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MTNL

CETTM

SDH-DWDM
MODULE ID: TGENSDS110

SDH & DWDM Systems

CETTM

Contents

MTNL

Transmission System
What is PDH / SDH?
SDH Bit Rates & Hierarchy
Advantage of SDH
SDH Network Elements
Types of WDM
What is DWDM?
SDH/DWDM Topology
Summary

SDH & DWDM Systems

CETTM

E1
Links

Typical Transmission System

DDF MUX/
DMUX

Telephone
Exchange

Media
Converter

Media
Converter

MEDIA

MUX/ DDF
DMUX

MTNL

E1
Links

Telephone
Exchange

Management System
SDH & DWDM Systems

CETTM

Plesiochronous Signals

MTNL

Plesiochronous : almost synchronous


A Plesiochronous system could arise as a

result of two systems having slightly


different clock readings over the time

In such a system one of the systems or a

third system would need to notice the


mismatch and make some compensating
adjustment such as repeating or deleting a
data packet or a frame.

SDH & DWDM Systems

CETTM

Synchronous signals

MTNL

Syn- with chronos-time


Synchronous signals are those that occur at
the same clock rate when all clocks are
based on a single ref clock
In a set of Synchronous signals, the digital
transitions in the signals occur at exactly the
same rate of all network elements

SDH & DWDM Systems

CETTM

Limitation of PDH

MTNL

Existing PDH is point to point system


O F capacity is under utilized
Difficulty in centralized supervision
Restoration of fault is time consuming
Manpower requirement is more

SDH & DWDM Systems

CETTM

What is SDH?

MTNL

Synchronous: One master clock and all


elements synchronized with it
Digital:
Hierarchy:

Information in binary
Set of bit rates in hierarchical order

SDH is an ITU-T standard for high capacity


Telelecom network
SDH is a synchronous digital transport system,
aim to provide a simple, economical and
flexible telecom infrastructure
SDH & DWDM Systems

CETTM

SDH bit rates (G.707)

MTNL

STM-1 = 155 Mbit/s


STM-4 = 622 Mbit/s
STM-16 = 2.5Gbit/s
STM-64 = 10Gbit/s
Apart from the above, There is STM-0 is of 51.84 Mb/s
( G.708 ).
One
Section
overhead

SDH & DWDM Systems

CETTM

STM-1 frame structure

MTNL

The STM n signal is multiples of frames consisting


of 9 rows with 270 bytes in each row
The order of transmission : first from left to right and
then from top to bottom
The first 9 bytes in each row are for information and
used by the SDH system itself. This area is divided
into 3 parts
Regenerator Section Overhead(RSOH)
Multiplex Section Overhead(MSOH)
Pointers
SOH bytes are used for communication between
adjacent SDH equipments.
SDH & DWDM Systems

CETTM

1-3 rows
4th row
5-9 rows

STM-1 frame structure

MTNL

RSOH
AU Pointer

MSOH

9 Columns

PAY LOAD

261 Columns
270 Columns

SDH & DWDM Systems

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SDH Overhead

CETTM

A1

A1

A1

A2

A2

B1

E1

D1

D2

A2

MTNL

J0

F1

D3

RSOH

AU pointer
B2

B2

B2

K1

K2

D4

D5

D6

D7

D8

D9

D10

D11

D12

S1

M1

MSOH

E2

The first 9rows x 9 columns


SDH & DWDM Systems

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CETTM

SDH Frame Structure

MTNL

The basic STM frame is represented by a


matrix of 9 rows and 270 columns.
Each column is one byte.
Transmission is row by row starting from upper
left corner and ending at lower right corner
The frame repetition is 125 micro seconds.
One byte is 64Kbps.
The frame comprises of section overhead,
pointer and pay load
Number of bits per second =9 X 270 X 8 X8000
=155520000 or
155.52 Mbps
SDH & DWDM Systems

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CETTM

SDH Multiplexing : Definitions

MTNL

Container (C)
The information from PDH signal is mapped into the
relevant container
Each container then added with control information
known as Path Overhead

Virtual Container (VC)

The container and the Path Overhead together form VC


The path overhead bytes allow the network operator to
achieve end to end monitoring

Tributary Unit (TU)


This is a information structure which provides adaptation
between lower order path layer and the high order path
layer
A TU Pointer is added to the VC.
SDH & DWDM Systems

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CETTM

SDH Multiplexing : Definitions

MTNL

Tributary Unit Group (TUG)


Contains one or more tributary units.

