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A.

C CIRCUITS

VOLTAGE GENERATION AND REPRESENTATION

THEORY

GENERATION OF A.C VOLTAGE

The sinusoidal alternating voltage can be generated by rotating a


coil(winding) in a magnetic field or by rotating a magnetic field in a
stationary coil(winding). The machine which is used to generate a
sinusoidal alternating voltage is called an AC GENERATOR.

A.C CIRCUITS

VOLTAGE GENERATION AND REPRESENTATION

THEORY

Fig above shows the elementary simple ac generator. It consists


of a permanent magnet of two poles. A single rectangular coil
which is placed in the vicinity of the permanent magnet. The coil
is so placed that it can be rotated about its own axis in clockwise
or anticlockwise direction.
When the coil is rotated in anticlockwise direction with constant
angular velocity in a uniform magnetic field, its conductors cut the
magnetic lines of flux and according to Faradays law of
electromagnetic induction, an emf gets induced in them.
Let
= Angular velocity of coil in rad/sec.
l = Active length of each conductor.
B = Flux density of the magnetic field.
V = Linear velocity of coil conductors.
= Angle between plane of the coil and X-axis.

According to Faradays law of electromagnetic induction,


The emf induced in one conductor = BIVsin

A.C CIRCUITS

VOLTAGE GENERATION AND REPRESENTATION

THEORY

In a coil, two conductors are identical and emfs induced in them


are additive.
So, the emf induced in a coil,
.. (1)

v = 2BIVsin

when =900, induced emf is maximum(maximum value of induced emf is


expressed by Vm.)
So,
Or

Vm = 2BIVsin900
Vm = 2BIV

Equation (1) now becomes


.(2)

v = Vmsin

thus, Eq.(2) gives the instantaneous value of the voltage induced in a coil.
From Eq.(2), it is clear that the instantaneous value of the induced voltage
in a coil depends on . As the coil continuously rotates with constant
angular velocity (i.e. continuously varies from 00 to 3600), the magnitude
of the induced emf in a coil (v) continuously varies.

ROOT MEAN SQUARE (RMS VALUE)

Normally current is measured by amount of work it will do on the


amount of heat it will produce. Hence rms on effective value. Of
alternating current is defined as that value of steady current
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A.C CIRCUITS

VOLTAGE GENERATION AND REPRESENTATION

THEORY

(direct current) which will do the same amount of work in the


same time or would produce the same heating effect as when the
alternating current is applied for the same time.
If we consider the positive half cycle of a non-sinusoidal
alternating current waveform.

The above waveform is divided in k equal intcrvals with


instanstancous currents, there intervals being

1 , 2 ,

............ if this waveform is applied to a circuit consisting of


a resistance of R ohms. Then work done in different intervals
will be
12

, 22

,.. 2

joules

Thus total work done in 't' seconds on applying alternating


current wave form to a resistance R is given by
w=

12 + 22 + ........ 2

joules
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A.C CIRCUITS

VOLTAGE GENERATION AND REPRESENTATION

THEORY

If I be value of direct current that while flowing through the


same resistance does the same amount of work in same
time t.

Then
2

I Rt =

12 + 22 + ........2

Hence I =

12 + 22 + ........ 2

RMS value of A. C. is given by


Irms =

12 + 22 + ........2

()2

RMS value of any current i (t) over specified intnal t1 & t2


is expressed as Irms =

1
2 1

2 2
()
1

(1) IMP

The rms volue of an alternating current is of considerable


importance in practice because the ammeters and voltmeters
record the rms value of alternating current and voltage
respectively.

A.C CIRCUITS

VOLTAGE GENERATION AND REPRESENTATION

THEORY

RMS Value of Sinusoidal Waveform


V = Vm sin 0 < < 2

Vrms =

1
2

1
2

2
0

2 ()

2 2
2 ()
0

2 12
0
2

2
2

2
2

2
2
0

2 2
4

00+0

= 0.707

Crest or peak or amplitude factor. It is defined as the ratio of


maximum value to rms value of the given quantity.
Peak factor ( ) =

A.C CIRCUITS

VOLTAGE GENERATION AND REPRESENTATION

THEORY

AVERAGE VALUE
The average value of an alternating quantity is defined as the
arithmetic mean of all the values over one complete cycle.
In case of symmetrical alternating waveform (whether sinusoidal
or non-sinusoidal), the average value over a complete cycle is
zero. Hence, in such a case, the average value is obtained over
half the cycle only.
Referring to Fig. 3.3, the average value of the current is given by
1 + 2 +

Iavg =

The average value of any current i (t) over the specified interval t 1
and t2 is expressed mathematically as

Iavg =

2 1

2
1

()

Average Value of Sinusoidal Waveform


0 < < 2

V= Vm sin

Since this is a symmetrical waveform, the average value is


calculated over half the cycle.
Vavg =

() =


0
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A.C CIRCUITS

VOLTAGE GENERATION AND REPRESENTATION

=
=

[1 + 1]

THEORY

[]0

= 0.637 Vm

Form factor It is defined as the ratio of rms value to the average


value of the given quantity.
Form factor (kf) =