Está en la página 1de 15




   




:


+PVGIGT0GWTCN0GVYQTMU1P'ODGFFGF5[UVGOU

7KRPDV%HKDQ=LD\L/LDRDQG/LDQ=KDR
5\HUVRQ8QLYHUVLW\&DQDGD


+PVTQFWEVKQP


1HXUDO QHWZRUNV DUH RQH RI WKH PDQ\ W\SHV RI LQWHOOLJHQW V\VWHPV WKDW DUH LQ XVH
WRGD\7KHVHV\VWHPVDOORZIRUPDFKLQHVWRPDNHGHFLVLRQVEDVHGRQUHODWLRQVKLSVWKDWDUH
HLWKHUQRWIXOO\XQGHUVWRRGRUDUHYHU\FRPSOH[1HXUDOQHWZRUNVDUHWUDLQHGE\SURYLGLQJ
DVHULHVRI LQSXWV DQG WKH FRUUHVSRQGLQJ RXWSXWV IRU WKH WDVN EHLQJ SHUIRUPHG 2QFH WKH
QHWZRUNKDVEHHQWUDLQHGLWZLOOSURGXFHDQRXWSXWWKHVDPHDVRUYHU\FORVHWRWKHDFWXDO
YDOXH ZLWKRXW WKH UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ WKH LQSXWV DQG RXWSXWV EHLQJ H[SOLFLWO\
SURJUDPPHGLQWRWKH QHWZRUN)RU WKLV UHDVRQ LQWHOOLJHQW V\VWHP KDYH D YHU\ ZLGH UDQJH
RI DSSOLFDWLRQV UDQJLQJ IURP YRLFH DQG IDFH UHFRJQLWLRQ WR VLPSOHU WKLQJV OLNH PRWRU
FRQWURODQGLQIHUHQWLDOVHQVRUV,QWKLVFKDSWHUZHZLOOH[SORUHWKHXVHRIQHXUDOQHWZRUNV
RQWKHORZHVWHQGRIGHYLFHVFDSDEOHRILPSOHPHQWLQJQHXUDOQHWZRUNV6SHFLILFDOO\ZHZLOO
ORRNDWLQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUNV
,QWHJHU1HXUDO1HWZRUNV ,11V DUHRISDUWLFXODULQWHUHVWZKHQGHDOLQJZLWKYHU\ORZFRVW
PLFURFRQWUROOHUV ,QWHJHU QHXUDO QHWZRUNV DUH LPSOHPHQWDWLRQV RI $UWLILFLDO 1HXUDO
1HWZRUNV $11  WKDW RQO\ XVH LQWHJHU YDOXHV DV RSSRVHG WR FRQYHQWLRQDO
LPSOHPHQWDWLRQVWKDWXVHIORDWLQJRUIL[HGSRLQWYDOXHV7KHW\SHRIYDOXHVXVHGFDQKDYHD
ODUJH LPSDFW RQ ERWK WKH DFFXUDF\ DQG H[HFXWLRQ VSHHG RI D QHWZRUN HVSHFLDOO\ ZKHQ
GHDOLQJZLWKORZFRVWPLFURFRQWUROOHUVWKDWODFNWKHKDUGZDUHWRSHUIRUPIORDWLQJRUIL[HG
SRLQWDULWKPHWLF
,QWKLVFKDSWHUZHZLOOH[SORUHWKHUHDVRQVEHKLQGWKHQHHGIRULQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUNVWKH
W\SHV RI KDUGZDUH WKDW FDQ H[SHFW DQ LQFUHDVH LQ SHUIRUPDQFH ZKHQ XVLQJ LQWHJHU
RQO\QHWZRUNVDQGWKHUHODWLYHLQFUHDVHLQSHUIRUPDQFHRQWKRVHW\SHVRIKDUGZDUH
$GGLWLRQDOO\ ZH ZLOO ORRN DW WKH DGYDQWDJHV RI XVLQJ '63 RSHUDWLRQV WKDW DUH QRZ
DYDLODEOH RQ WKHVH ORZ FRVW PLFURFRQWUROOHUV )LQDOO\ ZH ZLOO ORRN DW DQ H[DPSOH
LPSOHPHQWDWLRQRIDQLQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUNWRVHHKRZTXDQWL]DWLRQDIIHFWVWKHDFFXUDF\
RIWKHRXWSXWRIWKHQHWZRUN 'UDJDFL 


+PVGIGTCPF(NQCVKPI2QKPV*CTFYCTG


7KHPRWLYDWLRQEHKLQGXVLQJLQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUNVLVWRUHGXFHWKHILQDOFRVWRIDV\VWHP
WKDW XVHV D QHXUDO QHWZRUN 7KLV LV SRVVLEOH EHFDXVH PLFURFRQWUROOHUV WKDW FRQWDLQ WKH
KDUGZDUH IRU SHUIRUPLQJ IORDWLQJ RU IL[HG SRLQW RSHUDWLRQV DUH VLJQLILFDQWO\ PRUH
FRPSOH[ WKHQ LQWHJHU YHUVLRQV DQG WKXV PRUH H[SHQVLYH (DUO\ 3HUVRQDO &RPSXWHUV 3&V 
GLGQRWLQFOXGHIORDWLQJSRLQWKDUGZDUHIRUWKLVYHU\UHDVRQ,%0FRPSXWHUVXVLQJWKH,QWHO

www.intechopen.com

%

!"#$ "" 

