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As the world population is growing and demand of Green energy becomes more relevant as part
of the solution to the impending energy dilemma. Renewable energy is energy which comes
from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat. Rapid
development of green energy and technological diversification of energy sources, would result in
significant energy security and economic benefits. While many Renewable energy projects are
large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas, where energy is
often crucial in human development.
Solar energy, Wind Energy, Hydro Energy, Ocean Energy, Geothermal Energy, Biomass
Energy, Fuel Cell Energy, Waste to Energy(WtE) etc.
Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam said (Former President of India) in 2005 independence speech:
By the year 2030, India should achieve Energy Independence through solar power and
other forms of renewable energy
Assembly of photovoltaic cells are used to make solar modules which generate electrical power
from sun light. Multiple cells in an integrated group, all oriented in one plane,
constitute a solar photovoltaic panel or "solar photovoltaic module". The
electrical energy generated from solar modules, referred to as solar power, is an
example of solar energy. A group of connected solar modules (such as prior to
installation on a pole-mounted tracker system) is called an "array."


Solar cell phone chargers: a convenient way to keep your mobile phone
fully charged when you are away from an outlet or your vehicle.
Solar attic fans: an excellent way to help keep the space between your rooms and roof cool
and dry and also reduces summer-time cooling costs.
Solar fabrics: A unique application of solar technology where solar cells are woven into
textile fibers with the ability of generating convenient solar electricity.
Solar Paint: One of the Best Examples of Building Integrated Photovoltaics. That is a fancy
way of saying solar energy can be generated with building materials, including siding, roofing
and windows.
Building Integrated systems: solar cell arrays can form an attractive facing on buildings and
costs are equivalent to certain traditional facing materials such as marble with the advantage
of generating free electricity.



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Wind power generators convert wind energy (mechanical energy) to electrical energy. The
generator is attached at one end to the wind turbine, which provides the mechanical energy. At
the other end, the generator is connected to the electrical grid. The generator needs to have a
cooling system to make sure there is no overheating.
Wind pump: A windmill used for pumping water, either as a source of fresh water from
wells, or for draining low-lying areas of land.
Wind Harvester: High efficiency (good electricity output in low winds)
Windstalk: These are bladeless wind mills
Windspire: It has vertical axis turbines. The standard Height is 30-feet tall and 4-feet wide,
designed to come in under the typical 35-foot height restrictions of local municipalities and
will produce approximately 2000 kilowatt hours per year in 11 mph average wind.
Eco whisper turbines: known as quiet wind turbines. This sharp-looking little contraption
may only have a 20 kW generating capacity and it is more efficient.
The hydroelectric power plant, also called as dam or hydro power plant, is used for generation of
electricity from water on large scale basis. The dam is built across the large river that has
sufficient quantity of water throughout the river. The total power generation capacity of the
hydroelectric power plants depends on the head of water and volume of water flowing towards
the water turbine.
Some of the advantages are as follows:

The energy is virtually free.

No waste or pollution
Can cope with peaks in demand.
Can increase to full power very quickly, unlike other power stations.
Electricity can be generated constantly.
Electricity produced by dam systems do not produce greenhouse gases.

Some of the applications of Hydro Energy:

Hydro power is also utilized by large scale companies as a private use.
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Many large mining companies or Aluminium manufacturers use vast amounts of

electrical so can generate their own power by using hydro power generation.
The leftover water can be used for irrigation purpose.
Waste-to-energy or energy-from-waste is the process of generating energy in the form
of electricity and/or heat from the incineration of waste. WtE is a form of energy recovery. Most
WtE processes produce electricity and/or heat directly through combustion, or produce a
combustible fuel commodity, such as methane, methanol, ethanol or synthetic fuels.
Incineration, the combustion of organic material such as waste with energy recovery, is the most
common WtE implementation. All new WtE plants in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries incinerating waste must meet strict emission standards,
including those on nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), heavy metals and dioxins.
WtE Technology Other Than Incineration:
There are a number of other new and emerging technologies that are able to produce energy from
waste and other fuels without direct combustion. Many of these technologies have the potential
to produce more electric power from the same amount of fuel than would be possible by direct
combustion. Some are able to efficiently convert the energy into liquid or gaseous fuels:
Thermal Technology:
1. Gasification (produces combustible gas, hydrogen, synthetic fuels)
2. Thermal de polymerization (produces synthetic crude oil, which can be further refined)
3. Plasma gasification process (PGP) (produces rich syngas including hydrogen and carbon
monoxide usable for fuel cells or generating electricity to drive the plasma arch, usable
vitrified silicate and metal ingots, salt and sulphur)
Non-thermal technologies:
1. Anaerobic digestion (Biogas rich in methane)
2. Fermentation production (examples are ethanol, lactic acid, hydrogen)
3. Mechanical biological treatment (MBT)

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There are lots of other renewable energy sources available which can be commercialized and
very soon will be available for users in different new technologies.

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