Fluid Statics-By A R Paul assistant professor MNNIT Allahabad

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Fluid Statics-By A R Paul assistant professor MNNIT Allahabad

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Está en la página 1de 28

(AM1401)

B Tech. Mech.& Prod. (4th semester)

semester)

Chapter: Fluid Statics

Akshoy Ranjan Paul

Assistant Professor

Email: arpaul2k@gmail.com

by

MOTI LAL NEHRU NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

ALLAHABAD

2/15/2014

Fluid static is a term that is referred to the state of a fluid

where its velocity is zero and this condition is also called

hydrostatic.

So, in fluid static, which is the state of fluid in which the shear

stress is zero throughout the fluid volume.

In a stationary fluid, the most important variable is pressure.

For any fluid, the pressure is the same regardless its direction.

As long as there is no shear stress, the pressure is independent

of direction. This statement is known as Pascals law

4

Copyright ODL Jan 2005 Open University Malaysia

2/15/2014

Fluid surfaces

Pressure is defined as the amount of surface force exerted by

a fluid on any boundary it is in contact with. It can be written

as:

Pr essure

P

F

A

Force

Area of which the force is applied

(2.1)

(Also frequently used is bar, where 1 bar = 105 Pa).

2/15/2014

The formulation for pressure gradient can be written as:

p = (g a)

(2.11)

The formulation for pressure gradient in Eq. (2.11) is derived under the

assumption that there is no shear stress present, or in other word, there is

no viscous effect.

The rest of this chapter will only concentrate on the first case, i.e.

stationary fluids. The second case is applicable the case for a fluid in a

container on a moving platform, such as in a vehicle, and is out of scope of

this course.

For a liquid, usually the position is measured as distance from the

free surface, or depth h, which is positive downward as illustrated in

Fig. 2.3. Hence,

p = g h = h

2/15/2014

If the atmospheric pressure p0 is taken as reference and is calibrated

as zero, then p is known as gauge pressure. Taking the pressure at

the surface as atmospheric pressure p0, i.e., p1=p, p2=p0 when h1=h,

h2=0, respectively:

p = p0 + gh = p0 + h

This equation produces a linear, or uniform, pressure distribution

with depth and is known hydrostatic pressure distribution.

The hydrostatic pressure distribution also implies that pressure is

the same for all positions of the same depth.

This statement can be explained by using a diagram in Fig. 2.4, where all

points, a, b, c and d, have the same value of pressure, that is

pa = pb = pc = pd

and C since the fluid is different, i.e.

pA = pB = pB pD

2/15/2014

Standard Atmosphere

A pressure is quoted in its gauge value, it usually refers to a standard

atmospheric pressure p0. A standard atmosphere is an idealised

representation of mean conditions in the earths atmosphere.

Pressure can be read in two different ways; the first is to quote the

value in form of absolute pressure, and the second to quote relative

to the local atmospheric pressure as reference.

The relationship between the absolute pressure and the gauge

pressure is illustrated in Figure 2.6.

Standard Atmosphere

The pressure quoted by the latter approach (relative to the local atmospheric

pressure) is called gauge pressure, which indicates the sensible pressure since this

is the amount of pressure experienced by our senses or sensed by many pressure

transducers.

If the gauge pressure is negative, it usually represent suction or partially vacuum.

The condition of absolute vacuum is reached when only the pressure reduces to

absolute zero.

2/15/2014

Pressure Measurement

Based on the principle of hydrostatic pressure distribution, we can develop an

apparatus that can measure pressure through a column of fluid (Fig. 2.7)

Pressure Measurement

We can calculate the pressure at the bottom surface which has to withstand

the weight of four fluid columns as well as the atmospheric pressure, or

any additional pressure, at the free surface. Thus, to find p5,

Total fluid columns = (p2 p1) + (p3 p2) + (p4 p3) + (p5 p4)

p5 p1 = og (h2 h1) + wg (h3 h2) +

The p1 can be the atmospheric pressure p0 if the free surface at z1 is

exposed to atmosphere. Hence, for this case, if we want the value in gauge

pressure (taking p1=p0=0), the formula for p5 becomes

p5 = og (h2 h1) + wg (h3 h2) + gg (h4 h3) + mg (h5 h4)

The apparatus which can measure the atmospheric pressure is called

barometer (Fig 2.8).

