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Preparation for IGCSE History Paper 1

Themes: 1) Russia: Autocracy and revolt, 18811914


2) A World divided: Superpower Relations 1945-1962
Students name: __________________________________________

Page | 1

IGCSE History Paper 1 mark scheme


(a) Recall of knowledge (AO1) (3)
2 in correct sequence: 1 mark
3 in correct sequence: 2 marks
4/5 in correct sequence: 3 marks
Maximum 3 marks
(b) Target: Recall, selection and communication of knowledge of history (AO1:2), explanation of
consequence (AO2:2) (4)

Level

Descriptor

Mark

No rewardable material
Simple explanation of consequence
The candidate gives an explanation which lacks any supporting
contextual knowledge or makes unsupported generalisations.
Explanation of consequence
The candidate gives an explanation supported by relevant
contextual knowledge.

Level 1

Level 2

(12)

(34)

(c) Target: Recall, selection and communication of knowledge of history (AO1:4), explanation and analysis
of causation (AO2:4) (8)

Level

Descriptor

Mark

No rewardable material
Simple explanation of causation
The candidate gives an explanation which lacks supporting
contextual knowledge or makes unsupported generalisations.
1 mark for one simple explanation.
2 marks for two or more.
Supported explanation of causation
The candidate supports the explanation, selecting relevant
contextual knowledge.
34 marks for explanation of one cause.
45 marks for explanation of two or more causes.
Award marks according to the quality of the explanation.

Level 1

Level 2

(1-2)

(35)
Level 3

Developed explanation and analysis of causation


An explanation of factor(s) supported by precisely selected
knowledge. At this level the explanation should show how the
cause(s) led to the outcome.
6 marks for one explained factor which shows how the cause led to
the outcome.
7 marks for two or more explained factors which show how the
cause led to the outcome.
8 marks for answers which show how causes combined to produce
an outcome.

(68)

Page | 2

Tutor advice: 3-4 factors should be explored. Make sure you show how these are
linked/connected

(d) Target: Recall, selection and communication of knowledge of history (AO1:3), explanation and
analysis of causation (AO2:4), comprehension of source (AO3:3) (10)

Level

Descriptor

Mark

No rewardable material
Simple explanation of causation using the source or
own knowledge
The candidate gives an explanation which lacks supporting
contextual knowledge or makes unsupported generalisations, or
selects from the source without elaboration.
1 mark for one simple explanation.
2 marks for two or more.
Level 2 Supported explanation of causation
The candidate supports the explanation selecting relevant
information.
34 marks for a supported explanation using the source or own
knowledge.
45 marks for a supported explanation using the source and own
knowledge. Award marks according to the quality of the explanation.
Developed explanation of one factor supported by
precisely-selected knowledge
At this level the explanation should show how the cause led to the
outcome.
6 marks for one explained factor using own knowledge only.
7 marks for one explained factor using the source and own
knowledge.
Developed explanation and analysis of more than one
factor using the source and own knowledge
At this level the explanation should show how the causes led to the
outcome.
8 marks for explanation of two causes linked to the stated outcome.
910 marks for answers which show how the causes combined to
produce the outcome.

0
(12)

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4

(35)

(67)

(810)

Total for Question = 25 marks


Tutor advice: 2-3 reasons should be identified from source and explained. Another 12 factors from your own knowledge (not from the source) should be introduced.
Make sure you show how these are linked/connected

Page | 3

Sample Question 1-Russia: Autocracy and revolt, 18811914


(a) Study these events which occurred in the years 190312.
The Lena
Goldfield Strike

The split in the


Social
Democrat
Party

The setting up
of
the Social
Revolutionary
Party

The
assassination
of
Stolypin

The first duma

Write these events in the correct chronological sequence.


(3)
(b) Choose either The Lena Goldfield

The first
or

Explain one effect on Russia of the event you have chosen.


(4)
(c) Why did Alexander III carry out a policy of repression in the years 188194? Explain
your answer.
(8)
(d) Study the source below and then answer the question that follows.
Source: From a modern textbook
Around 80 per cent of Russias population were peasants, most of whom lived in
very poor conditions. Some peasants left the land to work in cities such as St
Petersburg, where their conditions hardly improved. The Tsars empire included
many different nationalities who resented attempts at Russification.
Use the source, and your own knowledge, to explain why there was discontent in Russia
at the beginning of the twentieth century.
(10)
(Total for
Question = 25 marks)

Page | 4

Sample Question 2-Russia: Autocracy and revolt, 18811914


(a) Study these events which occurred in the years 18811906.
The
Fundamental
Laws

Bloody Sunday

The Manifesto
of Unshakable
Autocracy

The accession
of Nicholas II to
the throne

The start of the


building of the
Trans-Siberian
Railway

Write these events in the correct chronological sequence.


