises 35 and 38. the The corresponding expressions in English are the one who.

he said ivith a laugh (see Exeror concession: YeXaaas v€OS cise 35).) he willing to he BeXe as you are heed your elders came to sit down beside us.. b) Similarly . although grammatically they belong Avith the finite verb: €-6€ }X€Ta|i) he came in in the midst of his play {while playing). be translated with. since f) is frequently preceded by although. such are finally continually . are often preceded by as. Note especially a) Certain participles of time and manner are often used with an adverbial force ginning. same ' in the be- may time. This shows that the participle sets forth a ground of belief entertained by the subject of the main verb or of some other person mentioned prominently in the sentence the belief) that g) A : tls you are going to with the thought (in become what? circumstantial participle in the genitive agreeing . " Participles expressing cause. or participle is : € €€ since she is sometimes omitted : are you are experienced. at the hastily. etc. the . straightway. etc. participles expressing cause are often ota.€5 ^ . condition. € d) A concessive participle e) In like manner preceded by are..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 328 € '--. purpose (usnally future participle). at first. cause. . €.). The young. etc. young (wheyi young. midst. (Men. €. TJ€i etc. purpose.€$ means. c) €| in : . often €ti6vs and similar expressions often attach them- selves to a participle.

supplementary use the participle completes It agrees either $ the idea of the main verb of the clause. continue. ill. do escape chance. - h) Instead of the genitive absolute an accusative absolute is used when the verb is impersonal: €|. endure. c) with / delight ivell. In it its it is permitted. ap- begin. The subcorresponding to the ablative absolute in Latin. with the subject: 1. Note especially the supplementary participle with a) verbs -- meaning pear. since when 176. -€ they are contirt- ually learning. the participle containing the I I chanced departed. € : § (see f) above) that Croesus was being besieged. is more . anticipate. and tlie in answering questions. to be sitting. -€€§ observation. main idea -€§ we had just he was un- consciously supporting the slayer of his son. be. ?€ was just saying. b) verbs meaning like : do rejoice. I know that I am wise. ject may be omitted when it can be easily supplied from while we tvere saying the context on the ground these things.it being permitted. and the like : cease. See are wise. or with the 2. € object: I know that you f) below. ivas possible for him to €- become king. d) 05 € common than / am plainly with a participle it is clear that.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 329 with a noun or a pronoun is used as a genitive absolute. grieve.

Xc^civ learning . thus )- (or (or 18) I begin I am ashamed at telling . g) vith certain verbs which is may by on and a the infinitive (some also /) be followed also by There verb). the 177. There are two constructions. announce. tion are frequently followed by a participle (progressive. f) verbs meaning know. to tell. hear. he ignorant of remember. ^ Iknoio that V€iv I know how I am to tell. and similar verbs of percep- show. finite usually a difference of meaning. / begin - to learn..) instead of in English : he learned that Cyrus was doing these things. It is -T€os sometimes accompanied by the copula but more frequently this is omitted. I a7n ashamed by telling . by a clause with as when ". if it The and verbal agrees case. with its subject in gender. -€ €. aorist. etc." future. etc. the word occurs.. being in the dative case . ) OF GREEK THE FIRST (or I am with myself^ are followed by the participle either in the nominative or in the dative (or I am ovtl) -- : conscious of being foolish. perceive. : 330 e) - (or € conscious -''^ / know (lit. number. expressing the agent. }/€€ / am plainly I appear to be. telling a falsehood Uses of the Verbals Many' verbs in Greek form a verbal adjective in -T€OV which denotes necessity or duty. forget. negative of each being : a) Personal (passive) construction..

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES two kinds Interrogative sentences are of 178. a) by- who f where ? irtos Frequently two or more interroga- interrogative pronouns. . i. or etc. how? and the those which are introduced like. (for tl ^'). often introduced by the emotional particles which merely heighten the tone of the question. Word I. all of .. and do not imply either an affirmative or a negative answer or do you speak Grreek? €€$ ' . . . and which accordingly admit the answer ^es ! or no ! Such questions are and . xivas ovv viro cvpoi- \. or or or or €. duced either by the interrogatives indicated above or by . - a) Direct sentence questions are often introduced 1) ov. questions. II. which imply the answer yes: do you not speak Greek f € in truth? . - The b) Impersonal (active) construction. : tis tives are used with a single verb € : .. II) are intro- dv.' . . etc. . i.e. the corresponding indefinite relatives: . is not by GOD good then . ..: : THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK $ 331 1€05 man -ye (§ 120 b): should not be honored before the truth (Plato). etc. those which are not introduced by an interrogative pronoun. ? Indirect word questions (see § 179. whom then and b^ whom would we find. ing verbal has (eVrt) and equals in mean- € for the agent stands in either the dative or the accusative: Xcktcov in fact God is GrOOD and one should speak so about Hiin (Plato). Sentence questions.e. etc. the neuter forms or -€ The word with the infinitive.

el whether. or is ) « iroTcpov worse. i/ou . are you aicake or asleep? INDIRECT DISCOURSE. . often omitted in the direct form of an alter- native question. followed by a with or that. and and sometimes after I said. (For the use of the participle in a manner that approximates indirect discourse see § 176 f ). II. . . I. to be . / am finite verb. and sometimes even in the indirect form: -€€5 . etc. 6€ ivhetlier . . € c) Alternative sentence questions are introduced a) in the direct form by irorepov € the two) . do not rule over you? these also b) Indirect sentence questions are regularly introduced by €1 if.. etc. . . or? (whether) <€ .. / declare. which {of or?: iroTcpov . the main verb the assertion stands in the infinitive (negative usually The case. saying. 179. . it is subject of the infinitive but is of ). which wronged? in the indirect form by the same particles as are employed in the direct form. to do wrong. II) €t : €65 I know not whether.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 332 . €€§ . or €'€ is . say. After I. regularly in the accusative the same as the subject of the leading verb regularly omitted and a predicate noun or adjective if it is stands in the nominative : € the man . tvhether (§ 179. . . 2) which deprecate an affirmative reply do not speak Greek. or. . or by €l .. . : do you ? surely . Etc. telling. . . In indirect discourse two constructions are allowed: with the infinitive .

dv it retained he right « : (= should be observed that in indirect discourse he €^. etc. would be employed in the direct form ( A. In like manner most verbs of knoiving. remember.).. the person alone being if necessary. / I / knotv. eivai € selves to be philosophers. learn. 333 we declare our- clScvai he said he did (^)..: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK he sai/s that is wise.. The same rule applies also to indirect questions (§ 178).g. in . 'a primary tense (§ 53) the verbs that follow retain their original form. exactly as in English. The verbs € I am telling. vrhich frequently are followed by a participle (§ 176 f). clSevai I thought 1 heard. . manner verbs a) In like finitive. questions of appeal (§ 156). II. When b) said that ) is it is would not Finally employed 8 the infinitive represents a potential (optative or indicative). The subjunctive is never employed in indirect discourse in Greek unless it would have appeared in the direct of the statement or question Qe. when an infinitive always of the same it is action-stem or tense-stem as that of the original verb-form (see § 131). not know.. etc. remembering. are regularly followed by or saying and ciirov ? that and a I said finite verb. form etc.. -. . per- such as ceiving. After OTt or changed. often allow the construction with on and ?• The negative is regularly the same as that which or "). of thinking: by the are regularly followed in- the subject and predicate being treated as above I think I know. after eav..

etc. exactly as really in indirect discourse (II. command. 170. may be changed from indicative or subjunctive to optative after secondary tenses.stem: € OTTOxcpos them the point of asking tvhich of | ' (the € (^ -"€ € ?? person alone being changed. as frequently happens. if they were Such clauses final irplv dv. but which contain or imply the thoughts of a person other than the speaker or writer. . When tive. verbs in subordinate clauses may the optative form after secondary tenses. if necessar}-). 6-€€- was just on tvas the tviser d-yyeXov he hade the messenger ). 3 b). 'past rect statement or question tense verbs in an indi- all maj remain unchanged « ). tive . b) When the leading verb becomes an infinitive (see above). if he should be in a subjunctive with dv dv disappears was going that . and the like. . subordinate verb c) The verbs is I. clauses depending on an infinitive which is introduced by a verb meaning advise. (§§ 160. report that he would come sooner than Astyages himself would (( wish An a) . B). : . indicative with dv never changed to the opta- is a past-iraperfect or pluperfect indicative. € dv. plan. be changed to Occasionally a attracted into the infinitive. seldom. An aorist indicative in a subordinate clause remains un- changed. an indicative or a subjunctive may be shifted to the optative of the same action-stem or tense. . or.€ .. clauses with '. etc. in various dependent clauses which are not strictly in indirect discourse. is thus changed to an opta- I might aid him.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 334 After a secondary or B.

