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TransportationofEthanebyPipelineintheDensePhase|CampbellTipoftheMonth

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TransportationofEthanebyPipelineintheDensePhase
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IntheJanuary,February,andMarch2012tipsofthemonth(TOTM)wediscussedthetransportationof
carbondioxide(CO2 )inthedensephaseregion.Weillustratedhowthermophysicalpropertieschangedin
thedensephaseandstudiedtheirimpactsonpressuredropcalculations.Weshowedthattheeffectofthe
numericalrangeofvaluesfortheoverallheattransfercoefficientonthepipelinetemperatureissignificant.
InthisTOTM,wewillstudythetransportationofethanebypipelineinthedensephaseregion.Foracase
study,amixtureofethanecontainingasmallfractionofmethaneandpropanewasconsidered.The
pressureandtemperatureprofilesalongthepipelinesarecalculatedandplottedonthefeedphase
envelope.Inaddition,thepumppowerrequirement,pressureandtemperatureprofilesforasinglepipeline
withaleadpumpstationarecomparedwiththeoptionofdividingthesamelineintothreeequalsegments
havingoneleadpumpstationandtwointermediatepumpstations.
CalculationProcedure:
Forapurecompoundabovecriticalpressureandcriticaltemperature,thesystemisoftenreferredtoasa
densefluidorsupercriticalfluidtodistinguishitfromnormalvaporandliquid(seeFigure1forcarbon
dioxideinDecember2009TOTM[1]).

ThesamestepbystepcalculationproceduredescribedintheFebruary2012TOTM[2]wasusedtodeterminethe
pressureandtemperatureprofilesinapipeline.
Inthefollowingsectionwewillillustratethepressuredropcalculationsfortransportingethanemixtureinthedense
phase.FordetailsofpressuredropequationsinthegasandliquidphasesrefertotheJanuary2012TOTM[3].
CaseStudy:
Forthepurposeofillustration,weconsideredacasestudyfortransporting31393kg/h(69209.0lbm/hr)equivalentto
275000tonne/yofthecitedethanemixturewiththecompositionpresentedinTable1.Themixtureisavailableatthe
pressureandtemperaturepresentedinTable1.

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Thefollowingassumptionsweremade:
1. Horizontalpipeline,noelevationchange
2. Steadystateconditions
3. Thepipelineis1380km(858mile)longwithaninsidediameterof208.6mm(8.212in),onshoreburiedline.
4. Pipelineinsidesurfaceroughnessof46microns(0.046mm,0.0018inch)whichisequivalenttoinsidesurface
relativeroughness(roughnessfactor),/D,of0.00022.
5. DeliveryPressureis5.3MPa(769psia)
6. Theground/ambienttemperature,is18.3C,(65F)
7. Overallheattransfercoefficientof2.839W/m2 C(0.5Btu/hrft2 F),foronshoreburiedline.
8. Pumpefficiencyis50%,thisistheworstcase,theactualpumpefficiencyisintherangeof5085%).
9. Simulationsoftware:ProMax[4]andusingSoaveRedlichKwong(SRK)[5]EquationofState.
TheblockdiagramsfortwooptionsstudiedarepresentedinFigure1.InoptionA,onlyonepumpstationandasingle
longsegmentwereconsidered.InoptionB,forthesamepipelineandfeedconditions,oneleadandtwointermediate
pumpstationswiththreeequalpipelinesegmentwereconsidered.Eachsegmentlengthis460km(286mile),whichis
1/3oftotallengthandallhavethesameinsidediameterof208.6mm(8.212in).Thedeliverypressuresforbothoptions
arethesame.

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TransportationofEthanebyPipelineintheDensePhase|CampbellTipoftheMonth
ResultsandDiscussions:

January2012

Figure2presentsthephaseenvelopefortheethanemixturewiththecompositionpresentedinTable1.Accordingto
Figure2,thefeedatthepumpsuctionconditionsof0C(32F)and3000kPa(435psia)presentedinTable1isinthe
liquidphase.Inordertodelivertheethanemixtureatpressureof5.3MPa(769psia),foroptionAthisliquidispumped
toapressureof13.6MPa(1972psia)beforeenteringthepipeline.Duetopumping,thefeedtemperaturerisesfrom
13.6MPa(1972psia)beforeenteringthepipeline.Astepbysteppumpcalculationwithincrementsof2MPa(290psia)
forthedischargepressurerevealsthatthetemperatureriseislinearwithpressure.Thissignificanttemperatureriseis
duetocompressibilityofethanemixture.