2/15/2014

Pressure Measurement

For mercury (or Hg the chemical symbol for mercury), the height formed

is 760 mm and for water 10.3 m.

patm = 760 mm Hg (abs) = 10.3 m water (abs)

Pascal,

pB = pA + gh

pacm = pv + gh

= 0.1586 + 13550 (9.807)(0.760)

101 kPa

Pressure Measurement

This concept can be extended to general pressure measurement using an apparatus

known as manometer. Several common manometers are given in Fig. 2.9. The

simplest type of manometer is the piezometer tube, which is also known as open

manometer as shown in Fig. 2.9(a). For this apparatus, the pressure in bulb A can be

calculated as:

pA = p1 + p0

= 1gh1 + p0

Here, p0 is the atmospheric pressure.

If a known local atmospheric pressure

value is used for p0, the reading for pA

is in absolute pressure. If only the

gauge pressure is required, then p0 can

be taken as zero.

2/15/2014

Pressure Measurement

Although this apparatus (Piezometer) is simple, it has limitations, i.e.

a) It cannot measure suction pressure which is lower than the atmospheric

pressure,

b) The pressure measured is limited by available column height,

c) It can only deal with liquids, not gases.

The restriction possessed by the piezometer tube can be overcome by the U-tube

manometer, as shown in Fig. 2.9(b). The U-tube manometer is also an open

manometer and the pressure pA can be calculated as followed:

p2 = p3

pA + 1gh1 = 2gh2 + p0

pA = 2gh2 - 1gh1 + p0

Pressure Measurement

If fluid 1 is gas, further simplification can be made since it can be assumed that

1 2, thus the term 1gh1 is relatively very small compared to 2gh2 and can be

omitted with negligible error. Hence, the gas pressure is:

pA p2 = 2gh2 - p0

There is also a closed type of manometer as shown in Fig. 2.9(c), which can

measure pressure difference between two points, A and B. This apparatus is known

as the differential U-tube manometer. For this case, the formula for pressure

difference can be derived as followed:

p2 = p3

pA + 1gh1 = pB + 3gh3 + 2gh2

pA - pB = 3gh3 + 2gh2 - 1gh1

2/15/2014

Example 2.5

An underground gasoline tank is accidentally opened during raining causing

the water to seep in and occupying the bottom part of the tank as shown in

Fig. E2.1. If the specific gravity for gasoline 0.68, calculate the gauge

pressure at the interface of the gasoline and water and at the bottom of the

tank. Express the pressure in Pascal and as a pressure head in metres of

water. Use water = 998 kg/m3 and g = 9.81 m/s2.

Example 2.5

For gasoline:

g = 0.68(998) = 678.64kg/m3

pressure).

p1 = p0 + pgghg = 0 + (678.64)(9.81)(5.5)

The pressure head in metres of water is:

h1 = p1 p0 = 36616.02 - 0

pwg

(998)(9.81)

= 3.74 m of water

At the bottom of the tank, the pressure:

And, the pressure head in meters of water is:

h2 = p1 p0 = 46406.4 - 0

pwg

(998)(9.81)

= 4.74 m of water

10

2/15/2014

Example 2.6

Figure below shows a tank with one side open to the

atmosphere and the other side sealed with air above the oil

(SG=0.90). Calculate the gauge pressure at points A,B,C,D,E.

E

1m

3m

B

2m

D

C

Example 2.6

Solution:

thus PA=Patm

= 0 (gauge)

Point B is 3 m below point A,

Thus PB

= PA + oilgh

= 0 + 0.9x1000x9.81x3

= 26.5 kPa (gauge)

Point C is 5 m below point A,

Thus PC

= PA + oilgh

= 0 + 0.9x1000x9.81x5

= 44.15 kPa (gauge)

Point D is at the same level of point B,

thus PD

= PB

= 26.5 kPa (gauge)

Point E is higher by 1 m from point A,

Thus PE

= PA - oilgh

= 0 - 0.9x1000x9.81x1

= -8.83 kPa (gauge).

11

2/15/2014

Example 2.7

Determine the pressure at point A in the figure below if

h1 = 0.2 m and h2 = 0.3 m. Use water = 1000 kg/m3.

Solution:

P2 = P1 + Hggh2

P2 = Hggh2

P3 = PA + waterg(h1+h2)

We know that

P2 = P3

Thus

Hggh2 = PA + waterg(h1+h2)

PA = Hggh2 - waterg(h1+h2)

PA = 13.54x1000x9.81x0.3 1000x9.81x(0.2+0.3)

Points to be selected:

1 at the open end of the manometer

2 at the right leg of the manometer

3 same level with point 2 but at left

leg of the manometer

4 same level as point A

Pressure at the points:

P1=Patm

P2 = P3

P4 = PA

23

Copyright ODL Jan 2005 Open University Malaysia

Micromanometer

The micro manometers are used for measuring small pressure difference.