[ IDPLO\ RI SURFHVVRUV GLG QRW LQFOXGH IORDWLQJSRLQW KDUGZDUH XQWLO WKH UHOHDVH RI WKH
';DQG WKH ,QWHO 6; ZDV UHOHDVHG DV D FKHDSHU YHUVLRQ RI WKLV SURFHVVRU ZLWKRXW
IORDWLQJ SRLQW KDUGZDUH $Q\ IORDWLQJ SRLQW RSHUDWLRQV KDG WR EH GRQH LQ VRIWZDUH ZKLFK
JUHDWO\ UHGXFHG SHUIRUPDQFH RU YLD WKH ,QWHO  IORDWLQJ SRLQW FRSURFHVVRU $SSOH
FRPSXWHUVXVLQJWKH0RWRURODRSHUDWHGLQDVLPLODUIDVKLRQZLWKWKHDV
WKH FRSURFHVVRU :KLOH PRGHUQ FRPSXWHU GHVLJQV KDYH ORQJ VLQFH PRYHG SDVW WKHVH
OLPLWDWLRQV VHOHFWLQJ D PLFURFRQWUROOHU IRU D ORZ FRVW DSSOLFDWLRQ PDNHV WKLV D SHUWLQHQW
FRQVLGHUDWLRQ 0LFURFRQWUROOHUV WKDW LQFOXGH IORDWLQJSRLQW KDUGZDUH FDQ FRVW PDQ\ WLPHV
PRUH WKDQ DQ HTXLYDOHQW LQWHJHURQO\ YHUVLRQ 5HFHQWO\ QHZ LQWHJHURQO\ PLFURFRQWUROOHUV
VXFK DV WKH 0LFURFKLS GV3,&I[[[[ DQG GV3,&I[[[[ VHULHV FKLSV  KDYH EHHQ UHOHDVHG
WKDW LQFOXGHG VRPH 'LJLWDO 6LJQDO 3URFHVVRU '63  IXQFWLRQV ZKLFK KDYH EHHQ VKRZQ WR
JUHDWO\ LQFUHDVH WKH SHUIRUPDQFH RI QHXUDO QHWZRUNV 7KHVH QHZ '63FDSDEOH
PLFURFRQWUROOHUV DUH PRUHH[SHQVLYHWKDQUHJXODUPLFURFRQWUROOHUV+RZHYHUWKH\DUHVWLOO
PXFK FKHDSHU WKDQ IORDWLQJSRLQW FDSDEOH XQLWV 7KH '63 RSHUDWLRQV DOORZ IRU D QHXUDO
QHWZRUNWREHH[HFXWHGPXFKIDVWHUWKDQEHIRUHZLWKRQO\DPRGHUDWHLQFUHDVHLQFRVWRIWKH
V\VWHP'63RSHUDWLRQV VSHFLILFDOO\ WKH 0$& 0XOWLSO\ $&FXPXODWH  LQVWUXFWLRQ DUHZHOO
VXLWHG WR LQFUHDVLQJ WKH SHUIRUPDQFH RI QHXUDO QHWZRUNV )LJXUH  7\SLFDOO\ WKH 0$&
LQVWUXFWLRQ XVHVWZRSDLUVRIUHJLVWHUVDQGDVSHFLDODFFXPXODWRUUHJLVWHU,QHDFKSDLURQH
UHJLVWHU KROG WKH DGGUHVV RI WKH GDWD DQG RQH UHJLVWHU KROGV WKH GDWD LWVHOI 2Q HYHU\
H[HFXWLRQ RI WKH0$&LQVWUXFWLRQGDWDLVPRYHGIURPWKHDGGUHVVHVVWRUHGLQWKHDGGUHVV
UHJLVWHUV WR WKH GDWD UHJLVWHUV 7KH DGGUHVV UHJLVWHUV DUH WKHQ SRVW LQFUHPHQWHG WR WKH QH[W
PHPRU\ORFDWLRQ)LQDOO\WKHWZRYDOXHVLQWKHGDWDUHJLVWHUVDUHPXOWLSOLHGDQGDGGHGWR
WKH VSHFLDO DFFXPXODWRU UHJLVWHU 7KH DFFXPXODWRU UHJLVWHU LV W\SLFDOO\ PXFK ODUJHU WKDQ
QRUPDOUHJLVWHUVWRSUHYHQWWKHGDWDEHFRPHVRODUJHWKDWWKHUHJLVWHURYHUIORZV


)LJ6LPSOLILHGEORFNGLDJUDPRI0$&LQVWUXFWLRQ

www.intechopen.com

 
   

&

7KH 0$& LQVWUXFWLRQ LV W\SLFDOO\ XVHG WR DFFHOHUDWH FRQYROXWLRQ &RQYROXWLRQ   LV XVHG
LQPDQ\DSSOLFDWLRQVEXWLVHVSHFLDOO\QRWHZRUWK\IRULWVXVHLQ),5DQG,,5GLJLWDOILOWHUV


I J Q

I P J Q  P 

D m D  EF  

  
  

7KH 0$& LQVWUXFWLRQ FDQ DFFHOHUDWH WKLV RSHUDWLRQ E\ FRPELQLQJ DOO RI WKH DFFXPXODWLRQ
PXOWLSOLFDWLRQ LQFUHPHQW DQG PRYH RSHUDWLRQV LQ RQH LQVWUXFWLRQ F\FOH   7KLV PHDQV
WKDW RQO\ RQH LQVWUXFWLRQ F\FOH LV QHHGHG IRU HYHU\ HOHPHQW LQ DQ DUUD\ UDWKHU WKDQ WKH
PDQ\LQVWUXFWLRQVWKDWZRXOGRWKHUZLVHEHUHTXLUHG7KLVLVLPSRUWDQWIRUQHXUDOQHWZRUN
EHFDXVH FRQYROXWLRQ DQG WKH FDOFXODWLRQ RI WKH QHW YDOXH RI D QHXUDO QHWZRUN DUH
PDWKHPDWLFDOO\ LGHQWLFDO   7KH RXWSXW RI D QHXURQ LV D IXQFWLRQ RI WKH DFFXPXODWHG
SURGXFWVRIDOOWKHZHLJKWVDQGLQSXWVLQWKDWQHXURQ  


1HW

,QSXWV :HLJKWV 

2XWSXW

I 1HW 

 

  


7KLV LPSOLHV WKDW QHXUDO QHWZRUNV FDQ EHQHILW IURP WKH 0$& LQVWUXFWLRQ LQ WKH VDPH
ZD\WKDWGLJLWDOILOWHUVGR$VZHZLOOVHHODWHULQWKLVFKDSWHUXVLQJWKH0$&LQVWUXFWLRQ
FDQJUHDWO\LQFUHDVHWKHVSHHGDWZKLFKDQHXUDOQHWZRUNFDQEHH[HFXWHG


+PVGIGT0GWTCN0GVYQTMU


(GGFHQTYCTF
7KHVLPSOHVWIRUPRIQHXUDOQHWZRUNLVDIHHGIRUZDUGQHWZRUN,QWKLVQHWZRUNWKHLQSXWV
DUH IHG LQWR RQH HQG RI WKH QHWZRUN DQG WKH RXWSXW LV SURGXFHG DW WKH RWKHU $OO WKH
QHXURQVLQRQHOD\HUFRQQHFWWRWKHQHXURQVLQWKHQH[WOD\HU$QLQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUNRI
WKLVW\SHZLOOEHH[SORUHGODWHULQWKLVFKDSWHU+RZHYHUWKHUHDUHPDQ\RWKHUW\SHVVXFK
DVVWRFKDVWLFQHWZRUNVUHFXUUHQWQHWZRUNVUDGLDOQHWZRUNVHWF(DFKW\SHRIQHWZRUNKDV
LWV RZQ DGYDQWDJHV DQG GLVDGYDQWDJHV WKH IHHGIRUZDUG QHWZRUN ZDV FKRVHQ DV WKH
H[DPSOH QHWZRUN IRU LWV VLPSOLFLW\ )LJXUH  VRZV D VLPSOH  QHXUDO QHWZRUN WKDW LV
XVHGODWHUIRUWHVWLQJ


