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THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

:>^°•
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
NEW YORK

BOSTON CHICAGO DALLAS
SAN FRANCISCO

ATLANTA

MACMILLAN &
LONDON

CO., Limited

BOMBAY CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN

CO. OF
TORONTO

CANADA,

Ltd.

THE
FIRST

YEAR OF GREEK

BY

JAMES TURNEY ALLEN,

Ph.D.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF GREEK
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

"Ntta

gork

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1917
All rights reserved

258

COPTEIGHT, 1917,

THE MACMILLAX COMPANY.
Set up and electrotyped.

Published August, 1917.

Nortoooti ^rees

Berwick & Smith Co.
Norwood. Mass., U.S.A.

J. 8. Gushing Co.

all of these freshmen and sophomores Statistics show. moreover. that the majority do not continue the study beyond two Indeed. and should not be expected. These new conditions under which the study of Greek is begun have given rise to a new and serious problem." . V The Classical Journal.PREFACE However regrettable may it seem. . for the majority. seniors. students each year begin the study of Greek after entering and this number is certain to increase. 331-332. richer. my "Old Wine See Chronicle. years. Greek " University of California reprinted in revised form luider the in pp. to begin the study of a language in precisely the same manner as children of fourteen or fifteen. caption " XV The in pp. during the past decade or so Greek has come to be in this country largely Already approximately four thousand a college subject.^ . 235-242 First Year of Bottles. possible in so brief a period the student is must be given the opportunity of reading in their original form choice por- Greek tions of literature of the Hellenic — the finest flower and revealing To mind. Nor are many are juniors. X (1915). this end all other objects are. and even graduates. New (1913).^ 1 See my article Classical JotirnaL 2 "College Students Beginning the Study of Greek. The course must be more compressed college. the content of the first Just so far as year. . For it is clear that students of college age do not desire. pp. subordinate." XII (1917). 262-266. many are content with but a single year.

The selections have been chosen for their and graded with greatest care. Follow- followed (^) ). They were used. The plan of the book is simple. notes . by five different teachers both in preparatory school and in college. it is designed to provide material for an entire year for pupils of high-school age and for college students three times each week. A first addressed and exercises was prepared. Each begins with a numeral. It consists of two parts Part I contains lessons by a vocabulary. This book is the fruition of this long-continued experiment. moreover. one or more selections for reading.' and these. As title its series lessons of indicates. and exercises Part II. In fact. were used with successive classes until more than three hundred students had been introduced to the study of Greek by their means. and deserve and re-read many times. For in learning a language like Greek there is hardly any exercise more helpful than memorizing and reproducing from memory suitable passages both in prose and verse. followed in many instances by a quotation to be learned by heart. moreover. times a week may who recite in this subject but College classes which meet five complete the work in less than a year. and ('). grammar (Part II). there are only a few that are not worthy to be memorized. are followed by a supplement which may be treated in one of two intrinsic merit to be read (')^ . which indeed was one of the chief considerations in determining their choice. a grammar Qy The scheme of the lessons is fairly uniform.PREFACE VI More than eight years have passed since I myself to this problem. Many of the lessons. (^) ing these in turn are references to the a vocabulary. annually revised.

even for those teachers who desire to employ the " direct " method. . that this method in the case of Greek is not very successful with mature students. These yield themselves more readily to the memorizing of selections. others Some may be used may be assigned as Vll as exercises in reading at sight. such as those of the pluperfect. Occasionally a passage containing a rare word or an unusual construcBut these are exceptional. The exercises which conclude Part I. should make this portion of the book one of invaluable service. But a sincere attempt has been made to state all fundamental principles not only briefly but clearly. while forms of infrequent occurrence. ^ to provide. 1 See the note prefixed to Exercise II. selections both in the lessons (^)^ The grammar (Part II) contains practically all that the Homer and have been omitted. the main only common words and standard constructions will be found in these pages. Experience has demonstrated. The marking of the long vowels in such words as Bevrepa. abundant material for both oral and written work. they will be found pansion. In tion has been admitted. writing from dictation. Such exercises cannot be repeated too frequently. however. and similar exercises. are intended to accompany the lessons and should be regarded as suggestions admitting of indefinite imitation and exAlthough very incomplete. coupled with the fact that lessons and grammar have been carefully articulated. and this feature of the grammar. p. 178.PREFACE ways. All of the and in these have been taken directly from Greek literature. additional lessons. receive but slight attention. and the like may pupil will need until he begins the reading of drama. if treated in this manner. Non-essentials .

but has been adhered to consistently throughout for the sake of its pedagogical value. Although few of the selections in this volume are taken from Xenophon.vni PREFACE seem unnecessary. and especially to my students whose good-will and forbearance have made possible its thorough testing. June 1. the is To all vho have aided in the preparation of this book. I make grateful acknoAvledgement. and these entirely from his Memorabilia^ pupil who successfully completes these lessons ready for the Anabasis or any similar text. University of California. 1917. .

..CONTENTS PART I PAGES Lessons I-LXXX Additional Selections for Reading Exercises . 1-149 150-176 177-214 • PART II The Grammar 217-339 Vocabulary 341-375 .. .

.

MEPOX TO PART I THE LESSONS .

.

a eV. () Cf. av. Iv in. §§ 1. he (she. est. -. /txtct. of all (things). it) icas. Lat. see Part II (TO a. § 2. €v ^ in (the) beginning. § 6 a-e ev. ^ The pupil need learn at in this lesson. all. § 4 a (Diphthongs: at. . b. c . matics. half clone.i Punctuation Marks. €08 Cf. first. the. c. () he (she.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK €19 I. god. § 24 a. logic. 01. first only so much of the alphabet as occurs . the note. € in the presence of God. To '^ (The) beginning (is the) — ) half of ). Cf. PI. irpos Cf. . Ace. 1 Pronunciation. scholium. semi. Cf prototype. e (Consonants) For the Alphabet (o . " Well begun. ''^ — Greek proverb. speech. Breathings. . the beginning. Cf. 5 b. and. erat. -logy. the mathe- this (one) he. et. Quantity. . rbv to the lesson. § 3 (Vowels). . See half. Lat. archaic. theology. Cf. '. the god. 9 f. . §§ 8. it) is. - loord. § 9 a. ou). Accents. .

() § 13 b. § 15. (). (see Preface). dear. even. also. 6 18. Cf. ireSCov () it) nourishes. plain. beautifully. automaton. he (she. Cf. « ^» () - See il/aii^ewxvi. but. ^v 6 the predicate. ill. 171 on time. '-'.. Irene. § 4 b. The \6yos. and. ? of ). ytup-^/os (0) farmer. Tbv yewpyov. () one fond of wisdom. Pron. in the (fertile) plain. polemic. and. () peace. For Aristotle and Menander. philosopher. . . . in. § 189. The article is omitted. well.. including a mastery of both quotations. Cf.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 2 . because this is in for emphasis. (the) rocks. 8. ivise. <£ (before a vowel. omitted with . the friend. as in etc. To AcvTcpov Thorough review Lesson I. Cf. another. EN APXHI HN ^ 6 o. rears. like bed. even - among () war. (/cat iv) even hndly. rock. Ace. Peter. debs . . see § 198. self. Cf. § 4 b. iv Eng. see VocabuCrasis. Cf. sophomore. clever. These should be studied until they can be reproduced from memory either orally or in writing Improper Diphthongs. ^eoj is See put article is first '. even ^ -- Cf. George. lary of Proper Names. rocky hillside.. allopathic.).pxfj 6 6 iv — ^.

to the . See § scheme of this line 6 ' — hillsides of and a ^-. ).. thus rj 6 : (Supplement See Exercise 1 (H. Beginning with this lesson each noun is accompanied in the word-list by the appropriate form of the article in parenthesis. ^ MevavBpov. is metrical . in which the sign . 103 a. and this the very inscription which stood over the door in his day Note the capital letters (§ 1 c). 4). from Menander v^^^_:_ I w-i. The wirpais. Second Lesson) i \rCjrHE^\> 2]^ [^ Fragment Synagogue of the Hebrews inscription from a synagogue at Corinth (c/. of an It is ! {) 1 For the use of the Supplements see the Preface. xviii.. . These should be pronounced and memorized in the reverse order. Acts perhaps not impossible that this was the synagogue in which Paul preached. (. KU\y-iI \ w_i_ represents a long syllable where the meter strictly calls for a short.) and the Exercises . \. — > I half v/_i. I The Greece are very rocky.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ] 4 1. 2.

book. Thorough review ' no one. celery. ' — ®€oyvL9. worse. skilled. of Proper € Names. and .v. . . s. = () €(() all things. § 180 § 21 (learn the full declension of each) — . § 100. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 4 . " . . Werk. here {they are). )( 6 . € of Lessons I €. . great. els) Rhodes. deed. § 113 d. II. loise. §§ 190. (fepy-). oiSeis no one poSov () rose. viola . {). ovbiv there 3 and .' (- Gf. these. is ' before. Bible. /. Gco-yvis. the use of €. €() Lat. large. To ' 6 ov8eU epyop • '. each. . - . For Theognis and the Elegiac couplet see the Vocabulary and U.. . 191. anthropology. Cf. better. § 10 accented ' c. Cf. work Meya — 2. III. Cf. 1. as ovScis there is nothing. () human being. Accusative of Specification. PI. . -. Cf. Agreement. violet. () parsley. . 901-902. Cf Germ. megaphone.

which was sung by a chorus of girls and their leader the first verse by the leader. Enclitics. a so-called pentameter.e. Proclitics. 10. etc. and quotations. 9 f. I v^ v:y \y\yK^ \ \y-L- I | v^ ]Miere for Supply kari (§ 103 b) roses 9 my vi/ me >_:_ \ w | | w_:_ w vv | <^ v-/ | <^ v:/ w_i_ | (are) the roses? | \^_l. the response by the chorus who danced as they sang.€. 9 e). ( IV. § 11. i. are a fragment of an ancient Flower song. () oi/5eis The avros no one of verses beginning human kind {is in) himself. . ' To 6 . . The metrical form (§ 8.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK The Elegiac couplet quoted above from Theognis has the following metrical form -i_ww l-i-ww I-: -: |_l. Avith special reference to words. The ancient Greeks greatly admired the feathery leaves of the parsley. § 9 (entire. The city Seli'nus was named from the plant. \J /\ \ w Where are my (§ 100). ^-J- I >-L. — ' .ww !_: _:_-1-^^ -: I I | -J-^^ |_: w | _i. especially phrases. ' -. The first verse is an hexameter the second. aiWva Exercise 2 beautiful parsley. and frequently used them in the making of chaplets. Thorough review. The latter always has a strongly marked pause in the third foot. § Exercise 3 (H ).) is as follows: . ). Accents. >_^ >^wv^ I w .

Lat. () \6. useful. ka-^iv () i<rrL(v) est. (. Gen. ( 4-. good. et cetera.'^ Cf. Phila- Cf. esse. ' To Accents. c. (J)) grief. 2 In early Christian times the word was often. V/ MeXer?. () : () sister. All the forms of which appear in this lesson are enclitic. -. - brother. left. sunt. 2 Uses of Avtos self. they are. See Exercise 3. sorrow. § 9 a. art). chres- '. Cf. through instead as though from a misconception. § 106 . mother. delphia. . estis. 8^. written At that period these words were identical in pronunciaof this verb : . sing. mater. ei. b. e 6 Herewith Exercise 4 The () father. ! . '^. are. . Agatha. Cf. A-B is 6 . remaining. pers. () good. Xoiiros - born of the same womb. (ye) are. This form never loses its accent. 1 sumus. ( root of this verb (to be) . Uses of the Cases. pater. hence ? we •( you es. the . . ). () physician.. § 111 Second Declension. — Enclitics (type II) § 10 b. pediatric. except that of the sec.. $ Cf. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK -) it I am (ior you are (thou () sumA Cf. ' . tion.) tomathy. § 29 /.

}. ts «€ 4$. £<rov '. . times (). § 195. holocaust. . mal each § 26. - : M. iav y. 7) (be (he taken . you and Cf. before. }. § 100. "'. «ov equal. lohole. ^ . (( () Cf.''^ The equals of 1 the same (thing) Adjectives (at least those of the first-second declension type) nor- mally have three endings in the nominative. F. -^ ^ '. lav iav \ ^. Notions) of Euclid.^ . isother- greater. € former. Gen. ? -(^?). Practice (is) away). . perfect. . . . ) ' . the lohole . {air\ 7 £ both and. and. the halves (). added). Lat. larger. many if. But comi)OMnd &. etc. beautiful. oXos entire. Common a.. -o" double.. unequal.). thus: M. adjectives usually have only ttvo endings. " Practice makes (thing). €$ () from. I.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -5 wnegwaZi other. are. thus . KOINAI ENNOIAI Axioms (Gr. (tVos).-F. § 6 f) (Gen. roO ^lari. e .

— . dull. .-ov () health. THE FIRST 8 — . § 79 A.— 1. biology.— . by essays the mastery of ancient Greek of the verb. . the chief difficulties encountered The Verb. 133 (first and last sentences). 162. * : ). hygiene. and infinitive of the progressive action-stem of the is found in the inflection conjugational system is . . . 6 2. imperative. for the Greek more elaborate even than that of Latin. . Learn the present indicative. vyitia § 184. for. foolish. unfastening. . and 144. 3• 'Tyieia iv 4- . words. 113. understanding. quotations. regular verb (active voice). phrases. -1' VI. Lessons Exercise 5 One of student when he r 1^. 171 (first sentence). Read carefully §§ 131. vovs . the () mind. — ^ .. The trouble arises in the main from the multithe scheme of the conjugation is plicity of the forms simple and clear. life. graphic) .. and the optative. same way conjugate : (c/. 8 . taking as the type the verb I am In the loosing. ^ Thorough review of forms. Cf. OF GREEK Alt () $ Cf. To — I-V (97 .

. -. nor not). . there. . () For the thief. believe {cf. law}. ? otrov where(ever) PI. Learn by heart the passage from Matthew quoted below. / . epigram. Cf. ittL upon (Gen. / am (imper. cardiac. plutocrat.). regard. I . thesaurus. heaven. ( . the earth.'). in that place.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK € •-^ €€' I am I holding. see § 78. Cf.). . . as follows € Greek govern the infinitive. Hence means Bich may I believe the wise (to be)\ This quofrom the famous prayer of Socrates with which Plato closes his Verbs of thinking regularly tive of the 6 tation ' is verb iu to be'' (eiV) is eJvaL ^ () Phaedrus. talking Qcf. VII. neither . recessive accent in the imperative of the trisyllabic polysyllabic verbs. diameter. Cf. clex3- . (/^) steal tomaniac. (both not treasure- Cf. . To ^. . - telling. Cf. The infini(= esse). () loealth. am / am . oi . I rejoice Xoyo^). sky. . custom. urging (^commanding') I hold as customary. . . . () 1 Cf. 9 . and . treasure. . irXovo-ios rich. « ' Repeat in negative form. () heart. and the . have . recognize again (^ava)). nor yet. Uranus. - 9 ? house. (). reading I (lit. () %M € through. . () . Herewith Exercise 6 (H --- (( () dig through treasure up €•• (). TTjs upon (7/. not .

2. " TTOvot^ ' § e.-6 — ' true. § 121. carpology. ^. bring.. 6 . ' . 'OpeaTij. 113 fero. 3. bear. Cf. winged. '^^^ tff-Ka' . ' — . evayyeKiou - 2. . . 6^ 1. VIII.{' e/cet .. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 10 Mr) 7^?> iv . moth and rust (eating) make{s) will be. . ^ . Adverb. ' . The Accusative as . 694. having KapTTOs {) fruit. to disappear. e^eiv. oiSe — . . ev Instrumental-Oiitive. To ''} The . /. $ — 3• « — 6 4• . 5 yap — . . .<. .

§ 162. () ttus evei'y () Voc. (c5) (= etc. / might.) seize or grasp. labor. c) . microscope. ns any €^ ^\— less. {would. lord. § 155. if Herewith Exercise 5 I be Cf. pain. § 167 A. . any thing. Learn the subjunctive (active voice) of the progressive § 79 A. message. = writing a should. () toil. Uses of the Subjunctive (negative always ') : a) Exhortation. 7. and conjugate the verbs in the action-stem of following clauses. § 168 A. b) Question of Appeal. Mou. c) Conditional Clauses. -. small. 165. . despot. little. master. Cf. T^v) iav) () and () if. § 156. Zar<7e (prizes). could. how? who? irovos if. Uses of the Optative (§ 161) : a) Wish. § 163. epistle. etc. repeating the full clause each time a) iav /3) iav ) €1 ) el if <. I. Conditional Clauses. . . <^ ^ €av (. or no i/ (Subj. En- clitic. what? why? .).. : § GREEK 11 143. . : letter. $ 8€($ = all. b) Potential. i/i'e Eat» - oiJSets. () one.F^^i? OF //£: Jf/BSr The Verb Moods. one. even letter. ris.

' €)(€ . review the progressive action-stem subjunctive. ^ . 101 The Verb indicative. property. . § 6f (end)). . ovSev y 3• 1. ei^€t9 — — . " € § : 103 d. !>- To Koim 6 — — Agreement. 4• ??? TL. — &€(. ' IX. . optative.'. wealth. loosing. present infinitive. ?. pi. . . am urging €€' ^ The Thus : : ov €€£- my brother to he writing / am not urging him (to " participle ends in -. 1 Conjugate the following (employing iav (neg. ^ do) \ / am ) not / ov this. will have. ?|ets you pray (imperative). iav with the subjunctive forms) stealing these (things). and participle. imperative. . €)(€ ^. iav Tis V if one be (subjunctive of 3. pi. \€%. 174. possessions. " . -ovres : something. ). we pi. ive shall have. . lam). . : Omission of Noun. etc. . . '. .. 2.. I enjoy writing. things. §§ 100. . enjoy.2. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK ^ 12 . ' .

''' . optative. tJXlov aeXyjvrj. c. rhododen- 1 sun. (1) (3) 710 ! NO (can). commonly means . craipos ? -- () geography. Cf. Cf. : (indicative. yes! € . (do). () Cf. ^\ (An Ancient Drinking Song) ^\ ^ yrj jLteXatva irivei. can.'''' often means or ipQ ''tell. § 52 formations. 54. . Cf. selenite. Formation of the Future. dron. by Zeus € certainly ! Zeus no.). sea. by ' ! €€ ! by Zetis. heliotrope.''' moon. f. . thalassocracy. § 61 a. Ace. TTLvei 6 '- 0€ oevope ' -L. mean " I shall tell. 5 . /. Cf. () () earth. ). Although " I shall \y speak. etc. () drink. participle) of § 79 a. : shall speak the truth (io-morroio) Herewith Exercise £ ^ (2) (do. / ( 8. Master the verbs Conjugate the following cited in these sections. thematic and non-thematic §§ 53. tree. () () () comrade.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 13 — personal endings Verb-roots and verb-stems. infinitive. the Fut. not I! ! . etc. The Future learn the conjugation of the future active .

€ « () silence. () better. § 12 a.) s. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 14 1. Means. . misogynist. . () mood. 40 A. breath.many. large. . l ^ . Psyche. her. Cf. more p^'eciotis. see ToSe . -dative) of Cause. XaXtvos () bridle. of for of Anacreontics. Why. § 28 dear this sister. (^ (entire). In Attic Greek the plural of (id est). maiden First-Second Declension Adjectives. ^$ . my . temper. A the 78. . etc. () woman.v. etc. . . do you contend ing ? (with agree with with ... 2. i. Dative (Instrum.^. § is that in spite of the evident inferi- ority of this Anacreontic The rrtvtiv me when I too wish These verses are from the collection Vocabulary. yrj the dark earth. be learned by heart. Uses of the Cases.() ( See the sake of the meter. xoisdom.' . . comrades. ] 2. To '' First Declension. .. (. Ionic form. § 111. -^ .. to be drink- and wishing. it ol . the earth.e. vtvet course § 100. yri () wrath. § {cf. — '<. €recommended It is self. soul. Genitive with Comparatives. wishing. 117 b. Herewith Exercise ^. . or. . coreopsis)). either . () jwssession. () folly ($). The poet has here employed an . me myself also ). . Cf. it. § 121. 9. . & 4.

. . he (she. . ^' ' -^ — .. . 3- 4• . rt — . Attic Tomb Inscription ^^ ( %^ ^r^ ivOaSe For Lys'ea 552. 2. 414. — \ opyfj 5' '. . . < —'. . 442. . . 482. . ^eipov eaTL 5• 6.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 1. ).. . . — — '4. . 208. 264. — . § 12 C. 6 oi/Sev — .. it) gives. 9. . . . .. An Early 549. 15 (her) father Semon set up here (this) monument . ^.... *H Xeye 7- 8. 224. — 9• 6. try (imperative). 233.

€vav8po^. . . . First Declension and word. iwKXToKrjs TTJs nor side. - (17) . evayyeKiov -'. abide. ' (VI. : € ' § . .. subtend. . therefore. To <. angle. 28 A. less. shorter. la feminine and masculine nouns The Dative with Adjectives (vy if. . iv ev 6 2. . 416. ) smaller. Cf. '8 XI.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 16 ). 1. Cf. 6 6 — 6$ 1. (. — . or. in '.and : -as. worthless. . . pleurisy. . remain. . .. wait. sub that. () 2. . € aya^ol•'. stretch under. . either (Ace. triangle under. () yet. on I say \iy that. . 120 d.' the (one) abiding. bad. then. § 19 a). . (/). The - -. greater. 45). not. and polygon. B. § Herewith Exercise w) () corjier. larger. . 10. . !. — M. late love.

. . has been supplanted by the more emphatic 7.. 1. . : . . So in line 9 (/ etc. having the angle under irXevpa 4.) ywviav (having) say " at ") greater.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^ " . . . ^' . Et " /cat . every. wliile looks forward to a balancing clause with (§ 190). on the one hand now. . now then. ^ . yap . 17 ' ort .. ^ nor yet surely. 4 ^ . . thus on the other hand. ' €<. ^ 6. Note the order ). . nor yet. etc. TOY -. etc.'''' for etc. ties the sentence with the preceding sentence. 3. . . In now on the one hand this instance. . . €( let there be. € of every triangle. ort 1 -. . . ^) . 5 ^. 6/ : (loe ( We say "i?i . 8e.for ' ? {) if not. however. ..

loould he {hvLtis. : EQUAL is not. 13. D. hv ^v it 14. D { }). TOY ^ ? ^'^^7' 5 -^^. heart the sweetly prattling maid. l^ To €<. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 18 7. . was shown. So in Observe the emphatic position of lines 8. 10. ) ' ' he . etc. E. and XII.. (§ 198) in 10. evXaXov ' ''^ \^vj(r]V \8 /. C. -not) it 17. the very (point) which it-was-necessary («Set) to eSei Q. 8. soul. ? . 40 A. § 28 A. B. s/ioio (Set|ai). ' — MeXea7/30i?. . Within soul of my my 8<. hath Love himself portrayed. Walter Headlam. — Translation by Dr. The First Declension (entire). The Declension of Adjectives (first-second declension). (entire).

. Eros) fashioned {cf. ivrbs ivrbi ttjs a straight . € to each. . . '' .' is '. . Ti^l•' ' 17 . 'E/jws 25 Ivtos imthin Acc... . . ^^ 2 ySao'tl•' () - . otl . -^ ) . side. Dat. Gen.*? . . . plastic). e^ovTa. line. ' . («. base. . . ^. . €€5 step. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . . = ddda () two). . 5 es. - each €(} each 'rav (of ' {cf.. Svolv 19 (Gen. .). . ^. iv\a\os -ou sweetly prattling = to prattle).

. § 29 Demonstrative Pronouns The Article cKctvo. . ^" . C (o ') § '.. 4. § 103 Position of Article § 2-4 a Declension. (/cat 'a ). ) . . etc. (the) tombstone retrograde inscription of the seventh century b. TOY Zew? i(TTLV tol^ . ^-\ 2. — Aios. daughter of A 2. § 25 b 24 b.. 1 ^ Toi in truth. § 28 A. Of Eni'alon. have also the angle (of the one) the {angle) inclosed by the . .^' ' 8e vneprepov. § 129 g. XIII. £/[]5. — . 208. Spou'dides (the) potter. ^. ' ly To TpCrov *H Xeye rt '< Review The First Second Declension.€8. . . T7]v See equal sides.. and lohatever is higher than these. . € . ment 70 /. .c. B.®04\^3 . . ^|ei the]/ loill greater. . €. found on a fragof a marble tombstone. and IkcXvos Uses of the Article.: - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 20 - 3. : .

ei's (it eSet Set^at. 21 Position of Demonstrative Pro- . § 111. At 5. ijrei €-€6 .. ' /cat 5 evdela - .€ yap et? . . . . § 105 . upon it 15 {intersect) them. ' TOY At Ty OTL eial avTTj . 12. . § 104 Uses of nouns. let there fall has fallen upon) interchangeable. 7.. . Herewith Exercise . ." € . intersects. 106 § . .- .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK and Attributive. -^. \ ecrrt -/^ -£> -^- /. Uses of Cases.. 11.

ovSep tS' <.. --. () do wrong treat unjustly 8£to . . either Cf. irovos. Cf. Cf.: . Cf. Herewith Exe rcise 12. — . also of -€ and Conditional Clauses. . €I am. . 469. nec- essary. hoio ! sober. -. ovScis there is no one. more. - to be loronged. -. . € 8€ — '<. the thing learned. escort..€8. choose. glossary. §§ 165. 557. 168 A. discreet. . 8€. down hold § 6 f () ? -- (the) cause . . Cf.). Conjugation (entire) of -€. () stepmother () poverty. € THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 22 XIV. Et avajKatov aBiKelv. is as. or. €€ (17) - tongue. Cf.() conduct. send. Sophronia. § 91 . 166 A. (^). -}. better. I should -€. 167 A. prudent. () hymn. ^. . the act of learning. another.. § 180 a.. Double Negatives § 5 e.. beautiful... iv . of more (17) Cf. (Gen. dreadful. pomp. « - . more or than. than. ". () shadow. sciagraph. § 92. J ' J" t^ ^ € Pronunciation of Top<yia. restrain. rather (). F. To ? <. . procession.

^^. ecrrt 436.- -€<. ovSeu ovSev 23 — — — - 810 2. 7• . 423. ^^ . . OvK €(* ecTTLV 2. . . . 3• 4• 5• . . e^eiv. ).. 127. epya 8..^ ^ . . 9- Mop. . 220.COS THE FIRST YEAP OF GREEK 1.. . .— ovoe ev ecrrt ovSev ZeC.. . 637.. -wV^^Aci . — Et . .^. — . 6 . — %. . — 5 ". 408. ^' 6. — MevavSpos.

press F. Herewith Exercise . § 91 (entire). () F. XV. Subj. 744. srirely. by no means.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 24 €^. Adv. Alpha-privative.. infinitive with accusative as subject. vera. (ought to^ speak}. II . II. ' optl §184.. harm loait. one Governs should. § 177 os w^o. 6 ye . tooYa^os. icell done perity. an urge on. tvtoell. 166 B.. in truth. . . -ov beneficial. — Review the conjugation Interrogative Sentences § 178. Relative Relative Clauses Avith the Indie. {there is need) one ought. .11. 7ior yet. 167 B. hasten. on. § 178. 168 B. ? ye or 8. § 99 . < is . = . Opt. abide. ' To ^ . -€8. well-being. and . Sentence Questions with : . nicht = tvy/tgood! ovSi ! cv-irpa-yCa (17) . delay. ' . . () €$ . (-) iti 13. §178. pros- not. in fact. §§ 165 B. § 24 c Pronoun: of te Bel e-Trevheiv MepavBpov^ . it not SO ? § 184.. V Sec. . ye certainly. not then? 8. wahr? truly. harmful. nor. hut surely. § 185. of course. Verbal in -tcov (XeKreov one must . injure. tarry. wait for. .

. 1. ye (§ 185). < ovS' . . For the neg. yap ^' '^ 5 .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 25 Nat. . . 379 2 . .ewv. § 120. "^ . € . do any evil? 14. 9) see Exercise 13. ye indicates that this series begins in 1. — ] HoXireiqi. 6 ye. 7. 9. . . ye emphasizes as (as contrasted with the false representations of Him in ye eeos 1. A new 14. (). 15 . . . ayadoyv ovhev ye . ^/ . Socrates contends that God is good and therefore (see the second portion of the extract) is not the cause of usual : GOD ' popular myths) 4. In the dialogue from which this brief passage is taken Socrates (see Vocabulary of Proper Names) is represented as leading the conversation. = 6 deos is good. . ayauov. tivos genitive of the verb is omitted. The answers are made in this particular instance by Adimantus. . 6 evil. 11. . aya. . (also does it -^. When is the last of this series of questions. a frequent order. Partitive genitive. TToiel. it is usually ^. ^.

Cf. infin. 14. €. (b) de- 9 - -ov few. see also § 61 b. together the future. ttokv much. and partic. § 81 A. §§ 190. 7%-). oligarchy. life. - kiss. . .. of the progressive action-stem. F. § 92) . opt. affectionately. imper. 191 § 184 § 185. since. Attic Greek these verbs regularly contract this thematic vowel (including in the preceding the thematic vowel I am making (stem: (§54). spirit: (a) Cf. To <. mi- do wrong (to). -. progressive action-stem an e . set one''s heart lowed by genitive 8 . Herewith Exercise '•€ : F.. () F. . polygamy. Regularly fol- (§ 115 d). little Cf. ' ye — (-€. . Lat. -- € In with the -et)• in the pres.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 26 ^. long for. Learn the conjugation of with the subj. scant. treat hate {cf. (in . For indie. In the same manner conjugate love. thus: etc.. F. large number of verbs have Verbs in -€. and fut. | . () upon.. seem. () sire. treat unjustly token. us as. . fumus. desire. active. number). Review the conjugation of § 91 €'-€. . €... sogynist) F. €.. XVI.

-- . ecrrt. 27 ' 6 0e6<. . ot ' /. . by heart this passage be learned .. \' -Ky'. ings (in life) () )( 6 . . . 6 than the €.. .. . ^ — (4) yap '23. {). .. 6 . 6 . Tliis is ills.. recommended that Si - .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . . Xeyovacv. . : . ' ) ' € €. the bless- (§ 15) are for us far fewer similar to the old Greek proverb It is 379 .. . — 25 . 5 6 .

€'. time. 2. Cf. have understand- be prudent. chrouology. vio% hut. . F. young. § 172. — Mevavhpov^ 425. € () ^. KpviTTOs - -l>v ') 1. secret. use (voOs).. — 225. ? TToiei . () € — Cf.. all). As $ tone. intend. mind one's (before a vowel. etc. Cf. - <••€ look.2C . neo- straight. marry. Exercise 15. — ). dcC always. certainly *H . see.-). iced- bigamy. "€ XVII. . especially. mono- -ov -5. 6 ! only Cf. Cf. a reply : 3. 6 -< ». - cryptogram. Cf. II a. . .-ov alone. . new.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 28 ^. ing. sceptic etc. () truth. . olSev. most (of use one^s wits think. think. (). Review Lessons XV-XVI. consider. .- . 4. orthodoxy. * TE () -)( ) € die. ttoUl. veo^. examine Cf. Cf. ding. pliyte.. () closely.. To 'Of . U. hidden. avTod.. have in mind. (. Infinitive as a Noun (^Articular Infinitive). -6v upright. have sight. marriage.

2. 6 §§ 101. 29 '•^. §§ 123-129: learn the of Article strative . Atcr^vXog. 7. 832 outos. ^. 15. 6 The Demonstrative Pronoun et? ayei. oibev he knoivs.. . 4. " € €-\ XVIII. 5- 6. §\llO. . rrj 839 — - 1195. together with their fundamental meanings. ) ayawrj. e^ei — — 437. Position Position of Demonand Attributive. — oe . the man loho does not marry..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 4.' %. — ^\<. ^. iv Cf.. (?). poetic for 68. and compound each of these . 5. . 9 2S. — 8. •^. prepositions listed in these sections. § 104 Pronouns^ § 105 Meanings of Demonstrative Pronouns. . § 25 a'^^ ?. . . *j. Prepositions. ^ ^ aei..

328 ^. .. 11. .-. before Herewith Exercise 1. . 12. observing that the preposition precedes the verb and that ev and . Bel. 7• 8. . . 268.. . 9- . Mol•». . .g. go. ovSev ayei. /cet — — — — — .. -). 448 W.. - step. 16. . 3- 4• . II.. . — %. " . - "Ayet 5..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 30 -. . 877 ". prepositions in turn with the verbs throw {e. 250. ' — — aet avTod.. .. — .. ' . Et SeiV become (§ 18). . ^.. . 75. 2. -. . 268 "^.. heuva — — . 391 W. 592. eivaL 6.

ivveaKaCBeKa. in which there may not lurk a subtle force. . The Vitality of Platonism. no particle. {the) to live. § 196. €. Sdv\ 6. Cf. . however delicate. . . to miss which is to fall short of apprehending the full significance of ancient life and thought.evavhpov. MevdvSpov. 120. of 8. . which no serious student of tlie Classics can afford to neglect. 12. to see what they saw. 1 " that laborious study of words. ev-TV)(ovaiv. yap. § it) is poor. 3• 14 31 — TreVecr^at • € 15- 2. rj iSpaaas you did. § 185. . think what they thought. ' ^ . 219.. sympathy. § 99. to suffer. '^€ XIX. 300. there is no shade of expression. — MevdvSpov. §§ 190-191. § 187 . TO § ^ijv 12 — . 582. — Words. ye in 11. Adam. to he 14." J. Cf. — M. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK nXovTelv 12. / . Tot. and idiom. . BODY. however trivial. . 113 d.. C. — . We desire to recreate the world of Plato and Sophocles. he {she. and syntax. . $. . . 447. able. .1 184. i). as they thought it and in the wonderful language which they spoke. as they saw it. MevdvSpov. To The Formation M€V § .

) ^ some of their com- . (§ 144) and .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 32 The two negatives pounds : (oi)/c.

: F. ^. § 140 Learn the conjugation of the present and future indicative. -. I understand (Greek conjugate says '''Stand . / think. § 79 B. '. be born. one must {ought to) dismiss (permit it to say '^^ Fare- well ").- et • — . (/ 1 2 / am F.^ Primary Personal Endings. middle-passive. . '. tvish . ^aipeiv . " ' — Ancient Oracle. xaipeiv honor). () self^. and the subjunctive of the progressive actionI release {for mystem.' • iav oe 6 . 3 These verses are an apocryphal version of the famous oracular response regarding Socrates.. - XX.€'. -). conjugate I F. upon'''' Like willing. -THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Et 33 . ^ . I am of (eVi)). — ^ iav - . of The Middle Voice. : §54. €. become. . and Like able § 80.

^ iv KOLvfj 2. " . best. ayadov^ 1. my friend. still in Koivfj Gen. . . horses. Lat. cynic.-' ' . '. rjoeTaL. sweet. still. -08. . See below.-ov 5 opvis pi. Cf.). / delight in writing . ovs . -. I take delight go etc. a figliting-cock.$. ^) hird. feel see . -in § 121. tl — . TL aya^oi'. irois he said. . .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 34 TE « . (. pleasure take with oneself in.- ." ? ?. •8 -8. eav • 6. iciser. (. (Dat. Cf. ornithology. go. . more. § 121. gain. {"'.). Cf. () () man. . (6). loisest. long ago.e. please and de- choose out. (- pick out.. the pages.. vir. is 6. . 19). turii light. (koivos). -) dog. 5 . hi-ep^op^ai. here employed as an adjective.€. lego. . through (a book. -- €. -€ () unroll (a scroll). sucivis come. " Cf. wa-trep just as. common Dat. pleasant. (to) profit. £Ti longer. i. « furthermore. Dat. palseography. Cf.

but belonged to the language of the slave and hireling. being able. such as Frequently epithet and name are combined Forms of address like Sir ! or Mr. middle-passive '-€ : - - - 40 § a . : . . . written (them).. Modes of Address .. see. 35 in the form ofioriling. To €8 '<€. Compare the refrain common in Greek larly address their Lord as Christian hymns Lord. such as thus the who says) this. . were not in use among equals. or else to •4. originally my Lord ! and was employed by slaves and other subordinates In the New Testament the disciples reguin addressing their superiors. : ( XXI. becoming. etc. good sir ! my friend. The Participle with the Article (one) saying (i.-- - - wishing.e. we 7. tion of Master. The ancient " book" was a roll. have mercy I In ancient Greece his given it name. Herewith Exercise 18. Mister is a corrupmeant So tlie common address in Modern Greek.-4 -). thinking. 6. Review Lesson XX. § 174. .e. . ' et?. -^evos declined exactly like first-second-declension adjective. understanding. - Note that the . having iv i. (. eav aWrfkot^ — ''. participle ends and is in : ^^•.4€ -. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ypa^pavres which they left in books. was the custom to addi-ess one's friend either by employ a complimentary epithet.

interchanged may the loish or will Cf. ' ^'. . Cf. 236. be willing. senate. . hear (oneself) ill () 8 . 3- 4- purpose ? ' aSiKelv 6 slight. desire. .'''' mean. preference. . 6. asked.THE FIB ST YEAR OF GREEK 36 . () door. — — — 6 6.' . and synonymous uearly often be F. BiKaios - () "^ 1.. ivell to (spoken of) will.. wish. . ^. (§ 62) acoustic. to (spoken of)." — when -ov be wealthy. desire. ^ (JTt. . . Cf. . will. p- know . volo. expresses more as a feeli7i(j. 285. lohoever. be counsel. . . . 2. . F. they what they need. 5. «. are and strict distinction. worthless. righteous. tcrao'tt' because. - and () will. more as a rational and -ov just. €) consent. /tear. ov^ — & - in '— ..F.€. thyroid. . 64. "^ . . plan. prefer. (in poetry also § 27. 232. yet. . .. . wish. hear (oneself) icilling..

c) Herewith Exercise - 19. infinitive -. and participle of -the progressive action-stem.4<. c) it is TE () and be answering. die out (of fire).' a) b) Uses of the Optative a) ' v' : WisTi. as as is lamp. answer. . XXII. § 168 A. Review §§ 54. : Exhortation. irepl ' — MeXea7/oo9. § 167 A. b) Potential. as it seems. fade. -\. § 163. . and of the future indicative. and participle of and of § 79 § 80. ^ () ' Conditional Glauses. likely.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 37 . Walter Headlam. optative. "v. Cf. Learn the conjugation of the present indicative and the subjunctive. ' '. impera- . likely. On Heliodora''s brow the garland pines. Uses of the Subjunctive tive. waste away. 140. shine. § 162. optative. infinitive. § 155. Question. But she the garland of the garland shines. Conditional Clauses. /cat To A€VT€pov *0 /3<?. — Translation by Dr. § 156.

. ^ Tt % 15 etrrt . iroTc'po . is it (of two) ritrum €( very. 469. " enrep . ..THE FIRST YEAR OF GRERK 38 . \\. ^— »' if Topylq. . crown. ) ' eoLKC.-? () shameful. %<. Common colt. . 187 TO TO . certainly not . . . € ^ worse. . . : gar- Cf. .. uter ? ? . neither. ' ye. €<rTi tivtp if indeed. €. .. least. () wreath. fj . -jrOTepos § 194. aya^ov.. . e/Aotye. .• ^ . which irOTcpov. 474. it is yi certainly most. by about the head (poetic). proper name more. ^. irepl more shameful. no means. an () whether ? - ! land. Stephen. 8 -a . . § or? . ' Kakof re SiJTa. . eivai. a as Polus. ooKei YloTepov . ^ . . ^ aoLKeiv ] . )(^. ^. . It 5 € aoiKeiv ..

<. 7. 245.^. . avSpl 7• 8. Mei>avSpo^. — 32.or? to introduce the two members of a direct alternative .. . ."" ^.. . . — the son of Archida'mus. ) . 4• 33. Psyche. .. ' . . . 631. — yiyvov 714.. -^ 164 ^. ^ .. {utrxim " Whether 39 . usage in archaic English — Beaumont. -. .. . '. . is . €. Compare the that youngling king. 366. . ^ — ' — — /... 6.. . : 161. is studied. . . . '^ — .. Meyiarov 346...^'' . 5• " iv . II. question 1. . . 2. Classical Greek regularly employed irbrepov ij.. for a man. -— . . . 9• . an . ij .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Uorepov whether . ap^eiv re 215 D. 3• elvai 9e\e. ' -^8— . Herod or ?). ecrrt 479. . Agis. — . " — 6. ^^. ..

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 40 . present indicative of /xot is otei. tive. infinitive. - (first ). and the subjunctive. believe. not oCtj. not think I think I am '^ wise. suppose. F. I know. Conjugate in the same way I believe. iroLelv. optative. ^. think. Xeyetv disgraceful I con- sider the telling of falsehoods. hold. ' XXIII. Contract Verbs in -€ Learn the conjugation of the : present indicative. A'erbs of thinking (see § 179) : hold as customary. — ^/?. . The second person singular. ^ (or elhevai (X think : to know^ 1 I know. suppose. (€) {^ regard. elBevai I think eihevaL I do elvai I do not know. regard. person singular also F. deem. elvai. Herewith Exercise 1 20. impera- - and participle of the progressive action-stem of I am making for myself § 81 B. ) Conjugate the verbs in the following phrases 1) ^ think 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) ovK <.-. To - TTOielv.

do. olSa.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . OIMAI ". fare (wpay^• pragmatic. in the Sv § 195. foi5. make pl^n^ €-€. § 115. infin. deliberate. Aevopos '. () rpoiros way . ) . do not even permit yourself be suspected.-. know 41 secretly (fe'S- signs Cf. -.. think manner. . practical). KaC both . . TE () o€oaL F. -. in which. - § 115. . having learned. to . . -\€. way. . . () everywhere (oD where). ." €. ol oe • re 5 '. and.. ). . indicate.fiS-). -eivai crlyfj — turn. T€ . take care of (Gen. semaphore. . — do not even be suspected. elScvai to . ^. F. point out. to..€. . in which way.). . ' . . ^ " Kat € elSevai eiSevat. try you will reap the fruit ! {6$. (). Et " § 113 e. suspect. elSevau. care for.

. — — ^. ). " another another. . — 310. '. — 9• . "^ )() . — . — '. 3- . ..^ irepi yap ) . . . . 4• 5- 6. . 8. ^ ett'at .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 42 (another says another {thing)) one says one thing. . 7- — — MevavSpo^.^. .^. — : — 6 . . aStKeiv 2. .. . ^. 114.. . . . dicit.. 560 . . another at another. alius aliud « 1. 136.^ .' aya^ct. one has at one time.

g. xf)v)(r)v My cr^erXt'. . will fly aloft. Love. and written in the old. for any one.- Walter Headlam. 8. 600 e." . 81 . to burn so oft She too hath wings.). atet. . To . Kairj^. 0€. thou wretch . • \ (6 = -. Or she having received . . ©Z^Or TOY TO LAXO^ rA ^' . is possible. alel (del) () I shall always this be called a maiden. ! — Translation by Dr.^^orA| :• Al ^l . 10.^ ? THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK II ^^rA 43 CDP4 ^ lkV>^» A ^ i<fei<t. too much..). beware. ^— soul that swims in fire forbear. 7. Review the forms already learned . ' XXIV. §§ 79 . . ck it without (Gen. 11.. A metrical tomb inscription found in Attica. 80 of . Avev {) without living wisely. Attic alphabet (date c. name. ..

be = penury. '€ to. the ayaOoi those of good birth . . Tot Cf. «yireSov firm. poor. : Herewith Exercise 21. and encaustic work (cf. ('? Eros. () imng. _ (in poetry also () ) . ttovos). pi. 62 (entire). Ace. (0) Love. rrjs apeTrjs rbv loe loill their wealth for our respectability (Gen. toil. cruel. lasting. . virtue. $. the soul sioimming in fire. of are the vulgar In this quotation the and breeding.) () aUi F. TE . flight. Cf. § € 30 A. fugio. . . burn. | XXV. unflinching. €. . "Epws ? ' ^ aet. not take-in-exchange Value or Exchange. ' Cf. and vv| night. many times. . () F. ' <^.^ . — 315-318. § 116 e). possessions. () / flee. excellence. €. -/€///€^ '^ - ' e^et. ^ set fire (- (--). --. vT^pvyas.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 44 Master Formation of the Future §§ 61. the verbs cited in these sections. To •^ The Third Declension learn the declensions of — : Read carefully goad.

27. §34. - () (§ 61 d) separate. awkward. critic. Cf. Cf. on the -6v - -oi/ highest {of all). . voice. . ' € — %/. anchor. .). loutish.)( 52. ' ) 2. § Greek. 0eov. Eros. W. 1. Ace. — )— . () -ovTos old man. boy. large knife. yap iare . /c eariv. — 5• megaphone. . divinity. Cf. *< () () dirk. judge. . experience ivithout ? - (Gen. \ ^.. () -wTos love. father. ). of 7^p(ov €$ man^ mother.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK lion.€. ^.. 4. Tt ' 509 ajKvpai '^ 623 €^^^ €<. § 33 31 - . ^\. bo-ns whoever. ^ . ovic — 6. <. 6 irats child. . deov oiSe 3• left side. distinguish. Tod 4- left- . () () " 45 22 . 269 cr/cta . < -. F. . — •% veot . .. handed. .

. to -. 10. giving grace. (?). 121. .it bis perfume - perishes. avSpl / yvvrj. 9• . Tpcis. § 51.. XXVI. lesson. TtTxapes. 4. They serve to remind us of "the eternal boyhood of the Greeks " 6.. and add the declensions . . : the e^. —) ^. . -€ •' ^. To " . tioice to perfume (). Plato tells us that these words were said to have been spoken by an Egyptian priest in the course of a conversation with the Athenian statesman Solon. — 634. .. nrepl — same error. -. 164 . 9. 8. '—— €^. Review the preceding of the make sweet. numerals €is Herewith Exercise 22. - W. ttJ 5 .. . THE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK 46 " 7.

