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SpunYarns

Slide1

SpunYarns

Thispresentationintroducestheprocessofmanufacturingspunyarns.Thecharacteristicsandclassificationsforspunyarns,howtheyarnsare
numbered,detailsconcerningeachstepinthemanufacturingprocess,thedifferentpropertiesperyarntype,theimportanceoftwistandtwist
effects,noveltyandspecialtyyarns,andyarntestingwillbediscussed.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide2

CharacteristicsofSpunYarns
Composedofshortstaplefibersandlongstaplefibers.
Madefromcotton,flax,orwoolstaplefibers.
Madefromnaturalormanmadefilaments,whicharecutintofilament
staple.
Individualfiberlengthsmayvary.
Hairyorfuzzyappearanceandfeel.
Unevennumberoffibersthroughout.
Canrangefromsoft,looseconstructiontohard,finetwistyarn.
Inherentthickandthinareas.
Fallsapartwhenuntwisted.
Lowerlusterthanfilamentyarns.
Naturaltexturalappearanceandfeel.
Providesgoodcoveringpower
Pillingdependsonfibercontent.

Spunyarnscanbecomposedoffibersthatarerelativelyshort,onefourthtotwoandonehalfinchesinlength,orfibersthataregreaterthantwo
andonehalfinchesinlength,typicallynotexceedingeightinches.Theseyarnscanbemadefromnaturalandmanmadefibersthatfitthelength
rangesdescribed.Individualfiberlengthswithinagivenyarnmayvary.Spunyarnsexhibitahairyorfuzzyappearance.Alongthelengthofthese
yarns,therewillbeanunevennumberoffibersintheyarncrosssection.Dependingupontheamountoftwistinserted,spunyarnswillvaryfroma
coarse,soft,andlooseconstruction,toafiner,harderconstruction.Spunyarnsinherentlycontainthickandthinareasalongtheyarnlength.When
untwistedtheyarnwillfallapartandtheshortorstaplefiberscanbepulledout.Theseyarnshavealowerlustercomparedtofilamentyarnsand
haveanaturaltexturalappearanceandfeel.Theinnateyarnhairinesshelpstoprovidegoodcoveringpowerinfabrics.Thetendencyforcertain
yarnstogeneratelittleballsofentangledfiberscalledpillswillgenerallydependuponthefibercontent.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide3

YarnClassifications

Spunyarnsaregenerallyclassifiedaseithershortstapleorlongstaple.Shortstapleyarnscontainfibers2.5inchesandshorterwhilelongstaple
yarnscontainfibersgreaterthan2.5inchesinlength.Thegeneralyarntypesundereachclassificationcanbeseeninthisdiagram.Thefocusofthis
presentationisuponshortstapleyarntechnology.Thisincludescardedversuscombedshortstapleyarn,singleversuspliedyarns,anda
comparisonofthemethodsofspinningusedtoproducedifferenttypesofyarnsthatareshowninthediagram.Someshortstaplespunyarnsare
classifiedasnoveltyyarnswhichhavespecialeffectsbuiltintotheirstructure.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide4

YarnNumber
MeasureofthelineardensityofayarnandNOTthe
diameterorcrosssectionalsizeoftheyarn.
Expressedasacertainlengthofyarnperastandardweight
orasacertainweightofyarnperastandardlength.
YarnCountandYarnSizearesynonymouswithYarn
Number
Sinceyarnnumberisanexpressionofaratioithasnounits

Oneofthemostimportantcharacteristicsofanyyarnisthelineardensityoftheyarnreferredtoastheyarnnumber.Spunyarnsarenumberedso
thatonecanchooseayarnofrelativethicknessthatmaybeneededforaparticularfabricapplication.Thisnumberisnotthediameteroftheyarn
orcrosssectionalsizebutratherthelineardensitywhichisnormallyexpressedasaratioofagivenlengthofyarnperastandardweightorasa
certainweightofyarnperastandardlength.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide5

YarnNumberingSystems

Whenyarnsarenumberedusingtheindirectnumberingsystem,highernumbersdesignatefineryarnsandlowernumbersdesignatecoarseryarns.
Whenyarnsarenumberedusingthedirectnumberingsystem,highernumbersdesignatecoarseryarnsandlowernumbersdesignatefineryarns.
TheyarnsinthisphotographarenumberedontheEnglishcottoncountsystem.Thissystem,metriccount,worstedcount,andwoolenrunareall
indirectnumberingsystems.Themostwidelyuseddirectnumberingsystemsaredenier,tex,anddecitex.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide6

MajorIndirectNumberingSystems
EnglishCottonCount(Ne) yarnnumber
representsthenumberof840yardlengths(hanks)
ofyarnthatweighonepound
Example:aNe24yarnnumbermeansthatittakes
24hanksoftheyarntoweighonepound
24/1denotesasinglesyarn(24singles)
48/2denotesapliedyarn(48s2ply)
Question:Whatdoes10/1mean?

WhenusingtheEnglishcottonsystemdesignatedbyNe,theyarnnumberrepresentsthenumberof840yardlengthsofyarnthatittakestoweigh
onepound.Sometimesthisstandard840yardlengthiscalledahank.Thus,ifittakes24hanksor24840yardlengthsofyarntoweighone
pound,theyarnnumberwouldbe24.A48s2plyyarnisequivalenttoa24ssingleyarnandwouldrequire24hanksofthatyarntoweighone
poundaswell.Sowhatdoes10/1mean?Theanswerisonepoundofa10/1yarnwouldhaveayarnlengthof10hanksor8,400yards.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide7

MajorIndirectNumberingSystems
MetricCount(Nm) yarnnumberrepresentsthe
numberofmeters(orkilometers)ofyarnthat
weighonegram(orkilogram)
Example:aNm30yarnnumbermeansthatittakes
30metersofyarntoweighonegramor30
kilometersofyarntoweighonekilogram
Question:WhatdoesNm20mean?

Metriccount,designatedasNm,isusedfrequentlyinEuropeandAsiawiththeyarnnumberrepresentingthenumberofmetersofyarnthat
weighsonegramorthenumberofkilometersofyarnweighingonekilogram.Forexample,a30Nm(metric)yarnweighingonekilogramwouldbe
30,000metersinlength.Whatdoesa20smetricyarn(nm)mean?Theansweris20kilometersoftheyarnwouldweighexactlyonekilogram.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide8

MajorIndirectNumberingSystems
WorstedCount(Nw) yarnnumberrepresentsthe
numberof560yardlengthsofyarn(alsocalled
hanks)thatittakestoweighonepound.
Example:aNw 36yarnmeansittakes36560yard
lengthsofyarntoweighonepound.
Note:Worstedcountyarnsareusuallylongstaple
yarnsandtypicallywoolorwoolblendsthatgointo
worstedfabrics.

Theworstedsystem,designatedbyNw,usesastandardhankof560yardsratherthan840asusedintheEnglishcottoncountsystem.Thereforea
Nw36worstedyarnweighingonepoundwouldbe36hanksinlength(36x560yards)or20160yards..Longstapleyarnscontainingfibersgreater
than2.5inchesinlengthareusuallynumberedontheworstedsystemintheUnitedStatesandEnglandandareusedinthemanufacturingof
worstedfabrics.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide9

MajorDirectNumberingSystems
Denier yarnnumberrepresentstheweightin
gramsof9,000metersofthegivenyarn
Example:a70denieryarnweighs70gramspera
standardlengthof9,000meters
Example:a300denieryarnweighs300gramsper
9,000meters
Question:Whatdoes150deniermean?

ThedenieryarnnumberingsystemiscommonlyusedaroundtheworldandoriginatedinFrance.Thedenieryarnnumberrepresentstheweightin
gramsof9,000metersofagivenyarn.Thusa70denieryarnmeansthat9,000metersofthatyarnweighsexactly70grams.A300denieryarn
wouldbemuchcoarserandthereforeweigh300gramsperastandardlengthof9,000meters.Whatdoes150deniermean?Theansweris9,000
metersoftheyarnweighs150grams.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide10

MajorDirectNumberingSystems
Tex yarnnumberrepresentstheweightingramsof1,000
metersofyarn
Example:a20tex yarnweighs20gramsperastandardlength
of1,000meters

Decitex (dtex) yarnnumberrepresentstheweightingrams


of10,000metersofyarn
Example:a200decitex yarnweighs200gramsper10,000
meters

Thetexyarnnumberisbasedupontheweightingramsofyarnperastandardlengthof1,000meters.Thus,a20texyarnweighs20gramsper
standardlengthof1,000meters.Decitexisbasedonastandardlengthof10,000metersandthusa200decitexyarnweighs200gramsper10,000
meters.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide11

YarnNumberConversions
Some CommonConversions:
Nm/1.69=Ne
5314/Denier=Ne
590.54/Tex=Ne
Denier/9=Tex
Decitex /10=Tex
Nw /1.5=Ne

Alistofcommonyarnnumberingconversionsusedinthetextileindustryisgiveninthisslide.Individualsoftenconverttothesystemwithwhich
theyfeelmorecomfortable.WhatNeyarnnumberwouldbeequivalentto32Nm?Theconversionequationsasseeninthisslideindicatethatto
convertametricyarntoanenglishcottoncountyarn,dividethemetricyarnby1.69.