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Figure2.Phaseenvelopeforethanemixture.
ThepumpingandpipelinepressuretemperaturepathsforoptionAareplottedonthephaseenvelopeandpresentedin
Figure3.Asshowninthisfigure,theethanemixtureatthepumpdischarge(pipelineinlet)isinthesupercriticalregion
(densephase).Figure3indicatesthatasthefeedentersthepipeline,itstemperaturedropsrapidlyandremains
constantandveryclosetotheambienttemperature.

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Figure3.Phaseenvelope,pumpingpathanddensephasepipelinepressuretemperatureprofile.
Figure4presentsthecalculatedpipelinepressureprofilesforoptionsAandB.ForoptionA,theinletpressureis13.6
MPa(1972psia)toassureethanemixturedeliveryat5.3MPa(769psia).Similarly,inoptionBateachpumpstationthe
pressureisincreasedto8.2MPa(1189psia).
Figure5presentsthecalculatedpipelinetemperatureprofilesforoptionsAandB.Theconstantambienttemperatureof
18.3Cand(65F)isalsoplotted.InoptionB,thedischargetemperatureforleadpumpstationis11.2C,(52.1F)which
isbelowtheambienttemperature.Forbothoptions,thepipelinetemperaturerapidlyapproachestheambient
temperaturewithinthefirst50km(31mile).
Figures6and7presentthedensityandvelocityprofilesalongthepipeline,respectively.Foracrudeoilcrosscountry
pipeline,thevelocityisintherange1.5to2.5m/s(5to8ft/sec).Theabruptchangeofdensity,andconsequently
velocity,alongthefirst60km(37.3mile)isduetotheethanemixturetemperaturedrop,whichapproachestheground
temperature.

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Figure4.PipelinepressureprofilesforoptionsAandB.

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Figure5.PipelinetemperatureprofilesforoptionsAandB.

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Figure6.PipelinefluiddensityprofileforoptionA

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Figure7.PipelinefluidvelocityprofileforoptionA
Thetotalpumppowerrequirementswithpumpefficiencyof50%foroptionsAandBare457and504kW(381.6and

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TransportationofEthanebyPipelineintheDensePhase|CampbellTipoftheMonth
420.8hp),respectively.Thisisforscreeningestimateonly.Normally,workisdoneincollaborationwiththepump
manufacturersforbetterefficienciesbasedonCAPEXandOPEX.
Conclusions:
BasedontheresultsobtainedforthecasestudyconsideredinthisTOTM,thefollowingconclusionscanbemade:
1. Duringthepumpingofethanemixture,thetemperatureriseslinearlywithpressure(Figure2).
2. Thefeedtemperatureapproachesthegroundtemperaturerapidly(Figure5).Thismaynotbethecaseforlower
overallheattransfercoefficient.
3. Asinglepipelinewithonlyoneleadpumpstation(optionA)requiressmallerpumppowercomparedtothe
optionofoneleadpumpandtwointermediatepumpstations(optionB).DuetohigherpressureinoptionA,wall
thicknesswillbehigher.
4. Acompletecostanalysisofpumpingrequirementvspipelinecostshouldbemadetodeterminetheoptimum
pipelinediameter,wallthicknessandpowerrequirement.
5. Thepointnotconsideredbutworthmentioningisthatethaneisverydifficulttoseal.Wewouldworkwithpump
andsealmanufacturersforselectingthecorrectdrygasseal.Thisselectioncoulddeterminetheoverallsystem
reliability.
Tolearnmoreaboutsimilarcasesandhowtominimizeoperationalproblems,wesuggestattendingourG40
(Process/FacilityFundamentals),G4(GasConditioningandProcessing),PF81(CO2 SurfaceFacilities),PF4(Oil
ProductionandProcessingFacilities),andPL4(FundamentalsofOnshoreandOffshorePipelineSystems)courses.
JohnM.CampbellConsulting(JMCC)offersconsultingexpertiseonthissubjectandmanyothers.Formoreinformation
abouttheservicesJMCCprovides,visitourwebsiteatwww.jmcampbellconsulting.com,oremailusat
consulting@jmcampbell.com.
By:Dr.MahmoodMoshfeghian
Reference:
1. Bothamley,M.E.andMoshfeghian,M.,VariationofpropertiesinthedesephaseregionPart1Pure
compounds,TOTM,http://www.jmcampbell.com/tipofthemonth/2009/12/variationofpropertiesinthe
densephaseregionpart1purecompounds/,Dec2009.
2. Moshfeghian,M.,TransportationofCO2 intheDensePhase,TOTM,http://www.jmcampbell.com/tipofthe
month/2012/02/,Feb2012
3. Moshfeghian,M.,TransportationofCO2 intheDensePhase,TOTM,http://www.jmcampbell.com/tipofthe
month/2012/01/,Jan2012
4. ProMax3.2,BryanResearchandEngineering,Inc,Bryan,Texas,2014.
5. Soave,G.,Chem.Eng.Sci.27,11971203,1972.