•. 6 ^.FIRST YEAR OF GREEK TE .make known F. : reproach. 2. 4- 6. ) .. 6\. () . *^^/ 5- " ^/^'. ^. --. F. ^. upbraid. he graved or impressed. bloio.• Con- banquet-song. . () immortal. -at -a -? -bv Xeaiva opKos 1. — MevavSpov. ot . hy- {). " 168. distinctive ^.. mortal F. .^ . . Et? ecrrt ^ bear to. breathe. stature -ijpos ^ Cf. mark a en- mark. . § 39. Orcus. - F. € ^^ good in ^ . -e/cos give birth -). trast -ov () ." — . TLKTeLv.. oath. drant. " 3• () () Cf. hydrophobia. . 408. /. ^. • — Ne/u. () () both. . —^ — €1/ 26. loithovt .. -i(j fraud € ? (? () () cunning). lioness. (?)) {-). ." ^. 9 -5 47 — — . 25.. character. usu- ally in this sense as a passive €. health (vyieia). growth. ^. 7• Ov/c vale! water. F. fox. 1. 1. (rsK-.

. first aet. . by 2. . Gods and men 7^vos (to) race. the feminine being declined like § 28.. Learn the declension of A. . to ^^ \j* f - § 129 g. Sevrepov 8e \ " TO '. Participle ^. - being loved. 5. and \iyov felling. Herewith Exercise 23. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 48 avhpl 'TytaCveLV 8. to become beautiful in growth (stature. * XXVII. 18. . '-€$. : - making. Decline .. The mother of both is the Earth. §§ 173-176 (especially with . -. — sive action-stem has the suffix ing to the \6<^ : neuter being of the third declension. § 50 - being. . To yap Review Lesson The < XXI Participle. ' iwi are of the for giving birth same race. being with. .. — one (only). active participle of the progres- - and is declined accordand third declensions the masculine and . appearto be young with one's friends.. rjherat and Exercise The 99 2.. § doing. being present. 8. Uses of : the ol8a. ance).

3- 4- 5- 6. hoio ! that < (= '). makes no differ- eiJwopoi. JliaTeveLv Set ? as. Cf. the Cf. appears (so). know). ovScrcpos ovScVcpov turn again. find a tvay (iropos). () due measure. per. 532. ... . am / ). TTotet — € § 197. 7• nei- . (71 •€ (of two).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 49 TE -/ -.. . hysteronprote- roii. puint of lime. Cf heterodoxy. 354. . 2. believe (in) (Dat. ^ ther. ). another. — ^^. in.. pros- it -. muddle. €T€pov other. ence. have faith (in). (« remember ! trust. 627. . oihiv bear apart. be it all in a (Imperative). differ. — . — Mevav'^pov. ^ . . eariv . Cf. 446. € () \ ( -yvo-. 25 Kaipos endurable.-€€ «^. Cf. 558. T^ 1.. cv the right €€ barometer. later. opportunity. thrive. .. ^^ 405. ? such (a case). — . he ignorant iyvoia. () -6v av ' Papvs heavy. ear) — Kat — . 6 ).

. who own . $ . lohich.. 6 Nat. ovhkv ^-. . 6 .' 15 . t he fails to observe that he %- (. . 6 5 ' — 9• . etc. "E/xot-ye . ^^'. Tt ' . . escapes his 10. . ? . — . 7. . TLva i^rj. 6 .^ ^^ . . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 50 8. . 6 . ovSpov . . ^. -. . . . . .. is a bore (he notice being heavy) rls ^. . . ' ianv yap ev — 398 . . 6 8. ^Eo'Ttl•'. 1.• Tt 6 . ^. /. . . ^ .» . '. loves not to be loved in return whenever one'loves another {) is it by this one not possible for one whom he loves? .

^ - • 1 €\< ^. ^ .^ ^ 410.. . 3• eluoai.^. To Tliareoetv Bel Copy ) - 701 ^ . — 2 — — MeVaz/8/309.. ( ? XXVIII.. ^ from they do not see. /cat 51 ^ ypaOs (Ace.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . is . . ... - 4• "8 XXVII). . several times the selection (Lesson 1. evTv\eiv. they observe very accurately. ^ . m . ^. full of evils {faults). ^ he got. 2.'/^ *Avrjp . . * they made. pulled out the hairs. themselves. he had. — ' ^ .^ — ?. ypaOv) an old wovian. . . ^ ? - ' • '' ^ ..

is clear. -6 prevent. 29. - TE €. €«•() said I (mid 8 pu7ush. §§ 28. forbid (Infin. § 172. a good genius blessed (). as presented in Lessons XXV-XXVIII and of the forms of the verb indicated in Lesson XXIV. §§ 21-25. € €. . they permit.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 52 Before proceeding to the following lessons the pupil $. should have a thorough mastery of the pronouns -. dear. 40. os said he braid. '}'. . he should make himself master of the vocabulary. of the first and second declensions of nouns and adjectives. . . To 'Aei "\ Seovre^ «:09 . 168 B. ().. 641. Review Lesson XV and Exercise 13. - - : €K€ivos -. Ace. with happy. clearly. Indefinite Relative and Temporal Clauses. 170. The Infinitive Avith Verbs of Preventing. II b (7). §§ 166 B.. I said). both words and phrases. employed in Lessons IXXVIII and in Exercises 1-23. - () he a slave strike at.). of the third declension. ' — . €( () manifest. Moreover. it (and he and ' said). os . Herewith Exercise 24. allow. 167 B. .5. up- visible. avTos .-. . € XXIX.

-lov in every way. happy. € . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK $ = -is «5 ? . ' ey. soul. 1 This selection from the Lysis (pron. blessed. ere 1. i SWvdx^viXi^ %\ TiO^ . . V very much.-^^. suppose . ? 5 Xeye. A'l OY. . quam beatissimns. ^ of 65e. thus. 53 eivai ere 6 ' . - . € ere . IVsis) of Plato extends through Lesson XXXIII. Socrates is seated with the lad Lysis upon a bench in a gymnasium at Atliens. ' . . () Tpoiros(o). . and is later repeated and expanded. spirit. as follows. as happy as pos- elvai . ye ^ eVt- €. . 6 . (€ yap ^^ sible. .•). Tiiese particles suggest a certain hesitation in putting the ciuestion. eivai 6 . (end. methinks. «- Voc. -. .• €.. ourws (oSros). qiiam. superlative sail). desire.3* • . . altogether. $ ( (i/iai) (ttiSs () voyage with . . -8 Adv. ^- Nat ovSev eVt- - ye. AE ye. (0) Lysis. MEN ' iyco.) I suppose. €. ei ae €€ 5 ere SrjXov yap . . Cf. ]^€ " yeveadai. . eoye.

any one. also of TO chariot. ... Lat... etc. vero. €-« turn (over) to . one. in truth. (). sider how you might Trot €^ ? become. (they are eager) they eagerly con- . § 27. - be happy. () hired servant. The Third Declension Learn the declension of ris who? what? and tis tl some one. § • : . en- trust to. ^' ae 6 . / To . . b) bring to an end complete.• ' from (Gen. . to oVoi. ^' — etc. PI. execute. etc. cf. § 32. '^. . TE () rule. F. is the indirect form of ttws. permit. . ? () hire. Value. Herewith Exercise 25. verily. . -- offer () « () q^tid vero 9 coined silver. () (for surely. -ov free.). ('£) . MEN Xeyet? elvaL pay (a debt). " . ^evos race. 9. - F. tcages. bridle. and Genitive of Price. . XXX. sell. sale. . () - («). § 116 e. reins. --- furthermore. .- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 54 8. § 35. Ruling. money {Apyvpos (0) silver). driver . § 19 for pay. with Verbs of 115 g. () .

^ . ^. . .. ' . 6 35 . : 25 whom . contending (in a race). . upon {some) one. . 3° .. and . . . ecocrt . §§ 106. 22. (- when he takinrj).. etc. . . and to take (strictly but . ^. 55 then 9 etc. if you-cnnceive-a-desire to ride . . .. § 192. &v they would permit (cf. - r^ ' Ecrrt Tt9 ) 19. . . 116 MEN ^. fjv 2 . \ - .. Se' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -) < . e. . . ^ . (& is is ifev). €^17• . . ). is an intensive particle. . rj . 20.. employed with great frequency after interrogatives. 26. . .

. (Gen. - -ov your {i^eh). whence 9 wherefore no one. 31. their affairs. .& etc. ? hoio f (the tone is scornful). II. TOUT eVrt. . iraid-aywyas. 30.v is repeated later &v. ^ muleteer.TEE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 56 28. -ov our surely not () tended a hoy. . § who many wholly. The Reflexive Pronouns : : § 23. €. by all . XXXI. Cf. . mule team. again. ^ . (to) () 32. TE . € {%). €. c. . means. . () 115 26. irXeiovos they Tjyodvrai 33. -OVTOS ruler ? of course. handle touch. -- .? ^ 178. The 6. The Third Declension §§ 30-35. '.. Herewith Exercise () lead. To — An owl to Athens. The Genitive with Verbs of Touching. 6€. .v. . slave very altogether. () ().''^ . 29. intentionally. in turn. . 34. yes. still. furthermore. doubtless. : strike. " Coals to Newcastle. at- ().). think more of. loillingly. the 6. Cf. hold in higher esteem.

40. A' ap^etv . .• . .• '' . for one who ( surely it-is-a-dreadful-thing upon). ".. carried his writing-tablet. yoip . . MEN € €. 8. .• 4° . € /. 7rat3a7w70s 41. . ^l•» oe " .^ 6 . is free.. he sets over ' ..• ]. . is a familiar figure on Athenian vases. . 50 . etc. § 114. ' . musical instruments. ^ ). /ipxei Ti's . €. ^ . . . ' / / < -. ei's . ( The slave who conducted the Athenian lad to school. ' ). -. . SovXov . €- ia-Ti) . yap.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . . .^ ^ eVt . 45 6 39. . ^. etc. ^' 57 .MEN (5et- Accusative and infinitive construction . This is the interrogative ris -). after deivov 44. . . 47. ' ^.. ^. .

"- . . BaSi^e aury 110. at be her 51. . TE -€ .€8. age. . a task to (one). post. § Subjunctive: 156 . . eXerjs . not yet what. . in this case. (d) Con- (e) Final Clauses. and he said with a laugh.. a minute ago. now.1 OS ^ 75. (-). intensive study of the passage contained in the preceding 11. lacks little. why? 'pray? jitst ieivos . - he of age. siirely you havenH wronged XXXII. . (c) Modest Assertion. put in or- der. iireiSav 49. throughout the enin a icord. To Aevrepov ^/ Uses of ^9. Tt 52. {') time of {it § 121. . ^ . () wait for. . «- \J-^ ^ ' -' .' 48. (^ for happy hoy in any respect. .. § 158 ditional Clauses. <C. nourish Contrast turn. SHE permits. § 160. • iyco. 48-56. 62.• tire day.- €. •7€. \ — . fKeiv-q you may ^r when{ever) you return home.f .58 . await (). life. all. . §§ 165. €vi « . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 'H/act^cXet? el 55 ' €. 167 Make an ys that § 120 a). (a) Exhortation. station. almost. -- ?. Tivos () on what account. . assign €. . § her. -^ rear. . eg. the (b) Question. yet. Tc hvcuA nr^ -TAn^i^pAjflLW OuC^Aw'^^^ 4-P ^^AinwvjCUU) .. § 116 b). . . dreadful. . arrange. Adv. 54. § 155. pray? what in the world? why? here. .

6. MEN ' TLVo'i AE ^? -\6- ^^ ). doing almost none of the things modifies desire. iv 6\iyov you 70 . -. . eivai . yap . ) - €. /Vvfi/'^ ^ (\ THIS. ^• . which we were . fj ^. Avert. ^7^ ^^7^ 6 6 ' /. "§ . ere. \.^-^ . . . 62. ^. 60. V. SovXevopTa aet ovhev .. iwei 6 . ' J^ .' ere ivl "' OY. ypa. 158. ye iwei ere. . . 66. () 61. . .3. in those matters of iiyoev. e^eerrt erot . 4 • - • .. ] .^^^-. referring to . 65. %€. § 102). . iv ots 5e & iv ttj you first of those. ak 72. '^ ye roaovde since such a matter as \. . 65 iv . .' . .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 59 . $ vayvrjva ij /\.r|va^ something either to be read or to he written.. iya. e\yoev whereas just speaking (iv toutols etc.

have ?iotise-steward. economy. 25. prevail {-) stand over charge ( of. 11. () £ agement. . hold sway {over).. ' — Mevav8po<. . well then! bo-ir€p which very {one). - () master perceive. Review Exercises 21. () () () 75 () Cf. § 115 g) Cf. To /7€/[) }? TOi a7reipia<i . standard. (as TE ' 6 -\\) . aesthetic. . etc. Dictation exercise based The on 48-56. 26.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 60 XXXIII. neighbor. horizon. . --'. hear.. () might). § 23. - sufficient. .. The Formation of the Reflexive Pronouns. as a direct. . ^see. of Declension Future. Cf. (Gen. experience {iv)..-. household manadministration. 169. boundary. crov thrift. () - inexperience (-. . § 27. limit. '\ 6 . ' ' . experiment) -ojOs very well ! opos () manage manage.. trial. tis. £( rule. . be Cf. MEN Ele v. of {-). director). § 61..

-^ . on on the very day on which he-comes- . - \$ ^. this day. . go 95 w\ et$ which we become expert (6$ wise. . to-believe . . V' .." -. . . MEN ^ . ^^ 86.• otet 'E/xot aot ". 75. '--- ^ Tpei//et '^ ^ 6 ^^(. .^. ' • € . in ' . . . . ^. .. I uLcM irorepov otet t7)v 8 cre .. in these {matters) sagacious) Cf. '^ '"' to be .. ' ^. Tt8e. . . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .^. so. . 85 ..'.

Te'rapTOv -^ '^ ^. - so fa)• as. XXXIV. . 93. -/) preventing^ writing^ I am Usually called for the sake of brevity simply imperfect tease or imperfect indicative. § 52 Personal-endings Aug(thematic and non-thematic formations). imperative. row — The Verb. forms () the past imper- and () the past imperfect indicative. . using as the type-verb. etc. .^ all of the forms built upon the progressive action-stem. . son VI). See § 133. eh . hinder. the first As we have of the action-stems. . . The pupil should now master moreover. that ichich seems best.. optative. (a) the present tense^ and fect tense . . impede. . and upon this stem are formed a subjunctive. §§ 53-56 ment. Verb-roots. & . . ' . Conjugate in the same way manding. § 79. infinitive. . . . agree with {'). urging^ com- / ). (^iv . . (-)). (come-to-possess). The Progressive Action-stem. TToOs eis . § 135. In the indicative two tenses: tiie mood this stem. is the progressive action-stem. seen (Les- upon which the Greek verb is built. both active and middle. impedio F. . A. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 62 Stand in one's way. () ^.90. . and particiconjugational system of ple. 92. 94.. § 57 Meanings of the Imperfect. 95. B. ^. or («) the present indicative. / 1 I am a7n eating : €€ I am am (Past-Impf.

Herewith Exercise 27. (Past-Impf. TTjs avTTJs. -. -. . ---. . () a groom. | THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK di/ing (Past-Impf.. plural. Past-Impf. () (). (Past-Irapf. every day (all . Cf. . () eat. curry {ktcLs turn ^^ () barley." — lying.). diatribe." . Past-Impf. to eat. \/.). Ace. Past-Impf. amivilling. I am holding. Past-Impf. et%oy). ephemeral. comb. day. yiyvo- heiyig I am answering (Past- ^). Impf. § 113 f. Cf. erpenov (o). permit. TE . EN ovre if — 6 ' . Past-Impf. prevented. I have /m's/t. taking counsel. " eivaL. I am - lam -^. rub. $ . the days. of - Extent of time. Usually () manger. comb). ''^ . 228 . to. lam 63 becoming. € (- truly () turn (over) i-ir-^rpeirov intrust to. €) -. - iw-erpenev- "^-^. allow (Dat. -).

• rjoov -^&} ' \oirrov . ^ \iyeiv ok 6 '^^ aoeiv. -. vevpa I changed past imperfect of 176. : . — XXVI. -. . ". . — T7}S 4. >}. Like TO l^cvYos yoke ^ 2 "Ytvos '. '. . . . epic) tvall (of a city). . Review Lesson nouns to : §35. € € XXXV. '. 29 decline .€\\)< 5 ^ vevpa TYjv €. the strings (veOpa) yesterday.'77^5. € . the three types of neuter § word 32 {cf. and § .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 64 \ /.

. () 65 -$ a small gate. however.<. proceed. rub away. to (Gen. ^ - . () () boat) through. -. .-)). Lyceum. to. without (Gen. truly. come in. . ^ev ret^o? • -. (rj) = 07it?ide. the surely. o|ios -.. Thermopylae. pos- () gate). . -. opposite. the heave alongside. . be on one''s loay. ?. -lov worth lohile. ineLOrj - 5 . (6) veavio-Kos here. «. lohere. ^1 ' -? .. in this place.). '. spend (time). A' Meve^ivos. re . () worthy. ( () tern over youth.^ ^. € ' () (- straight toward. (. throw Academy. opposite against (Gen. () young man. Cf. -. (a come alongside.). go. waste (time). pastime. TE rub €. Scvpo hither. ). fountain. » . () Cf. near the postern.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK - -. an enclosure (- noQtv. lohence? trvXLs \ in which place. spring. ^) (' in the place oppo- Iv site.) (to).

(lit. is . Herewith Exercise 28. eiOii 12.. €^ /cat ^. former of Athens.? (-) --.. the These were gymnasia in the suburbs north of the city. . €.. /cat . pointing out. . deltas 13. ". (). a door Standing open. I came upon Its etc. epyco ' ©€07^9. the son Note the of Hiero'nymus. ' ?. . 6 ' 15 1.'-€. ' tjv Aevpo. along the road OUtside. ' so in line 13. position of re 6. of § 91 (and and learn the conjugation of Review the conjugation €. . I «. . . exact location both Hippo' thales. Whom -- seeing (as he saw) do you tovs mean To ^ ' % approaching. . § 195. to the ) Plato established his school in the Academy. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 66 evOv Aevpo Xeyet?. '] — '. ^-. Sij. eyw. -^ 2. . became). by me /xas. 4. ) . § 93. €. and Ctesippus of the deme of Paea'nia. . . . Aristotle his in the Lyceum. XXXVI.. . i//xas represents us 'F" . am going. 3. with a gesture toward. . . • . 979-980. 10. " (9).. Panops {).. 6. when I arrived the spring of nacoTTos not known. . oe. the latter to the east. . fJOL re § 92).

^. eyoj. /caXcDs 20. later than -ov (Gen. .. - . ' ^. sophist. & IS? €-€' ' ye. () a master (of one's for the gladly {s). tl €. 2 . follow (Dat. Emphatic. ye a comrade of YOURS..<. (-.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 67 TE () am I oi & going . €. ' oe uicrrt OTj €. ye ^^? eVecr^at. . 18. - with. /. e-ov e 16. iCdrjs in order that you may SEE. • . craft). . () palaestra. after. . emphasizes i'Stjj. noielv. ( -( () at the £ same time. ^. {acting beautifully) you are very kind. recently {vios). . K. . € . § 189. iVa /cat 4. I went in. ^]. . sequor). wrefitling- school wrestle). /.) Cf. 24. ? -- . must part. worthy. oe ev ' So? oe €. together () admirer praise). taking C. used as a future (. . . lohat .sufficient.4 ^ -^. (TO J 23. recently built.). -\> . able. professor. '. . ' 25 § 198. which we would share loith you (§ 115 a). • ' 6. 19. .

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 68 . {having been adorned) dressed in festal . play at "Put ' odd and Cf. Pass. late - -. 36. the sacrifices finished 5). . Trans- the duties at the altar scarcely yet completed. {they) Stood around. 6 35 Si 27..) the {duties) connected completed {having been done) . charm side by side with you look at his canvas on the laugh and speak and munch alongside of that. . 33. Part. and for life-like Murillo's Beggar-boys (you catch them. . -^^ 3 ' re )()^ .( (-\€ 27-29. selecting. ^\$ (Perf. .. Part. Observe the free use of the participial construction . -- Oil entering we found. 6 and attire. actually moving their mouths to I . {- even''). ^ 31. . having sacrificed) - xvith the offerings scarcely . )-^ ) ) ) . . : -- .- We found the boys. -)€% . playing. if sudden. Note the position. - . : . . etc.$ iraWas iepe7a (Perf. loilhdrawing. ev ^ avXrj.

. Intensive. § 178. repeatedly. . . -^)) () (^Stand apart {- (§ 61 (end)). -. gard at. but they are already busy with the knuckle-bones. 114. frequently. hesitate (past-impf. hesitate. others in a corner. €. \^ To Interrogative Sentences (Direct and Indirect).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK their crusts. some just outside the door. ^ - - in the midst of play. thereupon. in the same way. meanwhile. shrink (from doing) (past-impf. £. . . and conjugate in like manner (active the past-imperfect of : he at a loss. TE (€ -. vie observe. XXXVII. Herewith Exercise 29. -ov {yev-. : and middle-passive) of the contract verbs in -€. § 19 b). Mid. strive. turn (twist) about. - (Past-Impf. re- () - 7£vvatos ' . 69 There at once) the scene in the Lysis of the dice-players. then. so that. The Verb Learn the conjugation of the past-imperfect . noble between. ). . in the midst. look ().. ." p. 6. all the boys are in full dress to take part in a religious ceremony. ). he was clearly. . so as to. . . § 81 A-B.£) with {epis () -tSos strife). is — Pater. Plato and Platonism. It scarcely over. 8 •) well-born. turn oneself around. . . for dispute.. for a time.

a glance toward. to approach. ) 45 ^ eihev e/xe re /cat 6 emero ^ Meve^evov ' 5 • . iyaXaffav they laughed. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 70 .^ . . § 175. 55 43. --'- -€€. lohen he saw. 4 rjnopei re fxeu -4 coKveL -.. 54. 40-41. Future Par- . eireira 6 etcr- . to come toward. jei 46.. . 53. 52. ^ ^/> ovu 6 . in this respect. ' • . . ... ' --. . Purpose. ivith more beautiful. . ws 44. ep^erai. ask. ). . .. ' eyeXacral•' .^-. - he came to sit (loion beside. . 50. . -$ ticiple of ^-. I shall not they said. . looking at. . --. . -\.

eSo/cet Tvy^aveLv. / asked. declare.)• Perf. § 162. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK XXXVIII.. hit ) . participle to (and Plupf. hit upon.. a sort of (Gen. obtain. To <{ 71 \ OKTO) . c) ^?. tl — 72 ev The Participle with the Verb The Four Uses of the Optative § 176 .. '--^ gonr. ~6 . -•5 88 . Conditional Clauses. B. am gone. etc.. attempt. (). TE -€. () a etc. () to a call- memory.. < "^. § 179. /. d) Indirect Discourse. : a) Wish.-Infin. b) Potential § 163. to ask.- ' ) < teacher of wres- gymnasium-master 8l- -. . Meve^evov. c. . chance upon. I have € II.).. saying.) to I have come. tling. the act of learning.). () () ing hack () recollection. happen (constantly used with part. say (Acc. () -- put one\s hand (xeip) to (a work). am come. Intensive Study of 11. XXXVIl). gain. chance. § 168. 46-55 (Lesson . (Past-Impf.

. 59. Yjv (The continuation XXIX-XXX 56. review §§ 27.-- I teas on eSo/cet . sacrifice {to be in it ' . inclusive. Herewith Exercise XL. XXXIII and 89-45. •^ ' be read carefully in review. found in Lessons the point of asking dirorepos . . " - he was (as charge of the sacrifice). 48. Intensive Study of Review Lesson XXX porto 30. it ye. vms calling (him). \€ .) should iir-exeipovv § 179. . (b) Irregular §§ 46-48. 30-35. 6 . . 56-68. . approaching he summoned (lit. To SeovTes ' V Comparison of Adjectives: (a) Regular. . €- (). . ' . 58. chanced) acting as iepoiroios (a magistrate v:ho officiated at sacrifices). stand). * . To . Read carefully. . tions of the XXXII.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 72 €€ €u' ^. the found in Lessons . .. . *?. . The Third Declension A-B () as in the preceding lesson. II Avcnv ovv XXXIX. 50 11. . of this passage is . caused to saying that the gymnasium-master - he appeared to he officiating at the .

boyishly. 161. back again.8. I g^o». TAtvt^ivov without the notice have gone. Cf. Cf. hour. I declare. honor} yearn (e/aa) desire. j)layfully. — ^. Past-Impf. § 19 b). (Wov Isaid. .. ipa. then. Similar to these are contract verbs in -.). same way in the for. love passionately {rf. () death secretly. To MoVo9 '. which however are far less numerous than those in -€. etc. tell. laugh. 115 Desiring. - have come. The Verb Contract verbs in -€ constitute a very large and important class. attention. ! ws to the best of one^s ability. {-. TE . § 194. say. () season.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 73 €. going away. 5. time. thereupon. know! \/. (). § of Menexenus. whisper. : {cf. XLI. iv d. § 82 A. ((5/)) see. and ask {a question). worth. am paying (for eVe- •••- tlvi say kriow well! ev Cf. again. it is time to be air-ievai. moment () = '^ () . at this topsis. cf. value. (} honor . airep the very things which. Genitive with Verbs of Herewith Exercise 31. (active Learn the conjugation of the verbs in : voice) () : Conjugate - )'€« ()() ask (a question^. therefore. thana- unnoticed by (Gen. «. clearly. -). I shall say. . \9 . .

. ' ' .''^ tell. . idiomatic {to . Avert • . 8 -^.• '\. . -^. ' - ' 6 . fxe €9. . ]. . ^/. . • . in order that you may . . . . etc. - . ) 75 65.. . ..^ 6 65 Meve^evov... 4 y ipei^. (). also to Men. . - . ). . 72.. had arisen lohich he The (68) ''also to me mnemonic go) out (whence also he stood up (to go) out). . . --). is . %. cf. . dvep 71. . . . ' 6 iv Meve^evo^ . Cf. ' ). \ 70 . ^--- from (in the place) X^ets. . . .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 74 . ' eiVijs to recall..

KTfjo-iS --. Intensive Study of ^?. the fellow. — The Grenitive Absolute. of the contract verbs (middle voice).). . paSiov — . give a share of. . § 175 g. etc. Cf. XLII. / am 358. -. () possession. 75 that you aid me in order that I {see how you may become a laughing- . .• ('). 8 . ' ^TEE FIRST YEAH OF GREEK . . () he feasting. To AevTcpov mind any one (have no care for ' 9 ? 78. () hearth.^ ovhev rjhlov ipdre 7]^ ?. you share. croL. Cf. . TE «- . Cf. fjf. pos- session. . The Verb Learn the conjugation in - : ^ Like § 82 B. or|s you may • reprove see . the chap. 64-75 (Lesson XLI). 85 . ^ Kara-y^XaffTos 81. 11. I am acquiring. being asked (a question) getting possession 2. . 85. Vesta.. 6 —^ € TOL $ 77. )? ear ipdv. () the (act of) possessing. 84. ' €wi-Kovp^aeis shall. . stock? 83. 2^ossess.. banqueting. ' \)<. €$ doiiH you any one). of. conjugate .

knows. Cf. ' . 6. () gold). . . timocracy. gently.. but he says he thinks . -^. -€ \6yv you . tohat () -v7os quail. () -ovos cock. . . • . . . . . . 5 mildly. ortygan. () (such) as. . . . . 6 . . toward these. coined gold. . . ' . -(? toioOtos . child value. . (rd) . ' . . -. . 6 — - -/^. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 76 () () % '.^' ' 95 ().- • ^. Cf. €. money . share your conversation. .. olos. . irpos (-. 6 go ). such (as) toiovtos calmly. ) .! .. 92. ortyx.. . honor Cf. . 90.

te at Indie). ( /s). . 11 11. tachyg- raphy. . () quickly ($). Quails also were domesticated and used in various sports. ' . : night.V The Athenians were fond 102. olos 175 e € § 172. A - XLIII. TE £8( ££$ - () consider (one) fortunate experienced in (Gen.. (Gen. Intensive Study of <.. or . § of pets. vi] . Herewith Exercise 32.) Tiixovs.8. easily Cf. ' () with the Participle. Cf. cial favorite.^ la. . II. ireipa). 103. c was an fighting-cock espe- . 93-106 (Lesson XLIl). of.) (-). rbv A favorite oath to get 104. (Infin. : (b) far along in •£ so as so that to.) (a) far from {G&n. 6 S. ^. empiric.. . re veoi ' ^ \ '. .< . no . possession To «. whatever I ask you. (if. § 195. . are .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 95. of Socrates. .

110. . . I' 6 Sia } -. 6 . : . %^ . €5. . Middle (Passive) Participles iroiovp-evos. . €( XLIV.8' . (JvKovv . . 6 Tt . of the 115 6 ^. . (.: THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK 78 ' you acquired. ' . 111. . in lohat way (). . . SoKOV(Ti \ yap 125 ^'/< . . . 6 ' . ^. 107-113 (Lesson XLIII). €. ' - 33. fJLOL ju. - . 11. . Herewith Exercise 113 e). €. ^. . -. . . . ) . iav 20 ?. ^. . 113. . To Declension of the Active Participles 50 § .€ ^. . . Intensive Study of § : .

I am do). drive away. Sokcl Review the past-imperfect (active and middle) of verbs -. oe. move. 137. ' 120. 11. etc. set in motion. €$). ' . 123. ' -» --- ?. - cover. find out. 127-137 (Lesson XLIV). €• XLV. -- call to (one). . . .. § pay heed 115 h) regard (Gen. have a way totally at a loss. all in am able (to a muddle. I am (to do). dis- up. eSo^ev. -€. 124. to . annoyed. intensified otherioise. which lovers Cf. - "EotKei^. -€ accent. s an re € () . is it ivLore 122. (eviore 135 possible for one-whn-loves. s (?).. and Uses of the past-imperfect. . €. € . Cf. TE () feel irritation.... (. (Cf.) the very {experience) ). deliciae. their darlinys. 134. § 135. . kinetic. differently (it) seemed. lam well off. Intensive Study of -. -((. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK lav re ) . .. be vexed. -. 6 /cat ^€€ 79 130 ev ) . stir summon. sometimes I suppose 133. rj ^^ y^P? eivai . favorites. To in etc. speak with a foreign speak somewhat () brokenly. . %.

^. I . then. 145. . . . 139. yeybva^ev ' Slaves were usually foreign-born. 147. € € 5 150. — 138. -^ iv 6 145 a being together. have in mind. ^ -. .. . ' . late. in- tercourse. € € iv «-. i^-evpdv ice were able to discover. ice I set. . ^ . place. 8> . . -. as they tcere going away. . ^. — have become. ' -. -€\€ 148. ice dissolved. count. intend. 153. &- like {evil) spirits. -. conversation late in the day.() . ^ ^ \ . after saying these things. yielding to them {becoming less than they). . brought to an end. . 6 " ' - ' 150 . 152.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 80 () iripi-t^rr&Tts the bystanders. . . ' 140 6i/>e " {-).

XLVI. accomplish (irepalvw) = . ^ A %€ having ( 138-147 (Lesson XLV). and the third declension (including §§ 48. 50 A. vepavai to bring to an end. 34. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK The Lysis 81 one of the dialogues of Plato in which no definite concluBetween the selection in Lesson XLIV and the closing paragraphs above about ten pages of the dialogue have been omitted. A T-^ J^O X$ /^ . to -—. dilemma. As sion is is reached.€ ev — Review the ' irepavai} @€. Intensive Study of rA ^/^ "BOLO ^•. €• question succeeds question and dilemma. B). -^ he erected. ..: . until at length he exclaims in despair ^ \iyw. e^ To }. the unfortunate lad becomes more and more confused. 0$ . /^ f foi /'. adding §§ 36-37: \€'). 1 11. l> I. I . .^^ OCD €39 ^ €•. died. 187 K. ©/ / Herewith Exercise . ev last four lessons.

Indie. . Indie. Aor.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 82 £ . < «' «€( b2trst into Learn the conjugation of the § 79 A. I called. ' « - I ''. Indie. aorist active of way each . Uses of the Subjuncti'e laughter. Aor. . 1 e) Conditional Clauses. and aorist suffix. etc. c) Aoristic Prohibition. Verbs form their aorist action-stem in one of several ways. ^ - St. St. Indie. + -- St. + -- St. € « € Aor. . " XLVII. Aor. 7€ do not lengthen the final e or to 57 before the . and decline in the same given above.. I langhed. b) Question. Aor. / asked. + + +<ra- . Indie. Indie. To V-Z The Verb: Action-stems. . I made. i) Final Clauses. § 157. + St. Other examples - € -. §§ 131-133. . : are: . d) Modest Assertion. . the most common formation consisting in the verbaorist-stem stem plus the suffix (§ 64). St. of the verbs : a) Exhortation. thus aorist indicative / loosed. . I did.

' ? '. follow. () command.-6 difficult. -- Cf. ) &. €€. as.. €. ^. zoology. guard (-).. . -.. . . -. . TO ) -'^ — TTJs . -. miss. herit. 17 ' . very sad -ov (). -. -.). . - -. fail of hitting. -.. () beggar. . . . . (). ) . () 8 life.^ € ^ ''^.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . 5 . (Dat. Troie'o). . an adidterer - lasting for an age (. . cLyadov einev ' 6 ^. TE () . acolyte. () -ttjtos youth. much ooros -) -ov as Cf. €€ (-) €. fail... • eiTTev. €. \ . be hear false witness. ^^\: -? . '•09 Cf. ^€).. -. . .. aeon). . 83 in- murder () murder). ^ • -^ '^ . -. (65 . it is difficult. . ^.

A) and -. 18. . 5. remains. . -. announce to the Lacedae- obedient to their commands . Outline the conjugation of ten or a dozen verbs.^ €-- ^ "8 -<£ Thermopylae loe lie stranger. passer-by. iv distribute.V. €\ ayyeiXov 1 follow- : : who fell ( ). 10. see A'Ocabulary. includ- . New Testament.^ ^ ^ ^ -€ "ing contract verbs in ing scheme (§ 79 I ' Progr. ". -$ . Action-stem Future stem Aorist Action-stem XL VIII. Imper. -- rrjSe — ^<}. in tlie battle of - Indic. . XeiVet e^et? • €^€9 . ? . evayyeXiov by doing what 2. the famous epitaph written in honor of the Spartans monians that here (TySe) <S Part.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 84 . -. This is """ ^^o'i^' - -- --- -< -. €-/ On the style and language of the he became = . is . iyevero. iv eiirev . Subj. . according to the Opt.-? -- --- 6€ — Infin. . Xi-ttv . having heard. hevpo 6 — oiSas = S.- . ^«-<» '. /'-'. '. 9. lacking.

make - remain. eTirev • ei " vei<s . conquer. he xoould vayys.. €. ( -. . Herewith Exercise . he loould caress. .. lick.€ ^^. €. . |9. fawn upon. over.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 85 The First Aorist.. wag the tail. Aorists in -a. () hare. . (§ 64 b) ayyiiXas. § of inceptive aorist). — 2. . . . §§ 64 b. 229 .. slant. 85 A. « bite 35. ^. out. The Meanings 136 (especially the the Aorist. () -6 hateful. and decline in the same and without the way : . Ace. tail. . TE . hated. . \ . wait for. . (). bite. (77-.. indicate to lean. \ayot)v 6 " Et ei. ayyeXoi messenger). (/)$) separate.4€'. § 64 (a). (-). hos- trori tile. -. show. cf. ? he was biting. . Learn the declension of the aorist active participle in -aas. irori St at one time at another time. dis- tingnish. aud pursue. . ( § 135. decline. . § 50 C. have potcer point (). . incline. () ijyyeiXa announce . kiss. judge..

? . . -?..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 86 "Opvlv avrjp ^ . " ' . (4\).. \ ^ . hi — . he found elpov it similar (lit. • el^j^el•» -\. he 5. .evSov vds evpov ok evprjaeiv 5 eKeivov. .. -. 6 TTJs $. 353 . ." 5 — deprived. . . Ace. . . being like). 3.." 7. of avTTJs. ^. 6 • 1. ok he ^^. 343 . expecting 4.\^ - is eXeye. -.

of the Genitive Case. . . 485 D. ^. %. 114-119. 730 195 ^.". ^ 2. 23 ^. 52 a. ....^^... . 8. — — C. avev 2. T^yetrat. . . 1. — 474 W. . — — — — 7- 9• 176 ^ 362. ' . AXTjOeia Xeyovauv. £. C .. . Syj — 3• 4• 5- 6. To ... 121. — 8.' Sebi^re? -€ ' 87 — . . )(. The Uses yap. /09. 365 Review Lessons XLVII-XLVIII. -^. . §§ 111... . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK XLIX.

. Cf.. 4. . 30. § 116 h. \byoi.^ . 'E/c 11. . . To M7. . . •79 OVTL . the Perfect Active Learn the perfect active Herewith Exercise 36. . acro-polis. () 1. (). - — -] — -. '..8et? — €. etc. The Verb : . ' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 88 10. (who are) has the construction of rich not in gold. . 11. ei. . to. . . § second). - incomplete those loho are truly rich. . Genitive after in Com- position. 79 A. attain to. . 6 The sentence is . \. § 119 .-. § 65. — . ^. and see § 137. e{jK\eia . 6. Ot 12. . KaXeiv. '' . : ' -. L. 12. Cf.. : Genitive of Time. of (first. come the heights. 3. . 521 .

Cf. strike. deme. ivtKo. < . . on account (Gen. Cf. . ). but the gain in power will more than compensate for any loss of time. lie § 57. look I am awake. -. be asleep. -6 -. tiBis straightway. ^. dis- . - «-8€. be in democracy). 2<rir€po (17) evening. - . Vesper.() () = despise. straight. . so early. () ijyyeiXa. Pf ar- arrive. iyepQ. -. Cf. and extends through Lesson LXVII. trict. Sec.-. within of. It is therefore recommended that the class each day memorize so far as possible the portion contained in the lesson of the day before. bacteria. epidemic. open {02)en up). into." seeking an introduction to the famous sophist Protagoras. ijyeipa awaken. -((>. -. and is of its kind one most beautiful passages in Greek literature. to (^! town walking stick.). € knock () down Kpoveiv to clap the hands." or rather "early this morn- Town. 8£ € day before yesterday. is . Socrates relates to a friend how Hippoc'rates. to sleep. The rate of progress may thereby be somewhat retarded. -€. Cf. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 89 TE ^. The following selection. why have you come so early wios (0) son.). is written in Plato's noblest style. rive at. came to see him "last night. down upon (Gen. llpuTay6pa% Protagoras is in taken from the Protagoras of Plato. iyp-fjyopa . - ac-ot'fw. -. A' €K en 6 . the son of Apollodo'rus. This passage of the ' 8' . (to) little walking stick. (et's)• for the sake of ivcKa. --. on what ac- count f at this time. ing.. . Tas at the door.

. ineihrj 5 OF GREEK THE FIRST TEA 90 (tohile () it ?.? . taking his stand. 7. . dawn. before daybreak. 11. (^rushing). el• news. . .. 1.. & X^yois that were well $ eC ! Cf. Cf. et ' . . . crow. -^. . § 163.. Xiyeis. $ ^ ' ' aya^ct ye. have you just heard f \\ a rush . 7iOi.. . . () cock- early daton. -44 . 12. y'. . - eKpove. . 4.- '^. anything startling. ) 09. 8. . . . . .. • . . Opdpot he eireifo^evos Came Straight in with recognizing. . .. . icas) still very early..s veurepov 9.

. () excitement. Cf. be about to..-€8 •.. KOTTOs (0) loeariness ^y -? -? (). dine dimmer. iJ - €. -\\''< '. -.). ^. then. - -. ^-^.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK LI. 'V^ ^ go to rest. -() (). he ran away. () manliness a strengthened -. away. . The Verb va etg. hypnotic. intend (Infin. -iroSos a pallet. recognize. es- caped. relate {-) . 6 6 crot ' 5 • ^2 . run .TE (a) -(. ^ SciTTVCO) ^ feel for. oxjje .. ^ -- grope for (Gen. - . -^ . yap • rot -. . . avSpcCa €•7€ as soon as. § 79 B. --. desist. to.). supper). at that time. and §§ 67. eXnev. bed. and learn the middle aorist and perfect. €- To Review the active forms : 91 of . sleep. 137. tell. ^ Koi () () sleep. iirvos .(^ point out read.

e. . 17 . in the night (hours)). (it).e. ava-ffTas arising (standing up). 22. and learn the conjugation of : Indirect Discourse. we were having 6$. - because of something else I forgot we had dined (^. deme northwest from Athens near my 16. ^-. ^. Sedpo yJKevy 25 Tt - ' . . it released. (i. LII. Herewith Exercise 37. a village and the border of Attica. i. though intending slave (boy) Satyrus. -€\6 Tivos 7\ I came. 21. § § 94. -6€ Oivbris having arrived from Oe'noe. ^^ too far along () 23. say. ye 15. II B. . § 179. \ '.e.92 THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .. too late (i. . to tell €\\ you that I loas going € to - pursue. . . returned. -dined). ^ . \ ^ ere levai. 79 . ^ . § 179. . . 18. 17. I a future optative representing after the past tense This is the only use of the future forgot the future indicative is optative. To - /cat . The Verb Review the middle forms of declare. 19. § 98.

suade take. vaL Et ydp. my guest. he of iJKOVffa. find. good cheer! Pf..€ 93 TE () ).). F. not yet. . ' (too) early. /cat ere . . money. . Pf. . . . Zev . declare. per- (€-). () would that ! then. -. .. super. . ' 6. etc. there. . say. -. . . on behalf of (Gen. £-€. ert .%.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . . () € but indeed. really. ' • . Aor. house). '. § 19 a. -\ ^. . veKa praise. 3° ' -- - 35 . over- --- yoke. un- one's -€. -^. oil . ^. ' . rj . irap' he is (. ti .-8. partly . partly... jiever. -. .' . . elwou. ' €. (^). (). see. coined silver. lodge (at unfasten. here. TO irpOTepov formerly. now. . nunc. above. . Aor. .

^ -N . who devoted and spent his money lavishly in the entertain- Callias. ....forth . . . (-\ . j THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 94 40 "^ ' . 39. -J ' evSov 45 28. may find) at the house of Callias. Z^ ^ C ^ . etSe?. ^. = you may 35.-. ' ' oevpo avkrjv. in order that converse). —: US Stand up . ' -. Sore. I let for the most part. 31. of noble family. J ^ . (?ioi) at all. . himself to a arise - it this very purpose. might depend upon this I as would leave untouched skilled in speaking. . '.. II c. yap ws OUT f. 37. ment - TavTafor speak o^s 38. \<. 32. . r\^ my own. yap '.- Lwaev. adverbial poni'cus. ^. iws hv LIII. 45. ? "^ . V. -\^3 ' . — 0709 ^. . -. 41. would that e'i-q neither amjthing of ^. US . of sophists. .! * . evwyyeXiov 6 vy • -'.$ () and go out 43. is likely. . €( as eZicos let (become). irapa 44. '. 30 ei if . the son of Hip- was a wealthy Athenian. : (we § 172.. . yau offer. life of pleasure -^ = ^. To /36/ : <.. adverbial TO -- . 30.

-A. root appear in if the aorists of Second or Root as are either (a) thematic or (b) non-thematic in formation (§ 53). € came. cLTT-iQavov F.\.. €«. () € « . (-^. Pf. Master the following verbs and forms -. § 84. The more than one form). pelt (/3e\- Pf. its shortest form. ^ efTTw. .)^(-. air-cGavov. § 136.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK Uses of the Aorist . Another group of verbs. or cIttciv €. Pf. eureka. «€ ^ . . F. -. Herewith Exercise 38. The vast majority of verbs in Greek form the aorist stem by adding the and this formation is accordingly known suffix - or -a. In this lesson See aorists. said (serves as an aorist to (for e-peirov) (/-). do not add a suffix to form the aorist. but em- ploy the verb-root (regularly in these known verbs accordingly are They Aorists. •-€ -. The augment is -'). .' : The Second Aorist : 95 Grnomio Aorist. went (serves as aorist to or - irregularly retained throughout the moods. iN^ § we shall consider only the thematic second 63 and for the conjugation. « die A. . or Of. but of great frequency. -'). F. fewer in number. . €\(€ cvpeiv «. throw. €. as the First or Sigmatic Aorist. find. . § 57.

«. . 39. " Observe that the last five verbs accent the aorist imperative (second means behold! But in comperson singular) on the last syllable. F. ^. ' pounds the accent is regular : iir-eXde go away ! .yv-). I (fetS. Pf.poiZ. and the first -. Fact Conditions. . -. Pf.€ .-. .fiB- Pf. receive - leave (Xeirr- . F. (. . -) . «. . knoiv^. middle forms : Conditional Clauses Herewith Exercise : . -. ciri €'•-€5• LIV. . (-). . § 152.<yov.\-). § 85. Review Lesson LIII. forget Pf.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 96 £ I ) saw (serves as aorist to . €-€- (\. (for or / y . yivi- - vB' also the conjugation of verbs in aorists in -a. . learn Pf. and €lSov €'. -. . -. § 82. . F. especially the See Contrary to § 64. F. take. F.€ . « ^ oiSa (^I have seen) qf.(yev.^. "- become -. . *€') ?.-). € ^ .

.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 97 TE . (). have in mind.- ». incline.(-. namesake. .-- () .--. . decline () (). strength. -. sculptor () clearly. . fee. tiri and ask ( . (. put one's hand § 93). -).(-. . question). (/. . . (a thing). select. . of like name. -€. ^. () () statue). consider critically. '^ . F. attempt.. -. . ^ hr•^ )> apyvpiov 5° ? . . - . cio-irep € hire. ']. . (). --. -Kptvo- answer. physician. etc. . -). 55 . . €6 think on. and F. I "^ A' -)€. -.. wages. . judge Pf. . pay. go around examine 4--.. . . d just as if.- . irepi -. examine thoroughly..-. * apyvpiov . (- intrnd. -.. . pat• . . . consummate. (8 -\>. to re- bring to an end (t^Xos). -).

