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Hempel Academy

Training is recognized as a key element in Hempel, wishing to maintain a competitive advantage

and improve business performance.
Hempel Academy offers a range of training courses designed to enhance the technical
service aptitude of the participants.
The training programs we are offering focus on human interaction, a responsible attitude and
an essential foundation of technical competencies & skills.
Hempel Academy trainers are drawn from a network of technical and service experts, ready
to deliver practical, experience-based events. Importantly, the selected trainers are skilled
communicators who make the courses a stimulating experience.
The manual in front of you is meant as a tool which is essential for the basic understanding
of paints and paint technology. A more thorough understanding, involving practical aspects
and practical skills, requires participation in Hempel Academys technical courses.

We also feel confident that when you finalize this course you will have experienced that:
When it comes to technical training Hempel does not only follow standards - We set them.

October 2012

Protective Coatings Manual Ver. 2.0 October 2012 (SPJ/HO)

Chapter 1 ............................................................................................................................................................5
1.1 The history of paint ................................................................................................................................7
1.2 Reasons for painting ..............................................................................................................................8

Key factors in using paint ....................................................................................................................9

Chapter 2 ......................................................................................................................................................... 11
2.1 Definition of paint ................................................................................................................................ 13
2.2 Constituents ............................................................................................................................................ 14
2.3 Production ............................................................................................................................................... 15
2.4 Control ....................................................................................................................................................... 17
Chapter 3 ........................................................................................................................................................... 19

Some basic information about polymers ............................................................................ 21


Classification, based on type of binder ................................................................................ 23


Classification Diagram .................................................................................................................... 27


Properties of Individual Binder Types ................................................................................. 28

Chapter 4 ........................................................................................................................................................... 39

Anticorrosives ................................................................................................................................... 42


Primers for temporary Corrosion Protection ................................................................... 50


Antifoulings ........................................................................................................................................ 53


Coating Concrete .............................................................................................................................. 61

Chapter 5 ........................................................................................................................................................... 67

Background ........................................................................................................................................ 69


Objective .............................................................................................................................................. 69


Contaminants .................................................................................................................................... 69


Cleaning Processes ......................................................................................................................... 71


Surface Preparation Standards ................................................................................................ 77


Preparation of other Metals than Steel ................................................................................ 78

Chapter 6 ........................................................................................................................................................... 79

Planning ............................................................................................................................................... 81


Working conditions ....................................................................................................................... 81


Microclimate ...................................................................................................................................... 81


Application Methods ...................................................................................................................... 82


Workmanship .................................................................................................................................... 86

Chapter 7 ......................................................................................................................................................... 89
7.1 Product data sheets ............................................................................................................................. 90
Chapter 8 ........................................................................................................................................................... 91

Selection of Coatings System ..................................................................................................... 94


Inspection and Documentation ............................................................................................. 100


Cost ...................................................................................................................................................... 100


Allocation of Responsibilities ................................................................................................. 101


The Working Specification ...................................................................................................... 101


ISO 12944 ............................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

Chapter 9 ........................................................................................................................................................ 103


Levels of Inspection..................................................................................................................... 104


Duties of the Inspector .............................................................................................................. 105


Inspection Equipment ................................................................................................................ 107


Records, Reports and Documentation ............................................................................... 109

Chapter 10................................................................................................................................................... 111


Evaluation of Existing Coatings System ....................................................................... 113


Surface Preparation ................................................................................................................ 114


Maintenance Systems ............................................................................................................ 116

Chapter 1

1.1 The history of paint
1.2 Reasons for painting
1.3 Key factors in using paint


The history of paint

It is doubtful whether paints made today will last 20,000 - 30,000 years as the paint
seen in the Altamira and Lascaux caves. Guesses have been made on the type of binder
used in those days, fat, honey, blood, wax, milk, etc., but certainly no binder is left today.

One of the first to use paint not only for decoration but also for protection was Noah, who
according to the Bible, was ordered by God to: "Make thee an ark of gopher wood, - - and pitch it within and without with pitch".
The developing process in paint technology has moved slowly through wood oils, linseed oil
mentioned 63 A.D., colophonium, glues extracted from animals in the Middle Ages,
copals (a fossil resin), shellac (secretion from insect), etc., all raw materials found in
In 1903, the first synthetic binder was marketed; it was a novolac intended for use as
a shellac substitute. The alkyd industry developed just before 1920; chlorinated
rubber, vinyl, acrylics entered the market during the 1930s; dispersions (waterborne
paints) were introduced in the 1940s, zinc silicates, epoxies and polyurethane
followed in the 1950s.


Reasons for painting

Based on available figures, a rough estimate suggests that some 30 billion liters of paint
is produced in the world every year.
What is all this paint used for? Any user of paint is well advised to establish before
anything else the reason for painting. What is the purpose? Why do we paint?
A number of more or less obvious reasons can be readily given:
Ease of cleaning and decontamination
Etc., etc.
However, the primary function of the major part of paint produced today is protection.
Paint for reasons of cost or convenience is usually the preferred way of protecting the
following substrates:





Rot and weathering

Ship bottoms



e.g. in tanks


e.g. from steel or corrosion products




Ship decks



The list is not complete, but it does give the major areas where paint would be the first
and often the only practical choice for economical protection.


Key factors in using paint

Paint does protect. It protects by creating a thin film between a substrate and
environment. It is worth remembering that the total thickness of this film is typically the
thickness of stout wrapping paper.
The effective lifetime of a protective coating system depends on a number of factors few
of which surprisingly have to do with the paint as such.
These factors are:

The substrate, eg steel, concrete, etc and


The environment.

Important factors, but two factors on which the

average paint user has little or no influence.

Surface preparation; by far the most

important single factor.


The quality of the paint.


The choice of generic types of paint, and

their combination into a coating system
composed of primer, midcoat(s) and


Application. Not only the workmanship and

the equipment, but also the micro-climatic
conditions during application and while the paint
cures. thickness of the coating
(7) and/or
The overall

To obtain the optimum results from coating systems is the primary objective of
Hempel's Coating Inspection Course; consequently, the main contents or subjects of the
course will be the factors listed above.

Chapter 2


2.1 Definition of paint
2.2 Constituents
2.2.1 Binders
2.2.3 Pigments
2.2.4 Extenders
2.2.5 Additives
2.3 Production

Dispersion (Grinding)
Final mix

2.4 Control


Definition of paint
In the paint industry, paint is often defined as "a liquid material which can be applied to
a surface and which after drying forms a thin, cohesive film with good adhesion to the


Paint is a liquid material. It consists of a medium (vehicle) which is the actual liquid
part of the paint, pigments and extenders (small insoluble particles dispersed in the
medium); plus various additives (in minor amounts).
Mixing of these ingredients, in the right manner and proportion, is really what paint
production is all about. It is not, however, quite as simple as it may sound.
On an average, some 500 different raw materials are used in a typical size paint
manufacturing facility. From a user's point of view, it may be convenient to divide these
many different ingredients into groups, according to their function in the paint.
2.2.1 Binders
The binder, or resin, forms the non-volatile part of a paint's medium; it
ensures adhesion to the substrate and cohesion within the paint film.
Film formation, the manner in which a paint changes from its liquid to its solid state,
is determined by the binder. Most of a paint's more prominent properties are
directly related to the binder used in that paint (see also chapter 3).
2.2.2 Solvents
Solvents serve to liquefy the binder, facilitating production and application of
the paint. They form the volatile part of a paint's medium, and should evaporate
during application and film formation.
(Solvent free paints are, of course, an exception to the foregoing; here, the
binder itself is a liquid and no solvent is required to liquefy the paint).
The choice of solvents influences among others a paint's application properties
and drying time, and in determining its flash point.
2.2.3 Pigments
Pigments give the paint colour and opacity (hiding power), i.e. hide the
underlying surface, they are present as solid particles in the dried/cured paint
Of particular interest are those pigments that prevent or retard corrosion;
and the bio-active pigments used in antifouling paints.

2.2.4 Extenders (Fillers)

Sometimes referred to as non-hiding pigments, the extenders not only serve to
reduce the cost of certain paints; but correctly chosen, they can e.g. add to the
mechanical strength of a paint film and/or improve the application properties
of the paint. Extenders add to the non-volatile part of a paint.
2.2.5 Additives
A long range of additives are at the disposal of today's paint manufacturer. Some are
used to ensure a better and safer production; others to ensure shelf life, reduce
drying time, prevent runs (sags), or in other ways enhance desired properties.

2.3 Production
Quality paints are produced in accordance with detailed, tested and proven formulas,
recipes if you like.
In accordance with the formula, the raw materials for a given batch of paint are assembled
from the raw material stock. Anywhere from about ten to twenty odd different ingredients
may be used in the production of a single paint.
2.3.1 Premix
To start production, part of the binder(s) and solvents, all the pigments and extenders
and possibly some of the additives are mixed to a premix (or millbase) in a large
mixing vat.
Making an optimal millbase is the key point in an efficient production.
2.3.2 Dispersion (grinding)
The millbase can be described as a liquid medium (binder and solvents) plus insoluble
powder, the pigments and extenders. These pigment/ extender powders consist of
primary particles cemented together forming small lumps, agglomerates.
The specified dry film thickness is the upper limit for the size of the agglomerates
which is acceptable in a paint - in principle, as the limit often is specified safely

Agglomerates have to be divided into primary particles or at least smaller

agglomerates. This process is the mechanical dispersion, often called the
grinding; the grinding process is one of the most important phases in paint
Also; at the delivery from the raw material supplier the pigment, and
extender agglomerates, often have a firmly attached layer of moisture and air.
This undesired layer must be replaced by the medium, ie the particles must be
wetted by the binder. Poor wetting can eg result in settling in the can and/or
flocculation of pigments in the wet paint film.

The capillary effect of large un-wetted

pigment, and extender agglomerates can
literally draw moisture through the paint

A paint film with smaller, wetted

agglomerates have far better water
repellent properties.
Reduction of agglomerate size and dispersion of particles are both
accomplished in the milling operation. The most commonly used machinery for
dispersion/grinding of paint is the high-speed disperser, the ball mill and the pearl

High-speed disperser
The fastest, but by no means finest, dispersion
is achieved in the high-speed disperser.
It works on the same principle as an ordinary
kitchen blender, although on a somewhat
different scale.

Pearl mill
Undoubtedly the most efficient and most used
grinding mill in modern paint production is the
pearl mill, either the older vertical or the latest
horizontal types.
The millbase is pumped into the mill under
pressure, and is ground by the milling of
numerous small glass beads, the "pearls", set in
motion by a number of rotating discs. Due to
higher pressure, the absence of air in the
arrangement, the horizontal pearl mill yields a
better and faster grind than the traditional,
upright type. The most common horizontal pearl
mill is the Dyno mill.

2.3.3 Final mix

At the final mixing the rest of the binders and additives are added, the viscosity
is adjusted with solvent and the colour adjusted to match the standard colour


Quality is monitored throughout the production. A production laboratory checks the
quality of the raw materials before approval for production.
A control laboratory checks the finished paint. Before filling in cans, each batch is
checked for: specific gravity, viscosity, fineness of grind, drying time.
Other control items will be colour (by colour computer), gloss, hiding power,
application properties, sag index, etc., depending on the type of paint in question.
In most (if not in all) paint manufacturing facilities, a production retain sample of each
batch - usually 1/2 liter - is kept for a definite period. In the unlikely event of product
complaints, the production retain sample plays a key part in the investigation process.

Chapter 3


3.1 Some basic about polymers


Solvent-borne paints
Waterborne paints


Physically drying


Chemically curing

Oxidative curing
Two-component curing
Other curing mechanisms

3.3 Classification Diagram

3.4 Properties of Individual Binder Types

Physically drying


Tars and Bitumen

Chlorinated rubbers

Chemically curing

Oxidative curing

Two-component curing

Modified Alkyds


Other Film-forming Mechanisms

Humidity curing Zinc Silicates (ethyl)

Polyurethane (one-pack)
Carbon Dioxide curing Zinc Silicates
Heat curing Silicone


Some basic information about polymers

The properties of the binder in the paint mainly determine the film-forming
properties of a paint (ref. 2.2.1).
A binder is always built up of small units (monomers) to a larger unit, the
polymer. If the polymer consists of more than one type of monomer, it is called
a copolymer. If the polymer is built up of the same monomer, it is called a
homopolymer. The number of monomers in a polymer can vary from 5 to as much
as 3500, and in connection with paint the number is often quite high.
Most binders are solid, and n the wet paint film the binder is dissolved in a
solvent - solvent-borne paints or dispersed in water - water-borne paints.
A few binders composed of small polymers are liquid, and can be used directly in
solventfree paints.
In the dry paint film the binder is either found as a bunch of long chains (the
polymer chains) or as closely knitted networks (the polymer chains are
connected by cross-linking).

polymer chains

polymer chains
with cross-linking

The size and shape of the binder polymer will influence the properties of the final
paint film. Longer chain molecules will generally give a more flexible coating,
while smaller molecules will result in a more dense network.


Solvent-borne paints
The binders are dissolved in solvents.

Along with the evaporation of solvents, the binder molecules get closer and
closer together, and will in the dry film be intertwined and attracted to
each other and to the substrate.
If the binder needs a cross-linker (or a hardener) to make the film this will
typically also be dissolved in the solvents.

Water-borne paints
The binders can be dispersed in water by encapsulating them by a soaplike compound. Very large binder molecules can be incorporated in the
binder phase by utilising the dispersion technology.

Water evaporates. The binder particles deform and coalesce (or melt
together) assisted by coalescing agents (powerful solvent for the
binder particles) - until they form a continuous film, attached to the
If the binder needs a cross-linker (or a hardener) to form the film,
this will typically also be dispersed in water.

