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TRANSIENT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

Module 3

TRANSIENT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS


A. Define transient dynamic analysis and its purpose.
B. Learn basic terminology and concepts underlying
transient analysis.
C. Learn how to do a transient analysis in ANSYS.
D. Work on a transient analysis exercise.

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

A. DEFINITION & PURPOSE


What is transient dynamic analysis?

A technique to determine the response of a structure to arbitrary


time-varying loads such as an explosion.
Input
Loads as a function of time.
Output
Time-varying displacements and other derived quantities
such as stresses and strains.

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

DEFINITION & PURPOSE

Transient dynamic analysis is used in the design of:

Structures subjected to shock loads, such as automobile doors


and bumpers, building frames, and suspension systems.
Structures subjected to time-varying loads, such as bridges,
earth moving equipment, and other machine components.
Household and office equipment subjected to bumps and
bruises, such as cellular phones, laptop computers, and
vacuum cleaners.

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

B. TERMINOLOGY & CONCEPTS


Topics covered:
Equation of motion
Solution methods
Integration time step

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS - TERMINOLOGY & CONCEPTS

EQUATION OF MOTION
Equation of motion for a transient dynamic analysis is the
same as the general equation of motion.

M u C u K u F t
This is the most general form of dynamic analysis. Loading
may be any arbitrary function of time.
Depending on the method of solution, ANSYS allows all types
of nonlinearities to be included in a transient dynamic analysis
- large deformation, contact, plasticity, etc.

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS - TERMINOLOGY AND CONCEPTS

INTEGRATION

TIME STEP

Response frequency
Different types of loads excite different
natural frequencies of the structure.
Response frequency is the weighted
average of all frequencies excited by a
given load.
The ITS should be small enough to
capture the response frequency .
Twenty time points per cycle should be
sufficient, i.e,
Dt = 1/20f
where f is the response frequency.

Response period

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

C. PROCEDURE
We will discuss the Full method only in this section.

Five main steps:


Build the model
Choose analysis type and options

Specify BCs and initial conditions


Apply time-history loads and solve
Review results

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

BUILD THE MODEL


Model

All nonlinearities are allowed.


Remember density!

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

CHOOSE ANALYSIS TYPE & OPTIONS


Build the model
Choose analysis type and options:
Enter Solution and choose
transient analysis.
Choose Full transient
Solution options - discussed
next.
Damping - discussed next.

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

CHOOSE ANALYSIS TYPE & OPTIONS

Solution options

Choose large displacement transient or small


displacement transient .

When in doubt, choose large displacement


transient

Specify time at end of load step.


Automatic time stepping
(discussed next)
Specify initial, min and max
values of Dt for this load step.

Specify output controls


(discussed next)

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

CHOOSE ANALYSIS TYPE & OPTIONS

Automatic time stepping

An algorithm that automatically calculates appropriate ITS sizes


during the transient.
Recommendation is to activate it and also specify minimum and
maximum values of ITS.

If nonlinearities are present, use the Program Chosen option.

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

CHOOSE ANALYSIS TYPE & OPTIONS

Output controls

Used to determine what is written to the results file.

Use the OUTRES command or choose Solution > Soln Control.. > Basic in the
menu

Typical choice is to write all items at every substep to the results file.
Allows smooth plots of results vs. time.
Might cause results file to be large.

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

CHOOSE ANALYSIS TYPE & OPTIONS

Turn transient effects on/off

useful for setting up initial conditions


Ramp or Step apply load

Specify damping)

Use default values for time integration


parameters

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

CHOOSE ANALYSIS TYPE & OPTIONS

Damping

Both alpha damping and beta damping are available.


In many cases, alpha damping (viscous damping) is ignored and
only beta damping (damping due to hysteresis) is specified:
b = 2/w
where is the damping ratio and w is the dominant response
frequency (rad/sec).
Material damping (e.g. rubber) and element damping (e.g. shock
absorber) are also available.

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE


CHOOSE ANALYSIS TYPE & OPTIONS

Choose solver
By default ANSYS chooses Sparse solver
For large problems (>100000 dofs) use PCG solver

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

SPECIFY BCS & INITIAL CONDITIONS

Load step 2:
Transient effects ON.

Release the object, i.e, delete


DOF constraints on the object.