Answer:321.69=19

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide12

ProcessingtheMajorYarnTypes
RingSpunCardedYarn
RingSpunCombed
OpenEndCarded
AirJetCarded
VortexCombed

Themajorspinningprocessesusedtomanufactureshortstaplespunyarnsarelistedinthisslide.Yarnsproducedusingthesedifferenttypesof
spinningmachinesvaryastoprocessingsteps,productivity,automation,physicalproperties,andenduses.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide13

RingSpunCardedYarns

Thesequenceofprocessesforconvertingastaplefiberintoaringspuncardedyarnareshowninthisdiagram.Fibersarepluckedfrombalesand
deliveredtoopeningmachinerywhichseparatesthefibers,removesheaviertrashparticles,andprovidesblendingopportunities.Cardingconverts
fibersintoacontinuousstrandcalledsliver.Multiplecardsliversthenfeedintooneormoredrawingprocesseswhichimprovesliverquality.
Drawingsliveristhenconvertedintorovingwhichisapencilsizedstrandoflightlytwistedfibers.Therovingisfedintoringspinningmachines
wheretheyarnisformed,placedontosmallbobbins,andtransportedtowindingmachines.Atwinding,theyarniswoundontoconesortubesto
formalargeyarnpackagetobeusedinweavingorknittingoffabrics.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide14

CombedRingSpunYarns

Tomanufacturecombedringspunyarn,anadditionaldrawingprocessisaddedaftercardingfollowedbyalapwindingprocess.Thenthecombing
operationfollowslapwinding.Adrawingprocessisneededaftercombinginordertoreducevariationintroducedbythecombingprocess.Itiseasy
tospeculatehowaddedprocesses,labor,andtimeraisesthecostofcombedyarnscomparedtocardedyarns.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide15

OpenEndRotorYarns

Whenreviewingthediagraminthisslideitiseasytodeterminethattheopenendorrotorspinningsystemrequiresfewermanufacturingsteps
thantheringspinningsystem.Whatprocessesareeliminatedwhenmanufacturingopenendcardedyarncomparedtoringspuncardedyarn?
Manyoperationsonlyuseonedrawingstepinsteadoftwo.Someplantsutilizeadrawboxonthecardingmachineandeliminateaseparate
drawingoperationaltogether.Thewindingprocessisincludedinthespinningmachineanddoesnothavetobeaseparateoperationasinthe
makingofringspunyarnandnorovingisneededinspinningopenendyarns.Productivityofanopenendspinningmachineis8to10timeshigher
thanthatofaringspinningmachine.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide16

AirJetSpunYarns

Typicallythreedrawingstepsareusedtomanufacturegoodqualityconventionalairjetyarn.Again,norovingisneeded,andwindingisincludedon
theairjetspinningmachine.Theproductivityofanairjetspinningmachineis20to22timeshigherthanaringspinningmachine,andtwiceasfast
asopenendspinningmachine.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide17

VortexSpunYarns

ThelatestmethodofairjetspinningiscalledVortexSpinningwherelapwindingandcombing,alongwithdrawingbeforeandaftercombing,are
typicallyincludedintheprocessflow.Windingisalsoincludedonthevortexspinningmachine.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide18

ProcessKnowledge
Detailedinformationabouteachstepinthe
processingofthedifferenttypesofshort
staplespunyarnwillnowbeprovided.
Eachstepcanbethoughtofasasupplierfor
thenextstepwhocanbeconsideredthe
customer.Eachstepwillhaveunique
objectivesintheprocesschain.

Detailedinformationabouteachstepintheprocessingofthedifferenttypesofshortstaplespunyarnwillbediscussed.Eachstepcanbethought
ofasasupplierforthenextstepwhichcanbeconsideredthecustomer.Eachstepwillhaveuniqueobjectivesintheprocesschain.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide19

Theopeningroomareaofashortstapleyarnmanufacturingfacilityhasthreecriticalobjectives:fiberopening,cleaning,andblending.Theraw
materialorfiberisdeliveredtotheopeningroomintheformofhighlycompressedbalesoffiberweighingfrom400to550pounds.Thebalesof
fibermustbearrangedintoabalelaydown.Thebalelaydownisformulatedbaseduponfiberproperties.Whenfeasiblethebalesareproperly
preparedandconditionedforapproximately24hourspriortouse.Thestockmustbeprogressivelyopenedintosmallerandsmallertuftsto
preventfiberdamage,topromotebettercleaning,andtoenhancetheblendofthestock.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide20

BaleLaydownandTopFeeder

Eachspunyarnmanufacturingfacilitybeginswithalaydownoffiberbales.Mostbalelaydownscontainfrom30to80balesoffiber.Asseenin
thisphotograph,arobotcalledatopfeedermovesconstantlybackandforthoverthebalelaydown,extractingathinlayeroffibertuftsfromeach
bale.Thisistheinitialopeningofthefibersfromthehighlycompressedbales.Theextractedfiberisinturnfedintotheopening,cleaning,and
blendingmachines.Eachlaydowntypicallylastfrom12to24hours.Generallytherewillbealaydownoffiberbalesforeachopeninglineina
manufacturingfacility.Somelaydownsmaycontainbalesofcottonorsomeothernaturalfiber,whileotherlaydownsmightcontainbalesof
syntheticfibers.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide21

EFS

MostcottonlaydownsinmodernplantsarecomputergeneratedforEngineeredFiberSelection.Oneofthemostcommontoolsusedtoselectthe
appropriatebalesforalaydownistheEFSsystemdevelopedandpromotedbyCottonIncorporated.TheworkstationconsistsofaPC,modemor
internetconnection,labelprinter,andbarcodereader.Individualmillsselectthemostimportantfiberpropertiesthattheywanttocontrol.Each
baleoffiberislabeledwithspecializedtagsdefiningitsfiberproperties.Balesarethenplacedinspecificplacesinthewarehouse.EFSsoftware
designsalaydownbasedonthemaximumnumberofbales,therequiredfiberqualities,andthecoefficientofvariationinthewarehouse
inventory.Dependingonthenumberoflaydownsrequiredinthemill,multiplemixselectionscanbemadefromthesamebaleinventory.
Normallytheaverageandcoefficientofvariation(CV%)for34fiberpropertiesarestrictlycontrolledfromlaydowntolaydown.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide22

IdealLaydown
Minirepresentationofoverallcottonbale
inventory
Thisallowsduplicationoflaydownsasclose
aspossiblefromdaytoday,weektoweek,
andmonthtomonth
Resultingyarncharacteristicswillbemore
consistent.

Theideallaydowninayarnplantwillbeaminirepresentationoftheoverallcottonbaleinventory.Thus,iftherearemanybaleswithacertain
micronaire,representingcottonfiberthickness,thentherewillbeaproportionatenumberofbaleswiththatsamemicronaireinthelaydown.
Whenthisprocedureisfollowed,aduplicationoflaydownsoccursleadingtoamoreconsistentyarnqualityandyarncharacteristicsovertime.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide23

TopFeederOpeningRollersVideo

Thisvideohighlightstheopeningrollersonthetopfeeder.Wheninoperation,theheadlowersslightlyintothebalesurfacesandplucksathin
layeroffibersfromeachbale.Thussmall,partiallyopenedtuftsoffiberswillberemovedandfedtotheopeningline.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide24

TopFeederAnimation

Noticethatthetoothedopeningdisksrollersrotateinoppositedirectionstooneanother;onewillbeengagedandtheothernotinoperation,
dependingonthedirectionofmovementofthetopfeeder.Thisarrangementpromotesmoregentleandprogressiveopeningoffibertufts.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide25

CoarseOpeningMachineAnimation

Anopeninglineofmachineryfollowsthebalelaydownandtopfeeder.Itiscomprisedofaseriesofmachinestoprogressivelyopen,clean,and
blendthefiberswithoutseriouslydamagingthem.

Thefirstmachineinanopeninglineisgenerallyacoarsecleanerdesignedtoremoveheavytrashparticlesfromcottonandothernaturalfibers.
Whenworkingwithsyntheticfibers,thistypeofmachineisomittedsincethefibersarefreeofwastematerial.Thebeateronacoarsecleaner
usuallyconsistsofmetalfingerswhichmovethefibersoveraseriesofgridbars.Gridbarsareeithermanuallyadjustedorcontrolledbyaservo
motorsothattheamountofwastecanbecontrolledincombinationwiththespeedofthebeater.Asgridbarsaresetwider,morewasteis
removedandalsomoregoodfiberisremoved.Thesetypemachinesusemechanicalaction,air,andcentrifugalforcetoopenorseparatethefibers.
Thisopeningpromotesbettercleaning,transporting,andseparationofthefibers.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide26

FineOpener/Cleaner

Incontrasttothecoarseopeningandcleaningmachineshownpreviously,thefineopenerandcleanerisdesignedtoopenfibersintoverysmall
tuftsandremoveveryfinetrashparticles.Itisnormallylocatedattheendoftheopeninglinepriortothefibersbeingfedintothecarding
machines.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide27