§ 160 Note c. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK / (^. II) tive CONJUNCTIONS. . it . It is frequent in hut also. iav tl 335 See also § 164. . let really. etc. but. ). (ap") then. there is no one tvise. . especially: When a negative (simple or compound) is followed same clause by a simple negative. . ov. b) infinitive . . Frequently two or more negatives are employed in the same clause. i. '€ objections. hut indeed (§ 184). first in its clause. each retains its own force but when followed by one or more compound a) in the '^ . § § also cf. yet mon after a negative : . so. as 159. need tW. hut come. accordingly . regularly stands 182.) : yap hut nothing except. commands . marks a especially com- other) (jif.. The uses compounds see two negatives of the ( and and their 144) have been generously illustrated in the foregoing paragraphs (§§ 146-179). (§ 190) and stronger contrast than Etc. (§ 172.. well hut.e.. abrupt transitions (well. questions. PARTICIPLES. tive. (') 181. THE NEGATIVES 180. always post-posi- first in its clause. ' us he going! : nay . 2. For is not only . negatives. hut. nay. II. the negative € there strengthened is was no one who : ovBels ivas not suffering something. nevertheless. An which \vould ordinarily have the negais usually negatived by if the verb upon which it depends is accompanied by a negative or is in a question with a negative idea implied. never stands see § 178.

surely. . os only a strengthened form of ircos ! irov : . . . . hack. if indeed. always post-positive. the very one who. indeed. 185. often repeated: or. For . . el is T€ So emphasizing par- (y'j a post-positive. in turn. to best not to is by an emphatic . For also. . . . €. (for apa) sure. wahrP nicht € word In . how (why^ not ? truly. even.. . 184. . . always -/e (or post-positive.' un- derstand perfectly. at : translate not not is it of course. how surely : in truth ? than. pray? 188. and. again. . particle is a post-positive parti- which regularly emphasizes the word it follows where? where pray? what? cle . it pronunciation certainly/ ' ) The at any rate. it expression which it . enclitic. (for . ircus ircos 'yap) hut indeed^ ydp) aye surely. When word . 186.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 336 183. ticle . also. even. what (or ) Questions are often l>egun with . . regularly emphasizes the .€5 € WU. also certainly. or do . turn iyi always post-positive. so f . it to reproduce its force €6 : regularly emphasizes the It etc. and. either or. II. hack again. for truly. . and indeed. : you not know? see § ITS. means or . . . 187. follows. .. 189. \ . hoth . see § 195. again. . (or hut surely (§ 181}. but € many instances €€ I. . hence for. least. .

etc. ?. ' in the right {hand) . . always calls for a which it is itself connected. but sometimes and.. 337 same way as. . and § 184. while. Sometimes the clause or phrase for which conjunction (a weak ' and or ' is ' calls does frequently employed as a but ') when no -clause may be followed by more regularly stand between Both and and its noun. . in the d. this answering phrase or clause regularly contains in the same position as that occupied by \i4v in the first phrase or clause (regularly the word. . yet. you do not. clause or phrase in which . . I have teacher pupil learns. you have a friend. the not follow. the to In translation left. and. a preposition and its case. conversely. is often be omitted. ' may be rendered be sure. it and indicates that the stands preceding clause or phrase containing it may coordinate with a . € .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK precedes . or clause which is Thus to follow. ivhereas. Furthermore.. § 196. one of the most characteristic is in classical Greek. . It is always post-positive (§ 182) and is used to distinguish the word or phrase or clause with or in which it stands from a word. while. § 190.€ particles . on the other hand. ' teaches. etc. I too. . | the article in the not. but. than one : speak Greek. . . 175 although. Moreover. etc. : in particular also. precedes. is a post-positive conjunction. phrase. yet. and . times usually not translatable. . to balance that with second word). but some- is may it be rendered on the one hand. etc.

therefore. . nor. considerable distance from the second tc (or -€ often 175 d). In this usage the article retains its original demonstrative force (§ 103). . . / and you The /"')• tirst €. . always postany rate.. . . b hi the one : . even as. or. verily . I do others not knoiv. . often written with an accent €. it € . as in pronunciation. some the one is learning. . . € . never said ''you and € . Kaiirep although (§ que.e. ' € € . (§ 178. it : €LT€ . . others. always post-positive. an intensive. the other.. . . . «€ and. the very if indeed. and further. . and the forms ol are accordingly . =Lat. . indeed. oii ' 192. .. irtp. 191. . i. attached to the emphasizes : eiircp T€ and. and . not therefore? noiv (as I ' positive.. . . oxiv at . For other examples. surely not. I know. . 193. ov truly. 191. enclitic particle.kv and hi are frequently employed with forms of the article Avithout an accompanying noun. . . which in writing. both (the ancient Greek € often stands at a ^. . II). see the end of Lesson XXXV. is word one who. . . just as. yet yet. the other is not. neither . verily. €€ € ' whether . whosoever.. . . . . €. 195.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 338 . . ' some things . was saying). . therefore not. oi shows a marked tendency to be the second word in its group met both Hippothales the son of Hieronymus and Ctesippus. ivhat then ? of course.

). there it is a far greater freedom or elasticity in the arrangement of words in Greek than in any of the less highly inflected There are many disturbing elements. €' word was GOD. when. therefore. but in languages. ful! post-positive. inasmuch as. 339 § with the a. doubtless. e) the as as beautiful as possible. EQUALS be : and added. proclitic. ? 5 enclitic surel•/. . yet. etc. g. say. the adjective shows a marked tendency to follow its noun. for. that. and post-positive) and 197. as though to receive. idea. § 151. : in the the mind is thought. eiireiv so to as. So and if to EQUALS sums are equal. . Thus containing -. §§ 179. II order that. OEDER OF WORDS 198. § 170.sequence expressed . c. hence the emphatic. the . = = € 130 to.-. as. quam €0 tt€VT€ about five. infinitive. although there is one is a certain normal order for many of the parts of speech {e. § 172. : Final many speak.g. II. = '. TOi surely. a) Comparative and however. g) Prepositional: €|€ f. a negative to precede the word emphasizes. the \vord . § 147 160 a. general word-sequence follows which uppermost is in the sentence €. the new. so that. in 147 as. takes precedence the that . There are many uses: that. The subject of the order of vi^ords in Greek of very great importance.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 196. § a. first. § 175 b) Causal (usually - ol : celerrime. : Temporal c) : d) Declarative f) Consecutive: : how beauti- that.

.

? € € messenger. . a. chest. . in which its slightly disturbed in order to bring into juxta- words which belong Sometimes these are placed under together.g. of which the the proper names and proper adjectives. LVIII. lead. statue. to the cultivated fields. message. and are ade- of rare occurrence in the lessons quately explained in the word-lists or the notes are omitted. and 2) the compound nouns. words which are for all first the second part. See § 47 . but with each there is a meanings and uses are Following each preposition are given 1) the verbs comexplained. tions reference to the section in Part the alphabetical order position is at length. Less. -? () ornament. very much. In many other instances. and KaXos. €- message. nouns. Cf (opp. pounded with it. too. a Prin. contest. hunting-expedition. gether. adjectives. etc. Eng. market. 341 an- Lat.v. field. country pi. hring to- market-place. like and particles are not treated . as well as some of very frequent occurrence.. hring home a wife for oneself (or for another). etc. -5 () a place of contest. . xvithout weight (^). town) vessel (jar. $ fer. other nouns have the gender indicated. acre. in other instances a type-word heads the group. -? () -€ € assembly. etc. -- s. a struggle. preposi- vaC. As a result the arrangement of the words in the first part of the vocabulary is not strictly alphabetical. €( Prin. L. Neither of these is complete. All masculine and neuter nouns of the second declension and all feminine nouns of the first declension are printed without the article all .). Less. In cases of extreme displacement cross-references are given. see os. and adverbs. adjectives. a root {e. cof- hear nounce. -). Moreover. ager.VOCABULARY The following vocabulary contains the common is divided into tvro parts. ayep- The principal parts of verbs are usually omitted. urn. . gather. pts. agony. pts. pronouns. there being instead a reference to the lesson in which these have been presented. see good. too much. II.

the one for (Geu. otherwise. 117 a). take Prin. Lessons ) speak the truth. « satis). task. -- the time being death. another (of many). desires. aim javelin.) -?) a-8oXos -ov (Adv. hut. -- -) -ov (for ing. point (of a spear. . .- do lorong . Less. () truth. the cause. in plenty. under- outermost. of (. respect. of. throw a javelin. LXXIV. -^ - ether. injustice. oneself. food. ment. unjust d-SiKeu -) {-$ a-SiKOS -ov -. sense of hearing. -€ () an-ae- for pts. sing. true. . disfigure. yet. have enorigh of the to a taking. . acme. Less. 342 cL-Slkos . hlame-worthy -ov sible (Ace). -5 § point (of prosperity. dishonor. spirit. -9 . . forever. Past-Impf.-ov in heaps. ing . or ) or P. - -' sicy. (§ 42 (Lat. . -ov at the furthest point. blood. § 178.-). -ov bear- away the prize. .. javelin. etc. (^ ) shameful. be at the highest hear. wrong. -5) €- a at. €£. accurate. the heights. ). Adv. etc.. . . . insult. () athlete. -^ most (Gen. in crowds. Cf.). saying (or contest (for a prize). to be (p^s) exact. Prin. €. ) discourage- topmost. pts. the other. haematology. without -- be ashamed the upper air. 6 ael who for im- -$ (). -- unwill- crowds. report. LX. mic. want of -ov (Adv. -ov impossible song. listen mortal. pts. -ov garrulous. see . - ill) -- (aldws awe. to Prin. be ashamed.-. without ().. 42. M. LXXV. spoken make LX. () seize. . ait always. hit with dart. outrage. -< follow (Dat. prize. be captured (used as the pass. . -ov loithout respon- . choice.. -. well (or discouraged. act of hearing . choose. injure -8 €-5 - doing (). stand thoroughly. exact. to culminating point. enough in Cf. II a. deceit. )€ common). -. spirit. Cf (.- § 181. shame).

avSpos () man. - (recognize Less. blame- -ov unworthy. undeserved. miss. ment. pi. § 88. . exchange. . -ov human. --. words. -01S -oDs at . : of. err (§ 115 e). another time (fire). . {-). - upset.. . -. partly.. tvagon. . - compel. hi at at another time. -. ignorant -is . sell into the men's apart- Bopeas without. M. 343 €. Semitic word. () fox. LXXIV. partly . be led to the torture. error. 42. in up. & $ -€ one time See p. husband. fail. - manliness. -4 do in turn. go up. § 124 a. F. belonging to an- stranger. hold up. each other. take -. on pi. F. phrases. - up. LXXII. . two). back. Less. carry carry away. up. sin. ivind. Less. endure. up. time. ignorance.. . . - be it. fellow. «s open. human being (homo). 6. take captive § 128. necessity. against. . §§ 175 . -irfCe» Less.- - -5 (). repay (Ace). { '). instead In comp. LXXII.-£. . failure. refer. . and slavery. with appos. § 176. Gen.-ov other^ strange. sinful. common two hold back. . over- offer. to up and take less so verily. = § 194. both sides. -. LI II. turn. re- throw. read.) - each or both (of -ov Usu. appear. 8 -8 () persuade. Less. -£ --. set LXXVI. § 2. up. . . . in oppo- sition. = €. again) LXXII. (A amen. carriage. -. - change. in return. and Less. instead. M. . etc. take up. (r/) same turn hack. . aor. - both. § 115 h). man. Less. tiirn ascribe. ovei) . . § 130. show forth. LX. of with. - - -os -ov loithout sickness. Neiit. A. see -o-Ttts. ' ---<(8. () -. refer. again (with inten- -( -( - A. : sive force) step up. force. hold out. carry make away -€. 6$ tip. - § 28 . In comp. 2 a. -. chap. c. wait for. vir. -ov unerring. see have no care for (Gen. north wind. erring. : § 145. back. -£KOS at the 130 b. € .

