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IRC:SP:65-2005

GUIDELINES FOR
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

OF
SEGMENTAL BRIDGES

THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS


2005

Digitized by tlie Internet Archive


in

2014

https://arcliive.org/details/govlawircy2005sp65

IRC:SP:65-2005

GUIDELINES FOR
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

OF
SEGMENTAL BRIDGES

Published by

THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS


Kama
Sector

New

Koti Marg,

6,

R.K. Puram,

Delhi - 110 022

2005
Price Rs.200/-

(PIUS

[plus Packing

& Postage)

IRC:SP:65-2005
First Published

Reprinted

July,

2005

December, 2008

(The Rights of Publication and of Translation are reserved)

(The

official

document would be published by the IRC


'Indian Highways', which shall be considered as

amendments

in its periodical,

effective

to this

and as part of the code/guideUnes/manual,

etc.

from the

Date specified therein)

Printed at Options Printofast, 46, Patparganj Ind. Area, Delhi- 1 10 092

(500 copies)

IRC:SP:65-2005

CONTENTS
Personnel of the Bridges Specifications and Standards Committee

(i)

&

(ii)

1.

Introduction

2.

Scope

3.

Construction Requirements

4.

Epoxy

5.

Dry Jointed Precast Segmental Construction

11

6.

References

19

Jointing of Segments

(Tele.):

^mi

w1,

wm]

't{cfz^ 6,

- 110 022

f^erft

^TFmf^
gr^,

(Secretary General):

+91(11)2618 5303

2618 5315,2618 5319,2617 1548,


2618 5273, 2671 6778
(Fax); +91 (11) 2618 3669
>nRjcjidiI (Secti.):

(^TTYcT)

INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS


Kama

6, R.K. Puram,
022 (India)

Koli Marg, Sector

New

Delhi

10

NOTIFICATION NO.
Amendment

Subject:

No.l

to

59 Dated 28

November 2009

IRC:SP:65-2005 "Guidelines for Design and Construction of

Segmental Bridges",
IRC:SP:65-2005 "Guidelines

for

Design and Construction of Segmental Bridges" was

The Indian Roads Congress has decided


following

AmeiWment No.

5.4.4

Title

is

Amendment No.l

bring out

to the

above document. Accordingly,

the

Read
Design

Design for Ultimate Shear


Nev.'

published in July 2005.

notified herewith.

For

Clause
No.
5.4

to

first

for Ultimate Shear

and Torsion

Torsion in Segmentai Construction


The treatment of torsion shall be in line with

Clause

the provisions of

IRC: 18 except for precast segmental construction. In precast

may

segmental construction,

it

continuous

untensioned reinforcement. At any

longitudinal

not be possible to provide

cross section, where the axial tension due to torsion and bending

exceeds the compression due to prestressing and bending,

supplementary tendons

to

counter the tension shall be added.

The supplementary tendons

shall

be distributed around the

perimeter of the precompressed tension zone inside the closed


stirrups.

At

least

one tendon shall be placed near each comer of

the stirrups in the precompressed tension zone. For the purpose

of calculation of torsional capacity, the factors given

in

clause

5.4.2 shall apply.

This

Amendment No.l

shall be effective

from

1st

December 2009.

(R.R Indoria)
Secretary General

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, DECEMBER 2009

IRC:SP:65-2005

PERSONNEL OF THE BRIDGES SPECIFICATIONS AND


STANDARDS COMMITTEE
(As on 20-12-2004)
1.

2.

V. Velayiitham

Addl. Director General, Ministry of Shipping,

(Convenor)

& Highways, New Delhi

Road Transport

V.K. Sinha

Chief Engineer, Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport

(Co-Convenor)

Highway,

New

&

Delhi

Chief Engineer (B ) S &R


(

Member-Secretary

Ministry of Shipping,

&

Highways,

New

PWD, Shillong
STUP Consultants

Ltd.,

Road Transport

Delhi
(A.N. Dhodapkar)

Members
4.

K.N. Agrawal

5.

S.

6.

C.R. Ahmchandani

Ahmed

C-33, Chandra Nagar, Ghaziabad-201 01

Meghalaya

Secretary to the Govt, of

&

Chairman

Managing

Director,

Mumbai
7.

A.K. Banerjee

B-210, (SF), Chitranjan Park,

New

8.

Ashok Basa

Director (Tech.) B. Engineers

& Builders Ltd., Bhubaneswar

9.

P.C. Bhasin

ADG (B), MOST (Retd.) 324, Mandakini Enclave, New Delhi

10.

S.S. Chakraborty

Managing

New

Delhi

Director, Consulting Engg. Services

(I)

Pvt. Ltd.,

Delhi

11.

K.K.Gupta

House No. 1149, Sector

12.

A.R. Jambekar

Chief Engineer

&

19,

Faridabad

General Manager (Tech.)

CIDCO, NAVI

Mumbai
13.

S.K. Jain

Director

& Head, Civil Engg. Department, Bureau of Indian

Standards,
14.

S.K. Kaushik

New

Delhi

Chairman, Estate
IIT,

&

Works

&

Coordinator

(TIFAC-CORE)

Roorkee

15.