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PostedonMarch1,2014at11:12am
13comments
Categories:GasProcessing,Pipeline,ProcessFacilities
Recievenewpostupdates:Entries(RSS)
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WrittenbyDr.MahmoodMoshfeghian
Dr.MahmoodMoshfeghianisaninstructorandconsultantwithJohnMCampbellandCompany(JMC).Heistheauthor
ofmostofCampbellTipsoftheMonthanddevelopstechnicalsoftwareforJMC.Hehas35yearsteachingexperiencein
universities(OklahomaStateUniversity,UniversityofShiraz,UniversityofSydneyandUniversityofQatar)aswellasfor
oilandgasindustries.Dr.MoshfeghianjoinedJMCin1990asaparttimeconsultantandthenasfulltime
instructor/consultantin2005.PrevioustojoiningJMC,Dr.MoshfeghianwasaSeniorResearchScientistatKuwait
InstituteforScientificResearchandProfessorofChemicalEngineeringatShirazUniversity.Dr.Moshfeghianisasenior
memberofAIChEandhaspublishednumeroustechnicalpapersonthermodynamicproperties,andProcess
Engineering.Dr.Moshfeghianhaspresentedinvitedpapersininternationalconferences.HeholdsaB.S.,anM.S.anda
Ph.D.inChemicalEngineering,allfromOklahomaStateUniversity.
Viewallpostsby:Dr.MahmoodMoshfeghian
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13ResponsestoTransportationofEthanebyPipelineintheDensePhase
1. AliPourbozorgisays:
March8,2014at9:38am
DearSir.
Gooddayandthankyouforthoughtfularticles.IwaswonderingiftherewasawaytoestimateOPEXperinch
mileormorerealisticallypercapacityordebitoverlength?
Thankyouinadvanced
Ali
Reply
2. Nageshsays:
March14,2014at12:49am
Sir,
howtoevacuatepipelinesegmentincaseofmajorleak?frombothendspipelinesegmentliquidphaseethane
evacuationw.r.tphasechange(liquidphaseethaneevacuationandgasohaseevacuation)aswellas
requirementofflareasitisdenserthanairandwillsettleoutonthepipesurface.