MulticellBlendingMachines

Afteropeningandcleaningoftextilefibers,thethirdobjectiveoftheopeninglineisblending.Whenblendingfibersofthesametype,thegoalisto
reduceproductvariationsduetothevariabilityoffiberproperties.Whenblendingmultipletypesoftwoormorefibers,thegoalistoproducea
morehomogeneousblend.Goodblendingprinciplesandpracticesproducebetterqualityyarnandmoreuniformlydyedfabrics.Seeninthis
diagramisatypicalblendingmachinewithamultiplenumberofcellsorchambersoperatingonatimedelay.Fiberscomeintothemachinecellsin
ageneralflow,andaredistributedintodifferentcellswhichallowsthefiberstotravelatdifferentratesuponexitingthemachine.Thusthefibers
exitthemachineasabettermixorblendcomparedtotheirinitialstatepriortoblending.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide28

BlendingMachineAnimation

Inthisanimationofablendingmachine,thedifferentcolorsoffiberscomefromdifferentbalesinthelaydown.Thefibersinthecellfurthestto
therighttakelongertotravelthroughthemachinewhencomparedtothefibersinothersuccessivecells.Thistimedelayprincipleaidsinbetter
blendingoffibersandfiberproperties.Ideally,allthecellsshouldbeequallyfilledwithfibers.Thesemulticellblendersareverycommoninspun
yarnplants.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide29

IntimateBlending

Whenblendingdifferenttypesoffibers,itisnecessarytoinitiallycontroltheblendpercentageofeachfibertype,forexample65%polyesterand
35%cotton.Whenprocessedintheopeningroom,itisreferredtoasanintimateblend.Acommonwayofproducingintimateblendsistouse
hoppersandweighpans.Fourhoppersareseeninthisdiagram.Threeofthesearebeingfedwithvirginfiberandoneisusedtofeedrecycled
fibers.Eachhoppermaycontainadifferentfiberwhichisplacedintoaweighingpanwhichcontrolsthatfiberspercentageinanoverallblendwith
otherfibers.Eachweighingpancanbeelectronicallysettodropacertainweightoffibersontoaconveyorbeltwhichmovesforwardafter
simultaneousdropsofthedifferentfibertypes.Asandwichblendisthusformedandthelayersoffibersthenenterabeaterwhichfurthermixes
themtogether.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide30

OpeningMachineLatticeFeedAnimation

Intimateblendlinehopperscanbehandfedorautomaticallyfedthroughductwork.Mosthoppershaveahorizontalapronorconveyorsystemfor
transportingfibertuftsforwardontoaverticalapron.Theverticalaproniscomposedofawoodenormetallatticecoveredwithwirepins.Thepins
penetratethefibertuftsandtransportthemupwardtoarotatingroller.Therollerkicksbackthelargertuftsoffibers,recyclingthemuntiltheyare
thoroughlyopenedintosmallertufts.Thusthefibertuftsareopenedandprogressivelydiminishedinsize.Thistreatmentofthefibersprevents
overworkingwhichcouldresultinfiberdamage.Thisactiondeliverswellopenedandsmalltuftsoffiberintothefrontareaofthehopperwhere
weighpansarelocated.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide31

OpeningMachineLatticeFeedVideo

Theactionsofaverticalaproninanopeningmachinecanbeseeninthisvideo.Noticethatthelargertuftsoffibersarerecycleduntiltheyare
smallenoughtopassthroughthemachine.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide32

WeighPanOperationVideo

Thisvideoshowsaweighpaninoperation.Thisparticularblendlineonlyhastwoweighpans,whilemanyblendlineshave6to8.Theweighpan
shownintheinitialpartofthevideoisopenforcontinuousoperation.Inthiscasethefibersarenotbeingweighedtoaccomplishapredetermined
blendratio.Whencontrollingthepercentageoffiberstobeblended,themachinewouldelectronicallyweighaprescribedamountoffiberand
thendropthatweightoffiberontoaconveyorbelt.Theotherweighpanswouldbecollectingpredeterminedweightsofotherfibersanddropping
themontothesameconveyor.Itisaslowprocessbecauseoftheintermittentstoppingandstartingwhilethefibersareweighed.However,when
dyeinglightpastelshadesandothercriticalmultifiberdyeings,itisthepreferredmethodofblending.Lookingatthefeedsideofthemachine,a
syntheticfibercanbeseenasitisbeingfedontoaverticallatticeapron.Thesefibersdidnothavetobecleanedbuthadtobeopenedpriorto
arrivingattheintimateblendline.Theopeningorkickerrollinoperationcanbeseenthroughtheplexiglasswindow.Atthispointinthevideo,the
weighpanisseeninaclosedpositionandthenopenedtodropasetweightoffiberontotheconveyorapron.Aseachweighpandropsadifferent
typeoffiber,asandwichoflayersoffibersisformed.Thedroppedfiberisthendirectedtoabeatersystemwhichmixesthedifferentfibers
together.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide33

Carding

Aftertextilefibersareopened,cleaned,andblendedtheyarefedtothenextprocesscalledcarding.Cardingutilizesmachinemechanismsthat
allowforthetotalopeningofthefibers.Pointsofwirepenetrateamongindividualfibersgivingopportunitiesforanyfinetrashparticlesleftinthe
stocktoberemoved.Atthesametimethefibersarestraightenedtothepointtheyareparalleltoeachother.Fibersthathavebeenrolledinto
nepswillberemovedataveryhighrateofefficiency.Aropelikeassemblyoffiberscalledasliverisdeliveredfromthecardingmachinewithaset
weightperunitlength.Thesliverwillbecoiledintoacylindricalcanreadyfortransporttothenextprocess.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide34

MaterialFeedforCardingVideo

Thisvideoshowsathickmatoffibersbeingpulledveryslowlybyfeedrollsintothebackofthecardingmachine.Thematisformedinthecard
chutewhichcollectsthefibersfromtheopeningline.Thematmustbeformeduniformlyandbefedinaconsistentmanner.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide35

CardingDeliveryVideo

Thedeliveryofcardsliverfromacardingmachineisseeninthisvideo.Thedeliveredsliverisperiodicallytestedforproperweightandlevelof
evennessaswellasfornepcountandshortfibercontent.Ithasbeensaidthatcardingisthemostimportantprocessinthemanufactureofspun
yarn.Thesloganoftenusediswellcardedishalfspun.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide36

CardingElements

Inacardingmachine,thefibersenterasamatorthickblanketandexitintheformofathinweb.Themachineiscomposedofrotatingcylinders
coveredwithdifferenttypesofwire.Thesurfacespeedofthewirecoveredcylindersincreasesfromtherearofthecardtothefront.Thisresultsin
areductioninweightandthicknessfromthematstatetothewebstate.Inadditiontowirecoveredcylinders,thereisalsoaseriesofwirestrips
calledflatsthatrotateontopofthecardingmachine.Themaincardingactiontakesplacebetweenthelargecylinderandthewireflats.The
functionsoftheflatsincludesremovingneps,andanytrashwhencardingnaturalfibers,andtoassistthecylinderinaligningthefibers.Fibersare
takenoffofthemaincylinderbythedoffer.Severalinchesoffiberonthemaincylinderareactuallycondensedintooneinchonthedoffer.The
dofferthendeliversacardwebthatiscondensedintoafibrousstrandcalledsliverwhichisweighedingrainsperyard.Itistheinteractionofthe
wiresurfaceswhichallowsthecardtoreachitsobjectivesoffiberalignment,nepreduction,finewasteremoval,andshortfiberextraction.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide37

CardWebs

Cardwebsofapproximately40to44inchesinwidthareverythinassembliesofstaplefibersdeliveredfromcardingmachinesandcondensedinto
sliverform.Goodcardwebswillbeuniformindensityfromsidetosideandhavealowpercentageoffiberentanglementsknownasneps.Poor
cardwebswillbelessuniformindensityandcontainahigherpercentageofneps.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide38

YarnBoards

Thespunyarnsontheleftofthisphotographareuniformandcontainfewneps.Thewhitespecks,calledneps,shownintheyarnsontheright
photographaretheresultofpoorcardingpractices.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide39

KnitFabricComparison

Thecorrelationbetweencardsliverqualityandfabricappearancecanbeseeninthisphotograph.Fabricknittedfromgoodqualitycardingwillalso
bemoreuniformandcontainlessnepsasseeninthisfabriccomparison.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide40

Nep ImpactonDyeing

Nepstypicallycontainimmaturecottonfiberswhichcontainlesscellulosecomparedtomorematurefibers.Theimmaturecottonfiberswilldyea
lightershadeduetothereducedamountofcellulosetoabsorbthedye.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide41

ConceptofDraft
Draftisaconceptusedincarding,drawing,combing,roving,and
yarnspinning.
Draftcreatesadecreaseinweightperunitlengthofanassemblyof
fibersformingamat,sliver,roving,oryarn.
Astheunitweightoftheproductisreducedduringdrafting,the
lengthofthedeliveredmaterialisincreased.
Numbersusedtoindicatethedraftcanonlybemultipliedand
divided(notaddedandsubtracted)whilecalculatingthetotaldraft
onagivenmachine.
Draftisaratio hasnounits.