C.V. Kand

Consultant, Bhopal

16.

Ninan Koshi

DG

17.

Prafulla

18.

P.Y. Manjure

Director, Freyssinet Prestressed Concrete Co. Ltd.,

19.

N.V. Merani

Principal Secy., Maharashtra

20.

M.K. Mukherjee

40/182, Chitranjan Park,

21.

A.D. Narain

Director General (Road Dev.)

Kumar

(RD) & Addl. Secy.,


Green, Gurgaon

S.K. Puri

(Retd.),

DG (RD) & AS, MORT&H (Retd.) D-86,

(Retd.) B-186, Sector-26,


22.

MOST

H-54, Residency

Sector-56,

Noida

Mumbai

PWD (Retd.), Mumbai

New

Delhi

&

Addl. Secretary,

MOST

NOIDA

Chief Engineer, Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and


Highvv'ay

23.

N. Rajagopalan

Chief Technical Advisor, L&T-Ramboll Consulting Engg.


Ltd.,

Chennai

(i)

IRC:SP:65-2005
24.

M.V.B. Rao

25.

Dr. T.N.

26.

S.A. Reddi

27.

Director

28.

G. Sharan

A- 1 8 1

Subba Rao

New

Sarita Vihar,

Chairman, Construma Consultancy (P)

Dy. Managing Director,


;

Delhi

Highway Research

Member

Gammon

Ltd.,

India Ltd.,

Mumbai
Mumbai

Chennai

Station,

Highways Authority of

(T), National

India,

New

Delhi

29

N.K. Sinha

DG

(RD)

&

SS,

Chitranjan Park,

M.G. Tamhankar

Dr.

Mahesh Tandon

Managing

32.

P.B. Vijay

A-39/B,

33.

Chief Engineer (NH)

(Shri S.K.

Planning

(Retd.) G-1365,

Tandon Consultants

Director,

Floor,

Mumbai

(P) Ltd.,

New Delhi

DDA Flats, Munirka, New Delhi


De) M.P.

PWD,

Bhopal

& Budget

34.

Addl. Director General

HQ DGBR,

35.

Chief Engineer (NH)

U.P.

36.

Chief Engineer (NH)

Chepauk, Chennai

37.

R. Subramanian

Engineer-in-Chief,

38.

Rep.

ofRDSO

PWD, New

Delhi

(R.K. Gupta) Executive Director

(B&S) Bidges

Members

Momin), Secretary

Maharashtra

39.

President,

40.

Director General

(Indu Prakash), Ministry of Shipping,

(Road Development)

Highways,

Secretary,

IRC

(S.S.

& Structures

RDSO, Lucknow

Ex-Officio

IRC

Seema Sadak Bhavan, New Delhi

PWD, Lucknow

Directt.,

41.

Ground

Delhi

BH-1/44, Kendriya Vihar Kharghar, Navi

30.
1

MORT&H
New

New

(R),

PWD, Mumbai

Road Transport

&

Delhi

(R.S. Sharma), Indian

Koti Marg, Sector-6,

Roads Congress, RK. Puram, Kama

New

Delhi

Corresponding Members

PWD (Retd.), Panchkula

1.

M.K. Agarwal

Engineer-in-Chief, Haryana

2.

M.K. Bhagwagar

Executive Director, Engg. Consultant Pvt. Ltd.,

3.

A. Chakraborti

Addl. Director General (TD),

4.

Dr. V.K. Raina

B-13, Sector- 14, Noida

(ii)

CPWD, New

New

Delhi

Delhi

IRC:SP:65-2005

GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION


OF SEGMENTAL BRIDGES
INTRODUCTION

1.

The

1.1.

Reinforced,

At its first meeting on 29* April, 2003,


the Committee felt that in the light of the
massive construction programme that was
1.2.

Prestressed

and

Composite Concrete Committee (B-6) of the

under execution in the highway sector,

Indian Roads Congress was reconstituted in

necessary to bring out guidelines on certain

2003 with the following personnel:

topics

Addl.
T.

DGBR

Convenor

Viswanathan

was one of the

Member-Secretary

IRC Codes and

Standards.

in

The

design and construction of segmental bridges

Co-Convenor

...

was

which were not adequately covered

the existing

Ninan Koshi

it

topics selected.

It

was decided

that while highlighting the special design

and

detailing requirements in each case, the

Members

would be generally

guidlines

A.K. Banerjee

in line with

IRC: 18 and IRC:21 with additional inputs

Alok Bhowmick

from BS:5400,

A.N. Dhodapkar

EURO and AASHTO codes,

wherever necessary.

Vinay Gupta
G.R. Haridas

1.3.