threat. I. ^inharmed (). back.).ktov- trick.). -€ say in return. Less.-- pts. give a tenth of (as a make one stand aioay from. (Dat. airas give back. lose. die. - worth. .{ keep away from. complain loudly. Aor. shut out. 117 a). Less. LIII. -€€ he piit aioay. -£ -€ . LIV. repay. away from. stand away from. go aioay. A. point. look tou-ard.-- lose. be destroyed. simjile (§ 41). . am to. {away Less. etc. A. ish. -• ••€• threaten boast. M. completely. of frankly. drive away. Less. from. back. carry away. laid away. pay. ^ : -\• Less. G. LIIL fail to hit.). § 93.-- -'- kill {kt€V. LXXII. . -. see oo-rrep ttirXois -- . answer. § 88. come from (a place) -rive. M. Less. against. § Prin. ar- undone. value. - . 124 Com- = single. -----. a|ios -a -ov worth. carry pay (tribute. jjoint -- LXV. deal ') -- b. § ask in stand LXXII. sell.--- 344 d|ios give in return. from. worthy of (Gen. per- lam lost. (from). sound turn. -ov. In comp. Less. LXXIX. -T)'ei he v:as going aioay -. destroy. -€.(^\$ greediness -raros) behave simply. otit. fail. from. tithe). -- = "rras. . €. deceit. -' -). pletely surprised. LIII. LII. § 79. in reply. -€ -€ .{ be away. (). throio away. ---F. went away. make thorough of trial 82 B. Less. - § 90. uncover. . vnthout harm. reply. have or receive in full. issue. -ovos . -' -)- set free shut away Less.disobey (Dat.-. once. shoic (forth). M. .-- -' : result. -- § -•7€ send Compound - step away. be from) show.-- be going away. --. ap- LXXIV and titterly cow- ardly.. Less. and § 194.. .

on fire.-? then. on the Cf. £ () a plunderer. . a a small coin. -(. (un)dressing- -€5 () an uncover- ' apKTos (v) bear. a -€ <---- ago. of. harpy. . M. satisfy. § 115 g). -9 and Less. -"(-88 . lazy. . from dice knuckle- bones). just. £08 . F. 1 gastronomer. F. II.: 345 d-TTopos § 87. goodness. begin. be strong loith one''s blessings. . one loho neighbor. pleases me. ing. a seising. . aristocracy. virtue. please. Up.- (€ on the left side. M. / room. census. Pf. off. ment. vertebra made --(orig. - €- (§41) of silver. pi. to. archon. () frag- one who hard -- is sent. - -ov best . apKeVb) loard enough. cling to (§ 115 c). an -? --. fasten be etc. toion. left. ansvjer. set Cf. €. he without a way. "^ play with dice. () chief- (Gen. § 178.-? toIs content be refuse. . -€ - § 182. - - -£ () . sovereignty. J excellence. - -ov inextinguishable. ..- accepta- ble. etc. - welcome. the stars). the left hand -Tcpas xeipos €| 8. -- II. pant. silver mines (sc. () snatch off. sable. Compound Nouns. builder. gleaming. xeip). just now. pleasing. usually with -- the force of the adverb. -'•£ F. gasp. a way. carry senger - Cf. beginning. impas- -iropos -ov toithout it Arc- arctic. city (§ 36). ber. moment office. satisfied. superl. . LXXII. architect. to deal with.-ov -ov imexpected. astronomy.-•- (sc. ride pass. of <o-voC skilled in as- tronomy. a writing off. lives near one's () city. () ruler. € ) --. sufficient. . -€5 () . unexpectedly. am register. money. lay hold idle. -5 mes- be at a loss. silver. turus. greet. . rule. deny. gladly. €05 . -ov glad. -(8(-). ancient.. -' () a bright star {cf. apio-Tos rob- begin. revolt.

() -. 05 . of «. from scot-free. living. 071 the () -- (6$). baric. . pts. incom- -i's at. § 28. unpleasant.harmful.-). () loith- - be king. ungra- 8 - test. pass. morrow. § 183. better. to trip -5- ^ 346 not liable throw. step. free 5 €5 -. () murderer. aor. . LXI. hurt. throiB - security.-9 (^?) --- -4s (). hand - ) = (. morrow. --€ .. (to) burden. - self. icithout form (). of eat (-. troublesomeness. -. harm. are since^ § 175 LX pts. § kingly. pts. (-). torture. test. rule (§ to-morrow. (sc. back again. § 183. § (-wrepos down by Tos) iceighed ture. Prin. look. vexed. pts. fut.-. '- missile See etc. -<ci>s rub upon the touch- () see out grace. cious. royal. foreign. speech. Is immediately. one's purpose. (/3a-). -. 47 palace.- 44 ill-luck. it is ov - not meet to . pass. LX. meat). pass. a touch-stone. Adv. Le. the lyre. misshapen. ^] Less I stand to be lived.-. tor- stone. be burdened. an- noyed. (cf. . Lat. icalk.. the living. 7iot € - accomplishing icithout plete. see. mischief. ) (. () in turn. . nevertheless. one who commits a deed with his oion court-yard. Less. manner of life.. - Pf. {-). hit. ) bar- foreign. firm. ugly. infiu. without an end. make unseen heaviness. -tax. dart. -€9 - e. deep LXXII hood. go. best. live. -<ra queen.). . liveli- Pf. §44. $ king. heavy. harm. ). . -9 - -$ speechless. Prin.. court. Hog). dishonor Prin. § 106. again. Greek. - withoiit Cf. -- go. (17) stability. . safe. (arroio. () = -- kingdom. (/SeX- - but. Less.SS. at. -. Prin. diphthong.. .

loiter delay. § 44. race. Frill. deliberate. . exercise. () earth. ' €.-- liberate. . etc. brief. any knee. () (. . shout. --« €'^. for a short time. geometry.). hy birth. § 185. LXX. thought. letter. man.'. etc. pts. family. . : give (of § 184. altar. Prin. Gen. sloio. wish. race. be full of (Geu. (). § 35. resolve = LXVII. skilled in gym- nastid exercises. 7<) (or gence. . LX become. . Adv. laugh. Prin.yv). Less. (yvd. also a lesson. yvCodi.). horn. §186. a land-measurer. § 39.() - write. Less. Pf. ox-Stall. Poetic mortal {-). judgment. by race. 7^01^5). a school for gymnastic -?1 .• Prin. ten character. x>aint. assist (Dat. --- wed'ding. letters . .($. Voc.training. Part. angle. (.. book. {tor y - unarmed. of old age (yipwv). LXXV. rate. ptc. § 38. the epistle. Gen. wi^. yvQ)vai. ( Less. recognize. a writ- PI. pts. . (Infin. also oneself (or one's child) in marriage. '. () woman. at least. corner. de- Mid. -. .-) . Pts. -. G6n. he will. coun- determination. marriage. at lan- . . Dat. . the north wind. the elders. . lightly clad. intelli- {y. old . pts. A. geometer.- cowherd. PI.{ . birth. yvoiT}v. sel. -. ''. he - see - scratch.() see ) ox. -ov (yevvaiorepos -6- Tos) well-horn. (17) oiol. -€ - (). herdsman. family. noble. be willing. cow. writings. --. come gxiage. § 28 D.ya-). slow). . -- take counsel xoith oneself. . aor. speech. take counsel. to knoio. draw. yov. alphabet). marry.€- see 347 * when called) aid. naked. Mid. Less. Boreas. ) {ye tongue. (jyev- () picture. . see () Gen. yeyovos -via -os). (o2) sllOUt. groio old.

§ 83. Prin.- ought one need. pass. (to) Mid. Past-Impf.verse xoith ) '? €• Prin. etc. § 190.-.). differ.- - - directions. coioardice.). etc. € . €. § 187. thoroughly. master. dissolve. terrible. Less. distinguish. -€€\ 6 second.: I. people. LX. . A. Prin. district. § 187. -6 -€€$.: 348 8 () -ovos () -ovos guest.-?. part. is (Infin. -ovtos needful.-« destroy pass.). heg. § 127. . keep alive by stealth. () - belonging to the clearly. show. skilled. complain loudly. that which is need. § 193. bursting into tears. In comp. country. See LXVIII.€ . £-8 - state. wonderful.«.- - people or €€. -U. destroy. hither.?- divinity. €68 .. . break up. con- -€- (one) must converse.- public. pts.cowardly. .). stealing. ivos certainly. aor. fearing. receive. Adv. : (Gen. by chance. lord. dinner. need (Gen. carry.ss. -€. decide. through. (or twenty lacking one there € far from almost. (or tico). Less. (Gen. €€ skilled in speaking. -oraros. arrange. hind.-. hr[\Lo<i exj)ense. out. (or devrepa) then. Compound Verbs : throio across. dine. '. Less. 6€ -. Le. -« seize. - loeep.. (it). .make publicly. § 90. ten. -|« -|a appoint. pts. deivws) - -. Pf. LXXIV and point pts. --- -€€- -«€ show - succeed in -- -- carry through. part. lack.). -«s - slander. spirit. '€€9 clear. vos accused by a daughter. LXXV. next. ten years old. traduce. clear. €. dispose. differ from utterly. ?. aevae. (Dat. Voc. use up. arrest. € . tenth. (') through. of course. ' o5v. desire . indifferent (-orepoi. request. . exchange.