Oneofthekeyconceptsusedinthemanufactureofspunyarnsisdraft.Thetermisapplicabletocarding,drawing,combing,roving,andyarn
spinning.Draftingoccurswhentheinputproductisdeliveredwithadecreasedweightandanincreasedlength.Drafthasnounitsbutisdescribed
asaratio.Oneratiocomparestheweightofthematerialfedintoaprocesstotheweightdeliveredfromthatprocess.Thesecondratiocompares
therateofdeliveryinaprocesstothefeedrateofthatprocess.Theresultingdraftnumberisalwaysgreaterthanone.Numbersusedtoindicate
thedraftcanbeonlymultipliedordivided,notaddedandsubtracted,whilecalculatingthetotaldraftofagivenmachine.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide42

SliverWeight
Sliveristhedeliveredproductatcarding,drawing,and
combing.
Sliverweightistypicallydescribedassomanygrainsof
weightperyardofsliver.However,sliverismanytimes
weighedin3yard,10yardand100yardsamples.
Mostsliverswillweighbetween50and80grainsperyard.
Onepound=7,000grains
Oneounce=437.5grains(7000/16)

Sliverweightsareoftenusedindraftcalculations.Sliveristhedeliveredproductatcarding,drawing,andcombing.Itisnormallydescribedasthe
weightperyardofsliver,expressedingrains,eventhoughthesliverismanytimesweighedin3,10,and100yardsamplesfortesting.Mostslivers
weighbetween50and80grainsperyard.Thereare7,000grainsinonepoundandoneounceisequivalentto437.5grains.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide43

DraftatCarding
Typicallyintherangeof80to140
Ifacardingdraftis100,thatmeansthatthesliveris
deliveredfromthemachine100timesfasterthanthe
cardmatisfed.
MaterialDraftistheratioofmaterialweightsfedand
delivered.
MachineDraftistheratioofmachinespeedsat
deliveryandfeed.

Thedraftatcardingistypicallyintherangeof80to140.Acardingdraftof100meansthatthesliverisdeliveredfromthemachine100timesfaster
thanthecardmatisfedtothemachine.Therearetwotypesofcardingdraft:material,sometimescalledactualdraftandmachinedraft.Material
draftistheratioofthesliverweightfedtothesliverweightdelivered.Machinedraftistheratioofmachinespeedatthedeliveryendtothe
machinespeedatthefeedend.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide44

CardingDraftExample
Acardingmachineisdeliveringan80grains/yardsliverwhile
feedingacardmatweighing18oz.peryard.Whatisthe
MaterialDraft?
Solution:
MaterialDraft=WeightFed/WeightDelivered
MaterialDraft=18oz/ydx437.5grains/oz
80grains/yd
MaterialDraft=98.4

Inthiscalculation,437.5grains/oz.istheconversionfactortoconvert18oz/ydintograinsperyard.Noticethedraftiswithintheexpectedrange.If
youweretoobservethecardingmachine,youwouldnotetheslivercomingoutofthecardingmachineatamuchfasterratethanthecardmatis
enteringthemachine.Whenthecorrectdraftissetuponacardingmachine,thenthedesiredsliverweightisdeliveredtothenextprocess.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide45

QualityToolsforCarding
Millprocessedsamplescan
betestedforneps,length,
shortfibercontent,seed
coatneps andmaturity
AFISinformationis
instrumentalinmachinery
maintenanceand
optimization
AFIS AdvancedFiberInformationSystem

OneofthekeyqualitytoolsusedforevaluatingcardsliverqualityistheUsterAFISTester.Itisagreattoolforassessingneplevels,fiberlength
damage,shortfibercontent,seedcoatnepsandfibermaturity.Itisadevicethatisusedtomonitormachinemaintenanceandtooptimizethe
cardingprocess.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide46

Drawing

Drawingistheprocessfollowingcarding.Severalcardsliversarefedintothedrawingprocessforthepurposeofimprovingfiberalignmentwiththe
aidofrollerdraftingandweightuniformitythroughblendingofmultipleslivers.Thegoalistodeliversliverofproperweightandqualitytothe
rovingorspinningoperations.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide47

DrawingOverviewVideo

Thedrawingprocessisshowninthisvideo.Indrawing,multiplesliversarefedintoadrawingmachine.Thesesliversarecalledendsandtypically
68endsarefed.Themultipleendsofsliverpassthroughasetofdraftingrollers.Thisdraftingreducesthemass,inthiscase,of6sliversintojust
onedeliveredsliverweighingapproximatelythesameaseachindividualsliverfed.Inotherwords,ifsixsliverseachweighing60grainsperyard
werefedintothedrawingmachineandthemachinedraftwas6theweightofthesingledrawnsliverwouldbe60grainsperyard.Thus,the
deliveredsliverisablendofthe6sliversthatwerefed.Occasionallyfeedsliverswillbedifferentfibercontentandtheresultwillbewhatiscalleda
drawblend.Forexample,if3silversofcotton,each60grains,and3sliversofpolyestereach60grains,werefedtodrawingwithadraftof6,the
resultwouldbea50/50polyester/cottonblendsliverwith60grainsperyard.Thedrawblendwillnotbeashomogeneousastheintimateblend
discussedearlier.However,thedrawblendismoreeconomical.Thetypeoffinishedproductanddyeingofthefinishedfabricfrequentlydictate
theuseofanintimateblendversusadrawblend.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide48

FinisherAutoleveller Video

Inamanufacturingplantwheremultipledrawingprocessesareutilized,thefirstdrawingstageiscalledbreakerdrawingandthelastdrawingstage
iscalledfinisherdrawing.Anautolevelleristypicallyusedonlyonfinisherdrawingmachinesandisplacedbetweenthecreelandthedrafting
rollers.
Itsensesweightvariationsinthefeedsliversandadjuststhemachinespeedstoproduceasinglesliverwithlessvariation.Allthecreeledslivers
jointogetherandpassthroughtheautolevellerwhichisatongueingroovemeasuringunit.Thisunitiscomposedofsensororscanningrolls.The
smallersensorrollmoveseversoslightlyaccordingtothickandthinplacesintheslivermassandasignalissenttothedraftingrollstomakethe
necessarychangesindraftinordertomaintainconsistentsliverweightandevenness.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide49

DraftingRollersAnimation

Thisanimationillustratestheprogressiveincreaseinthespeedofthedraftingrollersassliversmovefromthebackrollerontheleft,throughthe
middleroller,andfinallythroughthefrontrollerontheright.Thesmallarrowsonthedifferentrollersshowthatthefrontrollersarerotating
fasterthanthemiddleandbackrollers.Thisincrementalincreaseinrollerspeedscausessliverstoslidebyoneanother,resultinginareductionin
massofsixsliversintoamassofonesliver.Thesliverdeliveredistypicallyreducedinmassbyafactorof4to8times.Thusthesingleoutputsliver
isdelivered48timesfasterthanthe6inputsliversbeingfedthroughthebackdraftingroller.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide50

DrawingRollersVideo

Thisvideofollowssixendsofsliverastheyarepulledfromslivercans.Sliveriscoiledinthecanssoremovalwillbegentleandtensiononthesliver
willbeminimal.Thecreelareamustbekeptfreeoftagsorcollectionsofsheddingfibers.Thesliversmoveunderliftingrollerswhichdetect
whenaslivermaybemissingandinitiateamachinestop.Thefactthatanautolevellerisabsentfromthismachineindicatesthatitismostlikelya
breakerdrawframe.Thesixsliversthenmovethrougha3over3rollerdraftingsystem.Thetopthreerollersarerubbercovered,andthebottom
threearesteelandtypicallyfluted.Themetalexittubeinfrontofthedraftingrollerscontainsthesingledeliveredsliver.Closeobservationshows
thedifferenceinthespeedsoftherollers.Thespacebetweenthebackrollerandmiddlerolleriscalledthebreakdraftzone.Thespacebetween
themiddlerollerandfrontrolleriscalledthemaindraftzone.Theendoftheexittubedeliversthedraftedslivertoasmallfunnelshapeddevice
calledthetrumpetwhichcondensesthesliver,creatingmorefibertofibercohesionandhigherstrength.Atthispointthereisnotwistinthesliver.
Sliverisdeliveredintoacylindricalcan.Whenthecaniscompletelyfull,itwillbeautomaticallydoffedorremovedfromthemachineandbe
replacedbyanewemptycan.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide51

IntimateBlendandDrawBlend

Thebasictypesofblendedsliversareevidentinthisphotograph.Noticethebarberpoleeffectofthesingleprocessdrawingsliver.Thetwoand
threeprocessdrawingsliversarebetterblendedbutstillshowtracesofbothredandwhitefibers.Thistypeofblendingwouldberecommended
fornoncriticalapplicationswheredyeinginvolvesdarkershades.Thisdegreeofblendingwouldalsobefavorableforheathertypesofyarn.The
mostuniformappearanceseenintheintimateblendisrecommendedforlightpastelshadeswherematchingshadeismorecritical.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide52

FiberMovementOverviewAnimation

Thisanimationshowshowthestaplefibersaresubjectedtoashearingaction,slidingbyoneanotherastheymovefromonedraftingzoneintothe
nextzone.Thisshearingactiontendstostraightenthefibersandremovehooksatthefiberends.Thefibersarenotelongatedastheypass
throughthedraftingrollersunlessafiberissolongthatitisheldsimultaneouslybetweentwosetsofdraftingrollers.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide53