S.G. Joglekar

prepared by Shri Vinay Gupta. The draft was

Jose Kurian

discussed by the B-6 Committee at several

S.D. Limaye

3'^^

Dr. A.K. Mullick

of the guidelines was

Dr. G.P. Saha

Sharma

N.K. Sinha
K.B. Thandavan

S&R,

MOSRT&H

Ex- Officio

its

meeting held on

September, 2004. The draft document was

approved by Bridges Specifications and


Standards Committee in its meeting held on
20'*' December, 2004. The document was
considered by IRC Council in its 173"^
meeting held on S^*" January, 2005 in
Bangalore and approved with certain
modifications. The required modifications
were accordingly carried out by the Convenor,
B-6 Committee before sending the document

Dr. N. Rajagopalan

C.E. (B)

initial draft

meetings and finalized in

M.K. Mukherjee

R.S.

The

Members

IRC
Momin)
DG(RD), MOSRT&H

President,

for publication.

(S.S.

2.

SCOPE

(Indu Prakash
Secretary,
(R.S.

The guidelines cover

IRC

the specific design

and

construction requirements of precast and cast-in-

Sharma)

situ

prestressed

concrete

superstructures of bridges.

Corresponding Members

segmental

The provisions apply

to the following types of superstructures

Ashok Basa
C.V. Kand

(i)

Epoxy

jointed

precast

segmental

IRC:SP:65-2005
bonded tendons
external unbonded tendons,

breaking material, such

superstructure with internal


as well as
(ii)

(iii)

any other approved material

Dry jointed precast segmental superstmcture


with external unbonded tendons,

as well as the

shall not

segments

girder

assembled using post tensioning

(i.e.,

manner

spliced

match

cast

that will

the

shall

be supported in a

minimize warping. Under any

minimum compressive

epoxy jointed girder segments.

2.1. Applicability in

moved from

circumstances, the concrete shall have attained a

girder system) with cast-in-situ stitch as well


as

be

casting yard until stipulated strength requirements

have been attained and


prestressed

be used between

end headers when required.

Segments

3.1.1.

Precast as well as cast-in-situ cantilever

Precast

shall

previously cast segment and newly cast segment,

construction superstmcture, and


(iv)

wax or

as, flax soap, talc,

strength of 20

MPa at the

time of removal of forms. At the time of

lifting

and assembly of precast segments into the


structure, the concrete shall have attained

High Seismic Areas

sufficient strength to withstand the handling

Dry jointed precast segmental

superstructures

stresses.

monolithic with piers shall not be permitted in


the seismic

Zones IV and

Curing of segments

may be

achieved

through water or steam followed by water curing.

defined in IRC:6-

Approved curing compound may be used.

2000.

3.

3.1.2. In case of spliced girder system, usually

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

match casting

is

not necessary because the gap

between the girder segments

Minimum
cement content,

grades of concrete,

minimum

or epoxy material

maximum water-cement ratio and

other durability requirements shall be

same

faces,

as

at

which are required

The

to receive the cast-in-

be adequately roughened

and prepared as construction joint before pouring


the stitch concrete. In case of

There are several specific requirements


relating to construction which need to be adhered
to. These are specified hereinafter.

epoxy jointed

spliced girder system (with no gap between the

girder segments),
to,

and

all

match casting

shall

be resorted

provisions of epoxy jointed segmental

structure as per this


3.1.

with concrete

the locations of splices.

situ stitch concrete, shall

indicated in Table 5 of IRC:2 1 -2000.

is filled

document

shall apply.

Precasting
3.1.3.

Forms

shall

mock-up of

the lifting and

cantilevering formwork, etc.) shall be performed

be of sufficient

to demonstrate their

thickness, with adequate external bracing and


shall

full scale

holding equipment (including assembly truss,

All sides, bottom inside and header forms


shall be of steel.

to

be stiffened and adequately anchored to

adequacy and efficacy prior

beginning any erection/assembly of the

withstand the forces due to placement and

segments.

Compaction of concrete
may be achieved through needle vibrators or form

3.1.4.

vibration of concrete.

vibrators along with needle vibrators. For casting

Tolerances in Precasting: Finished


segment tolerances should not exceed the

of precast segmental superstructure, any of the

following:

two commonly known techniques of precasting,


viz. Long Line method or Short Bench method
may be used. After the first segment of each unit
is cast, succeeding segments shall be match cast
against the previous ones and shall be given a
unique identification mark so as to be placed at
the intended location in the superstructure. A bond

Length of match-cast segment

5mm

(not cumulative)
Overall span length between bearings

Web thickness,

depths of top

and bottom flanges width of top


and bottom flanges, overall depth

10mm

IRC:SP:65-2005

However,

of segment, thickness of

in

case

of

diaphagm
Grade of edge and soffit
Tendon hole location

5mm

superstructure, not using

Imm/m

amplitude shear keys

Position of shear keys

3mm
5mm

4.

3.2.

spliced

match

may be

girder

casting, large

used.

EPOXY JOINTING OF SEGMENTS

Shear Keys

In case of epoxy jointed superstructure, mating

surfaces of both adjoining segments shall be


Precast segments shall be provided with shear

keys

at

match

cover as

cast joints.

much

These shear keys

effectively prepared

and

shall

Epoxy of about

webs shall be smaller


number whereas those in top

and more

in

flange and bottom flange

may have

Fig.

An example

a box girder segment

is

also

compression of

at least 0.3

by approved means

for a

MPa

shall

minimum

prestressing.