The micro manometers utilizes two manometric liquids, which are

immiscible with each other and also with the fluid whose pressure

difference is to be measured.

When PA > PB , the liquid levels will be as shown in fig.

The volume of the liquid displaced in each tank is equal to the volume of

liquid displaced in the U-tube.

If a= cross-sectional area of the U-tube and A= cross-sectional area of tank

then,

A z h / 2 a

12

2/15/2014

13

2/15/2014

Example 2.8

A 6-m deep tank contains 4 m of water and 2-m of oil as

shown in the diagram below. Determine the pressure at

point A and at the bottom of the tank. Draw the pressure

diagram.

oil

2m

water

SG of oil = 0.98

4m

Solution:

Pressure at oil water interface (PA)

PA = Patm + Poil (due to 2 m of oil)

= 0 + oilghoil = 0 + 0.98 x 1000 x 9.81 x 2

= 15696 Pa

PA = 15.7 kPa (gauge)

PB = PA + waterghwater

PB = 15.7x1000 + 1000 x 9.81 x 4

= 54940 Pa

PB = 54.9 kPa (gauge)

Pressure Diagram

Patm = 0

2m

oil

PA=15.7 kPa

water

PA

4m

B

PB = 54.9 kPA

14

2/15/2014

Hydrostatic forces

PASCALS LAW

Pressure is a scalar quantity

Force balance in the x-direction:

15

2/15/2014

Vertical force on A

Vertical force on

lower boundary

= specific weight

Divide through by

to get

16

2/15/2014

Static fluid:

All forces must balance as there

are no accelerations.

Look at force balance in

direction of

length:

or

17

2/15/2014

Hydrostatic Forces

If a solid plate is immersed into the fluid, the pressure is

also acted upon the surface of the solid.

This pressure acts on the submerged area thus generating a

kind of resultant force known as hydrostatic force.

Hence, the hydrostatic force is an integration of fluid

pressure on an area.

Similar to pressure, the direction in which the force is

acting is always perpendicular to the surface.

To derive the hydrostatic force for a planar

To derive the hydrostatic force for a planar surface, consider

the solid plate shown in following slide..

18

2/15/2014

19

2/15/2014

20

2/15/2014

CONTINUE.

21

2/15/2014

CONTINUE.

22

2/15/2014

Example 2.1

A circular door having a diameter of 4 m is positioned at the inclined wall as shown

in Fig. E2.3(a), which forms part of a large water tank. The door is mounted on a

shaft which acts to close the door by rotating it and the door is restrained by a

stopper. If the depth of the water is 10 m at the level of the shaft, Calculate:

(a) Magnitude of the hydrostatic

force acting on the door and its

center of pressure,

(b) The moment required by the

shaft to open the door.

g = 9.81 m/s2.

23

2/15/2014

Example 2.1

(a) The magnitude of the hydrostatic force FR is

FR = ghC A

= (998)(9.81)(10) [ x(4)2]

= 1.230 x 106 N

= 1.23 MN

For the coordinate system shown in Figure E2.3(b), since circle is a symmetrical

shape, Ixy = 0, then xR = 0. For y coordinate,

yR = 1xx + yC = R4 + yC

yC A

yCR2

(2)4

+ 10

(10/sin 60)(2)2 sin 60

= 11.6 m

=

or,

Example 2.1

yR = 1xx + yC =

(2)4

= 0.0866 m

yC A

(10/sin 60)(2)2

(b) Use moment equilibrium M - 0 about the shaft axis. With reference to Figure

E2.3(b), the moment M required to open the door is:

M = FR ( yR - yC )

= (1.230 x 105) (0.0866)

= 1.065 x 105 N m

= 107 kM m

24

2/15/2014

Example 2.2

Find the normal force required to

open the elliptical gate if it is hinged

at the top.

First find Ftotal, the total hydrostatic

force acting on the plate:

With

and

The slant distance to the hinge is 8m x 5m/4m = 10m, and the slant distance from the

hinge to the centroid is 2.5m. Hence,

25

2/15/2014

Example 2.3

Find magnitude and line of action of equivalent

force F.

Force balance in x and y:

26

2/15/2014

The line of action for the vertical force can be found by summing the moments about C

(or any other point)

27

2/15/2014

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