(3)
(b) Choose eitherThe start of the building of the Trans-Siberian

or
The Fundamental
Laws

Railway

Explain one effect on Russia of the event you have chosen.


(4)
(c) Why did opposition to Nicholas II grow in the years 190614? Explain your answer.
(8)

(d) Study the source below and then answer the question that follows.
Source: From a modern textbook
The army remained loyal to the Tsar throughout the events of 1905. Also
Nicholas II accepted advice and introduced the October Manifesto which
offered the people a duma. The middle-class liberals were delighted.

Page | 5

Use the source, and your own knowledge, to explain why Nicholas II was able to survive
the revolution of 1905.
(10)

(Total for Question = 25 marks)

Sample Question 3-Russia: Autocracy and revolt, 18811914


(a) Study these events which occurred in Russia in the years 18811905.
The formation
of the Social
Democratic
Party

The
assassination
of
Alexander II

The resignation
of Witte

Alexander III
becomes Tsar

The outbreak
of the RussoJapanese War

Write these events in the correct chronological sequence.


(3)

(b) Choose eitherThe formation of the Social Democratic Party

The assassination
of Alexander II
or

Explain one effect on Russia of the event you have chosen.


(4)
(c) Why was there a revolution in Russia in 1905? Explain your answer.
(8)

Page | 6

(d) Study the source below and then answer the question that follows.
Source: from a school history textbook, published in 2001.
There was much opposition to the Tsar from peasants, town workers and different ethnic
groups in the years before the outbreak of the First World War. This was partly due to the
policies of Stolypin, who ruthlessly put down all opposition, and Nicholas II's refusal to give
any real power to the dumas

Use the source, and your own knowledge, to explain why Nicholas II became more
unpopular in the years 1906-1914.
(10)

(Total for Question = 25 marks)

Sample Question 4-Russia: Autocracy and revolt, 18811914


(a) Study these events which occurred in Russia in the years 18811905.

The October
Manifesto

Nicholas II
becomes Tsar

Bloody Sunday

Formation of
the Socialist
Revolutionary
Party

End of the
Russo
-Japanese War

Write these events in the correct chronological sequence.


(3)

(b) Choose eitherNicholas II becomes Tsar

End of
orthe Russo-Japanese War

Page | 7

Explain one effect on Russia of the event you have chosen.


(4)
(c) Why did opposition to Nicholas II grow in the years 190614? Explain your answer.
(8)
(d) Study the source below and then answer the question that follows.
Source: From a modern textbook
The army remained loyal to the Tsar throughout the events of 1905. Also
Nicholas II accepted advice and introduced the October Manifesto which
offered the people a duma. The middle-class liberals were delighted.

Use the source, and your own knowledge, to explain why Nicholas II was able to survive
the revolution of 1905.
(10)

(Total for Question = 25 marks)

Sample Question 5-Russia: Autocracy and revolt, 18811914


(a) Study these events which occurred in the years 18811912.
The second
duma

The Lena
Goldfield strike

The
assassination
of
Stolypin

The formation
of the Socialist
Revolutionary
Party

Alexander III
becomes Tsar

Write these events in the correct chronological sequence.


(3)
Page | 8

(b) Choose either The Lena Goldfield strike

Alexander
III becomes Tsar
or

Explain one effect on Russia of the event you have chosen.


(4)
(c) Why was there growing opposition to Tsar Nicholas II in the years 18941905?
Explain your answer.
(8)
(d) Study the source below and then answer the question that follows.
Source: From a modern textbook
The 1905 Revolution was followed by a mixture of reform and repression. After
the election of the first duma, Stolypin carried out land reform to win over the
peasants. At the same time, Stolypin introduced strict repressive measures
including the execution of 4000 people.
Use the source, and your own knowledge, to explain the effects of the 1905 Revolution.
(10)
(Total for Question A= 25 marks)

Sample Question 6-Russia: Autocracy and revolt, 18811914


(a) Study these events which occurred in the years 18871906.
End of the
Russo Japanese
War

Failed attempt
to assassinate
Alexander III

Famine under
Nicholas II

Start of Sergei
Wittes Great
Spurt of
industrializatio

Stolypin
appointed
Prime Minister
Page | 9

n
Write these events in the correct chronological sequence.
(3)

(b) Choose eitherFailed attempt to assassinate Alexander III

Start of Sergei
or Wittes Great Spurt of industrialization

Explain one effect on Russia of the event you have chosen.