The Epoxy

bo

FRONT FACE

SIDE VIEW

Vi

h:d =

:2

DETAIL -X
Fig.

1.

life.

be applied

of 24 hours.

shall essentially

32mm < h > TWICE THE DIAMETER


OF THE TOP SIZE AGGREGATE

pot

Refer Fig. 3 for a sample arrangement of temporary

2.

properties as indicated in para 4.2.1.

=0.75b

its

hug each other and an axial temporary

to

of shear keys in

enumerated in Fig.

thickness on each of the

Subsequently, the segment shall be brought closer

for general details of shear keys in precast

box girder segments.

to ensure that

completely removed.

application) within 70 per cent of

with lesser number. Shear keys shall be


dimensioned in the form of trapezium. Sheai- keys
be avoided at the tendon hole locations. Refer

1mm

is

mating surfaces shall be applied (usually by hand

larger sizes

shall

any other approved means

the bond breaking material

area of the cross-section as

possible. Shear keys in the


in size

/or

by wire brushing, water jetting

Examples of Shear keys

in

Box Segments

have

IRC:SP:65-2005

IRC:SP:65-2005

IRC:SP:65-2005

mating surfaces of precast concrete segments and

and medium fast reacting


formulations and 60C for slow reacting
formulations. It must be ensured that mixing
paddles scrape the bottom and sides of the

application of temporary axial force does not

container, so as to ensure complete mixing of the

The
in

contractor shall plan his erection system

such a way that the time elapsed between

mixing of components of epoxy applied

exceed 60 minutes.

No epoxy from

reacting

fast

to the

a batch for

tv/o

which the time since combining the components


has exceeded 20 minutes shall be used.

components. The mixing should be carried

out as close as possible to the place where the

epoxy

will be applied, so as to avoid loss of time,

and, therefore, wasting of pot


4.1.

Sequence of Operation

The broad sequence of operation


generally comprise placing of

all

shall

segments of a

one

stage, touching

4.2.1.

Epoxy

to the

FIP-1978 "Proposal for Standard Tests and

shall

Verification of

be tested for

each other and then visually

properties

examining the matching of mating surfaces.


Subsequently, each segment shall be separated
from adjoining segment by a distance just

Epoxy Bonding Agents

(minimum

Pot

life

sufficient to apply the epoxy. After applying

minimum 24

conformance

values) of epoxy are as

20 minutes

upper

(at

temperature limit)

Open time

60 minutes

upper

(at

temperature limit)

hours.

Thereafter, intended permanent prestress shall be

Compressive

imparted prior to demobilizing the temporary

strength

axial prestress.

60 MPa at 24 hours
and 75 MPa at 168 hours
on 50x50x50mm cube
lower temperature

4.2.

for

follows:

epoxy, temporary axial compression shall be


imparted and maintained for

its

Segmental Construction". Some of the important

portion intended to be assembled and prestressed


in

life in transport.

Epoxy

Tensile bonding

24 hours

after

(at

limit)

at

100

percent strength humidity,

Depending upon the ambient temperature


range, following types of epoxies are
recommended for use:

should
failure,

M40

have

concrete

no joint failure with

concrete

(at

temperature
5 to 20 Celsius

15 to 30 Celsius

Fast reacting

Medium

Shear strength

fast

Slow

MPa

limit)
(at

Curing rate

reacting

compressive strength on

50x50x50mm cube
and hardener. Resin must be

mixer in

its

stirred

by a

container for about 10 seconds or until

electric

hand

drilling

machine

be

MPa at 12 hours, 40
MPa at 24 hours and 75
MPa at 168 hours (at lower
temperature limit)

homogeneity is reached. Thereafter, hardener


must be added and mixing continued. For a mix
of 5 kg batch, a mixing rotor attached to a 350W,

400rpm

shall

20

Epoxy comprises two components, namely,


resin

lower

temperature limit)

reacting

25 to 40 Celsius

12

lower

4.3. Cast-in-situ

Concrete Pour

is

In every continuous precast segmental unit

recommended. The speed of 400rpm should not


be exceeded because higher revolutions will

of superstructure, there shall be suitable numbers

entrap air in the mix, cause excessive frictional

(at least

one) of cast-in-situ concrete pour/stitch,

The

which is

essential to ensure longitudinal alignment

heat and, therefore, shorten the pot

life.

of the segment.

mixing time should not exceed 3 minutes and the


temperature not allowed to rise above 40C for

IRC:SP:65-2005
4.4. Spliced

Girder System

4.6. Prestressing

A spliced girder system is provided to obtain

Ducts

In the case of dry jointed segments,

large girder spans, given the limitations of weight

prestressing duct shall necessarily be of

and length of individual girder segments, which

material. In the case of

epoxy jointed segments,

HDPE

may be used

could be on account of limitations of handling or

either metallic or

transportation of the same. In this system, smaller

internal prestressing

girder segments, usually pretensioned at

external prestressing.

precasting yard, are assembled together using

corrugated for internal prestressing

cast-in-situ concrete or

For

epoxy and post tensioning.