Application of Temporal Acceleration

Acel

Specify ending time and continue


with the transient.
0.0005
Load step 1

0.001

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

SPECIFY BCS & INITIAL CONDITIONS

Load step 2:

Transient effects ON.


Delete the imposed displacement.
Specify ending time and continue with the transient.

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

SPECIFY BCS & INITIAL CONDITIONS

Example - A stationary plate subjected to an impulse load

In this case u0 = v0 = a0 = 0.
These are the default initial conditions in ANSYS, so there is no
need to specify them!
Simply apply the boundary conditions and the impulse load,
then solve.

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

APPLY TIME-HISTORY LOADS & SOLVE


Build the model

Load

Choose analysis type and options

Specify BCs and initial conditions


Apply time-history loads and solve

t
Load

Time-history loads are loads that


vary with time.
Three ways to apply them:

t
Load

Function tool
Tabular input
Multiple load steps

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

APPLY TIME-HISTORY LOADS & SOLVE


Function Tool

Allows you to apply complicated boundary conditions. To access the


function editor, choose Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Functions >
Define/Edit

Recommendation: do not use the Function Tool if the boundary conditions


can be expressed directly with tabular input

For more information


refer to Applying Loads
Using Function Boundary
Conditions in the Basic
Analysis Guide.

Method 1

Acceleration response of node 2

Method 2

Acceleration response of node 2

Method 3

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

APPLY TIME-HISTORY LOADS & SOLVE


Tabular input

Allows you to define a table of load vs. time (using array parameters) and apply the table
as a load.

Very convenient, especially if there are several different loads, each with its own time
history.

For example, to apply the force-vs-time curve shown:


1. Choose Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes,
then pick desired nodes.

Force

22.5
10
0.5 1.0 1.5

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

APPLY TIME-HISTORY LOADS & SOLVE


2. Choose the force direction and New
table, then OK.
3. Enter table name and no. of rows (no. of
time points), then OK.
4. Fill in time and load values, then File >
Apply/Quit.

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

APPLY TIME-HISTORY LOADS & SOLVE


5. Specify ending time and integration time step.
Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc >
Time - Time Step
There is no need to specify the stepped or ramped
condition. It is implied by the load curve.
6. Activate automatic time stepping, specify output controls,
and solve (discussed later.)

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

APPLY TIME-HISTORY LOADS & SOLVE

Multiple load step method


Allows you to apply each segment of the load-vs-time curve in
a separate load step.
No need to use array parameters. Simply apply each segment
and either solve the load step or write it to a load step file
(LSWRITE).

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

APPLY TIME-HISTORY LOADS & SOLVE

For example, to apply the same force-vs-time curve as before:

1. Plan the approach. We will need three load steps in this


case: one for the up-ramp load, one for the down-ramp
load, and one for the step removal of the load.

Force
22.5
10

2.

0.5 1.0 1.5


Define load step 1:
Apply force = 22.5 units at the desired nodes.
Specify the ending time (0.5), integration time step, and ramped
loads.
Activate automatic time stepping, specify output controls*, and
either solve or write the load step to a load step file.

*Discussed later

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

APPLY TIME-HISTORY LOADS & SOLVE


3. Define load step 2:

Change force values to 10.0.


Specify the ending time (1.0). No need to respecify the
integration time step or ramped condition.
Solve or write the load step to a load step file.
4. Define load step 3:
Delete the forces or set their values to zero.
Specify the ending time (1.5) and stepped loads.
Solve or write the load step to a load step file.

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

APPLY TIME-HISTORY LOADS & SOLVE

Solution
Use SOLVE command (or LSSOLVE if
load step files were written).
At each time step, ANSYS calculates
load values based on the load-vs-time
curve.

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

REVIEW RESULTS
Build the model
Choose analysis type and options

Specify BCs and initial conditions


Apply time-history loads and solve
Review Results

Consists of three steps:


Plot results vs. time at specific points in the
structure.

Identify critical time points.


Review results over entire structure at those time
points.

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

REVIEW RESULTS - POST26

Identify critical time points


Use the List Extremes menu.
Note down the time points at which the minimum and maximum
values occur.

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS PROCEDURE


Build the model

Choose analysis type and options


Specify BCs and initial conditions
Apply time-history loads and solve

Review Results