98 -€. ' . etc.' were the most . . . of Argos. ? ws 51. ris at you were intending (had in mind) v:hat would you have replied ? § 152. ^. translate: intending rt's (as about to Come tO become what). 40. 5.• otl . latter half of the fifth century. . iv .. famous sculptors during the and € LV. of Athens. ^ [7. . To Hippocrates as a representative of ? Polycli'tus.' . 50. Hippocrates of Cos was a famous physician and founder of the science of medicine. ^^ . . < el " future participle expressing pay. just as if you to . - rjpeTO. . TH^^J'IRST YEAR OF av Wlwop av. ws 56.. The family of the Asclepiadae 53. some one had asked 6 Hippoc' rates of Cos. otl ^"^• . translate To one of lohat profession do you think that you are going and what do you expect to become yourself that you are now seeking to go to Protagoras. et . . Et 6 re 65 .s) formed a sort of guild of physicians. what profession 59. .. (descendants of Ascle'piu. : hv ff. |)?ii7:»ose . e7r-evoeis et . of the family of the Asclepi'adae. whom. To Herewith Exercise Phid'ias.• . and 52 . if &v - . in-evoets TeKelv to GREEK -€.

avSpa. around. -6 {an one). 6 —^ 8 . " etc. — re . > '^. -. ( > name. noun. % . . 7° \ iv . mpL A. 99 . a sophist. or Ace). ^ . Eiev.. (be zealous. apyvpiov Tekelv virep . craft. -7) -ov ready. . in addition.! THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK TE () it is like. eyvpoo-Ocv former. m --? . such Sunrep just as. (to) name. ask further. ' . . (). . . () a master of one''s a wise man. (Gen. word. be earnest. already. €1 €1 epoiTO. it seems likely (a second perfect). . ' Tekeiv ask concerning about. ' ^ ^. (by name) . . zeal). 75 . call well then tltv - --€(. .

attend to. . 70. one's notice.'. I . . there toas a 83. I . serve. 9^•<. and is is added for emphasis.. . es- (\- . Cf therapeutic. § a. -. the . (^ € shoto (or appear) just a 83. inlend.. -. heal. LVL To Learn the conjugation The of . av 68. eXadov. disMid. § 9. disgrace. wonder. have. €- ( Cf. if OUr mnney he spending besides {in addition). . yvo-). . toonder ative. provide.) = Set. -. with a bhish 82. Sufficient. figure. €<*/'. F. little yeviadai SO that he became visible. furnish. § 179. red. . 66. dishonor.. marvel thaumaturgy). be surprised. {\ one ought (&. Infinitive in Indirect Verbs Herewith Exercise 41. \\ elude -). that to which Socrates has been leading. (^«pe . (or gradually). ^ %' SrjXop oTL 85 . care for..ses the series. ^/ Discourse. Infinitive with of Thinking. have in mind. (- hold. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 100 — Et /^ c. -). € TE (- priv- mar. The name 1'/6. (). be ashamed got . The particle of Protagoras clo. . # .4 --4€ / \ -. () be ignorant feel - blush). -. disgrace. glimmer of daylight. - \. 179. supply.

irepi. ' • \ . -ovos ! a builder. ^^ . therefore. 8ta-voov)u.. . " . portrait. iroiov.. avSpi. iroios. architect.at. of what sort? by the gods irpos () a painter of pictures (enclitic). cp^ao-ia 101 (). .at 'Eyoj go . . ••€ what icon. 95 . /-. ing. . )( ) €. -. xjjv'xrjv ... . () a master { in the world. Otju. (of one's ttov profession). (17) yet. penter. iro£a. . . • 6 6 . = iripl what about? tCvos. car- Cf. and Cf. a work- -oiOS making. ^. . ' ' ot . .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK € -? () - () image. business. animal).. . . . %v .. . . . then.. work. ] 105 . ay- .'7/9 \iyeiv. ye ' . " -\ . . . I suppose €€ mnsier o/.

. . the painting) this {that folloios). = 97. heivov keyeiv -. ? ( () lyre. Cf. at ' able to speak. <§ . be in (del). «5 perhaps. cithara. 'iSti () () We say (5). () lyre-playing. squan- der. 101. . Decline -. -is - () () teacher of the lyre.. ? «l . of . is 103. 107. need of (Gen. -- face peril risk. emphasizes. ij of the (art) of making. Paraclete. LVII. clever speaking. - run a -. whom you are handing with mocking humor. - that he is) master 36. § 113 d.102 € - THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK av . To /cat Review the declension of spend. lack. if it . . thing 95. or (loould () -(>.. danger.e. need. peril. indirect () form counsel. of course. . .) etc. pertains here accusative of Specification. -is (17) question(ing). etc. 104. were necessary. answer. of the knowledge which air-epyaaiB. to the execiition (i. risk. . not even to . 94.was necessary. ^ .v Trpoj .. eivaL. fSti it . . ^ ' €< . over your soul. etnoL^eu Adverb of $. . call to one's side.

&. € ' 103 ' XeyoLfxev... 6 125 xf)d)(7Jv. xjjd)(yjv )( - . Seivov 6 6 . ^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 20 ". • SrjXov . ' . 4. . ) ctl 115 ^ . 6 • ^ 8. - Joaj 130 35 '^'^^^ . no • SrJTTov hrj . ^ -. . .. . . . ^. . . ' ^. . ^. 6 • heivov Xeyeiv . . . . . 2 Sia-KivSd- yevecr^at ./^> . ye.

. 125. () .. " €. i.e. rear. perfect participle of -. 120. § 176 c Herewith Exercise 42. ^ with Participle. for weal (-). 7«7<"') -. Cf.. 136. . . - lead. ^«) VX^v (). chance. buy.^ "^817 6 ^^''^"^^eiXe^at 6 140 ". 129.tu.(-. a-Joa. become the pupil - LVIII. vXeiovos ^yei lohat if or woe. . 176 . § 148. ovre .104 .) cheat. TE . ayvoQv you are clearly ignorant.. ''5. eh into lohat sort of rtva 125. ob- . . € . . .. deceive. To (5t- Verbal of of. $. -. vr\ with Future Indicative. you consider of greater value (that which at a higher value). tain (Gen.. 3. convey -. . Perfect of 137. § place under. - a danger. .Te ^laTtici^le oi to expose." Svolv SeovTe? § g. Cf. Aor.. as though you had already fully decided -? 132. 113 f. recognize thoroughly). . -€\€. -€ . ? one ought -- to associate with. . all you took counsel loith coming at daybreak. . 119. sell. -€ -. hit. Accusative of Extent of Time. . carry. . 139. nourish -). THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . upon which depends your . €. happen. irepl you estimate 126.. Fu.- . --. . § 16.

. importer. () () (). surely 6 it original sense of surely... retains its . -. ' €< 9 . ". ^ yap . huckster. . ..^-.. \))() yap.. . appears. .^. - . merchant. Ma^r^'/aacrt 145 6 6 6 -. In such a context yap § 184. . . . ' ' '7 . . 144.• () perhaps. Cf. xjjd)(yjv. () wholesale nourishment 6 OVP.- rjv rj ' . \ . . 150 55 ' 6 . wares 105 ().THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK « . retail dealer. < . . etc. () ad always.

. &v 15-5. in the same way. To The Uses (see to it) that he do not deceive . (() -. . us. honor. § 27 b. have perceive. especially the Infini- tive Avith irpiv and €. TE . 149. ? LIX. )( (- . vessel.. con- advice. to. -v -ov that which be anyone. . - (). blessed. -^ / TEE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 106 oirws ye § 148. . ' Et may . secure. ' ^. play at dice start. del &•= here 157. expert knowledge (of a subject). for the time being. () food (bread.). advantage). . the one icho knows. happy. () () receptacle. safe. Beovreq of the Infinitive. €€. . § 102.. . ^. Gen. = = & § 102. sack. () price. receive €€ xinder stand. seek be of benefit help. ' 158.-). necessity.146. cir -. () ttotos drunk urn. Verbals. of whosoever. § 172. before (Infin. --i's § 42. etc. value. " = ayovffiv. etc. . aid (rb take risks. (. $. suit loith. (17) buying. purchase ). ().). § 177. . hasten.

* 6<. it is possible. iu ayyetot? ot/caSe 164.. - 171. -\. with ttjc ^/ c. el /cat Srj ^ . . 168. \. . 176. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK . -. /cat . YipohiKov § 160 '^ for one who has purchased putting down. 8 . . 165 /cat -. /cat 185 with Subj. it lest. ot 8e£a<j^at • 107 . . ^> ^. I having piit down . . re /cat . . - 6 6 . . (). 17. . . /cat -teVat /cat \\\ \ -€ see to jLtera -. 172. /cat . .-(). .3. having paid. . '. . 170 75 /cat . -..

decide veoi {-€<) so xoeighty a matter. . and Perfect passive participles of rj respectively..| J" J"' •^ • J ^ '^^ hr (/3eX- \y \- -). 179. 66 the perfect middle (passive). us consult LX. § 137 . we are (too) young to tvith (koivos). § 67.€ € ()- Review and master the following verbs 1. 9- . The Meanings of the Perfect. . 5. '€'" and and and Qqvpov) (/-). « -. .pas. II. 7- 8.. ^ - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 108 177. . «" . and learn the aorist. 3- 4. {) cvpc- ^ € ^^y> . Herewith Exercise 43. and -•).^' €| | € «. € --. ' To The Verb Review the perfect active. 6.. let .. §§ 69 and 79 C. 182. Passive Depo- nents. § 141. §§ 65. 2. : sive.

€ ^ « . 29• 30. €€€ 109 t^ . 19• 20. 26.-| . €€|/ -).". €-). € | . ' €. (e'/aew) eiTTOv.-. and 32. yov. 33• 34• (-}. €€ - . (i/c-).. (»- . 31. ' €6 € €| •€ .-}. « . . (/).yet-). kKtkiv- (\- € € . €€6 8.*4--• - •w^"*''^ ireirauKa '€ '•€..-€ and 25• «. 3• 4• -). 21.^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 12. 15- 6. o-t-*^i> ^5>_>-<--«-«-^^-^ and (7/37-)• 22. 27• 28.€€ € €€ (€7- € (Xenr- j:^^*-"^ -)• 17. (. €\|/ (^€7- 23• €' Orpeir- 24• -^. " € . " -^-.

go. € siep. go to school. as the future of or (more F. () -is incomplete (tAos). bah ! () doorkeeper. march way). . go. () vestibule. noyed . / am coxiie. an- + vah I () eunuch. come. fall in with. upon. )• with a struggle. . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 110 LXI. come Used be going. Going See Lesson arrive. () throng. LX. F. go. have come. With gone. etc. (-). agree tireaov. go to and ( fro. walk. - (o/xos). proceed. TE () burdened. crowd. agree with. iv-iiretrov fall in. €. hardly. fall ha ! A. ^- § (^-. agree with (Dat. go. come. 61 e. gone. come {go) frequently. iriae €8 weight. Pf. reluctantly (- toil). ef? To Verbs of Coming. . -. yovv at any rate {ye 'ia. . '). he . With the force of a perfect. . A. - / am Past Impf. TecreTv . |( -€ €. have the force of a perfect. walk.). vexed. (&3 () den). commonly) .: .. occur bur- . cf. - «-. Pf. fall to.

yap • -€€ 193. 197. has wholly faded out. . . - ' .. .- yevoLTO.. -. . slammed -ov closed the 205 complete).. loith as vigorously as he could he is 199. --) -( THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .. 8 . probable.^. \. ^ . .-. y-€\r]vos 204. . tol having finished by an (^ infinitive./ . igo . . at last with reluctance. . . both hands (Dual Dat. . /i07is - constantly employed In this idiom the idea of danger -) 6$.. . .. i^-ayyLov 189. {kir . A\K . followed 195 .. in this sense. ^ -.. I' iv oSop iv-enecrev. 6 a^^ecr^at 111 door ().. . -. . .). 2 6 it is likely. .

6 6 e^yj'i /xev 6 . 4 ^•? 220 Cf. in a row. () be of good repute. colonnade. . profession. . €-$.e. loalk. (). /^ €€ € 6 215 irpb- portico. Cf. ' () (?) technical. Cf. local.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 112 . ^. -. Cf. . '? () foreigner. for a pro- ' €-. art. Herewith Exercise 44. peripatetic.- . €7€>) irepi- horn of the same -ov . «irl -- .). -5 ^ side. . 6 . mother. -€ half-brother. ^ tyj 6 - - -. stranger. €€ . ?. t|fjs € () on the one €-8 epichoric native. ^. charm. . . friend. McvSaios o/J/e>ifZe (in Thrace). LXII. -.. behind (Gen. ' ot hi --. of) a locality -ov in (or or country. -(). be famous .---. guest-friend. tread on. ^ ? . bewitch. -- i. . ^ . -''.. iv 2 . fession.

. way (of one's feet). groio). be cv 8-^-€ expound. sit . and F. . ? (9 somehow. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK LXIII. -. sedeo^. Cf. $ () ( Cf. meteor. explain «. No sit. § 96. physics. sit. . sit down. -€ Impf (-. Lat. verse. on Lat. ' /cat Learn the conjugation of sit 113 down. ttws nature . raised from heavenly off body. seat (-. §§ 165-170.: --. down. () cautious {-. €••9 ). . . - () and on that. Poetic A. cosmos. suavis). (!). Attic prose uses the . -cf. Temporal Clauses. sit : Poetic. () baiid. in the cf. Attic prose uses the compound: sit § 96. pleasure (^) F. Lat. Lat. TE -. Impf. throne. down. ornament. sit sit. and compounds -^ especially § 169 b. Conditional Clauses. divide (and pass) around. - Verbs of Sitting {-}. (go through). -ov listening to Opovos (0) high-backed chair. -ov this side {-. future or aorist. split schism). be « ' Cf. F. ef. scindo. ^- «. cf. chorus. F. company. sido'). uni- Cf. order. fo/xat () bench. impede. the Cf. () take pleased. (Cf. ground. Indefinite Relative and Temporal Clauses.

. Tantalus." ' ^/^ 6 6 . . iu 6 235 - iv . . TRE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 114 IB' ? TOVTOV Toz^ ')(opov ') " 230 € -. . § 42. Odysseus sees Sisyphus. €. . \ 6 --^-^ - ' Si 226. -. 231.'''' Plato is playfully quoting Homer. «. 228. '' .elvaL 225 < they took (their) positions.. The Third Declension Adjectives The Verb § 97.^. . /)55 LXIV. After this one I perceived. 228. . 601) which describes Odysseus' visit to the underworld. etc.. ^S' : serve oneself with. from the passage (Odyssey XI. . Hippias of Elis was one of the more prominent of the sophists. * ' -^ . of the deme of Mvppivovs. Heracles.

with the Dative. () (ev).. heaviness. 120-122. use (Dat. idea. () () (^. -. -. near. ' ^ ^^. . . ding).^ dissolving. humming. as --$ -h not clear () 6$ () -8 () -5 () Cf. in Cf. . 115 Case. . from ISi'a wrap up in = () mattress. couch.Sr) " - etcr-etS 6 6 . € () lad. -. 245 . () store-room.. prose except in compounds..^ . TE Ca) - -^. rare serve with. bed-spread. jieece (used as . §§ 111. \. chamber. () room. . The Dative § 121. bed. bed- IF . loithout appearance. . ringing. oneself -. lodging.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK use." - iv 6 240 ert ^/. cover (-) .. . . («).).

a match for -ov on account of (Gen. thought although eager. .). . spend time. a tragic poet. €v€Ka famous (iv. Cf. look sight. cf. -. sceptic. Cf. See Lesson LX. /cat Verbs of Seeing: €€ have the eyelids^. . \6yoi). e.- Si-eXeyovTo Trepl he 250 ^€ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Kainep — 239.116 . thoughtful. €V€Ka on v:hat account.. at any rate. -\•>/\. (/3€- . €-8 contest -ov (). -. theatre. iv Prodicus of Ceos was another of the more famous sophists. § ov 113 () an equal little. 70. a viewing^ theory. examine heard. (^. tvatch. in age comrade. delay. TE 8-. p. 242. — eipai <. LXV.-^. a short time. (^ Cf. engaged in equal with. view. . see (^opa- (ij) . Kaiirep 248. $ e7<^ ?^ 249.-). -. (). 4-€$ having emptied (). See Lesson LX. ' = 700»' Agathon was 251. yap €' .>() aicay. = 247.

. § 136. ' LXVI. . and . ^-^ ^. . ' . \ -. .. to him(self). : 270 § 179. -. . - ' . . The Verb 265 in Eager Questions. ovSev 260 ' -- Tt ovv . : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -. .e. I b. clv . € . . . . : b) Non-thematic second aorists tion of : see §§ 55. § 21 b. ^. TOP ' €Tl ' 117 . . learn the conjuga- . . 63. The Second Aorist a) Thematic second aorists review Lesson LIII. ^ ' 267. 'H/ACt? ovv /3'//^€9 € - 255 Trpoa-rj^ep . § 86. '. The Aorist 8^ - . 270.'. ' € TOL ^. 8 . privately. TTpbs i.

council {). € \4 . 4 make ready (food. (Tvv-ehpLOV -^. €. . \ . procure and prepare. () p)-epare. * 28 - - -. prepare.( -. ^ ^. . . - - . . .. imple- ment). el -€ . ^. -\ .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 118 TE (. etc.). (to) -•€.. pleasant. --. -. a). 275 - under. evoov irepX — \oyov re XecrOaL -€ €€ — yap -. 285 () sus- sudvis. . - prepare. iv- .-. make ready (what one - glad{ly).). Cf. 6 ^. (ff/ceOos -.-" . TlpoSiKov .-.. §19 . 8 8•8 admirer lover. a sitting together in council. pect () €<8 () 89 vessel. . has). {. -). ' . . in the presence of (Gen. dress. . .-ov ^/ {-). . etc. .

119 (--). rJKOv e/c TlpoSiKov. infinitive of to careful. -. 287. -- 275-276. without waiting foi' the servants to arrange laying hold of (Gen. . . c). i. 284. -] -. -. -. -teVat -)^)6. . 8 295 ' 3 . 282. show himself off and make . 6 . he provident - a display. 271. -..-^ .. 283. . . 290 . cautions. - . . iwel ^ 6 . . -. . § 115 having made (him) get up. THE FIRST YEA re OF GEEEK € UpoSiKOf. 6 . ^. ' ^^.e. 6€ the seats. -.. -. ...

. just as if . on the next day. &v 296. ivhat(ever) will result suffer make differently. didactic. -. natural. (-- advance (c) thematic active participles.v. for -) cf. Infin. ? () -is avXos () flute. treat. to &v represents 299. § 122 a. . . wonderful. Cf. although (followed by par- ticiple). . . mal- outrage. <. -6$. § 27 . § 300. ^. throw iracrxw. () () flute playing. (to LXVII. know {g)nosco. TO Review the declensions 48 . TTj 301. 3. . teach () . 5-. -. iirl . () Cf. of (a) ris eyvwv. «Ikos the art of paint- Cf. (- make mention. -.. . § issue). graphic.-. wrepaiq. it of such an age. ing. come recognize. - on which{ever) day. § 50 TE know). off.. immediately. cf.-dv of drawing. pa- for is . Lat. . change. (- thology. Pf. step he says he would gladly learn. . so old. § 179. progress. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 120 -\ 291.-. painting. outrage. progress. I b. = 298. (~/ 7 -. to . 295. . . A-B. loriting. () € -TOs ? it is -"fj likely. 7670^0x1 having become. (-). €-(€. he will advance. to the better) to make (b) €- ns. ". -(>v strange.

The &v is re- . ..-. . . peated in 306 ) - ei 310 .. - 3^5 . . -..^ € KoX ovSev elirov. 304. . 305 BiSa^eLev yevoLO. eirei et ? . . et - €€ -^. €-<€. -. . ( inel : . 325 . '* . ' . * . -€ . since even you 32° would . . ^-. -^ — . Slv) 7^ . -. . . . ---. / THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 121 IZ' . Xeyet?. €. .

' rj / . again).. -. . . . . -- = {eir-av-epwTaw ask. ^-. 6 330 IH' €€ . -. . . . eh 316. in lohat ? - day by day. his specialty being ' .. 319. Zeiixippus of Heraclea was a painter. €.--. .. ' 335 4 . . 340 345 .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 122 310. . 3. . ^. . Orthagoras of Thebes was a music teacher. 312. iiute-playiiig. . 315. € -\\ - — — ". 314. .

announce. having fled. Thinking. The conversation develops into a discussion of the nature of virtue. I a Infinitive with with a Participle. § 50 SeSios fearing^ (/? '€€'$ C knowing^. - Compare 11. 345. F. . promise.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ( 331. they might best administer. . § 172. more common is .34 (-). § 179. etc. oilha). astronomy. 342. - hold oneself under (aji obligation). such as arithmetic Translate: they lead calculations). The Infinitive as a Verbs of § 176 Noun. Ttts i. 123 the special studies which had been re- cently added to the curriculum in Athenian schools. in Attic prose. = administer.--2 . of which dialogue constitutes the dramatic introduction. Svolv € . Like decline having made.e. promise. how (^/) the technical subjects. . except in the singular of the indicative . etc.. wise counsel. ff. -(.^. ' the declensions « €$ of the active participles. Review: The conjugation of § 95 .. II a . not common Cf. back again against-their-will (AKovras) those who have fled from 335. 2. of Fearing: I fear is (perfect used as a present. geometry. it . the arts. --- how best to 8irws hv . €-\ () 337. especially of the perfect active participle. advertise. Herewith ends this selection from the Protagoras. LXVIII. and. Herewith Exercise Verbs 45. c. prudence.

• . . ^ and others to a searching examination aWovs) summarily suggestion that by renouncing this mode of life he ^ ov elvai. he afraid. '. €€. -. tyJ € 8eSieVat.. God whom the Athenians believed. Cf hydrophobia. ..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 124 I fear The most (second perfect as present). . . . and Socrates. frequently occurring forms are 6€. () flight. put : infinitive to flight.. he says. oiSe oiSev. elSevai 5 to rejects the eivai yap and might escape condem- This.' y) SoKeiv eivai. TOL . fear. fear. terrify. - .. el aya^oil•' OTL /^ . holding the conviction that he to devote his life to the pursuit of philosophy. flee in fear. ^. eii^at. ovoev • ovoels oeoiacTL €6€<. subject both himself 3ei ( before a court of his fellow-citizens on the twofold trial charge of not believing in the Gods in . '. would be conclusive proof that nation. .. -. ^ €$• participle -. Of. TO When on of corrupting the was called of young men. — .

'. again). disobey the oracle. in any respect ( + -). . iroXvs Cf. roiros () place. (= the {conditions) in {the house) of Hades. 29 the fear of death.) otl ovhe ^ 1. Awo\oyiq.' evo? h4ovTe<i yXvKV. Unseen {one) in this (point) also here . 4. sleep. iv" 14. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK oe aoLKeiv etoevai. . aes- ovop this place. . LXIX. {. 17. 11. 12. topography. etc.' et peKriovL^ aTreiueiv koll 125 in preference to the evils which 1 § 102. because . {) change - {) change of resi- deuce.. 45. " -^ the b (end). . Cf. -la -ov €-(-$ () most. 15 ecrrtv. .. Observe the order of emphasis. whether God or man.. —. € ( thetic () from = Cf.. more. this ignorance of thinking.). § 4 (= ) irpb See . much. ^. — The First-Third-Declension Adjectives.. Tb^Tcpovthe one {ofttoo). dream. know. {-) icondrous. - $ aya^a — 3. than any one. TE € -. . . 9. .. §§ 43. See 16. -^ lie down to sleep. () () perception. . polygamy.

. } . . oTSei' ei . . eivai. to. ' 638. ovSev /cat hrj ) death. ^ '^ . etc. ( condition) \-6€ . 833. . .. \. ^ ' ' ^ . . 1477-8. . it is such have no perception of anything.€va Te9veo)Ta. . — 2. ) ivOevSe 5 etre 6 rh 1.. 1. and to 6 . ' . ^. § . firjh' ^'^ } . ^. . according as people say.'. ' — 3- — as 180 a.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 126 ^ ^€ Later in the course of his speech before the court Socrates remarks TOL eivaL ecrrt : • . the one loho is dead. . € to be nothing rhv 3. \eyop.. 6 ' .

. Star ? at stars. .< '> ' 4. Star of my soul * Ah me 1 . — €-€ 5- . -. VII. = 1. e'iOe et? 'Av0oXoyia<. 58. @ . TOL TL ^<. ' — 6. ipei. ov ecrri . ? = ^. 127 / '^ '. 161. . . : " breathing 's break- beneath the earth. Prose lost.... you could accomplish. THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK . ' 4-€^ ipa.' ' -.'''' awois = 5. fast \\6€s is and lying down &V01S dv 4. dead they have a parody of the the ^. • 31. ( (). . To . is eider-down.. 2. 669.a late form for ^v I was. — • • ipiei. yrjv LXX. . quotation above ^. ^ : ... . = ' ? — it is I am first clear that. -). -€.4< -^. () 7• -€. . ovpavo'i. e/xo? — Gazing • § 137.. oi This 3. . . 7. .

Whom in- . die. bird-lime () bull.at F. -aros a Minotaur. 85€€8 twelve years old. . -ipos star. * . () ? that! (). . mistletoe. gaze () look earnestly at. /^. Thy kiss a limed lure TJiou kindlest tchom thou look''st upon. mosquito. by inqui)-y. gnat. (pre- Cf. (poetic) -aros eye (-). . hum {-. --. — nouns and adjectives. already. § 153. Timarion. learn Cf. — Translation by Dr. Walter Headlam. 44. to gaze with Those myriad eyes on thee ! all — Translation by Dr. €. touchest. ^' " e)(et9 TO • ia-iSyq. ' — - Thine eyes are fire. .. -) - kin- caustic). quire (wevd- () Kcpds Cf. . . fdiyov touch (poetic). hast him sure. § 162. irapos formerly (poetic). marry bind. . .. (). hope at length. A.. TEE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK 128 That I were heaven. need. (). Modes of Expressing Wish With a) : Optative.. Walter Headlam. 8€. b) With Past Indicative. now () (). TE KAI . . ? €€ = €l (). (or KaCco -aros horn. (?).{-). Review: The Third Declension §§ 30-38. ). . aster. (). ya (^).. kiss. pared from the mistletoe berry) I.

(him) bound. Walter Headlam. 2. $ 1. VII.. §§ 160 a.. 197.-.-. — '. may^st thou have {thyself) upon I 235 . . — Hail.- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 2. 309. O..^ --. . Man . 453. -. . e. . — Epitaph on an Unhappy . ^ 6 — VII. . . . — Translation by Dr. Mother Earth That erst Not heavy. '. 4» €7 . Epitaph on a Boy '. To press Aesigenes ! was unto thee noio in turn may'' st please not heavily. Tavpos . ^ - ws = thoti hast $ cLv \ .. . 1>. ^^ • — 6 . • .. € 129 Epitaph on Aesigenes .

et . 4. (Cf. 3. place for dancing. . Zsiis ' ' . iScov poSov '. smi7e. laid away.. bear {young). (. ' . etc. "ApKTOS 1. ). -." . (re/c- -).. creep.-). sixty years of age. of Tarsus. -< THE FtRST YEAR OF GREEK 130 he put away. . dance. 5. -..) ". 6- et/xt \ ' "Opvis '. . 6 /cat ^. €\ (Cf. (-). . {6) animal. and .-. . receive having sat upon. .) bring forth. . -. live (Infin. .) laugh. -- eWe -. 6 alighting upon. crawl. {) (Cf. . yap ' ^r]Sev €/€€ 2. avrrj .

§ 83. Verbs in -. praise ircpdo). LXXI.( F. (poetic) set free (eXeudepos - view with -. () - cJiest. . . (to). ' iSvvaTO. -idos -a -ov () ().).TpL'i (J)). TE . Verbs according to the Progressive Action-stems. pass complete . -17 - C/". . . ? ' () (wipas end). The was he 1. () emulation.. -. 865-866. (f^Xos deem happy happy (poetic)). painful. abode. through. 8'. fatherland. -ovs. §§ 59. 60. envy. () make clear. {\$). tomb. . 3. 131 170 § Classification of . (). seat. () (). €.-. — boasting. . § 171. .. etc. seer. -aros end (poetic). fat. agony.«. envy. ancestor. show free). 4. admire. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK ' '^. 8 aX-yeivos -cDiOsconiesi. ita. of one'' s father. Cf. vault. . . — Temporal Clauses. awjcward. mantic. Imperative.

. 1417-1419. set your country free. ® 3.^ . • — ^ 4. . — (&.'. yvoivai Ihelv ' ' 6 — \€ . 1 6vTLva accusative of oWu. 2.'' etc. ' . ^ I.C. . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 132 1. 963-964. -. %. . ). go. Greeks entered the battle of Salamis. M17 -. . ^. '^4 he — . Cf.. 3 ^. The . . \6 1529-1530. . Free your wives. . Browning's translation in Balaustion'' s Adventure That song of ours which saved at Salamis : " sons of Greece. 4^'—6) ^ ). ^ avhpa ' : . 402-405. lSy). irore 6 call to battle as the . . 480 B.

€ ' '^ ovSev 3• 6)(€. — 391 ^ '. -^. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 2.' *.) a) Those with TJiematic Presents : - run away (hpa-).«" " « ' "- € step. b) Those with Non-thematic Presents (for (^- place. '^. — 133 €• 979-980. : -. rec- set . let go ((- § ".. -?. . €" (/-). (17. enter : 19 a) make stand. LXXII.--- 63. 86. <... ("). (See §§ 2) Verbs with Non-thematio Second Aorists.^ . ^e-). Lesson LTII. put give. Verbs with Second Aorists 1) Verbs with Thematic Second Aorists. M>^ /xot elr) re () .e-). offer send. . . . -). . - ognize or or € go (/3-). • ovSev etSore? — ..

--. endings and thematic and non-thematic formations. point out to consider oneself. -. €--. -. § t. . upon). — Very few verbs have both a instances the first aorist is intransitive. €.*€'). ' razor. edge. the -verbs. . 1st . () acme. ' 557-558. --. tol e^ets. ^ ' KLvSvi'o'. § 77 aorists. (make) stand away. . understand (lit.. point. The perfect active The stood.. . at one time . Cf. Many instances first I caused 2 23. point out.. transitive like the first aorist active etc. I -. . : have 287.. .. .. stand. . . . regularly transitive in : - aorist - intransitive -($. . Mid.. . --. .. (for --.. . -^ is : of the occurrence of this very important verb already been met in the preceding lessons TTJs $. .^ () () . §§ 5356 non-thematic second . at another time. . active participle in -as. . -(<. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 134 Learn the conjugation of Personal § 87 A-B. -. (-). -£. 2d .. 63 § peculiarities of . . thus : middle of this verb is I set up (for myself). -. think. 58. § 50 C. I to stand. . € . --. . (make) stand upon. . and a second aorist. iroiipos poetic for . beside. appears to be for - .^ . stand with a specialized meaning. In such meaning the second.. with reduplication 60 b the '. () . 187. (make) stand (make) stand up.

. . § 159. 8e 3- ' <. ' '-'.. -^ — 5• 87 . tois apyo'is.. uncontracted form of (balanced) tipon the edge of a razor. -. 252. First-Second Perfect: 1.$ .. superlative ? = Tois of the use in late Greek yos).THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK . common here means chance. ^. — MevavSpov. an instance (= 309. - ". . 2 135 you will not enter. . . . -. . 2. . 0--4 ev elnev . ^ — — . This is a and very ancient proverb. - 5 iav TTaiSiov 6 — 1 €. . iv . .. ]. €. Trj ^ TTj Mop. 237. — 4• § . of the comparative for the . '. . 242. ' € . -" eKeivQ 6. 1-isk.

6 )(^ 5 ' \ 6 6 4- ^ '^ 3 * -. . I possess. make return. <. \€ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 136 iv OTL ' iv -^- . much raise. \4 — Tats . as . Herewith Exercise 46.-. - (TuaL. -^-^. . . § 6 ^. lesson and ]3articiples in 50 c).. 6 ets . he iv 6 ' •'. oy LXXIII. as Up {upon). -8€ . iv (.< .. lepov I. Equals lift hv • ^ give back.. 5 - Kat 7." '.-. -' . .' oirws = - Lva. . ' .. Review the preceding -as.^ .

^ .. > (8). .... 1 ^.. Tijs .?^^. '. . '.. to extinguish . evayyeXiov $. ly' ' LXXIV.. .\ . set So iv fire). ^^/ 5 — irpbs ^/? SetKvvvra Tot's KayaObv Cf. -. eav - — . () (6).^ ev = T7J \€q. €( ^1* &-." THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK lo 2. ". eavrbv uepX — 2 -' ..) —" iwicrroXijs rijs i-iy'. •'. — '.. ). .. 3• 4• ervnre 137 • . . .. . ^ ^. .

-| -| accomplish (Act. -| -| (. describe. St-oicretl•' TELV. Harpy.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 138 Review the forms (§ 50 A. possess. § 137. aesthetic. re ^-. /^ ' -- -^- - ^-4€ - . Master the following verbs -€ € -. (-).€ . C a-e) and uses (§§ 173176) of the participles. hit. Review Lesson XXVII and Exercise 18.. eVt re /cat re iv acquire. take^ etc. B. and Mid. (Gen. narrate.cIXov ^ grasp. (take for oneself^ choose.). . perceive. «) collect. Cf.. ^ ? € 5 . Of. . seize.) € . €| €€| § point out. show 50 C. -| -| - obtain etc.

with. 9. . . 6 ^-. 27.e. the subject having.e. dealt with.." " . " ^^. . ^. -." " ovtl.- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -. 25 . . " . you. etc. $ ( . . " - " 5 ^ ^ " 6 6 20. . 139 rt el y^viOTTOieiov rjei jote^' iavTOv 2. . € . ^." ". . . i. ' ' /. 6. '^ . 8. how he Tois in the ability. -^ -. - yaa y4 to he ADMIRE pursuing. Euthydemus. is Socrates. i. ^ .. etc. 13." ^^ ^ .' ^ .

} %< . Middle verbs with appeared. need of. -^ . -eis. . he pleased with. he in -€| wish. proceed. Review the nevTe aorist passive (see Lesson the declension of the participles in decline €$ pleased. converse ivith (Dat. he ashamed." '/' ^^ " ^'^ " " . go. want (Gen. .). oe LX) and 50 C.. - show ^ fear. -." 7? " yevi" crvX-Xeyei . {Of appear. ^. . refuse. aorists §141. Master the following verbs : € -. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 140 LXXV. he willing. feel dis- grace. having of passive form. deny.. '" ^.). delight in (Dat. Se 30 oneself. (^please oneself with). . ' ^ . -.. " 6 " yap " . 6 6 . § learn Like Bcis persuaded. /cat 35 " {Of. or Part. ^^< -.).

-" . ? . " .)^." " " ' '. . . . you desire. ^ ." . -. " 6 ^. " . " " . " . '.^' . " 31 f. . . § 98." . " " " 6 6 141 " -.• ^7." . ." . '8." fell into a profound silence.. " .• ' " -." tol -€•€ 31. " . " . ri 4° . " y'." €^17 45 ." 5° ^. 45." THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . " -€-' -." . for § 179." 6 55 .. ' . II you are seeking. ."^' €.

" ' . parenthesis. com- pose. Or bear the smart. dedicate. -." "^ /< € Ti ovv Uijaat <7? . add to. Cf. And put all seriousness away. : . a Play . €^17. § 88. you achieved would appear as just as any {one b'lKaios . set hy the side Cf. lay Of. posit. set down. Traijviov -' • — 'Aveo\oyLd<>.. . metathesis. put off from. 57. All Life — Review the declension of the and learn the conjugation of is set up.). . else) ^^ . Of. note transpose. of. Take then your part. Walter Headlam. ouSej/os . Of. Of. synthesis. anathema. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 142 €. '' . --. compounded with eighteen prepositions the following aside. de- C) put. Translation by Dr.- : . . is but a Stage. < . put together. . participles in -cis (§ 50 . place upon. epithet. Kar-eipyaffai have 58. " 6^17• {-'. apothecary. Of. . place. LXXVI. " epya /aeWot. " vrjvaL 6 y €.

epyov " " . . . " ^^." ^ " .^ " «^ ^ . . ." . " ^. ' /^ev /." ." " " ^7." " .'^ . €." ^." ' ^ . ^. ' . " " " " . ." ." "" .• " /cai e^r/.• 7.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ." ." ^^ "." " " . ^} ' TA " BouXet ow. . TrJ . ^^ / -^^. /. '' " ' - 75 - 8 ^^ ^5 ovSkv ' " . " " ." ---? 6 eivai.. " " ' ^ . . " " . " 1 ." €. " ev- .' " ^"." . 7° . . " ^ . ^. elneVf " (^ 7. .?. " " 65 " ^/. " " .• " .• ' ' . . "" 6 6 143 " "''. /' " . .• ^. ^' /.

LXXVII. "'. "Aeyet?. ." - . also of the drill in Exercise 47.." . . ye - ." " " . 05 " 6 ." making use / . elvai oe eivai . arpaT-qybs aipedeis having been elected general. " ' .'^ € 6 ? . .^' ye Selv 95 that this is necessary. . of § .^' -. to be in need of this. . - ^ ^ . TA " 88.. €. " . ow." ." " . " ' " i^-eivai . ^-^ '^ . .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 144 66. 77. €. 6 - - ^•> .e. " Seiv " .— Review the conjugation go i.• . .." €. }) -. " iav " ." iav iv -.

subj. 91. § 115 h. €. § 116 e . /rots he lest himself destroy § 102. ' .. . • 94." a^tat . . § 117 with improper of price. . 88. - eyoiye ) <5 '. . ' .. AI - Se TTore AQIAI. of ^. — -€ . A' '^^. Contract Nouns of the First Declension. "^'. . Tt^eVat. • e^etv is right. etc." 145 . . prepositions. . . €$ make new distinction (and say) that oh it but that one ought. LXXVIII. § 130. forcements are coming. . etc.= . 99. yap 5 . yap '* .. § 28 D Uses of the Genitive: Avith verbs of earing for. discouraged. falsely declare that reen- aor. fearing Seiffds {-). 93. 107. ' . "''. with adjectives.-.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^ rj . /cat eSofcet * . etc.

. — --€\$ . '. ing the participles in -oOs. ." / " '. § 89.. etc. himself his friend). § 191.. 6 6 . . much. LXXIX. )( 4 ' -.. ' }. 2. 11. '. of the dual and to hoio man c." 6 'Avtl- € ' ' " • eivaL 15 • /cat /ca . eivaL.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 146 . . \. give. iv. tioo Thv .-." yvpeia €. eva'yyeKiov Learn the conjugation of the compounds of of el. . loondering) ff. Of etc. note the following includ- . . Gen. minae. § 50 Herewith Exercise 48. the one icho 8.. . 5. considering (inquiring. this. ' .. hvolv 4€. " . . (i. . offer. - > .e. . I am 14 was neglecting to examine himself as in the presence of the : buy 18. €. (). '-— . xohether.

- 3° rj hear one (complaining) that. 24. eiraywybv . 25 ' . be a temptation. 6 €t . give bacJc. " 147 .' . . .). . apodosis.^ AI avrjp. hand over Of. . what he it is etc. - ye eavrov. -." . 6 au ecTTt. ) . < . betray. 1 6. " ^» -^. antidote. poSlBo another.'^." = 27. to -" AIQIAI. etc. . give to. . . whenever to sell. Of. 28.1 - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -. /. - . (29-30) lest it eupovros sell for . sell. . possible to get. restore. give a share of (Gen. -^^. . " B' eivau. 29. - ) ^ -fj . €- give in return. will fetch. 20 . to offer for sale.

§ 90. . 609-615. . § 50 C. and learn that point out. — . show. To ' " .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 148 •? . 4. . Review the conjugation of . 222 .' ' . ' . € TOL SiKaiov ovre avSpa iv . — '€<. . 2. . $. 149-150. . LXXX.. • . - oioa . together with the declen- sion of the participles in -vs. avepi ' € oySoT] of § 89. . — Qeiyvidoi... 49. eivai ' — 3- 4. .. Herewith Exercise 1.' ^.. 739 ^.

. 5. Attic Insckiption. ^^ ' . ' • eivai €)(. § 164. \ € 5- Trjhe yevecr^at € 8e €17) ) 6 — -% ) .-. such outward advantages as I possess. 3. cepts. An .c. & =: 8 1. = = . ( neither . ^ . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK irepi apeTTj^ ^ . and bear nor carry. . See Lesson VI. persuading them by their pre- (sc. in the inward parts. 9 149 ic / ^ I b. ^ ^ -€ '» . 5 I . 600-500 ^ A/^ [ . . = 4. .

some day supplant him in the kingdom. as by Thucydides. -) . 5. eXeyev TOiaSe crot e/xe re .. determined to make ayay with the boy in his infancy.OF GREEK THE FIRST 150 ADDITIONAL SELECTIONS FOR READING This selection. 5 /caXeicra? re ^' ^ avopa. ovv OLKeiov . summoning the nobleman Har'pagus. ). It is very common in early Greek. is taken from the first of Herodotus (108 ff. 6 )(). afterwards = . ^s ceavTov to your oion (home). and serves to illustrate the studied cruelty of book oriental torture. king of the Medes and Persians (594-559 b. § 157. . 6(^ 8. deceive). misuse). Accordingly. -. -) {-\\ abuse. the son of his daughter Man'dane and Camby'ses. Astyages gave orders that the child. 6. be put to Asty'ages fearing lest his grandson -would death. nepi-w^iT-gs later. ( '•/5). (?) (-) throio aside.c). • " ' Oaxjjov 4. - --. fall foul of yourself. in whatever manner. the Pensian. Attic prose (except Thucydides) regularly employs ets. e^ by means disregard (lit.. his chief administrator and the most faithful of his subjects. employed by Herodotus. be your oion tindoing. $ .(-) ^(/7 . The Punishment of Harpagus. es (= eis) is the form regularly 7.

. . without a son. .^ ' TOl•* ^." ' -.^ varepov ere -€ . 2 - ^-/3^ 9." -) yiyve- et ' 6 - OLKaSe ' " .\ ". . . ^. robed for burial. 25. " • J) ' ' 6 . i. . . rendered {in) the robe for will not give assent to his resolve. . etc. '. . ^-. 26. . in myself). . spoken - rrj childless. dressed () and. 28. € -€. 25 ). death. 22. { -) --$ (^) 17. the past man (i. § 178. any time in TO 7' 13. . neither at €(( .e. ' .-. -• /THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK - ' ySovXet. '.^ € 151 avSpl ovSev. ^^~ ' 6 Si 5 ) " • 7} eVt ' shall {is about to) pass to.• . e? . -.e. . my {service) must he have you observed any untowardness in this dutifully. 15.

. . 44. -. yeveadai . household) of Ast.^' 6 \ . . 48. (that) he Will destroy you. (). . -€). Teray/AaL 5 ^. . deliverance. . ' 31.6 30 . ^. '. Sia -^. some one of the {servants. being with child and daily expecting . '€ . . 4 " ^. . - ' . ' . -. . ' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 152 eveKa . {-€." eiire 6 35 . 33. 45 . -- Ttva ere 51. 6v to (one) of the herdsmen whom. . '. ^^ ^-. . P. -. Sei ' . 47. -.

§ . 7° § 179. ). 57. II B. P. . 65. he stood over seen. gasping and screaming.. . 63. 72. ' . 68. etc. 6 55 avSpa. .1 {to he rb astonish). it .. § 145. . (like a 175 vision sleep). 61. -€\) €€ '^ --^. affwaipbv -^ in e. ' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ' e? 153 eV repoL ttJ? 6 . ^. -. '-^^ }- -. gone carrying) to carry uioay. he {suddenly) (that) which would that I had not § 153 b.etvat )5.. . ^ . € . . . 65 ' ota . ^. tivos could never have guessed whose child . .' ei- eiSov iSeiv € 6 ' ^. really civ - {-) was. 8 £. €-€. not being accustomed (to -\$ (-. .. . do^o). appeared. )(. . . -. ^-/ ^ . • ' for lohat reason. -^ 6 " . .

^ - -. (e^Tj) § 115 . -\(). Se ^ ^.(-/). THE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK -^ 75 . a still-born child. 84. . 85 - ohov \oyov 8 oe ' • ' ' go -.. 75. . . • ^. . 88. Fut. }. " . 86. of Purpose. you loill be caught () . 87. wrap. § 175. 93. especially cloak. -- 6. Part. he said there would come. (existing openly) prevailing unrepressed.'. . . 95. .' - eh) 6 ' -SLKv. clasping. -. . ^^ ^ .154 . -. 92. c. 95 74. --$ ' () clothing. Tedveos ^/ . to see (it).. re .

.. 11.. the one § 138. . . of . 115 for the purpose of putting 101. bestowing {upon)." 155 - . ^ . 105 iy 6 ' ' no "5 6 at ('). . (child) lay buried (had Aor. 97. .. 112. and (noio) TO been buried)... mid.. ^ .- THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK . § in view of the present Trpos (i. ^ .. .e. existing) circumstances.. . giving. to death.-^8 .5. . ) . . 99. --. . Future participle.^ .

name only.. 1 . loithout delay. § 98. 136. 131. to subject 7€-€ opyy 5e .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 156 . . ^aaTiyCiv he handled him roughly.. etc. . 130 him. -$ 8 125 30 6 Sr) ^ ( ( 135 Srj ^. at once. . an added in Persia the yipas and name to of a another yipas (rd) a gift of honor. -. elvaL I20 hrj eivai.e. . \$. The without ceremony. . ) ^ . ^ ) -. in each one is (). ^ . merely ws Adverb. ^^. office. . 128. 124. . ) . . surname.-. ' 6 " 121. in name. - elvai. use of ace. KOpos. anger just as he was. whipping rt. '^ € . .s soon as he tms released. i. ^ )- he assigned the 125. -. The King's Eye was confidential adviser to the king.

^ ." 142. 160.. . to be like his own. 159. ^ . of themselves ^ refuse to obey. 154." . -. ySacrtXea. 150. . 160.-^ until. '' • ".. wishing -. -. etc. -.'8 . the lapse of time since the exposure. . - . to 45 ^. punish the 150 55 ' \ 6 6 hoy for the sake of the honor of Artemhares. 14° xpbvos $ es dvayvwaLs {there) came to Astyages recogni- eavTOv to correspond to himself. -. 6 -. )(^ eti'at ' 8.e. 153. ^. disobey.8 -. es S ' 157.^ THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK Se 7€ SeiKvvs ISojv € Tou 157 eVet8r) .-- " .' . for a slave's child to utter). " * 6 ' . tion. too independent (i. ^. -. .

). . 186. (necessities) tortures. -. 175 Sr) -] . ( TTejxxfjaL € -€€^< inl e/c-TrXayei? 65 ^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^ . -." . . -. .158 . ^^ - - " - amazed. 8 -^- Si '^ -^ Sr) 163. . dumfounded. make aicay with.-. . Aorist participle. kill. €. . (-) -€€€! 174. -. use to the uttermost. 6 '£ 6 ' ' 7/. 85 6 4-•9 ^'^^ ^ \ 162. - . . ^> . -. -". 70 - elnev.'^ ) - 6 . ^ " '" . iva-yKOLS 182. recovering himself. ^ ^ -. .