General advantages and limitations of dispersions are:


Contain only limited amount of high boiling solvents

(the coalescing agent)

Very high flash point, 650C or higher

Sensitive to high humidity during drying

Sensitive to low temperatures during storage and application

(water may freeze)

Classification, based on type of binder

The manner in which paint films are formed is determining for many of the
key properties of a paint film. This is the reason why paints are often classified
according to their film formation principles.
Film formation can take place in one of two ways:

physically drying
chemically curing

3.2.1 Physically drying

In physically drying paints the binder molecules in the dry paint film are
already present in the wet paint. There is no change in binder composition
or molecule structure and size. The paint film is formed entirely by
evaporation (a physical process) of solvents or by evaporation of water
and solvents, leaving the binder molecules as chains coiled up and
intertwined in the coating.
Binders of importance for the paint industry are, the natural binders such
as tar and bitumen and the synthetic types like acrylic, and to some
extent chlorinated rubber and vinyl.
Properties common to physically drying paints:

Solvent sensitive.
The solvent-borne physically drying paints will even years after
application be redissolved by its own or stronger solvents, and are
for that reason called reversible.
The water-borne physically drying paints, will be dissolved by
solvents similar or stronger in dissolution power to the coalescing
agent in question.
However, just adding water will not result in a re-dispersion of the
paint film. Re-dispersion is never possible.

Physically drying coatings become soft at elevated temperatures.
Like other molecules, the polymers become more mobile at higher
temperatures and, as they are not cross-linked to each other, they have
a certain freedom of movement, resulting in a softening of the coating.

Excellent recoatability.
A main difference between solvent-borne and water-borne physically
drying paints is the minimum temperature of application. The solventborne can typically be applied down to -100C, whereas water-borne
can only be applied at temperatures higher than about 50C.

3.2.2 Chemically curing

In chemically curing paints the final binder molecules in the dry/cured
paint film are not present in the wet film. The smaller "wet" molecules
will during and after application take part in a chemical reaction whereby
new, larger binder molecules are formed. The film is formed by the crosslinking of the molecules (polymerization) and often by the evaporation of
solvents also.
Binders of importance to the paint industry are: Alkyd, epoxy,
polyurethane, zinc silicate and silicone.
Properties common to chemically curing paints:

Irreversible, ie the cured coating is not re-dissolvable.

Resistant to solvents (consequence to being irreversible).

Temperature dependent on film formation as the rate of the

chemical reaction taking place during curing is directly
related to temperature, ie there is a temperature limit below
which film formation will not take place.

Non-thermoplastic. The binder molecules in the tight crosslinking are not able to vibrate or move even at high temperature,
ie the paint film does not become softer at higher temperatures.

Critical recoating interval. Recoating must take place before

complete curing has taken place. If curing is completed, the surface
must be mechanically roughened before application of new paint.

Chemically curing paints are often further classified according to the

curing mechanism: Oxidatively curing. two-component curing,
humidity curing and temperature curing (thermo setting).

Oxidative curing
Binders which are most often dissolved in solvents and which
form the final binder with oxygen in the air, eg oleoresins,
alkyds, modified alkyds.
Film formation:

Two-component curing
Binders which are often dissolved in solvents and consist of
two components that react with each other after mixing,
forming the final binder, eg epoxy, polyurethane, unsaturated
polyester, or polysiloxane

Other curing mechanisms

Binders can be formed by other chemical reactions or
polymerisation processes, eg

Reaction between binder molecules and water present as

humidity in the air like zinc ethyl silicate and one-pack

Reaction between binder molecules and carbon dioxide in

the air like sodium, potassium and lithium zinc silicates
(alkali zinc silicates).

Reaction triggered off by high temperature as in the case of

silicone by curing for a few hours at 200C.


Classification Diagram
(most important binder types only)





Rubbers Acrylics


Modified Alkyds




or as presented in the family tree:

Zinc Ethyl Silicates
Zinc Alkali Silicates


Properties of Individual Binder Types

The following is a survey of some of the more important binders used in coatings
for the protection of marine and industrial structures. The properties listed are
general and may, for the actual coating, vary somewhat according to formulation
and possible modification.
3.4.1 Physically drying
Tars and Bitumen
Coal tars are obtained by distillation from coal, formerly from
gasworks, but today, mainly from steel works. They consist of a
mixture of liquid tar oils and solid coal tar pitches.
Bitumen is more often than not the heavy residues from oil distillations
though it may still be found in nature.
As opposed to most other binders used for protective coatings, coal tars
and bitumen are often used without pigmentation. Their high content of
carbon makes them virtually opaque and black.
Tars and bitumen are carcinogenic, and are today banned in many
As low cost barrier coatings, however, they are still sometimes specified on
immersed or submerged structures not exposed to mechanical load.
The main advantages and limitations of tars and bitumen are:

Excellent water resistance

Poor weathering, will crack when exposed to sunlight
(due to evaporation of low boiling oils)
Poor abrasion resistance
Only available in black/dark colours

Chlorinated Rubbers
As the name indicates chlorinated rubber resin is formed by adding
chlorine to rubber. In the early days only isoprene from natural rubber was
utilised but, nowadays, most of the isoprene is extracted in the oil industry.
After application and the evaporation of its solvent, chlorinated rubber
leaves a dense but very brittle film. A softening agent, a plasticizer, is
therefore always incorporated in a chlorinated rubber-based paint.
Chlorinated rubber-based paints are today of limited use, and largely
replaced with acrylic.
Some main advantages and limitations of chlorinated rubber coatings

Good water resistance

Relatively good weathering, but it may yellow and chalk
(chlorine content causes yellowing)

Acrylic resins are produced by polymerising different acrylic monomers.
Through the use of different monomers the properties of the acrylic resin
can be varied to a very large extent. Properties are also influenced by the
often incorporated plasticizer.
Acrylics are extensively used on concrete, in antifoulings (chapter 4) and
as topcoat on atmospherically exposed structures.
General advantages and limitations of acrylic coatings are:

Relatively good water resistance

Good weathering
Good colour retention
Low to fair resistance to
oils and fats
Contain plasticizers




Vinyl resins are mainly based on a copolymer consisting of vinyl chloride
monomers and vinyl acetate monomers, but other monomers can occur
Vinyl form fairly brittle films, so plasticizers might be incorporated into
vinyl-based paints.
Solvent-borne vinyl-based paints are today of limited use, because
of relatively low solid content and consequently high amount of
(strong) solvents, and they have largely been replaced by acrylics
and epoxies.
Water-borne vinyl paints are, however, still in use, see below.
The main advantages and limitations of vinyl coatings are:

Good to excellent water resistance

Good weathering
High cost

Other kinds of polymerisation than the previously mentioned exist,

where less strong solvents are used to liquefy the binder; their chemical resistance is lower and they are not solvent resistant.
Polyvinyl- butyral (PVB) is one of these kinds of polymerisation,
where the absence of the monomer vinyl chloride and thereby
absence of chlorine in the binder makes it suitable for shopprimers
(welding, cutting).
Vinyl is also used in combination with other binders, f.ex. in
modified epoxies.
Vinyl acetate copolymer water-borne
Used in combination with various plasticizing monomers, vinyl
acetates are mainly used in house paints.
Special properties:

Relatively good water resistance

Relatively good colour stability
Low cost

Vinyl chloride copolymer water-borne

Used in combination with plasticizing monomers, eg vinylidene
chloride and acrylic.
Can be used as an anticorrosive primer on steel.
Special properties are:

Good water resistance


Acrylic copolymer water-borne

The type and number of different acrylic monomers in an acrylic binder
can vary extensively, resulting in tailor-made properties for each
specific binder.
Acrylic-based paints are used as house paint (especially exterior) and
wood varnish.
As indicated, properties of acrylic binders can be very different, but in
general they have

Good water resistance

Good colour retention
Good gloss retention
Good adhesion to a variety of different substrates

Polyurethane water-borne
The reaction product between isocyanate and the hydroxyl containing
binder, ie the polyurethane (ref ., is present as complete binder
particles in the dispersion. Paints based on a polyurethane dispersion are
consequently one-component products.
They are used as sole binder or in combination with acrylic as wood
varnish, floor varnish or paint, and paints for plastics.
Special properties are:

Good adhesion to plastics

Good abrasion resistance
Limited resistance to outdoor exposure
High cost

Styrene butadiene copolymer water-borne

A ratio of approximately 60% styrene monomer and 40% butadiene
monomer is used as binder in anticorrosive high-builds, on areas not exposed
to sunlight.
Special properties are:

Good water resistance

Gets brittle and yellow when exposed in UV-light (sunlight) and
oxygen from the air
Comparatively low cost.

3.4.2 Chemically curing Oxidative curing
The key component of paints forming film by an oxidation process, is a
drying oil. Drying oils are natural products, eg linseed oil, soya oil or fish
oil. Drying oil consists of fatty acids combined with glycerol. By reacting the
fatty (drying oil) acid with other components, larger and more complex
molecules are formed, eg phenolic varnishes and alkyd resins, having more
durable properties.
Alkyds are often referred to as being short, medium or long oil alkyds. Short
oil alkyds contain less than 40% fatty acid and are mainly used in
coatings for production-line application. Medium oil alkyds contain from
40-60% fatty acid, and long oil alkyds more than 60%.
Alkyd paints are used on exterior steel work (above waterline) and in
interior dry rooms.
General advantages and limitations of medium oil alkyds are:

Poor water resistance after long periods of exposure

Reasonable to good weathering
Reasonable to good gloss retention
Reasonable colour retention
Poor alkali resistance
Solvent is mineral spirits, a comparatively weak solvent
Good penetration and adhesion.

Modified Alkyds
Alkyds may be modified with a wide range of other binders to provide
new binders with specific properties.

Typical modifications are:

Styrenated alkyd. Copolymerising alkyd with styrene gives an

alkyd which is faster drying, more chemical and water resistant, but less
tolerant of poor surface preparation.

Urethane alkyd. Isocyanate modified alkyd resin improves the

drying somewhat, and the components are usually selected to provide
additional hardness. Often used for primers required to withstand rough
handling. Due to their good through-drying properties, they are favoured
as binders in high-builds.

Silicone alkyd. When the silicone content exceeds 30%, silicone

alkyd is durable and retains it's gloss. Especially used for finishing coats
exposed to intense sunlight.

Epoxy ester. Epoxy ester is sometimes, but wrongly, referred to as

a one-component epoxy. Epoxy ester is a drying oil modified with epoxy.
This hard synthetic resin is faster drying and has better water and
alkali resistance than alkyds, but it chalks and is comparatively
Epoxy esters exhibit good adhesion and good anticorrosive properties;
often used for primers required to withstand rough handling or forced
drying at elevated temperatures. Two-component curing

Binders in this group form their films through a polymerising reaction
between two components, usually referred to as base and curing
agent or hardener, which are mixed together immediately prior to

Epoxy may cure at normal room temperatures through the addition of
curing agent (certain amines or poly amides, or adducts(1) of the same).
The curing agent reacts with the epoxy groups in the base resin, building
a three-dimensional network (ref.

Pre-reacted amines/poly amides with minor parts of epoxy still

leaving reactive groups in the hardener.

Certain epoxies containing hydroxyl-groups react with isocyanates,

resulting in low temperature curing properties. The cured film is hard
and wear resistant, but chalks rapidly if exposed to sunlight. This
detracts from the cosmetic appearance, but usually it does not have any
influence on the protective value of the coating.
Amides are the most versatile curing agents, giving ease of application and
good water resistance, while amines provide better chemical resistance,
but give shorter pot life and overcoating intervals. Low temperature
curing properties are obtained when curing with adducts or
Epoxy resins may be produced in different molecular sizes, of which the
smallest are liquid at normal room temperature. These are the socalled low molecular weight epoxies, used for solvent-free and solventless epoxies.
Epoxy-based paints are specified for the exterior and interior of steel
work, in tanks, as heavy duty and high-build coatings.
General advantages and limitations of epoxy coatings are:

Good to excellent water resistance

Good weathering (apart from chalking)
Tendency to chalking
Good physical properties, such as toughness, flexibility and
abrasion resistance (especially the solvent-free versions)
Good heat resistance, up to 120C in continuous dry service
Good to excellent chemical resistance
(best for amine cured epoxies)
Good adhesion to a wide range of materials
Two-pack (attention to mixing and pot life)
Curing is temperature dependent.

Polyurethane (two-pack)
Polyurethane is formed through a reaction between isocyanates and
hydroxyl containing binders (eg alcohols), creating a network
structure. They are usually two-pack products, have better weathering
properties and cure at lower temperatures than epoxies (ie in general
down to -10C, epoxies normally down to 5-10C). During the curing
process however, polyurethane is much more sensitive to humidity.
(The curing agent, isocyanate, can react with water, resulting in foam in
the applied paint film).
The isocyanates are either aromatic (ie containing a benzene ring) or
aliphatic (without the benzene ring). Both types give tough, wear resistant
films with good resistance to chemicals and solvents.

Aromatic isocyanates dry faster than aliphatic, but when used externally they chalk and yellow rapidly.
Aliphatic isocyanates possess superior colour retention and UV resistance (ie the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight); they are frequently
recommended for exterior finishing coats.
Like epoxies, polyurethane may be produced in a wide range of
molecular sizes, some small enough to allow their use in solvent-free or
solvent-less coatings.
Polyurethane is used as a finishing coat above the water line in epoxy
systems, heavy duty coating, floor and boat finishes.
General advantages and limitations of polyurethane coating are:

Excellent weathering
Excellent gloss retention (aliphatic types only)
Excellent colour retention (aliphatic types only)
High abrasion resistance
Good chemical resistance
Difficult application
(low relative humidity and trained painters required)
Low temperature curing
Two components (attention to mixing and pot life)
Comparatively expensive.

