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The knee has 2 joints

Tibiofemoral joint
Hinge which allows flexion and extension
Patellofemoral joint
Articulation between the patella and anterior end of
the femur

A single skeletal muscle, such as the triceps muscle, is attached

at the origin to a large area of bone

At its other end, the insertion, it tapers into a tendon which is

attached to another bone

A myofiber is a multinucleated single muscle cell

The cell is densely packed with contractile proteins, energy

stores and signaling mechanisms

The myofiber is the smallest complete contractile system

These fibers are actually groups of cells (myoblasts) fused


Each muscle fiber contains:

o Sarcolemma-plasma membrane

Sarcoplasmic-reticulum for endoplasmic reticulum



Myostatinsuppresses skeletal muscle development

o Mutations in myostatin genes lead much larger muscles

Fibers increase in size by attracting more myoblasts to fuse with


Three arrangements commonly referred to:

o Parallel (longitudinally) arranged

Muscles with fibers that extend parallel to the muscle

force- generating axis

While the fibers extend parallel to the forcegenerating axis, they never extend the entire muscle

Biceps are an example

o Unipennate

Muscles with fibers that are oriented at a single angle

relative to the force generating axis

The angle between the fiber and the forcegenerating axis generally varies from 0 to 30.

Vastus lateralis is an example

o Multipennate

Muscles composed of fibers that are oriented at

several angles relative to the axis of force

Most muscles fall into this category

The gluteus medius is an example

o Circular

The fibers are concentrically arranged around an

opening or a recess

When the muscle contracts, the diameter of the

opening decreases

Guard entrances and exits of internal passageways

Digestive and urinary tracts

An example Is the orbicularis oris muscle of the


Muscle force is proportional to physiologic cross-sectional area

(PCSA), and muscle velocity is proportional to muscle fiber length

Type I Fibers
o Have lots of mitochondria and depend on cellular
respiration for ATP production
o They are resistant to fatigue
o Rich in myoglobin and hence red in color
o They are activated by small-diameter, thus slowconducting, motor neurons
o Also known as "slow-twitch" fibers
o Dominant in muscles used for tone, posture

Type II Fibers
o Have few mitochondria
o Are rich in glycogen and depend on glycolysis for ATP
o Fatigue easily
o Are low in myoglobin hence whitish in color
o Are activated by large-diameter, thus fast-conducting,
motor neurons
o Are also known as "fast-twitch" fibers
o Dominant in muscles used for rapid movement

Cardiac muscle is made up of single cells

o Single nucleus

The cells are connected end-to-end and, to a lesser extent, sideby-side

Some of the cells may branch so that one end connects to two
other cells

At the regions of connection between the cells there are also

specialized structures called the intercalated disc

Smooth muscle is made of single, spindle-shaped cells

Smooth muscle is found in the media layer of arteries

o They control vessel diameter

o In isotonic contraction the contraction creates enough
muscle tension to move a load

o The contraction muscle tension is developed but it is not
enough to move the load