(jiven . " ..^ -^ .^ ^ . to the test. §§ 156. . ^.. 2 ' ^. to this (i. (aor. . - i\ey6evos 189. 205 on cross-examination. \ 191 put £f.e. following) 208.. -. 198. -. . be convicted . commands (= c3). Sttws . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ' ' e'/c 159 . subj.) -! . . cross-examine. . . ^^ effect. . .. ^ ..• " ^' . -^ -^. 179. evSov eiSe 4€.) ) ' /. - ). . . igs having the anger . . the which he felt toward him. //€7 '^ 19° . ^- .

---. . - § 120 b.. 225 230 ^ . the things that had happened. { tevat 6 . . . .. ^.'.€- 211.) -- " . . yeyovus about thirteen years of age. . . (^). had been repeated (iraXiWoy^w). -. . TO - 6 " " re ) 215 ^) '] ^ - . 220 .2IO . 222. I did not bear it lightly. 6 Si -. . .- /ca . . = 4. ). . 224.. .. ? TO. it 215. . ev 216.?-. 221 . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 160 . .

/cat \ -. ^ - - " 235 240 /cat 6 245 . -. the same parts of the body. -^ -. ^•t .. flesh of his own children. 6 Each guest had a separate table. if he had enjoyed the dinner. The reason for this is disclosed in the concluding paragraph of the story. .. at all... the head. 240. " . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 6 rot? € 161 . el tQ. . 1587 ff. and feet. he was made to eat the In the famous feast of Thyestes. 2?.5. . hands. which was when set before him by his kinsman Atreus.-. ^ -- 'ot ^. the hands. . iScov /cat ' o/c. . See the Agamemnon of Aeschylus. ' -. ? . .. were kept apart in a basket. . 237. 250 which was placed beside him.

Ionian. It was the most illustrious example that the Greeks had ever witnessed of their favorite doctrine that the gods visit seriously thought. of weaving round an event of history tales which have a deep and touching import as lessons for the life of man. who received him with great rejoicing. ries of his By revolt of the was successful Medes and Per- vastly enlarging the empire." His rule extended from 558-529 b. Avith his capital kingdom as far east as the Halys river. son Lydia (c. of Alyat'tes. of Croesus himself crept into their sympathies And the personality — the admirer of Hellenic and wisdom. and Dorian Greek cities of Asia Minor. Croesus. sians. the generous giver out of abundant wealth.c. He extended his . . : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 162 II-III After so ferociously wreaking vengeance upon the nobleman Harpagus.. and attacked and subjugated the Aeolian. succeeded to the rule of at Sardis. The Astyages was deposed and Cyrus became king . ~/\ Halys. with jealousy men who enjoy too great prosperity. none deemed his overthrow possible and the sheer and sudden fall into nothingness made perhaps a deeper and more abiding impression on the imagination of Hellas than any other historical event. and conspired with Harpagus and others to overthrow his grandfather. Upon the Astyages in 550. In course of time the lad grew to manhood.). -\ CroesilS. which was the westernmost boundary of the empire of Astyages. 560 b. History of Greece. " A\vv -. 238. except Miletus and from the tribute levied upon his subjects and from the gold mines of Asia Minor he became fabulously rich. and for the Halys river. the adorer of Hellenic gods. Croesus determined to attack Cyrus this purpose conducted an expedition across urged forward by the response of the oracle at Delphi fall of and the Persians. but as events proved he was himself defeated and forced back into Sardis and there taken captive by Cyrus (c. Astyages sent the boy Cyrus to his parents in Persia." ^ art his 1 J. Never more than for the memory of Croesus did Greece put forth the power of that genius. forasmuch as they had supposed him dead. so dizzy the height of his power. Kpoitros. that . which she possessed in such full measure. p. Cyrus gained for himself the title of "The boundaGreat. with Persia in the ascendency. "The capture of Sardis Avas an eventuality of Avhich no one had So great had been the wealth and might of Croesus. will destroy a great empire. Bury.C. 546 B.c). B. About the time that Cyrus usurped the throne of Persia. I. if he cross the Croesus believed that "the great empire " would be that of Cyrtis.

'^ -- - "^ ' . 594 and 590 e. being 35 years of age. for 9.c). 6 -\.g. . and revolve about monhowever. Solon. e^-eSe^aro 6 . 114. the Athenian lawgiver. . % eyeveTO . payment of tribute. . -. \€5. reXevra. they admirably the style of Herodotus and his belief in divine nemesis. 13. 617-560 b. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Some the arch. irSiv 10. to the court of the Lydian In view of the fact. while Croesas did not ascend the throne until about 560 n. although Solon appears not to have died until after Croesus' accession. §§ 113 d. II ^ 6 € .c. . illustrate ? ^ . .. to the ovs ' § 102. 6 --- 1. . . the story of the visit of Solon to Croesus is perhaps apocryphal. But whatever the element of truth in these tales. 5 . . Alyattes was king of Lydia 4. ^s (c. rovs iv ry Awptias. . that Solon's archonship fell between of these tales are told in selections II visit of 163 and III. .^ . 5 .

". THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 164 . a desire has come upon me. ws 32. not resorting to flattery. ^ .^ . et^e 2 . ' /. (he . . \. \6yos 33. - ' 25 -. held § 122 a. had he subdued). e.'^ -. 26. $ 35. . . thinking. 37. 38. having . made ovoev as he had opportunity. . 6 ^ -LKVovvTaL ocXXol '. ) ' ...( cr^eSot' ' ). ' 3 6 . -. futbjpct aftencard on the third day. 30. -\ how through love of knoioledge..^.rpecting. . ot . € -€ 6 19. woXvs frequent report. fjv . ' 35 6 • " -.

. his City being prosperous. -. him being loell off (in the means) of . II few miles northwest of Athens. 48. 4° 45 5° 6 6 . . \\ .. . in the () on 56. .--" . 8 ^ . earnestly . . . (youv) certainly he saw children born.. perity) of Tellus. . the very spot where. -.6 - . ) ^. turning upon). him (lit. .3. at Eleusis. . a iv 51.. -^ 4 the reply ?3 -'^ . (). (45) very frequent in Herodotus for . 54. . -€. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Trj \\ \ -^ \4yeL ' . 52. 45. TTjs 44. Xe)(^9ei' " • Sr) • ' -/^ etvai 165 €< - " • fxev. . eiSev in-eyeveTo. $ § 17!). . the many blessings (the great pros- siipposing that he woxild at receive second place (carry away any rate the second prize). 41.. life) to (-). severely." .) . . 4. livelihood sufficient (for their needs) teas (theirs). 6 ' • " 55 ' 40. (to midst of prosperity. .

dead {-). i.! 166 - 65 . i. -- ^. ' " 75 ^ - . the goddess. 63. - Kleobis. •€ 62. 75. her.e. tohat children she had obtained. ohe 6 6 THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK .e. The masculine is used here of the deity.. the divine but iu power ^ 1.. (). . • \eyerai lepeiav eoei -£ . . 70 debs {i. ^ in season. wpq.e. viro-5uvres. § 86.. "). 72. -^ . ^ . . 67. 7 - 6 yap -^ . 61.. . € KXeo^et she prayed the goddess to give to etc. ^eos. \ .. . 0% to be conveyed by team. 69. being prevented (^excluded) by the {lack of ) time.-. rotdSe ^ . iv uipq. of god in question. regardless of the sex of the to be 70. be taken by carriage. that she had been blessed with such children 74.

ovSl . . -^ iv . 6 TO. . €)( ) {-. He then adds an intercalary month irdv) in order to make the year corHepov each second year 89. - -. 6 ^. re 167 ? ' ". . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ^. you ask me (a man) who knoios the divine nature.- . . 83." ^ Srj ' ' * 8 "^ ^^ 8$ avSpcov " . rrjs eaLo>s the second place {in point) fortune.200). has been cast aside ^pwT$s 95 . etc. ^ . ( (^ -- . (rrjs tQ Herodotus makes Solon first reckon a year as having 360 days (70 X 360 = 25. ' " " . 93 $) iv ff.) 80. / -. . '). ^ .--\8 -. go . of the of good- (). oovvai €)(. The great temple and the precinct of Hera near Argos was one most famous centres of her worship in Greece. -. 85.. 87.^ '/. .

^ .-€ 6 4s respond with the seasons (' ai This falling at the 'proper time). THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK - 8 at Seof. - the one (lay . ^ . erepq. . ^. . 104. '^. to the Other. '' 105 . -. -• -. (-. 6 . altogether.. 111. he overturns them root and branch.' - ^ . .^ 6 \ '. ^ . .^ . TO %» .. 102. year. ^. ^ ry 102./ . 107. § 98). 109. - .. tmtil human I learn life is all uncertainty that you have ended your life in prosperity. . . . and an average of 375 days in each In this reckoning Herodotus is of course in error. ' Oe . . ignoring holding him (to be) of no account. 07 113. aorist. that the seasons may makes 35 extra months in 70 years. Gnomic § 136. 168 . loholly. €•. /Lie^-eis TrotijffayueiOs ovSevos giving up. .

. 8 ). ' ) 6 koyov . 5 -). -^ .-.e. 5-? (-\\). yap (jjv 6 6 ' 5 ".e. 15. Aty. - . 12. ivas blighted (-). "^ . disabled.^) was accustomed. brought home) a wife. . etc. aXrjdeiav .-. 11. lest (i. . although he . something hanging (on the walls). 7. (i^-eyeipw). as one was --- may conjecture.^.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 169 . he got (i. III ' eXa/3e iavTov eivau yap -).. - ^ . (/3). etc. g. ayerai . . 18. 3. 13. § 172. 6 -evhovTL .

40. ws 38. i. under a ban..< ' ' - "'. .e. 05 d7il'en into exile to friends. -\ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 170 €)( 20 ' Iv X^pcrl -LKveLTaL 25 yevea . 33. Cf. and could not enter again into social relations until he had been purified by some one who took pity upon him. (). who loas guilty of murder. . ' ^ '' . \. The purification consisted in the main in the ceremony of sprinkling the blood of a pig on the hands and head of the guilty person. § 130. 3 ' )(. c. ^ .^ 6 * "'^. . .-' ^ -. . iv (-). ) " ." ^^ ' ' 35 . marriage (having the marriage in hand for him). yoxi loill (). .• " 6 "^. -. 5. . who was a Victim of a calamity.? . he sought purification. The murderer was 25. 6 " " 20. . 21..-. The name Adrastus means The Unescapable. . need (lack). ^ . : 34.. ^] his son being occupied with the . eSeiro. i-f\avo 37." .

-. 44. -42. . 45 i. . -. )(^-. . cidtivated fields.. epya ' in ' oijSev. would (were wont they to) do." 6 6 -^fJv. § 135. 43. C. €\ . 05 a monster of a boar. 55 - . as lightly as possible. as zealously as possible. - iv Statrat' iv iv - 171 4° ' yiyverai. - " ' -.' ^-.. 6 .^--. . 39. . ." .. ws 62.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . refusing (saying^ no ^). -. epya works. ' - . € ^\ ^ . ' " ' -\\ . etc. 5° ^..e. i-iroiovu 58.^^ € «^ .

aypa<. it is pardonable for you. . -. -/- . etc. avTov 6 ^.-^. ^. Sia • " yap oxJjlv -.". ) ' . 67. 82. TLvd --. . e.5(€t9. 8 hi 85 " . . somehov I might if be able. ^ 75 . etc. was wars and on hunting expeditions Heretofore has it been permitted us to to enjoy the noblest reputation. -. . .) " -. to 7-?•5 = 68. ei TTws during 85 my ff. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 172 Trporepov 65 re - . . formerly permitted us me) going (i. ttjs $^ lifetime.'' -6 64. exets you have shut out. .e.. es . -. avhpX . have excluded. it . ." . enjoy the fairest and noblest reputation through going.• ) eivai.. ayopav rtcrt ^ ^ . .

/cat .. etc. ^.. . .^ . ^. ' . that the dream said. dWws I would not go. . 6 • ].. . inasmuch as I have been 96. 106. ^ ^} .. " -^- .^. ' ) . ^ crot ISovtl y' oxjiiv etjott nepl 173 e/xe ' top St/cato? ' rjv go . as having been conquered.^ ). " *1 ^ /. overpersuaded. {.-. .. ]. 95 tei^at ' '^. etc." ? - '. ya (otherwise) under other circumstances . .. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . oSov ' . 108. ^ ^^. . etc." 105 " • You say to say. 89. as he sets out.

etc. Srj 6 . ) --. hei . veaviais re and dogs. (thrown together in trouble. tressed. {equipped with) attended by waiBos. rvy^ai/et 6 125 yyv . . verbS e. ayyeXQv. so far as depends 118. - hvooylo payvo 115. levai. unharmed on his guardian. ev ^^ yap Se. confuse. . 123.^' -^ ^ . . -. . . 129. ^ -' . . confusion) greatly dis- . missiiig.. 126. aya- TTOieiv 115 ' ~ veal•' tat ' 120 eg -). ) Sr) yyov.. .-". §175. futVLre -paruciTple oi purpose. . { . expect SO far as his guardian is concerned. etc. men Genitive with. ^^ -- no dvSpa /catov -.}^€\€>^ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 174 ^. ' 30 6 Srj --/$ § 115 . of hitting.

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133.

^eovs

134.

di)

it

cared for the murderer.

, \.

he had found.

138.

150.

.

§ 179, II

(he escaped notice feeding) he

137.

ing

()

he had suffered
Zeus (God) of the hearth.

et

)

.

had without knoiih

§ 176 c.
§ 179, II B.

except so far as

you wrought

it,

etc.

176

,,.-,
^
-€ -THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK
eVetS^

iyevero

eivaL,

^,

(quiet

156.

from men)

xohen quiet prevailed

about the tomb.
157.

-'-6($

-

(recognizing with himself) being conscious,

believing.

158.

he knew.

§ 95.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

^

177

I— EXERCISES

1.

(

For additional
baa,
;

To accompany Lesson II)

pronunciation

drill in

baa !

where ?

NO!
ۥ I too,

€ «.

:

bow-woio
iro

ircus

!

whither ?

;

yes

!

how ?

;

ov no !

1.

\alp€ rejoice! good- morning
ttcos

you

you.

et ego.

?

€€9

too, et tu.

hail! farewell!

!

;

how are you (for me)

€' / am ill.
/ am well,
/ am learning, I understand,
am not, etc.
I do not
I knoiv.
/ am speaking (/ speak^ Greek.

?

^

I
know.

.^

Each pupil should make
of all the

classifying

1

2

,

words

at this poiat a complete list
Lessons I-II and the exercise above,

in

them according

mihi,

i.e. I

not, ordinarily

am

to accentuation

interested in your condition.

has no accent, but attaches

and arranging
§ 120.

itself in

pronunciation

word that follows. But when it stands alone (in which case it
means 7io!), and when it is the final word in its clause or sentence, it
receives an acute accent
Why ? See further § f.
In ancient Greece it was not the custom to shake the head as we do
to indicate denial or refusal, but to throw it up and backwards,
and
especially
should therefore be accompanied by a toss of the head.
to the

:

,

.

,

:

:

THE FIE ST TEAR OF GREEK

1(8

each group in alphabetical order.

compared and kept
are as follows

may

lists

be

The groups

acute accent

^

a) on ultima:

b) on penult:
c)

These
and drill.

:

Words with

I.

for reference

KaX6s beautiful.

had.

^^

zvisdom.

on antepenult:
a) penult and ultima both short

:

book.

6€VT€pos

(^ w w)

second,

) penult long, ultima short
Words with

II.

circumflex

a) on ultima: uo^SiS wisely

.

ircos

.

b) on penult (ultima short)

:

( _ w).

:

;

cts-

5.

€€

2.

(

accompany Lesson III)

The Greek language has been spoken
for thousands of years,

lions of people.

to
is

But

aud

is still

as a living tongue
spoken by many mil-

of course the ancient Attic dialect,

which these lessons and exercises are an introduction,
no longer employed in this way. In learning the Attic

dialect,

however, one should constantly emphasize phrases

rather than isolated words.
cise, therefore,

In the accompanying exer-

master each of the type-sentences, copying

and repeating aloud each of the phrases invoh^ed until it
then write the other
veritably becomes a living phrase
sentences in conformity with the model, and repeat each
;

one aloud
I.

,

many

times.

"

understand, you do not.

,

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

€5, -

€09

6

'

understands, the sister does

,

know, you do

I

I.

are not.
(o

'

am

not.

3.

5.

am

§

103 b)

The

2.

II.

not.

brother

{,),^),
I

am

not.

is

writing

my

reading

You

4.

you

brother

are writing, I

speaks Greek, the brother does

sister

^,

not.

You understand, I do
'
The

7iot.

not.

I

179

'

One understands,

the other

does not.

One

6.
ing,"

writing, the other

is

etc.

8.

is

not.

One speaks Greek,

,

(^ol8€v'), etc.

III.

7.

etc.

9,

'

One is readOne knows

have

book,

you

have not.
10.

I

have a friend, you have not.
11. I have roses
12. You have a large book, I a small (one)

(§ 100), etc.

(^^.
IV.

£.


€.

;;

;

Have

Have you a book ?

YOU a

or

.

book?

YOU

Have

Ans.

too

Ans.
a book?

Ans.

14. Have YOU
Have you a friend?
Yes.
15. Have YOU too beautiful roses?
I too.
17. I have both (/cat) a
Have you a brother?

13.

roses?
16.

brother and
books.

V.

(/cai)

a


€$
'

We

18.

sister.

There

There

is

is

have roses and

no one wise.

nothing

evil.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

180
19.

There

There

24.
26.

one

no

is

dear.

21.

bad.

20.

better.

nothing

is

beautiful.

22.

23.

worse.

25.

large.

beautiful.

useful.

€ -)

3.

{
(^

this exercise

proceed as in Exercise II)

Enclitics, § 10 (the four accentual types).


I

€()

€€

amicus sum.
amicus

es.

amicus

est.

amici sumus.
amici

II

'.

Repeat with

.
6.^

fool.

3.

:

estis.

6()

amici sunt.

III

IV

)
^
)
^

(^,
(^,
€().
(^,
€€.
(^,
(^., ), .•.
(^, 8~) €()•
1.

4.

"
,

Grreek (PI.

clpii.

€1.

">€<).

.

f(hid of horses (tTTTro?).

fond of
7.

2.

-

books.

foolish, a

!

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

€,

.
'

kyui

You

8.

,

-

a)

I.

.

)

"ycwp-yos

are a philosopher, I

farmers are wise, we are not.

farmer

?,

.

'

am

b)

a farmer.

Fond

10.

/£/) are wise, some (0?

)

The

9.

Some

11.

beautiful.

'

of horses is the

fond of books, the physician.

;

181

The

12.

(04

roses are

beautiful, the trees are not.

How

II.

How

13.

()

beautiful

beautiful the

book

is

the trees are

How

17.

!

I

know

do not

does not know.

do not,

We

25.

(T(p

,

1

,

C

1

r

the

the farmer

know.

b)

This (one)

19,

He knows that he
know that he knows.

does not

that you know.

that

we

23.

You

are wise.

philosophers.

1

^^^ brother himself.

J

Strictly these differ slightly in emphasis.

BROTHER

I

that

tall

the (self)same brother.

'

,

()

How

€ -)

4.

.

He

How

20.

know
know that we are

do not

is

() (^
We

know

21.

etc.

small

is !

14.

!

15.

that I know.

he knows.

21.

(sm^.)

are!

How

/ know

(olhev) that

You

the roses are

fond of horses

.

knows
22.*

16.

!

a)

III.

18.

((^)

hevhpd)

trees

beautiful the rose

himself; the latter, The brother

The former means The

HIMSELF.

!

.

.

Repeat with :

1.

.

OF GREEK

FEBST

182

2.

8.

is handsome.
5.
The same physician is wise.
7. The father
6. The same f^meis are fond of horses.
himself is wise.
8. The same (one) is both wise and

4.

€ € «»

good.
II.

^Lol

a) ovT«»s
It seem» »o

to

JIE.

c

)

d)

also.

to

€ .€
^

b)

It teem» so to me.

;

10.
to
9. It seeuKS so to the same physician.
11.
to the philosopher
the physicians themselves.
13. Does it
12.
to the same slaves.
himself.

seem so to the
in. a) SOS

Give me the book.

TO

|MH.

Gfive the hook to

TO
14.

Yes

l|rother him.self ?

15. To the
To me myself give

Give the books to the same brother.

brother himself give the rose.

the roees.

17.

IV. a)

«;
18.

b)

ME.

Am

16.

Give them to me.

;

What am I to give yoii ?
6m
To whom am I to give the hookf
I to give

you the same

give you the book itself ?

£

to the farmer?

Am

20.
to the

21.

rose
I

?

b)

19.

Am

I to

to give the books

same friend?

22.

to the same wise physician ?

V.
23.

Call the

cian himself.
26.

the brother.

same brothers.

24.

the physi-

the philosophers themselves.

25.

the fools.

1 «writs, Iftas,

foie

8€

*o

% coBBonaiit.

{ef.

*rm)^

is

often ivmoaiieed and wrinen

be-

Be (thou) speaking Greek. May we be 13. tell ? 5. you. €. consider the wise rich. you are e) 15. 23. €. -) €€. 19. b) - c) 11. not. You (j9?. 9. Do etc. wise rich. non . be urging these things.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK €' 5. the physicians May this (one) consider the \vise rich. 16. writing b) these £ 22. you are well. 12. {do not keep') 17. May these rejoice. 2. am not. 183 24. May May you not rejoice. d) c) 18. learning nothing. 3. a) - not he not Let these not consider the 21. €€. Be (ye) not.• understand perfectly. We are a) '. Let the brother not. What What are these saying ? well. to are saying he telling {%aying^ nothing. etc. € b) ' ' / €€ cannot have nothing tell {say). I stand. Do not Let him not be urging. ( May the farmers rejoice. May we we these rejoice. -). telling you nothing. IV. (Tip . €. ing these things.) are reading nothing. 4. a) ^. d) I. We. a) '. They understand perfectly. 20. Do c) (thiiigs). TTcos b) am ill.( €€5. . but not you 14. III. May 10. These {ovtol (rt) -) € be writing nothing. Be (ye) learn- etc. II. 6. c) They do not under7. 8. etc.

urge (are commanding) you to be learning 26. but wise but as follows. 9. tell (€9 33. It is . accompanied by an adverb. tell Can you tell me 32. the philosopher. These are urging us. .') you. of horses. these things. II. 35. . III. but foolish. etc. 7. us. mother are well. it is € €€ it is as follows. We 29. things. (say ' the ') 5.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 184 .. . These 30. . etc. 4. (the 11. ill. handsome. man} Not not so. We 25. You are My 3. (Lesson VII) 6. as follows. but the physician is fond Not the sister. not . 31. habeo dicere. fore writing this. €. have nothing to have nothing to Xe^eiv Can he tell us this the physician. but also rich. It is not so. 8. 1 The man When is . I am . noli wise. I. ? me me this ? etc. 10. . but the brother is fond Not the books. self) be. is .? this. Can you (^pl•)•. not only . not to be writing these 28. but the roses are beautiful. fare. « is intransitive : {have one- . I well. of horses. You I. am 2. Before telling 34. call the same physician. It is not Not the farmer. not only handsome. . €€^ so. the books. not to be learning. 6. . ov but. ii\Li . but also. e) irplv before telling. 27. is ill. give Be- 36.

I shall have friends. ? We should 22. 5. If they have not money. let ) not only large. What am 9. What mn I to . are. for ' them. are ' €€ 10. 23. What 8. 11. I. to not. I. Omit the word not be should (might) be writing would not be learning anything (Gk. 6. dv Would you speak Greek? learning the lesson this. 2. If we be learning these things. also beautiful. dv We . etc. if we have not money. If these. they will not have friends. etc.'' ). Would you be learning the lesson. If I etc. Let us not. ? if it lav he so. ( these things. Let us be writing this.. 7. 4. II. book Tlie 13. 3. If you have money. we. you will have (e|ei9) friends. 20. 14. We should 21. Let us be reading the Let us not be going. ? ? €| |€ you? to tell the physician ? ? give . etc. Do 14. What we are we to be reading be learning lav III. If () have money.i € I. be writing (Lesson VIII) 7. €. () I 19. 16. etc. 12. should speak Greek. 17. ovhkv 1 not. etc. 18. If 13. but is not only 185 £€. These . 15. 24. us be going.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK We 12. IV. book. but also learning (them). they will have friends. Let us not. etc. etc. Let us be learning these things.

my ^ reading. brothers ('i/i^') learning the lesson. so. € €1 €€ things. The ace. see you (j^?. stealing. If these 30. If 28. writing. 15.) III. If it should not be 26. make 11.^ I see you reading.V. if if should be it el so. us stop writing these things. learning the lesson 3. is 14. The one These enjoy 4. € enjoy reading. I 16. 13. many (PL 7/3^€9. 6 b) I shall 6. ? enjoys reading. see learning 7. tiot. a) (^through tvriting} 12. pi. 25. should have friends.) 1 not. I do writing (things'). etc. By these {exercises} I learn is ace. If you should not be we should be learning these should have money. - I This (one) will 9. . I shall make you stop writing. He 10. not. ? € a) II. ^^ ^\^ -\ -€$ / T• We enjoy reading writing these 2. reading the book. ? do -- Do you 1. etc. etc. 8. 29. we should not have money. --i" stop reading. I see 5. we should have we 27. stealing. the other (does) not. make you these things. they would have money. If friends. They would rejoice. well. you vriting. things ^j<v'^ ^^"^ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 186 -^^. sing.

. § 39. -. they 21. . I a. house-servant. . 2 yvv-f) is Nom. many things. (say '•having'') friends.? THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK € b) I believe have) friends^ By 17. . //. . substituting as in the preceding and in the same order the following vords . this book. 20. 'yvvaiKaz. . . 19. . (Lesson X) . treasures. etc. 11.. Repeat Exercise IV. 3^ou Though they have 22. § 179. . Dat. 1 See pi. an irregular noun of the third declension Ace. these do not believe. poet. 18. . €. (Lesson XI) Repeat Exercise IV. Having friends. ' oii. substituting for '€05. . we believe that we have reading this he learns . . athlete. . . $ exercise € € € €€ . . . .. 9. bride. these hooks. you that Having {if I treasures. sing. (Lesson XIII) € ' € . I have €€^ 187 .^ 10. : step-mother. pi..

This book . etc. II. tiful. Give her her (' the 12. {'). Call 10. That book is larger than letes are handsomer 5. 2. 13. that (one). is not. than those. Give the this to these girls. us. . 18. . $. the 21. TO €€. etc. substituting €K€LV0 (-a) for How I. my books. 15. making each if should be necessary. he c. if you are ivilling (or if you please). wife this to brother's book. teach will I the farmer's 20. 3. you sister.. the 14. using clause negative. Stephen) to Of. 9. These ath7. lov If the words teacher. . 16. this rose. If I am wise. $ If I 3. If € you are if it wise. etc. wreath. your ^ sister these the 17. poet's (things). If I be wise. Repeat. give me. 1 § 61. these philosophers themselves. please. farmer himself. This rose is beauis These roses are small these ! . . Repeat. (^^ than larger is (raSe). should be wise. beautiful this rose (one) 4. 1. € these sisters. 2. (Lesson XIV) 12. this large. substituting for plural forms and necessary. Teach ME. your brothers. . it is el etc. servants.. (or €1 €1 Come. the physician s book.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 188 € Repeat. is wise. 6. («?) wreath (/ 8. 11. ). poet's if ') 19. to those poets. €1 it if be necessary. athlete. Give my book. .

(or and . 5. many bless- XV) Is he speaking (the) truth? . ills. 4. etc. Greek? Are you 2. . He is man .') THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK speaking the truth If I ain 1. is . etc. ' () - b) (Lesson . He c) is is ? 13.{ ). speaking the truth. If the pupil (o 3. Repeat with we. repeat. ' he 13. Is he npt a not achieve greatness. ? 3. is there than no possession. c) must must to By / must . in life than good health What poet says that (Xeyei otl) Is 6. etc. negative form. ? and Is he not. ? € Repeat a) with must learn. believe. not a Greek. etc. 19-22.' 11. etc.€€. II. ? 4-9. is ? speaking (the) truths not he ? Are you speaking the truth I. a) There 2. If I should be speaking the truth. 189 If 2. you are speaking the is truth. we € ? By Change the pronoun little 14.' are not.) or b) not. better in is nothing. etc. ? better possession the tongue not the cause also of ings (a<yaeS)v) I. If I be speaking the truth. The the tongue is the cause of many There 4. 'they. no means. Is the Greek ? labors we could 12. 5. You 10. a good friend 3. could a) this. etc. say a ? do. Repeat is in the plural What 1. 15-18.

.). 26-29.THE 190 FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -€.. . ^ ^ . to and making the verbs Repeat in negative form. € .. 10-25. dv that which is hurtful. . €. 42-57. . I hate. €. . ivhat(ever) should he hurtful.€. to €7. changing the subject to the these. € €. . subject to . 14. (or dv Repeat. 5-9.. III. (things). € 30-41. Repeat. Repeat the clauses under a) with Repeat the sentences under b). dv <iv . £6 a) . changing the J. changing plural. .. . athlete. 23-25. you (ye). you. we. €. .$. what(^ever^ . this (one'). . |6. Repeat c). these. . Repeat b) with kcXcuciv. (may^ be hurtful.€. .. b) I. €. . changing . OS (Lesson XVI) Whomever) does such iroici. 1-4. II.

com- and repeat. to the Be doing 9. YO UR eraipos rade. € €05 this girls.. to and a teacher. 191 €. my b MY brother. my Call sisters. mine 6. BROTHER. yours. yours a farmer. Repeat. Do other To one () not be doing such things! 16. noster. give the brother's (book). €6$ €€ your. GOM- your RADE. (Lesson XVII) % my. 4. we are me What to hate we I my ? to be . brother is wise Your father 2. (^). our. friend 5. 10. €€ €05 your. we to be Whom doing are ? we 15. mine. ). to love my ? Do 17. brother desire such things. beau- (omit sister a poet. €€ in.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK €. Let 13. () Do 12. comrades. my Call . 14. Our 3. Whom brothers. tuus. these same 15. farmer. €09 Change to Your 1. mens. changing the subject to we. 26-29. vester. brothers. but not are is not. mine. 7. (^) repeat each with tiful. () our book. my not desire such things (). 8. are Whom this! not hate sister. is is your . you. €8 6$ a brother of a comrade of yours. my 11.

learn this lesson. etc. why? instead of bia this. ivith us. (Lesson XVIII) 16.. our slaves. 27. May this (one) 24. slave. substituting € Master the following prepositional phrases from me. ircpl TovTots on these (^condi- € €. hy you^ etc. TovTO. Trap' hy tvol^ me. irpos tovtois in addition to the law. 28.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 192 teaching Be teaching me. If If we. 20.. on what account? why? La TO on this account. etc. Repeat Exercise XI. irapd my for wherefore. you. on this account. Repeat with to . the law.. irpos according . €.€ to me. . ? my 19. " irpos hy the gods ! ] \ .. May Let us not be doing these things. chez moi. 25.. never (/^) (/) 26. I should never 21. etc. do such things.. with you. irpo in view of this. etc. 22. with these. house. at . If etc. you. these girls. Tivos on what account ? .. Trap' . . Iirl : froin you. \. 23. . . May these never. 5 . 18. € €' €' tions). 7. I these (things^. contrary to concerning to this. do such things.. before this. If I should never.

is recessive.. « THESE (con- ^ to ME. ye. . . VER wise. .) Observe that in these two words the accent ye. € € yi VERY many. 193 veri/ wise. (Lesson XIX) Master the following phrases . greatest. \€ and much tainly the cer- ! very many. § 05 € . -. € and "ye certainly ! € " hk Repeat these phrases. ^ (See § (Lesson XXI) 174. €5 -ye THIS account. (usually written evye^. Tivos €€ € come now/ on I. '€V • . oStos € € - . €5. . on LS ditions'). oi 2) Fem. . where pray f TTS>sbr\. : € . . substituting plural forms 1) Masc: . 18. Contrast .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 17.

Change feminine (both sing. etc. etc. What pray are we to be replying? 2. what must we do ? friends. the The one who 3. the other (does) not. In friends 18. If these poets should. ? If these. The one who does not delisfht in friends does not have friends. is 2) to . If he should. ? 10. these of 13-48. etc. horses. shall we be telling the truth? 6. Do not be making this reply (say 5e replying this''). pi. 16. replying that Qort^ ' ' this reply. 8. we (do) not. to be rich. etc. you (do) not. etc. should we be telling the truth ? 9. Repeat with 2) 5-12. and and repeat. 4. to delight in friends or in horses 20. take May 13. If we be making 1. If you. 4. yiyveadai). wishes to be becoming wise (^ one who understands these (matters). (Lesson XXII) 19. 5. If May ve delight. each . 3. ? 12. these. 2. 1. etc. 4. 19. Let one be replying that he does not knoAV. If we delight in friends. You wish to become wise. We delight in friends. to be delight in good Are we to reply that we know or that . learning this lesson. We have nothing to rich. 17. If I should. ? 7. 3. If you. 15. The The one who 2. If we should be making this reply. Are we —) reply. let the other be making no reply (say be replying nothing "). phrases 1) with the negative 1) to the plural. we shall have friends.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 194 The one who wishes 1. May 11. the other in books. etc. 6. 5. Let us be we do not know. Let the one delight in 14. ? you be making no reply. we wish ( not in books.) The one wishes to be rich.

May (pi. these 8. (Lesson . Repeat. etc. Be 1. I — ^) on 195 Am 21. May 7. consider of greater worth than 21. money ought. . 10. I 9. Repeat. substituting the verb (in which case the meanings given above remain unchanged).( THE FIRST FEAR OF GREEK we do not know reply that 22. ? We 23. should should not ? make By no means. in c) in the optative of the progressive action-stem. € b) I This great value (or importance or worth) ^ consider of hold in high esteem. of shall we do? doing nothing. . consider. in b) in the future indicative . you Let these. hold in highest esteem. (Lesson XXIII) 20. we this reply. 24.). May you 11. Review Exercises 16-17. 2. 6. c) TOVTO of greatest value (importance). etc. What What are we to be doing ? 4. in (^ 4. conjugating the verb in •- a) in the present indicative. etc. of less least. substituting in a) Trcpl (importance) in b) ircpl . . worth . We he 3. Do thou. etc. 3. Repeat each of these sentences. you. little worth. ? I to delight in a good friend or in a good horse I might make this reply. etc. of greater value TrXeiovos (importance'). XXIV) What are we doing? 2. we 5. a) TovTO irepl I. . c) TTcpl 1. etc. of Friends ^). I '- etc. hold in higher esteem.

What reply to the Greeks ? mother ? boy has no possession more A precious than a mother (say 'there 6. 1. farmers. these same 22. Am themselves.). firm (/AeWi). (Lesson XXVI). 15. etc. May we be becoming wise. the other will stand- shall reply that (ort) 30. is will We. Repeat the phrases with ing for pi. These friends. the mother. some will not. . I shall not The 16. call (^). firm. me calling calling 11. the man. 14. etc. (Exercise 16). We should be becoming wise. Call the boy. 7. substitut- the appropriate forms (both sing. I shall call shall. become 24. the other standsThe one will flee. 31. the father. some things we To-morrow 20. mother has no possession more precious than a boy. you •)? 27. Who 10. ' know. me about this. etc. I shall you 19.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 196 Be calling your (say 5.. ? gift to the old 4. ? Who you. the Greeks. will call me ? Consider 13. wise. Vie 9. etc. Some 12. (-. Do 2. the ') brothers. -. I shall con- poet.) of «. ? I to give the not keep calling the mothers same boys themselves to the 5. If any one ask 25. We 8. "Ycpiav. 3. what shall I reply ? ? these 28. the same fathers. iraXs. them. etc. are calling them. . know. . sider 17. to . I shall () We 29. man ? are we to the to be making these men A ". 23. am I 6.- we think we understand The one is fleeing. 21. them. . the same boy. these (things). 22. Some things 18. . 26. We. and is for a hoy^' etc. me happy you happy.

To have 2. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK For boys are anchors of a mother's 7. in 5-8. their father (say be doing'} father prevent you (} will prevent (them). health is the best (thing) for a man. I 9. this same hear you reply- ing to the physician that you are well. from doing whatever you wish ? 3.. wise. If these be able. a mother life 197 (say ' of life for ') 23. Whoever We know that we are foolish. May we (things). know are wise. 8. In the following sentences use the verb 1-4. Review Exercise 1. The 1. they will pre6. For these ^ . 4. (Lesson XXVII) Review Exercises 8 and 18. We know that we knows that he is foolish is 7. 10. as the philosopher says. but t/ou are wise. father always prevents me from doing 2. 5. . man's character is known from (his) speech. 4. Fathers always prevent their (' the ') children from doing whatever they wish. 3. i). in 9-12. Whenever these children may wish to be reading something. 6. vji_ We (} you always To-morrow reply. vent us from doing whatever we may wish. examples cited . in followed by the genitive (§ 115. Does ^our whatever I wish. hear that A we 11. we are foolish. ^. gods. the same you making saying these will hear 12. are mortal men. 24. My ('') ' (Lesson XXIX) 13. and study carefully the in §§ 174 and 176. value nothing niore highly than justice (^ I 5.

? Whose the child")! What 5. are are are.7. «.this reply ? are we to be calling ? are to be Whom permit to do whatever he wishes 26. you 3.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 198 men do not wish us to be as happy as possible. /?). Love ^>^ thyself ! 8. 9. XXX) (Lesson Repeat the phrases with ing for (Exercise 16). do not know vho (rt? or you (say of whom child are Whose 4. ? Are we nothing. 1. For how much are you are you asking for etc. to Does 8. I 2. ? these ? We desire 5.. me Zeus.. ? . etc. ? Whom * do these ? XXXI) 2. substitut- . (Gen. Who ?) you you are we 8. ?!). I. 3. we to be replying ? making . 1 Ace. On what account To whom. '• children? are these 6. (Gen. How 8. . sing. Do not love thyself too-much . the appropriate forms of and pL). not seem so also also. . to desire Let us 7. How much do you ask for this horse ? much is the farmer asking for this chariot ? 10. II. desire nothing. What do you I. ? he 2. it tis (both . For 7. you? to By 9. we 4. What offering to sell these (things^ ^ 9. . 25. they happen not to love us. . For how much do the gods sell to us all the blessings of life ? ' 1. ? (things) these desire 6. Know (Lesson QyvSiOC) thyself not love thyself ! ! Do 4.

11. We were becoming wise. Does your father permit you to govern the mule-team? 15. By no means. neither eating nor drinking. 13. was ? 3.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK (Xidv^ 5. I ruling ? What was you ? We were was preventing you from doing these (things) ? 7.28. What was 1. 6. 5. for he thinks more of the slaves than of me. Do not touch the chariot 14. ? ? Touch My Qthe') mother permits me 13. Why was the dog in the manger (say the in manger dog ') not permitting the horse to eat ? 10. for the dog was not able to prevent (it).) ? 1. Who was dying? 12. (jt?Z. ? Don't touch this! 12. (Lesson down XXXVI) (along') the road. XXXIV) you ? ? this slave ? ? we ? Whom 2. 11. 8. 16. ! 199 The one who loves himself too much does If we love ourselves too much. not have friends. 14. near the postern-gate. 1 See § 119. In the day-time these attendants rule me at night ^ (jjVKTo^ 8e) my mother rules me. touching I 10. his ('') son. The horse was eating the barley (say of the harley'^. to touch these (things). We thought we were dying. 9. you were not. . this! ! (^ 27. we shall not have friends.• What am 7. 6. ? you w^e I was eating nothing. these 9. we 8. We were not dying. Who ' ^ {} . We were not replying. No one was preventing us from making this reply. we eating (Lesson saying these ? I I .

He we You kept turning around turning around he was frequently 5. proach 12.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 200 according €9 TO to Plato. irepl to a dictation exercise 1. 3. away. in. preparatory based upon this passage. these you in 10. the opposite city-wall. toward. time for me to be going away for 6. . the wall. out. ! lines toward. 16. We were. position opposite ! 8.. 2. Come 9. in a position opposite the €v wall. 7. — 14. 1 . (^ for us 7. It -). I am going away. is out. etc. you were going 15. What was I doing ? these We (Lesson . 4. father was wont to regard (say was regarding') the slaves as of more value than us his sons. I was going away. regarding''). €K to a position opposite the from a . You were. Let us be going. ' . These. ' XXXVII) 3. Ap- out. kept. 4. 11. out 5. <. etc.. etc. We. in. etc. etc. Come . My For they were phiinly eager to approach. 13. These boys. etc. etc. We were absent. . 29. in. 6. ? 2. €§ €5 €ls TO wall. toward. These. . I Tliese boys and regarding us (say You you ? was not hesitating. Make an intensive study of 1-15 (Lesson XXXV). ! — away.

We have nothing to ask you. There is is higher in 31. This (one) they were wont to consider (say 'they were considering^) the worse. were saying that we were more beautiful than 6. 11. We 3. 11. My mother was wont of these same boys ing to ask me hold to 13. What is smaller than this book ? wiser than you. you.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK am I 1. XXXIX) (Lesson 30. 4. 12. we should make no reply (say ''he replying nothing''^. These 5. ? 5. etc. . OLos € € or Olds 32. What are asking which of us is the wiser. angles 201 is the larger Which 8. ? is 7. We 4. (fte) ? are these physicians 3. You is he. What 1. You were asking which of us was the more beautiful. we shall reply that we do not know. € am able qualified^ both to deliberate and [ \ [ € (Lesson XLIII) Qfit. these larger. wiser than you. 7. 10. we regard nothing more beautiful than a good friend. I. The one was asking. 2. ? {) 10. (Lesson XLI) are you asking me to be asking these (?) men ? What 2. 13. Do not keep asking this. Let them not be asking these 8. 9. If you ask this. are books are smaller. I was hesitatthe happier ? which of these men was the worse. If you should ask this. I was saying that I was more beautiful than you. to fight. the other was answering. This boy was hesitating to ask me about this (matter). (questions). ? are than these brothers. Which the largest of these Which 9. 6. 12.

old. etc. a $ $. 33. conjugating the verb in the present and future indicative and making the other necessary € changes. -€ this sentence.. I do not . b) Concerning these {matters^ you I shall try to question . . Although growing many . also as one having experience. (or a) Since T€ desire. Repeat. observing that . substituting for (and making the other nec- essary changes. ing . substitut- Repeat with making the necessary changes. still trying to he .. know what friendship . is . $ II. (^friendship . . experienced. I. Repeat. learning is adjective and so has no ^distincti\^e feminine Tovs avSpas. € ) T€ € through- Repeat.€ €. ' Repeat (making the necessary changes) with b) Although wise. - 32. I am nevertheless (things^. ?. conjugating the verb out the present and future indicative. compound forms) "? (Lesson XLIV) Review Exercises 23 and a) .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 202 Repeat . what in the ivorld Repeat with it is').

About what were he . playing. Out Far from ' of 3. ( are going . the horseman. substituting for : .. versing with us. . 2. b) Repeat : 203 this being so. the others were con- As we 3. 2. Was he a 1. . substitut- appropriate forms (both sing. Toi»s - Xcyovtos ol . the From 4. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK c) «. who was Socrates? young man or an old man ? 3. 5. b (§ 39). being a boy. yet cover what friendship (^) pi. Come tell me. ') XLVI) Repeat the phrases with ing for away (^- is. €.^ . substituting for ToxiaSe. .. 2.. While we were conversing with one another Lysis. - 1. Write in Greek each of the following questions together with an appropriate answer. irepi the words Repeat. (Lesson 34. . the others will say {epovat) that friends. Before the city. . €. 1. Repeat each of these phrases in the plural. While ^?) was Lysis (Gen. . Into 7. vas playing in the courtyard. €€'. .) of priest. 6. €€ In Around the . Tas KOpas « a) II. And 4. I believe you to be you are not able to dis- (Exercise 16). and . the words a). .

tav should €l I do what are we do ? to let what did '€. TToiet . What Were they going 5.). lav T. this ! don' t do this ! to do.: : THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 204 4. done}. etc. dont. (Lesson XLVIII) Observe carefully the difference between the progresand the aorist forms as illustrated by the following examples sive . do- TTOico^cv. if I be ^ doing. Were they out what friendship was? 7. (while should do. if let us do. TTOLCLV to be doing. ing f . be doing this TToicL . €1 T. € Aorist Progressive what ivas I «. be . I do. do ! . to find than good-health Which 9. ? happier than a king is seemed to you of these boys able better is ? more to be the ? 35. etc. beautiful into the city Who 8. Repeat with Observe further that the aorist participle (having . . ing.. Who and the boys cou versing with one another ? was calling the boys and bidding them go home ? ? 6. ivhat are we to be doing ? us he doetc. etc. etc. . doing doing. doing etc.

often refers to in time to that indicated by the lead- ing done. substituting• for a-yyciXas the appropriate forms (both masc. reference to time or duration. €. / am . thirty years (of age). I am a) / fundamental meaning. thus / d) e) I have I am € come foolish. etc. -? '€. laughing. 66. o28a undone ! brother heard him This done he said. Study carefully §§ I.) of iroitLv.$ a fool Exercise b) (/ (hv kiiow that 23). lost. 65. € turn in announcing this Vou did me a-yyeiXas was kind of you (it to a good announce. etc. my ^. tlius «.). €€ b) € : said with a laugh. . substituting for -YtXaaas into tears. . c) '. Am I awake heard its is 'prior ing verb. Repeat a).He a) He Contrast said (while^ laughing. Cf. havthe appropriate forms dKoveiv. Because of an act that « : . €€.-. and fem. II. c) - Contrast laugh. to recognize or asleep ? that I am €"am / am . (Lesson L) dead. €. substituting for (both masc. 137.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK € €$ 205 Indicates an act merely as an occurrence without I. thank you for announcing. Repeat b).) of 36. bursti^ig Repeat each in the feminine. Repeat. and fem.

about lost (vre/ot. Who men ? 17. To the truth. ish.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 206 He ^') I. etc. ? Ave are foolish. To told all the truth.. 37. Greek employs the perfect infrequently. 6$ LH) € ( . ? These have not. I have ' ' c) d) violated the j^^cic^• have neither seen nor heard the man. ap- or recognize that ten years old. : . e) We a) II. Greek. / am etc. We To have Study carefully a) I have b) c) 1 20. 9. an aorist . I am twenty years are undone €. ! We 6. to be dead. of age. seen the them. 21. seen and heard. Have you 19. «- € €€" To be dead. I. these. We have 12. To have spoken 18. 11. saying that I Observe that in English the perfect is constantly employed where. These recognize that they are 7. spoken. 4. 2. 10. 13. pear asleep dead. am saying that was saying. They Are you awake These are dead. fool- We are You are ! € What have I done? ^ b) / have told {spoken') all the truth. 3. (Lesson €'' did not hear the man. etc. those do not. have neither seen nor heard be awake. in What has he done ? = be more natural. § 179. has broken the peace 16. ? 8. etc. 14. d) 15. is Are 5. §129. thus Compared with English. be thirty years of age.