Polysiloxane is a relatively new binder on the market for use where
isocyanate is not feasible.
Polysiloxane is made from functional silane molecules which are
cross-linked with each other in the presence of moisture. Alcohol is
formed during the reaction. The functional silanes may also contain
other functional groups such as e.g. amines which can cross-link with
epoxy binder or unsaturated acrylic binder forming hybrid epoxy
polysiloxane or hybrid acrylic polysiloxane.
Used on exterior steel work as finishing coat above waterline.
General advantages and limitations of polysiloxane coatings are:

Excellent weathering
Excellent gloss and colour retention
Very good chemical resistance
High solids (low VOC)
Fast dry to handle
High cost Other Film-forming mechanisms

Humidity curing
Humidity curing binders polymerise and form films through a
reaction with water, usually in the form of vapour contained in the
surrounding air. Binders of interest are ethyl silicate and
moisture curing (one-pack) polyurethane.

Ethyl silicate dries by the loss of solvent, alcohol, and

cures by a reaction between the silicate and the humidity
in the environment.
Since ethyl silicate is used predominantly for zinc silicate
coatings, and its properties, when cured, are similar to
those of alkali silicates, the potassium, sodium and
lithium zinc silicates, it is included with these carbon
dioxide curing alkali zinc silicates.

Polyurethane (one-pack)
The tendency of the isocyanate group to react with water
can be utilised by employing isocyanates with relatively
large molecules. After application the paint or varnish cures
by absorbing moisture from the air.
Moisture curing polyurethane has properties similar to
two-pack polyurethane. Its major limitation is its
dependence on humidity in the surrounding air, plus special
care should be exercised in their storage when they are
pigmented - as pigments may contain a certain amount of
Also, the production of moisture curing polyurethane is an
exceedingly tricky business. Manufacture often has to take
place under a "nitrogen blanket", to avoid humidity coming
in contact with the binder until curing is desired.

Carbon Dioxide Curing

Zinc Silicates
Silicate binders owe their special properties to a high
content of silicon-oxide in their composition. In the
protective coatings field, silicate binders are exclusively
pigmented with zinc as zinc silicates. As such they offer the
best corrosion protection obtainable with a paint.

Lithium, potassium and sodium silicates dry by the loss of

water and cure by:

a) a reaction between zinc and silicate, and

b) a reaction between silicate and carbon dioxide in
the air
Sodium silicate is, and potassium silicate may be, postcured. That is, after drying, the application of an accelerator (a
water-based acid solution) accelerates the curing, which
may otherwise take as long as 5-8 days.

General advantages and limitations of zinc silicate

coatings are:
Excellent weathering
Excellent abrasion resistance (alkali silicates
Excellent heat resistance (up to 400C)
Resistant within the pH range of 6-9 only
Excellent solvent resistance
Require surface preparation of very high standard,
both as regards cleanness and surface profile
Demanding application conditions (temperature,
humidity, continuous stirring and film thickness)
Critical recoating (risk of popping and/or poor
Excellent corrosion prevention (through galvanic effect).

Heat curing

While almost all other polymers (with the obvious
exception of inorganic zinc silicates) have a more or less
branched backbone of carbon atoms, silicones have
backbones of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms and
carbon containing side groups.
Condensation at high temperatures, approx. 200C,
produces networks, and this is the mechanism by which
curing is effected.

General properties:

Comparatively expensive.
Silicones can and are being modified with a number of
other resins (typically alkyds, acrylics, etc.) in order to
reduce cost and improve mechanical properties in the
uncured stage.

Special properties of silicones are:

When dried, not cured:

Poor resistance to mechanical impact, abrasion, etc.

Low solvent resistance
Good gloss retention

When cured (200C for one hour):

Heat resistance 250C (and, if aluminium

pigmented, up to 600C for short intervals)
Good water resistance
Good weathering
Good colour retention
Good chemical resistance
Resistant to spillage of mineral, vegetable and animal
oils and fats.

Chapter 4


Most of the important properties of a paint are, as described in chapter 3,
determined by its binder and consequently the manner in which the film is
These general properties cannot be changed basically, but in the formulation of
paints it is possible to enhance, modify or even add to these basic characteristics.
The result is a much wider range of paint "types" than would off hand appear
from the generic classification.
Some of these types are more often referred to by their function or specific
purpose, than by their generic type.
In this chapter the following are described:

4.1 Anticorrosives
4.2 Shopprimers/Holding Primers
4.. 3 Antifoulings
4.4 Coating Concrete

4.1 Anticorrosives
4.1.1 Corrosion in humid environments Corrosion in acidic environments Galvanic corrosion
4.1.2 Anticorrosives Barrier effect Inhibitor effect Galvanic effect

4.2 Shopprimers/Holding Primers

4.2.1 Shopprimers
4.2.2 HoldingPrimers
4.2.3 Blast Primers
4.3 Antifoulings
4.3.1 Fouling
4.3.2 Antifouling
4.4 Coating Concrete
4.4.1 What is concrete?
4.4.2 Deterioration of concrete
4.4.3 Concrete as a substrate
4.4.4 Surface preparation of concrete
4.4.5 Coatings for concrete
4.4.6 Constructions


Anticorrosives is a collective term for paints designed to prevent the corrosion of
metals, particularly steel.
In order to understand the design of such paints it is necessary to know the basic
principles of corrosion.
4.1.1 Corrosion
Corrosion is here defined as a breakdown of a metal through interaction
with the environment.
The corrosion may be due to a chemical action, or it may be due to a
mechanical action. Chemical corrosion
In their natural states metallic atoms are most often found in
metallic ores as salts or oxides of said metals.
The metallic atom in the metallic ores will exist on a lower level of
energy than if they are processed into pure metals.
Atoms with a high "unnatural" level of energy will strive to revert
to a lower level of energy and this is the reason for chemical
This is true for all metals, but the different metals have different
tendency to revert to their natural state of lower energy as
exemplified below:
Low tendency to corrode

High tendency to corrode


Stainless steel
Iron (steel)

Both iron and zinc will corrode if immersed in f.ex. seawater. But if
the two metals are in metallic contact, only zinc will corrode, and
thereby the zinc protects iron.
All surfaces exist in equilibrium with their surroundings. Atoms will
leave the surface and other atoms or molecules will enter the surface,
a constant process taking place all over the surface.

Corrosion in humid atmosphere

This is the most common form of corrosion, which we see every
day on cars, ships, bridges, etc.
Looking at a steel surface, with a newly applied drop of water, as
illustrated in Fig. 1a

Some time later, something has happened on the steel surface, as

illustrated in Fig 1b

Some of the steel has been eaten away, and a brown deposit has
appeared around the attached area. At the edge of the water drop,
the water has become more alkaline. This cannot immediately be
seen, but it can be measured.
The observations can be explained as follows:
The iron atom gives off negative electrons and is thereby
transformed to a positive particle, a so-called iron ion which can
move in water.
The electrons react with water and oxygen forming a negative
particle, a so-called hydroxide ion, which also can move in water.
The hydroxide ions are alkaline.
The positive iron ions and the negative hydroxide ions combine and
form the brown deposit, the rust.
The area where electrons are released, and where the attack of iron
takes place, is called the anode. The area where electrons are
consumed is called the cathode.
The water carrying the ions is called the electrolyte.

Fig. 2

If the iron is in combination with a material more noble than iron,

f.ex. copper, the corrosion of iron will be accelerated.
If iron is in combination with a material less noble than iron, f.ex.
zinc, there will be no corrosion of iron, the corrosion/the anode will
move to the less noble material.

Corrosion in acidic environment

This form of corrosion is sometimes seen in combination with
corrosion in humid environment. In areas with sulphur dioxide in
the air (acid rain) the corrosion goes faster, because the acid at
least partly - dissolves the corrosion products, which otherwise slow
down the corrosion process.
But it may also be seen in areas exposed to some types of bacteria
or fungi which during their metabolism give off an acid. Several of
these can exist without oxygen.
Looking at a steel surface, with a newly applied aqueous drop of
acid, as illustrated in Fig. 3a

Some time later, something has happened on the steel surface, as

illustrated in Fig 3b

The steel has been eaten away in the whole area exposed to acid,
and a gas is evolving.
The observations can be explained as follows:
The iron atom gives off negative electrons and is thereby
transformed to a positive iron ion which can move in water.
The electrons react with a positive particle from the acid, a so-called
hydrogen ion, forming hydrogen gas.
The iron ions substitute the hydrogen ions in the aqueous solution,
and no corrosion products are seen.
In this case, the anode and the cathode are not separated from each
other, they appear at one and the same place. Mechanical corrosion

Mechanical corrosion accounts for only a small part of the
breakdown of metals, and is typically localized. Some well known
examples are, the wear of paint and blasting nozzles.
Water alone, i.e. without particles, can break down a metallic
material. At a high flow rate turbulence may be created at the bend
of a pipe or at an obstacle, f.ex. a welding spatter, within the pipe.
Around a propeller, where the flow of water is very vigorous,
cavitation may be formed which will result in pittings in the
With this form of corrosion, the material is broken down by a purely
mechanical action. The breakdown product is the material itself,
consequently, there will be no corrosion products.


Corrosion prevention.
Considering the economical consequences of corrosion, estimated to be some
3.5% of GNP, protection of the substrate a must.
The mechanical corrosion can in most cases be minimized or eliminated by
proper design and material selection.
For the chemical corrosion, the crucial issue is to prevent electrons from
leaving the steel surface. Based on the above descriptions of the three
possible corrosion principles, corrosion of steel can be retarded or prevented

Keeping oxygen and/or water away from the substrate

Keeping hydrogen ions away from the substrate.
Passivating the substrate with an alkaline compound.
If the substrate is alkaline, production of the alkaline hydroxide
ion will be opposed.
Making the substrate a cathode, by supplying electrons for the
cathodic reaction from a source other than the substrate.
The two first, can be effected by use of paint making a barrier
preventing the water to penetrate to the substrate.
The third, can be effected by the use of paint containing an alkaline
The last one can be effected in several ways:
- By use of paint containing a metal less noble than the substrate.
- By use of sacrificial anodes, bars of a metal less noble than the
substrate mounted on the substrate.
- By use of Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP)
where a negative voltage, relative to an anode in the electrolyte, is
imposed on the substrate. Anticorrosives

When preventing corrosion with paints, three main principles are

(1) Creating a physical barrier that keeps out charged ions and retards
the penetration of water and oxygen. The so-called BARRIER
(2) Ensuring that water, on its passage through the paint coating, takes
up special compounds inhibiting its corrosive action. This is called
the INHIBITOR effect.
(3) Ensuring metallic contact between the steel and a less noble metal,
(eg zinc). This results in cathodic protection of the steel by utilising the
GALVANIC effect.

Barrier effect
A barrier effect is obtained by applying thick coatings, 250-500 m, of
paints with very low water permeability. These paints are usually,
but not always, based on bitumen, tar and/or epoxy. Typical
representatives are:
By adding flake-formed pigments, eg leafing aluminium or
micaceous iron oxide, a barrier effect can be achieved even at
low film thicknesses.
The flake-pigments orientate parallel to the steel surface, so water and
oxygen, when trying to pass through, are forced to pass the more
complicated and longer passage around the pigments.

For permanently immersed steel, the first, and often the only,
choice of protection through coatings, would be to utilise the
barrier effect.
If a barrier coating is damaged, the areas of damage lie open for
corrosion, which can proceed both down, into the steel, and
outwards under the intact coating (underrusting). Thus, where there
is a risk of mechanical damage, additional protection, in the form of
cathodic protection, is often provided.
Inhibitor effect
The rate of corrosion can be reduced by using primers containing
so-called inhibitors. These are soluble basic pigments designed to
suppress the corrosion process. The only one used today is:
Zinc phosphate 1

These pigments do not contain metallic zinc particles.

Inhibitors are, and must be, somewhat water soluble. To prevent them
from being washed out of the primer coats, topcoats without inhibitors
are applied to provide the barrier necessary for the inhibitive primer
to last.
Due to the water solubility of the pigments used, primers with
inhibitors are not suited for prolonged immersion; such an exposure
would result in blistering and early breakdown of the coating system.
When damaged, a certain protection against rust-creeping
(underrusting) is afforded, but the damaged area itself is not
Galvanic effect
Protection of steel through the galvanic effect can be achieved with
paints containing metallic zinc. A condition for protection is that
there is metallic contact between the individual zinc particles and
between the zinc particles and the steel.
The zinc has a higher tendency to corrode than steel, and by a damage
to steel, zinc will therefore become the anode and steel the cathode
the steel is said to be cathodically protected
Typical binders for zinc dust paints are:
Ethyl silicate
Alkali silicate

The very nature of these paints requires an absolutely clean steel

surface and, especially for the zinc silicates, a rather well defined
surface profile if a good and lasting result is to be obtained.
Zinc silicates, when applied, are initially rather porous. After a while,
however, the pores are filled with corrosion products from the zinc
and a barrier is formed.
In case of a damage to steel, the galvanic effect shows itself at the damage
and protects effectively against rust-creeping (underrusting).
Paints working according to the galvanic effect are extensively used
as primers for systems protecting atmospherically exposed
structures. The following coats will be of the barrier type.
For immersion, zinc dust paints are not normally suited as primers, as
the zinc salts will result in blistering. But as a one coat system,
zinc silicate is a favoured protection in solvent tanks, because of
its superior solvent resistance. Sacrificial anodes and ICCP (Impressed Current Cathodic Protection)

Sacrificial anodes and ICCP will like paints utilizing the galvanic
effect protect exposed steel by making it the cathode cathodic
Both are both a supplement to a barrier system for underwater or
under- ground use.
In case of a damage in the barrier system, the anodes and/or the ICCP
will limit the corrosion in the exposed area and limit the underrusting.
Sacrificial anodes are made of a metal less noble than the steel, and
mounted in metallic contact with the steel. Typical materials are zinc,
or alloys of zinc and aluminum.
During application of the barrier system care must be taken not to
apply paint on the anodes or on the support for the anodes to be in
contact with the anodes
The ICCP is provided by a DC generator (a battery) with minus to
the substrate to be protected, and plus to an inert anode of titanium
or platinized titanium in the electrolyte (water or soil).
During application of the barrier system the area close to the anode
must be given extra thickness to avoid blistering. The extra thickness
is typically achieved by a mm thick filler, called the anode shield.
At the inert anode, electrons are released. But the electrons do not
come from the anode material, hence the term inert, but from a
reaction involving negative ions.