(4)
(c) Why was there a revolution in 1905? Explain your answer.
(8)
(d) Study the source and then answer the question that follows.
Source: from a modern textbook
In 1894, Alexander III died suddenly and was replaced by his son, Nicholas II. The new Tsar was
easily influenced. Nicholas lived in a close circle of courtiers at St Petersburg and had almost no
contact with the ordinary people of Russia. In 1896, 1,300 people were killed in a stampede
during the celebration of his coronation. Nicholas seems to have been completely unconcerned
about this.
Use the source, and your own knowledge, to describe the difficulties that Tsar Nicholas II faced at
the beginning of his reign.
(10)

Sample parts (b) (c) and (d) of questions on Russia 1881-1914


(b) Choose eitherCreation of the Socialist Revolutionary Party
had on Russia

Endor
of Russo-Japanese war

Page | 10

Explain one effect on Russia of the event you have chosen.


(4)
(b) Choose eitherStolypins appointment as Prime Minister

Russification
under Alexander III
or

Explain one effect on Russia of the event you have chosen.


(4)
(c) Why was Konstantin Pobedonostsev influential during the reign of Alexander III? Explain your
answer.
(8)
(c) Why was Russia able to industrialize rapidly between 1892 and 1903? Explain your
answer. (8)
(c) Why did Russia suffer defeat during the Russo-Japanese war? Explain your answer.
(8)
(d) Study the source and then answer the question that follows.
Source: from a modern textbook
After 1905 Nicholas II was forced to make changes to the way that Russia was governed.
But it soon became clear that he was not committed to reform. By 1912 Nicholas was
becoming increasingly unpopular and there was unrest in many parts of Russia.
Use the source, and your own knowledge, to describe how Nicholas IIs attempts at reform failed.
(10)
(d) Study the source and then answer the question that follows.
Source: from a modern textbook
The 1905 revolution was a protest against the Tsars autocratic government. People wanted to
play a greater part in the way Russia was governed. In October 1905, Tsar Nicholas II was
forced to announce the October Manifesto. In it, he promised to set up a constitution and create
a parliament (duma).
Use the source, and your own knowledge, to describe the reforms announced by Tsar Nicholas II in
1905.
(10)
(d) Study the source and then answer the question that follows.
Source: from a modern textbook
The first duma met in 1906. Tsar Nicholas IIs chief adviser, Stolypin, began to make agricultural
reforms and it was hoped that he could modernise Russia. He also tried to boost Russias
industries. Other reforms were made including changes in education

Page | 11

Use the source, and your own knowledge, to describe the changes that were introduced in Russia
in the years 190614.
(10)
(d) Study the source and then answer the question that follows.
Source: from a modern textbook
Pobedonostsev's reputation in Russian history rests largely upon his accomplishments as
director general of the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church. For 25 years his influence
on the religious and political life of Russia was enormous as a result of his official positions and
his relations with the Tsars, their wives, the imperial family, and the court. He had a hand in the
pogroms against Jews and in many other policies adopted by Tsar Alexander III and Nicholas II

Use the source, and your own knowledge, to explain the influence of Konstantin Pobedonostsev in
Russia between 1875 and 1900.
(10)
(d) Study the source and then answer the question that follows.
Source: from a modern textbook
Sergei Witte oversaw Russia's transition economy. As finance minister, he hoped to modernize
Russia and make it competitive with other great powers. By financing industrialization and
securing foreign capital, Witte played a major role in facilitating Russia's development. During
this time, there was a healthy pace of industrialization, and other aspects of modernization.