4• . etc. Progressive / am learning. h) that I am « olos away not going €|-€€ (i. learning these (thiyigs^. . etc. don't learn! §157. .! etc.! dont he. f) g) 207 -uvai oii I refuse to I my go away~). and third persons and study carefully the following examples of progressive and aorist forms 35. (while) learning. learn. I was lav learning if I € he €dv he . Repeat with €-€. ipQ) is {ipiw) is the future in common use meaning / will not common.! to he learning. and means I shall speak. shall say. and the first. Review Exercise second and third in the second. etc. 5. followed by . learning. etc. may I learn. deny that Iheard the man. . if I learn these {things). these things. to learn. etc. : ! THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK e) (or I have that ^) I sai/ (or said^ (or had) spoken. - 2. (Lesson LIII) 38. : € 1. plural.e. ovSeva 4.! . having learned. etc. 1 Observe that (shall) say. shall forget €€€. learning. €€ € may I Aorist I learned. Repeat each of these sentences persons singular. 3. ipd is . he learning.

. -. - 5. 3. ing the same . «. young. (Lesson LV) 40. 152. What did I ask her ? 6. If should not be asking the boys these I (questions) (questions) . etc. I should have made no reply. What was I askWhat am I asking this man ? 3. 8. If I should not ask them these . . b) €1 Even if were ill. 1. 4.-. . 7. and making the other necessary changes. ivere not I should not he asking this man so (questions^.THE FIRST YEAR OF GEEEK 208 . If the hoy had asked me THIS. I should desire to associate. c) €L If many V€os - . If I be asking her many 4. irats €. What will I ask this woman ? man ? 5. If I ask her many (questions) (questions) 1. Repeat each of these sentences. - «. Construc- two accusatives. . 2. Repeat with : clirov. «. (Lesson LIV) 39. •3. -€ -- 85. tion : : question'). Study carefully §§ "* a) €1 I. conjugating the leading verb in each throughout the indicative of the tense indicated. Two verbs of asking (Lesson LIV) ask (a 1. 2. .

etc. 12. 2. May knew. to all we these. 11. men. Know that 17. favor^. We have nothing to ask you. Verbs this. etc. . Know well that these will say. etc. i J is. I Review Exercise « (. Let them 16. (^) (^) know 11. 9. ) 13. Let him. IL tion : ask ( two accusatives. from seeming to know (say 'from know''^. etc. 14. May we. 19. 15. 3.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 209 Repeat. 4. Who Does this man not know what friendship is ? 6. we were To know the. 10.! knew . Don't ask me this (§ 157). I think I know. to 15. conjugating the verb throughout the mood or tense indicated. etc. I knows what the sophist is ? 8. If these boys. Don't 12. . thought 1. ! are going away. Be asking me this. Ask me this. I do not know. If I was saying that I should not be asking so many 14. well (eu nothing. not. Let them.! 10. Construc- • Repeat the preceding drill. (Lesson LVI) 41. . etc. keep asking me this. If you.. 7. I this'! 9. May I never I knew. I. Socrates we consider the For he knew that he knew (Lesson LVIII) of telling^ saying. Do you knov? I know. 37. 18. 13. 16. as seem wisest of (questions). not able to discover what friendship differs 42. 5. etc.

3. . . conjugating the Toiixois . What will I 3.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 210 I. If I tell this 5. should this tell I 8. € 1.. ? I If 7. . Don't keep telling me this this. 13. Repeat these sentences. (X€Jv^. 43. clircv have come declare. Don't say this have nothing to say. same me (§ 157). 16. ovSev Repeat 1 and 2. (thing). tell Repeat. This is This what I I (eiirav'). . . ^:>omi out. * verb in the plural. (§ 175). 5. 2. conjugating the verbs throughout the singular and plural. . Say we do not know.€ Repeat 16 and II. / 2. What say to him this . etc. 6. I 11. What was I telling the man ? 4. is \vhat (/) 17. If 6. conjugating the verb throughout the mood or tense indicated. (Lesson LX) was admired (marvelled at) for wisdom.. . Tell 10. 15. I 9. etc. to tell. €. 17. say that 14. 4. conjugating the verb as 3. € Explain what you mean. did say If I should have said nothing. 1. was delighted at seeiyig. before. explain. him I ? What am I telling the boy ? 2. 4. should say this . We shall this. also chance to be saying also chanced to say tell. 12.

both singuand plural. Repeat 4. though fear death as is the greatest of I kne\v well (? ev all evils. these The boys were was Lysis led home 8. I that (it) 2. am arising. For I chance to fear death. 3. I stand (). was 2. 1.e. (ot are few. ^'?) Few know what death is (say 3. ). He was not persuaded to go ^) ? were delighted at seeing these men con- — slave (irorepov I that. Those who fear death many. ) Many 1. I made ). I you? May 7. . and making the other necessary changes. 9. I arise. We 12. in the act of standing the boy stand am ( ('). was If it () men never be called sophists 9. as above. etc. (^ said would not please me you.the first year of greek (Lesson LXII) 44. or by a 11. standing. By whom ? 10. lar (Lesson LXXIII) 46. I 7. would it please should be called a sophist. ''know the death what 4. I am 4. i. (Lesson LXVIII) 45. should be arising. Repeat 5. 5. etc. made 6. (^. 211 ! led home. Protagoras was called a sophist. I I 8.. home. conjugating the verb throughout. those who know what (it) is fear death. I stood up. I 2. ( 4. By his (' the ') father. 10. Protagoras called a sophist. (^ii) are is'). I should should make the . 6. but Plato a philosopher. the boys arise. 5. 8. although not knowing that it is an evil. If I 5. saying that Protagoras. versing with one another. I stood 1. etc.

I myself knew the man. ' 11. Arise 15. () 9. you. you. Don't set it dowai. € hold in honor. ! Let these not 17. Give me the book. ' the blame for this? ? ? e) lav laois f) el XL LXXVII) b) c) shall . but not the evil. Know Do not arise thj'self 19. Plato ascribed the good to God. Where 1. 2. we. etc. 13. 4. I arose 14. $ -. Let them not. I ran away. know Let each (one) (Lesson . 48. Let the boy himself set it 5. 11. Let the boys themselves. whom pray . 3. Those also I held in dishonor. etc. a) I. ? These we should hold in dishonor. I ascribe . Repeat each of these sentences with you. ! ! 16. 47. T. ( 8^ Where are we. 8. I Repeat each of these sentences with you. etc. we. d) These a) b) himself . ! Be coming to know thy- -. Set it down (/cara-^e?). 12. to place the stool 10. 7. am I not. those. this same slave. those in honor. etc. arise 18. and went home (say Avill arise. « self ! 20. they. ? (Lesson a) LXXIX) . Let him doAvn. 6. the man. arising I went home '). shall b) make grateful return to these . § -.! THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 212 others arise.

Maf/ II.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK for the benefits. . b) c) -€| e) Whom pray shall II. these If I betray these. child to his wife. ' d) LXXX) -. -. 49. a) I. '-€ / c) etc. my We 12. a display of skill. not have friends (. 8. Let 6. delight in The herdsman { gave the child to his wife (sa}^ placed the child in the basket (et? 'woman'^. ) } we should If 9. herdsman went ') the child to the herdsman and went away. Am 5. Grant me (/xot) the favor. 7. delivered. ? with my I delight in comrades. ek he carried (it) into the mountains 14. d) -. etc. 1. sharing (o 13. away. etc. Repeat. Having Don't. Repeat each of these sentences as before. I shall not Don't not. etc. my €-€ I aj^poiyit general? I am making . share these (things) with you. ayyo^}. these (things) with you. (Lesson Xe^CL oStos ffe is speaking nonsense. 213 never grant. betray your (' the ') friends. 2. etc. -€. e) €$ toIs y . }. the These gave (say 16. Let have friends. ^. 3. all my betray friends? 4. Having placed the child in the basket. they. sharing 11. etc. Are we. as above. I to us not. The just man time alone reveals (say '•shows'^. Having given the 15. ' having given we pleasures etc. 1. would 10. etc.

eager 6. The young man is to show his Having displayed our skill. Sophocles the poet said that time alone reveals the just. These showing off.THE FIBST TEAR OF GREEK 214 2. man not. 4. 5. to be skill. . The man () seem to us is showing off (e7-e^. 3.i).l'^. let the old us depart.

MEPOS TO PART II THE GRAMMAR 216 .

.

. ). The Alphabet ( The standard Greek alphabet has twenty-four Form 217 letters : — . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 1.

— The only § 51. In transliterating Greek names into English employ the nominative and observe that K = = = /* c 77 X (init. Pronunciation 3.) and the colon (•). = see. punctuation marks used in modern editions of Greek texts that differ from those in use in English are the question-mark (. Ti-mo'theus. See further u V Eu-hoe'a. came into use during the Middle Ages. somealways long . um eus eus Sophocles. See letters Punctuation 2. Aiyvirros Aegyptus. = rh ot ch Examples are et : = = = = = ps ae OS. Before this date the Attic alphabet had passed through many changes. Fiov violet when used c) The . The primitive Greek alphabets contained three additional letters. See 6.e. times long. ancients used only capital letters the small . Xerxes. piScLV to as a numeral. 1 case. 9 f. d) The letters were used as numerals. p is written viclere. double gamma) It = w. i. I . ( • — The Of these € are always e sometimes short.^ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 218 that was officially adopted at Athens in the year 403 B.) = : 7. Of. oe evs (final) ei.C. Pro-me'theus. The sounds of the vowels are indicated in the table above (§ 1). J ov (final) €$ S^p|i?s = = = \ eos (final) e Byzantium. The most important of these was F digamma {i. which disappeared in early times. See §§ 8. was the Ionic alphabet. Marks. — Vowels ). § 51. = = ng us.. 6eos § 8. but note further that represents the long (open) e-sound midway between vowels are short.

.)IPH.

was probably rolled more than r in English. cf. Breathings. the sounds Later they came to be pronounced topheavy. it still b) it retains in §6e. : ( = f) Attic cf. the sign . the breathing is written before the vowel c) When an entire word is written in capitals. ' : ' : . breathing') is employed b) If the initial vowel is a capital letter. Philip. $. the breathing " written over the second vowel of the diphthong This is : is not true.) messenger. breathing and accent marks (§ 9) are omitted. and this was pronounced like modern Greek. . or | Avas sounded like ng in sing before e) in the early periods c) (7-nasal) 6. as in glaz'd . . loch. sound dz in adze. to th ph that is. like sh. like th ph kh {ch^ in thin. : . perhaps as early as the fourth in glaze.. d) If a word begins with a diphthong. If no A-sound is present. a) by a sign initial to indicate . See century B. (smooth breathing. ' : . very early became (for € THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 220 to Athens Later.C. however. This sign half. but like zd. of improper diphthongs (§ 4 b) Hades. and these sounds are retained in modern Greek. were respectively it in were similar kh hothead. An vowel or diphthong is always accompanied whether it is to be uttered with or without an -sound if with an expulsion of the breath ().was originally pronounced a) -). the (pronounced Ao) the sign is written over the vowel is called the rough hemisphere. was possibly pronounced sphinx. ' . angel .(pronounced ego). packhorse. d) Every consonant M^as sounded. cf.

^ A syllable may be long 1 In pronouncing Greek proper names in English (see § 1. / do not know . : I do not speak Greek. makes a distinct syllable. whether with or without a consonant. «-. followed by a vowel usually has the long sound : Ionia.: : : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK " When the initial vowel or diphthong 221 accented. See § 9 f. Syllables. et €. further. if this be long in Greek. f) Before a smooth vowel ov not becomes before a rough vowel. A a) In dividing a word into syllables single consonant --. . as follows a) A vowel Orion. the is I accent and breathing are written together: have you are. otherwise the antepenult: Prome'theus (three syllables) io'€os Timo'theus (four syllables). It is usual. quantity of the syllable is a factor of great importance in the pronunciation of ancient Greek. and to accent the penult of the word. note) it is customary to ignore the Greek accent. e) Initial is regularly pronounced and written with a rough breathing a stream. : . 8. hyper.' =. cf. elision (§ 12) are divided -^. : cf. always has the rough breathing in the g) Initial Attic dialect above. sounds. — The : -. a Grreek oh! . rheumatism. Every single vowel or diphthong. — 7. to give the vowels their long or short English . ^ So and ir when exposed through elision (§12) become and respectively before a rough vowel or diphthong " =. -?. is : connected with the vowel fol- lowing b) Combinations of consonants which can begin a word are connected with the vowel following : : Compounds formed without c) according to their elements Quantity.' =..

the The ('). But in such names as He'siod. and another vowel has the long sound. a) Accent English : it Greek in is chiefly differs radically from accent in a musical or joiic/i-accent stress . has a long vowel or a it ( ). e. : €- Accent. : : €. wise the short sound : Cha'ron. when i. ---^ ). plays but a secondary role.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 222 By a) nature^ that diphthong (§§ By b) position^ short. b) A vowel followed by a single consonant (or by a stop and a liquid has the long sound if it stands in an accented penult other- (§§ 17. i. but three accent-signs. that when is. The diphthongs ae and oe are sounded like e. The two kinds . ae. where it is perhaps entitled to be called it is called. indicated by the sign pitch of the voice is raised as the syllable is $• 2) Circumflex^ c) The or the uttered rising-falling tone (") ?. is 9. b) There are two kinds of accent in Greek. A 18) short vowel followed by a stop and a liquid (§§ 17. or y . § 3) is ( : is. ^). The consonants c and g are soft before e. Grrave accent as This constitutes the second element of the circumflex accent. or followed by a single consonant (or a stop and a liquid) before e. Pausa'nias. third accent-sign is (' ). ?/. 18)) . a. Soc'rates. treated as either long or short (^ >^). of accent are : 1) Acute or sharp. when vowel (naturally its folloAved by two consonants or a double con- €- (|): sonant 4) 3. and d) oe. c) A vowel followed by two consonants has the short sound. Duca'lion. ( _ -§ (— v^).

. individual accent in that of the word- its group: on the level. § 6 d. or in the words Tis who ? what ? final . but that monotone regularly sellable is acute accent-sign changed in writing to a grave accent-sign before another word in the same sentence. not upon the accent (pitch). uttered alone has the rising inflection on if the last syllable (eVrtV). a) Some words of one or two syllables attach them- ..THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Elsewhere an accent. syllables of a word. but before a single initial See accent-sign. but the third the last The is short : of the last three from the end only when the breathing (§ 6). €. f ) The rhythm of all classical Greek depends upon the quantity of the syllable (§ 8). d) But a acute is not changed to a grave before an enclitic (§ 10) or an elided syllable (§ 12). may accompany one . remains which at the is last This occurs when is incorporated in a sentence. and merges not so pronounced. 10. is written over the second vowel of a diphthong. . acute accent . Enclitics. The accent e) one of the The of Greek word always accompanies a last three syllables. like vowel when this is a capital : ". it is 223 merely a sign to indicate that a syllable which Avould normally be pronounced with the rising inflection (acute) the voice a word. and may rest upon either the last syllable or the syllable before the last (but only when the is last is short) The : . . circumflex accent accompanies only a syllable that long hy nature (§8)..

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

224

selves so closely to a preceding

word

become virThese
Examples are

as to

tually a part of that word, as does -que in Latin.

.

are called Enclitics (i.e., leaning-words}.

,

,,

€,

The

b)

an

effect of

an

enclitic:

1) Preserves
acute

to

, () .

accent and never changes a final

a grave (§ 9 d): 8os
it has an acute on the penult

lowed by
3) If

i)

own

5 «, "

2) If

cent:

its

A

it

number
word before

enclitic is to increase the

of syllables of the Avord preceding, hence the

and

is fol-

a dissyllahic enclitic, the latter retains its ac-

€.

has an acute on the antepenult

circumflex on the penult

,

acute on the last syllable

.

(^^.,

,

(),

:

or

adds an

it

€,

c) Enclitics retain their accent:

1) Sometimes for emphasis
it

seem

so to

2) After elision (§ 12)

:

:

evil.

3)

)

)
wise.

is

pronounced and accented

' «',

d)

id

When two

each, except

.

or

€i.

in its clause

does

all things are

«
,, .'

When it stands first
When it is emphatic

7) After ovK.
is not.

€;

TO U too ?

:

:

eVri

;

the

:

man IS

«

:

there

est.

more

of course

syllable an acute accent

the

enclitics
last,

follow one

receives

another,

upon

from the one following

:

its final

.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

225

11. Proclitics.
A few words of one syllable have
no accent of their own, but attach themselves closely to

the

word that

and the
Examples are

are called Proclitics.

.

€K, el, ov,

But
by an

-ye

,

ol,

when

it is

Iv, els,

followed

Beos-

Elision.

12.

-

a) Elision
of a

:

,

,

:

a proclitic receives an accent
enclitic

These

in English.

follows, like a

is

the cutting off of a short vowel at the end

word when the next word begins with

05.

The apostrophe (') marks
pounds

:

*

a vowel:

the omission, except in com-

(for Stay.

and conjunctions accented
on the last syllable lose their accent with the elided syllable, and become in effect proclitics (§ 11):
b) In

()

elision, prepositions

c) Other

words throw, the accent back

but without changing the acute to a grave

The only consonants allowed
word are v, p, and s (| = ks,

a)

()
(for

'

.

to the penult,

=

word

end
and

to stand at the

=

attach themselves closely to the

(§ 11).
of a

:

Final and Movable Consonants.

13.

a

?

'

.

its)•

€K

of

word that follows

All other consonants were dropped at the end

.,

bod^ (for

:

cf.

'), €pe was
') and
he

writing

Lat. scribi-t^.

b) Most forms ending in

(also

all

verb-

forms of the third person singular ending in -e add
before a word beginning with a vowel, and often at the
end of a clause or sentence. This is known as v-movable.
c)

For

0X1 (oy/c,

),

see § 6 f

:

226

?

:

THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK

thus, so may drop the s before a consonant.
becomes
before a consonant.
before
e) The ending -€t of the pluperfect may add

d)

So

ۤ out of

a vowel.

Contraction is the
14. Contraction of Vowels.
term employed to signify the uniting of two successive
vowels, or a vowel and a diphthong, both in the same
Avord, into a single vowel or diphthong
>
of
contraction
learned
The phenomena
are best
by mastering the paradigms of contracted nouns, adjectives, and
verbs, §§28 D, 29 C, 41, 81-83.
But note especially
:

that
€€, €t,

A

and

€CL

>

cl; oo, co, o€,

contracted syllable

is

.

€€

, €>
and

regularly accented

€0l

;

if

>.

either of

the original syllables was accented

A

a)

the

final syllable

(),

with the circumflex accent, unless

? (?).

original

final

syllable

had an acute accent

:

b) Other syllables according to the rules stated in § 9
15.

Crasis.

— Crasis

(^

mixture^

is

the con-

traction of a vowel or diphthong at the end of a

with one at the beginning of the following word
(/cat

),

16.

(/cat ez/)

Vowel-Gradation.

e.

word

:

(/cat eav^.

— In

the same root or suffix

there frequently occurs an interchange of vowels similar

There are
two strong grades and one weak

to that in English, as in dri7ik, drank, drunk.

usually three grades,
grade, as follows

Strong

:

THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK

-

Examples are

-

-

:

carry

a carrying

€--

nourish

--^

know

(Dor.

--

;

Att.

-

I say

I place

€---^

have

-€

-€

voice

-s

was

nourished

I know

--

-s chariot

(two-carrier)

nourished

ciS-evai to

--0

227

a heap

I give

to

see^

we say

-€-€

tve

--€ we

place
give

consonants and their combinations
17.

Stops.

a) Stops (or

Mutes) are those consonants whose pro-

nunciation causes a complete though momentary closing of
the breathing passage.

Stops are of three orders (smooth,

middle, rough or aspirate) and of three classes (labial, palatal,

dental), as follows
Classes

Okders

;

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

228

€€ (-),
€€§ (-^?), €-€".
(^--),

but

c)

IT,

become

,

and

and

, , and

So
vowel
e

>

are

>

Of)

becomes -

When

e)

, , or

a

(

two aspirated stops (,

€- (-^

a,

t

and a

,,

)

/c,

is

would normally

regularly changed

(--,^

:

'•>

;

>

Similarly

or
(/3e-

:

,)

first

>,

>t,

(^--^.

§

;

(%e-

19 a). ^

Liquids and Nasals.

18.

a)

see § 61.

---((--»)
€-,

begin successive syllables, the
to its cognate smooth stop (,

-).

^

normally becomes

remains unchanged)

with

;

and the preceding

(a

short

if

(-/-),

:

d) Before

\-^^.

,

dropped before

(^€7-8~),

, , and

;

are dropped before

then lengthened,

is

et,

become

with

, ,

|;

'

The

and

liquids are

Of

-nasal (§ 5 e).

these

;

the nasals are

, ,,

, ,

and

play a very important

In the parent Indo-European
were frequently vocalic (written 1 m,
n, r), i.e. they served as vowels in the formation of syllables.
Of. fathom, yes'm, heavew, SittZ, brittle, etc. In Greek
or else
these vocalic liquids and nasals either became
developed a short vowel (usually a) to accompany and
or
r > ap or pa
1
became
support them. Thus
from
rn >
> , as follows
(e ---') from
(«jreX-to), § 20)
word-formation.

role in

language

1,

m,

n, r

,

:

:

;

;

€-.

b) Before
(/c?)

1

it

ir,

,,

(?)

becomes Y-nasal

There are exceptions, as

;

€-€--becomes

before

, ,

;

(--/)

;

before
it

-, --, ---.

,,

,|

remains unSee

§ 73.

) --,.
«THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

Thus

changed.

:

;

apparent exceptions

d) V before

€5

f)

Initial

is

>

>

g)

is

a) In

>

-

:

and

,

was lisped

seven (orig.

b) Medial

ev

;

;

after a

-.

Digamma

Greek

dialects

to see (fiS-, cf.

survived as an

qf. septem'), tnrcp

;

20.

;

placed

is

diphthong

:

-sound (§ 6)

=

to disappear
:

:

super.

between two

"y^vous (yevea-ot,

see § 35).

(/r)


?

early disappeared from most of the

cTttov

/

said

(fe-n--,

cf.

Lat. voeo),

Lat. videre).

d) In a few words an
pleasant

(^-^)

was dropped, or

original initial

antl

shows a tendency

Lat. gener-is
c)

is

tovs (tov-^^^

F•

vowels, especially in inflectional forms
cf.

:

(^6\-).

:

many words an

it

)

>

ec,

assimilated

- {)
-

:

There are some

doubled when a simple vowel

is

Omission of

rather

a, e

in composition or inflection

it

not doubled

19.

{-).

(/ueXay-?).^

or

-€ (-).
before

(eV-

dropped and the preceding- vowel

is

e) V before

;

;

see § 67.

;

regularly lengthened (a
els (eV?),

(^-)

>.

before

c)

{-^)

229

(^afdS-., cf.

initial

disappeared

:

Lat. suavis^.

Consonantal

l.

— In

very primitive times

many

Greek words contained a consonantal { = y, cf. pin^n '),
which effected certain important changes in pronunciation
and spelling. Some of these are as follows
'-

:

.

^ There are some exceptions.
Thus in the dative plural
dropped without compensatory lengthening:

before

-

is

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

230

,

,

(from

and sometimes

(^\-,

§

dpi,

>

,.

)

see § 59

d)
§ 59

:

>

a)

b)

59

-,
>

,.
, >

c,

§

59

).

c,

,

(=

§ 5 f)

-

:

c, /3).

€vi, €pi, tvi, ipi,

and

C/^op-) fate,

:

€iv, €ip, Iv,

, , Up

;

see

c, e.

>

e)
see § 59

>

;

1^

, sometimes

or

(see above, b)

;

c, a.

declensions of pronouns

The Persoxal Pronouns.

21.

a)

b) Pronoun

you (thou).

/.

(^Unaccented forms
are unemphatic.)

the

of

person

third

(him,

her,

( usually

if).

an

in-

direct reflexive.)
S.

N.
G.

.

.

/

a~\)

0/

you
of {from) you

of {from) him, her,

{from) me

D.

,€

it

{for)

-,

{for) you

to {for)

him,

etc.

me
A. €,
P. N.

€5

-,

vie

you {ye)

us

D.
A.

$

to

(for) us

22.

to

us

The forms

(for) you

yoic

ol

i

him, her,

•€5

it

they

of {from) yon

of {from)

G.

you

<ri

€9

ive

of {from) them

--

to

(for) them

tr^as them

are usually enclitic.

The Intensive

Pkonoxjn.

— The

intensive pro-

(§ 40 ), except
that the neuter nominative and accusative singular end in

noun

-0 (cf.

self is declined like

TovTo) instead of in -ov, thus

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK
S.

N.

avTOs

G.

.

For the uses of avTos, see
28.

avTTjs

§ 106.

The Reflexive Pronouns. — The

?

231

reflexive pro-

nouns are formed from the stems of the personal pronouns
combined with
They have no nominative
(§ 22).
forms

€. with the a The Demonstrative Pronoun outos this. suffix -€. b) The Demonstrative Pronoun €K€LV0S that.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 232 The article was originally The demonstrative pronoun € ties in accent. the old demonstrative This explains the apparent irregulari- . is See § 10. a) demonstrative pronoun. . as 25.

2). when . except in the genitive plural tivcs.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 233 Indefinite ^•^ YXQ/iJ'^iA'^O N- Ti Tis Tivos. "5 : whoever Each part is is a compound of os who and tls some declined separately. receive an acute (or grave. Tivi. Tivis Twri Tivas The dissyllabic forms of the indefinite pronoun. as follows: . § 9 c) on the last syllable. b) one. accented (§ 10 b.

THE FIRST YEAH OF GREEK . V.234 P. N.

235 .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK N.

. () G. D. D.. philosopher . ( The nominative in''tI7e in os is ]\iasc'uline. D. () : sometimes used for the voca- the . : gift ? () -. ? child (oareov) {) forms like Trepi-irXovs tlie (/-?) basket. ' . accent . in -oos accent all the €. () () V. and Neuter Nouns. ? avTos N. ? ?? V. the triangle € £ () ? . the D. .filiend same physician TO the road 1€ () € ? ? ^ ^» ? ? ? ?? ? G. \. V. the has recessive brother €€. S.. . . So -.\. (^?) () siave slave ? " ^^ ^? () () ? ? Contract Nouns.THE FIE ST YEAR OF GBEEE 236 d) The ending nominative plural ot of the is treated as short . ? Tois ovTois Tovs -? "€ -? "? - jlvToiis () . g. . TrcpiirXou. ? ? V. .. voyage. () G. the G. () .. €09 0€0s• vocative Feminine. e) tive so regularly . VOVS (wo?) mind^ hone. contracted a sailing / . C. irXovs Compounds -. S. see § 28 A. nominative singular around.

d) The dative plural is formed by adding . while (Xeovr-). to : s. or . 30. and There are a few excep- tive singular accent the final syllable in the genitive dative. : irais. t.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 237 Third Declension.(-). Mute Stems (§ 17). sion are masculine. a) The stems end in a consonant. § 13. § 50. feminine. b) The nominative singular of feminine nouns making |. iras.and mak- ing the usual euphonic changes. § 43. lengthen the last vowel. In neuter nouns the stem final : or s do not add and lengthen drop those in - most masculine and formed by adding s to the stem and is : vocative singular employed as the nominative.. . . is the usual euplionic changes (§ 17 c) But stems ending in v. (/^-). is usually the same as the and nominative. both singular tions 31. and are in most cases conveniently determined by dropping the endThe nouns of the third declening -OS of the genitive.. § 17 c. and but NoLTNS WITH plural. . e) Most nouns which are monosyllabic in the nomina- . > but merely \ > ). p. . § 13. or neuter. final being dropped. or as the stem. if being dropped The c) short (€>?.

N. -. A. G. N. the mother N. « (§ 18). € (-) the pre- server. Xeovres vvkt€s . V.OF GREEK THE FIRST 238 P. ". D. ix (() Plural Singular N. V. S. D. the father s.V. •() (^-. alternative form is the man . G. € () <() 5 5 (5 D.<() Xcovrds TraiSes •••() 'Traicri(v) iroSds iraiSas Neuter Nouns with Stems 32. oj^a G. D. 1 very common the daughter '. 34. § 17 c) () 6. D.• . . TOis () 33. V.with Variable Stems (Synco- pated NOUNS). A. . opviGas the chariot . TO opviGes iroSts Nouns in Xeipes ^ -') •-() •() . (-) ". Tip ' Nouxs Stems in the divinity the - or G. ' G. sav- 5 ' € •8 • ' " ? € -() )ior (-) 05 •£ x«ip '€5 •() A. - Greek the shepherd the dog the hand (-) (-) (-) P.

THE FIRST YEAB OF GREEK P. V. N. 239 .

-|(). . 1. -€$• is . . -. wife ^5. . however. . Lat.. and (ySou-) then dropped. : spear €. is Nouns with Stems 37. of nouns of the type of the principal noun in -. (-) () G. . D. (^) water () and the p was . " - (to) milk . 1. 39. -€$ ship are thus declined Sing. 38. {) knee more impor- -. 05 D.and -. Zcvs () Zeus 6. . -. -£$ or cow. N.-.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 240 This not true.. -€9. . V. in -€. -. leaving merely 4. —A few of the . Pl. toiis or 068 V. -€ G. . . Of. 3 () -. bov-is.-. 2. {€'8 () vap before a vowel >•3. ?Plural Singular son or €(). -. ($ •€ PacriXcvs the king N. -. gen. ndv-is) Irkegular Nouns. . . ol -€<() (-X^t) The nouns . -. ". woman. () or €. -.. vaOs SiXG. 1. . . The stems (() became respectively and (cf. () . €. € tant irregular nouns are 7.

. vtos largest^ . of Adjectives the Fikst-Second Declen- sions. F. unequal. t. of which the feminine endings belong to the first declension. . equal. just. new. tlie (. In the geni- § same form and accent.) (. are thus declined : un- beneficial.) adjectives small. native singular is after other letters.) dea7% (. the others to the the feminine ending of the nomiAfter e. The adjectives of the first-second declensions have normally three sets of endings. have no distinca Compound adjectives. A. and : F. Tlie young. tive plural all the genders have tive feminine endings (. and few others.) - beautiful.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 241 declensions of adjectives 40. . or second.

masculine and neuter singular. G. D. and — Most adjectives in -€os The contracted forms are regu- -oos are contracted. (-009) - . €-. larly circumflexed on the last syllable (/".. . G. • €() . of gold G. ?).. V. — The § 35) happy fortunate are declined . -? -. § 48. '-. «- -^ -) (st. F. See also 43. golden. (st. adjectives S. § 28 D) and are the same .') €05 : N. distinctive feminine forms 42. M. is simiile and But compounds have no silver. S. 41. . (r^o'. V. €€ € « . Other types are represented by fatherless. . D. . Neut. . declined: Adjectives of the Third Declension. «€ £5 € ?€ « ( ' € £€ € €( £ M. -fj So (?) of : disposed. F. § 29 C as those given above (B). D. and N. Adjectives of the First-Third Declensions. G. eii-voa true (cf well- (not ev-va). -. N. V. vocative. G. N. . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 242 Contract Adjectives. <( •() ciJcXin hopeful. G. better. as follows D. . except in the nominative. accusative. — The masculine and neuter forms of these adjectives are . \. pi.

G. 44. G.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK of the third declension . ^ A. D. broad as follows ^. -') : . . . true also of participles (§ 50). . D. £$ €( ^ < F. . adjectives and ^apicis •( •() -) cvpOs (st. F. N. iratri (st. €. long here. -) is every are declined as follows ? €5 M. which strictly beblack and irds (st. ( iratrai <() The wide. . S. . eupev- iracri Q>eupe-) evpv-^ graceful are declined . This all. V. (st. 243 the feminine forms of the first. V.

244 THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .

:

.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK
r\his

(-)

-yas

.

shamfful

(-) large
{-) sioift

-$

-<08

(for

more or

£(

good

-KrTOS

less irregular

better

best
best

better

KpeCrTwv better

-TOs best

evil

small
1

much
easy

,

Comparatives in

48.

«--8

^-')

beautiful

iroXvis

-\-<08

--)

(for

Tlie following are

05

--

pleasant

-05 (-)

245

(for

-

^-/)
more

-

most

are declined as follows (c/.

§§33,42):
M.
S. N.

N.

F.

better

G.

D
A.
V.
P.

or

. V.

or

or

G.

So

,, ', .
£(()

D.

.

or

€, ,€^,€,
(.

sive in the forms:

\.

or

The accent

is

reces-

ADVERBS
49. Most adverbs end in -, the majority being formed
from adjectives with the accent of the genitive plural

beautifully (/caXo?),

pleasantly

(^8),

formed by means

thus

justly (St/cato?),

(^<;^.

Many, however, are

of other suffixes, such as -a

:

very ;

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

246

«
-aKLS

:

TToWaiKis mani/ times
within ;

-

;

-: ^^\

homewards ;

:

-

secretli/ ;

-:
from

:

home.

The comparative
adjectives

is

of

the comparative of the

(

adverbs which are derived from

regularly the neuter accusative singular of
adjective

;

the

neuter accusative plural of the superlative
wisely

(€

beautifully

So

-

superlative, the
:

more

very

most
least

less

DECLENSIONS OF PARTICIPLES (ACTIVE VOICE)
50.
-o-vT-^

A. Thematic Formation (Participles
§§ 75, 43).

The type

is

being (etVO

in
^

-,

st.

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK
B.

The

(§ 83),

and

participles of contract verbs in

-

(§ 82)

making, doing,

and

(-')

may

(-^)

-€

247
(§ 81),

be represented by

showing (declined like

asking {a question^.

follows
Singular

-

{-)

),

The forms

are as

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

?AS

, §,

?
,

Tn the same manner are declined

G.

•$

taking (ones) standi G.

«.,

-

having done^

having selected^ judged,

\.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

249

THE VERB
STEMS AND ENDINGS
Every verb-form consists of at least two elements,
and an ending: €-€; most verb-forms contain
€•--€ (rt.
st.
three or more elements
Each verb nor(rt. yvo-, st.
mally forms several action- and tense-stems; see §§ 131,
52.

a root

-,

:

-----

''-}.

-),

59-70.

Verb-endings are of three sorts, a) personal endings,
b) infinitive endings, and c) participle endings.

Personal Endings; Thematic and Non-the-

53.

matic Formations.
son

they are

;

employed

:

— Personal endings indicate the per-

a) primary personal endings,

in the present

subjunctives

;

When

the formation

when

the

is

are

vowel, the formation

54.

;

it is

%

is

not preceded

and

in the

in the imperative.

preceded by the
and
elsewhere

(o before

said to be thematic

endings

--, -.
stem

employed

the various verb-endings are

variable or thematic vowel
e),

of the indicative

c) personal endings

;

in all

b) secondary personal endings, or those

employed in the past tenses
optative

those

or

and future indicative and

-, €-€
i',

:

;

by the thematic

called non-thematic:

-, €-€,

The thematic vowel belongs

one of the elements mentioned in

§ 52.

to the

For non-thematic formations
§ 80.

,

,

THE FIEST TEAR OF GREEK

250

The thematic formation

see
is

€,

,-

§ 91;

by

illustrated

§ 79.

55.

Secondary Personal Endings.
Active

'

Middle Voice

S. 1.

-V

2.

-<r

or

3.

(orig. -T, § 13)

P.

-p•''!*'

--

1.

-€

2.

-T€

3.

-V or -<rav

^

56.

-TO
-jieGa

^

For thematic formations see
thematic formations,

-<ro

,

,

§ 91,

--

,,
,

§

(or -de)

79

;

for non-

§§ 86, 87.

Personal Endings of the Imperative.

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

251

b) Temporal Augment, which consists in the lengthening of the first vowel of verb-stems beginning with a vowel
€ becoming , and i, o, and
/ heard
becoming respectively , , and
I was wishing
A long initial vowel (except a) is not changed of the
remains undiphthongs ai and ei > ,
>,
>
(rare) remains unchanged
changed or >
or
I found
/ demanded
I was gone
Verbs compounded with a preposition regularly take
there are a few exthe augment after the preposition
but
I was dying
ceptions
/ sat down
I was
Again, a few verbs have two augments

(or diphthong), a, a, and

:

().
,€

(),

,

(),

£

---

;

:

(^),

().

;

:

{.-.).

(--)

;

:

seeing

(), -€| I opened (-).

few verbs which originally began with
With an e of the
have
the syllabic augment.
or F (§ 19)
/
verb-stem this is then contracted to €l
Finally, a

:

had

,

(,
rt.

58.

-),

rt.

-), €-|

broke

Reduplication.

completed action, or in
action,

and

is

(--)
(^<,

I
rt.

(--)

as following

— Reduplication

is

some verbs merely

the
of

sign

all

of

intensive

a part of the perfect action-stem.

found therefore in

(-

fay-).

It

is

forms made from the perfect stem.

It is of several sorts

-

a) Verbs beginning with a consonant usually prefix that

(, t; see
I have fled,
/c,

a rough stop

(,
/
,€am
€- I

consonant with
§

€,

%,

)

becoming smooth

have learned,

17 e):

have died,

dead,

b) Verbs beginning with a double consonant (", , ),
usually merely prefix an € (/o being
two consonants, or

:

«-,

:

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK

252
doubled):

t

have thrown,

I

/ have

Verbs beginning

c)

the regular temporal

/
,),
()
have

I

heard

6- /

know,

lied.

diphthong) have

Avith a vowel (or

augment

reduplication:

in lion of

(),

led

I

have recognized,

/

have perceived (^-

().

have seen

/

have

irregular.

is

CLASSES OF VERBS

The

conveniently classified according to the

A'erbs are

progressive action-stem, which

The

Thematic Stems

59.

a)

appears in

many

forms.

following are the most important groups
(§ 53):

Verbs with no element added

^ €

to the verbrstem (or

--

in man}^ instances to the verb-root) except the• thematic

-%:

Three common

become,

b) Verbs Avhich add -T%-

c)

[

(§ 17)
steal

-

sit

down

(apiraj-).

\^erbs in

rarely,

-

or -^

7) Verbs in

(-).

(-

-, -,

(/-),

-

-Class],

dip

:

(-).

The stem regu-

20) [ioia-Class)

^^
§

for

(or

-,

§

19),

:

row (e/aer-).
from stems in

-,

-8,

a

few from

(-), -€grasp, seize

-), from stems in - or - (or,

§ 20 b)

;

:

beget, bear

(-),

(§ 20 e), from stems in
hope
(or by analog}):

a) A^erbs in

do

or

Verbs which add -i% (see

stems in

)

,

(-), €'

injure

it,

)

(for

fall,

young.

larly ends in

-).

persuade (7reL0-%-, rts.
verbs have stems reduplicated with

dig

-

(-},

(§ 20 a):

-

(^-'). -%- : c) (v%-. F. - Verbs which add (^-. destroy. ^-). -. (-. . -ep. sarily to ^e-). from in (^-)^ show stems in (^^-}. always thematic: -. -. -. 253 While verbs are regular. in -€v. - (XayS-). give suffix - and : many (-). -iv. -. (rey-). -. with a nasal in- take find (eup-}. of the progressive action-stem does not neces- determine the forms of the other stems. in the majority of cases the prin- cipal parts must be learned separately. -%-.- [iVw-Class] : (-). future has the (§ 53). sit -). lose (for The form come (§ 53): {-'). is same endings as the thematic Thus the preceded by the suffix --. -€. b) Verbs with reduplicated stems: show. -.- drinks from stretch (^-).-set (-. - stop. corrupt (^€/?-). - call to witness - (§ 20 d): judge --. 61. av%-^ - --- unreduplicated stems: be . a) The present future give.) (§ 20 c): -. NoN-THEMATiG Stems 60. F. cut. -. -€. formation of tense-stems and action-stems The Future. -ip.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ) Verbs e) Verbs stems in -. . (§ 59 d) -\--). a) A^erbs witli (Ik-'). and. e) know --arrive perceive^ serted in the stem. Verbs with ^. d) Verbs which add a suffix containing etc.

€ be. -€ verbs in (§ 81) lean (/cXty-). F. These are known as hear. F. F. - regularly have -. and also those mentioned under e). : . See Lesson LIII and § 84. learn. are identical with the progressive action-stem forms of IT. : leave. . F. forms middle) is of three action-stem (active and 1) Thematic. : ask. or : '€. or |. c) K.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 254 b) Verbs in future exceptions a /. see. : €--- or . €. have futures in persuade. F. . A f) in throw (/3-). F. . . Verbs e) - future in . Examples are verbs wath deponent futures. or have futures in d) Verbs whose stems end in a liquid or nasal (. €|. : -^ of . F. The Second . F. being the verb-root plus the thematic (-%-'). call. The aorist Root Aorist. - -€ and verbs in . F. F. take. Verbs whose stems end in have futures in | y. after teach few- TeXcoj /a). more than two consider. ') is then dropped form the future by adding In point of conju(§ 19 b) and the vowels contracted. : 62. (-)^ . Some verbs having active forms in the present have middle forms in the future. F. vowel % 63. F. syllables few verbs are wholly irregular see. . F. : F. - have . . F. F. in the (^ (^. €' — flee. €. : -€ . But there are a > F. etc. . .. . form the bear. . gation these futures.. end. do. F. knoiv. F.

For the aorist passive stems. Three verbs in active. (77€-). > : e. - (or -a).-'). €i. (or : the perfect in -a ^). — The Most verbs First or Sigmatic Aorist. in the first aorist -. a) § 28). 98. — Active. being § 18). B. See § 64. - --. with the suffix Formations 1) and 2) together constitute what is known for convenience as the second aorist. stain €-. . . . I have fled : yi- (). The first perfect and is formed by adding - / : have loosed (). shoiv for the reduplicated stem (§ 58) I have seen (--). The second perfect active is I have written cf. and the last vowel of the stem. if short. The First Perfect 65. These aorists are very few in number. 89. . .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK the verb-root without suffix 2) Non-thematic. Second Perfect Active. />. see § 69. . . ivard off ./ came to recognize (jyvw. . e (^-). being €-- / stood 255 {. -. is 64. active €. the perfect in -. - > . {-'). 3) Non-thematic. has both and is i. c Verbs whose stems end in a liquid or a nasal (.have - See §§ 88. See Lesson LXXII and § 86. (/cpiv-). form their aorist stem (active and middle) by adding the suffix See Lesson XLVII and § 79 A. regularly form their aorist stems in -a omitted). but like those above are of great importance. €-. 66. to after judge {-^.<yvo-). . «--. : ( lengthened t > > . ^^.

. .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 256 perfect differs from the first only in the The second . € . So I in a consonant. -|. st.. and and y become and consonant is short. elai(v). before the endings others.(-). arid vice versa.. ir. -. Examples are aspirated called are These . view Infin. The formed by adding the endings directly to the reduplicated verb-stem myself. €-€. : (/-) has two perfects / have : fared. have injured (. I Pf. €€-.-^. have cut rt. €-€§. -. (-). . perfects. I (/. . -. €€-€9• others drop the have loosed for injure : (--). : €. If - the stem ends -. - carefulbf -.drop only before (-). absence of the Normally. -'). . -. : judge -.-. (-). - — The Perfect Middle (and 67. a perfect does not have a which has a second \^erb first perfect. Part. €€-. -). change €-. again. above). there are the usual euplionic changes (§§ 17.(. Pf. (see the latter ordinarily remains unchanged do There are some exceptions. the . Pf. Part. -. and have done. € / have guarded ^- c) If however a long vowel precedes the final consonant. 18) PF. J rt. If the vowel preceding the final become . b) Verb-stems ending in . or and in . perfect middle is Passive). receive Some verbs ending to before in Infin. or form second perfects.€€-€$. . €€'-.

257 Pf. - THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . — Perfect Mii)dle(-Passive). and 68. . €€- : €€€-.-. Pf. / shall € / : remember. and (forms in Some vowel stems add do not occur). "€•€-. see § 78. is generally passive in sense loosed. differ (). participle.) to the verb-stem as it appears in the perfect middle (omitting the reduplication. of the infinitive and The Future Pf. was left (/-). . before endings not beginning with a short vowel at the end of the stem is regularly lengthened and finally in some verbs a vowel is added command. ivas made 69. ((<-). meaning was written : €--- ^. Pf. and imperative (except before -vr) Ge becomes / was loosed. in called the first aorist passive the second aorist passive. Observe that the aorist passive employs only endings.. 18). passive is --(-. appear Infill. complete. This formation is rare. sJiall have been / shall — The Aorist Passive. is -^. (-). See § --- -. For the accent is (/3-). In the indicative. The stem of the aorist formed by adding the sufhx -Qe {-) or -€ (-V. to form the stem . was done rt. €--- The formation that in in -c.-.€€€-. §§ 17. (-). ('-). -.«-: They do not harmed appeared 79 C. ^ This tense to . Pf.-. --/ was active . infinitive. and with the necessary euphonic changes. formed by adding the future middle endings the perfect middle stem. ".