Galvanic series of metals and other conductive compounds in


Stainless steel (passive)
Mill scale
Stainless steel (active)
Iron (steel)
Ignoble Magnesium
Even though they are non-metallic, graphite and mill scale are
included in the series, because they willingly partake in the cathodic


Primers for temporary Corrosion Protection

These primers are often divided in three subgroups, depending on the job in
which they are used:

Holding primers
Blast primers.

4.2.1 Shopprimers
These primers are often referred to as prefabrication primers. They
are anticorrosives designed for application in automated plants, to plates
or profiles prior to fabrication (cutting and welding) and storage.
The special demands to such primers are:

To provide protection against corrosion during the construction


To be spray applicable in a variety of automatic installations

The time between application and dry to handle, must be very

short indeed

They should not negatively influence the speed of welding or


They must not evolve noxious or toxic fumes during the welding or
cutting process

They must not negatively influence the strength of welds

They should be able to withstand comparatively rough handling

They must be non-saponifiable and water resistant

They should form a suitable base for the widest possible range of
coatings systems.

Consequent to the requirements listed above, shopprimers possess
properties not normally found in paints designed for other purposes;
They are applied in comparatively low film thicknesses, 15-25 microns, in
order not to interfere with the speed of cutting and welding.
Offering reasonable protection at such low film thicknesses can only be
achieved if the coating follows the contours of the blasted steel, and
shop-primers are designed to do just that.

Inherent in the formulation of shopprimers, therefore, are fast drying

and retarded flow properties. A side-effect of this is low cohesive
strength, and shopprimers applied in excessive film thicknesses have
a pronounced tendency to split when overcoated.
To achieve the desired protection, and avoid immediate or subsequent
splitting of the shopprimer coat, film thickness must be close to that
specified by the supplier. Such exactitude can usually only be achieved in
automatic plants.
Types of Shopprimer
The most widely accepted shopprimers are:

Epoxy iron oxide

Zinc epoxy
Zinc silicate
Poly Vinyl Butyral (PVB) is also used to some extent, but only
within the non-marine industry. PVB is water sensitive.

A general summary of the more important properties of these

shopprimers can be tabulated as follows:
Type of Shopprimer


zinc epoxy



Solvent and


or onepack
water or

iron oxide


or onepack

Dry film

15-25 pm

15-25 pm

20-25 pm

20-25 pm


very good





very good







less critical

less critical



Resistance to

not usually
not usually
used with ICCP used with ICCP

*ICCP = Impressed current cathodic protection

4.2.2 Holding Primers

If the lifetime of a shopprimer has to be prolonged, a holding primer can
be applied. A major requirement to a holding primer is a no maximum
recoating interval, ie the specified coating system can be applied,
whenever construction work allows.
With the increasing effectiveness within the heavy industry there is no
longer any use for holding primers in the above sense.
The term is still in use, but now it is used as synonym with blast primers.

4.2.3 Blast Primers

Where temporary protection to blast cleaned steel is applied by hand-held
spray gun, eg during maintenance work, one would choose a suitable
anticorrosive with a reasonable long recoating interval, and apply it in a
somewhat lower than usual film thickness.
Anticorrosive primers suitable, and frequently used for this purpose, are
often referred to as blast primers, ideally, they would be based on the
same generic type as the coat to follow.


Painting a vessel's underwater hull serves two main purposes:

protection of the construction steel

prevention of undue hull roughness

Corrosion protection of steel is described in section 4.1 "Anticorrosives".

When hull roughness increases, it will inevitably lead to increased resistance
to movements of the vessel, causing lower service speed or increased fuel
The hull roughness increase is mainly due to the settlement of marine
organisms. Some of the numerous organisms populating the oceans either
swim or are carried about by currents, but quite a few must settle on a hard
surface in order to fulfil their life cycles. These various plants and animals are
commonly called fouling.

4.3.1 Fouling
The number of fouling organisms is estimated to be in the region of 4-5000
different species. They can be split into two groups:


Micro-organisms form the primary film - the slime layer.

Micro-organisms are: bacteria, fungi, protozoa and diatoms (unicellular
algae). The important groups in connection with fouling of ships are
bacteria and diatoms.

Macro-organisms are big enough to be seen with the naked eye.

Macro-organisms are: algae and animals.
Among the algae (seaweed, grass) the most dominant types are:
green algae
brown algae
red algae

Among the animals the most dominant as ship fouling organisms are:

hard shell forms:


soft forms:

The highest concentration of fouling organisms occurs in harbours
and coastal areas where hard naturally surfaces, stones and rocks, are
present. Here the bottom of a ship will easily be infected by algae spores
and animal larvae. Algae spores settle in a matter of hours, whereas
animal larvae normally require a couple of days to settle.
The speed of the vessel, if it is idle and slow steaming, will also
influence the fouling severity.
As a rule of thumb, most fouling organisms will not settle at speeds
above 4 knots.
The distribution of fouling organisms on a hull is seldom uniform. This
is due partly to the different flow conditions on the hull and partly to
differences in the settling pattern of the organisms.
Thus, there is often a very well defined horizontal division:
The area from the waterline and 1 - 4 metres down is dominated by
algae, and perhaps a few barnacles. This "algae belt" is the area which
is first and most heavily fouled.
Further down the vertical side, some scattered fouling of
barnacles, encrusting bryozoans, tubeworms and goosenecks may
occur. The flat bottom is dominated by hydroids, barnacles, mussels,
tunicates, bryozoans, and in some cases goosenecks.

4.3.2 Fouling Control Coatings Antifoulings with biocides
Antifouling paints prevent fouling by releasing bioactive
ingredients that interfere with the biological processes of the
fouling organisms. Bioactive materials used in antifouling paints
today are basically cuprous oxide and organic biocides . Until
2003 also the very effective but environmentally critical organotin
was used.
All biocides incorporated in the paints are soluble in seawater.
When released in a sufficiently high concentration (ie above the
threshold value) the biocides will be lethal to all fouling
Biocides are released by different mechanisms and make the
basis for the classification of antifouling paints.

4 main groups are referred to:

soluble matrix antifoulings

insoluble matrix antifoulings
tin-free self-polishing antifoulings
fouling release coatings

From an environmental and to some extent also from a

performance point of view only tin-free antifoulings and fouling
release coatings are found on the market today. The other groups
are simply described here of historical reasons.

Soluble matrix antifoulings are mainly based on gum rosin

or rosin derivatives. It is a seawater soluble, mechanically
weak binder, which only allow for a low concentration of
bioactive material and only relatively thin antifouling
This type of antifoulings works by progressive dissolution
and erosion of the paint film, and in that respect they can be
considered as the "ancestor" of self-polishing antifoulings.

Start of lifetime

1/2 lifetime

End of lifetime

General properties:
Protection rather limited, 12 - 15 months only
Only antifouling type that can be safely applied over soft
(bituminous) primers
The binder oxidises and is sensitive to sunlight, i.e. the
vessel must be launched/floated soon after application
Sensitive to oil pollution (both mineral and fish oils)
Due to the low mechanical strength of the binder, subject to cold
Insoluble matrix antifoulings are based on a physically
drying, seawater insoluble binder The mechanical strength
of the binder is high, allowing a high loading of antifouling
pigments. As the binder is insoluble in seawater, the toxic
particles (pigments) must be in direct contact with each other
in order to be dissolved by the seawater and release the toxic
The release rate is very high at the beginning of the service life,
but will decrease slowly during service, leaving a honeycomb
structure (the empty matrix) consisting of the insoluble binder.
This empty matrix contributes to roughness development.

Start of lifetime

1/2 lifetime

End of lifetime

At the end of the service life for the specified antifouling, the
concentration of biocides is so far below the threshold value,
that fouling of the hull can no longer be prevented.

General properties:

Fouling protection for 18 - 24 months is possible in normal to

severe fouling conditions
The coating can be re-activated by scrubbing (the empty
matrix is removed enabling the remaining biocides to dissolve
at sufficient rate)
The empty matrix may be clogged by pollution, blocking off the
The empty matrix must be sealed off at re-docking
The empty matrix contributes to increasing roughness

Environmental concern
In recent years the growing environmental awareness within the shipping
industry has highlighted the harmful effects of organotin compounds on
marine organisms in areas with high shipping activity and poor water
exchange. As a result the demand for tin-free antifoulings has increased,
which has led to the development of tin-free self-polishing antifoulings,
keeping the self-polishing properties known from the tinbased, self-polishing paints without the use of tin-containing groups in the binder.
From 1. Janaury 2003 IMO (International Maritime Organization) the
application of tin containing anti-foulings was banned. And from 2008
there was a ban on presence in contact with seawater. From July 2003 EU
flaggesd ships must not apply organotin containing A/F systems. And from
2008 vessels irrespective of their flag could not enter EU ports with active
tin containing A/F.

Tin-free self-polishing antifoulings are based on a physically

drying binders.
All binders on the market today react with sea water
(are hydrolyzed) to form a more soluble compound.
This first chemical reaction, which sometimes also is described
as an ion exchange, is followed by a physical dissolution which is
linked to the hydrodynamic drag along the hull as the vessel
For all known tinfree selfpolishing types this two step model is
valid. The mechanism is seen in the figure below:



NaCl, pH




Start of lifetime




1/2 lifetime



End of lifetime


The biocides in the tinfree antifoulings are most often a mixture of

cuprous oxide and additional organic biocides which are readily
degradable in the marine environment.

General properties:

Fouling protection up to 90 months is possible

Tin-free binder system
Environmentally friendly
Roughness control, smoothing effect
No sealer needed at re-docking with same type of binder
Economic release of biocides Fouling Release Coatings.

Fouling Release is fouling control technology which, unlike traditional
antifoulings, does not contain any toxic biocides, therefor is not by
definition, an antifouling. Fouling Release coatings provide a physical
barrier as opposed to the chemical barrier of antifouling coatings.
Fouling Release coatings are generally silicone based and provide a
smooth, low friction, hydrophobic surface, onto which fouling organisms
have difficulty settling and adhering.
Organisms which do settle, during extended idle periods for example, can
be easily removed. This is done by self-cleaning as the vessel moves
through the water above certain speeds, or by low pressure washing in a
dock or by non-abrasive underwater cleaning.
Features of Fouling Release Coatings:

Silicone based, provides the smooth easy to clean surface

Biocide free, therefore environmentally compliant with respect to

biocide regulations

Chemically inert or non-polishing, therefore the smooth surface

is maintained over the specification lifetime. Maintaining a smooth
surface benefits fuel efficiency. Certain vessel types can show
increased speeds and greater fuel efficiency.

Copper free, therefore suitable for aluminium vessels

Light weight.
Fouling Release coatings are generally applied onto a suitable
anticorrosive system. A tie coat is then applied which provides the
adhesion between the anticorrosive and the non-stick top coat.
The best of the fouling release coatings today may be specified for ships
sailing down to 8 knots.


Coating Concrete

What is concrete?
Concrete is a mix of cement, gravel, aggregate (stone) and water; the
amount of each component in the mix depends upon the type and purpose
of the structure to be cast. The mix hardens through a chemical reaction
between the cement and the water.
Typical properties of concrete are its easy manufacture and casting; high
resistance to impact and its compressive strength; tensile strength is
obtained by incorporation of metal bars (rebars) to produce reinforced
Concrete is very strongly alkaline, having a pH of 12-13 when freshly cast. The
highly alkaline water in the pores of the concrete passivates the surface of
the rebar, protecting them against corrosion. The passivation will protect
the rebars against corrosion as long as pH > 9.
The rebars may also be protected by a coating (typically powder coating)
or by ICCP.

4.4.2 Deterioration of concrete.

For a good many years people thought of concrete as an artificial
stone, indestructible. Time has shown, however, that concrete is indeed
perishable, and will break down with time depending on the concrete
quality and the environment.
Although concrete may appear to be a dense, solid and homogeneous
material, it contains numerous pores and cavities which, if not sealed off,
will allow aggressive components to penetrate into the concrete, and
thereby contribute to the breakdown and destruction of the concrete.
Water, although relatively harmless in itself, causes the worst problems,
since almost all destructive mechanisms or reactions depend on the
presence of water.
The aggressive components will destroy the concrete in different ways.
The main reasons for deterioration and breakdown of concrete are:

Water: Without water significant degradation of concrete would be

impossible. Water can cause frost damage, it can transport damaging
ions, and it will contribute to the crystallisation of salts.
When water freezes, its volume increases 10%. If the concrete does not
contain a sufficient number of empty pores, the formed ice will cause
stress in the concrete, which again will crack, if the concrete is too
Deterioration is prevented by mixing air into the concrete, and/or by
applying coatings that will prevent liquid water to move in and out, but
still allowing the concrete to breathe.

Carbonation: Carbon dioxide (CO 2) and moisture (H2O) from the

air will react with the alkaline calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2) in the
concrete, forming calcium carbonate (CaCO3):
CO2 + H2O + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + 2H2O carbonation

This process is called carbonation.

As a result of the carbonation, the pH will decrease. At pH 9 the passive
layer on the surface of the rebars will dissolve and corrosion will
start. The corrosion products require about 6 times more space than
the steel, and cracking or spalling in the concrete will eventually occur.
Concrete, pH 12-13

Concrete, pH <9


Carbonation can be prevented by the use of anti-carbonation

coatings specially formulated to be a barrier for carbon dioxide.

