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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Department of Physics

8.01 ~ FINAL EXAM EQUATION SUMMARY

1. COMMON INTERACTIONS
Universal Law of Gravity

mm
F1,2 = -G 1 2 r1,2
r1,2

m2

r1,2

m1

(attractive)

r1,2

Hookes Law

Near the surface of the earth, |F| = mg, directed towards the
earths surface.

natural length

F = -kx
(restoring)

Friction
Static friction: 0 fs ms N

Torque

Kinetic friction: fk = mk N opposes motion.

t = r F

Origin

2. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES & RIGID BODIES


Centre of Mass (CoM)
Position vector
of CoM

Sum over all


particles in system

R cm =

1
m total

mr

i i

1
m total

1
m total

Velocity of CoM

m v

i i

r dm
Integrate over rigid
body

Position vector of
particle i

Total mass of
system

Vcm =

Mass of particle i

1
m total

Velocity of particle i

v dm

Moment of Inertia (MoI)


Perpendicular distance of
particle i to the axis

Sum over all


particles in system
MoI about a
particular axis

I =

mr

2
i ^ ,i

2
^ ,i

dm

Parallel Axis Theorem


MoI about an axis parallel to the axis through
the CoM and a distance D away from it

ID

I CM

I D = I CM + mD 2
MoI about an axis
through the CoM

D
Mass of rigid body

Daniel Guetta (guetta@cantab.net)

3. KINEMATICS
Circular Motion
Definitions

dx
Linear: v =
dt

dv
d2x
a=
= 2
dt
dt

Rotational: w =

dq
dt

a=

dw
d2q
= 2
dt
dt

Arc length: s = Rq

dq
Velocity v = R
q = Rwq
dt

R q

Acceleration:

Rq

a = -w 2Rr + R

Rw
q
r

v2
d2 q
q
=
r + Raq
2
R
dt

4. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION


Motion

Definitions

x (t ) = A cos(wt ) + B sin(wt )

Period T = 2p / w

Frequency f = 1 / T

5. CENTRAL FORCE MOTION


Elliptical orbits
Two-body problem
Two bodies of masses m1 and m2 behave like a single
body of mass orbiting around the common centre of
mass, where

m=

m1m2
m1 + m2

r
1
E = mv 2 + U (r )
2
1
1
= mvr2 + mvq2 +U (r )
2
2
1 2
L2
= mvr +
+U (r )
2
2mr 2
= K eff +U eff

Daniel Guetta (guetta@cantab.net)

6. WORK & ENERGY


Kinetic Energy
1
2

Linear:

mv 2

Rotational:

1
2

Potential Energy Functions

I w2

2
Spring: PE = 21 k x

Work done by a Force


W =

final position

original position

natural
length

(With PE = 0 at equilibrium)


F dr

Universal gravitation:
PE = -G

Work-Energy Theorem
U initial + KE initial = U final + KE final +W

m2

m1m2
r

m1

(With PE = 0 at r = )

Gravity near the earths surface:

Potentials & Conservative Forces


PE at r = -

position of 0 potential

PE = -mgh

(With PE = 0 at the earths surface)

F dr

7. DYNAMICS
Angular Momentum

Linear Momentum

For a body translating

and rotating about its

centre of mass

L = r mvcm + I cmw

Translational
motion

Rotational
motion

p = mv

vcm

I =

end time

start time

F dt

Angular Impulse

For a point particle, only the translational part need


For a body rotating but not translating, only the

Linear Impulse

Origin

be considered.

J =

end time

start time

t dt =

end time
start time



r F dt = r I

rotational part need be considered, but the moment


of inertia I must be taken about the correct axis.

Equations of Motion

dL
t = Ia =
dt

dp
F = ma =
dt

Impulse/Momentum Principle

I = pafter impulse - pbefore impulse = Dp

J = Lafter impulse - Lbefore impulse = DL

Daniel Guetta (guetta@cantab.net)