Doubling

Feedingmultipleendsofsliverintoadrawingmachineisreferredtoasdoubling.Doublingprovidestheopportunitytoreduceweightvariation
inindividualsliverswhich,inturn,reducestheoverall%CVorcoefficientofvariationorweightvariationinthesinglesliverdeliveredfromthe
process.Thisgraphicshowsoneheavysliverof90grainsperyarddoubledwithfive60grainsperyardsliversthatareontargetforweight.The
principleofdoublingreducesthe50%variationintheheavyslivertoadeliveredsliverofonly8.3%variation.Thedoublingeffectassumesthick
placeswilloffsetthinplacesinthesliverwhilethinplacesinsomewilloffsetthickplacesinotherslivers.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide54

CalculatingDraft

Totaldraftisdeterminedbymultiplyingtheindividualdraftsinthenumberofdraftzones.Forthisexamplethisincludesthebreakdraft,(between
thebackrollandmiddleroll)multipliedbythemaindraft(betweenthemiddlerollandfrontroll).Anotherwaytocalculatedraftistodividethe
surfacespeedofthefrontrollbythesurfacespeedofthebackroll.SurfacespeediscalculatedasRPMoftherollsmultipledbyrolldiameter
multipliedbypi.Bothofthesemethodsofcalculatingdraftaresometimesreferredtoasmachineormechanicaldraft.Whentheweightperunit
lengthofthesliversfedisdividedbytheweightperunitlengthofthesliverdelivered,thisiscalledthematerialoractualdraft.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide55

CalculatingMaterialDraft
Example:
Eightsliversweighing72grainsperyardarefedinto
adrawingmachine.Thedeliveredsliverweighs68
grainsperyard.Whatisthematerialdraft?
Solution:
MaterialDraft=WeightFed/WeightDel.
MaterialDraft=(8x72)/68
MaterialDraft=8.47

Inthisexample,eightsliverseachweighing72grainsperyardarefedintoadrawingmachine.Thedeliveredsliverweighs68grainsperyard.
Thereforetheinputweightis8times72,which,whendividedbythedeliveredsliverweightof68grainsperyardyieldsamaterialdraftof8.47,or
theinputsliverweightisreducedbyafactorof8.47.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide56

CalculatingMachineDraft
Example:
Thedeliveryroll(frontroll)ofadrawframe hasasurface
speedof2,000metersperminuteandthebackroll(feed
roll)hasasurfacespeedof277.8metersperminute.
Whatisthemachinedraft?
Solution:
MachineDraft=SurfaceSpeedofDeliveryRoll/SurfaceSpeedofBackRoll
MachineDraft=2,000/277.8
MachineDraft=7.2

Thisisanexampleforcalculatingmachinedraft.Whendividingthedeliveryrollspeedof2,000metersperminutebythefeedrollspeedof277.8
metersperminute,themachinedraftis7.2.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide57

LapWinder

Thereisasizablemarketforcombedcottonyarns.Theseyarnstendtobefinerandarepopularinpremiumproducts.Whenmanufacturinga
combedcottonyarnproduct,lapwindingfollowsadrawingprocess,referredtoaspredrawing.Lapwindingissimplythebringingtogetherofa
multiplenumberofcottonsliverstobewoundontoalargespoolwhichiscalledacomberlap.Thisphotographshows12sliverscomingfromthe
rightsideofthelapwinderbeingjoinedwith12othersliversbeingfedfromtheleftsideofthelapwinder.All24willinturnbewoundontoalarge
spoolwhichiscalledacomberlap.Comberlapsarethentransportedtothecombingmachineandarethematerialsupplyforthecomber.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide58

LapWinderVideo

Thevideoofthislapwindershowstwosetsofslivercansinitscreel.Eachsetcontains12cansofsliver.Thesliversareliftedfromthecansasinthe
drawingprocess.Thetwosetsof12sliverswillbejoinedtogetheranddirectedontoalargespoolthatcanbeseenbeingformedbehindthe
Plexiglaswindow.Acomberlapwhichisalmostfilledandreadytobedoffedcanalsobeseen.Afterdoffing,thelapwillbeplacedontopofthe
combingmachineandslowlyunwoundasthefibersgothroughthecombingaction.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide59

ComberOverviewVideo

Thisvideoisofan8positioncombingmachinewithacomberlapateachposition.Eachpositionproducesacombedsliverbutnotthefinished
product.Lookingatthissinglepositiononthecomberrevealsthatthecombedfibersareveryparallelandclean.Aftercombing,thefibersgo
throughatrumpetwhichcondensesthemintoasliver.The8combedsliversjoinoneanotherandformabandorribbonoffiberswhichgothrough
asetofdraftingrollers.Exitingthedraftingrollerswillbeasinglesliverwhichrepresentsthefinishedproductacombedsliver.Thecombedsliver
isthencoiledintoaslivercan.Afterdoffingofthecan,thenextprocessistypicallyanotherdrawingoperationwhichhelpsreducethevariationput
inthesliverbythecombingaction.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide60

ComberRunningVideo

Ascanbeobservedinthisvideo,acottoncomberisarelativelyslowprocess.Feedrollsonthecomberdeliverashortbeardoffiberstoahalflap
rollwhichispartiallycomposedofrowsofsawtoothtypewire.Therowsofwireprogressfrombeingcoarseindensitytobeingfinerindensity
morepointspersquareinch.Asthiscomberisslowed,therowsofwireonthehalflaprollcanbeseenastheycombthroughashortbeardoffiber.
Trash,shortfibers,neps,andseedcoatfragmentscollectingonthehalflaprollcanalsobeseen.Thiswastewillbebrushedoffandvacuumed
awayasawasteproductcalledcombernoils.Thecombernoilsarereclaimedandspunintootheryarntypes,typicallyopenendcoarsercount
yarns.Aftereachbeardoffiberiscombed,itisthenseparatedandanewbeardisintroducedtothehalflaproll.Theshortbeardofcombedfibers
ispiecedupwithpreviousbeardsoffiberwhichhavebeencombed.Noticetheexcellentparallelizationofthefibersaftercombing.Alsonoticethe
degreeoftrashinthefibersbeforeandaftercombing.Inadditiontoremovingshortfibers,parallelingthefibers,andcleaningthem,another
valueaddedbenefittocombingisblending.Sinceeachoftheeightpositionsfeeds24slivers,thedeliveredsliverwillbeablendof192slivers.Thus
oneofthekeybenefitsofcombingisblending.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide61

YarnComparisonTable

Combingisavalueaddedprocess.Combedfibersarenormallyreservedforcombedringspunyarn.Rarelydoesopenendyarnproductionuse
combedfibers.However,combingcanbeusedwithvortexyarnproductionwhichwillbediscussedlater.Theadvantageslistedinthistabledo
haveanassociatedcost.Combedyarnstypicallycostanywherefrom10to25centsmoreperpoundthancardedyarns.Alsowithcombedyarns,
theyarnsizeorcountcanbefiner.Yarnsover40sEnglishcottoncountandfinermustbespunfromcombedfiberswhilecoarsercombedyarns
maybedesiredtoimprovefabricaestheticsandquality.Combedyarnscontainlongerfiberswhichallowtheyarntohavethesamerelative
strengthwithlesstwistinserted.Thelesstwistallowstheyarntobesofterandhavemoreluster.Lesstwistalsoincreasesproductivityofany
process.Thestraighteningofthefibersalsopromoteslusteroftheyarn.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide62

Roving

Followingcombing,thereistypicallyoneadditionaldrawingsteptoimprovethevariabilitycreatedbythecombingandpiecingactions.Thesliveris
fedtothenextprocesscalledroving.Theinputmaterialtorovingmaybecarded,onceortwicedrawnsliverorcombedanddrawnsliver.Roving
draftsthesliverintoapencilsizedstrandoffiberswhichisheldtogetherwithaslightamounttwist.Therovingisthenwoundontoalargeroving
bobbinandtransportedtoringspinning.Inotherspinningsystemssuchasopenend,airjet,andvortex,rovingisnotnecessary.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide63

RovingFrameSchematic

Inthediagramshownasinglesliverisfedintoeachpositionontherovingframe.Draftingrollersdraftthesliversintoasetweightperunitlength.
Therovingisthentwistedandwoundontoarovingbobbin.Betweenthedraftingrollers,thereisabreakdraftandamaindraftasobservedinthe
drawingprocess.Anapron,orminiatureconveyorbelt,controlsfiberflowinthemaindraftzone,sincetherearefewerfiberspercrosssectionina
strandofroving.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide64

DraftingRollersVideo

Thisvideoofarovingmachinehighlightsthedraftingactionatroving.Athreerolldraftingsystemtakesinputsliveranddraftsitintoastrandof
roving.Thesliverinputspeedisslowerthantherovingoutputspeed.Adraftintherangeof6to10iscommoninroving.Theslighttwistinthe
rovingrunsuptothefrontdraftingrollerandformsavshapedtriangle.Thedraftingsystemhasrubbertoprollersandsteelbottomrollersaswas
seenonthedrawframes.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide65

RovingBobbinsVideo

Rovingiswoundontoabobbinasseeninthisvideo.TherovingisthreadedthroughaninvertedUshapedtubulardevicecalledaflyer.Asthe
flyerrotates,twistisinsertedintotherovingandassistsinwindingtherovingontothebobbin.Sinceonemoredraftingstepoccursatringspinning,
thetwistmustbekeptatalowlevel.Inaddition,theinsertionoftwistalwayslowersproductivity.

Noticehowthebobbinmovesupanddowntoformtherovingpackagewhichisfedtothenextprocess,ringspinning.

