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2013

A PROPOSAL ON SOLIDWASTE
MANAGEMENT IN BHAKTAPUR

Submitted to: Iswarman Amatya


Prepared by : Bala Ram Prajapati
20-Dec-2013

Background
Formal system of solid waste management was established rather recently in Nepal. Kathmandu
valley how ever had a long history of a unique solid waste management system. The main
inhabitants of Kathmandu valley is a newar community. The compact form of newar settlement
of Kathmandu valley demanded waste management system long time back. saa gaa is the
common back yard of one or more family where kitchen waste is thrown. nau gaa is pit in
dark ground floor where ash from kitchen is poured. Family members urinate on these pits
making it more useful product for agriculture fields. These organic waste turns into compost in
five to six months. Once or twice a year the waste is brought back to the field as manure.
Festivals like pasacharhe, chhyla punhi and sithi nakha are related to waste management in
newar settlement.
In1917 rana minister chandra shamsher established safai adda to take care of the litters of
Kathmandu city. No formal such system was recorded in rest of cities. After 1950 Kathmandu
municipality was established. The major responsibility given to municipality was to keep city
clean. In 1980 HMGN initiated a first solid waste management project in Kathmandu valley with
the support of gtz.

Introduction
In Nepal, with elapse of time urbanization is increasing at an alarming rate. It is putting immense
pressure on municipal services. One of the problems of the urbanization and increasing
consumerism is the increased generation of waste.
wast This waste is not being adequately managed
and is therefore creating a serious health and environmental hazard, particularly in the slum
areas, where the residents have less capacity to pay for better services and are often ignored by
the official agencies.
ies. Poor urban settlements are more affected because of indiscriminate
dumping and the lack of open space.
Bhaktapur municipality a historic town spreads over an area of 6.88 sq km. it is popular tourist
destination located 12 km east from capital city Kathmandu. It is divided into 17 administrative
wards. The projected population of this municipality for the year 2044 AD
urban population growth rate being 1.7% and the population density will be
Many historic places are located in this municipality some of which are also listed in the world
heritage by UNESCO.

Statement of problem
According to the data supplied by Mr. Dillip suwal the average waste generation rate in
Bhaktapur is 0.3 kg per person per day. Considering the total population in
generated in the municipality comes out to be 43 tons per day. The waste generation is high in
morning time. Similarly, the waste generation is more during festivals such as Dashain, Tihar,
Ghantakarna, Gaijatra,
a, Chhyaala punhi and harvest period.
The composition of comingled household waste is 70.73 percent organic, 7.02 percent plastic,
3.5 percent paper, 3.2 percent textile, 2.26 percent glass, 0.42 percent metal, 0.2 percent wood,
0.19 percent bone, 0.29 percent rubber, 0.17 percent fensi, 10.73 percent
material
aterial and 1.29 percent other.

1%
2%
3%
5%
7%

The waste generated from industries and hospitals are approx 5 tons per day but municipality is
not collecting these special wastes although they are more hazardous than other household waste.
For long time BKM is spreading waste here and there such as sometimes at hanumante river,
sallaghari, libali, ithuli, bhelukhel etc due to lack of permanent final disposal field. Now BKM is
disposing waste at aalabu temporarily. After aalabu BKM has to search the next one. The
Nepals largest compost plant at Bhelukhel is now in closed condition due to public offense.
It is impossible to manage the projected 43 tons of waste generated per day, with current system
of disposal. So BKM needs a sustainable solid waste management system with resource recovery
facility.

Present waste collection system and resource mobilization


After the implementation of the solid waste management (SWM) program, BKM has been
working systematically towards effective street sweeping, collection and transporting of waste.
The services that are provided are the same in all wards, whether provided by the municipality or
by a contractor. Every day waste is collected and the streets are swept according to definite
schedules, at 6.00 a.m., 12.00 noons and 4.00 p.m. However, in tourist areas, street sweeping and
waste collections are scheduled at four times each day 6.00 a.m., 12.00 noon, 4.00 p.m. and
6.00 p.m.
Staff management and the monitoring of street sweeping and waste collection are very effective
because municipality staff work in the area where they live. Every ward has a waste inspector
who is responsible for monitoring the services. Waste inspectors have the authority to hire and
fire the street sweepers and collectors who work for the group contractors. Though this
arrangement was not welcomed by the sweepers and collectors of the group contractor, the
municipality believes that sweepers and collectors who are employed by the group contractor
receive adequate benefits and remuneration for the work that they do, and that if someone does
not work as expected, then it is fair to give the job to some other poor resident of the same area
who will work more conscientiously.
In addition, private waste recyclers collect recyclable wastes at unofficial collection points. The
municipality is operating a paper recycling plant at Kamalbinayak and it is using the recycled
paper for its office stationery including files, envelopes and cards. A small scale compost plant is
running at sallaghari, of capacity 200 kg per day.