Chloride intrusion: Chloride can be introduced in concrete from

eg de-icing salts, marine atmosphere, and industrial effluents, but also
from the components in the concrete. When chloride ions reach the
passive layer on the rebars, the layer breaks down even at high pH. When
sufficiently high concentrations of chloride ions are present, corrosion
starts. This corrosion scenario is one of the main reasons for
deterioration of reinforced concrete.
Sulphatation: The sulphur dioxide/sulphur trioxide (SO2/SO3)
present in an industrial atmosphere will harm the concrete in much the
same way that carbonation does. Water (H2O) transports sulphur
trioxide (SO2), the mix reacts with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) in the
concrete, forming calcium sulphate (CaSO4) (gypsum).
SO2 + H2O + Ca(OH)2 CaSO4 + 2H2O

This will lower the pH, resulting in corrosion of the rebars, and in
addition the formed gypsum will reduce the mechanical strength of
the concrete.

Sulphate swelling: Sulphates, either from surrounding soil or from

atmospheric pollution, will react with concrete forming calcium sulphates.
These sulphates can react with aluminates in the concrete, forming
calcium aluminate hydrate, which takes up a larger volume than the
aluminates. This will weaken and destabilize the concrete.

Alkali silica reactions: Reaction between reactive silica and alkali ions
in the pore liquid. The alkali metal ions come from the cement or
from de-icing salts. The alkali-silica reactions might result in
expansion of the
concrete, and cracking. By decreasing the water content in the concrete,
the deterioration can be decreased.

By the correct use of up-to-date concrete technology, supplemented by

suitable protective coatings we can in most cases eliminate, or at least
reduce the breakdown.

4.4.3 Concrete as a substrate for coatings.

As a substrate for paint, concrete differs considerably from steel. You may
say that concrete is a live material that needs to breathe.The main
points to be aware of, when the painting of new concrete is considered, are:

Curing. Uncured concrete is entirely unsuited as a substrate for paint. As

a rule, concrete should be allowed to cure for 28 days (at 20C). For the
first four to seven days the concrete should be moistcured (covered with
Burlap Kraft paper or 2 layers of 8 mil polyethylene film) followed by
21-24 days air-dry curing.

Humidity. Moisture in the surface layer must be below 4% by weight

and must not increase after painting to ensure good adhesion of the
coating system. High moisture content in the concrete also lowers
the strength of the concrete.

Blow holes, cracks and other surface defects must be filled with a
cement based mortar or epoxy filler, which must cure before paint is
applied. Plasters should only be used indoors, as they tend to absorb

Laitance, the thin layer of cement sludge that rises to the surface during
vibrating and floating, must be removed as its cohesive strength is too
low to serve as a substrate for the coating system.

Curing compounds and release agents, often based on wax or

paraffin, must be removed to ensure adhesion of the coating system.

Efflorescence, the saline crystalline particles often formed when

fresh concrete is exposed to air, must obviously be removed before
painting can take place.

When coating an aged concrete, it is important to check the:

Soundness, hardness of the concrete. Cohesive strength of concrete

must be a minimum of 1,5 MPa.

Surface Hardeners may have been applied to existing concrete

floors to reduce dusting; unless such flooring is prepared properly,
coating adhesion is greatly impaired.

4.4.4 Surface Preparation of Concrete

Before the mechanical treatment of the surface takes place, all oil and
other possible contaminants must be removed with a suitable detergent.
Salts and other water soluble contaminants are removed by high pressure
fresh water cleaning.
Various methods can be employed for the mechanical preparation of
concrete surfaces:
Open nozzle dry abrasive blasting cleans effectively at 4-7 bar (60-100
psi) from a compressor yielding approximately 5 m3/min. (175 cu. ft./min.),
but may result in greater roughness than is desired. Vacuum cleaning prior
to the application of paint is required.
Open nozzle wet abrasive blasting creates less dust and provides a
more acceptable work environment. It has the same properties as open
nozzle dry abrasive blasting but tends to leave a layer of sand sludge on the
surface. This sludge layer is not suitable as a substrate for paint - and it is
almost impossible to remove.
Power tool grinding is effective for the removal of cement sludge layers
on minor areas only; on larger areas it is both more economical and
practical to treat concrete floors with specially developed grinding
High pressure water jetting (water blasting) at pressures in the region of
1,000 bar (14,500 psi), is almost as effective as abrasive blasting. It
will not adequately clean exposed reinforcing bars, but will remove
laitance without causing undue roughness.
High pressure fresh water cleaning, at pressures in the region of 100-200
bar (1,400-2,800 psi), may remove loose deposits like efflorescence and
peeling paint, but has no effect on the concrete itself (cannot remove
hardened cement sludge).
Following the selected surface treatment, the surface should be stable,
firm and dry and suitable for application of the coating system.

4.4.5 Coatings for concrete

No protective coating will make a poor concrete good. Before specifying
a coating system for concrete, it is necessary to make an investigation and
assessment of the structure in question to make sure the right materials
are selected for the job.
Paints to be used on concrete should meet the following requirements:

repellence against water - water from the outside

resistance against carbon dioxide diffusion - to avoid any decrease

in pH, and consequently possible corrosion of the rebars
penetration control of water vapour, allowing vapour from concrete
to pass, the concrete must be able to "breathe"

resistance to alkaline - when a coating is used directly on concrete

Additional important properties can be:

resistance to sulphur dioxide diffusion rebar corrosion and sulphate


resistance to chloride diffusion

flexibility - bridge building effect

abrasion resistance

non-skid properties

The importance of these properties depends on the environments, ie the

type and degree of deterioration.
Single coat. If water repellency is the only requirement, impregnation
with a water repellent coating based on silicone can serve as a first and
only coat.
Where a full coating system is to be applied, the first coat is a sealer
based on a diluted, low-molecular weight binder.
The sealer is often a clear epoxy or acrylic with a slight colour.
The purpose of the sealer is to saturate the outer concrete layer to provide
good adhesion of the following coat.

4.4.6 Constructions
The build-up of paint systems will, as described above, depend on the
environment to which the coating system is exposed eg:
Open air constructions. Bridges above water level, the exterior of
buildings, and many other constructions exposed to normal
atmospheric conditions, may often be adequately protected by a water
Where decoration (colour) is desired, an acrylic dispersion paint over
an acrylic sealer would provide a very flexible solution. This would
also suit the requirements for interior, decorative painting.
For exposure in a polluted atmosphere, an epoxy sealer followed by a
full epoxy, or an epoxy + polyurethane system would provide tough and
durable protection.
In addition the coating must be able to "breathe", allowing water
vapour to pass through the coating from both sides.
Reinforced concrete may in some environments need a coating, which
prevents intrusion of carbon dioxide, chloride and liquid water (ref.

Immersed constructions. Concrete immersed in water or buried in soil

is usually protected by coal tar epoxy, coal tar polyurethane, coal tar or
bitumen coatings systems.
They are applied without a sealer and in thicknesses of up to 500 m,
in some cases even up to 2 mm.
In water polluted by oil or sewage, a coal tar epoxy or a sealer + a
straight epoxy system would offer better and longer lasting protection
than straight bitumen coating system.

Tanks and silos. Should the concrete need to be protected against

chemicals or heavily polluted water, such as in some storage facilities, a
sealer + a straight epoxy system or equal should be chosen.
If exposed to strong sunlight (UV light), or if easy cleaning and decontamination are desired properties, the final coat, or coats, can be an
aliphatic polyurethane.

Floors. A solvent free epoxy system, will protect concrete floors against
wear and abrasion. For superior chemical and wear resistance,
combined with easy cleaning, a sealer + an epoxy + a polyurethane
coatings system should be considered.

Chapter 5

5.1 Background
5.2 Objective
5.3 Contaminants
5.4 Cleaning Processes
5.4.1 Abrasive blasting
Dry blasting
Wet blasting
5.4.2 Manual and Power Tool Cleaning
Chipping and needle gunning
Wire brushing
Disc sanding
Grinding tools
5.4.3 Water Jetting
5.5 Surface Preparation Standards
Surface cleanliness
Surface profile
5.6 Preparation of other Metals than Steel
5.6 Inspection and Painting of Steel Surfaces Prepared by Water Jetting


The protective value of a coating system is proportional to the cleanliness of
the surface of the substrate to which the coating system is applied. Experience
from practice has established that some 85% of all paint failures can be traced
back to insufficient surface preparation.
Tests made in connection with the establishment of Swedish Standard, SIS 05 59
00 (grading cleanliness of steel) clearly demonstrated the relationship between
surface cleanliness and coating life and also between surface profile and lifetime.
The conventional, oil and alkyd, systems lasted several times longer on a well
cleaned (Sa 3) surface, than on a superficially cleaned surface. For the
tougher, more
advanced but also more demanding, coatings of today, the difference in lifetime
would be even more pronounced.


The objective of surface preparation is to ensure adhesion of a paint film to a
substrate:, this being the necessary condition for a long lifetime.
The adhesion is ensured in two ways, by cleaning the surface and by
roughening the surface:
Surface cleanliness:
This involves the removal of any substance on the surface detrimental to the
performance of paints. The enemies of paint performance are especially mill
scale, rust, soluble salts, dust, oil and grease.
Surface profile:
This involves the creation of a profile, an "anchor pattern", of the
substrate,.suitable for the specific coating system to be applied.
This will enlarge the contact area between paint and substrate



Mill scale. Surface oxides (mainly iron oxides), mill scale, formed during the hot
rolling of steel, expands and contracts at a rate different to that of steel. It
cracks, breaks and flakes, damaging any coating applied over it. Also, since
it is more noble than steel, mill scale can give rise to galvanic corrosion of the

Rust. Rust is porous and mechanically weak, too weak to support a paint
coating. Due to its porosity, rust tends to attract moisture, and old rust
would always contain soluble salts (sulphates and chlorides). Paints applied
over rust will break down very quickly.

Salts. Since no paint coating is completely impermeable to water, soluble

salts if left to swell under the coating - will cause osmotic blistering, adhesion
failure and early corrosion.

Oil/grease. Most paint binders are repelled, rather than attracted by oil
and grease. Failure to remove such contaminants can consequently result
in poor adhesion and detachment. Even coatings attracted would fail,
due to poor cohesion in the oil and grease.

Dust. As opposed to oil and grease, most paints adhere well to dust, but in
doing so will lift the dust from the substrate. The result being detachment of
both dust and paint coating.

Old paint system. Several reasons will demand removal of the previous paint
system: lack of adhesion and/or cohesion, decision to change to another
generic type, not being compatible with the present.


Cleaning Processes
For cleaning of structural steel, mechanical cleaning methods like abrasive
blasting, hand or power tool cleaning are by far the most widely used.
Mechanical cleaning methods, however, do not remove oil, grease and salts.
cleaning processes must therefore take place in the following succession:

Degreasing. Oil and grease are most effectively removed by the use of an
emulsifier (possibly preceded by scraping and solvent wash). Hot water
steam cleaning and/or scrubbing enhances the effect of emulsifiers. The
emulsified contaminants are removed by high pressure (75-150 bar/1,1002,200 psi) hosing with fresh, clean water.
Degreasing with rags soaked in solvent or thinner, tends to redistribute rather
than remove oil and grease.

Desalting. The degreasing method recommended above will also

effectively remove soluble salt.
Where degreasing is not required, soluble salts are removed by plenty of
fresh, clean water either applied at high pressure or if applied at low
pressure supported by vigorous scrubbing.
For the removal of salts from corroded, badly pitted steel, water jetting is
probably the most effective method.

Removal of rust, mill scale and old paint. When larger constructions are
considered, rust and mill scale are usually removed by mechanical
means. Fastest and most effectively by abrasive blasting.
The degree of surface cleanliness required, is determined by the generic type
of paint to be applied, the aggressiveness of the environment and the
projected service life/maintenance cycle of the structure.
The choice of mechanical cleaning method is usually dictated by factors such as:
condition of substrate, degree of completion of structure, area sizes, accessibility,
availability of equipment and operators etc. The different methods are
described in 5.4.1 below.

Dust is most often removed by clean (without oil and water) high pressure
air, but the best method is vacuum-cleaning.

5.4.1 Abrasive blasting

All blast cleaning methods have in common that an abrading material is
propelled, at high velocity, onto the surface to be cleaned. The following
names and comments upon the most commonly employed blast
cleaning methods.

Dry blasting
Automatic plants are usually based on a number of
centrifugal wheels, throwing the abrasive onto the work
pieces, which are placed on a moving conveyor.
Production rates are high; humidity and
temperature can be easily controlled, and the
dust problem contained. Automatic blasting
plants are usually coupled to facilties for
(shopprimer plants).
However, automatic plants lack flexibility, and
both investment and maintenance costs are high.

Open nozzle dry abrasive blasting uses compressed air as a

propellant for the abrasive. Next to centrifugal blasting, this is the
overall fastest and most effective method for removing rust and
mill scale.

The equipment is mobile, and the method is simple,

flexible and easy to operate.

Efficiency is low, compared to centrifugal blasting, and the risk of

moisture entrapment from the compressed air is always present.
The dust created by open nozzle dry abrasive blasting often creates
serious problems. And, since the equipment is manually operated,
great variations in both quality and rate of work can result.
Vacuum blasting is a method by which the used abrasive and dust
are immediately removed by suction.
The method causes none or only minor dust problems, but is
exceedingly slow.

Wet blasting
The many methods, and variations of methods, referred to as "wet
blasting" may be conveniently divided into four broad categories:
Wet abrasive blasting (the "original" or traditional method)
where water is added (pressure 5-50 bar/73-725 psi, amount 0.510 l/min.) at the nozzle, to a stream of air propelled abrasive
(pressure at nozzle as for open nozzle dry abrasive blasting, 6-7
bar/90-100 psi).