Therovingbobbinseenatthistimeshowsthepackageintegrityincludingcoilsorwrapsperinch,theslighttwistinthepackageandsomesmall
trashthatwillberemovedbythespinningoperation.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide66

RingSpinning

Inringspinningtherovingbobbinishungmanuallyorautomaticallyabovetheringspinningdraftingsystem.Therovingispulledintothedrafting
rollerstobedraftedorreducedtoaspecificlineardensityorcount.Thedraftedyarnisthenthreadedthroughapigtailguide,thenthroughac
shapeddevicecalledatravelerandfinallyontotherotatingbobbin.Thetravelerrotatesonaflangedmetalringwhichislocatedonaringrail.The
ringrailmovesupanddowninshortincrementsasthebobbinisbeingformed.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide67

RingSpinningOverviewVideo

Theringspinningsystemtransformsstrandsofrovingintobobbinsofyarn.Theyarnhasitsfinalcountorlineardensityanditsfinalleveloftwist
determinedattheringspinningframe.Thepathoftherovingisdownwardandentersthebreakdraftzonewherefibersaresubjectedtoalow
draft.Asthefibersenterthemaindraftzone,ahigherdraftwilltakeplace.Adraftingapronassistsincontrollingthefibersastheyapproachthe
frontdraftingroller.Thishelpscontrolthemovementofshortfiberswhichcausethickandthinplacescalleddraftingwaves.Theyarnexitsthe
frontrollerwhereavacuumtubeislocated.Thetubeusessuctiontoremovethefibersthatflowfromthefrontrollwhenayarnhasbrokenonits
waytotheringbobbin,thisisreferredtoasanenddown.Aftergoingthroughapigtailguide,theyarngoesthroughaballooncontrolring,
throughthetravelerlocatedonthering,andfinallyontotheringspinningbobbin.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide68

TravelerShapesandSizes

Travelersareakeypartofringspinning.Therearedifferenttravelersbaseduponthefibertypebeingrunandtheyarncountspun.Travelersmust
bechangedastherawmaterialischangedandastheyarncountbeingproducedchanges.Normaltravelerwearlifeisapproximately10daysto20
days.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide69

TravelerWindOnVideo

Thisisanexcellentvideoofhowtheyarniswoundontotheringbobbinwiththeaidoftherotatingtraveler.Thisrotationcreatesaballooningof
theyarnwhichiscontrolledbythemetalballooncontrolring.TheclockwiserotationofthetravelerindicatesZtwistisbeinginserted.Theringrail
movesupanddowninshortincrementsasthebobbinisbeingformed.Thismakesunwindingofthebobbinatthewindingoperationeasierand
moreefficient.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide70

RingSpunYarn

Ringyarnhasconsistentfiberorientation.Allthefiberslooktobeorientedtothesameangle.Thus,basicallyallofthefibershelpcontributetothe
yarnstrengthalongwithsomesurfacefiberswhichcontributetoyarnhairiness.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide71

CompactSpinning

Amodificationoftraditionalringspinningiscalledcompactspinning.Inconventionalringspinning,thetwistflowsfromthebobbinupwardtothe
frontrollofthedraftingsystem.Atthispointavshapedortriangularprofileexistscausingsomefiberendstomigratetotheyarnsurfacecreating
amorehairylikeyarn.Incompactspinning,thetriangledisappearsandtheyarnismorecompactandlesshairy.Thisismadepossiblebyplacingan
extrasetofrollersinfrontofthefrontrollerontheringspinningframe.Theextrabottomrollerisperforatedwherethereissuction.Thepressure
fromtheextratoprollerandthevacuumsuctioncreatesthecompactionoftheyarnsurface.Thepurportedlowerhairiness,betteruniformity,
higherluster,andhigherstrengthofthecompactyarnaidsdownstreamprocessing.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide72

CompactSpinningVideo

Seeninthisvideoisanextraattachmenttothefrontofthedraftingsystemonaringspinningmachine.Asdiscussedinthepreviousslide,the
attachmentincludesanadditionaltoprollerandaperforatedbottomrollerwithvacuumsuction.Analternativetotheperforatedrollerisa
stationarytubewithanarrowslitforvacuumsuction.Aswiththeperforatedroller,thevacuumsuctionfromthenarrowslitinthestationarytube
aidsinbringingthefiberstogetheratthedeliveryofthefrontroll.Thisresultsinastraightlineconfigurationratherthaninatriangular
configurationasinconventionalringspinning.Thekeytoimprovingtheyarnqualitypropertiesistheeliminationofthetwisttriangleprevalentin
conventionalringspinning.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide73

WinderOverview

Afterthesmallringspunbobbinsofyarnaredoffed,theyaremanuallyorautomaticallytransportedtothewindingoperationwheremanyring
bobbinsarecombinedontoalargeryarnpackagetobeusedinknittingorweaving.Atwinding,aqualitycontrolcheckcanbeintroducedthrough
theuseofyarnclearerdeviceswhichdetectyarnfaultsandremovethemautomatically.Thewinderthenpiecesthebrokenyarnsusingairor
mechanicalmeans.Inthisphotographtheyarnbobbinsarelocatedatthebottomofthewindingunitsandthewoundyarnpackageslocatedatthe
topofthemachine.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide74

WinderAirSpicer

Airsplicersarecommononbobbinwinders.Anotheroptionistoincorporateanautomaticknotter.Splicingqualityisofutmostimportanceand
mustbecheckedonaregularbasis.Splicesaretypically85%ofthenormalyarnstrength.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide75

OpenEndYarn

Openendspinningisanalternativetoringspinningandhassomelimitationsandadvantageswhencomparedtoringspinning.Noticethatcansof
sliverarefedtotheopenendframeandnotrovingbobbins.Noseparatewindingisneededsincewindingoccursaspartoftheopenendmachine.
Thetancoloreddeviceisapiecerwhichmovesaroundthemachine,lookingforyarnendbreaks.Whenabreakoccurs,theautomaticpiecercomes
totheappropriatepositionandmakesthenecessaryrepair.Openendmachinestypicallyhavedevicesthatalsoautomaticallydoffthefullyarn
packages.Throughoutmanypartsoftheworldthesemachinesarefullyautomatedtoamuchhigherdegreethanringspinningmachines.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide76

OpenEndSpinningVideo

Thismodernopenendspinningmachineisrunningatafullproductionspeed.Ateachposition,aninputsliverispulledintothespinboxbythe
actionofthefeedroll.Thesliverisfedmuchslowerthantheyarnisdeliveredduetothedraftofthefiberstakingplace.Insidethespinbox,the
fiberscollectintherevolvingrotorandaretwistedintoayarn.Atthispointtheyarnexitsthespinboxandgoesthroughayarnclearerwhich
detectsanyundesirableimperfectionsintheyarn.Wheneveranendbreaks,thepiecingunitstopsattheappropriatepositionandreconnectsthe
yarnbyfeedingthebrokenendbackintotherotorwherepiecingoccurs.Theyarnoscillatesbackandforthasitpassesunderadeliveryrollerto
preventexcessivewearorgroovingofthedeliveryrollersurface.Atthispoint,theyarnhastheoptionofpassingoverawaxingunitwhichis
normallyappliedtoknittingyarns.Thebowshapedarmabovethewaxingdiskprovidesconsistentyarntensionastheyarniswoundfromthe
sidesofthepackagetothemiddleofthepackage.Awindingdrumunderthepackageassistsinpackagerotationandareciprocatingguideevenly
distributestheyarnoverthelengthofthepackage.Thelastsectionofthevideoshowsthepiecerstoppingtohelprepairabrokenyarn.Therotor
isautomaticallyopenedandcleaned.Theyarnfromthepackageisfedbackintotherotorwheretheyarnispieced.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide77

OpenEndSchematic

Ateachpositionofopenendspinning,thesliverentersafeedrollandisfedslowlytoasawtoothedcomberroll.Therollcombsoutindividual
fibersthatinturntravelthroughataperedchanneluptotherotor.Onceintherotorthefiberscollectintherotorgrooveandaretwistedtogether
astherotorspinsataveryhighspeed.Thetwistedyarnthenexitstherotorthroughadofftubeandiswoundontoalargepackage.Thenavel
createssomefalsetwistwhichfeedsbackintotherotorandhelpstodecreaseendbreaks.Therearedifferenttypesofnavels,eachtypehavinga
differentsurfacethattheyarncomesincontactwith.Navelswitharoughsurfacecreatedbygroovesorotherspecialcutoutshapestendto
roughuptheyarn,makingitmorehairy,softer,andbulkier.Smoothersurfacednavelsmaketheyarntighter,stronger,lesshairy,lessbulky,and
notassoft.Thetermopenendcomesfromthefactthattheyarncomestoanendinsidetherotorascanbeseeninthisdiagram.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide78

OpenEndAnimation

Thisanimationshowstheinputslivergoingunderthefeedrollwhichdeterminestherateoffiberflowandultimateyarncountdelivered.The
fibersareseparatedfromthesliverbythewireteethonthecomberroll,andduringthisseparation,anysmalltrashparticlesstillremaininginthe
sliverareremoved.Thefibersleavethecomberrollandaredepositedintotherotorwheretheyarnisformed.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide79