Use the source, and your own knowledge, to explain the role of Sergei Witte in Russias government
between 1892 and 1906.
(10)
(d) Study the source and then answer the question that follows.
Source: 'The Life of the Cotton Workers'. From the biography of Father Gapon, the priest who led a
Workers demonstration in St Petersburg in 1905
"The normal working day is eleven and a half hours of work . . . But . . . manufacturers [the factory owners]
have received [government] permission to allow overtime so that the average day is fourteen or fifteen
hours. I have often watched the crowds of poorly clad and emaciated [very thin] figures of men and girls
returning from the mills . . . Their grey faces seem dead.. . . Badly clad dressed] and underfed, waiting in
the terrible frosty mornings of the St Petersburg winter, they present a sight that makes one shudder".

Use the source, and your own knowledge, to explain the role of the plight of ordinary workers in the
1905 Russian revolution.
(10)

Page | 12

COLD WAR
Sample Question 7: A World divided: Superpower Relations 1945-1962
(a) Study the following events which happened in the years 1946-1955
Creation of the
Warsaw Pact

Start of the
Korean War

Division of
Germany

Bay of Pigs
invasion

Kennans Long
Telegram

Write these events in the correct chronological order

(b) Choose either the

Bay of Pigs invasion

OR

(3)

Creation of the Warsaw Pact

Explain the effect the event had on relations between the USA and USSR.

(c) Why did the USSR invade Hungary in 1956? Explain your answer

(4)

(8)

(d) Study the source and answer the question that follows
The number of people leaving East Berlin and moving to West Berlin began to increase in the
late 1950s. Eventually, some restrictions were placed on travel between the two parts of the
city. The Western part of Berlin was prosperous and had recovered from the war.
Khrushchev was sure he could force the Allies out of West Berlin.
Source: from a modern textbook
Use the source, and your own knowledge, to describe how a crisis developed over Berlin in the
years 195861.
(10)

(Total for Question A= 25 marks)

Page | 13

Sample Question 8: A World divided: Superpower Relations 1945-1962


(a) Study these events which occurred between 1945 and 1949.
Introduction of the
Truman Doctrine

End of the Berlin


blockade

The bombing of
Hiroshima and
Nagasaki

The Novikov
Telegram

Write these events in the correct chronological sequence.


(b) Choose either

The bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

or

Signing of the United


Nations Charter

(3)
The introduction of the Truman Doctrine

Explain one effect on relations between the USA and the USSR of the event you have
chosen (4)

(c) Why had the wartime alliance between the USA and USSR broken down by the end of 1946?
Explain your answer.
(8)

(d) Study the source and then answer the question that follows.
Americas first response to the invasion of South Korea was to rush military supplies to South
Korea. Then on 27th June the United States proposed a resolution in the United Nations calling
for military action against North Korea. The resolution was passed and three days later
American troops entered Korea
Source: From a modern History textbook
Use the source, and your own knowledge to explain why there was a war in Korea from 1950-1953.
(10)
(Total for Question A= 25 marks)

Page | 14

Sample Question 9: A World divided: Superpower Relations 1945-1962


(a) Study these events which occurred between 1945 and 1961.
Building of the
Berlin Wall

Hungarian
Uprising

End of the
Korean War

The U2 crisis

End of the Berlin


blockade

Write these events in the correct chronological sequence.


(b) Choose either

The U2 Crisis

or

(3)
The Hungarian Uprising

Explain one effect on relations between the USA and the USSR of the event you have
chosen (4)
(c) Why did Stalin launch Comecon in 1949? Explain your answer.

(8)

(d) Study the source and then answer the question that follows.
Neither side gained anything. The USSR had not gained control of Berlin. The West had no
guarantees that land communications would not be cut again. Above all confrontation made
both sides even more stubborn.
Source: by Historian Jack Watson writing in 1984.
Use the source, and your own knowledge, to describe the effects of the Berlin blockade on relations
between the USA and USSR.
(10)

(Total for Question A= 25 marks)

Page | 15

Sample Question 10: A World divided: Superpower Relations 1945-1962


(a) Study these events which occurred in the years 194761.
The Hungarian
Uprising

The building of
the Berlin Wall

The setting-up of
the Warsaw Pact

The Marshall
Plan

The setting-up
of NATO

Write these events in the correct chronological sequence. (3)


(b) Choose either

The building of the Berlin Wall

or

The setting-up of NATO

Explain one effect on the relations between the USA and the Soviet Union of the event you have
chosen. (4)

(c) Why had the USA and the Soviet Union become rivals by 1947? Explain your answer. (8)