A fairly high rate of work can be achieved, the dust problem is

reduced and soluble salts may be removed. However, the
operator has one additional hose to handle, and sludge left on the
work piece has to be washed off after blasting.
Slurry blasting. Small amounts of water, introduced at a control
unit upstream from the nozzle, produces a slurry which is
propelled by compressed air (nozzle pressure around 6 bar/8590 psi).
A high rate of work, comparable to open nozzle dry abrasive
blasting, reduced dust and the possibility of operating several
nozzles from the same unit, are characteristics of slurry blasting.
Costs, however, are higher than for traditional wet blasting; an
additional operator is required and sludge clean-up may present

Water blasting utilises water, at pressures ranging from 200 to 700

bar (3,000 to 10,000 psi), as the propellant for the abrasive,
which is usually suction fed into the stream of water.
The method cleans out soluble salts effectively, gives no dust
problem and consumes less abrasive than the previously
mentioned methods; but the rate of work is somewhat lower, the
sludge clean-up problem still present and, at the higher pressures,
rather fatiguing for the operator.
Note: All wet blasting methods contain a tendency to cause flash
rust. This can be delayed by using inhibitors (see below).
Flash rust is acceptable to some paint types when it is firmly
adhering to the substrate.

Inhibitors are water soluble chemicals retarding corrosion by
passivation of the steel surface; added to the water in wet blasting,
they may delay flash rusting for hours.
When drying, inhibitors tend to form crystalline materials which, if
not removed, may cause osmotic blistering. As a rule, inhibitors
should not be used in areas that are to be immersed for any length
of time.

The abrasive giving the required profile and the greatest
efficiency should be chosen; these factors are determined mainly

particle size/size distribution

breakdown characteristics,

Size. A large size abrasive will cut deeper but clean slower than a
small or fine abrasive, when comparing same amount of abrasive.
Using too fine abrasive, however, will result in the desired anchor
pattern not being achieved. Grain sizes in the range 0.2-1.8 mm are
considered the most advantageous for cleaning of structural steel.
Hardness. Abrasive hardness influences both surface roughness
and the rate of work. Hard abrasives cut deeper and faster than
soft or brittle ones. The abrasive used must, obviously, be harder
than the work piece.

Breakdown characteristics. The manner in which abrasive

particles scatter, and change their shape on impact, may be of little
consequence in open nozzle, field blasting.
In automatic plants, and shops where the abrasive is recycled, it
should have a breakdown rate lowest possible , to be effective. A high
rate of breakdown causes dust, requires extra cleaning of the
surface and reduces the number of times the abrasive can be
Shape. The shape of abrasive particles determine the roughness
Grit is angular, sharp edged, and provides an angular surface
profile which is preferred for most paints Shot is round, nearspherical, and gives a dimpled surface profile; it is particularly
effective on brittle deposits (mill scale and heavy rustscale).
Angular profile - by use of grit

Dimpled profile - by use of shot

Types of abrasives. The most commonly used abrasives are:

Metallic abrasives

Steel (shot and grit), is efficient, hard and dust free. It is

costly, and therefore recycled several times. Care must be
taken in storage to prevent rusting.

Non-metallic abrasives

Garnet is a natural abrasive. It is efficient, hard and virtually

dust free.. It is high in cost, but recycling is possible.

Slag abrasives, copper slag, nickel slag, etc. are byproducts of the ore and power industries. They are fast
cutting but have a relatively high breakdown rate, and
are not normally recycled.

Synthetic abrasives, such as aluminium oxide

(corundum) and silicone carbide,. They are very hard,
low dusting and fast cutting; but also costly, and therefore
usually recycled..


Manual and Power Tool Cleaning

Cleaning by traditional manual and power tool methods is always
labour intensive, and often ineffective. Such methods may be used in
maintenance work or for preparation of steel in non-aggressive


Wire brushing, whether by hand brushes or powered, rotary

brushes, do not remove mill scale, weld spatter, rust scale. They
may remove loosely adhering rust and other physical
contaminants but the surface will typically be left more or less
polished. Wire brushing is often preceded by scraping or
Disc sanding is more effective than wire brushing, and
particularly suited for the feathering of edges and roughening old
coating in maintenance work, but has little effect in corners.
Grinding tools, fitted with correctly shaped heads, are effective
for rounding edges, cleaning pits, smoothing rough welds and
removing weld spatter, burrs or other protuberances.
Chipping and Needle gunning may prove useful for the loosening
or removal of heavy rust scale, but great care should be exercised
in the use of these tools, as they tend to hammer contaminants
into the substrate, make indentations and raise burrs which may
be difficult to cover adequately.

Water jetting
Water jetting is a process by which water at a pressure higher than
700 bar (10,000 psi) is forced through a nozzle with the purpose of
cleaning a surface of old coating and rust.
The typical employed pressure is around 2,500 bar.
Rust and old coating are removed at approximately the same rate as
by abrasive blasting, and salts are removed very effectively, all
without creating any dust.
All operations needed during repair (removal of rust and old coating,
feathering of edges and possibly roughening of surrounding intact
coating) can be done by changing the distance between nozzle and
These characteristics make water jetting an attractive alternative to
the other surface preparation methods for repair and maintenance,
because no dust is created.
Two immediate limitations are, that no roughness is created and that
the surface will flash rust:
In most cases, however, these limitations can be overcome by a
suitable choice of coating and by proper planning of the job.


Surface Preparation Standards

Various surface preparation standards exist, but we will her mainly confine
ourselves to the international ISO standards.


Abrasive blasting
ISO 8501-1 defines descriptively and by photos, four
preparation grades for abrasive blasting, Sa 1, Sa 2, Sa2 and Sa3,
correlated to four initial rust grades A, B, C and D.
Surface profile
ISO 8503 defines descriptively and by reference to a comparator
three roughness levels, fine, medium and coarse, correlated to
respectively a grit and a shot blasted surface.
A roughness comparator is a small plate exhibiting definite peak to
valley depth, shape and density of peaks. Comparison is both visual
and by touch.
Flash rust for wet abrasive methods
Please see 5.5.3


Hand and power tool cleaning

ISO 8501-1 defines descriptively and by photos, two
preparation grades for hand and power tool cleaning, St 2 and St 3,
correlated to three initial rust grades B, C and D


Water jetting
ISO 8501-4 defines descriptively and by photos three
preparation grades, Wa 1, Wa 2 and Wa 2, for water jetting
correlated to five initial conditions DC A, DC B, DC C, DC I and DC
Flash rust
ISO 8501-4 defines descriptively and by photos three flash rust
degrees, Light, Medium and Heavy.

5. 6

Preparation of other Metals than Steel

Preparing metal surfaces, other than steel, for painting, calls for special or
additional considerations.

Aluminium. Anodised aluminium will not accept paint. The anodising must
be removed completely by abrasive blasting with non-metallic abrasive before
paint can successfully be applied.

Cast aluminium must be blasted, with a non-metallic abrasive, to a uniform,

evenly grey appearance, and a surface roughness of Medium, grit (ISO 8503).
Rolled and extruded aluminium requires degreasing (as previously described),
followed by a thin, 5-10 m, coat of wash primer for less severe service
conditions. Sand papering or light blasting with a fine abrasive, may be
required if exposure is severe.

Hot-dipped galvanizing. Degreasing and removal of sags, runs and zinc ashes
embedded in the galvanizing can, for more than mild service conditions, be
followed by sanding or abrasive blast sweeping with fine non-metallic
abrasive. This is the only acceptable method where epoxy systems are to be
Coatings of chromate or oil sometimes applied to hot-dipped galvanized work
pieces, to prevent formation of white rust must be removed before any further

Stainless Steel. To ensure the adhesion of paint to stainless steel, thorough

degreasing (as previously described) must be followed by light abrasive sweeping
using non-metallic abrasives to give a dense, uniform profile. After abrasive
sweep and dedusting, an epoxy primer is applied.

Chapter 6

6.1 Planning
6.2 Working conditions
6.3 Microclimate

Temperature of substrate
Dew point
Ambient temperature
Relative humidity
Temperature of paint

6.4 Application methods

Air spray
Airless spray
Air-mix spray
Electrostatic spray
Pluri-component spray

6.5 Workmanship

A good result of paint application depends on 5 factors:

Proper planning
Proper working conditions
Favourable microclimate
Correct choice of application method
Operator skill


Based on the painting specification, a time schedule reflecting the progress
of surface preparation and paint application should be established.
In the schedule, adequate allowance must be made for the erection and moving of
scaffolding and the time required for rigging, moving and maintaining lighting
and possibly ventilation equipment. Drying, curing and recoating intervals,
pot life of mixed two-pack products should be considered in the schedule.
Anticipated temperatures and weather conditions must be considered.
It should be considered whether possible construction or cleaning work may
delay the application of paint or cause damage to, or contamination of, the
painted surface. Rate of work calculations should be based on past experience,
with similar painting crew on similar construction and under similar conditions.

6.2 Working conditions

All areas to be painted should be easily accessible and adequate working
light provided. Adequate working light has an intensity of 500-1,000 lux
corresponding to the light intensity required for reading ordinary newsprint.
Under closed or confined working conditions, ample ventilation must be
provided, both for safety generally (eg risk of explosion), and to ensure drying of
the paint. Retarded drying will result in solvent entrapment, which impairs the
anticorrosive properties and the mechanical strength of the coating. Inadequate
ventilation will also result in prolonged drying and increased recoating intervals.


By microclimate is understood the climatic conditions in that small, well defined
area, where paint gets in contact with the surface of the substrate.

Temperature of substrate. To avoid condensation and subsequent

detachment, the surface temperature must be above the dew point (minimum
3C/5F). At temperatures in the region of 0C or below ice may form on the

Dew point. The dew point is the temperature at which the humidity in the air
will condense, and settle as moisture on the substrate.

Ambient temperature. Chemically curing paints and dispersions have

specific requirements to temperature, allowing the paint to dry and/or cure.
Minimum application temperature will vary depending on generic type of


Relative humidity. With very few exceptions, paints perform best when
applied below 85% relative humidity (RH), and some paints, e.g. many
polyurethane paints, require even lower relative humidity during
application and curing if they are to perform as designed. For water-borne
paints a RH higher than 65-70% will affect the drying and thereby the

Temperature of paint. The paint as delivered from the manufacturer is

designed to be spray-able at a temperature around 200C / 680F, and it is
advisable not to expose the paint to temperatures neither very much higher
nor lower than this.
For two-pack products, the pot life is determined by the temperature of the
paint, not the air.
It should also be borne in mind that two-pack products after mixing may
develop quite some heat, especially pronounced for solvent-free products.

Application Methods
Choice of application method will influence not only the rate, but also the quality
of paint work. Major advantages and limitations of the most commonly employed
application methods are given in the following:

Advantages. The brush is a versatile, low cost tool; old fashioned, perhaps,
but still often the most suitable for painting complex objects, such as
lattice structures, pylons, rods, small diameter piping, etc.
Brush application tends to displace dust, and to some
extent even moisture, from the surface; this makes
brush application particularly well suited for
application of first coat of primer.
For rough or pitted surfaces, the penetration offered
by brush application, when done correctly, is not
surpassed by any other application method.

Limitations. The greatest limitation to brush application is that the method

is slow and therefore labour intensive.
Not all paint types are suited to be applied by brush; high builds (paints
applicable in 80 micron/3,2mils dry film thickness and more in one coat)
being particularly unsuited.
Brush application generally requires much greater skill of the
operator than any other application method.

Advantages. Low cost tool, mobility and independence of a power source,
are advantages that the paint roller has in common with the brush.
Roller application is particularly advantageous on
broad, even surfaces and on wire netting.
Limitations. Regardless of operator skill, roller
application leaves a thin, uneven film, often with misses
and pinholes; for this reason, and because penetration is
very poor, the roller should never be considered for
application of the first coat of primer.
Thick coats are particularly difficult to obtain, and roller application is
therefore not a method that can be recommended for high builds.

Air spray

All spray application systems are based on the paint

being atomised (broken up into minute droplets) and
then deposited on the work piece.
In air spray, compressed air at about 3 bar/45 psi is
used for atomisation of the liquid paint. The result is a very
fine, almost mist-like, atomisation.

Advantages: The low pressure and mist-like atomisation of air spray enables
the skilled operator to achieve superior finishes; painting of motor cars,
furniture, refrigerators, etc. are examples of this.
From a protective coatings point of view, the air spray is of limited use.
Limitations: Limitations stemming from the fine atomisation and low
pressure are risk of overspray and dry spray, much paint fog and, often,
loss of material. Low pressure, combined with the emission of a large volume
of air, also results in poor penetration..

Airless spray.
In airless spray atomisation is achieved through the sudden
release from high pressure, as the liquid is forced through
a narrow orifice.
The high pressure is afforded by a hydraulic pump,
usually driven by compressed air, but air has no part in
the atomisation of the liquid.

Advantages: Major characteristics of airless spray are a very high rate of

work and the ability to successfully apply high-build paints.

Airless spray offers good penetration and is well suited for application of
the first coat of primer provided the output pressure and the distance
between nozzle and work piece are correct (30-40 cm/12-16 in).
Limitations: Airless spray does introduce a certain element of hazard,
due to the very high operating pressures which, at the nozzle, may be as high
as 300 bar/4,500 psi.
Because of the high pressure, operators are often tempted to spray at
excessive distances (sometimes several metres/yards from the work piece).
This causes overspray and/or dry spray with subsequent loss of material,
thin films and poor film formation; the end result being reduced protection.

Air-mix spray.
The desire to combine the high quality finish of air spray with the high
output of airless spray has led to the air-mix spray.
In principle, air-mix spray is an airless using compressed air to assist the
atomisation at the nozzle.
The penetration and the rate of work are better than for air spray, and the
finish almost as good. Compared to airless spray, the method is slower and
the equipment more complex.

Electrostatic spray.
Electrostatic spray is based on the law that particles of opposite polarity
attract one another. The work piece may be positively charged (earthed), and the
paint particles negatively charged through the gun, being connected to a
The electrical charge to the paint
particles may be applied by either
of two processes:
The paint is electrically atomised and
charged as it leaves the edge of a
spinning bell or disc.
The electrical charge is applied to
paint particles already atomised.