etc. -« -- narrate. right for me to twice. subj. aor. SkSdo-Ko) power. Justice. ?). satisfaction. spear-bearer. = : for the reason that ceive ) . § 23. . it is -(). . (§§ 153. part. about Less.. aor.-- guess. lawsuit. - aor. (- destruction . . tell. give. See . seem. he be able. think. hoard and etc. imagine. of justice. custom. ' . - ing. II. etc. fore.. -4. ought (^). to re- - (-orepos ^ ----- just. be XXI. . 8-« Less. or. him. § 88.. - (). . justice. think. cli- vide into parts. - ( (Gen. . . of trial. define. teach. pursue. slave. if. powerful. see . if.! -€. . -. freely. able. () band. right. of Si - 349 e -€-€ go -. twelve. see (§§ 05. § 130). of -opilm separate. - lodg- of himself . shaft. punishment. -- : aor. () § 89. § 80. See to give. two. () whether. § 91. if not. suppose. (17) -'€ Less. tribe.-• (out) through. oh that liken. - LXVII. . of honest. Adv. teacher. gift. -(-. 8((>. of aor. seventy. re- tolcl. see -. lohere- mode of life. do. ' ---. unless. LXXIX. give.. (to). 162) aor. {--€) -£|-€ . it was necessary. you are opinion. Verbal allow. Dat. nation. . . two hundred. LXXIV. Gen. spear. . seven -. SiaKOcrioi -ai -a Prin. Compound Nouns. xtenalty. of notable. See Less. see = -. that! . . compare. § 21 b. of aor. aor. . € - near (Gen. . el whether . Ace. § 39. as adv. loish. describe. '. § 177. 8). txoenty thousand. pts. . . 50 C). to receive . lated.be willing.

if really. e'er then . expel. urns -- etc. . of €<-€ he entered. reveal. -. : nonnce. § 94.). els aor. expose. «?i- javelins awaken. aor. ) tomed eK (before a vowel. -€8 lead out. (i. part. ex- . it is examine. -era ^'. garment. see cto of infin. -ovos : throio out. () -aros I am €( he. peace. pass. A. -. pass. pxit out. -' . common in.-. of oiSa. bring . I am accus- ^) ont : of - aor. €-> = take utterly enslave. choice. € carry out. view. is likely. -{- -). do wrong. show. (or deceive utterly. not possible. have been said. €( tip. ^s) comp. (-idys -€. § 124.) be {it) fulfilled.05 € €8 -OTOS () {) as likelihood. e|- astonished. is it --' -. aor. of -<. 1€ exposed.---' --- dress. succeed ceive (ef/cotri). go out. LIU.-. A. -•. empty. aor. (aor. uncover. find out. Less. come . out. going. look upon. lead out. of. image. send out. § 95. err. into. also Infin. you xorought. €•05 . Less.) things the |. to.twentieth € see LXXIV. (more going . out from. rear.. to. -« -- 350 «Ikos Compound Verbs I. A. selection. -.-' -. of (part.-| that away. -fj. in. cIkos <!>s II. see from. to. € . : child. at --- (Ace). of. '. throio § 93. In comp. Compound Nouns. () a putting posure. € () likeness. next. in : €•-€. completely. ^v one. or therefore).) miss. In § 126. -.- etc. F. re- -. -(() in. '-8 --? - - etc. test. § 91. fut. discover. of permitted. § 93. . - clvai to be.(.e. subj. it is of a river. past-impf. . etc. I have said. A. lie § 194. of look into. strike out. --". elxov. awoke. into. I said. likely. go (-^. -.

Compound Verbs throw in. hither. unrestrained. fit ^ Past-Iinpf. display. see have iirei lohen. etc. '^. -. - «. fvL). expectation. theretipon. ter into. Past-Impf. tv less. Compound Nouns. where^ ««€-€£ see see A. - sand. § 23. mine. €-$ sixteen (^0• €-> see ( inten- willingly. enjoin. iv (in I. comp. . (= iv II. -. on within.. refute. iv-xiirvtov 'iv dream (inrvos). -ovos sensible. fall €() € . whenever. yonder. - within. in a row. henceforth. here. -€€ each (of two). (also TO ivTeOOev) hence. six thou- . he. in. - «'- -. there. see tls. §§ 47 -| ?. €5 . {ivos. sixty. within (Gen. convict.: €€§ . . $) command (-\). €€5 .. in. expect.).) for a freeman.- earlier of.). . at home. tionally. cherish. § 130. ip-) Aor. also ^7-. in the presence here. § 130. among.). €<08 . -. fall In «-•-. : ) (Gen. comp. €- hope. for the sake of. six. it is like.(8 -€€ cKaTcpos 351 from €- -- that (one). thence. toay. festival. there.). § 25. there. draio. at. etc. here. § 125. . on. on aC' count of (Gen. my.).). she. '. each (of many).- -. (part. hope. drag. in this case. -. 'ivtKa iV€K€v -? of myself. free. : €£ outside upon. €v-TOs this side of (Gen. display oneself. since.-€• . of (Gen. believe. --) -- £-€ in. 7 of (Gen. e/-. « see £K. en- put on. eiraOov. thereupon. command. subj. eviavTos year. - ' . -is clear. «. . sixth. next. cross-question. « front thence. cXcvOcpos -) ev 48.€.- in the rational. opposite. there. CKctOev €6(.iKtlv () i\iris -iSos see « . there. holiday. least. it is likely. «- (-orepos etc. Gen. see - etc. A-. iv.

come to town. I. slay upon. ---' «.--. desire (Gen. blame. §177.). of . tion to). €€ -8 () cattle-shed. -o«s (to) word. -. ser- viceable (deriv. Compound Nouns. hut. on. of () -ov belonging to the folloio (Dat. () : promise. fat. -. § 129 b. aor. . bliy. -« Compound Verbs A. towards. chief. -. obtain. upon.- «iri- -' Past-Impf.-. . -•- over) middle part.--. work. -8€. for (Gen. receive (Gen. of close a slam.). Past-Impf. of to. -. to -ov (-orepos -ototos. : toioards. desire. town. infin. () etc. . visit. an end. over. thereupon. to over- II. ---. etc. ask. potir a libation upon. Adv. lover. verse. -( --» -< -< listen country. - eir-aivos praise. against.). master. love passionately. suitable.<8 . --. obscure). as time passed. deed. - -. aor. on. vated fields. -. •-•7€. -Tpoiros trustee. profession. of to. €-£ display. etc.). 352 In comp. a dream appeared - «ir- upon (or or place set him. aor. bring to completion. aor. etc.). have charge care of. -Tpi'irw Verbal : entrust to (Dat. observe. then. administrator. . see culti- . 7. •-€ into being after. admirer. Aor. §88. tcith -•( understand. go back. §80. meet with (Dat. praise. -. --5 «--. €-. Past-Impf. . hear (Gen. come in (in addi- -. -€\ - pf.). view. -•<.€€ see ') (iir'. -aTos •7-5 - () -yov set foot mount upon (Gen. - brought - place Upon. return. -. -'2 . of summon.).-• be in - - ---€ -. -. see command. come come upon. HTTos come see. fault find (with).: €€•. ). attempt. call. --) () overseer. ---. -( '5 --A. the commands. etc.

€ -(). . « . (Adv. see -. -tDs) erotic. £« €€ sumptuously straight line CTaipcios -a -ov pertaining to see easy €-€ -•« (iOvs not a lawful wife). preparedness. be having a beautiful -€'s clothing. a question. £((. gfo. see itri. aor. -€-€ €-. passionately desire. having a goodrepute. famous. still.-6 was come. -«- "? - cpcoTiKOs - (Adv. F. (07€. €-u-Ko\os -ov -arcs -wraros) (-urepos appearance. furthermore. ask (a question). straightioay. readiness. find a ivay. CTaipos is satisfied. con- (). -ov. eii-iropos -ov pass. €€. garment. () €<8 -? {) -? -5 () €-€5 Prin. tertain () comrade. a woman who panions. '£(). eunuch. able (to do). § 130). pf. epis -iSos (17) ipois - 353 « find. eat €(€. Less.. ! Gen. (.-. «T. 6. -ov well-made be -- be for- ().). good wool. of sexual passion). well done. be p)rosperous . of. . €-8 cottieniiOMs. deserted. the prayer. (). pts. pray. renown. iTos -ovs (to) year. -ovos blessed a good genius. () Love. (Dat. . -- famous. of pf. ei)-KO\ajs) full of resources. . wiith pass. - see €< = eat.thank tunate en- (straight) ioioard (Gen.). said. of cpia - €- -ov {-orepos -oraros) desolate. fut. . be esteemed. () (V well. «. . -. pray to . of fut.e. roris. LXI. <-. ( {5 shall say. of Prin. -«tos. within (§ 130). €( €•• -. « '. rich. (§ 91). etc. forms of €-«. comZeus who presides over fellowship. of a-rtpiu» de- pass. praise. happy. -with gen. pts. be happy. €-( strife. c'ri -ov ready. tented with one's food prive of. Less. (Dat. pf• (§ 87). () companion (i. of two. Ziiis calm. ^Tcpos see - -ov one other. happiness. « (- a questioning. -ov -«Tos (0) love (esp. -•« €-8 to pass through . straight road (66). { €' «- cvpov €- £ (-). amoI € LIV. () straight. deem happy.

lead he paid no I cannot €€ tell. . I have seen <() (). II. - hold. be of age. already €() life. take pleas- so long as (see § 170). emulation. F. prefix. xire painter. ' . Adv. (). one § 179. § 184. (Past-Impf. age. €v . couraged. c. lohich place. (. they allow life. (. €' yoke-strap. sweet.). get. Less. than. II . etc. of have come. / am being dis- loell. a hnlf-mina - half. (infin. 188. ijdews) pleasant. . - {). --'€ (§ 96). who paints from €€ (to) yoke or team (of mules. - and he loent least.) leader in something (Gen. lay)..« 354 «-. «* heed. at one''s hearth. £. pitality. it § 93). - suppose. pleasure. -. every on each - . each twice a day. dat. ( /5. or.our. -. deem happy. ws just as he loas in wrath without de- (i. he jeal- day. $9). -- stupid. ) « '« ' ? part. be one''s (Dat. live. sit day.. with pleasure. -. rivalry. = (= semi).-ous of. by no § 93). or. I said . (Ace). high esteem. companion. in- tend. € / suppose. lohere. truly. hold in Adv. surely. £5 lead I. see have in mind. - § 47 . think. {. . of hostile. () comrade. Zeus who presides over hos- 1] « (fem.).. (infin. in o's) (. animal. See § 178. day. -- - in (Dat. I went be young €< eJxov) (. -- have. Aor.. €€ (v €€ it is « «£€ so. .e. prime of life. -(8 see . ') the loay. . is well. either §§ 178. means! past-impf. delight oneself icith. iois until. . half (an insep. forthwith. -tia = «.tame. . . day. youth). € J5ar(?0n. A. ^. II.). LVI. . € by this time. -ous I. vie loith. seek. in which loay. ) one of the same age.