— The optative adds to the action- stem the secondary endings (§ 55) preceded by the moodExcept in certain cases (see below) the or suffix . — The Etc. or adding the future middle endings to the stem (in -77) of the aorist passiA'e : shall be done. . form i€ : -€. . €--. (. The Imperative. Before the ending -v of the third person plural the suffix appears in the 73. The Optative. see § 69). Xvo-t-s suffix - appears before active endings only (and so occurs reguIt is always used in larly in the aorist passive. of all (§ 53) with the action-stems has the primary endings lengthened thematic vowel "/?: shall he loosed^ -t|S -t). § : -The 79. the -- singular active --'). of Mi-verbs . subjunctive - 72. § 79 C.may they he loosing.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 258 "— This tense is formed by 70. FORMATION OF THE MOODS. The Future Passive. primary ending -. 71. - / shall be written. both active and mid: dle. Thematic progressive a) Thematic stems (§ 53) action-stems and aorist action-stems. in the singular aorist passive: may I be giving active of : € may I ('/. - is used instead of -v --. contract verbs in and is -€ he is (for usual -- always employed in the €--.. § 89). The Subjunctive. ^. In the first person singular active the secondary ending after the long form of the mood-V is used (not -) suffix -. «. of the imperative after the thematic . form the imperative by adding the personal endings vowel (§ 56).

vidiich is : ond (. The Participles. -.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK - Of 259 - is regularly omitted. - (with . active The first aorist has the ending -ai (a of the stem being omitted) The : : perfect has the ending -c-vai (a of the stem being omitted) : €-€. There is no imperative of the future stem. The The declensions are given in § 50. fect active imperative is very rare. and these endings loses and the vowels are contracted > eo > § 19 b). except that in the second person singular (^-) active middle § 79 A. All middle and future passive infinitives have the ending § 67). perfect active participle has the suffix -via in the feminine). See § 50 C. The 74. See Infinitives. -. . etc. For the - infinitives of end) has the ending Mi-verbs see - : § 77.. b) Non-thematic stems. 75. (-. and the per- (- its .- then contracted with the thematic vowel (Xeye-ev'). replaced by is (-') in the (-at). b) Non-thematic stems In the : first aorist and middle the imperative endings are added in - -- -- (§ 64) active to the stem (or -a). a) Thematic stems (§ 53). {eiTre-ev}. — All active participles (except the perfect) and the aorist passive participle have the suffix -VT. B. secaorist and future stems add the ending -ev. active The progressive. "-^. is and (-oy). supplanted by For Mi-verbs see §§ 86-98. The aorist passive (see § 69. . eiirciv € to eiv: (aee>a)).

Accent of Verb-forms. The Verbals.-ov. — The verbals in -t€os and -tos - by adding these (see § 177) are formed - suffixes to the rerb-stem. a) Verb-forms generally have recessive accent. c) The second . The Mi-verbs had a tendency to become i2-verbs. Final -ai is usually treated as a short syllable X-ucxai. Other exceptions are b) The accent never precedes an augment tion. : (a/cou -). 76. \€K-T€OS 18) (-). § 88. first i. -09. except for the irregular sit (§ 64. — The The Mt-verbs have many pecuMi. the accented as far from the end as possible (see § 9). - when compounded with prepositions have recessive accent: -: dissyllabic put down! .Verbs. aorist active infinitive circumflex on the final syllable - : or reduplica- in -€lv has the d) So also the second aorist middle imperative in put in! § 88. word and be (eV-) {-}. become! e) But the latter sell! § 89. aorists in - All Mi-verbs have vowel stems.e. liarities. In the last example a is inserted. which are best learned by mastering the forms They differ from -verbs only themselves (§§ 86-98). end). cf. 77. in the progressive and second aorist action-stem systems. with the necessary euphonic changes (§§ 17.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 260 All middle and future passive participles end in -^€VOS . except €. €€5 for 78. {irpay-). . is : i\Iany of the contracted forms are apparent exceptions.

. . -ous -us have the acute on the nominative singular masculine : . All participles. (and passive) infinitives and participles i) and . give back and ! 261 accent the provide ! come! go! ivpi find! ! vhen uncompounded accent dTT-cnre speak out ! the . up ! h) The following regularly accent the penult: (1) first aorist active infinitives KeXevaai (2) second aorist middle infinitives perfect middle (3) .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK g) : €€ behold! But - Compoiinds f) penult say . : : ... -€5 of Bts... €S. 5. give take! final ihi syllable. . all participles in final syllable in the $. (4) : all infinitives in - All second aorist participles in -§ : - . .

-< - - §60 -€ -•() Past-Imperfect Tense S. Opt. [•<(•-€ "-£ (-] and only -eiv (No imperative) in indirect discourse. unbind. etc. 1. €--€ 3. P. 3. 1. 2. 2. 1. €-Future Tense-stem Future Tense S. -- 2. - Present Tense -€ Infin. (- . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 262 CONJUGATION OF THE VERB -VERBS 79. Active Voice. -€ 2. set free.. . - S. €--68 3. •<- 1 (-€ <-€8 (No subjunctive) <- -<() 1 Very rare. 2. 1. Impeb. €--£() 1. A.() 1.-€ -£ SrBj Indio. Xv-£is 3. -€ -€€ 3. P. -- 2. . . Progkessive Action-stem . (stem Conjugation of -) / loose.. -<. 3.

. optative.(-€ €-• (-() . Paet-Aorist S. . 1.<. and 263 Partic. \v<ras §50 . - <€ -€ Perfect Action-stem Present Perfect (Subjunctive.' Opt. P. Indic. .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK AoRisT Action-stem SUB. 2. 3. 3.I. 2. -- Teitf^e *- -as €-(€() <-| €-(€ (-€ €-. 1.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 264 Progressive Action-stem Indio. .

aorist passive. The Passive Voice. 2. ^ Paktic. 3. - " or (No •< - subjunctive) - [< (No imper- -<] C. €5 € «5 €4$ .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK . 2. P. ^ ' . 1. 265 Perfect Action-stem Opt. 2. 2. 1. S. 1. SUBJ. 2. Past Perfect {Plu- €-'- . according to the verb or the context. The middle forms of the progressive action-stem and of the perfect action-stem are either middle or passive in But in the and future systems there are separate forms for the sense. perfect) Tense S. 3. 1. 1. £8 €£5 £€' € € €€ (() €i€V € ^ (€ € £-' Future Perfect Tense S.2. 3. 1. 3. Indio. 3. 2 Very rare . 2. 1. . only in indirect discourse. . 8. as follows 1 There are no forms of the perfect middle (passive) imperative common use except that of the third person singular been loosed. : let it in have . 2. - -' 3. 1. Present Perfect Tenise S. 3.

70). AoRiST Action-stem Indic.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 266 L First Aorist and Future Passive (§§69. .

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Progressive Action-stem 267 .

-. FtnrEE AoEisT . . ( 3. P. ( . (^) conjugated like conjugated like -.fect IxmcATivB S. €••-. 3. ( 2. lam being made. 1. (iwoie-op) 2. -. 2.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 268 S. -e) itroUi ( -) ( -«'f) 3. Progressive Actiox-stem lam . conjugated like Middle (^Passive) A'^oice: making {doing ) for myself. 1 : eiroiow -es) ( 6€ -ov) '. P. ( € Lmpekativk -") -ere) Ivfixitite iroiei /e-e) -) (^iroie-eiv) Pabticiple (-) iroitL• § iroieiTt 50 Past-Impep. : : Peefect «iroiiis ( 2. ( 3.

1. 269 . ( -01') 3.€ -) £-€ -) -. FtTTiTRE : . ( conjugated like in -.THU FIBST YEAR OF GREEK « ( € Past-Imperfect Indicative S. conjugated like : 82. -. Active Voice: -. -. : €•. 3. (^') I ask Progressive Action-stem a question. conjugated like conjugated like Perfect: AoR. Pass. ( 2. ( -) €7. Contract Verbs A. . {(-6) 2. P. ( -€) 1. .

Pbogkessive Action-stem § 84 . -. -. conjugated like or Aorist: . . conjugated like conjugated like or . ( -ov) €-. ( -ere) 3. Future: 1. -. ( -) 2.€ € THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 270 P. . conjugated like Middle (Passive) Voice : - . make . (^^ trial of. try.

£. : «. ( -es) 3. ( -e) 3. -. 1. ( -overt) ( $ \6-) -T)s) € ( -() . ( -(>) --) --{) --) -) -) -y]Te) -otre) -) -»») (/-/) €€ Past-Impj)rfect Indicative (\•) P.) Imperative S. ( -us) 3. ( 1 -0J') Declined like . 1.l. 8 -. ( 2. ( « -) 2. ( -6) S. 1. ( -ere) 3. . 3. Optative Subjunctive § 50 . CoNTKACT Verbs in Active Voice £6€ -6) -) -) 271 make clear. ( -. € € € Participle Infinitive (-) -e) 3. . : AoKisT 83. 2. 2. Progrkssive Action-stem Present Indicative S. €. ( -) 2. ( -ere) 3. €€ eiriipoo-ee conjugated like conjugated like (^) : <. 2. .l. ( €€. (\6-) 2. ( -ei) P.^ THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK P.

P. 2. 1 . ( -6€) -) 2. ( -ei. Past-Imperfect Indicative I was Aorist Action-stem ' AoRTST I learned learning €() ££() . ( € -ourai) - Imperative (-) S. ( -ecrSe) 3. » / am £$ learning 2. ( -erat) -ijrai) 1. 3.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 272 Middle (Passive) Voice. Progressive Action-stem Present Indicative S. . 84. ( 3. 1. - Progressive Action-stem Subjunctive Pkbsent Indicative (-) S. ( 2- ( 3. Active Voice. ( -) -^ Optative {-•) ) (^-) € (-£/^) € -) {7]\6-€) -) (-/) - Infinitive \6-() Participle (-!) -) Past-Imperfect Indicative S. together Avith the Thematic Progressive Forms. ( 2. 3. r?) -) 3. for the sake of comparison. B. ( The Thematic -ero) « -) -) «-) Aorist. 1. A. (-) -) ( 3. ( 1. 2. . 2.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 273 .

274 THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK .

3.--- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK : replied. reply Aor. cAoose (one's 275 •--€ -€ -€€ air-e 86.-Indicative S. 3. : / -. B.. 1. P. .- ••-€ Infinitive Subjunctive (. - Middle Voice words) /or owese^). Sec. See Intake (something) stand (§ 87).Participle : Non-thematic Second Aorists.. Aor. 6 : Optative Imperative - ••-•€ '-€ -.-). 2.. § 63. 2. 1. I stood -(> . to (lit. . answer.

Sec. .276 r C. : € I entered. Aor. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK and I enter.

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Progressive Action-stem 277 .

See § 64. Indic. aorist . (ending in €£€ €£< -) in the singular of the indicative elsewhere. «€5 <£. . second aorist.) THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 278 P. 1. FuTCEE : : (first 3. 2.

THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK A. Active Voice. Progressive Action-stem Pkes. Indic. 279 .

.. \. ---. .. I sold) Infix. €6. P. (only in : Subj. compare . 90. S. compounds Opt. - -€€ . -€6 -£' 3. eSiSocrOc cSCSovto. . . 1.Second Aokist Indic. . - § -€ . c8ci|a.. . . show. F. : as Impek. '-€$ 78 e . £8€ «SCSooO ISCSoto F. 1. out. point Active Voice.€ THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 280 Past-Imperfect : Future and perfect are regular 2.

. el. Infinitive Participle ovcra 50 § (€ {-) <() «( €£ Past-Imperfect Indicative S. 8£' €( . Sun. 3. 1. Indicative 1 Subjunctive Optative Imperative (- S.i. .0 €< €<roiTO -(€ 'itrtfrQt 92. 1. -' 2. 2. £<£() 1. [ « 3. €'- 2. Inkin. 2. € lam Scikvvt) Past. - or § 55 3. P. - - Optative Infinitive Participlb 6<- <-£$ 6(0. P. . 3. except 2 Very rare . S.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 8 281 Progressive Action-stem 8( 8€ 8€ Pres.Imperfect 8£- . e?). «- 3. Paktio. Opt. 1. €crei 3. SciKwoOai 8€£$ . (I 3. (-) 2. P. thus - / am absent are 1 All forms of the present indicative are enclitic. Future Indicative S. €l«r£(v) - ? € . Impkh. (rt. 2. 1. 1. only in indirect discourse. 1. Indic. . 2. € -€ € £<] / am conjugated like present and (§ 91). - : 91.

l. -.T^£ FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 282 -€ -- - Optative Indicative Subjunctive S. Lat. 2. S.-] --- . : -(. Cf. \. : going (rt. ire).. 3. irap-fi Past-Imperfect So 93. -. 1. - Participlb . el- Infinitive Fi-ti:re 1-. -ci \. . '-€. .1 '-€8 irap-fjs -€<() -. am Imperative .

283 .THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK '. 1.

. \. --£ -(€ Past-Imperfect: 97. -€. 2. Like thus s. thus Subjunctive Optative Impbeative Infinitive Participle . . -^ sit. 3. (rt.« -. € regularly compounded with Indicative S. and in prose (as frequently also in poetry) -( -€ -. F.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 284 96.« . 3. . found only in the progressive action-stem. frequently com2)ounded with . . 1. . down. 1. kcl- is €-) lie. 2. : (rt. .

THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 285 .

\- €-05 earthquake {. shake). or simply the person concerned in the action €. {Bo-). -lov: 10. bringing. nom. (jev. : : - truth. smell -( hardihood -eid) - (oi/CO-9)• . NoUNS the suffixes employed to of indicate: Agent. "yeve-ais act of justice. FOKMATION OF SlMPLE WORDS. nom. : nom. (-^. -- -«Os : horseinan linr-eijs {-^. nom. : giver : speaker {pe. > - . : : housemaid (-)). Muses come from nouns seat of the -ciov: in . -lov: Hence c-io. j^our plough : Place cup pot : drink (^. muse). final vowel lengtliened made.( nom. means: -. : odor -id: {cf. Feminine -6 - tl8.-)). --€-{ {-(-€ { Instrument. nom. . tlius : (^-. : carrying.-)). -05 . pupil nom. nom. nom. : suffixes are queen. bring. (-. -: nom. -09 nom. > -epia oIk£-tls -tis: Action. nom. : . sta- - Ablaut or vowel-gradation (§ 16) plays here an important role carry. p>lough). . unsdom. (veo-?). forge Those coppersmith). ( : nom. . . The following some are A.: ^ -- THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 286 often modified. -/ -: €05 youthfulness . mind.speak). (. self-control omitted) soundness of a thing {-. I. etc. nom. -: -$ . quality. -9 nom. poem - ) .yov-). a tion added). becoming . endure).

nom. nom. -os. -5 nature}. an ahsence of suffering. (2) of the second element. amphibious c) numeral events . or -a: Xonr-os remaining important are: (. ural lo.. ('). II. maidens apartment. : mindful. (). young -. daddy . girl. These are divided according to the nature (1) of the first element. €-(- €S. -:.-. contempt. warm. : a d) an inseparable prefix -. -: thenon (-^^.-: -)). a-iraGeia cf. Some of the more o. - nat- (/co. b) preposition (see §§ 123-129): hoth sides (of the shore-line). Par- Diminution (often implying affection. : . nom. (\enr. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK -: . : --. -lov: -lov -. = young hoy . ivo ta -ios heavenly. nom. : ivarlike. a. -lov: - . little child.): 10. anaemic without hlood. - -ivos genuine. contest living on consisting : ( of five -9 -. Adjectives There are many adjectival suffixes. The first part a) adverb: is «^-^« often an well-horn. nom. expressing negation {A-privative') hlood). : }: -09 . - A. apathy. -. . senate-house in 287 (^^. Formation of Compound Words The Greek language formed and still forms innumerable compounds. etc.Xoltt- nom. nom. y\f6vh-r\s false. num.

The last womb'). etc.-§ -5 latter case the €- noun (.). one who throiving-stones. (). element of compound nouns or adjectives regularly consists of a verb-stem or noun-stem. 101. >. denoting uyiion (^A-copulative^ of the same tvomh. mind). merry dishonored or adjective usually changes its form diaphragm. A - neuter predicate-adjective is very often used as the substantive-predicate of a masculine or feminine subject : 102.-€€ ill: dysentery soften). In the -$ -$ . accent. pronoun which Avould normally be in is regularly assimilated to the case of the latter is a genitive or a dative: b Croesus the first irpiuTos of the foreigners €). brother . cf.(Latin semi-): B. evrepa the in- ( dyspepsia testines). A neuter plural subject regularly has the singular the trees are : its verb in (Greek is) beautiful. : cf. hall). pelted with stones. a one born : hemisphere ripen. whom we know (about) (= . A relative the accusative case the antecedent. killing one" 8 slain by one's father. if wealth is (a) blind (thing).THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 288 ((-? ( -- -. : leads a boy (to school. § 78 a. father. AGREEMENT 100. Compounds generally have recessive But there are many exceptions Cf. .

. oi . . the German usage) : does the father (i. and even the force of a demonstrative in certain uses a) The article . the can easily be common the many. reference the friend (i.e. the €. 1) When a noun is preceded by the article any modifying word or phrase usually stands immediately after the article.. a friend) is another self.THE FIBST YEAR OF GREEK 289 USES OF THE ARTICLE AND OF THE FRONOUNS 103.e.e.. your father) love you much ? €5 With proper names and with abstract nouns may be used or may be omitted: article d) The noun is are the (possessions') beautiful. generally : speak- ing. frequently (jenerie in is dXXos see § 191. 104. c) A third attributive position 2i. or Aristotle.iiv\h\\te is when the article follow the noun (the afterthought position) : and . as or article being repeated: This position of the modifier (for the two a) and b) are really one) is known as the attributive position. in English : b) after the noun. often omitted supplied from the context : when it Cf also of friends. demonstrative pronoun. The to the (§ 24). b) The article €€ ' we use a very c) weak is frequently employed where in English possessive Qcf. between the article and noun. i. was originally a in Attic Greek it has article. a) before the noun. either . the or wisdom..

and attribute is rare. . But with the names of persons or follow . The intensive pronoun (§ 22) is used in and Exercise Lesson V three ways (see 4) 1) In apposition with a noun or pronoun it emphasizes I (my)self. this book (not man. The demonstrative may precede or this - '). the same.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 290 ^. 105. Socrates here.^ stand in the predicative position The of personal genitive <. 2) or 2) (the') When it is itself preceded hy the article self(same). the very the 3) : the teacher himself. When the modifying word or phrase is not preceded 2. it is said to This position of the article cially in prose (but see .. son : . her. by the article. the article avr\p : may he omitted: or this Socrates. accusative) when used alone serve as the personal pronoun of the third perthem. (never 6 (§ 106). 2): ? . and means self: accompanied by the article. - tive position : pronouns (. Demonstrative pronouns (§§ 24. 25) regularly stand in the predicative position (§ 104.'). : - being in the predicative position (§ 104. . either before or after the noun.. him. noun is the when So 106. oblique cases (genitive. dative. The same (one') means itself: brother. espeLesson XI. regularly stands in the predica- : '..

SHE. Relation- very frequently suggested by the For the dative. § : from yourself I shall instruct you. the Greeks said this (one). with the accompanying noun or €5 each (of § . that (one). your. expressed by 106. (see §§ 104. toOt' that too. to what follows (so But sometimes these relations in the preceding manner) . both. « 291 many) generally stand in the predicate position With the article is often omitted (§ 104. €5 : (^) 108. is both mean this. (i. THEY. «. each (of two). 2). see § 120 a. ship or possession article. .): . here he or you there ! what are you that is! thafs it ! is to say . . 3) . Of usually refers to what precedes (so the former - manner). these. those. simply. (§ 108): child (or. 2 my. . of myself.e. by my own cise 15). of me. Possession is etc. may Even refer forward in are : answer this! These pronouns are often used in lieu of our emphatic RU. etc. etc. and 110. SHE permits you Note also : doing? (§ 10 c) and to do these things. each day The pronouns but . .' THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 107. my child). '' . the following exactly reversed. 103 b. (§ 23) are generally But sometimes they serve as indirect reflexives. etc. and in some indirect reflexives: | knoiv thyself! stances refer not to a subject but to a dependent Avord '" 109. of you. that. by the pronominal adjectives your (see Exer- our.

three of the original ca. thus accusative. genitive.-Genitive Genitive ("o/") " Ablative ( from " ) . In Greek." "?/"')"-^ ^^-Zl~~Instnimental ^'Locative (" on. hj the dative.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 292 USES OF THE CASES 111.'' " in. by the dative. therefore. .. expressed the idea "/roTW.se-form8 were discarded and their functions or meanings were assumed and expressed The ablative. five cases distinguishes : and vocative. dative." was thus absorbed by the the instrumental (" with ") and the locative genitive " (" ow. In the declension of nouns. -. tive-ablative Q'on. In other Avords. as Greek developed into a separate language.^-^^ SsS.'' '' among''').. Latin Nominative : Geeek Vocative Vocative (address) Accusative -Accusative (object) Genitive From > Acciisative ^ ." " among "). etc.^^ " in." ") . in the Latin Q'-from ") being expressed by the genitive instrumental-2i\Adit\\Q {''with" "?/") and the Latin loca." " among'''') Dative C^for. pronouns. These correspond to the six cases in Latin and to tlie eight cases in the parent language from which both Greek and Latin were descended.Dative meanings and Greek divided the pure ablative this table it is at once clear that the constructions of the Latin between the genitive and ablative are the dative. Greek nominative. which by one of the other case-forms." in.'^ " ' Ablative -z~w Dative Nominative Vocative Nominative (subject) ' (". the meanings and constructions of the those of the genitive case fall into two broad classes : pure genitive ("o/") and those of the ablatival-gQmiivQ .

"'' " to "). €€€ ^ (or yes by. ohov^ . - : a sophist. in every all speed . with f) way. : - . see / am you.. See p. and the meanings and constructions of the those of the pure dative must be divided into three sets dative ( '"for. tive ("(>/'") prepositions. by birth. (^Qognate accusative. ov g) Accusative in Oaths with no by. The is sometimes used for the uses of the accusative are virtually identical with those in Latin : / a) Object: fighting a case so regularly Beds Qnever 0ee). way. For the accusative with prepositions. b) Double object I am : teaching the hoy geometry. The which prepositions may be employed But the piire geniand the pure dative ("/or") never employ cases w^ith are indicated in the table by italics. see § 126 ff. (sc. . c) Object and predicate-accusative we call the d) Accusative Xshilled') of man Specification in all things. wise an Athenian in the quickest why ? Accusative of Extent of Time or Space : there he remained five days. e) Adverbial accusative: .. . and of : the locative-diitive. of the instrumental-dfitiye.) battle. 112. much. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 293 Q'-from"}.. 13. The nominative vocative 113. in what way? greatly first .

accusative absolute. The genitive is in Greek a compound case (§ 111). - we -uci ae from handling . piece of advice. h. worship of Grod. material. so that the genitive appears to be to the (sc. cause.€-€ why dont you share your conversation with us ? b) Enjoy. taste enjoy c) all the Touch. § 116 f). cup of water. the teachers. some abla- of its uses being genitival in origin (" o/"'). etc. : to els house'). part. 114. such as tival ("-from "). With verbs the genitive is either the object of the verb or serves as an adverbial modifier thereto (e. governed by a preposition €ts " doctors (sc. possession^ subject. With - the following groups of believed to be of partitive origin - a) Share: : verbs the genitive is with verbs meaning -. (^Adnominal Genitive) the geninouns When used with tive may express a large number of relationships.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 294 as subject of § 175 an iufinitive. object. In certain phrases the noun upon ) which the genitive depends is omitted.. to in (the house) of Hades.g. exactly as in English: love of friends. measure. taJce hold of. school. 115. Iv The genitive with a noun is frequently employed in the predicate in any of the foregoing relations - : for it is €€€ " (the nature) of the free-born to speak the truth. make trial of: ov she does not prevent you these things. some A few of its uses are difficult to classify. : good things. etc. § 172 . .

etc. Fill. bribes') (Aesch3'lus). empty: who does no wrong needs no Note especially the phrases lacks much) (lit. surpass. lacks little). 295 rot : Ipd of (all the^ gods Death alone yearneth not ov - after gifts (i. b) Want. nearly all. . be distant from. become filled with pride (Plato). be full j) he began his speech as "§ Perceive i) €-|€ will never attain the heights without g) Mule..) PaaiXeiici neglect: : -. any one I I hear : •€€ you of : I whenever one praises the beautiful. care for. a sound. lead. remove from. them. be leader of: Love is king of the gods (Plato). . The 116. laiv (Antiplion). f the island being not far distant from the mainland. it (i.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK d) Aim desire at. strive after. smell.e. hit (and miss) (Sophocles). € e) Reach. toils Begin: f) follows. some of which are Thus origin (§ 111).e. it . release from. -. genitive used with verbs also to express is other relations. forget. a) etc.6\iyov) almost - almost nothing. (Jiear. obtain. li) Memember. he lack. be inferior to. etc. it is : far from (or simplj. : clearly of ablatival - it is employed with verbs meaning: Cease from. : . c) Differ from. dont heed.

wonder blame. 117. here also in this respect differ I. € : praise. and these are fol- than be better (= quani) : than silence 118. . be angry. Such are a) aiTios cause of accountable for part in. d|ios worthy of. having no from . (^down) compounded with especially those against : despise thy youth! (Paul). g) Crime (with verbs denoting a judicial action') - : am prosecuting for slan- der and ami on trial for murder (Lysias). different b) adjectives of the comparative degree lowed either by the genitive or by let your talk Tt (Menander). from the majority of people (Socrates). value : € at the price of toils the gods sell to us all blessings (Eijicharmus) . at. The genitive with verbs often denotes the cl) . § 130. the like. e) Price. With adverbs also the genitive is very frequent.) . . f) Cause (with verbs meaning admire. for how much irevxe does he teach? for five minae.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 296 but gentlemen. let no one used also with many adjectives. - -. note h) The genitive often follows compound verbs down upon. but detest thee for thy cowardice (Sophocles). etc. €$ J envy thee for thy wisdom. €€ Source: ME you shall hear all the truth from ' (Socrates). The genitive is . See especially the so-called improper prepositions. meaning the verbs -- especially with those that parallel in mentioned in §§ 115-116. €€ . •€ .

obey. employed the possessor with a) of verbs ethical dative.. of interest is «. irevxe For the genitive with prepositions see § 124 ff. sometimes " . So the dative is used with a large number of verbs vhich in English are usually transitive. €9 : in the even- in winter . genitive absolute^ § 175 g. The true dative (§ 111).e. personi- 120. Ocpous in sum- vuKTos at night. mer .g. had been made by for) them. : € . please. c) of the indirect object : give 8os me the book. meet.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Finally the genitive 119. expresses personal interest . be like. (lit. for the . e. is not personal be benefited : €€ by you the (strictly for tuhen preparations you) . also and similar is for ms have a brother {there a brother). what shall I learn for what would you have me you?) The last sentence illustrates what is commonly learn ? known as the The dative : €$ - / -. serve. Like the genitive. the dative is a compound case is used properly of persons and when used of things. verbs meaning help. ing § ivitkin is used adverbially to itself which un action takes place during the day . b) of the agent Avith verbals in -tos and -reos (§ 177). 297 during five years. : is . and with the passive perfect (and pluperfect) when the subject city must avTOis (i. 9 fication "/or " is The present. etc. denote the time by day . rich for another true dative commonly means " better suits the English idiom to man such a itXoutcl and not for himself. .

association. : - on the folloiving .) day. adverbs.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK ? . in . is : . THE PREPOSITIONS 123.e. The ' Zgca^ip-flflt. The prepositions were originally adverbs and only gradually became stereotyped as prepositions governing . each other. vaiois at the Panathenaea. 07i ctcl in the tenth year. and nouns which are of kindred derivation or meaning with verbs that govern the dative hostile to : equal to - freedom . serve oneself ivith) folloiv and - follow . cause. by a head") equal in temper. in which (ivay^ I in labors. a head shorter in silence . etc. month.e. The in strumental-(\. $ he me ! had formerly used the room as a store-room. respect. the third on the same day on the preceding day.121. etc. festival. month. This is more common in poetry in prose it at Marathon. .'dX\\e (§ 111) expresses instrument^ means.ive expresses a) Time (the day. 5? in KOLxnj this ttovois by : common. Note especially (i. . year. night. manner. accompani- € ment. 1l22. b) Place. take delight in (please myself with) good « and use (i. little friends. (ivay') . d) with adjectives. found only with proper names The dative is used with many compound verbs and with prepositions see § 125 ff. . ? 9 298 help me! rots €€ if it irciGou obey the laivs «- €l tois ! resembles the preceding (instances). fact.

. ap-. the beginning . €| from : Ik tt]S '"€9 from what you say . prepositions which govern the genitive case « (. exhaustion. Frequently. ' only are a) against): § 6) instead of (original what account f why? In compounds [anti-. too. [apo-.. b) from : in return for ' § 6. before : out. away. give meaning. The 124. prepositions are used with the genitive. on instead of peace. in opposition. e) out c) €| (before a consonant e'/c out from the city . original adverbial force € instances. : : ills. - In compounds back). afterward. from. irpo € out irpo- design.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK The 299 was retained in some which abounds Prepositions are employed as in the pages of Herodotus. aph-] Lat. € voias from set purpose. to and accusative cases (§ 111). ex-] €5 before this . as in and next. the first element (or elements) of innumerable compound words see § 99. in return. ' from^ awag from: air' from which ah") (sc. ex. against. to be utterly coivardly. [ec-. before the town . ) ^~) ^ of. hack (-^ and often suggesting completion. . ant-] § (. ivith In compounds: tion: d) irpo (sc. ^') time. dative. formerly. Lat. from. tlvos. . since. instead. learn by heart. case is repeated after the compound : The - leap off from the horse. etc. in return. often implying comple- etc. a preposition with its cases. from childhood.

in the beginning . sys-. for In compounds through (i. a) €V 18 €7. Prepositions with the dative only 125. iravTos constantly . among.e. With the accusative only €LS. b. sy-] 126. €V In compounds m. € Prose usually (and with the genitive. = Lat. this reason through (i. -. altogether. Prepositions with the genitive and accusative only: (hi . in. quently also poetry) employs - with fre- with.§ (€At-. morroiv . episode into. on: kv in. a) ^amounting') for speaking . in with accusative) into. c. to ten . ') Accusative : of^ wickedness. = ^ . § 18 my b. : . -.e. e\-. ttoXcws through the city . with: tols the aid of ivith 0€c3 em-] [en-. Compounds are frequent in prose as well as in poetry. In compounds : syl-. : (-. In compounds: 127. b) old form ) $ -. [pro-] enee.. send in . a) Genitive di-. In compounds in behalf before^ forth^ : in prefer- of. dis-') 5 : through: . (--). avy-. el-. through. also apart (- why? because. els what (^end) on the until. Is tl els to . e friends. at. sym-. €S €is used is ? Of. ' me . Lat. = . by) after a long time. to. God. OF GREEK THE FIRST YEA 300 . [syn-. in with ablative) among us . to. Is into the city. together. kv on a stately chair. on account on what account? . on. c. Lat. Is (orig.

day by day . b) along. Accusative : horizontal river in up along. c) virtp (for both by land along the road. : over. etc. ) beyond Sicily Accusative: beyond: virkp more than half. yond {one's) power. to the ? to laws. [dia-. back. motion . [cata-] Lat. in defence of ex- [liyper-] With 128. super) over: above. according down (doionfrom. completely : the rock head. be- the dative and accusative only is used (^av) up: a) Dative .): § $ €§ "' a) Genitive completion. In compounds ceedingly. by hundreds. on the ? €€ toOs . beyond. down 301 : over xiirep on behalf of the city.: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK -€ {\ ' different directions^ sugs^esting often . against.. . by sea. among. : over. down § 6) to. upon a ) upon (only poetry) : sceptre. and way according down. In compounds against^ down-stream. the against us. me . . of € through the army . above. Accusative: ' etc. di-] destroy utterly. on behalf of ? (the) head. Trerpas : down from ' {down) upon beneath the earth /S) . according a) Genitive : § 19 . up the every . through.

lifetime . around. and dative. ol Croesus and those with him. € ttjs ' 7 our upon the couches . Not common Xenophon. about. b) ' § 6) upon. Dative my to make -§ it to a profession .. Attic In about. Lat.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 302 day. to. $ sick- be learning lirl tovtois on these conditions. ambi-}. upon (in addition to^ €Trl something the earth. 7) Accusative through: horse. towards. (eV.. cirl '€ for one's hurt. eirl . up to. a) Genitive used prose - quarrel- in fear about about Miletus : the . on: €? "? a) Genitive: during time ) rats : sickness €irl ness. : in Attic prose except in genitive. In compounds on both sides. ling about /8) Dative: his wife. his . again. : eirl for a time. 7) Accusative with cliietty « -€€ accusative.. upo7i. for the sake : [amphi-] of. up. originally on both sides. four deep. for five years. : €§ what they had. ac- cusative : (' a) hence = . [ana-] hack. against. mounting hri Btipas to the doors. In compounds with the Prepositions 129.

: contrary ' to : ' . In compounds alongside. met-. motion to (in prose only of permotion along.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK In compounds for. trap' in each deed. often follows its noun. amid (Homeric). at the house of (usually : persons) sons) " from persons) ) also de- alongside. € ' against. | along the coast of the mainland. trary to expectation. past (a place) along- Accusative side beside. in after : this. c) upon. near: a) Genitive ) it [meta-. ' : at my with house. to. give a share summon) . toward. from (most frequent with from me. par-] e) TTcpi around (on a) Genitive: all sides). : Dative : . by. (/^er. . : misunderstand). by. among. among: § 6) with. /3) 303 those with us. after (in time or rank) search (i. a) Genitive: with: ol .€' Dative m addition. meth-] () d) . beside. about. cf. after share with : seiid for. (^-(^-(€-88 In compounds of). : at. past. carry over. to me .e. change notes change or reversal metaphor). about: concerning: ircpi^. what about ? 1 Trepi syllable. : 7) Accusative into the midst. with. after : of). amiss con- (- [para-. in which case it is accented on the first . by. . ep-. eph-] [epi-.

tlie ' agent or cause): viro by me. s to the light. ) Accusative around the PeloKvpov Cyrus and his fol- ircpl : ponnesus. at nightfall. in addition. * : under. ! -? irpos way of Cyrus . by (of under Dative 7) Accusative "YTJS ) the earth. beyond (-^ (^- very glad). ol TTCpl lowers. also during the night. viro the side subtends the angle. secretly. [peri-] - to these thiiigs. sub) under: § 6. Lat. or prepositions which are never used in composition. [hypo-. against. ircpl . characteristic of the irpos ) it is Dative: irpos sur- irpos "6 near the city . to staiid : : to [pros-] § 19. irpos iroXet TOts in addition excel. by (^fronting). (along) under.: ?? THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 304 /3) Dative: about their necks. for (a place) under. In compounds vive'). behind. gradually. irpos 7) Accusative irpos in view of these considerations. towards or during (of time) 0-€€ : under a tree. f) : exceedingly around. to. besides. Examples are . agreed by all. In compounds : under. € irpos at. hyp-. hyph-] 130.Tots KuPetiCLV irepl xois to take risks with one's dearest possessions. near: a) Genitive : irpos talcing by the gods your side. In addition to the prepositions proper (§§ 128129) are the improper prepositions. : (. a) Genitive toward. : In compounds g) \»1 ] .

to YOU) straight toward. of persons only. To express these three different ways of regarding action the majority of verbs in Greek form stems which are known this and as action-stems. apart from. it can be regarded be writing ") [time-exposure] merely as an occurrence. its actual duration. being for the time ignored (" shot] . apart from. Every action can be regarded in one of three ways: 131. . so adverb cept to ME) except . € €| out of. before. c) Accusative : . as it were. (usually follows to eveKa y account. .^ as the in consequence all forms built 1 of these upon it called in stem itself invite one to Usually. . THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK With a) the genitive: € without. noun between. €V€K€V on account with regard within to . it to write ") [snap- can be thought of as completed (" to have written""). same time similar to). €p. whether long first. book The first is the progressive action-stem. (cf. at the : together with. Action-stems. except: tival its of of for the sake of eveKa on which far as concerns beyond (of time) straight) 305\ : to. i-yyvs in the presence near. ivithout. it . : b) With the dative with. evcKa. Ivros behind ME (often also a conjuncclear to every one ex- € together tvith. but incorrectly. or. or brief. can be thought of as being in progress. close to (cf 6<.irpoa0ev in front of. against .. called the present stem. motion: -€ $? came Perdiccas and into Chalcidice. thirdly. as it proceeds from step to step (" to or again. after verbs of he es THE VERB — Ways of regarding Action. can be visualized.

Time. €- from the stem from the stem writing. third stem is the perfect action-stem. mood I was ivriting. as follows Present Past-Aorist Past-Imperfect Present-Perfect Future : Past. the future and the future-perfect timeAll of the forms built upon these stems (or tense-stems). optative. they are not parallel. aorist action-stem see Lesson (^- XL\"II and the unlimited. In addition to these three action-stems there are two time-stems . are obtained the tenses. So act is called the . namely.|€ beiJig in process. see 133. § — of regaeding Action and Position in As there are three ways of regarding action (§ 131). The 133. infinitive. These are seven in number. The § 136. and : " ive being in the act of learning. is (§ 131) do not indicative The the realm of time-distinctions. etc. etc. future. — The action-stems in themselves express position in time. past. undefined) "^- - are both forms of the progressive action-stem (see §§ 52.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 306 regard the action as -. each other cross . Ways 132. 53). That is to say. --. being in the act of The stem which merely names holding (having^. the time-distinctions are superimposed upon the actiondistinctions (see § 133). be writing. thus I shall : I am writing. two stems (indicative. thus . or both. so there are three time relations or j)ositions in These two sets of relations time: present. Tenses. and here by add- ing certain prefixes or suffixes. participle) refer to future time. %- to he are writing.Perfect (Pluperfect) Future-Perfect .

still The we have long : are) learning these (things'). usually termed merely the on the aorist action-stem : '. past-imperfect tense denotes a continued or customary or repeated or attempted action in the past.'" I declare. or are trying to persuade you. are both formed on the progressive action-stem. say. they woidd not be persuaded. tenses. future-tense stem. past-aorist. For the tenses a form is found in - of the perfect action-stem see §§ 137. any other expression of past time. The particle dv sometimes accompanies the past-imperwhen it denotes customary action (see § 145) ciroC- fect : they would (were accustomed to) dv do the hoar no harm. usually called merely the imperfect. but the historical present in is far : expressed thei/ : With long ago. 138. The present tetise (§ 133) is in general employed Greek he sends more common in Greek (for he sent^ heralds. which is regularly a presentand the past-imperfect (or past-progressive). The scheme of stems. Uses of the Action-stems and the Tenses 134.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 307 Of these the present. etc. refusal. progressive. as end). With a negative the past-imperfect often denotes resist- ance. is The formed is The future formed on a is also the future-perfect (§ 131. (woidd not./ aorist. and moods is set forth in § 79. Theoretically there should have been formed also a presPerhaps such ent-aorist corresponding to our ''I write.• could not) : . Sometimes an attempted action is exactly as in English. wrote. a verb in the present has the force of a present and perfect combined been (and 135.

with a laugh let this? (i. its is The actual duration being ignored. Sometimes. as stated in to refer to an action merely as an occurrence.€ Subj. -€9 • you come (in^. - wrote us write this . life's the entrance. 137. called the inceptive aorist. refers to I thus: Indie. like the past-imperfect. Lessons and aorist often denotes the €8 is . especially Exercises 35 The state king.e. \|. three tenses (§ 133). Opt.i § 84. § 131. The perfect action-stem invites one to regard the action as completed (§ 131). may I not write XLVII and LIII.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 308 The function 136. Not infrequently the past-aorist indicative is used as a ?. the world's a stage. become to bursting into laughter^. This : 38. and - beginning of an action or became king. employed with dv to to express repetition : ctircv is dv he used say. patient or present^) dont we too. past-aorist indicative an action as occurring in past time but other forms built upon the aorist stem do not refer to past time. the past-aorist indicative is eager questions (where English ov : call used in imemploys a why .. See further etc. but these are secondary special usages made above. you behold. 1 In the indicative In indirect discourse the aorist optative and the aorist it forms infinitive refer to past occurrences (see § 179. . do and and do not affect the general correctness of the statement For the use of the aorist participle with reference to a prior action see Exercise 35. then Prodieus also? Occasionally the past-aorist. {gnomic aorist) : €€5. 1 c). you depart. of the aorist action-stem. present to denote a fact of experience or a general truth €$. .

iyop. remind). like the present In English the is constantly used where Greek employs an hence in Greek the pluperfect tense is comparaaorist. lose^. I am dead. possess I remember 138./?-)).pLK-')^. have € of hawl- whereas in English the the completion of the action corresponds closely to the / lam shudder . (^<^^ I know recog- 7^0-)). action the : awake. « € € -^ (^ € (and destroy. emphasis dead. I know . ^« I is I have waked In a great rather upon up. . pluperfect tively infrequent.-^). The past poth. awaken Ceyep. perfect (pluperfect). etc. I likely resemble . but usually even here the enduring the action is still more or less prominent. § 95 (fetSIforget I have. perfect. emphasizes the enduring result.fiS-). many .- «" In Greek the perfect emphasizes the enduring result of to he / am awake . see Exercise 36.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 309 -. (^ forget (. (^yev- /rt-). (by birth) Ifear nize I have come ()- become he horn. to be sure. Greek perfect instances. to he ((^^ effect Note the following (see §§ 65-67): €- I perish. I am I am -)). lost ( /rei- hpoi- to recognize. acquire'). I stand . I am awake (^iye lam accustomed. I remember. § 87. the English perfect : made . eoiKC it is (ei'/cw resemble (/ret/c- pOLK. ing^ hawling {ivitensive perfect).

bring). je upon me doute). . see § 149. -other. or / write). / copy for myself made (A. or in affects It represents the subject as acting some manner that directly or indirectly himself I make 1) I make Tpeiro^at myself stop. himself. carry show appear (A. Of these the active and passive require no explanation. to express a €. is upon a time-stem tense refers to future (§ 133). turn (A.) In some instances the original difference between the shine. I show myself. I cease {cf active (another) stop). / (A. have a copy copy).: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 310 For the future perfect middle see perfect active The future 139. . (off) for hear. 68 § . (or active and middle has faded : be bright. of the Greek verb includes three and passive. voices : active.). I turn (an- turn myself. myself win (a prize) . the future extremely rare. middle. etc. The Voices The conjugation 140. command The future time . 2) ^ I write for myself {A. The middle voice lies between the other two atid is essentially a reflexive {cf I teach myself I make myself stop. : (7/:). forth). it is formed used familiarly is you yourself will So with ov in questions: judge will you not pelt (him') ? For with the future indicative.