duct

and only

HDPE

The ducts

for

duct for
shall be

and plain for

external prestressing. In case of external

purpose, the girder segments are

this

HDPE

prestressing, wall thickness of the

be

temporarily supported over centering/steel tower

shall

or assembled at ground level and then post

the duct

HDPE

ducts

of the outside diameter of

at least 1/21

and diameter

as per the provisions of

tensioned after jointing. In case of superstructures

IRC: 18-2000. In case of internal prestressing, duct

curved in plan, straight girder segments are placed

size

along the chord line of the curvature to obtain the

of IRC: 18-2000. Adequate precaution shall be

required geometr}'. In such cases,

taken to ensure that epoxy material does not leak

to provide a cast-in-situ cross

it

is

necessary

diaphragm

at

each

and thickness

shall

be as per the provisions

into joints of the ducts.

such kink in plan coinciding with the splice. The


splicing can either be

done before casting the deck

4.7.

External Prestressing

or along with the deck. In the former, posttensioning

whereas

is

imparted to the girder section alone

External prestressing,

if

used, shall

employ

in the latter, the post-tensioning is

specialized external anchorages (replaceable

imparted to the composite section, (refer Fig. 4

type), suitably protected against corrosion. In the

for one such arrangement). Other

such

splicing,

methods of

as, structural steel splicing

replaceable system of prestressing, the bearing

and RCC

plate

RCC

outside the concrete, which

is

provided

with grease filled cap for protection against

splicing are not in the purview of these guidelines.

Similarly,

is

corrosion. Usually a sliding layer

girder segments spliced using

is

provided

way

post-tensioning are also not in the purview of

between trumpet and duct

these guidelines.

duct along with bearing plate and wedges can be

in

such a

that the

removed for replacement after detensioning of the


4.4.1.

preferred location of splice will be the

points of
points.

minimum

stress,

such

as,

1/3"^

cables. In

some systems of

prestressing, the

anchorage cone/trumpet remains connected to a

span

small piece of duct, which

At each cast-in-situ splice location,

is

connected to the

remaining duct, through a duct coupler, which

adequately designed untensioned reinforcement

is

be provided by lapping, welding or with the

decoupled for replacement. For the purpose of

use of mechanical reinforcement couplers subject

detensioning, the cables remain sufficiently

However,

projected beyond anchorages, which are

splice, such

encompassed in long grease filled caps. Refer


Figs. 5, 6 and 7 for general system of replaceable
anchorages. The tendons may be protected against

shall

to the limitations of the relevant codes.

in the case of

reinforcement

4.5.

is

epoxy jointed
not provided.

corrosion using grouting with approved grease,

Placement of Bearings

wax, cement or any other approved material. Refer


Bearings under precast segments shall be

Fig. 8 for

some of

the systems of corrosion

placed by sandwiching shrinkage compensated

protection of external prestressing tendons.

high strength prepackaged cement mortar in order

Design of end block for external anchorages

to ensure

homogeneous contact between top

be

in

Note

surface of the bearing and bottom surface of the


superstructure.

shall

conformity with Clause 17 (along with Foot


(ii)

below Table

8) of

IRC: 18-2000.

IRC:SP:65-2005

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2^

Is

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is

|!3

IRC:SP:65-2005
4.7.1. In the case of external prestressing, the

4.7.3.

minimum web

of any cable, one

thickness shall be 200

mm.

The

structure shall
at

be designed for snapping

a time, which will cater for

the condition of replacement of cables. In this

The

loss of prestress in

unbonded tendons
shall be calculated from the average creep
movement between anchors. The creep loss in the
unbonded tendons is not directly proportional to
4.7.2.

condition, load factors and permissible stresses

corresponding to erection condition in Table

IRC: 6-2000

shall

be considered.

the local creep strain in the concrete at center of

gravity of tendons.

mm

180

Threaded anchor head

Guide pipe

Bearing plate
,

CD

CD

QQ

Be

1*1

Trumpet

Steel pipe

II

Duct
Extra strand overlength

Ring nut
Protection cap
Fig. 5. Replaceable

Anchorages

Fig. 6. Protection

for External Prestressing

Cap over Permanently Sealed


Anchorage

Tension

ring

of

IRC:SP:65-2005

Fig. 7. Protection

STRAND

Cap over Anchorages

to

be Handled in Future

(TYP,

RCUT/WAX/GREA:

GROUT/WAX/GREASE

HOPE PIPE

HDPE PIPE

GREASED STRANDS PROTECTED


WITH HEAT-EXTRUDED
HDPE SHEATH fTYP.)

CAN BE GALVANISED FOR


ADDITIONAL PROTECTION

0PTiQN~ 2

0PTI0N--1
(TWO LEVELS OF
CORROSION PROTECTION)

(FOUR LEVELS OF
CORROSION PROTECTION)

Fig. 8. Options for Corrosion Protection of External

4.8.