S

-

355

Itoas (€£>, § 91).

()

-8

harness-maker''

driver

().

See

§ 170.

€,

and

see

choose.

see

Less.

see

'-

-

€$

(), 1.
they went
they were

,
48).

either

.

.

none

aor.

, --.

,

,

be

{-% -)

-€

in-

a hunting of wild beasts;

- -'

?

'•€ =
--

().
, ,
,
-

boil.

)

fut. of

sea.

0-€.

(door-stotte),

Aor.

.

door-keeper

-- -<ra

bury.

--

imperative of

--

gaze

sur-

Prin.

pts.

view.

LXV.
see

-

ISiiv,

§ 88.

oblong

().

sacrifice, offer sac-

-<ra flatter.

()

LX.

.

at,

be

loonder,

an

rifice.

be of good cheer.
Less.

daughter.

shield.

death.

!

PL

door.

-- put

take courage

Dat.

hair.

()

by sea.



,

-Keiv.

mortal

{). Gen.

death.

€, €8,

()

(), and

Gen.

treasure, treasure-chamber,

chamber, store-room.

Less.

he ran

'IQti

() huntsman.

•€, aor. of

prised.

().

run.

prey.

sou7id, ring, peal.

€^

take

fested with wild beasts.

see

=

court,

=

the less.

(Gen.),

than

serve,

treat medically.

of,

wild animal, beast.

pass, of

worsted.

(or

care

a viewing, contemplation.

less (§§ 47

oihkv

€€ -€€
6€,
(~
servant.

-- view, contemplate.

or.

.

an attendant,

()

€€€ ().

().

Gen.

see

-ovTos

-).

9).

§

(et>i, § 91).

weaker

be

.

€€.

one should place

stillness, quiet.

-ov,

.

I

divine.

F.

warrior., hero.

{,

WrtS pZefflSed!

...


€,
, €,

€7

§ 194.

aor. pass, of

LIV.

by the gods

€5

see

€..
,
,
,
8
€,

Voc.

god, goddess.

-ov fighting against God.

shop.

tohen.

)

(,

irpos

reins.

18,
!

see

breast-plate.

,.

behold

t

--

ItSios

()

356

,

one''s

<$

Uvai

an atokward fellou\

;

going

to he

{,

Upov

()

Upa

()

holy place.

temple,

§175d).
and

UpEia priestess.

-

§ 93).

(Adv.

See

)- ( .
-

§ 171.

$)

gracious

impv.

pass.

!

bad,

suffi-

<

ap-

-ov

worthless,

of

) horse, mare.
-' () horseman.

(,

I'lriros

-

§ 160.

-5-, -,
lir-n-evs

•<
<<

-

equally

;

equal.

8,

-,

Adv.

-

lohich

- -()
-

--

(,

=

.

strength.

-

see

pej-tain

)

camel.

=

basket.

( ')

§

or

29 C.

down, doion from,

against, according

purify.

a,

vep).

.

heart.

-oraros)

§ 93.

(,

the

gen-

beauty.

-

to,

I.

etc.

In

comp.
down, against, etc.
often merely intensive. § 127 b.
In Compound Verbs
come down.
he ended by
:

just as

to

conceal.

.
()

(-orepoj

strong.

£ (>,

-

qualities

labor, be loeary, suffer.

be strong.

-

tisually

the

tleman.

make a thing stand.
LXXII.
they made me king.

loom, etc.

()

noble.

well,

well-born and well-bred,

loTOs anything set upright; mast,

t<rxis -vos

LX.

beautiful,

possessing

perhaps, probably.

See Less.

-

most nobly,
see

§9.
-os

( ?,ill.

/ am

groom.

-<(),

doing harm (pepy-).

?)

Adv.

ill.

worse.

Prin. pts. Less.

call.

See

in order that.

it is

do

yearning, desire.

Adv.

craven,

ill-born,

I am

a late aor.

pease.

€$

kindle, burn.

LXX.

Less.

cient, able, worthy.

be

§ 196.

-

and

Less. LXIII.

- !

-

§194.
yet.

of time, opportunity.

Upctov animal for sacrifice.

come

§ 189.

due measure, the right point

itpivs -t(os (0) priest.

see

purification.

-ov purifying.

although (reg. with part.,

offerings.

, -.
(,

()

-€«s

and, even, also.

93).

§

Upos -a -ov divine, holy.

clean, clear, free

from pollution.

one

;

loho has no professional knowl-

edge

-

-

private.

private citizen

;

:

-

-

-8

.

beseeching,

go (or come) down,

thrown doion, put down,
render judgment against

(gen. of the person

ace. of

;

the penalty).


-

--.
-

suppose, guess.

=

poetic,

pass.

Pf.

cover up.

-

-€
-8

pity.

Less. LXIII.

doion.

sit

--

-€8<

-$

II.

asleep.

lie

Compound Nouns,

etc.

through.

sleep

).

Opposite (Gen. §130).

dowmoards, beneath, in
Kol

§ 97

leave, leave

break down, put

dissolve, end, etc.

yoke,

€£ -- - --<ra

hence

lodge,

-ovs

()

be

a

make

head.

-5 ()

-<ra

-( -,

-

Pf. pass,

-'--

---

turn down, overturn, sub-

-- --

dare, take a

hence

risk,

it

possibly.

weeping, wailing

due.

put down.

§ 88.

-- -€<
--

despise

(Gen.

116 h).

(older

hear and obey, overhear (Gen.).

-€. -- -{achieve.

Impf.

-€, .

form

'()
- ()€£XLVIII.

is likely,

().

/cXt/'w)

^-

(eKXrjo-a) shut.

report,

--

use up, destroy.

-€|,

().

danger, risk.

observe care-

fully, consider.

herald.

one loho plays and sings

to the lyre

curately), perceive.

-€ --

occupy.

gain,

profit.

learn thoroughly, observe {ac-

--'-

urge, com-

gain, profit.

un-

;

guest.

§

-€,.

see

mand.

-

-<

down,

;

see

seize upon, catch, find.

behind.

the

world below.
lie.

-€ -

(-

spy, inspector

).
=;

fell asleep.

:

-ov ridiculous {ye-

- -- - €, ..
€€ €
- -- - €
§ 97.

doxon.

lie

re-

LXI.

Less.

turn.

scatter (seed, etc.).

-,

-

he ended

by saying.

--,

-

357

fame, glory.

inherit.

,().

lean.

Less.

couch, bed.

Gen.

-

hold down, restrain,

- shared

()
in

the State,

mon.

thief

common,
in

com-

$
€-

(5

-

in disorder.

-- -- order, arrange,

escape one^s notice.

strength, power,

(to)

have poicer, be master of (Gen. § Hog).
(), PI.
(), Gen.

€€
flesh, meat.

.

§ 47

better.

-

knock.

()

acquire,

-

come

Prin.

-

()

to

pts.

()

lion.

?)

much, too much.
(Adv.
perse-

-<

vering, earnest.

()

pilot.

in a circle.

circle,

(, ) dog, bitch.
pack of hounds, ken-

(--).
- -ov having authority

;

wolf.

--

mas-

distress, grieve.

Pass.

be grieved.

mistress.

-

(-).

pain, grief.

lyre.

sheepskin, fleece.

-- -•

Poetic

beseech.

entreaty, prayer.

nel

ter,

()

-

possessiOJi,

rest,

henceforth.

very, very

property.

Gen.

remnant.
remaining, the

-

hidden, secret.

possess.

collect.

leave.

conceal.

LXXIV.

,€-

reckon-

- ---€ - £€
-and

distinguish, de-

-- -- Strike,

)€8

reason,

account,

report,

tale,

ing.

cide, judge.

Less.

Speak well of one.
word,
sjjeech,

.

say.

tell,

--

possess,

§ 170, 2 c.

see

rule.

----

Less.

-,
-.
,
-- .
LVI.

fem. of

deck, adorn.
-ovs

$

358

ornament, universe.

order,

lamp.

--

prevent.

loose.

§ 79.

village.

-

-

dull,

dumb, deaf, deaf

«
, -€
-

obtain by

lot,

obtain

(- -).

Ace.

()

Less.

-

(-orepos

bright, brilliant

see § 113 g.

-€

()

hare.

grasp, receive.

,

-

and dumb.

LX.
-oraros)

lesson.

act of learning.

pupil.

learn.

take,

().

()
()

§

84 and Less.

LIII.

-

-ov blessed, happy.

my friend.

- deem

happy.

»

$

359


,

-

by

long, far.

far.

from

afar, afar.

more,

very,

and

most, especially,

...

certainly

!

-

rather than,

much

as

as

possible.

3().
-8

,

$

()

mad

be

rage,

-

()

one

call

-5 ()

''

see §§ 190, 191.

8

however.

siirely,

loait,

() part.
- - middle, medium,

?

midnight.

middle

to witness.

in

life.

whip, flog.
xmthout rea-

(),

mid-day

south.