Administrative Unit (AU)

The information structure which provides adaptation


between the higher order path layer and the multiplex
section layer

Administrative Unit Group (AUG)


Consists of AU3 or AU4.

Synchronous Transport Module (STM)

Pay load information and over head information


organized in a block frame structure which repeats
every 125 micro secs.

SDH & DWDM Systems

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CETTM

Integrating PDH signals into STM-1


Plesiochronous
signal
Container
Container

MTNL

140Mbit/s
C4

Path Overhead
Virtual
Virtual Container
Container

VC-4

Administrative
Administrative Unit
Unit

AU-4

Pointer
Section Overhead
Synchronous
Synchronous Transport
Transport Module
Module
SDH & DWDM Systems

STM-1
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SDH Multiplexing

CETTM

VC 4

C4

AU 4

MTNL

AUG

STM-N
XN

139.264 Mbps
(PDH)
X3

C3

VC 3

TU 3

TUG 3
X7

34.368Mbps
(PDH)
C 12

VC 12

2.048Mbps
(PDH)
SDH & DWDM Systems

TU 12

X3

TUG 2

Mapping
Aligning
Pointer
Processing
Multiplexing
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CETTM

SDH Advantages

MTNL

First world standard in digital format


First optical Interfaces
Transversal compatibility reduces networking
cost. Multivendor environment drives price
down
Flexible synchronous multiplexing structure
Easy and cost-efficient traffic add-and-drop
and cross connect capability

SDH & DWDM Systems

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CETTM

SDH Network Elements

MTNL

Terminal multiplexer (TM)


Add Drop Multiplexer(ADM)
Regenerator
Digital cross connect (DXC)

SDH & DWDM Systems

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CETTM

SDH Network Elements

MTNL

Terminal multiplexer
The

terminal multiplexer is used to multiplex


local tributaries (low rate) to the STM-N (high
rate) aggregate. The terminal is used in the
chain topology as an end element

E1-E4
E1-E4

STM-N
STM-N
TM

STM-M
STM-M
SDH & DWDM Systems

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SDH Network Elements

CETTM

MTNL

Add Drop Multiplexer


The

Add And Drop Multiplexer (ADM) passes the


(high rate) stm-N through from his one side to the
other and has the ability to drop or add any (low
rate) tributary
The ADM used in all topologies
STM-N
STM-N

STM-N
STM-N
ADM
ADM

STM-M
STM-M
SDH & DWDM Systems

E1-E4
E1-E4
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CETTM

SDH Network Elements

MTNL

Regenerator
It mainly performs 3R function:
1R Re amplification
2R Retiming
3R Reshaping
It regenerates the clock and amplifies the incoming
distorted and attenuated signal. It derive the clock signal
from the incoming data stream.

STM-N
STM-N

STM-N
STM-N
REG
REG

SDH & DWDM Systems

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CETTM

SDH NE: Digital cross connect (DXC)

MTNL

Ports

Ports

Ports

21

Ports
25

SDH & DWDM Systems

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CETTM

SDH- UTILISATION

MTNL

STM-16/STM-4 Rings for core networks


STM-1/STM-4 Rings for access network
Mobile network backbone /backhaul
Dual parenting of CNE/RSUs
Broadband network
Ethernet over SDH
Packet over SDH

SDH & DWDM Systems

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CETTM

STM1-CPE

MTNL

8e1 with /without ethernet ports


16e1
21e1
32e1
42e1
SDH & DWDM Systems

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CETTM

CPE-features

MTNL

1U/2U Chassis
Ac/dc Power option
Integrated multiservice option
Linear ring topologies
Multilevel protection schemes

SDH & DWDM Systems

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CPE- Utilization

CETTM

MTNL

CNE/Low Capacity RSU


Dual parenting of CNE/RSU
Full capacity utilization in case of dual
parenting
Secured /dedicated rings for small/corporate
Customers
E-Line services
SDH & DWDM Systems

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CETTM

STM1-CPE UTILIZATION

SDH & DWDM Systems

MTNL

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CETTM

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)