(d) Study the source below and then answer the question that follows.
On 14 October 1962 a US spy plane took photographs which showed Soviet missile bases
being built in Cuba. This meant that all US missile defence systems were now useless. From
16 October Kennedy spent one week asking his defence chiefs for possible reactions and
considering alternatives.
Source: from a modern textbook
Use the source, and your own knowledge, to explain why there was a crisis over missiles in Cuba in
1962. (10)

(Total for Question = 25 marks)

Page | 16

Sample Question 11: A World divided: Superpower Relations 1945-1962


(a) Study these events which occurred in the years 194555.
The beginning
of
the Korean War

The Potsdam
Conference

The setting up
of
the Warsaw
Pact

Introduction of
The Berlin
the Truman
Blockade
Doctrine

Write these events in the correct chronological sequence. (3)


(b) Choose either The Truman
Doctrine

Theor
Berlin Blockade

Explain one effect on the relations between the USA and the Soviet Union of the event
you have chosen. (4)
(c) Why was there an arms race between the USA and USSR between 1945 and 1961?
Explain your answer. (8)

(d) Study the source below and then answer the question that follows.
In June 1956, a group within the Hungarian Communist Party opposed Rakosi. The
Soviet Union allowed a new government to be formed under Imre Nagy. Nagy
introduced a series of reforms including free elections and private ownership of
farmland.
Source: From a modern textbook

Use the source, and your own knowledge, to explain why the Soviet Union invaded
Hungary in 1956. (10)

(Total for Question A= 25 marks)

Page | 17

Sample Question 12: A World divided: Superpower Relations 1945-1962


(a) Study the events which occurred in the years 194662.

The Marshall
Plan

The Cuban
Missiles Crisis

The beginning
of peaceful
co-existence

The setting up
of the Federal
Republic of
Germany

The Iron
Curtain
speech

Write these events in the correct chronological sequence.

(3)

(b) Choose either The Cuban Missiles or The Marshall Plan


Crisis
Explain one effect on relations between the USA and the Soviet Union of the event you
have chosen.
(4)
(c) Why was there a crisis over Berlin in the years 194849? Explain your answer.

(8)

(d) Study the source below and then answer the question that follows.
In 1955, the Soviet Union set up the Warsaw Pact to strengthen its control of
Eastern Europe. In the following year, Soviet forces crushed the Hungarian
Uprising. The U2 Crisis and the construction of the Berlin Wall worsened relations
between the USA and the Soviet Union.
Source: From a modern textbook
Use the source, and your own knowledge, to explain why relations between the
USA and the Soviet Union changed in the years 195561. (10)

(Total for Question A= 25 marks)

Page | 18

Sample Question 13: A World divided: Superpower Relations 1945-1962


(a) Study the events which occurred in the years 194553.
Formation of
Bizonia

The armistice to
end the Korean
War

The Yalta
Conference

Joseph Stalins
death

Formation of
COMECON

Write these events in the correct chronological sequence.


(3)

(b) Choose either Formation of Bizonia

or

The armistice to end the Korean War

Explain one effect on relations between the USA and the Soviet Union of the event you
have chosen.
(4)
(c) Why did the USSR seek to extend its influence over Eastern Europe between 1945
and 1949? Explain your answer.
(8)

(d) Study the source below and then answer the question that follows.
After the Cuban missile crisis, Kennedy worked with Khrushchev to set up a hotline.
This would allow the Kremlin and the White House to be in direct contact. The aim
of the hotline was to ensure that the two leaders could discuss their differences
and therefore avoid war.
Source: From a modern textbook
Use the source, and your own knowledge, to explain the effects of the Cuban Missile
Crisis of 1962
(10)

Page | 19

(Total for Question = 25 marks)

Sample Question 14: A World divided: Superpower Relations 1945-1962


(a) Study the events which occurred in the years 194561.
The Bay of Pigs
Invasion

The setting up of
the Warsaw Pact

The Berlin
Blockade

The Yalta
Conference

The beginning of
Peaceful CoExistence

Write these events in the correct chronological sequence.