- - filled

- -.
with, laden with

§ 117).

comp.

with,

share

:

change

one''s

In

after.

with,

§ 129

differently.

goad, whip.

the

midst.

()

loitness.

§ 196.

await.

-ovs

(Gen.

seer.

oracular response.

Gen.

,

after,

c.

mind, repent.

-.
^ ' €€
.
.. €€8
-,

-,
-(
$ (
' 8
in vain,

idly,

son.

-

give a share of, share.

Verbal

§ 89.

§ 45.

large.

and

Adv.

greatly.

Comp.

Super.

€-

-Otis,

lad.

-

have a share

dark, black.

aor. part,

certain, be destined) to do (In-

limb by

limb.

from) limb.

()

song,

tune,

often witli a part.

these things are
yoti

).

see Less.

my

have

not, see §§ 144, 180, 178 II
§ 160 c.

unless,

;

lest,

,

§ 159.
§ 67.

blame

against

;

XXXVII.

object of care,

.
-{

(Pf.

for the better.
between (Gen.), meanwhile;

lyric

lyric poet.

a care for this.
remember.

§ 87.

part.) fortxine being changed

verse.

care,

let

§ 98.

change.

-? ()

tive

re-

of.

of

loose, give up.

fin.).

an

§ 88.

change,

:

tract.

intend {be about, be

-oDs

after,

transpose, change.

Mid.

smile.

be

se7ld

summon.

§47.

'$

:

see

Impera-

(rivi),

charge

by no means.
ing.

at

all.

§ 51.

no one, nothNeut. as adv. not

.

|

360

€•€

£'

,

longer.

€.

.

.

'-

manage; tend

never.

710

.

.

what

nor.

.

.

see

-$

month.

jealousy,

-8(

hate.

reward.

ire, loages,

laio.

c. 818).
§ 28 D.
remembrance.
-<rw remember, remind.
make mention ! imperawhich serves as
of

€€-€.
tive

aorist to

with

-yis

difficulty.,

reluctantly,

£

.

.

not only

.

-

.

.

hut

.

also.

fate,

doom, death.
sung

lyric poetry

music,

€--

.

- one

- ()

,€-€ €£
-a

recently married.

youth.

cloud.

island.

-- -• ,
()

ship, § 38.

§

vcKpos

()

%.

conquer.

-.

sickness.

29 C.

mind,

corpse.

see s.v.

()

•€ -- --

dead.

childhood.

icho has just

() islander.
{v^js () fasting).

sea-fight.

vcKpos

() one

() mind,

()

young, new,

from

(\( (-)).

see s.v.

-(-

I.

victory.

tale,

myth,

vavs, Gen.

§ 179

/asi

labor, be weary.

word, speech, proverb,
see § 178

the

-$. Adv.

and

()

to

literature, music, etc.

,

)
-

i-ites)

(

vea veov [veurepos

come

alone, only,

^
of

customary

the

fresh,

commit adultery.

-

ven-

use; acknowledge, believe in;

deem, regard, believe.

veov

adulterer.

-

of

observe as a custom, pjractise,

scarcely.

portion, fate.

teacher

«-

law.

() mina (=

=

distribution

anything assigned, hence,

custom,

§ 51.

-•

<€(>

()

pasture.

68 ()

els,

due, hence, righteous

geance.

sheep.

of

see § 192.

Gen.

is

indignation,

sheep.

€05 - -

,
,
,

tend flocks in pastures.

€€-5

not yet.

.

neither

.

^

flocks.

to

he

ill.

thought, purpose.

€'€

€v

have in

vovv in accordance

€ -- - loith (one's) wishes.

perceive,

think, suppose, plan.

€-

vvv

dis-

tribute, assign, dwell in, occupy,

.

now;
Gen.

just now.

()
midnight.

night.

€->

.

)0

361

|€vos

(^ -)

happiness,

^5

nected with another by
hospitality, hence,

ties of

guest

(less

«(> --

(

entertain as a guest.

-ows (to) sword.

5
€€8

mass, bulk.

'

§§ 24, 105, 110.

this.

way, road,
along
the road, on the loay.
oSovs, Gen.
() tooth.

()

happy, prosperous.

,,

deem happy.

€, §

?)

ola (see

know.

^ --

with partic,

§

175

e.

-ov pertaining

to

the

house, belonging to the family.

()

--

house-servant.
inhabit, dwell.

()

household,

house,

family.

() plural of oIkCov = oIkos.

-{ --aros

()

-

()

suppose.

-

skilled in

manthink,

§ 179, I a.

{

I

-

--

am

qualified,

am

.
-, -, .

one and the same.

(,

)

of the same

age.

- -ov like, similar,
manner, equally.

€€()

same, nevertheless.

dream.

gone.

()

reproach.

reproach, charge against

,
,,
one.

()

name, noun.

Aor. pass.

, <,-., €,
•€
name,

call.

see

in-

forms

direct

;

respectively
;

J

-€
-

how

of
;

that,

in order that.

§§ 148, 149, 160.
behind, after (Gen.)

back,

back

again,

after

(Gen.).

'-

see.

temper, mood, wrath, anger.

reach

after (Gen.).

see

have

Epic

in anger.

see

LXI.

(-).

adj.

roast.

as, lohat sort of.

able.

-,

-.

see

eye

(see ttcDs;) how, as,

estate, etc.

such

oios

(^).

household management.

aging an

olos

room, chamber.
administer a

manage

household,

116 b.

dream.

§ 95.

-a

(

()

all the

oIkos house, room, household.
oIkcios

-

before.

little

-ov short-lived.

in like

§ 21 b.

a

irpoTcpov

j^ain, grief.

whence.
ot to him.

bliss.

- -ov scant, few, small,

frequently host).

oSos

- -ov

Stranger, foreigner, one con-

See

Less.

-

-ov (Adv.

oxit,

)

straightforward, right.

reach

upright,

!

362

OpBpLOS

--

at day-break.

-

opKos oath.

-hasten; Mid.
-8 (, )

motion,

in

set

start, hasten.

opvls

cock,

bird,

boundary,

limit,

(0)

hen,

rule,

standard.

-'

'

opiKOs


8

and

-rrep

oo-Tis

•- -=

.

many

how

great

! etc.

see oo-tis.
§

21

,)
II,

,

late.

see

-,

see

irais.

Gen.

710

(-).

(,

as adverb.

j'lciy thing ,

child, boy,

from

no

one.,

-

educate.
child, baby.

chant the paean

noth-

(as adv.) not at all.

never yet.

),

honor

See

long ago.

--

vjith

(iraLUv,

paeans.

§ 134.

ancient.

back, again.

-ov neither.

§ 46.

(ert).

= \£.

cordingly, not then

game.

'play.

not, nor, not even.

longer

)

training, education.

not,

never.

vision

little

ovSeis

•7£
€€8 -

serpent.

boyhood.

by no means.

ing,

.

-€8 ()

XIX.

and

()

be borne, hence, ride.

no ! §§ 144,
180, and Lessons VI,

8€
178

eye.

see

girl; servant.

§ 27.

b.

lohere, gen. of

(,

see

see

, see <8.
of him.

ovtws

thus, so.

it is.

, ,.8 -.

whenever.

oTi that, because.

,,

§§ 25, 105,

in this respect,

-ovs (t6) advantage, profit.

ivhat-

loin, loins.

lohen.

nor.

- ,

,

o»|/is

how many

as,

()

-vos

this.

08 .
68
8,

-€

whoever,

as great as,

.

.

see

Gen.

see § 194.

oircp,

102.

until.

Is

.

153 b.

€8

§§ 24,

§§ 27, 178, la.

ever.

as

he.

.

§ 196.

owe.

§

quail.

which.

loho,

-

8
,8

of a mule.

-8 ()

-os

see § 193.

thus

--

OS

neither

meanwhile.

() mountain-animal,

-- fear, dread.

OS

not yet.

.

.

.

,
-, ((),

mxile.

i.e.

.

.

110.

opos -ovs (to) mountain.
opevs

.

never.

surely not.

etc.

opos


,

then, ac.

.

.

?

-, -,

see iras.

()

alongside,

In comp.
amiss.

§

:

beside,

129

d.

by,

near.

by, beyond,

(^-. Compound Verbs lead around. en- end. iravTOs. around. -€5 () assembly -epos (ayep-). iravToios -a -ov of every sort. . 8. take. certainly. -. -ov wholly wise. . be beside oneself. -. make -. to. \. surround. of send. take not at 6 iropa- to. -- 363 iras irept Compound Verbs everywhere. II. () mother of all. trance. Gen. cease. escort. proverb. § 91. LXVII. one loho gave.) .. -$8. see in. trial. pass to cease. see -ov resembling. in every way. . etc. -. -. . hold beside. -. be present.• from another.-( beside. -ov titterly bad. of () poverty. observe. put beside. § I. be at hand. In about. -' all. § all. trust - - see A. pass p)ersuade .-. exceeding. trust. 4.-. bring to an side-entrance. the side. look at from . -ov parallel.']. Past-Irapf. excel. -. See Less. over. . irap-o8os § fut. -8 -- Compound Nouns. beside. provide. faith. comp. fut. -. I.. -. go around. about. - --. fifty. prepare. call to one. full suit of armor.-).: -. 129 e. - treat. 7€- remain Prin. § 96. -' -- Less. II. : around. five thousand. -. throw altogether. . Mid. -.-- stiffer. attemj)t. . •irCo-Tis -€8 () bring to one. iras 82 -- like. I. jwe- sent. every. Mid. handle. be at hand. - -oraros) (-orepos ----. ? --' -- give over - -' down sit summon. II. see see § 194. - survive.: : I. § 93. stop / ). trust in (Dat. the whole. throw beside. -- ••(-5 -. altogether. the very. pass.- -- obey (Dat. furnish. faithful.^ - by. sit beside. -? -? - try. pts. (. see -. -- XXIV.