)LJ'LDJUDPRIDQHXUDOQHWZRUN

www.intechopen.com

'

!"#$ "" 

7KH RXWSXW RI D QHXURQ LV D IXQFWLRQ RI WKH DFFXPXODWHG SURGXFW RI WKH QHXURQV LQSXWV
DQGLWVZHLJKWV7KHIXQFWLRQLVFDOOHGWKHDFWLYDWLRQIXQFWLRQDQGLWLVPRVWRIWHQDVLJPRLG
WR VLPSOLI\ WKH FDOFXODWLRQ RI WKH GHULYDWLYH ZKHQ SHUIRUPLQJ EDFNSURSDJDWLRQ 7KHUH DUH
VHYHUDO W\SHV RI DFWLYDWLRQ IXQFWLRQV EXW JHQHUDOO\ WKH\ SHUIRUP WKH VDPH SXUSRVH 0RVW
LPSRUWDQWO\LWLVIURPWKHDFWLYDWLRQIXQFWLRQWKDWDQHXUDOQHWZRUNDFKLHYHVQRQOLQHDULW\LQ
WKH RXWSXW RI D QHXURQ $OVRWKH DFWLYDWLRQ IXQFWLRQ SODFHVOLPLWV RQ WKH PDJQLWXGH RI WKH
YDOXHV LQVLGH WKH QHWZRUN /LPLWLQJ WKH VL]H RI WKH YDOXHV LQ WKH QHWZRUN LV DQ LPSRUWDQW
FRQVLGHUDWLRQIRULQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUNVDVWKHUDQJHRIYDOXHVLVPXFKPRUHOLPLWHGWKHQ
IORDWLQJSRLQWYDOXHV
7\SLFDOO\DQDFWLYDWLRQIXQFWLRQ RXWSXWUDQJHVIURPWRRU WR :KLOH WKLVLVQRWDQ
LVVXHIRUDIORDWLQJSRLQWQHWZRUN LWLVDQLQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUN7DNLQJWKHVHFRQGFDVH
DQ LQWHJHU QHXUDO QHWZRUN ZRXOG TXDQWL]H WKH RXWSXW RI WKH DFWLYDWLRQ IXQFWLRQ LQWR  
 7KH GRHV QRW SURYLGH QHDUO\ HQRXJK VHOHFWLYLW\ WR SURYLGH DFFXUDWH FODVVLILFDWLRQ 2QH
PHWKRGWRDYRLGWKLVLVWRVWUHWFKWKHDFWLYDWLRQIXQFWLRQVRWKDWPRUHIXQFWLRQRXWSXWVH[LVW
DVZKROHYDOXHV)LJXUHVKRZVWKHDFWLYDWLRQIXQFWLRQ WDQK VWUHWFKHGDFFRUGLQJWR  


)LJ6WUHWFKHGDFWLYWLRQIXQFWLRQ WDQK 


<

;



 WDQK

 


7KLVTXDQWL]HGDFWLYDWLRQIXQFWLRQFDQEHVWRUHGLQD/RRN8S7DEOH /87 VRWKDWWKHWDQK
IXQFWLRQ GRHVQRWQHHG WRLPSOHPHQWHG8VLQJ D /87LVPXFK IDVWHU WKDQ FDOFXODWLQJWDQK
HYHQLIWKHPLFURFRQWUROOHUVXSSRUWVIORDWLQJSRLQWRSHUDWLRQV,QD/87WKHRXWSXWYDOXHRI
WKHDFWLYDWLRQIXQFWLRQLVUHWULHYHGIURPPHPRU\EDVHGRQWKHYDOXHRI1HW7KLVPHDQVWKDW
WKHWDQKYDOXHGRHVQRWKDYHWREHFDOFXODWHGZKLFKFDQEHDWLPHDQGUHVRXUFHFRQVXPLQJ
WDVN

www.intechopen.com

 
   

(

$CEMRTQRCICVKQP
7UDLQLQJ DQ LQWHJHU QHXUDO QHWZRUN UHPDLQV D VHULRXV FKDOOHQJH 7KH PRVW FRPPRQ
PHWKRGRI WUDLQLQJD QHXUDO QHWZRUN LVEDFNSURSDJDWLRQ,Q D QRUPDO QHXUDO QHWZRUN WKH
PDJQLWXGH RI WKH ZHLJKW XSGDWHV LV DWWHQXDWHG E\ WKH GHFLPDO YDOXHV LQ WKH QHWZRUN
$GGLWLRQDOO\ D VPDOO FRQVWDQW  LV PXOWLSOLHG GLUHFWO\ WR WKH ZHLJKW XSGDWH WR IXUWKHU
UHGXFHWKHUDWHDWZKLFKWKHZHLJKWVDUHXSGDWHGDVVHHQLQ  7KLVLVLPSRUWDQWEHFDXVH
WKH QHWZRUN PXVW JUDGXDOO\ PRYH WR D VROXWLRQ E\ KDYLQJ YHU\ VPDOO ZHLJKW XSGDWHV
WKH QHWZRUN GRHV QRWVNLSRYHUSRVVLEOHVROXWLRQV+RZHYHULQDQLQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUN
WKH PDJQLWXGH RI WKHYDOXHV LQWKHQHWZRUNDUHDOZD\V HTXDO WRRUJUHDWHU WKDQ RQH 7KLV
PHDQV WKDW WKH ZHLJKW XSGDWHV KDYH WKH SRWHQWLDO WR EHFRPH YHU\ ODUJH DIWHU VXFFHVVLYH
PXOWLSOLFDWLRQV  :KHQWKH ZHLJKW XSGDWHV DUH YHU\ ODUJH WKH RXWSXW RI WKH QHWZRUN
ZLOO FKDQJH GUDVWLFDOO\ DIWHUHDFKXSGDWHSUHYHQWLQJWKHQHWZRUNIURPPRYLQJWRZDUGD
VROXWLRQ
7KHVHFRQGPDMRUFKDOOHQJHLVLQWKHGHULYDWLYHRIWKHVWUHWFKHGWDQKIXQFWLRQ