OpenEndSpinningAnimation

Thisanimatedviewofyarnformingintherotorrevealsthecontinuousflowoffibersintotherotorandyarncontinuallydeliveredfromtherotor.
Theeverpresentopenendofyarninsidetherotorisclearlyseenasasmalltail.Theyarnisactuallypulledfromtherotorgroovebyadeliveryroll
system.Thedeliveryrollspeeddeterminestheamountoftwistinsertedintotheyarn.Therotorspeedremainsconstant.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide80

OpenEndSpunYarn

Unlikethefiberorientationseeninringspunyarns,thefiberorientationinanopenendyarnisveryrandomandinconsistent.Duringevery
rotationofaspinningrotor,thepointwheretheyarnisbeingpeeledawayfromtherotorgroovealignswiththepointwherefibersarefeeding
intotherotorfromthetransportchannel.Atthispointafibermaybewrappedprematurelyaroundtheyarnandendupperpendiculartotheyarn
axis.Thesesocalledwrapperfibersdonotcontributesignificantlytotheyarnstrengthbutdocontributetotheyarnhavingaharsherhandor
feel.Thuswrapperfibersareinherenttotheopenendspinningprocess.Thesmallertherotordiameter,thehigherthefrequencyofthe
occurrenceofwrapperfibers.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide81

AirJetSpinning

Athirdtechnologyusedtoproduceshortstapleyarnsisairjetspinning.Airjetyarnscurrentlyrepresentasmallpercentageofthespunyarn
market.Fibersarefedintoairnozzleswherehighvelocityrotatingairwrapsaribbonoffibersaroundacoreofmostlyparallelfibers.Thedegreeof
tightnessoftheribbonfibers,andthefibertofibercohesionoftheofthecorefibersinfluenceyarnstrength.Tighterwrappingofribbonfibers
producesastifferyarnwithaharsherhandorfeel.However,anadvantageisthatthistypeofspunyarncreatesalowertendencyfortheyarnto
generatepillinginfabrics.Conventionalairjetspinningismosteffectivewhenprocessing100%manmadefibers.Blendsofmanmadefibersand
cottonfibersarepossibleonlywhenthemanmadefibercomponentisahighpercentageoftheblend.Thevariablestaplelengthofcottonfibers
andthepresenceofshortfiberscause100%cottonyarnstobetooweakformostapplications.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide82

AirJetSpinningAnimation

Thisanimatedversionofconventionalairjetspinningillustrateshowthesliverentersintoarollerdraftingsystemmuchlikeseeninthe
manufactureofringspunyarn.Attheexitsideofthefrontdraftingroller,anarrowbandorribbonoffibersisseparatedfromthemaincoreofthe
fibers.Thisribbonoffibersistwistedaroundthecorefibers,bytheactionofthefirstairnozzle.Theairinthefirstnozzlerotatesclockwise.A
secondairnozzle,withairrotatingcounterclockwise,createsfalsetwistintheyarnstrand.Theresultisthatthetwistbeforethesecondairnozzle
isintheoppositedirectionfromthetwistafterthesecondairnozzle.Therefore,theoutgoingtwist(ortheresultingtwistafterthesecondair
nozzle)tightenstheribbonofwrapperfibersandprovidestheyarnwithitsrequiredstrength.Controllingtheairpressureoftheairnozzlesandthe
throughputspeedofthefiberdeterminesthelevelofyarnstrength.Theyarnformedconsistsofacoreofstaplefiberswithlittleornotwistand
surfacefiberswrappedaroundthecorebundle.Specialcareisrequiredinsubsequentprocessingsoasnottodamageorabradethewrapping
fibers,whichwouldleadtoyarnweaknessandeventualbreakage.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide83

AirJetSpinningVideo

Thisvideoshowsadrawingsliverenteringthedraftingrollersofanairjetspinningmachine.Thedraftingrollersdeterminetheyarnsize,orcount.
Oncethefibersexitthefrontrollofthedraftingsystem,theyentertheairnozzleassembliespreviouslydescribed.Aftertheyarnisspun,itenters
ayarnclearingdevice,passesoverawaxingunitandtheniswoundontoalargeyarnpackage.Themachinghasarobotforautomaticpiecingof
yarnbreaksandautomaticdoffingoffullyarnpackages.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide84

VortexSpinning

Vortexyarnisformedasfibersenterasmalltornadolikevortexofair.Thefibersflarebeforeenteringatubularstructurewheretheflaredfibers
twistaroundtheyarnbundle.Asseeninthisphotograph,theresultingyarnshowsnoevidenceofwrapperfibersorofanyribbonofwrapperfibers.
Infact,thisyarnstructureissimilartothatofringspunyarn.However,theproductionrateis2022timestheproductionrateforringspinning.
Vortexspinningcanproduce100%cottonyarnswithadequatestrengthaswellasmanmadestaplefiberyarns.Vortexspinningisanevolving
technologyfoundinonlyafewspunyarnmanufacturingplants.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide85

VortexSpinningAnimation

Similartoconventionalairjetspinning,vortexspinningsuppliessliverastheinputmaterialandusesrollerdraftingtoreducethefibermasstothe
desiredyarnsize.Thevortexedyarnpassesthroughayarnclearer,awaxingdevicewhenneeded,andiswoundontoayarnpackagewhichis
automaticallydoffedwhenfull.Vortexspinningutilizesfourairnozzlesincloseproximitytooneanotherwhichcreatesaveryhighvelocityof
rotatingairtotwistfibersintoayarn.Asseenintheanimation,fibersflareoutwhentheyareintroducedtothevortexofair.Astheyarnflows
forward,theseflaredfibersarebroughttogetherandaretwistedtoformtheyarnbundle.Apercentageofshortfiberswillbevacuumedawayat
theflaringpoint,creatingfiberwastethatisnotafactorinringspinning,openendspinning,andconventionalairjetspinning.Theamountof
wastefiberscanbereducedbycombingthefiberspriortospinning,whichmanycompanieschoosetodo,althoughthisaddsanadditionalcostto
thefinalproduct.Theorientationofthefiberscloselyresemblestheorientationoffibersinaringspunyarn.Therearenowrapperfibersnorany
ribbonofwrappingfibersinvortexyarns.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide86

SpunYarnCharacteristics

Thischarthighlightstheadvantagesanddisadvantagesofeachtypeofyarnthathasbeenpreviouslydescribed.Thetoppartofthechart
representsthepositivecharacteristicsforeachtypeofyarnandthebottomsectionofthechartshowsthemorenegativecharacteristics.Basedon
thedatainthechart,answerthefollowingquestions:

1.Whichtypeyarnhasthefinestcounts?
2.Whichtypesofyarntendtohavemoretorque?
3.Whichtypeofyarnhaslesstendencytopill?
4.Whichtypeofyarnisthesoftest?
5.Whichtypeofyarntendstobemoreabrasive?
6.Whichisthemostunevenyarn?
7.Whichyarnwouldtendtohavelowerelongation?
8.Whichyarndyesdarker?
9.Whichyarnisproducedthefastest?
10.WhichyarncanbetwistedineithertheSorZdirections?

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide87

SpunYarns

Thesemicroscopicviewsofthedifferenttypesofspunyarnspreviouslydiscussedrevealhowdifferenttheyarnsareinstructure.Thereisno
problemidentifyingthewrapperfibersintheopenendyarn.Itiseasytoidentifytheribbonofwrappingfibersintheairjetyarn.Theringspun
yarnandthevortexspunyarnhavesimilarfiberorientation.Usingamicroscopeisthesimplestandmostaccuratewaytoidentifythedifferent
yarntypes.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide88

ZTwistYarn

MostCommontwistdirection
Referredtoasrighthandtwist
Twistmechanismrotatesclockwise
CanbeusedwithOEandringspunyarns

Forspunyarns,yarntwistisanimportantvariableaffectingbothyarnpropertiesandfabricproperties.Therearetwodirectionsinwhichayarncan
betwisted.Whenayarnistwistedinaclockwisedirection,thefibersformahelicalangleattheyarnsurface.Thisangleconformstothemiddle
partoftheletterZand,therefore,isreferredtoasZtwist.Thisisthemostcommontwistdirectionandsometimesreferredtoasrighthand
twist.OpenendandringspunyarncanbeproducedwithZtwist.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide89

STwistYarn

Maybecalledlefthandorreversetwist
Twistmechanismrotatescounterclockwise
Cannotexistinopenendyarn

Whentheassociatedtwistmechanismrotatesinacounterclockwisedirection,theresultanthelicalangleconformstothemiddlepartoftheletter
SandtheyarnissaidtohaveStwist.Thisisalsoreferredtoaslefthandorreversetwist.Stwistdoesnotexistinopenendyarn,butcanbethe
twistofchoiceinaringspunyarn.Airjetandvortexyarnsdonothaveaconventionaltwiststructure;however,theirsurfacefiberscantakeon
whatappearstobeaSorZconfiguration.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide90

InfluenceofTwistDirection
Visibilityofdiagonallinesintwillweaves:
Ztwistedyarnsmakethetwilllinemoreraisedinleft
handtwills.
Stwistedyarnsmakethetwilllinemoreraisedin
righthandtwills.