Deviator Blocks

Tendons

blocks shall be located


12 m. In case,

In the case of external prestressing,

it

is

maximum

a usual

it

at a

spacing not exceeding

not possible to adhere to this

spacing

criteria,

check

shall

be

made

practice to provide concrete protrusions inside the

to ensure that the first natural

box girder

so as to maintain the intended alignment. Refer


Figs. 9 and 10 for some suggested details of

tendons vibrating between the fixing points


(deviator blocks or anchorage points) is not in
the range 0.8 to 1.2 times that of the bridge.

deviator blocks. These deviator blocks also help

Deviator blocks shall be so detailed as to avoid

control the vibrations of the cables.

damage

in order to pass the prestressing ducts

The deviator

10

frequency of the

to tendon/sheathing/deviator

blocks

IRC:SP:65-2005

weather conditions. Since, dry-jointed


segments do not have filler material, like,

during stressing operation. In case, a permanently

embedded duct

in concrete deviator block is

provided,

be of galvanized

shall

it

steel (at least

epoxy, there could be a likelihood of stress

150 micron coating thickness).


4.9. Prestressing

concentrations. Precautions
to avoid

Couplers

may be exercised

such warping. The possibility of

water leakage through the dry joints cannot


In case, prestressing couplers are used, not

more than 50 per cent of

be ruled out and hence in climates where

the prestressing cables

freeze-thaw conditions exist, dry-jointed

passing through a section shall, in general, be

coupled

at that section.

construction shall be avoided.

Longitudinally, the

couplers shall be staggered by

at least a

distance
5.1.

equal to each segment length or twice the overall

depth of the girder, whichever


practice

is to

more. Usual

is

Design

couple half the cables in one span

and the other half in the next span and so on.

way

Two

at

IRC: 18-

for the additional provisions and/or

followed.

5.2.

Basis of Design

stresses at the stages before

grouting.

4.10.

as for cast-in-situ structure as per

from the gross

concrete section area and other section properties

when computing

be done in the same

deviations indicated below, which need to be

one section. Void areas around

the coupler shall be deducted

shall, in principle,

2000 except

immediately adjacent cables shall not be provided


with couplers

Design

Permissible stresses in concrete and


prestressing steel shall be applicable as per
Clauses 7 and 8 of IRC: 18-2000 respectively

Deck Waterproofing

except as modified below. Similarly, section

Bituminous or any other approved flexible

membrane waterproofing
the

deck

5.

DRY

shall

properties and

be provided over

modulus of

elasticity shall

be

apphcable as per clauses 9 and 10 of IRC: 1 8-2000

slab.

respectively. Losses in the prestressing shall be

calculated in the

JOINTED
PRECAST
SEGMENTAL CONSTRUCTION

manner given

in

Clause

IRC: 18-2000. Ultimate flexural strength

1 1

of

shall

be

calculated as per Clauses 12 and 13 of IRC: 18-

2000 except as modified below. Shear design

Dry jointed construction shall not be used


with internal tendons. Dry jointed precast
segmental
externally
prestressed

shall

be done as per Clause 14 of IRC: 18-2000 except


as modified below. Other Clauses 15 to 25 of

IRC: 18-2000

shall

be apphcable unaltered.

superstructures have advantage of speed of

construction over the epoxy jointed precast

segmental

Permissible temporary stresses in


concrete: Temporary maximum compressive
5.3.1.

However, adequate caution

needs to be exercised while adopting the

stresses in concrete shall

former. Generally, these structures have been

found

to exhibit

Permissible Stresses in Concrete

prestressed

externally

superstructures.

5.3.

lower ductility

level,

and 7.1.3 of IRC: 18-2000. The stresses on the

lower

tensile face shall

shear strength and larger deflections

compared

to

be limited to no tension

of epoxy jointed precast segments,

epoxy jointed superstructures

under the ultimate loading conditions.

be as per Clauses 7.1.2

residual compression of 0.7

MPa

in case

minimum

in case

of dry

It is

jointed precast segments and as per Clause 7.1.4

also apprehended that a small order warping

of IRC: 18-2000 for cast-in-situ segmental

is

caused after precasting of segments due to

non-uniform exposure

to the

structure

sun and other

and spliced girder structure with cast-

in-situ stitch.

11

IRC:SP:65-2005

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IRC:SP:65-2005
5.3.2.

Permissible Stresses in concrete During

Service: During service condition, after

of prestressing, the
stresses, in

0.334

all

maximum compressive

normal condition,

shall

types of segmental structures.

The

be limited to

stresses

Design for Ultimate Shear


Provisions of Clause 14 of IRC: 18-2000 shall apply

be limited to

per Clause 7.2.1 of IRC: 18-2000 for

tensile face shall

5.4.

losses

except as modified by the provisions given below.


5.4.1. Cast-in-Situ

all

and

on the

minimum residual

segmental super structures

spliced girder super structures with cast-

in-situ stitch: Provisions of Clause 14 of IRC: 18-

compression of five per cent of maximum


permanent compressive stress that may be
developed in the same section in case of epoxy

5.4.2.

jointed precast segments. In case of dry jointed

superstructures with internal bonded tendons

2000 apply.