)LJ'HULYDWLYHRIVWUHWFKHGWDQK

)LJXUH  VKRZV WKDW RQO\ D VPDOO SRUWLRQ RI WKH LQSXW VSDFH IRU WKH GHULYDWLYH RI WKH
DFWLYDWLRQIXQFWLRQLVQRQ]HUR7KLVLPSOLHVWKDWWKHZHLJKWXSGDWHLV]HURDQGWKHQHWZRUN
GRHVQRWPRYHWRZDUGVDVROXWLRQ


'Z

G


www.intechopen.com

KG   

W  R I
1HW \   

)

!"#$ "" 

(TXDWLRQ  VKRZVKRZ WKHZHLJKWXSGDWHLVGHWHUPLQHGIRUWKHRXWSXWQHXURQDQGKRZ


WKHYDOXHLVXVHGWRFRQWUROWKHUDWHRIZHLJKWFRQYHUJHQFH7KHLQSXWZHLJKWIRUDQHXURQ
LVFDOFXODWHGE\PXOWLSO\LQJWKHLQSXW\WKHGHULYDWLYHRIWKHDFWLYDWLRQIXQFWLRQI 1HW DQG
WKHGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQWKHWDUJHWYDOXHDQGWKHRXWSXW  )RUYDOXHVRI1HWZKHUHI
1HW 
LV]HURLVDOVR]HUROHDGLQJWRWKHZHLJKWXSGDWHWRDOVREH]HUR  
:LWKRXW WKH XVH RI WKH GHULYDWLYH RI WKH VWUHWFKHG WDQK IXQFWLRQ QRUPDO EDFNSURSDJDWLRQ
FDQQRW EH SHUIRUPHG 7KHUH DUH PDQ\ DSSURDFKHV WR WKLV SUREOHP VXFK DV IL[HG ZHLJKW
XSGDWHV 7DQJHWDO DVVKRZQLQHTXDWLRQV  DQG  

G 1HW x ,QSXW   
 'Z




G !

LI



LI

G 

  


7KLVVLPSOLILHGEDFNSURSDJDWLRQDOORZVWKHZHLJKWVWREHXSGDWHGE\VPDOOVWHSVDYRLGLQJ
WKHQHHGIRUWRUHGXFHWKHPDJQLWXGHRIWKHZHLJKWXSGDWH,WDOVRUHPRYHVWKHQHHGWR
FDOFXODWH WKH GHULYDWLYH RI WKH DFWLYDWLRQ IXQFWLRQ +RZHYHU WKH GRZQ VLGH WR WKLV
DSSURDFKLVWKDWWKHQHWZRUNLVWUDLQHGYHU\VORZO\DQGLWFDQEHGLIILFXOWIRUWKHZHLJKWVWR
GLYHUJH EHFDXVH WKH\ DUH EHLQJ FKDQJHG DW WKH VDPH UDWH HYHU\ LWHUDWLRQ 2WKHU
PHWKRGV VXFK DV 7DQJ HW DO   DQG ;XHWDO   SURYLGH VRPH RWKHU PHWKRGV RI
ZHLJKW XSGDWHV IRU LQWHJHU QHXUDO QHWZRUNV XVLQJ GLIIHUHQW VROXWLRQV 7UDLQLQJ LQWHJHU
QHXUDOQHWZRUNVUHPDLQVPXFKPRUHGLIILFXOWWKHQWUDLQLQJIORDWLQJSRLQWQHWZRUNV


([HFXWLRQ7LPH&RPSDULVRQ


7KH ILUVW FRQVLGHUDWLRQ ZKHQ FKRRVLQJ DQ LQWHJHU QHXUDO QHWZRUN LV H[HFXWLRQ WLPH ,I WKH
WDUJHWV\VWHPKDVWLPLQJFRQVWUDLQWVWKDWDUHHDV\WRPHHWWKHQLWPD\EHSRVVLEOHWRXVHD
IORDWLQJSRLQW QHWZRUN RQ ORZ FRVW KDUGZDUH GHVSLWH WKH SHUIRUPDQFH GUDZEDFNV
+RZHYHU LW LV RIWHQ WKH FDVH WKDW IDVWHU H[HFXWLRQ LV UHTXLUHG WR PHHW WKH GHPDQGV RI WKH
DSSOLFDWLRQ $GGLWLRQDOO\ D IDVWHU QHWZRUN FDQ DOORZ WKH PLFURFRQWUROOHU WR RSHUDWH DW D
UHGXFHGFORFNVSHHG DQG WKHUHE\ FRQVXPH OHVV SRZHU7R FRPSDUH WKH SHUIRUPDQFH RI
LQWHJHU QHXUDO QHWZRUNV DQG IORDWLQJ SRLQW QHXUDO QHWZRUNV D YHU\ VLPSOH  QHXUDO
QHWZRUN VKRZQ LQ )LJXUH  ZDV WUDLQHG WR VROYH WKH ;25 SUREOHP DQG WKHQ
LPSOHPHQWHG LQ KDUGZDUH )RUWHVWLQJDGV3,&) %HKDQHWDO ZDVFKRVHQDV
EHLQJUHSUHVHQWDWLYHRIWKHW\SHRIORZFRVW'63FDSDEOHPLFURFRQWUROOHUVWKDWDUHEHVWDEOH
WR EHQHILW IURP LQWHJHU QHXUDO QHWZRUNV DV ZHOO DV GHPRQVWUDWH WKH HIIHFWV RI '63
DFFHOHUDWLRQ )RU WLPLQJ SXUSRVHV WKH QXPEHU RI FORFN F\FOHV XVHG ZDV FKRVHQ DV WKH EDVH
PHDVXUHPHQW DV LW LV LQGHSHQGHQW RI WKH W\SH DQG FORFN VSHHG RI WKH PLFURFRQWUROOHU
(TXDWLRQV     DQG   VKRZ WKH RXWSXW RI WKH QHXURQV DW WKH RXWSXW KLGGHQ DQG
LQSXWVOD\HUVUHVSHFWLYHO\


2XWN

2XWM

:
I :
I

2XWL

www.intechopen.com

MN

x 2XWM 

  

LM

x 2XWL 

  

[L 

  

 
   