(3)

(b) Choose either The setting up of the Warsaw Pact

or The beginning of Peaceful Co-Existence

Explain one effect on relations between the USA and the Soviet Union of the event you
have chosen.
(4)
(c) Why did Soviet troops invade Hungary in November 1956? Explain your answer.
(8)

(d) Study the source below and then answer the question that follows.
Tension between the West and the Soviet Union continued to increase throughout
the Berlin Airlift. The hopes that Germany would be re-united began to disappear
and in 1949 the Federal Republic of Germany was created from the British, French
and US zones. Later that year, the Soviet Union created the German Democratic
Republic from its zone.
Source: From a modern textbook
Use the source, and your own knowledge, to explain how the Cold War developed in the
years 1949-1953.
Page | 20

(10)

(Total for Question = 25 marks)

Sample Question 15: A World divided: Superpower Relations 1945-1962


(a) Study the events which occurred in the years 194662.
The Hungarian
Crisis

The building of the


Berlin Wall

Churchills Iron
Curtain Speech

The Cuban
Missile Crisis

Creation of the
Federal Republic of
Germany (FDR)

Write these events in the correct chronological sequence.


(3)

Creation of the Federal Republic of Germany (FDR)

(b) Choose either

orChurchills Iron Curtain Speech

Explain one effect on relations between the USA and the Soviet Union of the event you
have chosen.
(4)
(c) Why was the Truman Doctrine announced in March 1947? Explain your answer.

(8)

(d) Study the source below and then answer the question that follows.
At first in the Cuban Missile Crisis neither Kennedy nor Khrushchev would back
down. Kennedy set up the naval blockade and Khrushchev ordered Soviet ships to
continue supplying Cuba. On 24th October, some Soviet ships turned away from
Cuba and some slowed down. The two leaders exchanged letters and Kennedy
Page | 21

agreed to Khrushchevs suggestions.


Source: From a modern textbook

Use the source, and your own knowledge, to explain how the Cuban Missile Crisis was
ended peacefully.
(10)

(Total for Question = 25 marks)

Sample Question 16: A World divided: Superpower Relations 1945-1962


(a) Study the events which occurred in the years 194561.
The building of
the Berlin Wall

The start of the


Korean War

U2 Incident

The creation of
COMECON

The Potsdam
Conference

Write these events in the correct chronological sequence.


(3)

(b) Choose either Korean War

The U2 incident
or

Explain one effect on relations between the USA and the Soviet Union of the event you
have chosen.
(4)
(c) Why had the wartime alliance between the USA and the Soviet Union broken down
by the end of 1946? Explain your answer.
(8)
Page | 22

(d) Study the source below and then answer the question that follows.
Khrushchev thought he would be able to force the Allies out of West Berlin. He
knew the limits to which President Eisenhower would go. Khrushchev knew that he
had to stop the flow of refugees. West Berlin remained a loophole in the Iron
Curtain. The 1948 crisis had made it clear that the Western powers were not going
to leave West Berlin of their own free will.
Source: From a modern textbook
Use the source, and your own knowledge, to explain why the Berlin Wall was built in
1961.
(10)

(Total for Question = 25 marks)

Sample Question 17: A World divided: Superpower Relations 1945-1962


(a) Study the events which occurred in the years 194556.
The Hungarian
Uprising

The Truman
Doctrine

The Yalta
Conference

The Berlin
Blockade

The Potsdam
Conference

Write these events in the correct chronological sequence.


(3)

(b) Choose either Yalta Conference

or

Potsdam Conference

Page | 23

Explain one effect on relations between the USA and the Soviet Union of the event you
have chosen.
(4)
(c) Why was the Marshall Plan created in June 1947? Explain your answer.
(8)

(d) Study the source below and then answer the question that follows.
The Berlin Blockade had serious consequences for international relations. The
West decided that Stalin was not going to co-operate and so Truman took the
decision that the USA would have to keep forces in Europe on a permanent basis. In
1949, NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) was set up. It was a sign that
relations between the Superpowers were now so bad that some form of military
alliance was necessary.
Source: From a modern textbook
Use the source, and your own knowledge, to explain how the creation of NATO changed
relations between East and West.
(10)

(Total for Question = 25 marks)

Sample Question 18: A World divided: Superpower Relations 1945-1962


(a) Study the events which occurred in the years 194662.

Hungarian Crisis

Novikovs
Telegram

Bay of Pigs
Invasion

The Marshall
Plan

The Death of
Stalin
Page | 24

Write these events in the correct chronological sequence.