Advantages: Overspray, and consequent loss of paint, is greatly

reduced. Very even and exact film thicknesses can be achieved; outside
corners and edges receive full film thickness and, because of a "wrap around"
effect, the risk of misses and holidays is greatly reduced.

Limitations: Inside corners and recesses cannot, because of the Faraday

shielding effect, be adequately coated. The equipment is rather expensive.
Not all paints can be applied electrostatically and, to obtain optimum results,
paints often have to be specially formulated for this application method.
Electrostatic spray is especially suited for shop application, and furthermore
only for relatively small objects.

Plural-component spray.
The introduction of modern high performance coatings of two, or more,
components, high viscous with no or little solvent, and with a short pot
life of only minutes, has necessitated the development of plural-component
spray systems.
The components, two or more, are either mixed immediately upstream from
the gun, in the gun itself or, indeed, immediately in front of the gun nozzle.

Metering of the components, which because of high viscosity often have to

be preheated, is ideally by individual piston pumps driven by the same
hydraulic (air) motor.
For some high duty coatings, this is the only application method feasible. But
cost of equipment is high, and operators need to be skilled and experienced
in its use and maintenance. Depending on how the components are
formulated, it may be difficult to check, whether the paint has been mixed
in the correct proportion, when leaving the nozzle.


Knowledge about the application equipment, how to maintain it and how to use
it are characteristics of good workmanship, which is of utmost importance to get
a well adhering, sound paint film in the specified thickness.
Fan width shall be appropriate for the work piece and its configuration.
Narrow fan for narrow areas and wide fans for extended areas. Overspray,
dryspray and an unnecessary uneven film, may otherwise result.
The tip orifice size shall be chosen with regard to the specified DFT, the
complexity of the area to be painted and by consulting the product data sheet.
In an area where a wide fan width is suitable will call for a bigger orifice to achieve
the DFT.
The atomising pressure shall ensure a continuous fan with straight sharp
edges and with minimum paint mist some 30-40 cm/1-1.3 ft from the nozzle
Filters, on both pump and gun, shall be clean and intact, to avoid stoppages
and loss of time.
The spraying distance between substrate and gun tip shall be about 30 cm/1
ft with an allowance of 30%. This is what the spray guns are designed for to
ensure optimum penetration and freedom from dry spray.

paint not landing on the substrate

paint droplets just wet enough to adhere,
but too dry to flow

The gun should be held perpendicular to the substrate at all times, also at the
end of each gun pass.

To ensure an even and uniform thickness, spray passes should be laid at an

even speed, each pass overlapping the preceding pass by 50%, and the trigger
released at the end of each pass.
If an adequate (specified) film thickness is to be achieved, without going too far
above target, constant monitoring is called for. The wet film thickness should be
monitored frequently during application. This is normally done by the operator
by use of a wet film gauge (made of steel) which can be read easily.
Where very high and uniform film thicknesses are required, cross
spraying should be employed.

Chapter 7

7.1 Product data sheets

The product data sheets issued by paint manufacturers will ideally contain all the
information required by both specifier and user to obtain the full potential of the individual
For certain advanced products, typically zinc silicates, some tank coatings, etc., the product
data sheet would be accompanied by special application instructions.
It would be wrong, as some do, to regard the product data sheet as advertising. It is not! It
contains information vital to the user, the specifier, the applicator, and the paint coatings
Since most data sheets are designed to contain a maximum of technical data in a minimum of
space, some data may of necessity be brief and could be misinterpreted unless the manufacturer's Guide to Product Data Sheets is consulted.
Explanatory notes to the HEMPEL product data sheets can be found on
The format and content may differ from manufacturer to manufacturer but a great majority of
technical information are discussed which are deemed of relevance to the end user.

Chapter 8

8.1 Selection of Coatings System
8.1.1 Primary Requirements
8.1.2 Secondary Requirements
8.1.3 Feasibility
8.2 Inspection and Documentation
8.3 Cost
8.4 Allocation of Responsibilities
8.5 The Working Specification
8.6 ISO 12944 : Corrosion Protection of Steel Structures
by Protective Paint Systems

A specification is a document defining the required outcome of a given job, and defining
what shall be done to achieve the outcome.
The specification thereby defines the required quality.
To make the specification more precise and thereby to avoid meaningless discussions, and
to allow for a realistic estimate of the duration of the job and thereby the cost, the
specification must also define the required procedures, often with reference to a standard.
A procedure is a detailed description of how work processes and tests defined in the
specification shall be carried out

Contract specification

The specification, incl. procedures, defining what contractor

and owner has agreed on, both technically and legally.
It is thereby also the basis for the agreed price.

Project specification

A part of the contract specification, detailing what is required

of subcontractor and supplier for a given part of the total job.
The project specification will typically be generic, meaning that
the materials are defined according to performance, but not by
brand names.

The general part of the contract specification, of interest and importance for all parts of the
total job, and
the project specification, are sent to a limited number of suppliers for their branded match
and pricing.

Quotation specification

The suppliers branded match to the project specification,

inclusive the suppliers price.
It must be a 1:1 match, as owner and contractor otherwise have
no chance to compare quotations from different suppliers. The
supplier may, however, attach comments as necessary.

For a paint job, we distinguish between a Paint system specification and a Painting
specification, also called a Working specification.
A paint system specification specifies:
(a) the project, the area,
(b) brands and colour of primer, midcoat(s) and topcoat(s),
(c) minimum, maximum and specified DFTs,
(d) specified WFTs,
(e)minimum and maximum overcoating intervals and
(f) application method, pressure and nozzle sizes.
A painting specification, same as a working specification is a paint system specification
plus procedures for surface preparation and application, plus recommended conditions
during surface preparation, application and drying.
Virtually all specifications for new constructions made by owner and contractor are wellproven specifications.
Most of the specifications made by the paint supplier are made as an answer to a project
specification. Due to the nature of the project specification, this may seem a straight
forward thing to do, but that is far from being true.
The inherent constraints in the project specification are not always compatible with the
required performance, and it does as a minimum require a very detailed knowledge about
advantages and limitations of the products in the product range.
For those making specifications, ISO 12944-1 to -8 is a must read:
Part -1 to -4 give the necessary background knowledge.
Part -5 lists possible generic systems inclusive DFTs and the expected lifetime of the
systems in various service environments.
Part -6 specifies laboratory testing and the required results for systems in various
service environments. This part is only of occasional use.
Part -7 deals with inspection and execution of work.
Part -8 gives recommendations on what to include in a specification, and checklists
on what to consider.
In some cases an owner (or a contractor) may, due to production facilities or for other
reasons, need a specification made from scratch, and this will typically be done in close
cooperation with a paint supplier.
Some help may be found in ISO 12944, but generally it will require a thorough analysis of
all the specific needs and requirements to make a suitable selection of the system.
The steps in such an analysis is sketched in the following:

8. 1

Selection of Coatings System

The first step in compiling a painting specification is the selection of a suitable coating
system. Easier said than done; and in fact more a question of elimination than of
If we include blends and modifications, the paint specifier has today more than 200
different coatings to choose from. In a three-coat system this would give some 8 million
possible permutations!
To arrive at the optimum coatings system for a given structure, a three-step analytical
study is recommended.
First, analyse Primary Requirements
Analyse the structure, location by location; what should each location be
protected against? What must the coating system be resistant to? And what
is the anticipated or desired lifetime?
Answers to these questions would lead, not only to one or more generic types
of coatings, but also to approximate total film thickness and surface
preparation requirements.
Next, analyse Secondary Requirements or wishes (eg colour, gloss, ease
of cleaning etc.) An analysis of these, perhaps less important demands or
wishes, would further limit the choice of suitable generic types.
Finally, study the Feasibility of successfully applying the coating or coatings
left, under the anticipated conditions, and within the allocated budget.
Not an easy task; it takes time and requires knowledge, experience and analytical
skills, but is imperative for optimum return on investment.
The following lists some of the more crucial points to be considered by the paint specifier.
8.1.1 Primary Requirements

What are the protection requirements of the various parts of the
structure? Some of the major protection requirements to keep in
mind are:
Corrosion prevention
Prevention of the settlement of fouling organisms
Protection of commodities against contamination
Prevention of the general deterioration of construction materials other than
steel (eg concrete)

The exposure of the various locations on the structure must be considered:



sea water (incl. polluted)

brackish water

fresh water


Temperature (eg welding)
UV light (weather)
Industrial atmosphere

Anticipated life of structure

This, from a paint point of view, is the expected (or practically possible) time from
completion to first major maintenance operation.

The initial condition of the steel should be known, and the following taken
into consideration:

Rust grades (in relation to surface preparation, coatings system

and environment)
Defects in the steel (inclusion, laminations, etc.)
The possible need for dressing/treating rough or sharp edges, welds,
weld spatter, arc strikes, weld smoke, etc.

Also for concrete the initial condition of the substrate should be known and
the following taken into consideration:

State of curing
Cracks and holes to be repaired with mortar or filler

Mechanical strength of the concrete

Contamination of the surface and possible migration, eg of oil, into
the concrete

Protrusions and form joints

Location of reinforcement bars
Moisture, eg from soil absorbed through capillary action

For surfaces previously coated, compatibility with the chosen protective system
must be taken into consideration.

Surface Preparation
A good painting specification prescribes the methods for removal of
contaminants such as salts (always present on rusty steel) and oil or grease.
Before prescribing mechanical cleaning, the specifier should focus on:

Abrasive blasting methods

Abrasives (possible limitations to type or size)
Cleanness and surface profile
Possible use of manual or power tools
The possible need for employing bronze tools
Degrees of cleanness obtainable by the use of hand/power tools
Limitations due to burrs, indentations or burnishing
Methods of removing dust and detritus, from both substrate and the
location generally

For concrete structures, surface preparation serves as much to create a surface,

firm enough to support the chosen coatings system, as it does to clean the
substrate. The specifier should focus on:

Degreasing method
Flame volatilising
Blast cleaning methods, both wet and dry
Acidic etching
High pressure water jetting
Power tool cleaning
Possible repair of reinforcement bars
Possible repair of cracks or filling of holes occurring as a result of
surface preparation
Methods for the removal of dust, etc.

Based on these considerations, the outcome should be selection of generic

type/types, allocated surface preparation and film thickness.

8.1.2 Secondary Requirements

The choice of coatings if there is any choice left at all at this stage can be further
limited when considering the additional requirements dictated by the very
function of the structure; these could be:

Light or heat reflection

Anti-skid properties
Fire proofing
Non-toxic and/or odourless
Safety colours
Gloss and gloss retention
Colour and colour retention
Ease of cleaning and decontamination
Ease and frequency of maintenance

8.1.3 Feasibility
The paint specifier possessing adequate knowledge of paint technology and a
reasonable amount of practical experience, will now have chosen (for each major
area or location on the structure) the best possible coating system.
This is not as far too many would believe the end of the painting specification. Now
comes the hard and tedious work of determining whether the chosen coatings
systems can be applied and applied correctly.
Logistics. Are the coatings chosen available at all?

Distance from supplier to end user

Means of transportation and supply reliability
Storage, both space and conditions

Environmental constraints.
Allowance may have to be made for:
Safety, health and environment (eg special local legislation)
Anticipated climatic conditions during work, anticipate the effect on:

Pot life of two-pack products

Dying and curing time
Recoating intervals
Application characteristics

Handling. The handling, transport, storage and erection of parts or

preassembled modules of a structure, should cause the specifier to contemplate:

Repair and touch-up of possible transport damage

Shop painting versus site painting
Temporary protection during erection

Working conditions. Due considerations must be given to the possible need for:

Working light
Forced ventilation

Application. Consider:


Equipment to be used for the application of each individual coat

Application conditions (ie possible temperature, humidity or
Intercoat cleanness
Possible need for stripe coating

Joints. Some joints, e.g. friction bolted joints, may require special treatment, and
allowance should be made for this.

Time. How much time is available for surface preparation and paint application?
To what degree can other "behind schedule" trades be expected to delay
painting? And can the job be done in the time available?

Workforce. For the specifying designer or engineer, there are many aspects of
both main and sub-contractors to be considered, for the painting contractor,
mainly these are:

Adequacy of workforce
(also to meet peak demands if work is behind schedule)
Adequacy of equipment
(sufficient in number, correct type, standard of maintenance)
Skill of workers
(ratio between skilled workers, laborers, foremen and supervisors)

8.2 Inspection and Documentation

The compromise coatings system that the specifier is left with, having applied all the
foregoing considerations, may require a greater or lesser degree of quality control.
Some of the important questions to be answered at this stage are:


Level of inspection required

Standards and references to be employed
Type and amount of documentation desired
Levels of authority
(owner/consultant/main contractor/ painting contractor/inspector/operative)

Cost must be seen in relation to the expected life of the structure, the amount and
frequency of maintenance, and the cost of possible downtime in connection with
maintenance painting.
Comparatively easily calculated are the costs of:

Cleaning (labour, equipment, blasting media, compressed air, etc.)

Painting (labour, equipment, paints, etc.)
Insurance and guarantee
Quality control/inspection
Erection and maintenance of painting shops or stations
Heating, ventilation, dehumidification
Staging and the possible protection of the environment
Administration and management

Less easily calculated are the costs of:

Dressing of defects, repair and touch up

Unexpected" costs to be aware of include:

Stoppages due to unfavourable weather

Delays caused by other trades
Faulty material or poor workmanship
Labour disputes


Allocation of Responsibilities

Responsibilities can now be allocated. They span from who is responsible for the
removal of spent abrasives, to who pays the telephone bill. From who provides the
heaters and who pays for fuelling the heaters, to who is responsible for checking paint
quantities and qualities.
Allocation of responsibilities is obviously a matter for the contract and not the painting
specification. But many of the critical, and costly, areas where responsibility must be
allocated can be pinpointed only by the author of the painting specification.