*

$WWKHRXWSXWOD\HU  WKHRXWSXWLVWKHVXPRIWKHZHLJKWV :MN DQGWKHRXWSXWVIURPWKH


SUHYLRXV OD\HU 2XWM  WKLV LVDOVR FDOOHG WKH 1HWYDOXH 7KH1HWLV WKHQ WUDQVIRUPHG E\ WKH
DFWLYDWLRQIXQFWLRQDQGWKHUHVXOWLVWKHRXWSXW7KHRXWSXWRIWKHKLGGHQOD\HU  LVWKH
VDPH H[FHSW WKH SUHYLRXV OD\HU LV QRZ WKH LQSXW OD\HU 7KH LQSXW   OD\HU LV VLPSO\ WKH
LQSXWVWRWKHQHWZRUN
7KUHHYDULDQWVRIWKHFRGHZHUHZULWWHQRQHZLWKIORDWLQJSRLQWYDULDEOHVDQGFRQVWDQWVDQG
RQHZLWKLQWHJHUYDULDEOHVDQGFRQVWDQWV7KHLQWHJHUYHUVLRQKDVWZRVXEYHUVLRQVRQHZLWK
'63 DFFHOHUDWLRQ DQG RQH ZLWKRXW 7R PDLQWDLQ DQ DFFXUDWHFRPSDULVRQ WKH RXWSXW RI WKH
IORDWLQJ SRLQW QHW FDOFXODWLRQ ZDV VHW WR ]HUR VR WKDW LW PD\ XVH D /87 7KLV ZDV GRQH WR
HQVXUH WKDW WKH SHUIRUPDQFH LQFUHDVH VKRZQ LV WKH UHVXOW RI XVLQJ LQWHJHUV DQG QRW
EHFDXVHRI WKH /87 2QH QHXURQ VKRZV WKH WLPH QHHGHG WR FDOFXODWH WKH RXWSXW RI RQH
QHXURQ )XUWKHU GHWDLOV RQ WKH WHVWLQJ DQG SHUIRUPDQFH FRPSDULVRQ DUH DYDLODEOH LQ
%HKDQ HW DO   7KH WLPH WR H[HFXWH GLIIHUHQW SDUWV RI WKH QHXUDO QHWZRUN LQ FORFN
F\FOHVLVVKRZQLQ7DEOH)DVWHVWWLPHVDUHLQEROG

,11ZLWKRXW
'63

)ORDWLQJ3RLQW

,11ZLWK'63

1HW&DOFXODWLRQ

FF

FF

FF

2QH1HXURQ

FF

FF

FF

:KROH6DPSOH
6HW

FF

FF

FF

7DEOH&RPSDULVRQRIH[HFXWLRQWLPHV


$VVHHQLQ7DEOHWKHLQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUNLVWKHIDVWHVWPHWKRGLQDOO RIWKHFDVHV7KH
'63 RSHUDWLRQV DOORZ WKH 1HW YDOXH WR EH FDOFXODWHG IRXU WLPHV IDVWHU WKDQ ZRXOG EH
SRVVLEOH ZLWKRXW '63 RSHUDWLRQV )RU WKH FDOFXODWLRQ RI WKH ZKROH VDPSOH VHW WKH VSHHG
LQFUHDVH SURYLGHG E\ WKH '63 RSHUDWLRQV KDV EHHQ UHGXFHG EHFDXVH WKH 1HW FDOFXODWLRQ
DFFRXQWVIRURQO\DVPDOOSRUWLRQRIWKHRYHUDOOFDOFXODWLRQV
7KHLQWHJHUFDOFXODWLRQVZLWKRXW'63RSHUDWLRQVDOVRSHUIRUPTXLWHZHOO:KLOHVORZHUWKDQ
WKH'63YHUVLRQLWLVVWLOOVLJQLILFDQWO\IDVWHUWKDQWKHIORDWLQJSRLQWYHUVLRQ)RUWKLVVPDOO
QHWZRUNZLWKIHZLQWHUFRQQHFWVWKHLQWHJHUYHUVLRQRSHUDWHVDWKDOIWKHVSHHGIRUWKHZKROH
VDPSOHVHW)RUODUJHUQHWZRUNVZKHUHWKH1HWFDOFXODWLRQDFFRXQWVIRUPRUHRIWKHRYHUDOO
FDOFXODWLRQWLPHWKHSHUIRUPDQFHJDSEHWZHHQ'63DQGQRQ'63ZLOOLQFUHDVH
7KHODVWWHVWHGYHUVLRQZDVWKHIORDWLQJSRLQWYHUVLRQ$VH[SHFWHGWKHODFNRIIORDWLQJSRLQW
KDUGZDUHJUHDWO\GHJUDGHVWKHSHUIRUPDQFHRIWKLVQHWZRUN7KHLQWHJHUYHUVLRQVDUHIDVWHU
E\DIDFWRURIZLWKRXW'63DFFHOHUDWLRQDQGE\DIDFWRURIZLWK'63RSHUDWLRQV$V
ZLWK WKH GLIIHUHQFH EHWZHHQ WKH '63 DQG QRQ'63 YHUVLRQV DV WKH VL]H RI WKH QHWZRUN
LQFUHDVHV VR WRR ZLOO WKH SHUIRUPDQFH JDS LQFUHDVH EHWZHHQ LQWHJHU DQG IORDWLQJ SRLQW
QHWZRUNV7KHJDSLQSHUIRUPDQFHLVGLUHFWO\SURSRUWLRQDOWRWKHDPRXQWRISURFHVVLQJWLPH
QHHGHGIRUWKH1HWFDOFXODWLRQUHODWLYHWRWKHUHVWRIWKHV\VWHP,WLVLPSRUWDQWWRUHPHPEHU
WKDW WKH DFWLYDWLRQ IXQFWLRQ ZDV QRW DFWXDOO\ FDOFXODWHG WR UHPRYH DQ\ WHVWLQJ ELDV
DJDLQVW WKH IORDWLQJ SRLQW YHUVLRQ $ IXOO LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ WKDW FDOFXODWHV WKH DFWLYDWLRQ
IXQFWLRQZLOOUHTXLUHPDQ\PRUHFORFNF\FOHV7KHIORDWLQJSRLQWZRXOGSHUIRUPPXFKEHWWHU
RQKDUGZDUHWKDWVXSSRUWVIORDWLQJSRLQWRSHUDWLRQVEXWRQORZFRVWFKLSVWKHSHUIRUPDQFH
LVVLJQLILFDQWO\OHVVWKDQWKDWRILQWHJHURQO\QHXUDOQHWZRUNV

www.intechopen.com



!"#$ "" 