Epoxy jointed precast segmental

minimum residual compression

or external unbonded tendons: Ultimate load

maximum

factors shall be followed as per Clause 12 of

permanent compressive stress that may be


developed in the same section, whichever is more,

resistance developed through the shear keys shall

precast segments,

of 0.7

shall

MPa

or five per cent of

IRC: 18-2000. Any helping effect of bearing

be ensured on the tensile face. For cast-in-

be ignored.

segmental structure and spliced girder


no tensile stresses
shall be permitted on the tension face as per

5.4.2.1.

Clause 7.2.2 of IRC: 18-2000.

per Clause

situ

structure with cast-in-situ stitch,

For structures with internal bonded

tendons, the ultimate shear capacity calculated as


1

4 of IRC: 1 8-2000

shall

be multiplied

by a factor of 0.90.
5.3.2.1. In the load combinations involving

temperature effects (over

all

unbonded tendons
shall be considered as reinforced concrete column

5.4.2.2. Structure with external

temperature variation

as well as differential temperature gradient),

minimum

residual compression of upto zero (no

subject to externally applied loads for the purpose

tension) shall be ensured through prestressing in

of shear design. For this purpose, the limit of

all

maximum

types of precast segmental structures where

shear stress shall be as per Table 6 of

IRC: 18-2000. For structures with external


unbonded tendons, calculated shear capacity shall
be multiplied by a factor of 0.85.

untensioned reinforcement can not continue across

The permissible compressive stresses


in concrete may be enhanced by 15 per cent.
Tension, upto a maximum of two third of the
modulus of rupture may be pennitted in case of
the segments.

cast-in-situ segmental structures

and spliced girder

Dry jointed precast segmental


superstructures with external unbonded

structures with cast-in-situ stitch

where adequately

tendons: Structure with external unbonded

designed untensioned reinforcement, continuing

tendons shall be considered as reinforced concrete

across the segments, can be provided as per the

column subject to externally applied loads

provisions of Clause 5.2(iv) of IRC: 18-2000. In

purpose of shear design. For

this case,

permissible stresses in concrete and steel

may be

increased by 15 per cent. In

5.4.3.

of

maximum

this

for the

purpose, limit

shear stress shall be as per Table 6

load

of IRC: 18-2000. The ultimate shear capacity so

combinations involving differential temperature,

calculated shall be multiplied by a factor of 0.85.

gradient

maximum 50

all

In the case of dry jointed segmental superstructure

per cent live load shall be

associated with external

considered.

unbonded tendons, under

any load combination, the design shear resistance

The

structure shall also be

checked for

of mating surfaces of precast segments shall be

20 per cent higher time dependant

losses, like,

more than the

5.3.2.2.

net applied shear at any dry joint in

creep, shrinkage, relaxation, etc. for nomial load

order to prevent joint slippage. For calculating

combination for the above mentioned limits of

shear capacity of joints of segments, add a

stresses as per Clause 7.2.4 of

where

IRC: 18-2000.

14

'a' is

the capacity of shear

-1-

b,

key acting

as

IRC:SP:65-2005
corbel (designed by shear friction theory) with
frictional coefficient

|Hj

is

and axial force

1.4

derived from prestressing after

all

all losses.

structure

Figs.

force after

all

And

b =

ja^

same

as

flexural capacity of the

may be calculated by principles of strain

1 1

and 12

sample arrangements of

illustrate

external and internal prestressing tendons

all

losses/cross-sectional area of superstructure) x

shear key area.

are not the

compatibility or any other appropriate method.

In other

x (0.87x prestressing force after

ja,

bonded tendons, ultimate

area

0.6 and axial force

derived from prestressing after


terms, a

web

unbonded tendons

those in the concrete. In the case of internal

losses and 'b'

equal to the capacity of the remaining

using friction coefficient

strains in

respectively. Fig

x (0.87x prestressing

13 illustrates analogus

model

of externally prestressed superstructure.

losses/cross-sectional area of

superstructure) x

(web area - shear key

area).

For Dry jointed precast segmental


superstructure with external unbonded
tendons: The ultimate flexural capacity

The

5.5.3.

ultimate shear capacity of the shear keys so


calculated shall be multiplied by a factor of 0.75.

Ultimate load factors shall be followed as per

calculated as per Clause

Clause 12 of IRC: 18-2000.

be multiphed by a factor of 0.85. In the case of

3 of

IRC: 1 8-2000

unbonded tendons where the tendons


5.5.

Design for Ultimate Flexure

connected to the structure


strain will

Design

shall, in general,

be carried out as per

at the

shall

are only

anchorages, any

be distributed equally through out the

length of the tendon's length. Available

Clause 13 of IRC: 18-2000 except as modified

prestressing force after

below. Ultimate load factors shall be followed as

working out ultimate moment carrying capacity.

per Clause 12 of IRC: 18-2000. The untensioned

In such cases failure takes place due to crushing

reinforcement not continuinig between the precast

of concrete. Generally,

segments

shall not

be assumed

it

losses

is

used for

considered adequately

accurate to assume that deflection geometry of

to contribute to

superstructure will not cause any additional strain

the flexural strength.

must be specifically noted that


unbonded tendons are not the same as

in the tendons.