MTNL

In telecommunications, Wavelength-Division
Multiplexing (WDM) is a technology which
multiplexes several optical carrier signals on
a single optical fiber by using different
wavelengths (colours) of laser light to carry
different signals

SDH & DWDM Systems

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CETTM

Types of WDM Systems

MTNL

Coarse WDM (CWDM)


Dense WDM (DWDM)
Coarse WavelengthDivisionMultiplexing
used in cable television networks and
intra-city telecom backbone networks
(like MTNL Network),
Uses 8,16,32 wavelengths
Cheaper and simple equipment

SDH & DWDM Systems

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Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)


CETTM

MTNL

DWDM ( Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing ) can be


thought of as a rope having a no. of threads twisted together;
and each thread is analogous to one wavelength that can
carry an optical communication system itself; could be a
PDH ,SDH, etc Thus total capacity is the sum total of
capacities of all the individual systems
SDH & DWDM Systems

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ITU-T DWDM Grid

CETTM

MTNL

ITU-T G.694.1 (2002)


ITU-T G.652.C for wavelengths
ITU-T G.652.D for wavelengths
Wavelength window around 1550 nm is used
Some DWDM systems:
- 0.8nm (100 GHz) channel spacing
- 0.4nm (50 GHz ) channel spacing
DWDM is an architecture that is transparent to
- bit rate, Modulation format, protocols
SDH & DWDM Systems

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DWDM Architecture

CETTM

Optical Transmitter
Ch 1

OTUn
OTUn

BA
s

LA
s s

PA
s

ODU

Ch N

Optical Receiver

OLA

OMU

Input

OTU1
OTU1

MTNL

OTU1
OTU1

OTUn
OTUn

Ch 1
Output

Ch N

OSC
OSC

OSC

EMS

SDH & DWDM Systems

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CETTM

DWDM System Components

MTNL

Transponder (LASER + Modulator)


Multiplexer
Optical Fiber
Optical Fiber Amplifier (OFA)
Regenerator
Demultiplexer
Receiver (Detector + Demodulator)

SDH & DWDM Systems

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CETTM

DWDM Network Elements

MTNL

1. DWDM Terminal multiplexer


2. An intermediate optical terminal or
Optical ADD-DROP multiplexer
3. A DWDM terminal de-multiplexer
4. Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC)

SDH & DWDM Systems

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CETTM

Technology Advantages

MTNL

Ability to offer new and higher-speed services


in the Metropolitan Area at less cost.
Solve the problem of Fiber-Exhaust
Transparency
Scalability
Dynamic provisioning
Protected Services
Data-centric
Elimination of Regenerators

SDH & DWDM Systems

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SDH / DWDM Network Topology

CETTM

RING Topology

MTNL

PDH/SDH
PDH/SDH
Tributaries
Tributaries

ADM
ADM
NodeAA
Node

PDH/SDH
PDH/SDH
Tributaries
Tributaries

ADM
ADM
NodeDD
Node

STM1/4/16

ADM
ADM
NodeBB
Node

PDH/SDH
PDH/SDH
Tributaries
Tributaries

ADM
ADM
NodeCC
Node

SDH & DWDM Systems

PDH/SDH
PDH/SDH
Tributaries
Tributaries

36

CETTM

SDH/DWDM Network Topology

MTNL

Point to Point

PDH
PDH

PDH
PDH
TM
STM-M
STM-M

SDH & DWDM Systems

STM-N
STM-N
TM
STM-M
STM-M

37

SDH / DWDM Network Topology

CETTM

MTNL

Point to Multipoint or Bus

PDH
PDH

PDH
PDH

STM-N
STM-N

STM-N
STM-N

TM

ADM
ADM

STM-M
STM-M

PDH
PDH

SDH & DWDM Systems

T
M

STMSTMM
M

STM-M
STM-M

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Application

CETTM

MTNL

High-traffic long haul routes


Enterprise networks
Metropolitan networks(city)
Extending network to congested areas
Inter-continental (submarine) routes

SDH & DWDM Systems

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CETTM

Summary

MTNL

The SDH Technology is proved to be a very


reliable transport technology
DWDM Technology offer very high Bandwidth
and is still developing to offer all optical
network of tomorrow

SDH & DWDM Systems

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