#EEWTCE[CPF3WCPVK\CVKQP


7KH VHFRQG PDMRU FRQVLGHUDWLRQ ZKHQ FKRRVLQJ WR XVH DQ LQWHJHU QHXUDO QHWZRUN LV WKH
DFFXUDF\ RI WKH QHWZRUN $OO RI WKH YDOXHV LQ DQ LQWHJHU QHXUDO QHWZRUN PXVW EH ZKROH
QXPEHUV IRU WKLV UHDVRQ DOO RI WKH YDOXHV LQ WKH LQWHJHU QHXUDO QHWZRUN PXVW ILW LQWR D
OLPLWHGUDQJHRISUHGHILQHGYDOXHV7KHUDQJHRIYDOXHVDIIHFWVWKHDFFXUDF\DVZHOODVWKH
DPRXQW RI PHPRU\ XVHG E\ WKH QHWZRUN$ ODUJHU UDQJH RI YDOXHV ZLOO EH PRUH DFFXUDWH
EXWDOVRUHTXLUHPRUHPHPRU\WRVWRUHYDOXHVDQG/87V
7RH[SORUHHIIHFWVWKHRITXDQWL]DWLRQZHZLOOXVHWKHIROORZLQJH[DPSOHV\VWHP7KHJRDORI
WKLV V\VWHP LV WR GHWHUPLQH WKH WHPSHUDWXUH LQVLGH RI D EXLOGLQJ 7DYJ  XVLQJ H[WHUQDO
PHDVXUHPHQWV /LDR  'H[WHU   7KH H[WHUQDO PHDVXUHPHQWV XVHG DUH WKH RXWVLGH
WHPSHUDWXUH7WKHDPRXQWRIVRODUUDGLDWLRQ 4VRO DQGWKHHQHUJ\FRQVXPHGE\WKHERLOHU
4LQ  -DVVDUHWDO $OORIWKHWUDLQLQJGDWDZDVFROOHFWHGIURPDVSHFLDOLVWH[SHULPHQWDO
IDFLOLW\ %5( ,1&,7( DQGDUHQRUPDOL]HGWRYDOXHVEHWZHHQDQG$[[[
QHWZRUNVKRZQLQ)LJXUHLVWKHQWUDLQHGXVLQJEDFNSURSDJDWLRQ


)LJ$[[[QHXUDOQHWZRUN

7KLVFUHDWHVDEDVHQHWZRUNIURPZKLFKWKHLQWHJHUQHWZRUNDUHGHULYHGDQGFRPSDUHG
7RFUHDWHDQLQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUNIURPWKLVDOORIWKHLQSXWDQGZHLJKWVRIWKHQHWZRUNDUH
PXOWLSOLHG E\ D VFDOLQJ IDFWRU 6I DQG WKHQ TXDQWL]HG LQWR ZKROH YDOXHV %\ VFDOLQJ DQG

www.intechopen.com

 
   

+

TXDQWL]LQJHDFKSDUWRIWKHQHWZRUNDQLQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUNPRGHOLVFUHDWHG$OOYDOXHV
DUH DGMXVWHG WR WKLV QHZ VFDOH EHIRUH EHLQJ XVHG LQ DQ\ RSHUDWLRQV )RU WKH DFWLYDWLRQ
IXQFWLRQ WKH VFDOLQJ LV UHYHUVHG EULQJLQJ WKH YDOXH EDFN LQWR WKH QRUPDO UDQJH 7KH
DFWLYDWLRQ IXQFWLRQ LQ WKLV FDVH WDQK LV WKHQ DSSOLHG 7KH YDOXHV DUH WKHQ UHVFDOHG DQG
TXDQWL]HG IRU XVH LQ WKH UHVW RI WKH QHWZRUN 7KH UHDVRQ IRU GRLQJ WKLV LV WR PDLQWDLQ D
FRQVLVWHQWQHWZRUNVWUXFWXUHRQO\WKHYDOXHRI6I LVFKDQJHGIRUHDFKOHYHORITXDQWL]DWLRQ
7KLV DOORZV IRU PDQ\ GLIIHUHQW OHYHOV RI TXDQWL]DWLRQ WR EH WHVWHG ZLWK WKH VDPH QHWZRUN
ZKLOH DW WKH VDPH WLPH HQVXULQJ WKDW PRGHO LV DFFXUDWH ,Q DQ DFWXDO LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ WKH
DFWLYDWLRQ IXQFWLRQ ZRXOG EH UHSODFHG ZLWK D /87 IRU WKH FKRVHQ VFDOLQJ IDFWRU
0DWKHPDWLFDOO\ WKH VFDOLQJ DQG TXDQWL]LQJ DUH VXEVWLWXWHG LQWR WKH QRUPDO IXQFWLRQ RI D
QHXURQZKHUH2LVWKHRXWSXW,LVWKHLQSXWYHFWRUWRWKDWQHXURQ:LVWKHZHLJKWYHFWRU
DQG%LVWKHELDV(TXDWLRQ  VKRZVWKHRXWSXWIRUDQHXURQLQDQRUPDOQHXUDOQHWZRUN
7KHVFDOLQJIDFWRU6ILVDSSOLHGWRHDFKRIWKHYDOXHVXVHGE\WKHQHWZRUNEHIRUHWKH\DUH XVHG
7KHUHVXOWLQJYDOXHLVWKHQTXDQWL]HGWRDZKROHYDOXHDVVHHQLQ  

2 WDQK , :  % 


  

WDQK T , 6I T : 6I  T % 6I  6I 

  


7KH VFDOLQJ IDFWRU IRU WKH ELDV PXVW EH 6I  WR PDLQWDLQ SURSRUWLRQDOLW\ WR WKH UHVW RI
WKHHTXDWLRQDVVKRZQE\WKHVLPSOLILFDWLRQLQHTXDWLRQV  DQG  


WDQK , 6I : 6I  % 6I  6I 
2

WDQK , : 6I  % 6I  6I  

  

  