(3)

Bay of Pigs Invasion


Bay of Pigs Invasion.
Explain one effect on relations between the USA and the Soviet Union of the event you
have chosen.
(4)
(b) Choose either Hungarian crisis

or

(c) Why was there a crisis over missiles in Cuba in 1962? Explain your answer.
(8)

(d) Study the source below and then answer the question that follows.
Stalin had wanted to deal with West Berlin for some time. He did not like the fact
that it gave the West access to Europe beyond the Iron Curtain. It also gave the
people of the East an idea of what life was like in the West. As Marshall Aid began
to reach Europe, life in the West seemed more and more attractive. Stalin decided
to try to force the Western Allies out.
Source: From a modern textbook
Use the source, and your own knowledge, to explain how Stalin tried to force the Allies
out of West Berlin in the years 1948-1949.
(10)

(Total for Question = 25 marks)

Sample Question 19: A World divided: Superpower Relations 1945-1962


(a) Study the events which occurred in the years 194662.
Page | 25

Paris Summit
Conference

Creation of the
Federal Republic
of Germany (FDR)

Creation of
COMINFORM

The Setting up
of the Warsaw
Pact

Kennans Long
Telegram

Write these events in the correct chronological sequence.


(3)

(b) Choose either Kennans Long Telegram

or Creation of COMINFORM

Explain one effect on relations between the USA and the Soviet Union of the event you
have chosen.
(4)
(c) Why was there a war over Korea in the years 1950-1953? Explain your answer.
(8)

(d) Study the source below and then answer the question that follows.
In June 1948, the western allies decided that they had to respond to Stalins
actions. They agreed that West Berlin had to be saved at all costs. So began the
Berlin Airlift, which lasted more than fourteen months, until September 1949, four
months after the blockade ended. Everything that the people of West Berlin needed
had to be brought in by plane.
Source: From a modern textbook
Use the source, and your own knowledge, to explain why Stalin was forced to end the
blockade of West Berlin in May 1949.
(10)

(Total for Question = 25 marks)

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Sample Question 20: A World divided: Superpower Relations 1945-1962


(a) Study the events which occurred in the years 194662.
Death of Stalin

Kennans Long
Telegram

Federal Republic
of Germany
(FDR) joining
NATO

Marshall Plan

Building of Berlin
Wall

Write these events in the correct chronological sequence.


(3)

(b) Choose either Death of Stalin

or

Federal Republic of Germany (FDR) joining NATO.

Explain one effect on relations between the USA and the Soviet Union of the event you
have chosen.
(4)
(c) Why was the NATO alliance created in April 1949? Explain your answer.
(8)

(d) Study the source below and then answer the question that follows.
The Berlin Blockade was a propaganda success for the Americans and a failure for
the Soviet Union. In May 1949, Stalin called off the blockade. In September 1949,
West Germany was officially created as an independent state, followed one month
later by East Germany. In addition, the USA set up the North Atlantic Treaty
Organisation.
Source: From a modern textbook
Use the source, and your own knowledge, to explain the changes to relations between
the USA and the Soviet Union brought about by the Berlin Blockade of 1948-49?
(10)

(Total for Question = 25 marks)


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Additional Sample parts (c) of questions on A World divided: Superpower Relations


1945-1962-8 marks each
1. Why did the USSR establish COMINFORM in September 1947? Explain your answer.
2. Why did Stalin launch COMECON in 1949? Explain your answer.
3. Why had Germany become divided by 1949? Explain your answer.
4. Why did the USA and USSR disagree at the Potsdam Conference in July 1945? Explain your
answer.
5. Why did the Wartime Allies decide to meet at Yalta in February 1945? Explain your answer.
6. Why did the USA decide to launch the Bay of Pigs invasion in April 1961? Explain your answer.
7. Why did Churchill give his Iron Curtain speech in March 1946? Explain your answer.
8. Why had Khrushchevs Policy of Peaceful Co-Existence ended by 1961? Explain your answer.
9. Why did Khrushchev walk out of the Paris Summit in May 1960? Explain your answer.
10. Why did Truman take a much tougher line with Stalin at Potsdam than Roosevelt had at Yalta?
Explain your answer.
11. Why did Khrushchev adopt the policy of peaceful co-existence? Explain your answer.
12. Why had differences between the Allies appeared by the Potsdam Conference in July 1945?
Explain your answer.
13. Why did relations between the USA and the USSR change in the period between the Yalta and
Potsdam Conferences? Explain your answer.

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