. see <. overjoyed. many-colored. . - times. XLIII. . () irepi-XuTros -ov very sad. bad. loar. lohither? I. 29 C. i-ich. . --- Strike. someI suppose. Comp. --. ford.-9. Compound Nouns. . on which where? sonieiohere. . .-) why . ' hoio . proceed. (of account - flock. § 45. gray. II. loalk about. badness. () poem. poet. - . . () - do. -. go. drink. way. -- ' . as = many mould. shape.€ " . speech. see Less. -rrpiap-UTcpos numerals). - - pertaining to zens. see '€€8. government.more «s irX€i<rTov Pf. . harsh. older. J river. hitter. weigh dnion. ? Less. the evil one. . (- toil / § 130. . other. be rich. . fall. -. - -d (to) multitude. much-learning. hostile.(. wallet. two) iroiel- U. 364 ireaciv €-. irXio) Superl. -€ : city. €. -. . etc. make a some time. 10 depraved. -i's of what sort? loar. except. once. much. irXoCs (0) voyage. fight with. § . £-. travels. for the most part. () see •€<. take of.- . irXovTos wealth. at length. . . () -- foot. one time - . at in the loorld ? 8' at whence? how? make.be at -- -- consider carefully. press. •- . . citizenship. irov- sea.-€. quam maxime. when? . loith. '. irio-Tus. . . iToUa ) . side? . . -- ' '7£ sharp. about (with what. much. . «08. much? ever. political. PI. . at an- lohich XXII. . see gird (oneself) II. . 47 § citi- many. See most. quantity. see citizen. device. Gen. adv. eirXivcra sail. strait. street. preserve. loandering. republic. .

pts. beg 129 f. as adv. be laid out lie jrray Past-Impf. proposition irpOTcpos -a See '-- dear (-orepos Stretching (). value. present. --. to. fare LX. toward. hold pay see -€. to. etc. Less. before. -- - - place before. Compound Verbs -'. beggar. II. -ov former. root). § 130). choose {in preference). . •-8 rare. : to. In --. the assigned task. - see () be zealous -.). not yet. () come §97. before. forth. affair. assign etc. sooner.:. . logue. -<« . . to to. -ov by the roots (pi^a. from - one. to. Past-Impf. propose. yet. irpoo•- irpOT€pos. 170. : § to. (6) -irvpos oi ••••€ . oiSt• . Trpo<r-€Ti -. (-. ancestor (yev. -€ tention. In comp. learn by inquiry. -' indicate in advance. wife asked before (he could speak). -•€5 standing near('aa). see § %% (ro) I. hear. II irp£v 6e/ore. be placed by. prior. with reference to. set forth. first. etc. besides. eager. yet. () forward. thing. in addition to. irpo lead toward. wpos toxoard. before. sheep -?• € make to. 365 (-). by. Gen. (-acTTepos -is : -) to.yov-). -'. (to) irporepov be- his add furthermore. never LXX. and Less. face. zealous. assistant -is obei- attach to oneself. send forth. toward. -Oes. A. II. put (). F. 172. in preference -» f comp. J. (like a corpse) -. -arcs : Prin. Compound Nouns. -- Compound Verbs §§ IGO b. Prin. I. do previously. Compound Nouns. » : . do. -^. --(. -£ -€ § 124 d. - () -ov first. fore. supplement (). go toward. ? former. A. -' honor. ---$-) at- call to oneself.. belong to. by. pts. require besides. fire. she^therd. see irpo (end). Adv. expose. -ov belong - -- sance stretch forth. formerly. inquire. Very to. sooner. person (in a dia- •-- in front of (Gen. expect. c. bring before one. event. .

send with. € €€ €8. race-course. consider. hasten. sociate with. fully. rect (late) spelling -«-. - - comp. come -- together. Compound Verbs - A.ark. stitch a measure of {i.). agree. ( -5 () mouth. gather together. 200yard dash. song).e. (. LX. -arcs . disposition. of iron. -. 5. general. -' = equip. •'£- tirge - if ye turn not. - § 87. = point out. be useful. --- sit down beside loith. be advantageous. ? (Adv. de- breast. : com- with. c. examine careLess.- A less cor- is o-kotivos. . gether 8 to- rhythm.'•€ - -irws offer how? . - 366 for sale. ?. € 05 ' silence. stade = length.pu-)• () saying.-. dark. play with. your. - tent. -. stage-building. of. . pass. -is £€ -. sit : doion -- as- icith. agree with. . -. earnestness. Pf. iro7i. €05 . . sign. .<- -os pass. shadow. -) -. I. § 125 b. stadium. earnestly. target. army. see eral of (Gen. by chance. -. be eager. yours. sign. be gen- be soldier. () ( --= ($ - expedition. o-Koiros xi:atchman. 08 deprive clear. <5 see spatch. Aor. . Less. bring together. temper. thoughtful.o-KOT€ivos () -aTos . m. easy. §41. . cppcvcra floio (pev.) ( paSios -a -ov (Adv. -ovs strength. feet)). haste. 600 Gk. 582 army. -- ( -(? () -aros Semitic indicate by a XLVIII. word. turn. -ovs (to) darkness. (-. In loith. zeal. tomb. pts. rhapsodist do be earnest. loalk about loith. (). Prin. somehow. a reciter of epic poems. LXV. phrase. stage. spy - general () scene. sell. - A -) Sabbath. €-. « § 87. feet Eng. pjletely. collect. verb. twist.

€£ €€ . (€. sober. quickly book.- . () () end.). at once. Superl. () 6 (= -- -- ally -«s ). course. -€ €| 367 assist in driving out.completion. (Comp. pardon. -- inter- very much. complete. see tCktw. closet. humble. drinking-bout. very. (- perhaps. . an end. -€ . c. () a tax-collector. (.. and AdV. -£ - counsellor. (). slave. thank-offering for deliverance. -5 () carpenter. £€8 tune.-£< of sound mind. § 195. bear (young). company. (). €€ to lay eggs. etc.-8 (--5 etc. with. bring to . be with. nearly. (. meet happen with. pile together. body. issue. . a bringing together. II. -. as quickly as pos- sible. born with. % sympathetic sym- ) (for -- (or soon as ) as. fulfilment. «-? --. burial counsel. leisure. . €€ bring to an Te'Xcos -a -ov completed. = -ovos cut the throat. -€05 (-- being a --. akin -^s to. ? . misfor- T£ and. vigor- near.- soundness of mind. .. 07'der. € €€ T€\os as adv. experiences. € €5. assign. together. (-^ -- -€(> live xoith. - (bbbv) with all speed. •8.- - bring -. quick. orvv-8ov\os a see € € iVeKOv felloio- - beget. end. almost. . to. a helper in xoork. .-. «- chance. «- €- synagogue.. a writing. posium. = ). ously. $1080). event. finally. self-control.: -. Compound Nouns. collect. die. TOKOS child. good sense. ' see «. § 21 b. talent store-room. . loeight. x)ay (a debt. Tc'Xos -ovs (to) end. accom- plished. an -« make lower. discreet. save. arrange. etc. •-8 -•8 a balance.

. for -. in ivhat manner.. . art. water. some one. = see . therefore. (oneself). tKtyi -. any thing. kv - § tomb. then. Less. so bad. - - €'. value. see ovtos. in such a . food. . a. . then. . . -€. luay. \. €- he spoke as follows. a sort of. enjoyment. writer of tragedies. « LVIII. at that time. -< . Toi in truth. nurture. LX. see — fourth. -.. put. price.your.-. § 88 and LXXVI.. . one who has suffered wrong. Mid. § 39. see T€K-. tvhat? §27. () vu€p . profession. so tall. honored. ' €€ €. run. . make by devise. -705 .hold in honor. -< (uphold honor) as- Less. §27. precious. surely. tyrant. of.- Less. ToiovTOs case. See Less. see art. avenge (Dat. -- undertake. nourishment. some thing. <() ToaovTOS Strike. c). or why? any one. in every . third. much. so long. great. son. ) nurse.368 T€p\|ilS . etc. manner. who? Tis. -) (^-orepos in ivhat way? way. tIs tI &. rear.-. § 127 c. - . above. turn. sist (. see see - €. means. concern- . at all. .). § 196. . honor. \. moreover. nourish. etc.-.- participle. turn trim. Toiros place. so () Gen. absolute sovereign. chance (with hit. - . — <€..() despotic rule. obtain (Gen. -. surely. . see TOKOS. three times. dare. value. )€ m this place (). . See place. . vengeance. table. so great. en- dure. vester.. on behalf ing. see so 176 fortune. such. sleep. § 120 c). 6 € See LX. a turning. etc. § 39. chance. somewhat. see manner.

drug. Compound Verbs show a glimpse . is treat affectionately. receive fasten on.(Adv. carry off for a carrying.see as receive rades. give ! : - be- fitting a friend. ios (. re- -ov iJo-Tepos Mid. A. . €€' ---^ -' - a roioer serve. --now ! : secretary. I. fame. answerer. . - under. get he loas - - remaining. -ov loving mankind. hypocrite. •' . servant. as (-)) -'--- tm- derstand. under. Gen. paltry. be . ignorant clearly g.. -ov . on the day -€( after. - (show oneself) appear. -- see of. --' are 176 see -€( secretly. 2b - - port. - and §§ 94. fond of words. reply. and dvov declare.. carry lead. endure.: 369 tiiro { ') -. behind. -- see it flee. wages. remaining. ••-€5 - bear. vs. a small basket. by. weave. oh! ah! alas - -. Compound Nouns. under. off. friend. - () -ov beloved. () {an under-rower) underling. somewhaty under. § 129 g. on the next day... left.-- In comp. love. --- -«'? () etc. saying. -- friendly. dear. next.)• II. cure. actor. bring. () a a)i oneself.-. kiss. minister to (Dat. left. take up (under) leave bald. fond of literature. Mid. -. . come win. secretly. ^) friendship. of account. €. prophetic voice. expose.- show. after (Gen. vo-Tcpaios -a -ov next day. .jealous. no -ov slight. com- -ov loving one^s appears. by. load. under. fond of argument. 179. {serve. wont. § 80. -a -ov latter. say. later than. voice. sow.).-'- you § - go under. - bind under. I..-.-. flight.. ) swine. medicine. put on. motion. boar.