2QFH WKH QHW YDOXH KDV EHHQ FDOFXODWHG WKH VFDOLQJ LV UHPRYHG E\ GLYLGLQJ E\ WKH WRWDO
DPRXQW RI VFDOLQJ 6I 7KLV LV WKHQ XVHG E\ WKH DFWLYDWLRQ IXQFWLRQ 7KH RXWSXW IURP WKH
DFWLYDWLRQ IXQFWLRQ LV XVHG DVWKH LQSXW IRU WKH QH[W OD\HU RIWKH QHWZRUNDW WKLV SRLQW WKH
VFDOLQJDQGTXDQWL]DWLRQLVUHDSSOLHGEHFDXVHWKH2RIWKLVOD\HUEHFRPHVWKH,QSXWIRUWKH
QH[WOD\HU
7KH UHVXOWV RI WKH WUDLQHG EDVH QHWZRUN LV VKRZQ LQ )LJXUH  7KLV LV WKH EDVH DFFXUDF\
IURPZKLFKWKHLQWHJHUYHUVLRQVRIWKLVQHWZRUNFDQEHFRPSDUHG%HORZDUHWKHRXWSXWVRI
WKHLQWHJHU QHXUDO QHWZRUN ZLWK GLIIHUHQW YDOXHV IRU 6I 7KLV VKRZV WKH HIIHFWV RI YDU\LQJ
OHYHOVRITXDQWL]DWLRQ


www.intechopen.com

+,

!"#$ "" 

)LJ2XWSXWRIWKHEDVHQHXUDOQHWZRUN

)LJXUH  VKRZV WKH DFWXDO 7DYJ DQG WKH RXWSXW RI WKH EDVH QHWZRUN :KLOH WKLV QHWZRUN
FRQWDLQV VRPH LQDFFXUDFLHV LW LV WKH UHODWLYH SHUIRUPDQFH EHWZHHQ WKLV QHWZRUN DQG WKH
TXDQWL]HGLQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUNVWKDWZHDUHLQWHUHVWHGLQ


)LJ 2XWSXWRIDQLQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUNZLWK6I 




www.intechopen.com

 
   

+

)LJ2XWSXWRIDQLQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUNZLWK6I 

)LJXUH  DQG )LJXUH  VKRZ WKH QHWZRUN RXWSXWV ZKHQ 6 I LV HTXDO WR  DQG 
UHVSHFWLYHO\$WWKLVOHYHORITXDQWL]DWLRQWKHLQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUNVDQGWKHEDVHQHWZRUN
DUHDOPRVWLGHQWLFDO+RZHYHUPHPRU\XVDJHLVVLJQLILFDQWDVWKHUDQJHRILQSXWYDOXHVIRU
WKH /87 DUH IURP 6I WR 6I 7KLV UHVXOWV LQ  DGGUHVVHV DQG DGGUHVVHV IRUWKH
/87IRU6I DQG 6I  UHVSHFWLYHO\ 2Q D ORZ FRVW PLFURFRQWUROOHU WKLV PD\ H[FHHG
WKH DPRXQW RI DYDLODEOH5$0 +RZHYHUVRPH PLFURFRQWUROOHUVZLOODOVRDOORZ /87VWREH
VWRUHGLQWKHSURJUDPPHPRU\,QWKHVHFDVHVWKLVLVQRWDQLVVXH


)LJ2XWSXWRIDQLQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUNZLWK6I 

www.intechopen.com

+%

!"#$ "" 

)LJ2XWSXWRIDQLQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUNZLWK6I 

)LJXUH  DQG )LJXUH  VKRZ WKH QHWZRUN RXWSXW IRU 6 I RI  DQG  UHVSHFWLYHO\ +HUH WKH
HIIHFWV RI TXDQWL]DWLRQ EHFRPH PXFK PRUH SURQRXQFHG DQG WKH DFFXUDF\ RI WKH QHWZRUNV
EHFRPHVGHJUDGHG


)LJ2XWSXWRIDQLQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUNZLWK6I 

)LJXUH  VKRZV WKH QHWZRUN RXWSXW DW 6I HTXDO WR  +HUH WKH QHWZRUN LV YHU\ LQDFFXUDWH
WKHHIIHFWVRITXDQWL]DWLRQKDYHGHJUDGHGWKHQHWZRUNWRVXFKDQH[WHQWWKDWLWLVXQXVDEOH
7DEOH  VKRZVD FRPSDULVRQRIWKHDFFXUDF\ RI WKHQHWZRUNV DWHDFK OHYHO RITXDQWL]DWLRQ
XVLQJWKUHHW\SHVRIVWDWLVWLFDOPHDVXUHV

www.intechopen.com

 
   

1HWZRUN

506(

1RUPDO



+&

66(

5




6I 







6I 







6I 







6I 







6I 







7DEOH$FFXUDF\FRPSDULVRQIRUYDULRXVOHYHOVRITXDQWL]DWLRQ

$VFDQEHVHHQIURP)LJXUHV)LJXUHWR)LJXUHDQG7DEOHZKHQWKHYDOXHRI6I LVKLJK
WKH LQWHJHU QHXUDO QHWZRUNV SHUIRUPDQFH LV QHDUO\ LGHQWLFDO WR WKDW RI WKH EDVH QHWZRUN
+RZHYHU DV WKH UDWH RI TXDQWL]DWLRQ LQFUHDVHV WKH DFFXUDF\ RI WKH QHWZRUN JUDGXDOO\
GHJUDGHV7KHJUDFHIXOGHJUDGDWLRQVHHQLQWKLVH[DPSOHZLOOQRWEHWUXHIRUDOOV\VWHPVWKH
QHWZRUN PD\ GHJUDGH IDVWHU RU VORZHU EXW LW PD\ DOVR KLW D SRLQW ZKHUH WKH OHYHO RI
TXDQWL]DWLRQLVWRRPXFKDQGWKHQHWZRUNDFFXUDF\GHJUDGHVYHU\TXLFNO\
7KH NH\ FRQVLGHUDWLRQ IRU WKH OHYHO RI TXDQWL]DWLRQ LV WKH WUDGH RII EHWZHHQ QHWZRUN
DFFXUDF\PHPRU\FRQVXPSWLRQDQGUHJLVWHUVL]H7KHODUJHUWKHYDOXHRI6IWKHVPDOOHUWKH
DPRXQWTXDQWL]DWLRQWKHPRUHDFFXUDWHWKHQHWZRUNZLOOEH+RZHYHUDWWKHVDPHWLPHWKLV
ZLOO LQFUHDVH WKH DPRXQW RI PHPRU\ QHHGHG WR VWRUH WKH ZHLJKWV LQSXWV DQG /87V
$GGLWLRQDOO\LIWKHTXDQWL]DWLRQUHVXOWVLQZHLJKWVRULQSXWVODUJHUWKHQFDQEHVWRUHGLQRQH
UHJLVWHURQ WKHPLFURFRQWUROOHU WKHQHWZRUNZLOOVXIIHUDQDGGLWLRQDO SHUIRUPDQFHSHQDOW\
7KLVFDQDLGLQWKHVHOHFWLRQRIWKHW\SHRIPLFURFRQWUROOHUWRXVH,IWKHOHYHORITXDQWL]DWLRQ
DOORZV IRU WKH LQSXWV DQG ZHLJKWV WR EH VWRUHG LQ DQ  ELW UHJLVWHU WKHQ D YHU\ ORZ FRVW
PLFURFRQWUROOHUFDQEHXVHG+RZHYHULIWKHYDOXHVDUHODUJHUWKHQDELWRUSRVVLEO\HYHQ
ELWPLFURFRQWUROOHUZRXOGEHEHWWHUVXLWHGWRLPSOHPHQWLQJWKHQHWZRUN