In the aorist the passive employs active endings. optative. others have passive forms (passive deponents): /avor.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Many 141. and imperative (see Accompanying these indicative. distinctive In the present. wish. are the infinitive (a verbal noun in origin) and the participle (originally a verbal adjective). optatives. The passive voice is Greek has no expressed by middle endings mi/self stop or few re- received. 311 - all forms built upon the progressive These are known as deponent verba (cf. active or intransitive. the meanings are self). I was I received and See § 142 and Lesson LX. A. be willing (never receive (take to one's Although the forms are middle. The moods in ancient Greek are the subjunctive. . A. and perfect the passive endings. The Moods and Theih Uses 143. see also § 62. sequor): in classical Greek). see §§ 69. and imperatives : those . €| have both middle and passive aorist forms ceive. contrast with the seven tenses of the indicative. - I favored (middle deponent). 142. 79 C. Lesson VI). verbs have only middle forms in the pres- ent (including action-stem). but / wished (passive deponent). there are only three subjunctives. The indicative is the realm of tense-distinctions. Deponent verbs usually have middle forms also in the future and perfect but in the aorist some have middle forms (known therefore as middle deponents). morior. A. passive in A : I am made / make : to stop. Lat. future. wish. and In there are seven tenses (see § 133 and §§ 134-139).

writing something (progressive) ^ something (progressive) ivrititig be write something . no7i. thus: differ in tense. for and participle (§§ 172. aorist. All of the action. namely. II B). optative. Future stems never form subjunctives or imperatives. respectively (but the perfect forms are not common. and perfect action-stems. The adverbial particle dv is employed with the and the subjunctive to limit the indicative. and See §§ 172. perfect. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 312 formed. 173. ) : progressive. Lat. aorist. 160 c. : . ne). with the indicative and potential general as follows optative (§ 163). meaninors of these moods. (aorist). the imperative being even The rare).and tense-stems form both infinitives and participles future perfect. see Lesson XIX. . § 180 . optative of ivish (§ 162) and also with the infinitive see § 159. (. sometimes also with the infinitive with the subjunc(§ 172) and the participle (§ 173} tive. also and For compounds of 144. future. 146. For ox» §§ 150. us be let tl let us write something (aorist). and future optatives are rare and are employed only in indirect discourse to represent a future indicative after a past tense (see § 179. a. 158. It is used in . There are two negatives (see Lesson VI) ot» These are used in and (c/. 180 b. or imperative. differ- ences in meaning between these three sets of forms grow out of the fundamental meanings of the action-stems They do not (§ 131). See further § 84 and Exercises 35 and 38. 173). are no This is a fact of cardinal importance in Greek syntax. upon the progressive.. : . TJiere tenses of the subjunctive. the optative.

relative. potential] : dv I might etc. Dependent clauses II. questions.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK Independent clauses I. See further § 179. 313 : •- with the past tenses of the indicative: A. past probability. eSet. and temporal (sometimes also final) clauses with the subjunctive. and See §§ 167. ' dv would be equal. c) with the and past-imperfect indicative to aorist express repeated or customary past action (§§ 135. 1 - Unreality sary. (= } dv wherever. [past dv have said . with the optative (never future optative) to express B. Uses of the Indicative 146. (or ) it was neces- . 170. the like. dv what would you have said? See further § 152. The indicative mood tions of fact. 136 (end)). whenever. often contracted to dv whoever. etc. Here dv attaches itself to the subordinating conjunction. '€ ctires. : in conditional. I b.) = ( if. they could not have thought. € OS dv and dv} and (= et is av. the opinion of $ speaker (or writer) as an opinion the [potential optative] : dv it may be so. but it is not.^ a) to denote unreality: the angle also € b) to denote past potentiality. it may is employed in simple declaraand exclamations also in simple be indicated also by xcas permitted. so that the subjunctive in such clauses € regularly introduced by tav or . See further § 163. .

that. 148. These verbs are sometimes followed by otl or as that.. etc.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 314 conditional (§ 166 A). el € : indignant that I am surprise. etc.. b) Some verbs expressing by a clause with the pity. 147. effect. are followed introduced by (that 7iot) «I (neg. relative (§ 166 B). tive is normally ov. are followed when they as to. € a) Clauses introduced by otl. etc. indignation. 6s. is ^ refer to objects of fear so that is or the indicative. cautio7i. am I mean. delight. 151. have the The nega- indicative (or the potential optative. and temporal Other uses are (§ 170) clauses. by Verbs expressing lest ) (neg. Verbs signifying care for. see § 148) to express a €|-'€ 150. (how') since. § 163). not able to oios ' sag what = indicative. the result us. or a prohibition: him not deceive : which followed by either the With the €€ infinitive presented as a tendency: (neg. and with dv (§ 145). of the indicative command and let " infinitive ) so fear.. treated in §§ 147-153. €. ). introduced by see to it that you aid me. " and : with the future indicative are frequently used in Attic Greek (without an introductory verb. because. that. . are followed by the futu7-e indicative (rarely the subjunctive) (how) that (neg. English that 6 €€ if (if not). as. with the present and past tenses are present or past (see further § 160 c) eXeyev beware lest he was speaking in jest. . ?) €€5 149. strive for.

attained: 152. with the would that I were not would that you had « iroietv ! not done this . of a simple occurrence in the past (prot. : Hopeless Wishes are expressed by by €€ or el and the distinction be- a) a past tense of the indicative preceded The negative oh that! tween the tenses €5. would be. the same as above (§ 152) would that you were in the habit of eating b) is is followed by an dv or simply I should like dv would that they) were speaking the truth. had been. had. '. would have been") . ou). apod. etuov dv I should have told you. were. Uses of the Subjunctive 154. would have^ .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 315 with the indicative (neg. as an end so I saw nothing. €€8 ! the living I ought (aorist of €€ : ? ! owe). I should tell you. The uses of the subjunctive (§ 143) in standard Attic Greek are seven in number. The past-imperfect is with dv used of unreality in the present. € V€Kpox)S / infinitive: doing this c) infinitive: it if they (= dead and not bodies. as follows > . el . of an act completed in past time Qivould have had'). in the apodosis a past tense of the indicative (§ 145). Thus cl dv if this were true. a. or of an act or state conceived as continuing in the past (prot. SO as to see. the aorist. apod. Unreal or Contr ary/ have in the protasis €l with C onditional Fact to Sentences past tense of the indicative. the pluperfect (yeri/ rare). 153.

neg. neg. neg. Dependent Clauses: 6. constantly employed to express exhorta- The negative tion. with aorist subjunctive). Prohihitioii 4. 167. §159. (compare Lat. as in Latin. or : (or or shall ive say this ? 157. Negative command is expressed by with a) the imperative of the progressive action-stem. Exhortation. Emphatic Future ( § 155. neg. ^) - PovXci do you wish? (pi. § 156. . § 158. person plural of € . § ). § 157. junctive always expect an answer in imperative form. 155. 1. or b) the subjunctive of the aorist action-stem: . B. ( first . is : what are we . let neg. Question of Appeal . Final and object clauses . with aorist subjunctive). thus is us be writing! ne scribdmus ! us say ! In Greek. In Greek. ov. €€ negative (rare) ) € . the junctive (singular or plural) first person of the sub- eraploj'ed in questions of is Questions with the sub- appeal or deliberative questions. Modest Assertion. (rare) 3. Conditional and relative clauses 7.: : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 316 Independent Clauses A. the the subjunctive is let €€ scrlbdmus 156. 2. . § 160. ( 5. we). as in Latin. to / what am I to The be writing f say ? a) Questions \vith the subjunctive are often introduced by € . .

may forget lest the € ") way home. ). $. : this shall The subju nctiv e is NOT employed come pass. c) Object clauses introduced €.! : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK a) 5 do not be learning ) '€ |$ 317 ). etc. they do not § 170. ing verbs and expressions oifear. € of the aorist action- stem) preceded by is sometimes employed as the equivalent of an emphatic future indicative with ' 160. until (neg. ^ hasten not quickly you become poor. €9 wait until you become of age. final clauses introduced by not before. aircOSc to be rich. 5 keep to the straight he honest. by « €$ See also until. may this not he true. § follow- fear lest we . 3. into The subjunctive introduced 158. may b}'^ express a cautious or modest assertion^ a suspicion that something may ' hut ' suspect that this true !) lest this he ) The negative is may be true. The subjunctive (generally 159. : be true (ah. that you b) Temporal — order that (neg. or the like. caution. do not learn! (not women never take €ls (your) counsel (Menander). in €€. may SiKaios ). ) (neg. that. - path. to and in final object clauses a) Pure final clauses (expressing purpose) introduced by Lva.

would. The he ! € I " 6 Iv accompanied by the particle dv (§ 145) corresponds to the English potential forms with may. in questions of appeal and see § 179. assimilation to anotlier optative (neg. and to the Latin potential subjunctive: credas. after a past tense or etc. can. . possible. in indirect discourse after a joasf tense 2. . by §§ 179. 3) Conditional and relative clauses (neg. etc. or (less . 2) Potential (optative with Dependent Clauses ^. ^^ 1) Wish (neg. )). € is known optative The negative as the Potential Optative. . II The 162. putes. to be The optative of wish is frequentl}^ preceded by optative is or cl €i'0€ § 168. The optative is frequently employed as a repre- sentative of an original subjunctive or indicative 1. II . ^ : may I believe the wise to may only depend on this ! rich it if — a wish whose however extravagantly. might. § 162. 164.: : THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 318 Uses of the Optative 161. The uses of the optative mood (§ 143) in standard Attic Greek nvefour in number. €' dv I might cXol tis dv not he wise. 164. € or ). as follows: Independent Clauses A.. This use 163. 2-3 realization expresses a wish conceived. dicas. 4) In indirect discourse. could. etc.. oh that! (neg. § 163. av (neg. is : irovois with small labors how could one . achieve great deeds? (Euripides). and object clauses commonly) when such in final (§ 160) after a past tense.

is permitted provided only that the combination of the two clauses intelligible. many instances accompanies the subordinating conjunction when the subjunctive follows (§ 145). Conditional and Relative Sentences 165. and the original mood is is optional. . or by lav In the concluel if. and (af. ? § 156). regularly . Conditional clauses are regularly introduced by followed by the indicative or the optative. except in those clauses mentioned under 3). frequently retained. The negative of the conditional clause is is . In all of . in indefinite relative and temporal clauses when these are dependent upon another clause containing a potential See the last selection optative or an optative of wish. disapwhich in pears. how am I to dea:l. that modifiers constitute a complete in itself or with its sentence. hvvaiTO^ in Lesson LXXX. . . €5 ov ) becomes el dv becomes €$ dv becomes dv becomes $ irpiv becomes circi becomes €. loss ( . the dv. etc. followed by the subjunctive. 3. where the When the optative is employed in optative is normal. €1 if. THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK a clause is 319 dependent upon another clause containing a ' potential optative or an optative of wisli Thus he : was at a how he should deal ivith the matter (orig. ) any form may of the verb. these cases the use of the optative not obligatory.. way this as a representative of the subjunctive. etc. (= sion A.

or b) indefinite. €i makes sense when combined with the protasis: €. oiroBcv lohence. A. Many temporal clauses have the same modal construc: tions as indefinite relative clauses. €€ a) '. and the modal types are in general the same as those employed in conditional clauses (see above). - the negatiA'e being either ov or acter of the construction which he does not know. and the as. may antecedent of the relative whoever. reference. Hence conditional clauses with €1 indefinite relative clauses are treated together. The negative is regularly . 166. the conclusion may be of . and (c) the optative (§ 168). Relative clauses are introduced by relative pronouns or adverbs. or the like . Conditional clauses (§ 165 A) have €l with any tense The apodosis may be of any form that of the indicative. remain. The future threat. under three heads and and that (e'ai^) those with (a) the indicative (§ 166). where. Conditional axd Relatr^e Clauses with THE Indicative.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 320 B. such as : os who. hut if you prefer. § . The like. be either a) definite. (b) the subjunctive (§ 167). bans whither. b) is When the antecedent general or indefinite in are known according to the char- employed oiSev (matter») : may is indefinite. but for convenience their treatment is deferred to § 170. a indicative with el generally expresses a warning. pass! (§ 162). a) When the antecedent may take any form definite the relative clause is that occurs in an independent sentence. . its' this not come to the relative clause and such clauses as indefinite or conditional relative clauses.

does that tvhich is not injurious injure ? Conditional and Relative Clauses with When the subjunctive is employed THE Subjunctive. Relative clauses (§ 165 B) with the indicative may have either a definite or an indefinite antecedent. the introduc- in standard classical Greek regularly accom- panied by the adverb dv (§ 145). b) cav Tis .€ (Men. fortunate. § 147 see § 152 . for object clauses with b. or equivalent (universal or general conditions). The apodosis most frequently has either (a) the present indicative. Conditional clauses with the subjunctive are intro= €l dv. « or (b) the future indicative.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK any form . The subjunctive correduced by kav (di/. 167. you will have trouble. he will never have wealth. -€|€5 el : 321 -. The in the former case. see § 143. €|€i if a man be . : if one have friends. honest. tive being main clause may have any reasonable form ov I Gcol veos tohom the gods love dies young .). or $ some other form of expres- sion referring to the future (sirmple future conditions) a) eav tis he is €). the negain the latter. sponds exactly to the subjunctive in similar clauses in English (but 7iot in Latin) kav if these } : things be true.. The subjunctives of the progressive and the aorist action-stems are most com- mon . : . € if you won't hold your tongue. — in conditional tory word is and indefinite relative clauses. B.. A. For unreal conditions €l.

should hesitate the vessels that 169.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 322 $. ditional and indefinite relative clauses (definite relative clauses do not have either the optative or the subjunctive). two if wronged. € The types (see § 145).. in the English sequence conditions is — € : § 169 b. by OS €.e. The optative corresponds to the English would. i. (b) to the tive. not a subjunc- . Avould be it §. — When the optative is employed in con168. . the same as is §. cl. above (A) : - do they prevent you from doing whatever you wish ? See also § 169 a. €. are general or universal in their reference. {i.. A. . Relative clauses Avith the subjunctive are introduced B. the introductory if word the indicative were used. \. Conditional clauses: should be necessary either should choose B. to be to €l do ivrong or wronged rather than Indefinite relative clauses €-€ Many Cyrus might give classes : 1 «Is to embai'k in conditional and indefinite relative sentences These are of those which refer (a) to the present versal present. should. it I us. uni- and are usually known in conditions in Latin is an as optative. and to the Latin present and perfect subjunctive The most frequent form tions. to to be dv : € € The subjunctive ^:)asi.e. do wrong (Plato). Conditional and Relative Clauses with THE Optative. etc. ^ in condi- of apodosis in optative the potential optative (§ 163) exactly as should See further would. same of clause-combinations are the as .

and the optative introduced by el. in the conditional i. €1.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 323 present (or past^ geiieral conditional (or indefinite relative) sentences. as soon as. (pres. to See further. oaxis. os. ind. ' \. temporal clauses of indefinite frequency § 170. (when =) after. and or 2) the same as that of the main clause . the other always hapjiened. . Temporal clauses refer to a time that . subjunctive with to . «. s after that. or relative clause : e'i •€-•€ if he rode out anywhere.. b) Past general conditional and indefinite relative sentences have the past-imperfect indicative (or equivalent. . . such clauses are introduced by cirel the like lireC.) € or the 167: uavx' § tls find out all things. Temporal Sentences 170.. he would take Cyrus about on a horse with a golden bridle. it is possible ei toil. -. os. cav os . if gods do any- thing disgraceful. is either 1) prior to that of the main clause. situation as a vague supposition: supposing the one thing happen. while the conditional or relative clause has either €|-€€. a) Present general conditional and indefinite relative sentences have the present indicative (or equivalent) in the main ' i\\Q present indicative with . if one shun not the «. past-imperfect with (§ 135). The meaning of the optative in such a sentence is the same as that discussed in § 168 the protasis presents the . or aorist with dv (§ 136)) in the main clause.e. ^ clause. eirel . introduced by . - gnomic aorist (§ 136). .. they are not gods (Euripides).

depart until they (Jiad^ said ' '. cv or . ov irpiv not before = 4s main clause introduced by .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 324 0T€. either €$ a) to thQ past: they ol u'aited until the generals arrived . whenever she Optative : SHE per- weaving. woi sooner Sentences of the last type (3) refer. U7itil . 6. ? -. again. or b) to let th. 2. like '. and the like. example temporal sentence of the example indefinite frequency in the joasi (cf. this. frequency in \h\Q present (§ 169 a). and the . €€. they did not - : . when. all meaning . The temporal clauses in sentences of the last class (3 b) have the construction of final clauses (§§ 160. 3) subsequent to that of the €ws. § 169 b) under the subjunctive.Q €$ future: ol us wait until the generals arrive. while. 179. In conclusion be it observed that means before and . tvhenever he (himself) oi would turn back. €ws. II B. c). than € as long as. 164. -. mits you to do whatever you wish. All other temporal clauses have the construction of ordinary conditional and relative clauses (§§ 165-169): Indicative irals when the boy was ten years old.irpoxcpov until. the temporal sentence of indefinite last illustrates the . these loho were listening on this side and on The is would open ranks that. Subjunctive (regularly with av): - ivhenever you return home to your mother. = until. .

etc. but the aorist subjunctive with is . § 1T9. €€. and the like have two meanIn the former case their (b) until. ^. When " is regu- to die is sweetest (Bac- the infinitive has a subject expressed. I. frequently preceded by . We may 172. of note the following Infinitive in indirect discourse (negative usually I. Uses of the Infinitive The infinitive was originally a verbal noun. a-yc. as. ally ). the latter are three imperatives common). Infinitive not in indirect discourse (negative usu- ). come 7iow ! not ordinarily instead (§ 157). with : progressive. a) as a noun: chylides). in the latter case. aorist. the construc- Uses of the Imperative The 171.. followed by the indicative when the reference is to past time (see above). II. duced by 0T€. . d'ye is commands and prohibi- There and perfect (not or one of its compounds. many whose uses are exactly like those in English. clauses have the constructions allowed in clauses intro- €€. etc. (a) as : is lo7ig '. irpCv {not but that before asking this. imperative expresses tions.. come In prohibitions the aorist imperative used. it larly in the accusative case. The imperative . but the subjunctive when the reference is to future time or to the universal before present ings until and that . . .: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK is € before seeing followed by the infinitive : irplv =) 325 . by tions introduced .

§ 151. expecting. command it almost (§ 116 b). am (^destinedy to. b) as a complement of a verb: / am ashamed you to tell eLiretv the trutJi. g) in an absolute construction ciros seems €€ to 80 to speak..: THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 326 In this use the infinitive forms of the article (. with the infinitive. at riding. etc. Note especially I am a) am about likely intend to. to. etc. € by the neuter and when so used is often preceded . we have come d) to express 2^urpose: to learn. known is as the articular infinitive sound mind standing) is heaven s . with the future (also with the aorist or the progressive) infinitive. with the future or progressive to (rarely aorist) infinitive. ). ' able: to express result. . to think that I should ! to express a § or wish (chiefly in poetry). promising. 170 before hearing.. €|-€€ tve time it is Note especially oios and to be oios re were not able going away. I may €= h) in exclamations: suffer this i) (^absolute infinitive'^ € : as say. y8) verbs of hoping. : (i. an adjective. § TTpiv before: irplv end. to find ^ e) with f) with €€- out. to have a good under- greatest gift (Aeschylus). complement c) as a - of etc. adverb. 7) verbs oi preventing. or noun good in a manner most beautiful to skilled in speech. me. € €( behold. fit.e. .

In its circumstantial use the participle is added to noun or pronoun and expresses circumstance. Lessons XLVII. between these uses tions of an adjective. The distinctions lute. The negative regnlarly is . it combines in its uses adjective and verb. Greek syntax.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 327 Uses or the Participle The 173. noun being omitted (/". is and in certain special . manner. more prominent those in which the participle mates a finite Circumstantial. - its attributive : -€•€ an Supplementary/.e. etc. exactly as the infinitive combines verb and noun. : . LIII. plays a most important role in participle In origin an adjective. the article more nearly approxi- verb A. See § 143. . and Exercises 35 and 38. 174. wrong. . Exercise 18) €€ who understands. (i. they who. he who. {Attributive Participle^. but when the participle has a general or conditional force cases the negative The I. b the one whoever does no the things that ivere said. Note especially the use of the participle with the article. the The corresponding expressions in English are the one who. uses of the particij)le are those in which the adjectival character of the par- ticiple is II. In B. open door is not always abso- use the participle has the funcIt is used either Avith or without the present blessings . § 103 d).. a the expert.. (cf. The three action-s|iems and the two timestems (§§'131-133) all form participles and there are eleven in all.- standing open). 175.

the .THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 328 € '--. such are finally continually . are often preceded by as. Note especially a) Certain participles of time and manner are often used with an adverbial force ginning. be translated with. TJ€i etc. since f) is frequently preceded by although. etc. condition.€$ means. purpose (usnally future participle). young (wheyi young. although grammatically they belong Avith the finite verb: €-6€ }X€Ta|i) he came in in the midst of his play {while playing). €.). € d) A concessive participle e) In like manner preceded by are. or participle is : € €€ since she is sometimes omitted : are you are experienced. participles expressing cause are often ota. cause. b) Similarly . €.€5 ^ . purpose. midst. often €ti6vs and similar expressions often attach them- selves to a participle. . etc. (Men. straightway. etc. same ' in the be- may time. at first. " Participles expressing cause... This shows that the participle sets forth a ground of belief entertained by the subject of the main verb or of some other person mentioned prominently in the sentence the belief) that g) A : tls you are going to with the thought (in become what? circumstantial participle in the genitive agreeing . The young. he said ivith a laugh (see Exeror concession: YeXaaas v€OS cise 35). c) €| in : . at the hastily.) he willing to he BeXe as you are heed your elders came to sit down beside us.

-€€§ observation. d) 05 € common than / am plainly with a participle it is clear that. b) verbs meaning like : do rejoice. and the like : cease. ?€ was just saying.it being permitted. The subcorresponding to the ablative absolute in Latin. main idea -€§ we had just he was un- consciously supporting the slayer of his son. supplementary use the participle completes It agrees either $ the idea of the main verb of the clause. endure. or with the 2.: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 329 with a noun or a pronoun is used as a genitive absolute. ill. I know that I am wise. See are wise. do escape chance. grieve. anticipate. since when 176. with the subject: 1. be. to be sitting. Note especially the supplementary participle with a) verbs -- meaning pear. is more . continue. the participle containing the I I chanced departed. € : § (see f) above) that Croesus was being besieged. c) with / delight ivell. € object: I know that you f) below. -€ they are contirt- ually learning. ivas possible for him to €- become king. and tlie in answering questions. ject may be omitted when it can be easily supplied from while we tvere saying the context on the ground these things. - h) Instead of the genitive absolute an accusative absolute is used when the verb is impersonal: €|. ap- begin. In it its it is permitted.

etc. etc. I a7n ashamed by telling .. finite usually a difference of meaning. perceive. with its subject in gender. -€ €.. by a clause with as when ". Xc^civ learning . tion are frequently followed by a participle (progressive. the 177. aorist. : 330 e) - (or € conscious -''^ / know (lit. he ignorant of remember. number. / begin - to learn. thus )- (or (or 18) I begin I am ashamed at telling . and similar verbs of percep- show. }/€€ / am plainly I appear to be. telling a falsehood Uses of the Verbals Many' verbs in Greek form a verbal adjective in -T€OV which denotes necessity or duty.) instead of in English : he learned that Cyrus was doing these things. being in the dative case . expressing the agent. g) vith certain verbs which is may by on and a the infinitive (some also /) be followed also by There verb).. if it The and verbal agrees case. announce. the word occurs. negative of each being : a) Personal (passive) construction. hear. to tell. ^ Iknoio that V€iv I know how I am to tell. ) OF GREEK THE FIRST (or I am with myself^ are followed by the participle either in the nominative or in the dative (or I am ovtl) -- : conscious of being foolish. forget. There are two constructions. It is -T€os sometimes accompanied by the copula but more frequently this is omitted. f) verbs meaning know." future.

a) by- who f where ? irtos Frequently two or more interroga- interrogative pronouns. i. all of . etc. xivas ovv viro cvpoi- \. is not by GOD good then . ? Indirect word questions (see § 179. and which accordingly admit the answer ^es ! or no ! Such questions are and .: : THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK $ 331 1€05 man -ye (§ 120 b): should not be honored before the truth (Plato).e. the corresponding indefinite relatives: . : tis tives are used with a single verb € : .. duced either by the interrogatives indicated above or by . (for tl ^'). INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES two kinds Interrogative sentences are of 178. etc. Word I. II) are intro- dv. i.. . - The b) Impersonal (active) construction. etc. II. often introduced by the emotional particles which merely heighten the tone of the question. or etc. . how? and the those which are introduced like. and do not imply either an affirmative or a negative answer or do you speak Grreek? €€$ ' .. questions. whom then and b^ whom would we find. which imply the answer yes: do you not speak Greek f € in truth? .' . . ing verbal has (eVrt) and equals in mean- € for the agent stands in either the dative or the accusative: Xcktcov in fact God is GrOOD and one should speak so about Hiin (Plato). . - a) Direct sentence questions are often introduced 1) ov. the neuter forms or -€ The word with the infinitive. Sentence questions. or or or or €. .e. . those which are not introduced by an interrogative pronoun.

2) which deprecate an affirmative reply do not speak Greek.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 332 .. . or is ) « iroTcpov worse. . . . and sometimes even in the indirect form: -€€5 . In indirect discourse two constructions are allowed: with the infinitive . to be . (For the use of the participle in a manner that approximates indirect discourse see § 176 f ). to do wrong.. are you aicake or asleep? INDIRECT DISCOURSE. do not rule over you? these also b) Indirect sentence questions are regularly introduced by €1 if. II. telling. often omitted in the direct form of an alter- native question. say. and and sometimes after I said. . or? (whether) <€ . regularly in the accusative the same as the subject of the leading verb regularly omitted and a predicate noun or adjective if it is stands in the nominative : € the man . . or. I. which {of or?: iroTcpov . . el whether. € c) Alternative sentence questions are introduced a) in the direct form by irorepov € the two) . followed by a with or that. 179. etc. 6€ ivhetlier . the main verb the assertion stands in the infinitive (negative usually The case. €€§ . II) €t : €65 I know not whether. . which wronged? in the indirect form by the same particles as are employed in the direct form. . it is subject of the infinitive but is of ).. or €'€ is . . After I. etc. . or by €l . . i/ou . tvhether (§ 179. Etc. / declare. : do you ? surely . . / am finite verb. saying.

. etc. The same rule applies also to indirect questions (§ 178). not know. 'a primary tense (§ 53) the verbs that follow retain their original form. etc. 333 we declare our- clScvai he said he did (^). clSevai I thought 1 heard.. vrhich frequently are followed by a participle (§ 176 f). questions of appeal (§ 156). are regularly followed by or saying and ciirov ? that and a I said finite verb. . . would be employed in the direct form ( A. the person alone being if necessary. The verbs € I am telling. often allow the construction with on and ?• The negative is regularly the same as that which or "). remember. learn. after eav. eivai € selves to be philosophers. when an infinitive always of the same it is action-stem or tense-stem as that of the original verb-form (see § 131).g.. form etc. In like manner most verbs of knoiving.. When b) said that ) is it is would not Finally employed 8 the infinitive represents a potential (optative or indicative).: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK he sai/s that is wise. / I / knotv. II..). per- such as ceiving. remembering. in . manner verbs a) In like finitive.. dv it retained he right « : (= should be observed that in indirect discourse he €^. -. The subjunctive is never employed in indirect discourse in Greek unless it would have appeared in the direct of the statement or question Qe. exactly as in English. of thinking: by the are regularly followed in- the subject and predicate being treated as above I think I know. After OTt or changed.

. B). but which contain or imply the thoughts of a person other than the speaker or writer. When tive. command. 6-€€- was just on tvas the tviser d-yyeXov he hade the messenger ). An aorist indicative in a subordinate clause remains un- changed.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 334 After a secondary or B. etc. an indicative or a subjunctive may be shifted to the optative of the same action-stem or tense. plan.stem: € OTTOxcpos them the point of asking tvhich of | ' (the € (^ -"€ € ?? person alone being changed. verbs in subordinate clauses may the optative form after secondary tenses. report that he would come sooner than Astyages himself would (( wish An a) .. clauses depending on an infinitive which is introduced by a verb meaning advise. is thus changed to an opta- I might aid him.€ . b) When the leading verb becomes an infinitive (see above). : . if he should be in a subjunctive with dv dv disappears was going that . 3 b). subordinate verb c) The verbs is I. or. if they were Such clauses final irplv dv. tive . if necessar}-). . clauses with '. 170. and the like. indicative with dv never changed to the opta- is a past-iraperfect or pluperfect indicative. . exactly as really in indirect discourse (II. etc. be changed to Occasionally a attracted into the infinitive. seldom. may be changed from indicative or subjunctive to optative after secondary tenses. (§§ 160. 'past rect statement or question tense verbs in an indi- all maj remain unchanged « ). in various dependent clauses which are not strictly in indirect discourse. € dv. as frequently happens.

need tW. hut indeed (§ 184). For is not only . nay. (§ 172. II. ov. well hut. THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK / (^. (ap") then. tive. each retains its own force but when followed by one or more compound a) in the '^ . ' us he going! : nay . . so. 2. The uses compounds see two negatives of the ( and and their 144) have been generously illustrated in the foregoing paragraphs (§§ 146-179). . hut. negatives. accordingly . regularly stands 182. as 159. marks a especially com- other) (jif. . nevertheless. PARTICIPLES. let really.e. § 160 Note c.. An which \vould ordinarily have the negais usually negatived by if the verb upon which it depends is accompanied by a negative or is in a question with a negative idea implied. questions. . commands . .. THE NEGATIVES 180. always post-posi- first in its clause. hut come. abrupt transitions (well. II) tive CONJUNCTIONS. b) infinitive . yet mon after a negative : .) : yap hut nothing except. especially: When a negative (simple or compound) is followed same clause by a simple negative. there is no one tvise. Frequently two or more negatives are employed in the same clause.. never stands see § 178. It is frequent in hut also. i. the negative € there strengthened is was no one who : ovBels ivas not suffering something. etc. it . ). first in its clause. iav tl 335 See also § 164. (') 181. (§ 190) and stronger contrast than Etc. § § also cf. but. '€ objections.

or do . ircus ircos 'yap) hut indeed^ ydp) aye surely. For . enclitic. particle is a post-positive parti- which regularly emphasizes the word it follows where? where pray? what? cle . . and. least. (or hut surely (§ 181}. but € many instances €€ I. see § 195. pray? 188. what (or ) Questions are often l>egun with . When word . 187. even.THE FIRST TEAR OF GREEK 336 183. and indeed. el is T€ So emphasizing par- (y'j a post-positive. surely. either or. if indeed. also certainly. turn iyi always post-positive. . often repeated: or. . always -/e (or post-positive. hack again. . hack. how surely : in truth ? than. . means or . in turn. . 185. it to reproduce its force €6 : regularly emphasizes the It etc. . . and. again. at : translate not not is it of course. follows. (for . to best not to is by an emphatic . . €. : you not know? see § ITS. . ticle . . for truly. it pronunciation certainly/ ' ) The at any rate. it expression which it . regularly emphasizes the . For also. 189. 184. indeed. . hence for. . .€5 € WU. 186. . . how (why^ not ? truly.. (for apa) sure.' un- derstand perfectly. . hoth . again. so f . . . also. os only a strengthened form of ircos ! irov : . wahrP nicht € word In . the very one who. even. II.. always post-positive. \ . .

337 same way as. and § 184. clause or phrase in which . . but.€ particles . it and indicates that the stands preceding clause or phrase containing it may coordinate with a . Moreover. ' teaches. one of the most characteristic is in classical Greek. times usually not translatable. in the d. § 196. conversely. 175 although. but sometimes and. you have a friend. ivhereas. . : in particular also. and . . a preposition and its case. or clause which is Thus to follow. . € . I too. . . § 190..: THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK precedes . always calls for a which it is itself connected. yet. etc. while. yet. on the other hand. etc. precedes. this answering phrase or clause regularly contains in the same position as that occupied by \i4v in the first phrase or clause (regularly the word. you do not. and. etc. ?. ' may be rendered be sure. | the article in the not. . . is a post-positive conjunction. to balance that with second word). the not follow. It is always post-positive (§ 182) and is used to distinguish the word or phrase or clause with or in which it stands from a word. ' in the right {hand) . . Sometimes the clause or phrase for which conjunction (a weak ' and or ' is ' calls does frequently employed as a but ') when no -clause may be followed by more regularly stand between Both and and its noun. while. I have teacher pupil learns. the to In translation left. . etc. phrase. than one : speak Greek. Furthermore.. but some- is may it be rendered on the one hand. is often be omitted.

. both (the ancient Greek € often stands at a ^. I do others not knoiv. €. . verily.. enclitic particle. ' some things . . often written with an accent €. (§ 178. ' € € . it : €LT€ . . others. considerable distance from the second tc (or -€ often 175 d). . . ivhat then ? of course. therefore. not therefore? noiv (as I ' positive. . it € .kv and hi are frequently employed with forms of the article Avithout an accompanying noun. € . For other examples. . . . and further.. . . therefore not. . ov truly. 191. neither . . 191. 193. surely not. . nor. . just as. . whosoever.. the other is not. . . . irtp. / and you The /"')• tirst €. . always post-positive.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 338 . oxiv at . b hi the one : . . 195. attached to the emphasizes : eiircp T€ and. and the forms ol are accordingly .. . is word one who. . . . or. I know. see the end of Lesson XXXV. =Lat. i. . always postany rate. yet yet. even as.e. the very if indeed. oii ' 192. the other.. . €€ € ' whether . II). Kaiirep although (§ que. . In this usage the article retains its original demonstrative force (§ 103). never said ''you and € . an intensive. . was saying). «€ and. verily . as in pronunciation. oi shows a marked tendency to be the second word in its group met both Hippothales the son of Hieronymus and Ctesippus. which in writing. some the one is learning. . and . indeed.

c. §§ 179. The subject of the order of vi^ords in Greek of very great importance. : Final many speak. therefore. say.THE FIRST YEAR OF GREEK 196. II order that. so that. = '. idea. €' word was GOD. TOi surely. : Temporal c) : d) Declarative f) Consecutive: : how beauti- that. EQUALS be : and added. eiireiv so to as. etc.-. § 151. § 175 b) Causal (usually - ol : celerrime. II. the . doubtless. in 147 as. § 172. e) the as as beautiful as possible. . OEDER OF WORDS 198. inasmuch as. .sequence expressed . first. infinitive. Thus containing -. a) Comparative and however. = = € 130 to. for.). hence the emphatic. when. § a. 339 § with the a. g) Prepositional: €|€ f. quam €0 tt€VT€ about five. g. takes precedence the that . the \vord . § 170. as though to receive.g. : in the the mind is thought. ? 5 enclitic surel•/. but in languages. the adjective shows a marked tendency to follow its noun. although there is one is a certain normal order for many of the parts of speech {e. and post-positive) and 197. general word-sequence follows which uppermost is in the sentence €. that. ful! post-positive. yet. proclitic. So and if to EQUALS sums are equal. § 147 160 a. There are many uses: that. the new. there it is a far greater freedom or elasticity in the arrangement of words in Greek than in any of the less highly inflected There are many disturbing elements. as. a negative to precede the word emphasizes.

.

very much. in other instances a type-word heads the group. Moreover.g. adjectives. there being instead a reference to the lesson in which these have been presented. chest. and 2) the compound nouns. . pts. etc. All masculine and neuter nouns of the second declension and all feminine nouns of the first declension are printed without the article all . cof- hear nounce. town) vessel (jar. . of which the the proper names and proper adjectives. -- s. 341 an- Lat. -). and KaXos. -? () ornament. words which are for all first the second part. In many other instances. field. etc. too much. L.). . too.. ager. -? () -€ € assembly. a root {e. . country pi. Neither of these is complete. II. market. LVIII. hring to- market-place. statue. etc.v. €- message. see os. gather. €( Prin. message. pounded with it. hring home a wife for oneself (or for another). in which its slightly disturbed in order to bring into juxta- words which belong Sometimes these are placed under together. a. hunting-expedition. pts. Less. see good. to the cultivated fields. tions reference to the section in Part the alphabetical order position is at length. gether. a Prin. lead. nouns. as well as some of very frequent occurrence. Cf (opp. but with each there is a meanings and uses are Following each preposition are given 1) the verbs comexplained. ayep- The principal parts of verbs are usually omitted. like and particles are not treated . ? € € messenger. -5 () a place of contest. xvithout weight (^). As a result the arrangement of the words in the first part of the vocabulary is not strictly alphabetical. other nouns have the gender indicated. pronouns. and are ade- of rare occurrence in the lessons quately explained in the word-lists or the notes are omitted. preposi- vaC. contest. acre. See § 47 . adjectives. a struggle. In cases of extreme displacement cross-references are given. Eng. $ fer. Less. urn. and adverbs.VOCABULARY The following vocabulary contains the common is divided into tvro parts. agony.

-. - -' sicy. Cf (. of (. or ) or P. -ov bear- away the prize.. well (or discouraged. injure -8 €-5 - doing (). Prin. otherwise. to Prin. () athlete. the other. 6 ael who for im- -$ (). « satis). ait always. under- outermost. blood. -< follow (Dat. exact. .-ov in heaps. .. Less. saying (or contest (for a prize). see . . sing.). -- the time being death. -ov impossible song. desires. point (of a spear. pts. insult. -ov at the furthest point. Less. enough in Cf. want of -ov (Adv. -- -) -ov (for ing. pts. (§ 42 (Lat. have enorigh of the to a taking. ).-).- do lorong . -^ - ether. -5 § point (of prosperity.- § 181. . the heights. yet. Adv. . deceit. accurate. act of hearing . . the one for (Geu. injustice. etc.. without (). LX. . shame). )€ common). in crowds. 42. ment. . oneself. - ill) -- (aldws awe. -. etc. of. () seize. . mic. dishonor. listen mortal. acme. (^ ) shameful. be captured (used as the pass. disfigure. hlame-worthy -ov sible (Ace). true. food. . without -- be ashamed the upper air. M. hit with dart. prize. II a. choice. spirit. throw a javelin. the cause. to culminating point. spoken make LX. to be (p^s) exact. spirit. €£. 117 a). take Prin. unjust d-SiKeu -) {-$ a-SiKOS -ov -. . stand thoroughly. aim javelin. 342 cL-Slkos . respect.. -ov loithout respon- . task. ) discourage- topmost. -€ () an-ae- for pts. be at the highest hear. -^ most (Gen. another (of many). § 178. wrong. Cf. javelin. -5) €- a at. .) -?) a-8oXos -ov (Adv. haematology. Past-Impf. -- unwill- crowds. ing . Lessons ) speak the truth. LXXV. report. choose. () truth. LXXIV. in plenty. outrage. forever. hut. -9 . be ashamed.-. €. sense of hearing. -ov garrulous.

of with. . 6. human being (homo). see -o-Ttts. Neiit. {-). - - -os -ov loithout sickness. §§ 175 . c. partly. hold up. see have no care for (Gen. M. Less. In comp. : sive force) step up. Less. -ov unerring. be led to the torture. to up and take less so verily. err (§ 115 e). . -. and Less. : of.-£. avSpos () man. fail. LXXII. -. again (with inten- -( -( - A. § 124 a. . and slavery. & $ -€ one time See p. undeserved. tvagon. against. erring. - upset. show forth. take captive § 128. - up. set LXXVI.. -. 6$ tip. up. ment. Gen. . - change. sinful. partly . . carry carry away. (A amen. man. - compel. = €.-ov other^ strange. up. carry make away -€. () fox. necessity. belonging to an- stranger. - be it. F. . --. 8 -8 () persuade. with appos. . back. in oppo- sition. LXXIV. two). = § 194. 42.. pi. - manliness. up. -01S -oDs at . back.- - -5 (). M. F. § 2. ignorance. . . : § 145. repay (Ace). . etc. over- offer. - (recognize Less. both sides. . common two hold back. wait for. husband. on pi. carriage. chap. instead. another time (fire). -irfCe» Less. exchange. € . north wind. ovei) . A. 343 €. re- throw. words. 2 a. hold out.) - each or both (of -ov Usu. error. endure.. sell into the men's apart- Bopeas without. appear. . miss. tiirn ascribe. «s open. -. in up. read. Semitic word. LX. take up. aor. force. - § 28 . . each other. § 176. § 130. . ignorant -is . again) LXXII. . -£KOS at the 130 b. - both. refer. in return. ' ---<(8. time. instead In comp. LXXII. Less. hi at at another time. . () -. fellow. vir. . go up. blame- -ov unworthy. ivind. turn. -. LI II. § 88. take -. -£ --. . § 115 h). phrases. failure. { '). Less. -ov human. (r/) same turn hack. sin. -4 do in turn. refer.

be from) show. 124 Com- = single. once... pletely surprised. . LIII. have or receive in full. give a tenth of (as a make one stand aioay from. tithe). -. (). destroy. against. - . issue. shut out. § 79. jjoint -- LXV. lose. LIII. deceit.-- -' : result. of frankly. value. simjile (§ 41). sell. M. M. -€€ he piit aioay. €. ap- LXXIV and titterly cow- ardly. come from (a place) -rive.-- pts. A. per- lam lost. G. answer. -- = "rras. (from). go aioay. § Prin. LIIL fail to hit. . -ov. look tou-ard. am to. Aor. § 93. 117 a). -- § -•7€ send Compound - step away.{ keep away from.(^\$ greediness -raros) behave simply. uncover. Less. . etc. LXXIX.-- -'- kill {kt€V. (Dat. ^ : -\• Less. -€. airas give back. completely. Less. and § 194. Less. A. throio away. fail. In comp. make thorough of trial 82 B. {away Less. -€ say in return.). ^inharmed (). .). - § 90. --. a|ios -a -ov worth. I. see oo-rrep ttirXois -- . stand away from. -ovos . die. . Less. carry away. § 88. shoic (forth). went away. -' -). Less. worthy of (Gen. sound turn. laid away. in reply. -----. from.--- 344 d|ios give in return. ar- undone. back.ktov- trick. complain loudly. threat. -' -)- set free shut away Less. back. point.-- be going away. away from.-- lose. LXXII. LII. from. repay. be destroyed. carry pay (tribute. LIV. deal ') -- b. -€ -€ . Less. from. . -£ -€ .disobey (Dat.-. -T)'ei he v:as going aioay -. . - worth. otit. M. ---F. Less. drive away. ish. § ask in stand LXXII. reply. vnthout harm. pay. -• ••€• threaten boast.).{ be away.

etc. .: 345 d-TTopos § 87. harpy. II. builder. on the Cf. () ruler. vertebra made --(orig. -(8(-). beginning. turus. -9 and Less. he without a way. - - -£ () . () chief- (Gen. § 115 g). superl. set Cf. sufficient. cling to (§ 115 c). -- II. carry senger - Cf. an -? --. lay hold idle.-ov -ov imexpected. -(. ment. money. -5 mes- be at a loss. ansvjer. city (§ 36). left. satisfy. astronomy. be strong loith one''s blessings. one loho neighbor. () frag- one who hard -- is sent. deny. usually with -- the force of the adverb. revolt. to deal with. -'•£ F. archon. architect. a way. to. apio-Tos rob- begin. £08 . the stars). virtue. €05 . of <o-voC skilled in as- tronomy. just now. sable. rule. greet. "^ play with dice. lazy. toion. ber. census. . gleaming. please. a -€ <---- ago. a writing off. - €- (§41) of silver. pleases me. -€5 () . impas- -iropos -ov toithout it Arc- arctic. . the left hand -Tcpas xeipos €| 8. Up.- (€ on the left side. - welcome. pleasing. -ov glad. F. - -ov best . -' () a bright star {cf. LXXII. 1 gastronomer. (un)dressing- -€5 () an uncover- ' apKTos (v) bear. satisfied. gasp. M. sovereignty. silver mines (sc. £ () a plunderer. of. . moment office. a a small coin. Compound Nouns. € ) --.. €. am register. J excellence. . off. Pf. xeip). gladly. ancient. unexpectedly. ride pass.-? toIs content be refuse. M. begin. . § 178. on fire. silver. from dice knuckle- bones). -€ - § 182. pant. - -ov inextinguishable. apKeVb) loard enough. just. lives near one's () city. . F. . aristocracy. pi. -"(-88 . a seising.-•- (sc. / room. fasten be etc.-? then.- accepta- ble. . . goodness.. () snatch off. ing.

-. - withoiit Cf. dart. ) (. § 183. cious. -<ci>s rub upon the touch- () see out grace.-9 (^?) --- -4s (). . § 183. vexed. it is ov - not meet to . meat). royal. without an end. throiB - security.-). Less. firm. torture. -- go. §44.SS. () in turn. (/3a-). LXI. incom- -i's at. Prin. hit.. --€ . Less. § 28. nevertheless. dishonor Prin. one's purpose. Adv. pts. free 5 €5 -. liveli- Pf. -tax. baric. ) bar- foreign. harm. pts. '- missile See etc. pass. misshapen. 47 palace. {-). icithout form (). better. foreign. Prin. be burdened. ungra- 8 - test. of eat (-. tor- stone. hand - ) = (. a touch-stone. again. infiu. . . Lat. unpleasant. 7iot € - accomplishing icithout plete. are since^ § 175 LX pts. go. . § (-wrepos down by Tos) iceighed ture. ). Hog). Is immediately. (sc. fut. -. from scot-free. (/SeX- - but. rule (§ to-morrow. () = -- kingdom. (to) burden. Le. (17) stability. pass.harmful. 05 . icalk. the lyre. (cf.).-. - Pf. § kingly. the living. speech. (arroio. . heavy. morrow. aor. pass. court. . live. LX. § 106. (-). hurt. one who commits a deed with his oion court-yard. -€9 - e. deep LXXII hood. -. living.-. pts. () murderer. () -.. . $ king. -<ra queen. back again. an- noyed. morrow. of «.. . ugly. test. step. mischief. see. best. - self. diphthong. Greek. troublesomeness. make unseen heaviness. -9 - -$ speechless.. to trip -5- ^ 346 not liable throw. harm. look. Prin. manner of life.. at. () loith- - be king. safe.- 44 ill-luck. ^] Less I stand to be lived. 071 the () -- (6$).

race. ptc. . aor. letters . brief. the north wind. -€ - (). . Dat. deliberate. Boreas. . : give (of § 184. ( Less. -ov (yevvaiorepos -6- Tos) well-horn. race. G6n. he - see - scratch. . come gxiage. 7<) (or gence. yeyovos -via -os). be willing. a school for gymnastic -?1 . . draw. pts.ya-). birth. skilled in gym- nastid exercises. wish. take counsel. Pts. pts. by race. () (. at lan- . thought. . sel. LX become. see () Gen. . a land-measurer. . laugh. (. LXXV. the epistle. x>aint. ''. § 39. -.($. A. yvoiT}v.'. family. letter. judgment. -. (jyev- () picture. angle. alphabet). marriage.€- see 347 * when called) aid. intelli- {y. man. noble. Adv.-) . § 44. also oneself (or one's child) in marriage. writings. yov. exercise. LXX. (o2) sllOUt.-- liberate. a writ- PI. yvQ)vai. hy birth. de- Mid.{ . geometer. pts. . cow.() see ) ox. Less. § 35. PI. --- wed'ding. (yvd. --. () woman. the elders. ten character. Less. lightly clad. slow). naked. assist (Dat.. rate. family.yv).). altar. to knoio.). book. Gen. recognize. . Prin. horn. -. at least. corner. Prin. '. () earth. etc. ' €. old . Mid. herdsman. Part. Less. resolve = LXVII. ox-Stall. . . also a lesson. sloio. (). § 28 D. he will. coun- determination. shout. loiter delay. be full of (Geu. wi^. Pf. Gen. 7^01^5). of old age (yipwv). speech. any knee. for a short time. §186. . (Infin. {tor y - unarmed. Frill. -- take counsel xoith oneself. --« €'^. § 38. yvCodi. . groio old.- cowherd. (17) oiol. marry.() - write. etc. geometry. . Poetic mortal {-). ) {ye tongue.training. Voc.• Prin. § 185.

differ.). ten years old. - loeep. LXXV.- public. show. stealing. See LXVIII. €. arrange. Prin. § 190. (or devrepa) then.€ .- - - directions. traduce. need (Gen. break up. (it). -6 -€€$. Pf. -|« -|a appoint. pts. hither. § 83. decide. LX.). § 187.: I. country. -€€\ 6 second. out. Adv.). deivws) - -.. desire . € . bursting into tears. skilled. etc. dispose. complain loudly. A. con- -€- (one) must converse. that which is need. request. LXXIV and point pts.make publicly. : (Gen. tenth.). . hind. ' o5v. clear. destroy.«. In comp.- ought one need. €€ skilled in speaking. Less. -oraros. indifferent (-orepoi. --- -€€- -«€ show - succeed in -- -- carry through. (or tico).-.verse xoith ) '? €• Prin. vos accused by a daughter. lord. master. aor. § 187.-« destroy pass.. fearing. .- - people or €€. aevae.). receive. etc. -€. by chance. lack. next. (Dat.-?. € .cowardly. €68 . . wonderful. use up. keep alive by stealth. part. . heg. of course. carry. thoroughly. £-8 - state. (') through. Le. '. pts. distinguish. (Gen.?- divinity. § 193. differ from utterly. ?. ten. part. dissolve. '€€9 clear. Past-Impf. dinner. is (Infin. 6€ -. dine. ivos certainly. (or twenty lacking one there € far from almost. () - belonging to the clearly. Voc.ss. . Prin. Less. pass. . arrest. through. exchange. coioardice. Less. -ovtos needful. -U.-. -«s - slander. Compound Verbs : throio across. terrible. spirit. (to) Mid. district. €. -« seize. § 90. § 127. people.: 348 8 () -ovos () -ovos guest. hr[\Lo<i exj)ense.

compare. § 130). 8((>. lawsuit. . § 23. as adv. satisfaction. § 80. (to). etc. give. lated. if not. of aor. be XXI. able. . pts. aor. Ace. See Less. seven -. see = -. € - near (Gen. that! . teacher. do. define. {--€) -£|-€ . if. it was necessary. lohere- mode of life. . aor. -. (§§ 153. see . '.. gift.be willing. tribe. think. Gen. See . oh that liken. Compound Nouns. see (§§ 05. give. of notable. Adv. - lodg- of himself . 162) aor. him.. to receive . LXXIX. fore.! -€. re- tolcl. etc. . . = : for the reason that ceive ) .. . 50 C). txoenty thousand. . nation. see -. -- : aor. imagine. LXXIV. justice. he be able. - ( (Gen. . ought (^).-- guess. () band. powerful. part. . aor. . tell. . it is -(). describe. Verbal allow. SkSdo-Ko) power. (17) -'€ Less.-• (out) through. 8-« Less. of Si - 349 e -€-€ go -. to re- - (-orepos ^ ----- just. of trial. right for me to twice. cli- vide into parts. hoard and etc. . unless. if. § 39. spear-bearer. about Less. of aor. . -(-. subj. two. suppose. () § 89. pursue. . § 177. Justice. . loish. of justice. punishment. seventy. shaft. ?). think. See to give. .. xtenalty. ' . you are opinion. two hundred. spear. of honest. slave. - LXVII. el whether . - ing. ' ---. SiaKOcrioi -ai -a Prin. () whether. -4. -« -- narrate. freely. custom. . seem. II. twelve. Dat. right. § 21 b. 8). teach. - aor. of -opilm separate. § 88. § 91. - (). or. (- destruction .

next. --". elxov. § 93. into. not possible. § 91. test. of €<-€ he entered. completely. € () likeness. if really.(. go (-^. I am accus- ^) ont : of - aor. § 94. out. of oiSa.. I said.-. find out. to. : nonnce. is likely. do wrong. empty.- etc. of permitted. of look into. expose. - clvai to be. common in. going. it is of a river. re- -. A. -{- -). fut. bring . garment. view. also Infin. pass. of (part. Compound Nouns. € . (i. Less. . of. € carry out. urns -- etc. Less. (-idys -€. § 124. have been said. «?i- javelins awaken. in. see cto of infin. send out. () -aros I am €( he. -. err. past-impf. els aor. reveal.twentieth € see LXXIV. come . uncover. 1€ exposed. -« -- 350 «Ikos Compound Verbs I. strike out. to. A. ^v one. rear.05 € €8 -OTOS () {) as likelihood. . selection. A. show. see from. you xorought. choice. peace. discover. of. awoke. lead out. look upon. image. go out. of -<. cIkos <!>s II. -. (more going .) things the |. In comp. § 95.). (or deceive utterly. pass. is it --' -. -. ) tomed eK (before a vowel. -. into. e'er then .-| that away.-. -fj. F. () a putting posure. lie § 194. -' . throio § 93.---' --- dress. -(() in. -ovos : throio out. part. aor.-' -. out from. I have said. pxit out. to. ^s) comp. In § 126. it is examine. A.) be {it) fulfilled. -era ^'. -•. at --- (Ace).) miss. likely. : child.e. or therefore). succeed ceive (ef/cotri). €•05 . e|- astonished. '-8 --? - - etc. aor. ex- . subj. in : €•-€. €-> = take utterly enslave. LIU. -€8 lead out. '. -. aor. etc. (aor. . €( tip. expel.