Forreducedfabrictorqueincircularknits:
Clockwisemachinerotation useStwist
Counterclockwisemachinerotation useZtwist

Forlowertorqueinpliedyarns plytwistisinthe
oppositedirectionfromthesinglesyarntwist

Twistdirectioninfluencestheprominenceofthetwilllineinfabricconstructedwithatwillweave.Forexample,Ztwistedyarncausesthetwillline
inalefthandtwillfabrictobemoreprominentwhilethesameyarnputinarighthandtwillfabricwillcreateaflattertwillline.Whenthetwist
directionintheyarnisoppositeofthetwilldirectioninthefabric,thefabrictwilllinewillbemorevisible.Thisscenarioalsotendstoproducea
softerfabricaswell.Circularknittingmachinescanalsohavedifferentdirectionsofrotationandtheyarntwistdirectioncaninfluencefabrictorque.
Mostpliedyarnsareplytwistedintheoppositedirectiontothedirectionofeachsinglesyarnwhichreducesyarntorqueandanyresultingfabric
torqueissues.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide91

TwistEffectsonYarnProperties
DegreeofYarnTwistAffectstheYarn's:
1.Diameter
2.Contraction
3.Softnessorhardness(hand)
4.Torqueorliveliness
5.Bendingbehavior
6.Absorbency
7.Coveringpower
8.Permeability
9.Tensilestrength
10.Elasticperformance/extensionandrecovery
11.Resistancetocreasesandabrasion
12.Pillingbehavior
13.Luster

Whatmightoccurifayarnsupplierpurchasedalowergradeofcottonwhichcontainedmanyshortfibers?Inspinning,theyarnwouldexperience
anincreaseinendbreaksresultinginlowerspinningefficiency.Tonegatethisproblem,thespinnermightincreasetheyarntwisttoreduceend
breaksandraisethespinningefficiency.Usingthelistinthistable,howwilleachofthesefactorsbeaffectedbyanincreaseinyarntwist?Respond
withsuchwordsasmoreorless,higherorlowerwhenappropriate.Thecorrectresponsesareonthenextslide.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide92

TwistEffectsonYarnProperties
DegreeofYarnTwistAffectstheYarn's:
1.Less Diameter
2.More Contraction
3.HarderHandSoftnessorhardness(hand)
4.More Torqueorliveliness
5.Stiffer Bendingbehavior
6.Less Absorbency
7.Less Coveringpower
8.Less Permeability
9.More(toapoint)Tensilestrength
10.More(toapoint)Elasticperformance/extensionandrecovery
11.More Resistancetocreasesandabrasion
12.Less Pillingbehavior
13.Less Luster

Thereisnonarrationforthispage.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide93

TwistEffectsonFabricProperties
DegreeofYarnTwistAffectstheFabric's:
1.Texture
2.Hand
3.PerformanceExpectations
4.Serviceability
5.Appearance
6.Durability

Manyoftheeffectsofaddingtwisttoayarninfluencefabricpropertiesaswell.Thepropertieslistedinthisslidewillalsobeinfluencedbythelevel
oftwistintheyarns.Fabricsmadefromyarnshavingahighleveloftwisttendtofeelharshertothehand,butdemonstratebetterwear,durability,
andpillingperformance.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide94

NotationsforDegreeofYarnTwist
1.TurnsPerInch(TPI)
2.TwistMultiple(TM)
CommonCalculationPerYarnNumber:
TPI=TMxSquareRootofYarnNumber
CommonTwistMultiples:
KnitYarns2.2 3.9
FillingYarnsforWeaving 3.7 4.1
WarpYarnsforWeaving 4.1 4.6
VoileandWovenCrepe 4.8 5.5

Theamountoftwistinaspunyarnisdescribedasturnsoftwistperinchofyarnorturnsoftwistpermeterofyarn.Thehelicalangleoftwist,as
previouslydescribed,changesasmoreyarntwistisadded.Thisangleisrelatedtowhatiscommonlycalledthetwistmultiple.Twistmultipleisa
functionofthetangentofthehelicalangleformed.Asmoretwistisadded,thetwistmultipleorTMisincreased.Twistmultiplevaluesforyarns
varyaccordingtotheirenduse.Sincewarpyarnsareundermuchtensionduringweaving,theseyarnsneedahigherTMforaddedstrength.
Converselyknittingyarnsarenotunderasmuchtensionduringtheknittingprocessand,therefore,donotneedasmuchtwistandwillhavelower
twistmultiple.

Problem:
Usingthecalculationseenonthisslide,determinehowmuchtwistisinsertedina16/1knittingyarnwithaTMof3.5.

Answer:

TPI=3.5xSquareRootof16=3.5x4=14twistsperinch

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide95

SpunYarnModifications

PliedYarns
Slub andMulticountYarns
ElasticCoreYarns

Therearewaystomodifyyarnstoenhancefabricappearanceand/orperformance.Thefollowingslideshighlightsomeofthemorecommonyarn
modifications.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide96

SingleandPliedYarnTwist

Mostpliedyarnshavetheplytwistdirectionoppositetothatusedinthecomponent
yarnsforlessyarntorque

Singlesyarnscanbetwistedtoformpliedyarnsandpliedyarnscanbetwistedtoformcordsorcabledyarns.Whenworkingwithapliedyarnsuch
as2ply,3plyoranynumberofplies,thepliedyarnisconsideredtobeoneyarnirrespectiveofthenumberofplies.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide97

PliedYarns
YarnisPliedto:

Introducedifferentfiberyarns.

Combinespunandfilamentyarns.

Addtoorincreasethestrengthofsinglestrandyarns.

Utilizemultistrandsoffineyarnstoproduceathickstrand.

Reducetorqueintheyarn

Produceasmootheryarn.

Produceayarnwithuniformdiameter.

Introducetexturedornoveltyyarns.

Addcolorinterest.

Therearevariousreasonstoplyyarns.Onepurposemightbetocombinedifferentyarntypes,suchasspunandfilament,inordertomeetspecific
performancecriteria.Manynoveltyorfancyyarnsareproducedusingtheplyingtechnique.Interestingcolorcanbedevelopedbyplyingdifferent
colorsofyarn.Ingeneral,pliedyarnsaremoreexpensivethansingleyarnsduetotheadditionalprocessofplying.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide98

PliedYarnExample

TheStwistdirectionintheplytwistingofthis2plyyarncanbeseeneasilyinthisenlargedphotograph.TheindividualyarnswereZtwisted.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide99

CabledYarnExample

Acabledyarnsampleisshownatthistimetoemphasizethecoarsenessandbulkinessofcableyarns.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide100

TwoforOneTwister

Oneofthemostcommonmethodsforplyingyarnsiswithatwoforonetwister.Twopackagesofyarnareplacedontopofoneanotherandthe
twoyarnsarepliedtogether.Twoturnsoftwistareinsertedintotheyarnsforeachrevolutionofthetwistingdevicewhichincreasesthespeedof
theplyingprocess.Manytimestwoyarnsarelaidinparallelontoapackageonwhatiscalledanassemblywinder.Thepackagesarethenply
twistedonthetwoforonetwister.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide101

CoreSpinningVideo

Thisvideoshowshowcorespunyarnisproducedonaringspinningmachine.Aspandexfilamentyarnisfedfromtheyarnpackage,througha
specialguide,andthenplacedbehindthefrontrolleronthespinningmachine.Staplefibers,suppliedbytheincomingrovingstrand,arespun
aroundthespandexcore.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide102

BoucleYarnExample

Thispopularnoveltyyarniscalledaboucle.Acoreyarnformsthebaseofthestructureandasecondyarnisoverfedontothecoreyarnforming
loopsoftheeffectyarnonthesurfaceoftheyarn.Athird,veryfine,bindingyarnissuppliedinordertofirmlyattachtheeffectyarntothecore
yarn.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide103

Amsler FabricExample

Amslerisoneoftheleadingsuppliersofequipmentusedinthemanufactureofengineeredyarnscontainingvariousdimensionsofslubsandyarns
ofmultiplecount.

ThisisanexampleofAmsleryarnbeingusedinaknitfabric.Variationsinyarnthicknesscanbeengineeredinaveryrandompattern.Slubsinthe
yarncanbeformedinvariablelengthsasevidencedinthisactualfabricsample.Thistechnologycreatesafabrictextureandgivesthefabric
designeranadditionaltooltoworkwithincreatingdesigneffectsthatmightbedesirableinagivenfabric.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide104

TwistedSlub YarnExample

Specialeffectsinyarnsareoftenproducedbyplyingdissimilarsingleyarns.Inthisphotographanunevenyarnwaspliedwithafiner,morehighly
twistedyarntoproducethespecialeffectshown.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.

SpunYarns
Slide105

YarnTesting
YarnStrength(SingleEnd/Skein)
YarnElongation(%)
YarnEvenness(%CoefficientofVariation)
YarnHairiness
YarnCountandCountCV
TwistAmountandDirection
YarnFriction(KnitYarnsMostly)
ImperfectionCount

Therearethevariousimportantphysicalpropertiestobetestedinspunyarns.Testingcanbedoneasaninternalqualitycontrolprograminthe
yarnmanufacturingplantorbythecustomertoverifyincomingyarnquality.Specificationsareusuallyagreeduponbythesupplierandcustomer.
Whenspecificationsarenotmet,thecustomerhasreasontorejectayarnshipmentortoreceiveadiscount.

Copyright20082011NorthCarolinaStateUniversity.Allrightsreserved.