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TransportationofEthanebyPipelineintheDensePhase|CampbellTipoftheMonth
pleaseletmeknowtheevacuation/blowdownprocedure?
Reply
3. Anilsays:
March17,2014at11:51pm
ThanksforthisTipOftheMonth.
Reply
4. AnthonyEhiokhilensays:
March19,2014at12:17am
Iwillliketobereceivingyourtotmmais
Reply
5. Yasersays:
March20,2014at2:45pm
thispassageispersianforDrmahmoodmoshfeghian
salambehamvataneaziz.bayadgoftkebadidaneesmetoonkheiliehsaseghoroorkardam
sharmandeageenglisinanveshtam.rasteshmandanshjooyemohandesiyenaftedaneshgahetehranhastam.
motaasefanesharayatebadeamoozeshidarinjakheilimanozadekardevabeshedatazlahazenomreva
kamiatoftkardamvalihamchenandaryadgiriyedarsambaghodratpishmiram.azshomadarkhastekomakva
rahnmaidaramtabetoonamyejooridaryekdaneshgahekharejitahsilatamoedamebedam
khielibekomakehtiajdaram
pisshapishazatoonsepasgozaram.
mokhleseshomarahmani
Reply
6. afonsosays:
April25,2014at1:26pm
Dear,
Thanksalottherearealotinformationsfromyou.
Concernabruptdespressurization,Iask,thepipelinespecmusthavefor90C?Orwecanspecfor45C?
Thanks,
Afonso
Reply
7. MohamedIbrahimsays:
May13,2014at7:30am
DearSir,
Thankyoufortheusefulinformation.
Iwouldliketoaskaquestionregardingprimecriteriatobeconsideredinselectingblockvalvestationforliquid
ethanepipeline.
Regards,
MohamedIbrahim
Reply
8. afonsosays:
May15,2014at2:29pm
Gooddayandthankyouforthoughtfularticles.Plese,whatsthepipelinematerial?specfor29C?or90C?
Or)C?
Thankslot.
Afonso
Reply
9. afonsosays:
May15,2014at2:31pm
Gooddayandthankyouforthoughtfularticles.Please,whatsthepipelinematerial?thespecfor0C?or29C
or45Cor90C?
Thankslot.
Afonso
Reply
10. treningzamrsavljenjesays:
October12,2014at5:38pm
Highlydescriptivearticle,Ilovedthatbit.Willtherebeapart2?
Reply
11. industrialairtreatment.comsays:
October21,2014at2:34am
Appreciationtomyfatherwhoinformedmeregardingthiswebsite,thiswebsiteisinfactamazing.
Reply
12. PeteLindensays:
January4,2015at5:37pm
Gentlemen,
IreadyourarticleTransportationofEthanebyPipeline(DensePhase)andhaveaquestionaboutthe
temperatureriseacrossthepumps.Yourarticle,fromthegraph,indicatesa14DegFincrease.MostequationsI
usegenerateatemperatureincreasefrom
a)Pumpinefficiencyor
b)ChangeinHeatCapacity
Consideringyourstatedefficiencyof50%,ourequationswouldonlyincreasethetemperatureby2or3DegF.

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OurequationsconsideringChangeinHeatCapacitywouldcalculateanincreasethetemperatureof5DegF.
WeuseaCpof1.113onthesuctionsideandcalculateaCpof1.03onthedischargeside.WeareusingNIST
forthefluidpropertiesandcalculate
Cpdischarge=Cpsuction*(1+(DCp/DP)*Dp+(DCP/DT)*DT.ThederivativesarecalculatedusingNIST.
Canyouexplainourdifferences?
DoyouusetheProMax3.2programfromBryanResearchandEngineeringtoperformthesesimulations?
Thanksinadvanceforanyhelporguidance.
PeterN.Linden,PE
LindenProfessionalServices,Inc.
9103BrahmsLane
Houston,Texas77040
7139377875
Reply
13. MasoudSadrasays:
June23,2015at10:47am
HiPeter,
AmanualcalculationleadstosametempriseasshowninDr.Moshfeghianpaperifyouconsideranefficiencyof
50%BHPatpumpend(whichIbelievecouldbehighere.g.70%regardingserviceconditionandusing
centrifugalpump.Thehightemp.risewhenpumpinglightHClikeC2isduetolowerheatcapacityresultingin
highertempriseforremovingalmostsameamountofheatgeneratedbyfrictionetc.comparedtootherpumping
applicationeg.water.:Howeverthereisanerrorinthepaperre.HptoKWconversion.Alsopls.rememberas
youarepumpingC2thenyouaredealingwithliquidC2notthegasthereforeliquidheatcapacityofC2shallbe
usedinthefollowingformula:
dt=Ps(1)/(cpq)(1)
where
dt=temperatureriseinthepump(oC)
q=volumeflowthroughthepump(m3/s)
Ps=brakepower(kW)
cp=specificheatcapacityofthefluid(kJ/kgoC)
=pumpefficiency
=fluiddensity(kg/m3)
Reply

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