%QPENWUKQP


$OPRVW DOO V\VWHP GHVLJQV LQYROYH WUDGHRIIV EHWZHHQSHUIRUPDQFH VSHHG DQG FRVW ,Q WKLV
FKDSWHU ZH KDYH H[SORUHG LQWHJHU QHXUDO QHWZRUNV DV D PHWKRG RI UHGXFLQJ WKH FRVW RI D
V\VWHP ZKLOH DWWHPSWLQJ WR UHWDLQ DV PXFK RI WKH DFFXUDF\ DQG VSHHG RI D IORDWLQJSRLQW
QHXUDO QHWZRUN ,W LV LPSRUWDQW WR QRWH WKDW LQWHJHU QHXUDO QHWZRUNV DUH MXVW RQH SRVVLEOH
PHWKRG RI PHHWLQJ GHVLJQ FRQVWUDLQWV ,QWHJHU QHXUDO QHWZRUNV H[FHO RQ ORZ FRVW
PLFURFRQWUROOHUV+RZHYHULQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUNVFDQQHYHUDFKLHYHWKHOHYHORIDFFXUDF\
WKDWIORDWLQJSRLQWQHWZRUNV FDQ)RUWKLVUHDVRQWKHGHFLVLRQRQZKLFKW\SHRIQHWZRUNWR
XVHLVVXEMHFWLYHDQGPXVWEHYLHZHGLQOLJKWRIWKHGHVLJQJRDOVIRUWKHV\VWHP:KHQFRVWLV
WKHSULPDU\GHVLJQFRQFHUQLQWHJHUQHXUDOQHWZRUNVRIIHUDYHU\FRPSHOOLQJFRPELQDWLRQRI
DFFXUDF\VSHHGDQGFRVWWKDWFDQVLJQLILFDQWO\LPSURYHWKHSULFHWRSHUIRUPDQFHUDWLRRIWKH
ILQDOSURGXFW






www.intechopen.com

+'

!"#$ "" 

4GHGTGPEGU


/LDR= 'H[WHU$/  $Q,QIHUHQWLDO&RQWURO6FKHPHIRU2SWLPL]LQJWKH2SHUDWLRQ


RI %RLOHUV LQ 0XOWL]RQH +HDWLQJ 6\VWHPV %XLGLQJ 6HUYLFHV (QJLQHHULQJ 5HVHDUFK
7HFKQRORJ\9RO1RSS
%HKDQ 7 /LDR = =KDR /  <DQJ &   $FFHOHUDWLQJ ,QWHJHU 1HXUDO 1HWZRUNV 2Q
/RZ&RVW'63V:$6(73URFHHGLQJV9RO1RSS
'UDJKLFL6  6RPH QHZUHVXOWVRQWKHFDSDELOLWLHVRILQWHJHUZHLJKWQHXUDOQHWZRUNV
LQFODVVLILFDWLRQSUREOHPV ,QWHUQDWLRQDO-RLQW&RQIHUHQFHRQ1HXUDO1HWZRUNV9RO
1RSS
-DVVDU 6 /LDR =  =KDR /   $GDSWLYH QHXURIX]]\ EDVHG LQIHUHQWLDO VHQVRU PRGHO
IRU HVWLPDWLQJ WKH DYHUDJH DLU WHPSHUDWXUH LQ VSDFH KHDWLQJ V\VWHPV %XLOGLQJ
(QYLURPHQW9ROSS
%5(  ,1&,7(   &RQWUROOHU HIILFLHQF\ LPSURYHPHQW IRU FRPPHUFLDO DQG
LQGXVWULDOJDVDQGRLOILUHGERLOHUV$&UDIW3URMHFW&RQWUDFW-2(&7
7DQJ - 9DUOH\ 05 DQG 3HDN 06   +DUGZDUH LPSOHPHQWDWLRQV RI PXOWLOD\HU
IHHGIRUZDUG QHXUDO QHWZRUNV DQG HUURU EDFNSURSDJDWLRQ XVLQJ ELW SLF
PLFURFRQWUROOHUV 1HXUDO DQG )X]]\ 6\VWHVPV 'HVLJQ +DUGZDUH DQG $SSOLFDWLRQV
9RO
SS
;X+<:DQJ*=DQG%DLUG&%  $IX]]\QHXUDOQHWZURUNVWHFKQLTXHZLWKIDVW
EDFNSURSDJDWLRQ OHDUQLQJ ,QWHUQDWLRQDO -RLQW &RQIHUHQFH RQ 1HXUDO 1HWZRUNV 9RO
SS

www.intechopen.com

Recent Advances in Technologies


Edited by Maurizio A Strangio

ISBN 978-953-307-017-9
Hard cover, 636 pages
Publisher InTech

Published online 01, November, 2009

Published in print edition November, 2009


The techniques of computer modelling and simulation are increasingly important in many fields of science

since they allow quantitative examination and evaluation of the most complex hypothesis. Furthermore, by
taking advantage of the enormous amount of computational resources available on modern computers

scientists are able to suggest scenarios and results that are more significant than ever. This book brings
together recent work describing novel and advanced modelling and analysis techniques applied to many
different research areas.

How to reference

In order to correctly reference this scholarly work, feel free to copy and paste the following:
Thomas Behan, Ziayi Liao and Lian Zhao (2009). Integer Neural Networks On Embedded Systems, Recent
Advances in Technologies, Maurizio A Strangio (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-017-9, InTech, Available from:

http://www.intechopen.com/books/recent-advances-in-technologies/integer-neural-networks-on-embeddedsystems

InTech Europe

University Campus STeP Ri


Slavka Krautzeka 83/A
51000 Rijeka, Croatia
Phone: +385 (51) 770 447
Fax: +385 (51) 686 166
www.intechopen.com

InTech China

Unit 405, Office Block, Hotel Equatorial Shanghai


No.65, Yan An Road (West), Shanghai, 200040, China
Phone: +86-21-62489820
Fax: +86-21-62489821