- earlier of.€. CKctOev €6(. . comp. in. display oneself. mine. my. convict. : €£ outside upon. each (of many). $) command (-\). (also TO ivTeOOev) hence. among. see have iirei lohen. thence. iv-xiirvtov 'iv dream (inrvos). --) -- £-€ in. Gen. sixth. €€5 . least. believe. see - etc. iv. display. §§ 47 -| ?. also ^7-. expect. Compound Verbs throw in. eviavTos year. in. « see £K. it is like. Past-Impf. cXcvOcpos -) ev 48. comp. - sand. . on. Compound Nouns. there. within (Gen. § 130.). eiraOov. iv (in I. ip-) Aor. - within. - ' . she. cherish. § 130. of (Gen.. «- (-orepos etc. here. . etc. there. there. '. (part. theretipon. fvL). «. 'ivtKa iV€K€v -? of myself. at.). there. six thou- . where^ ««€-€£ see see A. there. -€€ each (of two). - «'- -. on within. hither. -ovos sensible. festival. : ) (Gen. it is likely. whenever. €-$ sixteen (^0• €-> see ( inten- willingly. enjoin.). for the sake of.: €€§ . § 125.) for a freeman. fall €() € . €<08 . here. drag. - «. next. in the presence here. sixty. fall In «-•-.- -. '^. en- put on. 7 of (Gen. €v-TOs this side of (Gen. expectation. draio. etc.-€• . refute. see tls. in this case.). yonder.iKtlv () i\iris -iSos see « . (= iv II. henceforth. . free. toay.). {ivos. command. cross-question. -. subj. -. ter into. fit ^ Past-Iinpf. on aC' count of (Gen.(8 -€€ cKaTcpos 351 from €- -- that (one). €5 . -. -. six. €- hope. at home. § 23.. « front thence.- in the rational.). thereupon. § 25. . since. opposite. tv less. tionally. he. holiday. hope. e/-. in a row. -is clear. unrestrained. A-.

--5 «--. ).: €€•. -. the commands. •-€ into being after. §80. fault find (with). . desire. -'2 . vated fields. hear (Gen.). receive (Gen. of to. on. visit. against. to over- II. €-. admirer. . lover.-• be in - - ---€ -. §88. HTTos come see. potir a libation upon. bliy. of . on. love passionately. of summon. - eir-aivos praise. thereupon. -. () etc. 352 In comp. upon. deed. ---. ---' «. -. -.<8 . -8€. town. then. a dream appeared - «ir- upon (or or place set him. come in (in addi- -.-. tcith -•( understand. obtain. -. () : promise. go back. -. for (Gen. . call. of () -ov belonging to the folloio (Dat. -aTos •7-5 - () -yov set foot mount upon (Gen. bring to completion. an end. praise. aor.). -•- over) middle part. •-•7€. chief.). slay upon.). verse. over. see command. etc. master. Past-Impf.). €-£ display.). etc. § 129 b.--. aor. meet with (Dat. . infin. ser- viceable (deriv. observe. etc. desire (Gen. Adv. of close a slam. Aor. . fat. §177. come come upon. ask. 7. hut. I. aor. work.- «iri- -' Past-Impf. see culti- . tion to). administrator. etc. -« Compound Verbs A. obscure). to -ov (-orepos -ototos. of to. €€ -8 () cattle-shed. profession. - -. : toioards. -.). have charge care of. come to town. ---. as time passed. -. -( '5 --A.€€ see ') (iir'. view. --) () overseer. suitable. -€\ - pf. -Tpoiros trustee. blame. aor. towards. -Tpi'irw Verbal : entrust to (Dat. -•<. attempt. return. Past-Impf.--. --. -o«s (to) word. -( --» -< -< listen country. - brought - place Upon. Compound Nouns.

() straight. . § 130). see -. passionately desire. ! Gen. -«tos. c'ri -ov ready. well done. be esteemed. of cpia - €- -ov {-orepos -oraros) desolate. of fut. 6. aor. be p)rosperous . famous.). rich. -ovos blessed a good genius. «T. -«- "? - cpcoTiKOs - (Adv. - see €< = eat. « . eunuch. ask (a question). ( {5 shall say. within (§ 130).). '£(). () €<8 -? {) -? -5 () €-€5 Prin. able (to do). -€-€ €-. tertain () comrade. of a-rtpiu» de- pass. (. of sexual passion). epis -iSos (17) ipois - 353 « find. gfo. (Dat. €-u-Ko\os -ov -arcs -wraros) (-urepos appearance. Less. good wool. straightioay. -•« €-8 to pass through . straight road (66). «. find a ivay. praise. Ziiis calm. deem happy. (Adv. still. pf• (§ 87). . a question. tented with one's food prive of. pray. be having a beautiful -€'s clothing. ^Tcpos see - -ov one other. wiith pass. LXI. () companion (i. -- famous. etc. see itri. of two. . . furthermore. -tDs) erotic. forms of €-«. €-( strife. -ov -«Tos (0) love (esp. of Prin. pts. « '. (Dat.-6 was come. comZeus who presides over fellowship. (§ 91). pray to . happy. (). of pf. iTos -ovs (to) year. €€. preparedness. garment. happiness. CTaipos is satisfied. { €' «- cvpov €- £ (-). a woman who panions. amoI € LIV. €-8 cottieniiOMs.-. ei)-KO\ajs) full of resources. renown.. be happy. -with gen. -. . . F. £((. -ov. readiness.e. () Love. €( €•• -. said. Less. con- (). <-. () (V well. -ov well-made be -- be for- (). eat €(€. roris. « (- a questioning. deserted. (07€. fut. of. having a goodrepute. € -(). pts. £« €€ sumptuously straight line CTaipcios -a -ov pertaining to see easy €-€ -•« (iOvs not a lawful wife).thank tunate en- (straight) ioioard (Gen. pf. eii-iropos -ov pass. the prayer.

surely. lohich place. truly. / am being dis- loell. sweet. etc. he jeal- day. (infin. See § 178. . Aor. lead he paid no I cannot €€ tell. --'€ (§ 96). (. ^. it § 93). be of age. €v .). they allow life. -ous I. € J5ar(?0n. I went be young €< eJxov) (. lohere. (Past-Impf. ( /5. I have seen <() (). day. with pleasure. -- have. - and he loent least.« 354 «-. £5 lead I. means! past-impf. couraged. sit day. think. deem happy. pleasure. youth). at one''s hearth. in o's) (. .our. emulation. of hostile.). rivalry. 188. already €() life. = (= semi).. (Ace). . -tia = «. - suppose. -. «* heed. ) one of the same age. prime of life. each twice a day. is well. take pleas- so long as (see § 170). forthwith. in- tend. . by no § 93). than. {. -- stupid. § 184. $9). Zeus who presides over hos- 1] « (fem. .-ous of. hold in Adv.e. . . . £. -.. F. A. animal. iois until. in which loay. (... pitality. xire painter. (). II. . € by this time. ') the loay. (infin. -(8 see . either §§ 178. II. be one''s (Dat. c. ijdews) pleasant. age. or. -- - in (Dat. - hold. lay). vie loith. I said . day. ' . high esteem.tame. - {). II . of have come. () comrade. who paints from €€ (to) yoke or team (of mules. -.). live. companion. ws just as he loas in wrath without de- (i. Adv. €€ (v €€ it is « «£€ so. dat. half (an insep. get. € / suppose. €' yoke-strap.) leader in something (Gen. or. LVI. delight oneself icith. - § 47 . see have in mind. one § 179. Less. prefix. ) « '« ' ? part. a hnlf-mina - half. seek. every on each - .

S

-

355

Itoas (€£>, § 91).

()

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harness-maker''

driver

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€,

and

see

choose.

see

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see

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(), 1.
they went
they were

,
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either

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.

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,

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?

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door-keeper

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gaze

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view.

LXV.
see

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§ 88.

oblong

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sacrifice, offer sac-

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.

at,

be

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be of good cheer.
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daughter.

shield.

death.

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door.

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take courage

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hair.

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by sea.



,

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mortal

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death.

€, €8,

()

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treasure, treasure-chamber,

chamber, store-room.

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prised.

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run.

prey.

sou7id, ring, peal.

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take

fested with wild beasts.

see

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court,

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serve,

treat medically.

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worsted.

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a viewing, contemplation.

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oihkv

€€ -€€
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warrior., hero.

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by the gods

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§ 171.

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equally

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purify.

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heart.

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§ 93.

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the

gen-

beauty.

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to,

I.

etc.

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comp.
down, against, etc.
often merely intensive. § 127 b.
In Compound Verbs
come down.
he ended by
:

just as

to

conceal.

.
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strong.

£ (>,

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qualities

labor, be loeary, suffer.

be strong.

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the

tleman.

make a thing stand.
LXXII.
they made me king.

loom, etc.

()

noble.

well,

well-born and well-bred,

loTOs anything set upright; mast,

t<rxis -vos

LX.

beautiful,

possessing

perhaps, probably.

See Less.

-

most nobly,
see

§9.
-os

( ?,ill.

/ am

groom.

-<(),

doing harm (pepy-).

?)

Adv.

ill.

worse.

Prin. pts. Less.

call.

See

in order that.

it is

do

yearning, desire.

Adv.

craven,

ill-born,

I am

a late aor.

pease.

€$

kindle, burn.

LXX.

Less.

cient, able, worthy.

be

§ 196.

-

and

Less. LXIII.

- !

-

§194.
yet.

of time, opportunity.

Upctov animal for sacrifice.

come

§ 189.

due measure, the right point

itpivs -t(os (0) priest.

see

purification.

-ov purifying.

although (reg. with part.,

offerings.

, -.
(,

()

-€«s

and, even, also.

93).

§

Upos -a -ov divine, holy.

clean, clear, free

from pollution.

one

;

loho has no professional knowl-

edge

-

-

private.

private citizen

;

:

-

-

-8

.

beseeching,

go (or come) down,

thrown doion, put down,
render judgment against

(gen. of the person

ace. of

;

the penalty).


-

--.
-

suppose, guess.

=

poetic,

pass.

Pf.

cover up.

-

-€
-8

pity.

Less. LXIII.

doion.

sit

--

-€8<

-$

II.

asleep.

lie

Compound Nouns,

etc.

through.

sleep

).

Opposite (Gen. §130).

dowmoards, beneath, in
Kol

§ 97

leave, leave

break down, put

dissolve, end, etc.

yoke,

€£ -- - --<ra

hence

lodge,

-ovs

()

be

a

make

head.

-5 ()

-<ra

-( -,

-

Pf. pass,

-'--

---

turn down, overturn, sub-

-- --

dare, take a

hence

risk,

it

possibly.

weeping, wailing

due.

put down.

§ 88.

-- -€<
--

despise

(Gen.

116 h).

(older

hear and obey, overhear (Gen.).

-€. -- -{achieve.

Impf.

-€, .

form

'()
- ()€£XLVIII.

is likely,

().

/cXt/'w)

^-

(eKXrjo-a) shut.

report,

--

use up, destroy.

-€|,

().

danger, risk.

observe care-

fully, consider.

herald.

one loho plays and sings

to the lyre

curately), perceive.

-€ --

occupy.

gain,

profit.

learn thoroughly, observe {ac-

--'-

urge, com-

gain, profit.

un-

;

guest.

§

-€,.

see

mand.

-

-<

down,

;

see

seize upon, catch, find.

behind.

the

world below.
lie.

-€ -

(-

spy, inspector

).
=;

fell asleep.

:

-ov ridiculous {ye-

- -- - €, ..
€€ €
- -- - €
§ 97.

doxon.

lie

re-

LXI.

Less.

turn.

scatter (seed, etc.).

-,

-

he ended

by saying.

--,

-

357

fame, glory.

inherit.

,().

lean.

Less.

couch, bed.

Gen.

-

hold down, restrain,

- shared

()
in

the State,

mon.

thief

common,
in

com-

$
€-

(5

-

in disorder.

-- -- order, arrange,

escape one^s notice.

strength, power,

(to)

have poicer, be master of (Gen. § Hog).
(), PI.
(), Gen.

€€
flesh, meat.

.

§ 47

better.

-

knock.

()

acquire,

-

come

Prin.

-

()

to

pts.

()

lion.

?)

much, too much.
(Adv.
perse-

-<

vering, earnest.

()

pilot.

in a circle.

circle,

(, ) dog, bitch.
pack of hounds, ken-

(--).
- -ov having authority

;

wolf.

--

mas-

distress, grieve.

Pass.

be grieved.

mistress.

-

(-).

pain, grief.

lyre.

sheepskin, fleece.

-- -•

Poetic

beseech.

entreaty, prayer.

nel

ter,

()

-

possessiOJi,

rest,

henceforth.

very, very

property.

Gen.

remnant.
remaining, the

-

hidden, secret.

possess.

collect.

leave.

conceal.

LXXIV.

,€-

reckon-

- ---€ - £€
-and

distinguish, de-

-- -- Strike,

)€8

reason,

account,

report,

tale,

ing.

cide, judge.

Less.

Speak well of one.
word,
sjjeech,

.

say.

tell,

--

possess,

§ 170, 2 c.

see

rule.

----

Less.

-,
-.
,
-- .
LVI.

fem. of

deck, adorn.
-ovs

$

358

ornament, universe.

order,

lamp.

--

prevent.

loose.

§ 79.

village.

-

-

dull,

dumb, deaf, deaf

«
, -€
-

obtain by

lot,

obtain

(- -).

Ace.

()

Less.

-

(-orepos

bright, brilliant

see § 113 g.

-€

()

hare.

grasp, receive.

,

-

and dumb.

LX.
-oraros)

lesson.

act of learning.

pupil.

learn.

take,

().

()
()

§

84 and Less.

LIII.

-

-ov blessed, happy.

my friend.

- deem

happy.

»

$

359


,

-

by

long, far.

far.

from

afar, afar.

more,

very,

and

most, especially,

...

certainly

!

-

rather than,

much

as

as

possible.

3().
-8

,

$

()

mad

be

rage,

-

()

one

call

-5 ()

''

see §§ 190, 191.

8

however.

siirely,

loait,

() part.
- - middle, medium,

?

midnight.

middle

to witness.

in

life.

whip, flog.
xmthout rea-

(),

mid-day

south.

- - filled

- -.
with, laden with

§ 117).

comp.

with,

share

:

change

one''s

In

after.

with,

§ 129

differently.

goad, whip.

the

midst.

()

loitness.

§ 196.

await.

-ovs

(Gen.

seer.

oracular response.

Gen.

,

after,

c.

mind, repent.

-.
^ ' €€
.
.. €€8
-,

-,
-(
$ (
' 8
in vain,

idly,

son.

-

give a share of, share.

Verbal

§ 89.

§ 45.

large.

and

Adv.

greatly.

Comp.

Super.

€-

-Otis,

lad.

-

have a share

dark, black.

aor. part,

certain, be destined) to do (In-

limb by

limb.

from) limb.

()

song,

tune,

often witli a part.

these things are
yoti

).

see Less.

my

have

not, see §§ 144, 180, 178 II
§ 160 c.

unless,

;

lest,

,

§ 159.
§ 67.

blame

against

;

XXXVII.

object of care,

.
-{

(Pf.

for the better.
between (Gen.), meanwhile;

lyric

lyric poet.

a care for this.
remember.

§ 87.

part.) fortxine being changed

verse.

care,

let

§ 98.

change.

-? ()

tive

re-

of.

of

loose, give up.

fin.).

an

§ 88.

change,

:

tract.

intend {be about, be

-oDs

after,

transpose, change.

Mid.

smile.

be

se7ld

summon.

§47.

'$

:

see

Impera-

(rivi),

charge

by no means.
ing.

at

all.

§ 51.

no one, nothNeut. as adv. not

.

|

360

€•€

£'

,

longer.

€.

.

.

'-

manage; tend

never.

710

.

.

what

nor.

.

.

see

-$

month.

jealousy,

-8(

hate.

reward.

ire, loages,

laio.

c. 818).
§ 28 D.
remembrance.
-<rw remember, remind.
make mention ! imperawhich serves as
of

€€-€.
tive

aorist to

with

-yis

difficulty.,

reluctantly,

£

.

.

not only

.

-

.

.

hut

.

also.

fate,

doom, death.
sung

lyric poetry

music,

€--

.

- one

- ()

,€-€ €£
-a

recently married.

youth.

cloud.

island.

-- -• ,
()

ship, § 38.

§

vcKpos

()

%.

conquer.

-.

sickness.

29 C.

mind,

corpse.

see s.v.

()

•€ -- --

dead.

childhood.

icho has just

() islander.
{v^js () fasting).

sea-fight.

vcKpos

() one

() mind,

()

young, new,

from

(\( (-)).

see s.v.

-(-

I.

victory.

tale,

myth,

vavs, Gen.

§ 179

/asi

labor, be weary.

word, speech, proverb,
see § 178

the

-$. Adv.

and

()

to

literature, music, etc.

,

)
-

i-ites)

(

vea veov [veurepos

come

alone, only,

^
of

customary

the

fresh,

commit adultery.

-

ven-

use; acknowledge, believe in;

deem, regard, believe.

veov

adulterer.

-

of

observe as a custom, pjractise,

scarcely.

portion, fate.

teacher

«-

law.

() mina (=

=

distribution

anything assigned, hence,

custom,

§ 51.

-•

<€(>

()

pasture.

68 ()

els,

due, hence, righteous

geance.

sheep.

of

see § 192.

Gen.

is

indignation,

sheep.

€05 - -

,
,
,

tend flocks in pastures.

€€-5

not yet.

.

neither

.

^

flocks.

to

he

ill.

thought, purpose.

€'€

€v

have in

vovv in accordance

€ -- - loith (one's) wishes.

perceive,

think, suppose, plan.

€-

vvv

dis-

tribute, assign, dwell in, occupy,

.

now;
Gen.

just now.

()
midnight.

night.

€->

.

)0

361

|€vos

(^ -)

happiness,

^5

nected with another by
hospitality, hence,

ties of

guest

(less

«(> --

(

entertain as a guest.

-ows (to) sword.

5
€€8

mass, bulk.

'

§§ 24, 105, 110.

this.

way, road,
along
the road, on the loay.
oSovs, Gen.
() tooth.

()

happy, prosperous.

,,

deem happy.

€, §

?)

ola (see

know.

^ --

with partic,

§

175

e.

-ov pertaining

to

the

house, belonging to the family.

()

--

house-servant.
inhabit, dwell.

()

household,

house,

family.

() plural of oIkCov = oIkos.

-{ --aros

()

-

()

suppose.

-

skilled in

manthink,

§ 179, I a.

{

I

-

--

am

qualified,

am

.
-, -, .

one and the same.

(,

)

of the same

age.

- -ov like, similar,
manner, equally.

€€()

same, nevertheless.

dream.

gone.

()

reproach.

reproach, charge against

,
,,
one.

()

name, noun.

Aor. pass.

, <,-., €,
•€
name,

call.

see

in-

forms

direct

;

respectively
;

J

-€
-

how

of
;

that,

in order that.

§§ 148, 149, 160.
behind, after (Gen.)

back,

back

again,

after

(Gen.).

'-

see.

temper, mood, wrath, anger.

reach

after (Gen.).

see

have

Epic

in anger.

see

LXI.

(-).

adj.

roast.

as, lohat sort of.

able.

-,

-.

see

eye

(see ttcDs;) how, as,

estate, etc.

such

oios

(^).

household management.

aging an

olos

room, chamber.
administer a

manage

household,

116 b.

dream.

§ 95.

-a

(

()

all the

oIkos house, room, household.
oIkcios

-

before.

little

-ov short-lived.

in like

§ 21 b.

a

irpoTcpov

j^ain, grief.

whence.
ot to him.

bliss.

- -ov scant, few, small,

frequently host).

oSos

- -ov

Stranger, foreigner, one con-

See

Less.

-

-ov (Adv.

oxit,

)

straightforward, right.

reach

upright,

!

362

OpBpLOS

--

at day-break.

-

opKos oath.

-hasten; Mid.
-8 (, )

motion,

in

set

start, hasten.

opvls

cock,

bird,

boundary,

limit,

(0)

hen,

rule,

standard.

-'

'

opiKOs


8

and

-rrep

oo-Tis

•- -=

.

many

how

great

! etc.

see oo-tis.
§

21

,)
II,

,

late.

see

-,

see

irais.

Gen.

710

(-).

(,

as adverb.

j'lciy thing ,

child, boy,

from

no

one.,

-

educate.
child, baby.

chant the paean

noth-

(as adv.) not at all.

never yet.

),

honor

See

long ago.

--

vjith

(iraLUv,

paeans.

§ 134.

ancient.

back, again.

-ov neither.

§ 46.

(ert).

= \£.

cordingly, not then

game.

'play.

not, nor, not even.

longer

)

training, education.

not,

never.

vision

little

ovSeis

•7£
€€8 -

serpent.

boyhood.

by no means.

ing,

.

-€8 ()

XIX.

and

()

be borne, hence, ride.

no ! §§ 144,
180, and Lessons VI,

8€
178

eye.

see

girl; servant.

§ 27.

b.

lohere, gen. of

(,

see

see

, see <8.
of him.

ovtws

thus, so.

it is.

, ,.8 -.

whenever.

oTi that, because.

,,

§§ 25, 105,

in this respect,

-ovs (t6) advantage, profit.

ivhat-

loin, loins.

lohen.

nor.

- ,

,

o»|/is

how many

as,

()

-vos

this.

08 .
68
8,

-€

whoever,

as great as,

.

.

see

Gen.

see § 194.

oircp,

102.

until.

Is

.

153 b.

€8

§§ 24,

§§ 27, 178, la.

ever.

as

he.

.

§ 196.

owe.

§

quail.

which.

loho,

-

8
,8

of a mule.

-8 ()

-os

see § 193.

thus

--

OS

neither

meanwhile.

() mountain-animal,

-- fear, dread.

OS

not yet.

.

.

.

,
-, ((),

mxile.

i.e.

.

.

110.

opos -ovs (to) mountain.
opevs

.

never.

surely not.

etc.

opos


,

then, ac.

.

.

?

-, -,

see iras.

()

alongside,

In comp.
amiss.

§

:

beside,

129

d.

by,

near.

by, beyond,

around.']. altogether. be at hand. -€5 () assembly -epos (ayep-). one loho gave. prepare. (. § 91. - --. iravToios -a -ov of every sort.: -.-- stiffer. -' all. § 93. 8. go around. II. -ov wholly wise. 129 e. stop / ). -- 363 iras irept Compound Verbs everywhere.-. proverb. trance. fut. to. \. excel. beside. faith. surround. 7€- remain Prin. Compound Verbs lead around. -? -? - try. - -oraros) (-orepos ----. see see § 194. - treat. see -ov resembling. ? --' -- give over - -' down sit summon. -. put beside. . escort.. bring to an side-entrance. § 96. about. throw altogether. Mid. Gen. trust in (Dat. -- XXIV. . See Less. § all. provide. •irCo-Tis -€8 () bring to one.) . furnish. LXVII. : around. observe. -$8. -. - survive. be at hand. en- end. handle. § I. certainly. irap-o8os § fut. the very. see -. iravTOs. faithful. of send. -. the side. hold beside. -. II. -. . in every way. of () poverty. -.^ - by. .- -- obey (Dat. etc. Mid. pts. take not at 6 iropa- to.-). -. -ov titterly bad. -. pass. pass p)ersuade . Past-Irapf. full suit of armor. trust - - see A. take. pass to cease. fifty.-( beside. -ov parallel. call to one.(^-. -- ••(-5 -.-. -. trial. sit beside. be present. . comp. cease. the whole. 4.• from another. exceeding. every. () mother of all. -8 -- Compound Nouns. see in. attemj)t. over. -' -- Less. throw beside. . In about. five thousand. look at from . I. iras 82 -- like. jwe- sent. trust..: : I. I. make -. . be beside oneself. -. II.

. make a some time. someI suppose. adv. £-. gray. . . - - pertaining to zens. preserve. See most. side? . loith. PI. drink. ' hoio . Compound Nouns. republic. strait. . hostile.more «s irX€i<rTov Pf. ford. () poem. two) iroiel- U. speech. -- ' '7£ sharp.be at -- -- consider carefully. irio-Tus. 10 depraved.(. ? Less. '. travels. . . eirXivcra sail. . proceed. . iToUa ) . Comp. irov- sea. . «08. at an- lohich XXII. one time - . . -. . -€ : city. on which where? sonieiohere. Gen. except. . poet. () - do. loandering. €. wallet. § 45. --. see citizen. . 29 C. . much? ever. fall.-) why . () see •€<. . see <. •- . () irepi-XuTros -ov very sad. . much.- . see '€€8. II. -- ' . . (of account - flock. - . etc. J river. irXio) Superl. many-colored. lohither? I. loar. the evil one. § . hitter. . -. loalk about. street. fight with. at length. government. for the most part. be rich. see gird (oneself) II. other. harsh. 364 ireaciv €-. () -- foot. bad. . go. political. (- toil / § 130. about (with what. shape. quam maxime. . -rrpiap-UTcpos numerals). see Less. irXoCs (0) voyage. citizenship. . . take of. older. at in the loorld ? 8' at whence? how? make. much-learning. - times. badness. -. . --- Strike. -i's of what sort? loar.-€. press. quantity. irXovTos wealth. XLIII. 47 § citi- many. as = many mould. overjoyed. i-ich.€ " . - -d (to) multitude. way.-9. when? . device. weigh dnion. much. . once.

() forward. oiSt• . Very to. -•€5 standing near('aa). root). II. in addition to. II irp£v 6e/ore. A. to to. put (). sooner. toward. Trpo<r-€Ti -. before. set forth. event. yet. fire. II. ---$-) at- call to oneself. zealous. Compound Nouns. send forth. (-acTTepos -is : -) to. logue. bring before one. wife asked before (he could speak). face. as adv. -<« . Prin. () come §97. value. forth. assign etc. . in preference -» f comp. person (in a dia- •-- in front of (Gen. •-8 rare. choose {in preference). before. from - one. fore. require besides. . (-. present. besides. formerly. (to) irporepov be- his add furthermore. be laid out lie jrray Past-Impf. prior. . A. supplement (). --(. 365 (-). do. not yet. Compound Verbs -'. be placed by. eager. go toward.:. -' indicate in advance. to. -ov former. irpo lead toward. - see () be zealous -. hear. etc. -£ -€ § 124 d. propose. ancestor (yev. sooner. expose. Compound Nouns. Adv. belong to. -^. beg 129 f. --. In --. -'. fare LX. to. J. -- Compound Verbs §§ IGO b. affair. yet. proposition irpOTcpos -a See '-- dear (-orepos Stretching (). . - () -ov first. first. hold pay see -€. the assigned task. pts. In comp. (6) -irvpos oi ••••€ . » : . do previously. by. with reference to. sheep -?• € make to. -€ tention. assistant -is obei- attach to oneself. before. learn by inquiry.yov-). to. -' honor. : § to. irpoo•- irpOT€pos. inquire.). she^therd. -- - - place before. : to. (like a corpse) -. wpos toxoard. see § %% (ro) I. etc. and Less.. I. F. -ov belong - -- sance stretch forth. toward. § 130). -ov by the roots (pi^a. Less. Past-Impf. see irpo (end). pts. by. thing. c. expect. never LXX. 172. ? former. beggar. -Oes. -arcs : Prin. Gen. 170.

- § 87. shadow. zeal. -ovs (to) darkness. of. a reciter of epic poems. € €€ €8. collect. -arcs . hasten. come -- together. pjletely. LXV. agree with. turn. of iron. c. your. . 200yard dash. . rect (late) spelling -«-. bring together. phrase. dark. I. ? (Adv. Less. Aor. rhapsodist do be earnest. sell. -ovs strength. feet)). gather together.ark. fully. word.). Compound Verbs - A. stage-building. cppcvcra floio (pev. yours. by chance. --- sit down beside loith. •'£- tirge - if ye turn not. army. verb. consider. pass. spy - general () scene. sign. . temper. earnestness. see eral of (Gen. . examine careLess. send with. sit : doion -- as- icith. . -is £€ -. stage. - tent. feet Eng. disposition. -. (. -) -. 5. 08 deprive clear. = point out. twist. earnestly. be eager. : com- with. stitch a measure of {i.) ( paSios -a -ov (Adv. - 366 for sale. gether 8 to- rhythm. o-Koiros xi:atchman. €-. sign.-. 582 army. easy. stadium. €05 . sociate with. be gen- be soldier. race-course.- A less cor- is o-kotivos. play with. stade = length.pu-)• () saying. - - comp. (-. -. Prin. be advantageous. -. Pf. target. loalk about loith.e.'•€ - -irws offer how? . de- breast. ( -5 () mouth. pts. -. In loith. m. ?. LX. §41. € 05 ' silence. § 125 b. . 600 Gk. iro7i. . <5 see spatch. - A -) Sabbath. tomb. song). haste. thoughtful.o-KOT€ivos () -aTos . agree. (). somehow. general.<- -os pass. -- ( -(? () -aros Semitic indicate by a XLVIII. be useful. « § 87. () ( --= ($ - expedition. -' = equip.

orvv-8ov\os a see € € iVeKOv felloio- - beget. . an end. Compound Nouns. •8. •-8 -•8 a balance. posium. Tc'Xos -ovs (to) end. .. (). = ). loeight. € €€ T€\os as adv. -€ €| 367 assist in driving out. ' see «. closet. €€ bring to an Te'Xcos -a -ov completed. pardon. fulfilment. to.completion. etc. . . course. together. - (bbbv) with all speed. issue. sober. (€. assign. (Comp. almost. () () end. bear (young). . (- perhaps.- soundness of mind. save. burial counsel. a writing. (). § 21 b. % sympathetic sym- ) (for -- (or soon as ) as.-£< of sound mind. arrange.-8 (--5 etc. Superl. see tCktw. x)ay (a debt. TOKOS child. . -€ . -£ - counsellor. -- inter- very much. etc. quick. €€ to lay eggs. and AdV. thank-offering for deliverance. . bring to .). a helper in xoork. c. with.: -. -. $1080).-. talent store-room. accom- plished. pile together. as quickly as pos- sible. () 6 (= -- -- ally -«s ).. (. drinking-bout. € €5. II. experiences. () a tax-collector. (-^ -- -€(> live xoith. -€05 (-- being a --. body. at once. «-? --. 07'der. «- chance. nearly. «- €- synagogue. = -ovos cut the throat. collect. £€8 tune. (. self-control.. company. born with. die. -5 () carpenter. quickly book. end.- - bring -. an -« make lower. discreet. meet happen with. be with. very. complete. vigor- near. €£ €€ . § 195. humble. a bringing together. slave. misfor- T£ and. akin -^s to. ously. event. ? . leisure. good sense.- . finally.

. see so 176 fortune. kv - § tomb. so tall. profession. -. table. then. . -< (uphold honor) as- Less. § 127 c. « LVIII. such. see ovtos. in ivhat manner. en- dure. son. or why? any one. . §27. €- he spoke as follows. so great. nurture. see art. . dare. § 39. writer of tragedies. () vu€p . c). etc. so bad. sleep. a turning. . concern- . water.. surely. then. obtain (Gen. sist (. in such a . much. absolute sovereign. See Less. . . Toiros place..- Less. run. -€. -- undertake. LX. value. . 6 € See LX. who? Tis. See place. Mid. so () Gen. honor. - - €'. at that time. ToiovTOs case. - . -) (^-orepos in ivhat way? way. vester.- participle. enjoyment. art. food. moreover. etc. )€ m this place (). a sort of. great. for -. so long. means. . put. § 39. ' €€ €. make by devise. see — fourth. § 88 and LXXVI. therefore. Toi in truth.-.() despotic rule.-. turn trim. price.hold in honor. chance. honored. § 120 c). of. tyrant. at all. turn. <() ToaovTOS Strike. above. avenge (Dat. value.your..-. precious. nourishment. . on behalf ing. one who has suffered wrong. some thing. nourish. a. . tIs tI &. - . surely. \. in every . somewhat.. § 196. manner. (oneself). vengeance. third. \. any thing. ) nurse. three times. = see . etc.). luay.368 T€p\|ilS . see T€K-. some one. Less. see TOKOS. rear. -< . see manner. -. chance (with hit. -705 . see see - €. . tvhat? §27. — <€.. tKtyi -. .

I. under. wont.-'- you § - go under. by. receive fasten on. boar. fond of argument.)• II. bring. say. --' are 176 see -€( secretly. fame. sow. ^) friendship. reply. ios (. hypocrite. {serve. . somewhaty under. is treat affectionately. - bind under.-. dear. cure. Mid. minister to (Dat.: 369 tiiro { ') -. () {an under-rower) underling. next. -- see it flee. ••-€5 - bear. and dvov declare. () a a)i oneself. -a -ov latter. by. behind. § 80. endure. 179.-- In comp. fond of words. oh! ah! alas - -. --now ! : secretary. on the next day. prophetic voice. carry off for a carrying. motion. flight. servant. secretly. a small basket. -ov . expose. under. vs.-. medicine. -ov loving mankind. put on. A. €€' ---^ -' - a roioer serve. Gen.. . get he loas - - remaining. on the day -€( after. be . ignorant clearly g. Compound Nouns. -. -- see of. kiss. - and §§ 94.jealous.. saying. later than. I. load.). come win. love. - (show oneself) appear. no -ov slight. . ) swine. weave..- show. vo-Tcpaios -a -ov next day. carry lead. as (-)) -'--- tm- derstand.. actor. . -- friendly. voice. left. of account. drug. answerer. •' .(Adv.. wages. - under. left. friend. - () -ov beloved. after (Gen. --- -«'? () etc. remaining. § 129 g.see as receive rades. paltry. give ! : - be- fitting a friend. off. €. under. take up (under) leave bald. com- -ov loving one^s appears. fond of literature. re- -ov iJo-Tepos Mid.. Compound Verbs show a glimpse .-. 2b - - port.

bitterness.. taking --- string chord.-- intention. anxi- 47 B. inten- (ro) ception. . See bile. time.serviceable. (Infin. tion. () murderer. Less. see -- rejoice. etc. natural bent. enjoy. ])ainful. . time. reflect . gut. anger. have understand- -aros favor pi.- () worse. - Gen. acter.). - . be a philosopher. for a short time. - of gut. € Dat. () guard. LXVIII. vjidow. money. have a care for (Gen. mind. -£ {) care. favor. {) nature. -0 -TOKos eggs. -€5 () -» char- features. go to and fro. pursue knoiol- edge.consider. possessio7i. spelling () - light. matter. oneself with) use (Dat. Gen. - fear. laying -ov golden . () thing. see € Gen. . pAan. -ov loving loisdom. x€p<ri(v). pride. for marking €-.murder. go (or come) frequently. hand. or point out (to) point out to oneself) ponder. in thoughtful. ( seek to (Dat. murder. proud. . please. made ointment). he (Adv. •- Mid. intend. gore. precautions. (17) - think. rubbed on (as time. €-. being on the loatch. tell. one''s () an instrument a mark engraved .. - - to be () the - Anointed One. -. gratitude.). there is Infin.difficult. -- -. . ety. . ing. less correct (late) - coined gold.).. -Kos. €5 370 full of light.-€ - -$ -€ --€S eager for knowledge. prudence. character. -.-ov useful. § thousand. € €( 4)ov€vs -' Mid. . -. prudent. -ov grace. guard. see of gold. impressed. terrify. per- right mind. Xiip. kindness. see bright. gold. heed.. anointed.). $) . - one ought. in <( a for good. - . a guarding. A is - (serve need.

see (). that. -ovs {t6) falsehood. Gen. just 5 . € - -. §194. -is lying.-( speak €. ! being. §130. . life. () -. - •.() fitting time. . -. ovtos. life. (followed § 151).. as follows. soul. see bear false witness. 5€ . 371 space. -. by sir it life. loriting. . hour. (. liar. -ov serviceable. apart apart. egg. breath of see season. good 9. ! — so so. oh . in truth. XiapCs from (Gen. station. in the - (ixriTtp jtist as. thus time is to be § 197. beneficial. prime of lie. false. country.). or Infin. same way. falsely. so as to Indie. « springtime. place. one''s see -^: \^ . shoulder. € .

pupil of a philoso- Socrates and founder of the hedonistic school of philosophy. a Medan.II Proper Nouns and Adjectives ' *8 ' '€ fifth (i. sons of Agamemnon and Menela'us. 372 . to son of Sparta collection later authorship. Anthology quarter last of to ($ MeXea-ypos. Glaucon. of Mende.e. Remus" of ancient Greece. a king of Archida'riuis.d. father of Char- Androu."Atds A'tys. Athe- nian comic poet (445-385 b. an Athe- Apollodo'rus. '•€5 <8 Only fragments of Anacverses is of Antisthenes. 525-456.e. odes. a lyric poet of at Antimoe'rus 'Apio-TMTiros Aristippus. an Athenian tragic poet. Aristophanes. 'AvrC^oipos £ ' -' the sixth century. and rich. A'treus. poet laureate the court Samos. a sophist and a pupil of Protagoras. a7i Aeolian. Aeschylus. son of Croesus. mides. namely. i. son of Andro'tion. of are extant. known as Aesop's Fables includes many stories of The the twelfth century a.c. a collection of Greek idyls. a of Pericles. the century. s. who said to have lived duiing the first half the sixth of centuiy. *8 - Athens. '€5- -ov Argive. " Uncle the Aesop. reon's there " Polycrates. an Athenian.v. the most brilliant representative of the Old Comedy. Agis. preserved a large collec. Atri'dae. AloXcvs -€§ () is elegies. Alcibiades. () Athens. philosopher scientist (384-822 b. -ov Athenian. 'ApYiios Artem'bares. and epigrams ranging from the seventh century b. pher. nian.c). tion of inferior imitations known as Anacreontics. during the 'AveoXoyia. Anacreon. €$ See but and Aristotle. kinsman He was handsome.c). nosegay). but very immoral and utterly unscrupulous. father of Hippocrates. brilliant.

i. The New Testament is the most important representa- in the The Euxine Sea. and founder of his dialogues after him.c). a famous mathe- matician part of original Greek in sional ac- flourished at the Menexenus. Gen. loves of Meleager.. tragic poet (480-406 b. the elsewhere New Greek the Testa- innocent of literary re- finements. Her most important temple was at Argos. sists ( The New Tes- documents. Heracles. as or pher of Ephesus. about SOO tius (i. cele- the fifth century. tive of the colloquial post-classical Euripides. father /) of see Zevs. a quaintance of Socrates. Dni'i'us. an is main that of the common people. Greece. a philoso- form of the known Heliodo'ra. ' He was the first great comic poet of Greece. one of the He'ra. -€ () a Dorian. brated philosopher of .c. a comic poet of Sicily and a contemporary of Aeschylus. He end of the third century b. Epicu'rus. and wrote numerous mathematical treatises. machus.C. Theog'nis.e.. Athenian transla- tions. son of Phrygia and Midas. probably Zeus. . Epicure'an the of school of philosophy. an early elegiac and perhaps the best repre- . Delphi. of which the most celebrated is his " Elements of Geometry " in thirteen books. style Euclid. a philosopher the most Crorgias. father of Lysis. the lives of the philosophers. Heracli'tus. . '. tament an Euthijde'mus. who flourished B. while the language dialect ( the Common dialect. one of famous 0€O"YVIS Plato sophists. physician at Athens. Testament. 5 EryxV- son of Acu'menus. Demo' crates. Demophon. Gen.D. a Demo'critus. a king of famous Midas. Epichar'mus. father of the the of named one '- () Hellas.8 373 rop5ios TopSios ? € Gurdius. in part con- of With the exception of the book of Hebrews and an occasentence of ment is of Alexandria. of Laerte). century A. a king of Persia. a famous oracle of ? Apollo in Phocis.e. ' poet. Diogenes Laerin the He third wrote. )' .

Callias. Lycians. McvavSpos Menander. a Persian name. a mountain in Mysia. verse quotations) of -apos (0) Caesar. € € '. a friend of Socrates. By single- Mithrada'tes.374 ' () sentative of the sententious style. father of Hipponi'cits. Kvpos Cyms. His plays abounded in sententious sayings. Persia. literary critic. libra- Lysis. a of Melea'ger. comic poet of the late fourth cen- and the best known representative of the New Comedy. to Theognis were written by other He frequently mentions poets. each consisttury.c.C. in cento of Greek poets. a mathema- have been a teacher title AvSos a Lydian. "€5 () . a friend of Calli'machus (c. 310240 B. Mcvc^cvos Menex'enus. said to Laconisms. son of Xicer'atus. in his verses. LII. . 3Iede. Nico' teles. as £5 Homer. a Mysian. MCkkos Miccus. - - sophist. an Athenian Hippo'crates. the elegiac couplet III).). He employed (see Less. have been ' preserved in a collection Cadmus. Olympus." His rule extended €3 monian.. Mysian. known Menander. of Media and vastly enlarging the boundaries of his empire. ? -ov Lacedae- - ? " -ios -a -ov Nicias. the one of Plutarch's essays. See Less.e. Cyrus gained for himself the title of " The Great. a (ot) the Cilicians. see from 558-529 ? -08 Clibu'lus. more than seven hundred of which. king (i. He Syria.C. b. tury B. 'IiriroviKOs the lonians. . philologist. an Athenian general. rian of the great library at Alexandria. son of Apollodo'rus. poet. his friend Cyrnus. tician. Median. (ot) the €£$ lyric noble. born at Gadara lived in the first and was the first make a noteworthy anthology of Socrates. ing of a single verse. the bibliographer. a late Greek poet. Kvpvos. Orpheus. the reputed founder of Thebes. Many commonly verses the of attributed €$ young Dorian Theodo'rus.

pupil of Soc- and teacher one of Aristotle - friend of Plato. country gentleman. of the nCvSapos Pindar. -? Socrates. a comic poet. Athenian phi- losopher (469-399 B. Philip- Plutarch. a rural god. a famous - pides.). . Solon. Protag'oras. Timothy. () Phason. Phile'mon.). (428-347 B. one of the rivals of Menander. the brother of Hippocrates. Par'aliis. One () a Persian. Xenophon. 0£5 Pericles.C.-ov Syrian.c). a Greek au- thor and lecturer of the He the Timo'theiis. -ovos « () a Paphlago- an Athenian statesman (died 429 b.. soldier.C.() Sardes or Sardis. a ^ sixth century. () Athenian tragic Sophocles. first great phi- losopher of Greece. tury A.). Pericles.430 B. . one of the chief lyric poets of Greece (518-442 rates Greek Timar'ion.C. Noth- either of () a X on miscellaneous subjects. Plato. .D. an Athe- Pausa'nias.). Printed in the United States of America. -€Ovs Persians Terpander. who named one of his dialogues after him. and innumerable essays Lives ing is known about these. nian. son of Philome'lus. plays of Aeschylus is called the (^). of loves of Meleager.C. Xenophantus. a celebrated Greek philosopher of the son of Xanthippus. wrote first cen- Parallel of famous Greeks and Romans.C. - Pan. poet an (497-405 B. capital of Lydia. an Athenian states- - man of the sixth century. of whom he was a great admirer. Phrygia. the lyric poets. a son of Pericles. Char'mides. one of the earliest of the nian. the father of Plato's mother. Phrygian. Phaedrus. sophist of the fifth century. an Athenian and B.Sav6nnros $ 375 Pythag'oras.). and author (born 0. The quotations in the Lessons are from his Memorabilia or Memoirs of Socrates.

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