Finally: The Working Specification

A painting specification has a much wider readership than most other specifications;
it spans from the owner and his engineers over consultants, suppliers and main
contractors, to sub-contractors and their operatives.
The art of writing a working specification, ie a painting specification that is actually
workable, is to extract, from all the foregoing conclusions, that which is relevant for the
painting contractor and his operatives. Then to formulate it in clear, concise and
preferably brief terms.
The less paper a paint foreman is given to read, the greater the chance that he will
actually read it. A one-sheet painting specification is ideal. Much of what has
otherwise been considered, evaluated and desired upon in the foregoing, is really for
inclusion in the General Conditions of Contract.

Chapter 9


9.1 Levels of Inspection
9.2 Duties of the Inspector
9.2.1 Before surface preparation
9.2.2 During surface preparation
9.2.3 Before paint application
9.2.4 During paint application
9.2.5 After paint application
9.3 Inspection Equipment
9.4 Records, Reports and Documentation

Provided the painting specification is a good and workable one (see the foregoing chapter),
quality assurance is simply a question of ensuring that the specification is being followed.
The higher the demands to protection, the more advanced the coating system and painting
specification. This in turn increases the demands to the execution of the work and consequently
the degree of quality control/paint coating inspection.


Levels of Inspection
Hempel operates with three levels of inspection as follows:
(1) Premium. All operations observed by a coating inspector and passed as
complying with the specification before the next stage is started. (For larger
projects this may require a team of coating inspectors).
(2) Standard. Part of all operations observed by a coating inspector to ensure
compliance with the specification before the next stage is started.
(3) Basic. All operations observed initially by a coating inspector for setting
standards of workmanship. Ad hoc visits by a coating inspector thereafter.


Duties of the Inspector

The overall duty of the paint coating inspector is to ensure the working specification is
This involves:

To prevent errors and mistakes to occur, and to correct should they occur.
As a minimum on possible deviations and on the corrective advices given.

During all phases of the job relevant for the level of inspection agreed.
The multitude of tasks belonging to paint coating inspection may be conveniently
divided according to the progress of work. Seven distinct phases, some of them
recurrent, require the coating adviser's attention.
Ref.: Hempels Coating Reference Handbook.
9.2.1 Before surface preparation
Before the start of any surface preparation, it is important to examine

working conditions, such as lightening of and access to the

surface to be treated
initial condition of substrate,
steel: rustgrade and defects
concrete: state of curing, water content, laitabce and defects
contamination of surface, ie water, oil, grease, soluble salt, and
others which will not be removed by mechanical cleaning
equipment, availability
blasting media, size distribution, soluble salts and oil
adhesion of old coating system if present

Depending on the actual situation and the job to be done, several additional
checks may be relevant:

corrosion traps

It is also at this point, as early as possible, relevant to check if the paint and
thinner has been delivered in the right quality and the right amount, and
if it is all stored correctly. Also batch numbers shall be checked to ensure
the shelf life has not been exceeded.


During surface preparation

Checks to the extent possible are made on


equipment, working condition

cleanness of surface - possibly on a test area
surface profile ( roughness and profile) possibly on a test area

After surface preparation

This phase is where it is checked if cleanliness and surface profile is as


Before paint application

Main areas on which the coating inspector should focus on before any paint
is applied would be:

working conditions, - lighting, access and possibly ventilation

application equipment
dehumidification equipment
paint to be applied, - quality and quantity for the coat to be
handling of paint mixing, stirring, potlife
surface cleanliness

If the phase refers to a application of midcoat(s) or topcoat(s), the

overcoating interval of the previous coat must be observed not to be

During paint application

Checks to the extent possible are made on


wet film thickness


After paint application

After application, relevant checks are

dry film thickness

paint film defects - sags, pinholes, holidays, dry-spray
stripe coat


Final inspection
The previous three phases are repeated for each coat applied, and
After paint application for the last coat will therefore be identical
with Final inspection. It is, however, not in all jobs all the phases are
inspected as described above, but a final inspection is always done.
Relevant inspection points may be:

general condition
total DFT
adhesion test if required by specification
film defects
mechanical damages

Out standings are reported in a so-called punch-list.


Inspection Equipment
From the listing of the paint coating inspector's duties and main checkpoints, it should
be evident that his most vital equipment is his eyes and ears, his common sense and a
wide experience in paints and allied technologies.
Some checkpoints, however, demand a degree of accuracy not easily afforded by the
human senses, and electronic measuring instruments are called for. But not all the
tools of the inspection trade are that sophisticated.

An electric torch and an angled mirror with telescopic handle enable the
coating inspector to look into things in a thorough manner.

Standard to aid the assessment of surface preparation degree; f.ex. ISO 8501-1
or as dictated by the specification.

Comparators for determining surface roughness and roughness profile, f.ex. ISO
8503 or as dictated by the specification.

Tape for checking and documenting dust or other deposits, and for X- and #-cut

Bresle samplers, syringes, beakers, demineralized water and conductivity

meter for measuring salt on a surface.

Thermometers for reading temperatures of air, substrate and in some cases

paint .

Hygrometer or sling psychrometer, for measuring relative humidity.

Dew point calculator or table, for determining the dew point.

Wet film gauge of the comb type and made of steel, not plastic, for measuring
and monitoring wet film thicknesses.

Dry film thickness gauge, electronic type preferably equipped with

gauge heads for both ferrous and non-ferrous metallic substrates.

X- and #-cut template and thin bladed knife for adhesion testing

A sharp knife is a useful tool for opening blisters, evaluate adhesion/cohesion,


Flash light magnifier for closer examination of blast cleaned areas,

deteriorated coatings, etc.

Camera for recording and documentation purposes.

Small plastic bags and/or small glasses for gathering samples

(eg blasting media, paint samples or blister liquid).

Pad and pencil for making sketches and notes /

PC with a Reporting Tool installed.

Special Equipment
Special, less frequently used, inspection equipment worth mentioning, could be:

Pinhole detector, used when checking the dried/cured system for continuity (free
from pinholes, macro pores, misses and holidays). The high voltage types, up to
about 15 kV, reveal also inadequate overpeak protection.

Conductivity meter to indicate the degree of moisture in concrete.

Adhesion tester (Elcometer 108 or PAT) to check or assess


Hull Roughness Gauge (BMT-AHR) to determine the average hull roughness on

the underwater hull of ships.

This listing of standard and special inspection equipment does not claim to be absolute
or complete, but in the hands of a skilled and experienced paint coating inspector, the
equipment listed will assist in completing and documenting all vital checks.


Records, Reports and Documentation

All reporting shall be factual and written in a plain concise language. Records of film
thicknesse, temperatures, etc shall refer to actual readings on the structure.
Possible photos shall be chosen to give the reader the a correct impression. It is
advisable to to show some photos of the overall area, and as necessary supplemented
with a few close-ups of details.
All reporting, irrespective of type, shall be given to all relevant parties at the same time,
and at a frequency as agreed.
The degree of detail to be recorded and reported by the paint coating inspector,
depends on the level of inspection demanded by the painting specification and its
The documentation provided by the inspector is a historical record; it may be used for
insurance purposes, for the settling of disputes, and as a basis for future
specifications. Hence there are some minimum demands to the contents of such
Minimum. To be at all meaningful and useful, records should as an absolute
minimum contain the following information:

Identification of area (s) / location (s) inspected

Date and time
Weather/ambient/microclimatic conditions
Information on systems being applied
(brand, type, colour, extent and location)
Quality control checks carried out and their results
Compliance with or deviation from the painting specification
Advice and recommendations given (not least those to be confirmed by the
attending engineer/owners representative)

Full inspection. Where full inspection is warranted, it is customary also to record items
such as:

Condition of surface before preparation

Condition of surface after degreasing and desalting
Condition of surface after preparation/immediately prior to paint
Hours worked, down time, delays and their causes (progress of
Time between surface preparation and paint application
Actual recoating intervals
Standard of workmanship
Equipment and techniques used (includes working conditions, working light,
ventilation, scaffolding, dehumidification, etc.)
Reference to standards for all tests done.

Chapter 10


10.1 Evaluation of Existing Coatings System
10.2 Surface Preparation

Spot cleaning

10.3 Maintenance Systems

Other considerations

Most structures are designed for a life well beyond that of their protective coatings systems
and, sooner or later, the protective coating must be restored.
Operators of processing plants, rigs, ships and many other structures, are becoming
increasingly aware of the role of coatings maintenance in trouble-free operations of their
structures, and realise the advantages of providing preventive maintenance in advance of failure.
When. The maxim for economical maintenance of protective coatings is: "Do it before it is too
late", or to be a little more precise: Do it while the breakdowns are still local. When breakdowns
have spreaded to all-over repair is not a solution, a total refurbishment is called for.
The need for maintenance or repair may present itself through local:

Mechanical breakdown (e.g. due to corrosion)

Conspicuous defects in the paint film (such as flaking, rust spots, etc.)
Early discovery of paint film ageing (eg chalking or loss of opacity) at planned,
periodical inspections.

The economy of timely maintenance, as opposed to major repairs or complete recoating,

becomes very evident when considering what is involved.
What. Coating repair and maintenance necessitate some or all of the following operations:

Cleaning and degreasing of the surface

Removal of corrosion products and damaged coating in rectangular areas.
Feathering of edges
Possibly flatting down/roughening of intact coating
Removal of dust, salts and other impurities
Application of a suitable paint system to full and adequate film thickness

The amount of work involved is determined by the condition of the existing coatings system.

10.1 Evaluation of Existing Coatings System

Evaluation of existing coatings systems is normally subdivided into 4 groups:
Intact, basically sound coatings with only slight deterioration but no signs of

If recoating is desired (for reasons of appearance), cleaning and possibly

flatting down (roughening) of the surface should be followed by the application
of one or two finishing coats.


If recoating is not required; wash down only. This to remove soot, salts and
other corrosion promoting impurities.

Coatings showing noticeable signs of ageing (chalking or exposing previous

coat) but free from rust.
Cleaning, as described under a), above, and the application of one undercoat and one or
two finishing coats, will prolong the life of the protective coatings system considerably.

Coatings exhibiting blisters and/or pinhead rusting less than Ri 3 (ISO 4628-3).

If the paint film, apart from damaged areas, is otherwise sound and adequate;
spot clean broken down areas and touch up to full film thickness.


If the paint film is thin, inadequate; apply, after cleaning and touching up, one full
coat of undercoat and one or two finishing coats.

Coatings exhibiting rusting or other damages as Ri 3 or worse.

Remove all coating and corrosion products by suitable means, and apply a new

10.2 Surface Preparation

The method of surface preparation chosen for maintenance and repair, is
determined by location, area size and system to be applied.
In addition to what has already been said about surface preparation (chapter
5), special attention should be paid to the roughening (flatting down) of intact
coatings and the preparations for spot repair.

Roughening. When chemically curing paints have thoroughly cured and

aged, fresh paints cannot, as a rule, get a firm enough grip to secure adhesion; and
roughening of the old coating becomes necessary.
For smaller areas, flatting down with emery paper may suffice; in some cases hard
wire brushing may do the job. But for larger areas, abrasive sweep blasting (grit
sweep blasting) would probably prove the most economical method.
The belief that grit sweep blasting is abrasive blasting at five to eight times the
normal speed is wrong, and the method detrimental to the coating. Too large
particles, at too high velocity, hit the coating too hard and with too great a distance
between them. This results in deep pits - possibly through to the steel - and star
cracks impairing an otherwise adequate intercoat adhesion.

Grit sweep blasting, when done correctly, is not necessarily faster than blasting,
but it does save the application of a new, complete coatings system.
In grit sweep blasting, the nozzle is to the extent
possible held at a more oblique angle to the
work piece than in abrasive blasting. The most
important is, however, the use of a smaller
particle size (0.2-0.8 mm) and a pressure at the
nozzle reduced to about 4 bar/60 psi.
This all results in a dense but not very severe
impact of abrasives on the coating to be

Alternatively, water jetting will be a natural choice, as it can do all the

operations needed for local repairs.

Spot cleaning. Far too often problems occur at the border between existing
coating and spot repairs. The problems usually manifest themselves as either
premature rusting, or the lifting and curling of the paint film. Such problems are
avoided by:

Cleaning to bare metal, not just the visible corroded area, but also
adjacent area, where corrosion (underrusting), although not yet visible,
may have started.
This is best done by sanding, blasting or water jetting.

Feathering (tapering) the edges of intact coating and, if it is of the

chemically curing type, roughening of adjacent area.
This is best done by sanding (disc sanding), or water jetting.

10.3 Maintenance Systems

Repair and maintenance would, ideally, be with paints identical to those originally
applied. This may not always be practical or the existing system has proved
inadequate for its intended purpose and an alternative maintenance system is called

Compatibility. In addition to those listed in chapter 8, an important

consideration is that of compatibility. With the many types, and modification to
types, of paints on the market today, it is good advice to consult with the supplier
before a change in the maintenance specification is decided. However, some very
general rules can be suggested:

Physically drying paints should not be overcoated with paints of the

chemically curing type.

Chemically curing paints, with the exception of newly applied oil and
oleoresinous, can normally be overcoated with physically drying paints.

The solvent power of the paint being applied should as a rule be no

stronger than that used in the existing coating.

It is advisable to coAnduct a test on a small patch, to check both adhesion

and solvent action.

Other considerations. Primers chosen for touching up manually cleaned repair

areas should be well penetrating and, on non-immersed areas, of the inhibitor
type (see chapter 4). They should be applied by brush, and preferably in two
coats within the same working day.
Building up to full film thickness with undercoat, and the application of finishing
coat, can then be done by whatever method is convenient.
If at all possible, repair and maintenance should be rationalized to the degree that
one specification is valid for the entire structure or even plant. This is to prevent a
comparatively simple operation from becoming a nightmare of different
cleaning procedures, paint types, thinners, etc.