Bkm have following equipments and plants used for solid waste management.
SN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

equipments
Excavator
Bull Dozer
Compactor truck
JCB
Tripper
Jeep (3.9 m 3)
Pickup Van (1.34m3)
Wheel barrow

No
1
1
1
1
2
4
5
100

Remark

Objectives
The objectives of this proposal are listed below:
1. Sustainable management of solid waste.
2. To control the environmental and public health hazard.
3. To promote the tourism industry in Bhaktapur.
4. To give the people of Bhaktapur a hygienic and quality life style.
5. To protect the water resources from haphazard disposal of waste.
6. To increase the aesthetic view of Bhaktapur.
7. To manage the special waste from industries and hospitals.
8. To increase the income by resource recovery.
9. To increase the job opportunity for youth.
10. To reduce the load for proposed LF.

Our proposed system


As per this proposal, the waste will be separated at source mainly into two groups which are as
follows:
1. Biodegradable in perforated green container
2. Non Biodegradable in red container
The collected waste which is readily degradable will be transferred to TS proposed at
Hanumante. The proposed TS will be with shredder machine which will help to reduce the
volume of waste to be transported to final disposal LF. The shredding of waste also helps in
composting. The other non biodegradable waste will be transported to material recover section
proposed at Bhelukhel for refinery and special waste generated from hospital and industries will
be transported to MRS for Shredding and then to LF directly.

At MRS the waste will be separated into nine groups viz. metal, plastic, glass, textiles, paper, bone,
wood, combustible residue and combustible residue. The combustible residue will be incinerated to
reduce the LF load. The residue after refinery will be transported to enhanced LF proposed at
Taikabu tathali after shredding. During transportation of waste from TS to LF the waste must be
covered to prevent nuisance, flies breeding and probable dropping. At taikabu enhanced LF,
warm air blown compost plant will be established. The composting plant will be of capacity 15
tons per day. Rest of biodegradable after composting, 5 tons special waste, 3 tone of residue after
resource recovery will be land filled finally. The biodegradable waste will be land filled
separately, these waste will be removed after complete decomposition. This will increase the life
of LF more than 30 years. There will be a leachate treatment plant. Some portion of leachate will
be pumped to organic waste to enhance the decomposition. The residual leachate after treatment
will be disposed at Tabya khusi.
Feasibility of TS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Public place
No public offense for nuisance
Near to municipal waste collection garage
Sufficient area
Easy route

Feasibility of MRF
1. Previously acquiesced land by BKM
2. No nuisance is produced by inorganic waste so no public offense
Feasibility of LF
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Availability of clay for cover


Short distant aprox 4.5 km
Cultivated land
No natural resource nearby e.g. jungle, river
Very low GWT due to impervious black cotton soil
Far from settlement aprox 500 m
Faced to south no shedding
Short approach road

Flow diagram for sustainable solid waste management


Collection of waste with separation at
source

Readily Biodegradable

Non
biodegradable

Special waste

Shredding of
biodegradable waste
at hanumante TS

MRS at bhelukhel

Compost plant at
taikabu

Excess
To Bhelukhel for
Shredding

Land filling at taikabu

9 to
Shredder

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Metal
plastic
glass
textiles
paper
bone
wood
combustible
residue
9. Non combustible
residue

1-7 to recycle
and reuse
8 to
incinarator

Activity
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

2013

People awareness program at school level and community level about LF at tathali VDC.
Acquisition of land.
Detail design of LF, TS and MRS.
People awareness program at BKM area about waste separation.
Launching Model program for waste separation at source.
Tendering for construction activity for TS, CP and LF.
Plantation at Buffer Zone.
Complementary develop program at Tathali VDC
Procurement of resources such as excavator, aerator, pump, roller, shredder, weighing
bridge, manpower.