5.5.1.

all

For Cast-in-situ segmental and spliced

strains in

girder superstructures with cast-in-situ stitch:

It

those in the concrete.

The provisions of Clause 13 of IRC: 18-2000 shall


apply.

5.6.

For Epoxy jointed precast segmental


superstructure with internal bonded tendons
or external unbonded tendons: The ultimate

concentrated tensile stresses develop behind the

flexural capacity calculated as per Clause 13 of

shall

At the intermediate anchorage locations,

5.5.2.

Tension Behind Intermediate Anchorages

IRC: 18-2000

shall

anchorages. Adequately designed reinforcement

be multiplied by a factor of

specialist literature

0.95 for internal bonded tendons and 0.90 for

external

unbonded tendons.

connected to the structure


strain will

at the

are only

additional precautions because the reinforcement

anchorages, any

cannot continue between the adjoining segments.

be distributed equally through out the

all

followed for design

segmental superstructure, the design needs

In such cases, appropriate specialist literature

length of the tendon's length. Available


prestressing force after

may be

of this reinforcement. In the case of precast

In the case of

unbonded tendons where the tendons

be provided for the same. Appropriate

losses

is

be followed for catering

used for

to

may

such tensions behind

the intermediate anchorages.

working out ultimate moment carrying capacity.


In such cases, failure takes place due to crushing

of concrete. Generally,

it is

5.7.

considered adequately

Correction for Centre of Gravity of


Tendons

accurate to assume that deflection geometry of

Draped tendons shall be assumed to be below


the duct CG in hogging ducts and above the duct

superstructure will not cause any additional strain


in the tendons.

It

must be

specifically noted that

15

IRC:SP:65-2005

16

IRC:SP:65-2005

17

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IRC:SP:65-2005

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IRC:SP:65-2005

CG

by 6 mm, 12 mm, 18 mm
mm for duct ID of 50 mm, 5 mm to 75
76 mm to 100 mm and above 101 mm

in sagging ducts

and 25

mm,

the time of publication, the edition indicated

were

valid. All standards are subject to revision

and

the parties to agreements based on these

respectively. For portions of transitions between

guidelines are encouraged to investigate the

hogging and sagging ducts, intermediate values

possibility of applying the

may be used

of standards.

5.8.

appropriately.

Axial Tensions

Design

shall adequately take

account of the

most recent editions

6.1.

Codes and speciflcations

1.

IRC:6-2000,

Standard Specifications

account of bearing restraints against creep,

and Code of Practice for Road Bridges,


Section II-Loads and Stresses (Fourth

shrinkage, thermal movements, breaking/tractive

Revision)

axial tensions occurring in the superstructure

on

forces and longitudinal seismic forces. This effect


is,

more importantly, required

in precast

to

2.

IRC: 1 8-2000, Design Criteria for Prestressed

Concrete Road Bridges (Post Tensioned

be taken care of

segmental structure due to the absence

Concrete) (Third Revision)

of continuing reinforcement.

3.

IRC:2 1-2000, Standard Specifications and

Code of
5.9.

Practice for

Road

Bridges, Section

Ill-Cement Concrete (Plain Reinforced)

Local Effects of Blisters

(Third Revision)
a

It is

common

practice to provide concrete

4.

protrusions called blisters inside the box girder


to

significant local

5.

to locate

6.

these blisters at web-bottom slab or web-top slab

Prestressing

AASHTO LRFD

Bridge

Design

inevitable to provide

American Segmental Bridge Institute July


1998 Guide Specifications for Design and

over the mid width of top/bottom slab or

Construction of Segmental Concrete Bridges

bending moments.

If

it is

mid-height of webs, they shall be extended

7.

(Second Edition)

till

the adjoining top/bottom slabs or the webs, as the

may be.

8.

moments
from such blisters shall be accounted for
case

The Design of Concrete Highway

Specifications: 1999 Interim

junctions so as to minimize additional local

blisters

58/94,

Unbonded

bending moments. Therefore,

made

BS

Bridges and Structures with External and

with prestressing force cause

every possible attempt shall be

5400: Part 4: 1984 Code of Practice for

Design of Concrete Bridges

accommodate tendon anchorages. These

blisters associated

BS

In any case local bending

FIP-1978

Proposal for standard tests and

verification of

Epoxy bonding agents

for

segmental construction.

appropriately in the design of the adjoining


structure for

may be

which appropriate

specialist literature

&

6.2.

Papers

1.

'External prestressing'

Publications

consulted.

Techniques des
6.

REFERENCES

2.

et

by Service D' Etudes

Autoroutes, France.

Ahmed M, Abdel Karim and Mahen K


Tadros-'Sphcing Increases Span Capabilities

In this publication, reference to the following

IRG, BS,

of Precast Bridge

AASHTO Standards has been made. At

19

Girders' (Technical Paper).

(The

official

amendments

to this

in its periodical, 'Indian

effective

document would be published by the IRC

Highways', which

shall

be considered as

and as part of the code/guidelines/manual,

Date specified therein)

etc.

from the