spelling () - light.).serviceable. go to and fro. one''s () an instrument a mark engraved . less correct (late) - coined gold. anxi- 47 B. -£ {) care. gore. possessio7i. acter. pride. natural bent. a guarding. gut. impressed. tell.. - . there is Infin. -. -ov grace.). matter. (Infin.. enjoy. gratitude. . pursue knoiol- edge. please. etc. Gen. . taking --- string chord. see bright. -Kos. made ointment). heed. § thousand. intend. €5 370 full of light. Xiip. prudence. he (Adv. ing. see of gold.). see -- rejoice. go (or come) frequently. being on the loatch. € €( 4)ov€vs -' Mid. x€p<ri(v). () guard. €-. -ov loving loisdom. Less. mind. -0 -TOKos eggs. character. A is - (serve need. See bile. rubbed on (as time. inten- (ro) ception. . guard. . bitterness. be a philosopher.murder. or point out (to) point out to oneself) ponder. - . . reflect . () thing. kindness. {) nature. hand. vjidow.). () murderer. for marking €-..- () worse. in <( a for good. - Gen. oneself with) use (Dat. - one ought. - of gut. LXVIII. time. have understand- -aros favor pi. •- Mid.-ov useful. anger. proud. ( seek to (Dat. pAan.-- intention. (17) - think. . money. ety. see € Gen. laying -ov golden . -€5 () -» char- features.consider.difficult. - fear. have a care for (Gen. terrify. time. favor.-€ - -$ -€ --€S eager for knowledge. murder. gold. -- -. per- right mind. € Dat. -.. ])ainful. $) . -. prudent. anointed. . tion. precautions. - - to be () the - Anointed One. in thoughtful. for a short time.

Gen. that. XiapCs from (Gen. ! being. good 9. in truth. soul. -ovs {t6) falsehood. egg. beneficial. . 371 space. (followed § 151). or Infin. loriting. §194. 5€ . hour. see bear false witness. so as to Indie. -ov serviceable. oh . . life. . € . station. € - -. same way. by sir it life. ovtos.-( speak €. as follows. in the - (ixriTtp jtist as. -.() fitting time. see (). apart apart. (. just 5 . country. one''s see -^: \^ . - •. « springtime.. thus time is to be § 197. prime of lie. () -. §130. shoulder. liar. ! — so so. -is lying. place. false. life.). falsely. -. breath of see season.

II Proper Nouns and Adjectives ' *8 ' '€ fifth (i.e. father of Hippocrates. 'AvrC^oipos £ ' -' the sixth century. A'treus. a Medan. a sophist and a pupil of Protagoras. €$ See but and Aristotle. a collection of Greek idyls. a king of Archida'riuis.e. pupil of a philoso- Socrates and founder of the hedonistic school of philosophy. an Athenian tragic poet. Alcibiades. mides. Aeschylus. kinsman He was handsome. and rich. 'ApYiios Artem'bares. odes. an Athe- Apollodo'rus. but very immoral and utterly unscrupulous. reon's there " Polycrates. preserved a large collec. the most brilliant representative of the Old Comedy. tion of inferior imitations known as Anacreontics. son of Croesus. known as Aesop's Fables includes many stories of The the twelfth century a. nian. Glaucon. pher. an Athenian. *8 - Athens. the century.d. a7i Aeolian. namely. '•€5 <8 Only fragments of Anacverses is of Antisthenes. Anthology quarter last of to ($ MeXea-ypos. sons of Agamemnon and Menela'us.c.v.c). son of Andro'tion."Atds A'tys. a of Pericles. s. a lyric poet of at Antimoe'rus 'Apio-TMTiros Aristippus. Agis. and epigrams ranging from the seventh century b. Athe- nian comic poet (445-385 b. Remus" of ancient Greece. " Uncle the Aesop. Atri'dae. father of Char- Androu. Aristophanes. during the 'AveoXoyia. -ov Athenian. AloXcvs -€§ () is elegies. to son of Sparta collection later authorship. 372 . '€5- -ov Argive. philosopher scientist (384-822 b. () Athens. poet laureate the court Samos. of are extant. who said to have lived duiing the first half the sixth of centuiy. i. nosegay). of Mende. brilliant. 525-456. Anacreon.c).

brated philosopher of . an early elegiac and perhaps the best repre- .c. style Euclid. one of the He'ra. Epicure'an the of school of philosophy. Diogenes Laerin the He third wrote. loves of Meleager. ' He was the first great comic poet of Greece. about SOO tius (i. machus. Demophon. the lives of the philosophers. century A. a king of Persia. )' . a king of famous Midas. Her most important temple was at Argos. . Theog'nis. son of Phrygia and Midas. a philosopher the most Crorgias. 5 EryxV- son of Acu'menus. Heracli'tus. i. Testament.C. father /) of see Zevs. and founder of his dialogues after him. Delphi. as or pher of Ephesus. a philoso- form of the known Heliodo'ra. -€ () a Dorian. a comic poet of Sicily and a contemporary of Aeschylus. a quaintance of Socrates. Heracles.8 373 rop5ios TopSios ? € Gurdius. '.e. of which the most celebrated is his " Elements of Geometry " in thirteen books. and wrote numerous mathematical treatises. cele- the fifth century. sists ( The New Tes- documents. Dni'i'us. He end of the third century b. probably Zeus. the elsewhere New Greek the Testa- innocent of literary re- finements. father of Lysis. of Laerte). while the language dialect ( the Common dialect.c). Demo' crates.D. father of the the of named one '- () Hellas. Epichar'mus. an is main that of the common people. tive of the colloquial post-classical Euripides. a Demo'critus. Gen. The New Testament is the most important representa- in the The Euxine Sea. one of famous 0€O"YVIS Plato sophists... physician at Athens. ' poet. in part con- of With the exception of the book of Hebrews and an occasentence of ment is of Alexandria. tament an Euthijde'mus. Epicu'rus. who flourished B.e. tragic poet (480-406 b. Athenian transla- tions. a famous oracle of ? Apollo in Phocis. Gen. Greece. . a famous mathe- matician part of original Greek in sional ac- flourished at the Menexenus.

C. (ot) the €£$ lyric noble. more than seven hundred of which. a Persian name. verse quotations) of -apos (0) Caesar. libra- Lysis. the reputed founder of Thebes. as £5 Homer. Kvpos Cyms. LII. in cento of Greek poets. "€5 () . a mountain in Mysia. each consisttury. said to Laconisms. in his verses. rian of the great library at Alexandria. his friend Cyrnus.). Orpheus. Kvpvos. Callias.374 ' () sentative of the sententious style. to Theognis were written by other He frequently mentions poets. 3Iede. father of Hipponi'cits. comic poet of the late fourth cen- and the best known representative of the New Comedy. known Menander. Mysian. His plays abounded in sententious sayings. see from 558-529 ? -08 Clibu'lus. son of Xicer'atus. 'IiriroviKOs the lonians. king (i. a Mysian. a of Melea'ger. a friend of Socrates. See Less. philologist.C. Mcvc^cvos Menex'enus. of Media and vastly enlarging the boundaries of his empire. have been ' preserved in a collection Cadmus. Nico' teles. 310240 B. tician. Many commonly verses the of attributed €$ young Dorian Theodo'rus. an Athenian general. a mathema- have been a teacher title AvSos a Lydian. Olympus. Median. . € € '." His rule extended €3 monian. a (ot) the Cilicians. - - sophist. ? -ov Lacedae- - ? " -ios -a -ov Nicias. By single- Mithrada'tes.c. literary critic. tury B. Lycians. son of Apollodo'rus. a friend of Calli'machus (c. MCkkos Miccus.e. Cyrus gained for himself the title of " The Great. ing of a single verse. He employed (see Less. McvavSpos Menander.. . a late Greek poet. born at Gadara lived in the first and was the first make a noteworthy anthology of Socrates. the elegiac couplet III). He Syria. poet. an Athenian Hippo'crates. b. the one of Plutarch's essays. the bibliographer. Persia.

a comic poet. of the nCvSapos Pindar. nian. - Pan. The quotations in the Lessons are from his Memorabilia or Memoirs of Socrates. Timothy. Xenophantus. Pericles.Sav6nnros $ 375 Pythag'oras. () Athenian tragic Sophocles. Phrygia. Char'mides. the father of Plato's mother. One () a Persian. a rural god.c).C.() Sardes or Sardis. Xenophon.). wrote first cen- Parallel of famous Greeks and Romans. a Greek au- thor and lecturer of the He the Timo'theiis. and innumerable essays Lives ing is known about these. Philip- Plutarch. 0£5 Pericles.C. a ^ sixth century. (428-347 B. one of the rivals of Menander. the lyric poets.D. . an Athenian and B. the brother of Hippocrates. -€Ovs Persians Terpander. an Athenian states- - man of the sixth century. -? Socrates. tury A. Noth- either of () a X on miscellaneous subjects..). one of the earliest of the nian.C.). Protag'oras. -ovos « () a Paphlago- an Athenian statesman (died 429 b. Phaedrus. of loves of Meleager. plays of Aeschylus is called the (^). sophist of the fifth century. of whom he was a great admirer. . a son of Pericles.). a famous - pides. and author (born 0.-ov Syrian. Phile'mon. . a celebrated Greek philosopher of the son of Xanthippus. poet an (497-405 B. pupil of Soc- and teacher one of Aristotle - friend of Plato. an Athe- Pausa'nias. Phrygian. who named one of his dialogues after him. Plato. () Phason. first great phi- losopher of Greece. Athenian phi- losopher (469-399 B.). country gentleman.430 B. Par'aliis. Printed in the United States of America. capital of Lydia. son of Philome'lus. Solon.C.C. one of the chief lyric poets of Greece (518-442 rates Greek Timar'ion. soldier.

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